Maxtor DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 51536U3 Specifications

®
DiamondMax Plus 40
54098U8, 53073U6, 52049U4,
51536U3, 51024U2
Part #1429/A
All material contained herein Copyright © 2000 Maxtor Corporation.
MaxFax™ is a trademark of Maxtor Corporation. DiamondMax ®, Maxtor ®
and No Quibble ® Service are registered trademarks of Maxtor Corporation.
Other brands or products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective holders. Contents and specifications subject to change without
notice. All rights reserved.
Corporate Headquarters
510 Cottonwood Drive
Milpitas, California 95035
Tel: 408-432-1700
Fax: 408-432-4510
Research and Development Center
2190 Miller Drive
Longmont, Colorado 80501
Tel: 303-651-6000
Fax: 303-678-2165
Before Y
ou Begin
You
Thank you for your interest in the Maxtor DiamondMax® Plus 40 AT hard disk drives. This manual provides
technical information for OEM engineers and systems integrators regarding the installation and use of DiamondMax
hard drives. Drive repair should be performed only at an authorized repair center. For repair information, contact
the Maxtor Customer Service Center at 800-2MAXTOR or 408-922-2085.
Before unpacking the hard drive, please review Sections 1 through 4.
C AU T I O N
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 40 hard drives are precision products. Failure to
follow these precautions and guidelines outlined here may lead to
product failure, damage and invalidation of all warranties.
1
2
3
4
5
6
BEFORE unpacking or handling a drive, take all proper electro-static discharge (ESD)
precautions, including personnel and equipment grounding. Stand-alone drives are
sensitive to ESD damage.
BEFORE removing drives from their packing material, allow them to reach room
temperature.
During handling, NEVER drop, jar, or bump a drive.
Once a drive is removed from the Maxtor shipping container, IMMEDIATELY secure
the drive through its mounting holes within a chassis. Otherwise, store the drive on a
padded, grounded, antistatic surface.
NEVER switch DC power onto the drive by plugging an electrically live DC source cable
into the drive's connector. NEVER connect a live bus to the drive's interface connector.
ELECTRICAL GROUNDING - For proper operation, the drive must be securely fastened
to a device bay that provides a suitable electrical ground to the drive baseplate.
Please do not remove or cover up Maxtor factory-installed drive labels.
They contain information required should the drive ever need repair.
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 PRODUCT MANUAL
Contents
Section 1 — Introduction
Maxtor Corporation
Products
Support
Manual Organization
Abbreviations
Conventions
Key Words
Numbering
Signal Conventions
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
Section 2 — Product Description
The DiamondMax® Plus 40
Product Features
Functional/Interface
Zone Density Recording
Read/Write Multiple Mode
UltraDMA - Mode 4
Multi-word DMA (EISA Type B) - Mode 2
Sector Address Translation
Logical Block Addressing
Defect Management Zone
On-the-Fly Hardware Error Correction Code (ECC)
Software ECC Correction
Automatic Head Park and Lock Operation
Cache Management
Buffer Segmentation
Read-Ahead Mode
Automatic Write Reallocation (AWR)
Write Cache Stacking
Major HDA Components
Drive Mechanism
Rotary Actuator
Read/Write Electronics
Read/Write Heads and Media
Air Filtration System
Microprocessor
Subsystem Configuration
Dual Drive Support
Cable Select Option
Jumper Location/Configuration
Cylinder Limitation
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
i
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 PRODUCT MANUAL
Section 3 — Product Specifications
Models and Capacities
Drive Configuration
Performance Specifications
Physical Dimensions
Power Requirements
Power Mode Definitions
Spin-up
Seek
Read/Write
Idle
Standby
Sleep
EPA Energy Star Compliance
Environmental Limits
Shock and Vibration
Reliability Specifications
Annual Return Rate
Quality Acceptance Rate
Start/Stop Cycles
Data Reliability
Component Design Life
EMC/EMI
EMC Compliance
Canadian Emissions Statement
Safety Regulatory Compliance
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-5
Section 4 — Handling and Installation
Hard Drive Handling Precautions
Electro-Static Discharge (ESD)
Unpacking and Inspection
Repacking
Physical Installation
Before You Begin
Please Read
Back up. Protect Your Existing Data
Tools for Installation
System Requirements
Operating System Requirements
Hook up
Boot the System with MaxBlast Plus Diskette
Configure the Drive Jumpers
Installaing 5.25-inch Mounting Brackets
Install Hard Drive in Device Bay
Attach Interface and Power Cables
Start up
Set up
ii
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 PRODUCT MANUAL
Section 5 — AT Interface Description
Interface Connector
Pin Description Summary
Pin Description Table
PIO Timing
DMA Timing
Ultra DMA Timing Parameters
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
Section 6 — Host Software Interface
Task File Registers
Data Register
Error Register
Features Register
Sector Count Register
Sector Number Register
Cylinder Number Registers
Device/Head Register
Status Register
Command Register
Read Commands
Write Commands
Mode Set/Check Commands
Power Mode Commands
Initialization Commands
Seek, Format, and Diagnostic Commands
S.M.A.R.T. Commands
Summary
Control Diagnostic Registers
Alternate Status Register
Device Control Register
Digital Input Register
Reset and Interrupt Handling
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-6
Section 7 — Interface Commands
Command Summary
Read Commands
Read Sector(s)
Read Verify Sector(s)
Read Sector Buffer
Read DMA
Read Multiple
Set Multiple
Write Commands
Write Sector(s)
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
7-4
iii
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 PRODUCT MANUAL
Write Verify Sector(s)
Write Sector Buffer
Write DMA
Write Multiple
Ultra DMA
Set Feature Commands
Set Features Mode
Power Mode Commands
Standby Immediate
Idle Immediate
Standby
Idle
Check Power Mode
Set Sleep Mode
Default Power-on Condition
Initialization Commands
Identify Drive
Initialize Drive Parameters
Seek, Format, and Diagnostic Commands
S.M.A.R.T. Command Set
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-7
7-9
7-9
7 - 12
7 - 13
7 - 14
Section 8 — Service and Support
Service Policy
No Quibble Service
Support
Glossary
iv
8-1
8-1
8-1
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 PRODUCT MANUAL
Figures
Figure
Title
Page
2-1
3-1
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5 - 10
5 - 11
5 - 12
5 - 13
PCBA Jumper Location and Configuration
Outline and Mounting Dimensions
Multi-pack Shipping Container
Single-pack Shipping Container (Option A)
Single-pack Shipping Container (Option B)
Master, Slave and Cable Select Settings
5.25-inch Mounting Brackets and Rails
IDE Interface and Power Cabling Detail
Master, Slave and Cable Select Settings
Data Connector
PIO Data Transfer to/from Device
Multi-word DMA Data Transfer
Initiating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
Sustained Ultra DMA Data In Burst
Host Pausing an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
Device Terminating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
Host Terminating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
Initiating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
Sustained Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
Device Pausing an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
Host Terminating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
Device Terminating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
2-6
3-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-5
4-6
4-7
4 - 10
5-1
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-8
5-9
5-9
5 - 10
v
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 – INTRODUCTION
SECTION 1
Introduction
Maxtor Corporation
Maxtor Corporation has been providing high-quality computer storage products since 1982. Along the way,
we’ve seen many changes in data storage needs. Not long ago, only a handful of specific users needed more than
a couple hundred megabytes of storage. Today, downloading from the Internet and CD-ROMs, multimedia,
networking and advanced office applications are driving storage needs even higher. Even home PC applications
need capacities measured in gigabytes, not megabytes.
Products
Maxtor’s products meet demanding storage capacity requirements with room to spare. They feature proven
compatibility and reliability. While DiamondMax® Plus 40 is the latest addition to our legacy of high
performance 7,200 RPM desktop and workstation hard drives, our DiamondMax® VL 20 series hard drives
deliver industry-leading capacity, reliability and value for entry-level systems and consumer electronics
applications.
Support
No matter which capacity, all Maxtor hard drives are supported by our commitment to total customer
satisfaction and our No Quibble Service® guarantee. One call – or a visit to our home page on the Internet
(http://www.maxtor.com) – puts you in touch with either technical support or customer service. We’ll
provide you the information you need quickly, accurately and in the form you prefer – a fax, a downloaded
file or a conversation with a representative.
Manual Organization
This hard disk drive reference manual is organized in the following method:
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Appendix
– Introduction
– Description
– Specifications
– Installation
– AT Interface
– Host Software Interface
– Interface Commands
– Service and Support
– Glossary
Abbreviations
A B B RV D E S C R I P T I O N
ATA AT attachment
bpi bits per inch
C H S c y lin d e r - h e a d - s e c t o r
d b d e c ib e ls
dBA decibels, A weighted
D M A d ir e c t m e m o r y a c c e s s
ECC error correction code
fci flux changes per inch
G a c c e le r a t io n
GB gigabyte
H z h e rtz
KB kilobyte
LBA logical block address(ing)
LSB least significant bit
m A m illia m p e r e s
A B B RV D E S C R I P T I O N
MB megabyte
M b it s /s e c m e g a b it s p e r s e c o n d
MB/sec megabytes per second
M H z m e g a h e rtz
m s m illis e c o n d
M S B m o s t s ig n if ic a n t b it
mV millivolts
n s n an o se co n d s
P IO p r o g r a m m e d in p u t /o u t p u t
RPM revolutions per minute
tpi tracks per inch
U D M A u lt r a d ir e c t m e m o r y a c c e s s
µ s e c m ic r o s e c o n d
V volts
W watts
1–1
DIAMONDMAX PLUS 40 – INTRODUCTION
Conventions
If there is a conflict between text and tables, the table shall be accepted as being correct.
Key Words
The names of abbreviations, commands, fields and acronyms used as signal names are in all uppercase type
(e.g., IDENTIFY DRIVE). Fields containing only one bit are usually referred to as the “name” bit instead of
the “name” field.
Names of drive registers begin with a capital letter (e.g., Cylinder High register).
Numbering
Numbers that are not followed by a lowercase “b” or “h” are decimal values. Numbers that are followed by
a lowercase “b” (e.g., 01b) are binary values. Numbers that are followed by a lowercase “h” (e.g., 3Ah) are
hexadecimal values.
Signal Conventions
Signal names are shown in all uppercase type.
All signals are either high active or low active signals. A dash character (-) at the end of a signal name
indicates that the signal is low active. A low active signal is true when it is below ViL and is false when it is
above ViH. A signal without a dash at the end indicates that the signal is high active. A high active signal is
true when it is above ViH and is false when it is below ViL.
When a signal is asserted, it means the signal is driven by an active circuit to its true state.
When a signal is negated, it means the signal is driven by an active circuit to its false state.
When a signal is released, it means the signal is not actively driven to any state. Some signals have bias
circuitry that pull the signal to either a true or false state when no signal driver is actively asserting or negating
the signal. These instances are noted under the description of the signal.
1–2
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
SECTION 2
Product Description
Maxtor DiamondMax® Plus 40 AT disk drives are 1-inch high, 3.5-inch diameter random access storage devices
which incorporate an on-board ATA-5/Ultra DMA 66 controller. High capacity is achieved by a balanced
combination of high areal recording density and the latest data encoding and servo techniques.
Maxtor's latest advancements in electronic packaging and integration methods have lowered the drive's power
consumption and increased its reliability. Advanced giant magneto-resistive read/write heads and a state-of-the-art
head/disk assembly - using an integrated motor/spindle design - allow up to four disks in a 3.5-inch package.
Exceptionally high data transfer rates, 7,200 RPM spin speed and < 9.0 ms access times make these performance
series disk drives especially well-suited to high-end desktop and server applications.
DiamondMax Plus 40 Key Features
ANSI ATA-5 compliant PIO Mode 4 interface (Enhanced IDE)
Supports Ultra DMA Mode 4 for up to 66.7 MB/sec data transfers
2 MB buffer with multi-adaptive cache manager
7,200 RPM spin speed
< 9.0 ms seek time
Zone density and I.D.-less recording
Outstanding shock resistance at 250 Gs
High durability with 50K contact start/stop cycles
Advanced multi-burst on-the-fly Error Correction Code (ECC)
Extended data integrity with ECC protected data and fault tolerant servo synchronization fields
Supports EPA Energy Star Standards (Green PC Friendly) with ATA powering savings commands
Auto park and lock actuator mechanism
Low power consumption
S.M.A.R.T. Capability
Note: Maxtor defines one megabyte as 106 or one million bytes and one gigabyte as 109 or one billion bytes.
2–1
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Product Features
Functional / Interface
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 40 hard drives contain all necessary mechanical and electronic parts to interpret control
signals and commands from an AT-compatible host computer. See Section 3 Product Specifications, for complete
drive specifications.
Zone Density Recording
The disk capacity is increased with bit density management – common with Zone Density Recording. Each
disk surface is divided into 16 circumferential zones. All tracks within a given zone contain a constant
number of data sectors. The number of data sectors per track varies in different zones; the outermost zone
contains the largest number of data sectors and the innermost contains the fewest.
Read / Write Multiple Mode
This mode is implemented per ANSI ATA/ATAPI-5 specification. Read/Write Multiple allows the host to
transfer a set number of sectors without an interrupt request between them, reducing transfer process
overhead and improving host performance.
UltraDMA - Mode 4
Maxtor DiamondMax Plus 40 hard drives fully comply with the new ANSI Ultra DMA protocol, which
greatly improves overall AT interface performance by significantly improving burst and sustained data
throughput.
Multi-word DMA (EISA Type B) - Mode 2
Supports multi-word Direct Memory Access (DMA) EISA Type B mode transfers.
Sector Address Translation
All DiamondMax Plus 40 drives feature a universal translate mode. In an AT/EISA-class system, the drive may
be configured to any specified combination of cylinders, heads and sectors (within the range of the drive's
formatted capacity). DiamondMax Plus 40 drives power-up in a translate mode:
MO D E L
54098U8
53073U6
52049U4
51536U3
51024U2
CYL
79,406
59,554
39,703
29,777
19,852
HD
16
16
16
16
16
SPT
63
63
63
63
63
LZone
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
WP c o m
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
MA X L B A
80,041,248
60,030,432
40,020,624
30,015,216
20,010,816
CAPACI TY
40,980 MB
30,735 MB
20,490 MB
15,367 MB
10,245 MB
(*) The fields LZone (Landing Zone) and WPcom (Write Pre-comp) are not used by the Maxtor hard drive
and the values may be either 0 or the values set by the BIOS. All capacities listed in the above table are based
on 106 or one million bytes.
Logical Block Addressing
The Logical Block Address (LBA) mode can only be utilized in systems that support this form of translation. The
cylinder, head and sector geometry of the drive, as presented to the host, differs from the actual physical
geometry. The host AT computer may access a drive of set parameters: number of cylinders, heads and sectors
per track, plus cylinder, head and sector addresses. However, the drive can’t use these host parameters directly
because of zoned recording techniques. The drive translates the host parameters to a set of logical internal
addresses for data access.
The host drive geometry parameters are mapped into an LBA based on this formula:
LBA
where
2–2
= (HSCA - 1) + HHDA x HSPT + HNHD x HSPT x HCYA
= (HSCA - 1) + HSPT x (HHDA + HNHD x HCYA)
HSCA = Host Sector Address, HHDA = Host Head Address
HCYA = Host Cylinder Address, HNHD = Host Number of Heads
HSPT = Host Sectors per Track
(1)
(2)
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The LBA is checked for violating the drive capacity. If it does not, the LBA is converted to physical drive
cylinder, head and sector values. The physical address is then used to access or store the data on the disk and
for other drive related operations.
Defect Management Zone (DMZ)
Each drive model has a fixed number of spare sectors per drive, all of which are located at the end of the
drive. Upon detection of a bad sector that has been reassigned, the next sequential sector is used.
For example, if sector 3 is flagged, data that would have been stored there is “pushed down” and recorded
in sector 4. Sector 4 then effectively becomes sector 3, as sequential sectors are “pushed down” across the
entire drive. The first spare sector makes up for the loss of sector 3, and so maintains the sequential order of
data. This push down method assures maximum performance.
On-the-Fly Hardware Error Correction Code (ECC)
5 symbols, single burst, guaranteed
Software ECC Correction
22 symbols, single burst, guaranteed
Automatic Park and Lock Operation
Immediately following power down, dynamic braking of the spinning disks delays momentarily allowing the
read/write heads to move to an inner mechanical stop. A small fixed magnet holds the rotary actuator in
place as the disk spins down. The rotary actuator is released only when power is again applied.
Cache Management
Buffer Segmentation
The data buffer is organized into two segments: the data buffer and the micro controller scratch pad.
The data buffer is dynamically allocated for read and write data depending on the commands received.
A variable number of read and write buffers may exist at the same time.
Read-Ahead Mode
Normally, this mode is active. Following a read request, disk read-ahead begins on the first sector and
continues sequentially until the allocated buffer is full. If a read request is received during the read-ahead
operation, the buffer is examined to determine if the request is in the cache. If a cache hit occurs, readahead mode continues without interruption and the host transfer begins immediately.
Automatic Write Reallocation (AWR)
This feature is part of the write cache and reduces the risk of data loss during deferred write operations. If a
disk error occurs during the disk write process, the disk task stops and the suspect sector is reallocated to a
pool of alternate sectors located at the end of the drive. Following reallocation, the disk write task continues
until it is complete.
Write Cache Stacking
Normally, this mode is active. Write cache mode accepts the host write data into the buffer until the buffer
is full or the host transfer is complete. A command complete interrupt is generated at the end of the transfer.
A disk write task begins to store the host data to disk. Host write commands continue to be accepted and
data transferred to the buffer until either the write command stack is full or the data buffer is full. The drive
may reorder write commands to optimize drive throughput.
2–3
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Major HDA Components
Drive Mechanism
A brush-less DC direct drive motor rotates the spindle at 7,200 RPM (±0.1%). The dynamically balanced
motor/spindle assembly ensures minimal mechanical run-out to the disks. A dynamic brake provides a fast
stop to the spindle motor upon power removal. The speed tolerance includes motor performance and motor
circuit tolerances.
Rotary Actuator
All DiamondMax Plus 40 drives employ a rotary voice coil actuator which consists of a moving coil, an
actuator arm assembly and stationary magnets. The actuator moves on a low-mass, low-friction center shaft.
The low friction contributes to fast access times and low power consumption.
Read/Write Electronics
An integrated circuit mounted within the sealed head disk assembly (near the read/write heads) provides up
to eight head selection (depending on the model), read pre-amplification and write drive circuitry.
Read/Write Heads and Media
Low mass, low force giant magneto-resistive read/write heads record data on 3.5-inch diameter disks. Maxtor
uses a sputtered thin film medium on all disks for DiamondMax Plus 40 drives.
Air Filtration System
All DiamondMax Plus 40 drives are assembled in a Class 100 controlled environment. Over the life of the
drive, a 0.1 micron filter and breather filter located within the sealed head disk assembly (HDA) maintain a
clean environment to the heads and disks. DiamondMax 40 drives are designed to operate in a typical office
environment with minimum environmental control.
Microprocessor
The microprocessor controls the following functions for the drive electronics:
Command execution
Cache management
Data correction and error recovery
Diagnostic execution
Data sequencing
Head positioning (including error recovery)
Host interface
Index detection
Spin speed control
Seeks
Servo
S.M.A.R.T.
2–4
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Subsystem Configuration
Dual Drive Support
Two drives may be accessed via a common interface cable, using the same range of I/O addresses. The drives
are jumpered as device 0 or 1 (Master/Slave), and are selected by the drive select bit in the
Device/Head register of the task file.
All Task File registers are written in parallel to both drives. The interface processor on each drive decides
whether a command written to it should be executed; this depends on the type of command and which
drive is selected. Only the drive selected executes the command and activates the data bus in response to
host I/O reads; the drive not selected remains inactive.
A master/slave relationship exists between the two drives: device 0 is the master and device 1 the slave.
When J50 is closed (factory default, figure 2-1), the drive assumes the role of master; when open, the drive
acts as a slave. In single drive configurations, J50 must be closed.
Cable Select Option
CSEL (cable select) is an optional feature per ANSI ATA specification. Drives configured in a multiple drive
system are identified by CSEL’s value:
– If CSEL is grounded, then the drive address is 0.
– If CSEL is open, then the drive address is 1.
Jumper Location / Configuration
Darkened jumper pins indicate factory-installed (default) shunts.
+12 VDC
JUMPER CONFIGURATION
Master/Slave
Only drive in single drive system*
Master drive in dual drive system*
Slave drive in dual drive system
C a b le S e le c t
D is a b le d *
E n a b le d
+12 V return
+5 V return
EIDE Interface Connector
J1 – pin 1
J50 - Master/Slave
+5 VDC
Power Connector
J2
J48 - Cable Select
Cylinder Limitation
D is a b le d *
E n a b le d
J50
J48
J46
J44
J42
C
C
O
O
C
O
C
Factor y Reser ved
O
Factor y Reser ved
O
Key * = Default C = Closed (jumper installed) O = Open (no jumper installed)
J46 - Cylinder Limitation
J44 - Factory Reserved
J42 - Factory Reserved
Figure 2-1
PCBA Jumper Location and Configuration
Cylinder Limitation Jumper Description
On some older BIOS', primarily those that auto-configure the disk drive, a hang may occur. The Cylinder
Limitation jumper reduces the capacity in the Identify Drive allowing large capacity drives to work with older
BIOS'. The capacity reported when J46 is closed will be as follows: drives less than or equal to 32GB will
report 2.1GB. Drives greater than 32GB will report 32GB.
2–5
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION 3
Product Specifications
Models and Capacities
MODEL
Formatted Capacity (MB LBA Mode)
54098U8
53073U6
52049U4
51536U3
51024U2
40,980
30,735
20,490
15,367
10,245
Maxtor defines one megabyte as 106 or one million bytes and one gigabyte as 109 or one
billion bytes.
Drive Configuration
MODEL
5 4 0 9 8 U8
5 3 0 7 3 U6
Integrated Controller / Interface
5 2 0 4 9 U4
5 1 5 3 6 U3
5 1 0 2 4 U2
ATA-5 / Ultra DMA
E2 PR4 RLL 16/17
Encoding Method
Interleave
1:1
Servo System
Embedded
Buffer Size / Type
2 MB SDRAM
Data Zones per Surface
16
Data Surfaces / Heads
8
6
4
3
2
Number of Disks
4
3
2
2
1
7.245 Gb / in2 max
Areal Density
Track Density
21,500 tpi
Recording Density
270 - 337 kbpi
Flux Density
286 - 358 kfci
Bytes per Sector / Block
512
Sectors per Track
Sectors per Drive
325 - 560
80,041,248
60,030,432
40,020,624
30,015,216
20,010,816
5 3 0 7 3 U6
5 2 0 4 9 U4
5 1 5 3 6 U3
5 1 0 2 4 U2
Performance Specifications
MODEL
5 4 0 9 8 U8
Seek Times (typical read)
Track-to-Track
1.0 ms
Average
< 9.0 ms
Full Stroke
< 20.0 ms
Average Latency
Rotational Speed (±0.1%)
Controller Overhead
4.17 ms
7,200 RPM
< 0.3 ms
Data Transfer Rate
To/From Interface
(UltraDMA - M4)
up to 66.0 MB/sec
To/From Interface
(PIO 4/Multi-word DMA M4)
up to 16.7 MB/sec
To/From Media
up to 43.2 MB/sec
Start Time (0 to Drive Ready)
< 10 sec typical
3–1
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
Physical Dimensions (maximum)
PARAMETER
Height
Length
Width
Weight
STANDARD
1.028 inches
5.787 inches
4.00 inches
1.3 pounds
METRIC
26.1 millimeters
147 millimeters
101.6 millimeters
0.59 kilograms
1.028 max
[26.1 mm max
6 x 6-32
UNC -28
THREAD
1.638 ± .010
[41.6 ± 0.25 mm]
1.122 ± .020
[28.5 ± 0.5 mm]
.25 ± .01
[6.35 ± 0.25 mm
4.00 ± .01
[101.6 ± 0.5 mm]
5.787 max
[147 mm max]
1.625 ± .02
[41.28 ± 0.5 mm]
4.00 ± .01
[101.6 ± 0.25 mm]
1.75 ± .01
[44.95 ± 0.25 mm]
3.75 ± .01
[95.25 ± 0.25 mm]
4 x 6-32
UNC -28
THREAD
.125 ± .010
[3.18 ± .025 mm]
Figure 3 - 1
Outline and Mounting Dimensions
3–2
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
Power Requirements
MODE
12V ± 10%
5V ± 5%
Spin-up (peak)
250 0 mA
620 mA
Seek (avg)
80 0 mA
510 mA
P OW E R
12.9 W
Read/Write (avg)
350 mA
530 mA
6.8 W
Idle (avg)
350 mA
490 mA
6.6 W
St andby (avg)
15 mA
235 mA
1.4 W
Sleep (avg)
15 mA
170 mA
1.0 W
Power Mode Definitions
Spin-up
The drive is spinning up following initial application of power and has not yet reached full speed.
Seek
A random access operation by the disk drive.
Read/Write
Data is being read from or written to the drive.
Idle
The drive is spinning, the actuator is parked and powered off and all other circuitry is powered on.
The drive is capable of responding to read commands within 40 ms.
Standby
The spin motor is not spinning. The drive will leave this mode upon receipt of a command that requires
disk access. The time-out value for this mode is programmable. The buffer is active to accept write data.
Sleep
This is the lowest power state – with the interface set to inactive. A software or hardware reset is required
to return the drive to the Standby state.
EPA Energy Star Compliance
Maxtor Corporation supports the goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program
to reduce the electrical power consumption of computer equipment.
Environmental Limits
PARAMETER
OPERATING
NON-OPERATING/STORAGE
Temperature
5° C to 55° C
low temperature (-40° C)
high temperature (71° C) per MIL-STD-810E, method 501.3,
climatic category; hot-induced conditions.
Thermal Gradient
25° C per hour (maximum)
Relative Humidity
5% to 95% (non-condensing)
30° C (maximum)
Wet Bulb
Altitude
-200 to 10,000 feet
Acoustic Noise - Idle Mode
(per ISO 7779, 10 microphone,
average sound power)
1 and 2 disk models: 3.6 bel
3 disk models: 3.7 bel
4 disk models: 3.8 bel
-200 to 40,000 feet
3–3
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
Shock and Vibration
PARAMETER
OPERATING
NON-OPERATING
Mechanical Shock
Rotational Shock
Random Vibration
60 Gs, 2.0 ms, no errors
250 Gs, 2.0 ms, no damage
20,000 Rad/sec,0.5 - 1.0 ms, no damage
10 Hz at 0.05 G2/Hz
20 Hz at 0.055 G2/Hz
300 Hz at 0.05 G2/Hz
301 Hz at 0.0014 G2/Hz
500 - 760 Hz at 0.001 G2/Hz
877 Hz at 0.003 G2/Hz
1000 - 1570 Hz at 0.001 G2/Hz
2000 Hz at 0.001 G2/Hz
Swept Sine Vibration
10 - 300 Hz
10 - 45 Hz at 0.004 G2/Hz
48 - 62 Hz at 0.008 G2/Hz
65 - 300 Hz at 0.004 G2/Hz
301 - 500 Hz at 0.0006 G2/Hz
no errors
1.0 G (0 - peak) amplitude
Reliability Specifications
Annual Return Rate
< 1.0%
Annual Return Rate (ARR) indicates the average against products shipped.
ARR includes all reasons for returns (failures, handling damage, NDF), but
does not include inventory credit returns.
Quality Acceptance Rate
< 1,000 DPPM
The quality acceptance rate indicates the percentage of Maxtor products
successfully installed by our customers, and/or the number of defective parts
per million (DPPM) encountered during the entire installation process.
Start/Stop Cycles
50,000
This indicates the average minimum cycles for reliable start/stop function.
Data Reliability
< 10 per 1015 bits read
Data errors (non-recoverable). Average data error rate allowed with all error
recovery features activated.
Component Design Life
5 years (minimum)
3–4
Component design life is defined as a.) the time period before identified
wear-out mechanisms impact the failure rate, or b.) the time period up to the
wear-out point when useful component life expires.
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
EMC/EMI
Radiated Electromagnetic Field Emissions - EMC Compliance
The hard disk drive mechanism is designed as a subassembly for installation into a suitable enclosure and is
therefore not subject to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules (47CFR15) or the Canadian Department of
Communications Radio Interference Regulations. Although not required, the disk mechanism has been
tested within a suitable end-use product and found to comply with Class B limits of the FCC Rules and
Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
The CE Marking indicates conformity with the European Union Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) when
the disk mechanism is installed in a typical personal computer. Maxtor recommends that testing and analysis
for EMC compliance be performed with the disk mechanism installed within the user's end-use application.
Canadian Emissions Statement
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus as set
out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian department of communications.
Le present appareil numerique n'emet pas de bruit radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux
appareils numeriques de Class B prescrites dans le reglement sur le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par le
ministere des communications du Canada.
Safety Regulatory Compliance
All Maxtor hard drives comply with relevant product safety standards such as CE, CUL, TUV and UL rules and
regulations. As delivered, Maxtor hard drives are designed for system integration before they are used.
3–5
INSTALLATION
SECTION 4
Handling and Installation
Hard Drive Handling Precautions
◆ If the handling precautions are not followed, damage to the hard drive may result - which may void the warranty.
◆ During handling, NEVER drop, jar, or bump a drive. Handle the drive by its sides and avoid touching the printed circuit board
assembly (PCBA).
◆ Hard drives are sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage. Use proper ESD practices by grounding yourself and the
computer system the hard drive will be installed in.
◆ Allow the hard drive to reach room temperature BEFORE installing it in your computer system.
◆ NEVER switch DC power onto the drive by plugging an electrically live DC source cable into the drive's connector. NEVER
connect a live connector to the hard drive's IDE interface connector.
◆ ELECTRICAL GROUNDING - For proper operation, the drive must be securely fastened to a device bay
that provides a suitable electrical ground to the drive baseplate.
Electro-Static Discharge (ESD)
To avoid some of the problems associated with ESD, Maxtor advises that anyone handling a disk drive use a
wrist strap with an attached wire connected to an earth ground. Failure to observe these precautions voids the
product warranty.
Manufacturers frequently experience “unsolved” component/hardware malfunctions often caused by ESD. To
reduce the incidence of ESD-related problems, Maxtor recommends that any electronics manufacturing plans
include a comprehensive ESD program, the basic elements and functions of which are outlined here:
ESD Program Element
Management
Chief coordinator
Multi-department committee
Employee training
ESD Program Function
Institute and maintain
Organize and enforce
Evaluate and improve
Educate and inform
ESD program supplies typically include: wrist- and foot-worn grounding straps; counter-top and floor antistatic
matting; wrist strap testers; ESD video and training materials. Sources for such supplies include:
Static Control Systems – 3M
225-4S, 3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
Charleswater
93 Border St.
West Newton, MA 02165-9990
Maxtor also offers a complete video training package, “Care and Handling of Maxtor Disk Drives.”
Contact your Maxtor representative for details.
4–1
INSTALLATION
Unpacking and Inspection
Retain any packing material for reuse. Inspect the shipping container for evidence of damage in transit. Notify
the carrier immediately in case of damage to the shipping container.
As they are removed, inspect drives for evidence of shipping damage or loose hardware. If a drive is damaged
(and no container damage is evident), notify Maxtor immediately for drive disposition.
Figure 4 - 1
Multi-pack Shipping Container
4–2
INSTALLATION
Figure 4 - 2
Single Pack Shipping Container (Option A)
Figure 4 - 3
Single Pack Shipping Container (Option B)
Repacking
If a Maxtor drive requires return, repack it using Maxtor packing materials, including the antistatic bag.
Physical Installation
Recommended Mounting Configuration
The DiamondMax® drive design allows greater shock tolerance than that afforded by larger, heavier drives.
The drive may be mounted in any attitude using four size 6-32 screws with 1/8-inch maximum penetration
and a maximum torque of 5-inch pounds. See Figure 3-1 for mounting dimensions. Allow adequate
ventilation to the drive to ensure reliable operation. See the following pages for specific installation steps.
4–3
INSTALLATION
Before You Begin
Important – Please Read
Please read this installation section completely before installing the Maxtor hard drive. It gives general
information for installing a Maxtor hard drive in a typical computer system. If you don’t understand the
installation steps, have a qualified computer technician install the hard drive.
Back up. Protect your Existing Data
Periodic backup of important data is always a good idea. Whenever your computer is on, there is the
potential for losing data on your hard drive. This is especially true when running disk utilities or any software
that directly manipulates your files. Maxtor recommends that you make a backup copy of the files on any
existing hard drives prior to installing the new drive. If required, this data may then be copied to the Maxtor
hard drive after it has been installed in the computer. Refer to your computer user’s manual for detailed data
backup instructions.
Tools for Installation
The following tools are needed to install your new Maxtor hard drive:
• A small (#2) Phillips head screw driver
• Small needle-nose pliers or tweezers
• Your computer user’s manuals
• Operating system software
System Requirements
• IDE/AT interface
Maxtor recommends:
• Drives less than or equal to 8.4 GB – 486 DX 66 MHz
• Drives larger than 8.4 GB – Pentium-class processor
Operating System Requirements
• Drives less than or equal to 8.4 GB:
- DOS 5.0 or higher
• Drives larger than 8.4 GB:
- Installing as boot drive (Primary Master) requires full installation set of Windows 95/98 – not an update
from DOS or Windows 3.x.
- Installing as non-boot drive (Primary Slave, Secondary Master or Slave) requires Windows 95/98 on the
boot drive.
Hook up
Maxtor recommends that you use the MaxBlast™ Plus software to create a customized installation guide for your
system before physically installing your new hard drive. The information created by MaxBlast Plus relates to the
following illustrations.
Boot the System with the MaxBlast Plus Diskette
Before physically installing the Maxtor hard drive, boot your system with the MaxBlast Plus diskette. It will
assist you with the instructions in this section for a successful installation.
Configure the Drive Jumpers
The jumper configurations have three valid jumper settings – Master, Slave and Cable Select. Maxtor hard
drives are always shipped with the Master jumper setting enabled.
Install the 5.25-inch Mounting Brackets
If the Maxtor hard drive will be mounted in a 5.25-inch device bay, you will need to attach 5.25-inch
brackets to the hard drive. These brackets are not required if the drive is mounted in a 3.5-inch device bay.
4–4
INSTALLATION
Install the Hard Drive in a Device Bay
Refer to your computer user’s manual for specific mounting information. Be sure to secure the drive to the
device bay with all four screws.
Attach the Interface and Power Cables
Do not force or rock the connectors into their sockets on the hard drive. Push them in straight until they
are seated.
Note: DiamondMax Hard Drive Kits that carry a “U” in the kit number are UltraDMA 66 compatible hard
drives. A standard IDE cable can be used for drive installation; however, an UltraDMA cable is required to
achieve UltraDMA 66 data transfers in UltraDMA 66 compatible systems. Follow the illustration below for
proper cable connections to the system and hard drive(s) when using this cable.
Attach an IDE interface connector to J1 on the Maxtor drive. Attach a power connector to J2 on the
Maxtor drive. This connector is keyed and will only fit one way. Check all other cable connections before
you power up. Striped/colored edge is pin 1
After attaching the IDE interface cable and the
power cable to the Maxtor hard drive, verify that
all other cables connected to other devices, the
mother board or interface card(s) are correctly
seated.
Striped/colored edge is pin
Start up
Turn your system ON. During the system start up sequence, run the SETUP (BIOS) program. Newer systems
usually display a message like “press DEL to enter Setup,” showing how to access the SETUP (BIOS) program.
Choose the device position where the Maxtor hard drive will be installed (Primary Master, Primary Slave,
Secondary Master, Secondary Slave or their equivalents) and select the “Auto Detect” option. Save and exit the
BIOS. The system will now boot. Boot to the MaxBlast™ Plus diskette.
Set up
MaxBlast™ Plus will guide you through the steps to prepare (partition and format) your new Maxtor hard drive.
Once you have completed this step, your new Maxtor hard drive will be ready to use.
Note: Do not discard the MaxBlast Plus diskette once the installation is complete. The diskette contains Maxdiag,
a diagnostic utility that is a separate program from the MaxBlast™ Plus installation software.
4–5
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
SECTION 5
AT Interface Description
Interface Connector
All DiamondMax® Plus 40 AT drives have a 40-pin ATA interface connector mounted on the PCBA. The
drive may connect directly to the host; or it can also accommodate a cable connection (maximum cable
length: 18 inches).
Striped Edge (Pin 1)
Drive 1 - Slave (gray)
System Connector (blue)
Drive 0 - Master (black)
Figure 5-1
Data Connector
Pin Description Summary
P IN
S IG N A L
P IN
S IG N A L
01
Reset -
02
G ro u n d
03
DD7
04
DD8
05
DD6
06
DD9
07
DD5
08
DD10
09
DD4
10
DD11
11
DD3
12
DD12
13
DD2
14
DD13
15
DD1
16
DD14
17
DD0
18
DD15
19
G ro u n d
20
(keypin)
21
DM ARQ
22
G ro u n d
23
DIOW -:STOP
24
G ro u n d
25
DIOR -:HDMARDY:HSTROBE
26
G ro u n d
27
IORDY:DDMARDY:DSTROBE
28
CSEL
29
DMACK -
30
G ro u n d
31
IN T R Q
32
IOCS16
O b s o le t e
PDIAG -
33
DA1
34
35
DA0
36
DA2
37
CS0 -
38
CS1 -
39
DASP -
40
G ro u n d
5–1
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
Pin Description Table
P IN N A M E
P IN
I/ O
RESET -
01
I
DD0
17
I/O
I/O
S IG N A L N A M E
SIGNAL DESCRIPTION
Host Reset
Reset signal from the host system. Active during power up and inactive after.
H o st D at a B u s
16 bit bi-directional data bus between host and drive. Lower 8 bits used for register
and ECC byte transfers. All 16 bits used for data transfers.
DD1
15
DD2
13
I/O
DD3
11
I/O
DD4
09
I/O
DD5
07
I/O
DD6
05
I/O
DD7
03
I/O
DD8
04
I/O
DD9
06
I/O
DD10
08
I/O
DD11
10
I/O
DD12
12
I/O
DD13
14
I/O
DD14
16
I/O
DD15
18
I/O
DM ARQ
21
O
DMA Request
This signal is used with DMACK for DMA transfers. By asserting this signal, the
drive indicates that data is ready to be transfered to and from the host.
DIOW STOP
23
I
Host I/O Write
Rising edge of Write strobe clocks data from the host data bus to a register on the
drive.
D IO R HDMARDY
25
I
Host I/O Read
Read strobe enables data from a register on the drive onto the host data bus.
D M A r e a d y d u r in g U lt r a D M A d a t a in b u r s t s .
D a t a s t r o b e d u r in g U lt r a D M A d a t a o u t b u r s t s .
IORDY
DDMARDY
DSTROBE
27
O
I/O Channel Ready
This signal may be driven low by the drive to insert wait states into host I/O cycles.
D M A r e a d y d u r in g U lt r a D M A d a t a o u t b u r s t s .
D a t a s t r o b e d u r in g U lt r a D M A d a t a in b u r s t s .
CSEL
28
C a b le S e le c t
Used for Master/Slave selection via cable. Requires special cabling on host system
and installation of Cable Select jumper.
DMACK -
29
I
DMA Acknowledge
This signal is used with DMARQ for DMA transfers. By asserting this signal, the
host is acknowledging the receipt of data or is indicating that data is available.
IN T R Q
31
O
Host Interrupt
Request
Interrupt to the host asserted when the drive requires attention from the host.
HSTROBE
IOCS16
32
Device 16 bit I/O
O b s o le t e
PDIAG -
34
I/O
Passed Diagnostic
Output by drive when in Slave mode; Input to drive when in Master mode.
DA0
35
I
Host Address Bus
3 bit binar y address from the host to select a register in the drive.
DA1
33
I
DA2
36
I
CS0 -
37
I
H o s t C h ip S e le c t 0
Chip select from the host used to access the Command Block registers in the drive.
This signal is a decode of I/O addresses 1F0 - 1F7 hex.
CS1 -
38
I
H o s t C h ip S e le c t 1
Chip select from the host used to access the Control registers in the drive. This
signal is a decode of I/O addresses 3F6 - 3F7 hex.
DASP -
39
I/O
Drive Active/Drive 1
Present
Time-multiplexed, open collector output which indicates that a drive is active, or that
device 1 is present.
GND
02
N /A
G ro u n d
S ig n a l g r o u n d .
N /A
Key
Pin used for keying the interface connector.
19
22
24
26
30
40
KEY
5–2
20
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
PIO Timing
M ODE 0
M ODE 1
M ODE 2
M ODE 3
M ODE 4
t0
TIMING PARAMETERS
Cycle Time (min)
60 0 ns
383 ns
240 ns
180 ns
120 ns
t1
Address valid to DIOR-/DIOW- setup (min)
70 ns
50 ns
30 ns
30 ns
25 ns
t2
DIOR-/DIOW- 16-bit (min)
165 ns
125 ns
100 ns
80 ns
70 ns
t2 i
DIOR-/DIOW- recover y time (min)
70 ns
25 ns
t3
DIOW- data setup (min)
60 ns
45 ns
30 ns
30 ns
20 ns
t4
DIOW- data hold (min)
30 ns
20 ns
15 ns
10 ns
10 ns
t5
DIOR- data setup (min)
50 ns
35 ns
20 ns
20 ns
20 ns
t6
DIOW- data hold (min)
5 ns
5 ns
5 ns
5 ns
5 ns
t6 Z
D IO R - d a t a t r is t a t e (m a x )
30 ns
30 ns
30 ns
30 ns
30 ns
t9
DIOR-/DIOW- to address valid hold (min)
20 ns
15 ns
10 ns
10 ns
10 ns
tR d
Read Data Valid to IORDY active (min)
0
0
0
0
0
tA
IORDY Setup Time
35 ns
35 ns
35 ns
35 ns
35 ns
tB
IORDY Pulse Width (max)
1250 ns
1250 ns
1250 ns
1250 ns
1250 ns
Figure 5 - 2
PIO Data Transfer To/From Device
5–3
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
DMA Timing
TIMING PARAMETERS
M ODE 0
M ODE 1
M ODE 2
480 ns
150 ns
120 ns
DIOR-/DIOW- (min)
215 ns
80 ns
70 ns
D IO R - d a t a a c c e s s (m in )
150 ns
60 ns
t0
Cycle Time (min)
tC
DMACK to DMARQ delay
tD
tE
tF
D IO R - d a t a h o ld (m in )
5 ns
5 ns
5 ns
tG
DIOR-/DIOW- data setup (min)
100 ns
30 ns
20 ns
tH
DIOW- data hold (min)
20 ns
15 ns
10 ns
tI
DMACK to DIOR-/DIOW- setup (min)
0
0
0
tJ
DIOR-/DIOW- to DMACK hold (min)
20 ns
5 ns
5 ns
tK r
D IO R - n e g a t e d p u ls e w id t h (m in )
50 ns
50 ns
25 ns
tKw
DIOW- negated pulse width (min)
215 ns
50 ns
25 ns
tL r
DIOR- to DMARQ delay (max)
120 ns
40 ns
35 ns
tL w
DIOW- to DMARQ delay (max)
40 ns
40 ns
35 ns
tZ
DMACK- to tristate (max)
20 ns
25 ns
25 ns
Figure 5 - 3
Multi-word DMA Data Transfer
5–4
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
Ultra DMA Timing
TIMING PARAMETERS (all times in nanoseconds)
M ODE 0
M IN
M AX
M ODE 1
M IN
M AX
M ODE 2
M IN
M AX
M ODE 3
M IN
M AX
M ODE 4
M IN
tCYC
Cycle Time (from STROBE edge to STROBE edge)
112
73
54
39
25
t2CYC
Two cycle time (from rising edge to next rising edge or
from falling edge to next falling edge of STROBE)
230
154
115
86
57
M AX
tDS
Data setup time (at recipient)
15
10
7
7
5
tDH
D a t a h o ld t im e (a t r e c ip ie n t )
5
5
5
5
5
tDVS
Data valid setup time at sender (time from data bus being
valid until STROBE edge)
70
48
30
20
6
tDVH
Data valid hold time at sender (time from STROBE edge
until data may go invalid)
6
tF S
First STROBE (time for device to send first STROBE)
0
230
0
20 0
0
170
0
130
0
120
tLI
Limited interlock time (time allowed between an action by
one agent, either host or device, and the following action
by the other agent)
0
150
0
150
0
150
0
100
0
100
6
6
6
6
tM LI
Interlock time with minimum
20
20
20
20
tUI
Unlimited interlock time
0
0
0
0
tAZ
Maximum time allowed for outputs to release
tZAH
Minimum delay time required for output drivers turning on
(f r o m r e le a s e d s t a t e )
20
20
20
20
20
0
0
0
0
0
tENV
Envelope time (all control signal transitions are within the
DMACK envelope by this much time)
20
tSR
STROBE to DMARDY (response time to ensure the
synchronous pause case when the recipient is pausing)
50
30
20
NA
NA
tRFS
Ready-to-final-STROBE time (no more STROBE edges may
be sent this long after receiving DMARDY- negation)
75
70
60
60
60
tRP
Ready-to-pause time (time until a recipient may assume
that the sender has paused after negation of DMARDY-)
tIORDYZ
Pull-up time before allowing IORDY to be released
tZIORDY
Minimum time device shall wait before driving IORDY
0
0
0
0
0
tACK
Setup and hold times before assertion and negation of
DMACK-
20
20
20
20
20
tSS
Time from STROBE edge to STOP assertion when the
s e n d e r is s t o p p in g
50
50
50
50
50
tZAD
10
70
160
10
20
70
125
20
10
20
70
100
20
20
0
10
20
55
100
20
10
20
55
100
20
20
DMARQ
(device)
tUI
DMACK(host)
tACK
tZAD
STOP
(host)
HDMARDY(host)
tFS
tENV
tACK
tFS
tENV
tZAD
tZIORDY
DSTROBE
(device)
tAZ
tVDS
tDVH
DD(15:0)
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 4
Initiating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
5–5
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
t2CYC
tCYC
tCYC
t2CYC
DSTROBE
at device
tDVH
tDVS
tDVH
tDVS
tDVH
DD(15:0)
at device
DSTROBE
at host
tDH
tDS
tDH
tDS
DD(15:0)
at host
Figure 5 - 5
Sustained Ultra DMA Data In Burst
DMARQ
(device)
DMACK(host)
tRP
STOP
(host)
tSR
HDMARDY(host)
tRFS
DSTROBE
(device)
DD(15:0)
(device)
Figure 5 - 6
Host Pausing an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
5–6
tDH
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
DMARQ
(device)
tMLI
DMACK(host)
tACK
tLI
tLI
STOP
(host)
tACK
tLI
HDMARDY(host)
tSS
tIORDYZ
DSTROBE
(device)
tZAH
tAZ
tDVS
DD(15:0)
tDVH
CRC
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 7
Device Terminating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
DMARQ
(device)
tLI
tMLI
DMACK(host)
tZAH
tAZ
tRP
tACK
STOP
(host)
tACK
HDMARDY(host)
tRFS
tLI
tMLI
tIORDYZ
DSTROBE
(device)
tDVS
DD(15:0)
tDVH
CRC
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 8
Host Terminating an Ultra DMA Data In Burst
5–7
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
DMARQ
(device)
tUI
DMACK(host)
tACK
tENV
STOP
(host)
tZIORDY
tLI
tUI
DDMARDY(device)
tACK
HSTROBE
(host)
tDVS
tDVH
DD(15:0)
(host)
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 9
Initiating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
t2CYC
tCYC
tCYC
t2CYC
HSTROBE
at host
tDVH
tDVS
tDVH
tDVS
tDVH
DD(15:0)
at host
HSTROBE
at device
tDH
tDS
tDH
tDS
DD(15:0)
at device
Figure 5 - 10
Sustained Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
5–8
tDH
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
tRP
DMARQ
(device)
DMACK(host)
STOP
(host)
tSR
DDMARDY(device)
tRFS
HSTROBE
(host)
DD(15:0)
(host)
Figure 5 - 11
Device Pausing an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
tLI
DMARQ
(device)
tMLI
DMACK(host)
tLI
tSS
tACK
STOP
(host)
tLI
tIORDYZ
DDMARDY(device)
tACK
HSTROBE
(host)
tDVS
DD(15:0)
(host)
tDVH
CRC
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 12
Host Terminating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
5–9
AT INTERFACE DESCRIPTION
DMARQ
(device)
DMACK(host)
tLI
tMLI
tACK
STOP
(host)
tRP
tIORDYZ
DDMARDY(device)
tRFS
tLI
tMLI
tACK
HSTROBE
(host)
tDVS
DD(15:0)
(host)
tDVH
CRC
tACK
DA0, DA1, DA2,
CS0-, CS1-
Figure 5 - 13
Device Terminating an Ultra DMA Data Out Burst
5 – 10
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
SECTION 6
Host Software Interface
The host communicates with the drive through a set of controller registers accessed via the host’s I/O ports.
These registers divide into two groups: the Task File, used for passing commands and command parameters and
the Control/Diagnostic registers.
Task File Registers
The Task File consists of eight registers used to control fixed disk operations. The host accesses each register
by the I/O port address shown in this Task File register map:
I / O P O RT
1F0h
1F1h
1F2h
1F3h
1F4h
1F5h
1F6h
1F7h
READ
Data Register
Error Register
S e c to r C o u n t
S e c to r N u m b e r
Cylinder Low
Cylinder High
Drive/Head (SDH)
Status Register
W R IT E
Data Register
Features Register
S e c to r C o u n t
S e c to r N u m b e r
Cylinder Low
Cylinder High
Drive/Head (SDH)
Command Register
Data Register
Provides access to the drive’s sector buffer for read and write operations. With the exception of ECC byte
transfers (which, during Read long and Write long commands, are 8 bits wide), data transfers through the
Data register are all 16 bits wide.
Error Register
A read-only register containing specific information regarding the previous command. Data interpretation
differs depending on whether the controller is in operational or diagnostic mode. A power up, reset,
software reset, or receipt of a diagnostic command sets the controller into diagnostic mode. This mode
invalidates contents of the Status register. The contents of the Error register reflect a completion code.
Issuing any command (apart from a Diagnostic command) places the controller into operational mode.
In operational mode, the Error register is valid only when the Error bit in the Status register is set. The bit
definitions for operational mode follow:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
ECC
0
ID N F
0
ABRT
TK0
AM NF
Interface
CRC
D at a
ECC Error
Not
U se d
ID
Not Found
Not
U se d
A b o rte d
C o m m an d
Track 0
Error
Address
Mark Not
Found
Interface CRC – An interface CRC error occurred during an Ultra DMA transfer.
Data ECC Error – An non-correctable ECC error occurred during a Read Sector command.
Firmware Problem – Indicates a firmware problem was detected, (e.g., invalid interrupt, divide overflow).
ID Not Found – Either a matching ID field not found, or a CRC error occurred.
Aborted Command – Invalid commands, write fault, no seek complete, or drive not ready.
Track 0 Error – Track 0 was not found during execution of a Restore command.
Address Mark Not Found – The Address Mark could not be found after an ID match.
Features Register
Enables or disables features through the Set Features command.
6–1
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
Sector Count Register
Holds the number of sectors to be sent during a Read or Write command, and the number of sectors per
track during a Format command. A value of zero in this register implies a transfer of 256 sectors. A multisector operation decrements the Sector Count register. If an error occurs during such an operation, this
register contains the remaining number of sectors to be transferred.
Sector Number Register
Holds the starting sector number for any disk operation. The register is updated as each sector is processed in
a multi-sector operation.
Cylinder Number Registers
Two 8-bit Cylinder Number registers (Low and High) specify the starting cylinder for disk operation.
Device/Head Register
Used to specify the drive and head number to be operated on during any disk operations. Within the
context of a Set Parameters command, this register specifies the maximum number of heads on the drive.
Bit definitions follow:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
LBA
1
DRV
HS3
HS2
HS1
HS0
S e le c t
H e ad
S e le c t
H e ad
S e le c t
H e ad
S e le c t
M ode
S e le c t
Drive
Select LBA Mode – Enabling this bit for commands not supported by LBA mode will abort the selected command. When set,
the Task File register contents are defined as follows for the Read/Write and translate command:
CO N TEN TS
S e c to r N u m b e r
Cylinder Low
Cylinder High
Drive/Head
L B A B IT S
0-7
8 - 15
16 - 23
24 - 27
Drive Select – Set to 0 to select the master drive; set to 1 to select the slave drive.
Head Select – Specifies the binary coded address of the head to be selected.
Status Register
Contains results of the last command executed, and the drive’s status. The other seven Task File registers may
be read only when bit 7 (BUSY) of the Status register is low. Reading any of the Task File registers when
BUSY is high returns the value of the Status register. Reading the Status register also clears any interrupt
request to the host. Bit definitions follow:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BUSY
DRDY
DF
D SC
DRQ
0
0
ERR
C o n t r o lle r
B u sy
Device
Re a d y
Device
Fault
Device Seek
C o m p le t e
D at a
Re q u e s t
Error
Controller Busy – Goes active when a command is written to the Command register, indicating controller
task execution. After a command, this bit resets.
Device Ready – Indicates that the drive is ready for commands. If drive ready is not present, all commands abort.
Device Fault – Indicates the drive’s detection of a write fault condition, causing all commands to abort.
Device Seek Complete – Signifies a seek completion, and that the drive is on track.
Data Request – Indicates that the drive’s sector buffer is ready for data transfer.
Error – The Error bit sets when the previous command has completed with a non-recoverable error.
6–2
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
Command Register
Contains code for the command to be performed. Additional command information should be written to the
task file before the Command register is loaded. When this register is written, the BUSY bit in the Status
register sets, and interrupt request to the host clears; invalid commands abort. (Detailed information on interface
commands is given in Section 7.) Hex values for valid command formats follow:
Read Commands
Read Sector(s)
Read Verify Sector(s)
Read Sector Buffer
Read Multiple
Read DMA
20h
21h
22h
23h
40h
41h
E4h
C4h
C9h
Normal reads; retries enabled
Normal reads; retries disabled
Read Long; retries enabled
Read Long; retries disabled
Retries enabled
Retries disabled
C8h
No retries
Write Commands
Write Sector(s)
Write
Write
Write
Write
Verify Sector(s)
Sector Buffer
Multiple
DMA
30h
31h
32h
33h
3Ch
E8h
C5h
CAh
CBh
Normal writes; retries enabled
Normal writes; retries disabled
Write Long; retries enabled
Write Long; retries disabled
No retries
Mode Set/Check Commands
Set Features
Set Multiple Mode
EFh
C6h
Power Mode Commands
Standby Immediate
Idle Immediate
Standby
Idle
Check Power Mode
Set Sleep Mode
94/E0h
95/E1h
96/E2h
97/E3h
98/E5h
99/E6h
Stops
Starts
Stops
Starts
drive spindle; do not change time-out value
spindle; do not change time-out value
spindle; change time-out value
spindle; change time-out value
Initialization Commands
Identify Drive
Initialize Drive Parameters
Re-calibrate
ECh
91h
1xh
Seek, Format, and Diagnostic Commands
Seek
Format Track
Execute Drive Diagnostic
7xh
50h
90h
S.M.A.R.T. Commands
Execute S.M.A.R.T.
B0h
6–3
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
Summary
CO M M A N D N A M E
PARAMETERS U S ED
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
F
SC
SN
C
S DH
Recalibrate
0
0
0
1
x
x
x
x
N
N
N
N
D
Y
Read Sector(s)
0
0
1
0
0
0
L
x
N
Y
Y
Y
Read DMA
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
x
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Write Sector(s)
0
0
1
1
0
0
L
x
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Write DMA
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
x
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Write Verify Sector(s)
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Read Verify Sector(s)
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
x
N
Y
Y
Y
Format Track
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
N
N
Y
Y
Seek
0
1
1
1
x
x
x
x
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Execute Diagnostic
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
N
N
N
D
Initialize Parameters
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
N
Y
N
N
Y
Read Sector Buffer
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
N
N
N
N
D
Write Sector Buffer
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
N
N
N
N
D
Identify Drive
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
N
N
N
N
D
Set Features
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
Y
N
N
N
D
Read Multiple
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Write Multiple
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
S e t M u lt ip le M o d e
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
N
Y
N
N
D
TIMER VALU E
0
1 - 240
241 - 251
252
253
254
255
6–4
CO M M A N D CO D E
T IM E -O U T P E R IO D
T im e -o u t d is a b le d
(value * 5) seconds
((value - 240) * 30) minutes
2 1 m in u t e s
Vendor unique period = 10 hours
Reser ved
21 minutes, 15 seconds
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
Control Diagnostic Registers
These I/O port addresses reference three Control/Diagnostic registers:
I/O PORT
REA D
W R IT E
3F6h
Alternate Status
Fixed Disk Control
3F7h
D ig it a l In p u t
N o t u se d
Alternate Status Register
Contains the same information as the Status register in the Task File. However, this register may be read at
any time without clearing a pending interrupt.
Device Control Register
Contains the software Reset and Enable bit to enable interrupt requests to the host. Bit definitions follow:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
SRST
IE N
0
Reset
IR Q E n a b le
Reset – Setting the software Reset bit holds the drive in the reset state. Clearing the bit re-enables the drive.
The software Reset bit must be held active for a minimum of 5 µsec.
IRQ Enable – Setting the Interrupt Request Enable to 0 enables the IRQ 14 signal to the host. When this
bit is set to 1, IRQ14 is tri-stated, and interrupts to the host are disabled. Any pending interrupt occurs when
the bit is set to 0. The default state of this bit after power up is 0 (interrupt enabled).
Digital Input Register
Contains information about the state of the drive. Bit definitions follow:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
x
-W G
-H S 3
-H S 2
-H S 1
-H S 0
-D S 1
DS0
G a te
H e ad
S e le c t 3
H e ad
S e le c t 2
H e ad
S e le c t 1
H e ad
S e le c t 0
Drive
S e le c t 1
Drive
S e le c t 0
Reser ved
Bit 7 of the host data bus is not driven when this register is read.
-Write Gate – Reflects the state of the active low write gate signal on the drive.
-Head Select 3 through -Head Select 0 – Represents the ones complement of the currently selected head number.
-Drive Select 1 – Is 0 if drive 1 selected; 1 otherwise.
-Drive Select 0 – Is 0 if drive 0 selected; 1 otherwise.
6–5
HOST SOFTWARE INTERFACE
Reset and Interrupt Handling
Reset Handling
One of three different conditions may cause a reset: power on, hardware reset or software reset. All three
cause the interface processor to initialize itself and the Task File registers of the interface. A reset also causes a
set of the Busy bit in the Status register. The Busy bit does not clear until the reset clears and the drive
completes initialization. Completion of a reset operation does not generate a host interrupt.
Task File registers are initialized as follows:
Error
Sector Count
Sector Number
Cylinder Low
Cylinder High
Drive/Head
1
1
1
0
0
0
Interrupt Handling
The drive requests data transfers to and from the host by asserting its IRQ 14 signal. This signal interrupts the
host if enabled by bit 1 (IRQ enable) of the Fixed Disk Control register.
Clear this interrupt by reading the Status register, writing the Command register, or by executing a host
hardware or software reset.
6–6
INTERFACE COMMANDS
SECTION 7
Interface Commands
The following section describes the commands (and any parameters necessary to execute them),
as well as Status and Error register bits affected.
Read Commands
Read Sector(s)
Read Verify Sector(s)
Read Sector Buffer
Read DMA
Multi-word DMA
Ultra DMA
Read Multiple
Set Multiple
Write Commands
Write Sector(s)
Write Verify Sector(s)
Write Sector Buffer
Write DMA
Multi-word DMA
Ultra DMA
Write Multiple
Set Feature Commands
Set Features Mode
Power Mode Commands
Standby Immediate
Idle Immediate
Standby
Idle
Check Power Mode
Set Sleep Mode
Default Power-on Condition
Initialization Commands
Identify Drive
Initialize Drive Parameters
7–1
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Read Commands
Read Sector(s)
Reads from 1 to 256 sectors, as specified in the Command Block, beginning at the specified sector. (A sector
count of 0 requests 256 sectors.) Immediately after the Command register is written, the drive sets the BSY
bit and begins execution of the command. If the drive is not already on the desired track, an implied seek is
performed.
Once at the desired track, the drive searches for the data address mark of the requested sector. The data
address mark must be recognized within a specified number of bytes, or the Data Address Mark Not Found
error will be reported. Assuming the data address mark is found:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The data field is read into the sector buffer.
Error bits are set (if an error was encountered).
The DRQ bit is set.
An interrupt is generated.
The DRQ bit is always set, regardless of the presence or absence of an error condition after the sector.
Upon command completion, the Command Block registers contain the numbers of the cylinder, head and
sector of the last sector read. Back-to-back sector read commands set DRQ and generate an interrupt when
the sector buffer is filled at the completion of each sector. The drive is then ready for the data to be read by
the host. DRQ is reset and BSY is set immediately when the host empties the sector buffer.
If an error occurs during Read Sector commands, the read terminates at the sector where the error occurred.
The host may then read the Command Block to determine the nature of that error, and the sector where it
happened. If the error type is a correctable or an non-correctable data error, the flawed data is loaded into
the sector buffer.
A Read Long command sets the Long bit in the command code and returns the data and the ECC bytes in
the data field of the specified sector. During a Read Long, the drive does not check the ECC bytes to
determine if there has been a data error. The Read Long command is limited to single sector requests.
Read Verify Sector(s)
Identical to the Read Sector(s) command, except that:
1.
DRQ is never set,
2.
No data is transferred back to the host and
3.
The long bit is not valid.
7–2
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Read DMA
Multi-word DMA
Identical to the Read Sector(s) command, except that
1.
The host initializes a slave-DMA channel prior to issuing the command,
2.
Data transfers are qualified by DMARQ and are performed by the slave-DMA channel
and
3.
The drive issues only one interrupt per command to indicate that data transfer has
terminated and status is available.
Ultra DMA
With the Ultra DMA Read protocol, the control signal (DSTROBE) that latches data from DD(15:0) is
generated by the devices which drives the data onto the bus. Ownership of DD(15:0) and this data strobe
signal are given DSTROBE to the drive during an Ultra DMA data in burst.
During an Ultra DMA Read burst, the drive always moves data onto the bus, and, after a sufficient time to
allow for propagation delay, cable settling, and setup time, the sender shall generate a DSTROBE edge to
latch the data. Both edges of DSTROBE are used for data transfers.
Any unrecoverable error encountered during execution of a Read DMA command terminates data transfer
after the transfer of all sectors prior to the sector where the error was detected. The sector in error is not
transferred. The drive generates an interrupt to indicate that data transfer has terminated and status is
available. The error posting is identical to the Read Sector(s) command.
Read Multiple
Performs similarly to the Read Sector(s) command, except that for each READ MULTIPLE command data
transfers are multiple sector blocks and the Long bit is not valid.
Execution is also similar to that of the READ SECTOR(S) command, except that:
1.
Several sectors are transferred to the host as a block, without intervening interrupts.
2.
DRQ qualification of the transfer is required only at the start of each block, not of each sector.
The block count consists of the number of sectors to be transferred as a block. (The block count is
programmed by the Set Multiple Mode command, which must be executed prior to the Read Multiple
command.) READ LONG command is limited to single sector requests.
When the Read Multiple command is issued, the Sector Count register contains the number of sectors
requested — not the number of blocks or the block count. If the number of sectors is not evenly divisible
by the block count, as many full blocks as possible are transferred, followed by a final, partial block transfer.
This final, partial block transfer is for N sectors, where N = (sector count) modulo (block count)
The Read Multiple operation will be rejected with an Aborted Command error if attempted:
1.
Before the Set Multiple Mode command has been executed, or
2.
When Read Multiple commands are disabled.
The controller reports disk errors encountered during Read Multiple commands at the start of the block or
partial block transfer. However, DRQ still sets, and the transfer occurs normally, along with the transfer of
any corrupt data. Remaining block data from the following the sector in error is not valid.
If the Sector Count register contains 0 when the Set Multiple Mode command is issued, Read Multiple and
Write Multiple commands are disabled; no error is returned. Once the appropriate action has been taken, the
controller resets BSY and generates an interrupt. At power up, or after a hardware or software reset, Read
Multiple and Write Multiple commands are disabled by default.
7–3
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Set Multiple Mode
Enables the controller to perform Read and Write Multiple operations, and establishes the block count for
these commands. Before issuing this command, the Sector Count register should be loaded with the number
of sectors per block. The drives support block sizes of 2, 4, 8 and 16 sectors.
When this command is received, the controller sets BSY and examines the Sector Count register contents. If
they contain a valid and supported block count value, that value is loaded for all subsequent Read and Write
Multiple commands, and execution of those commands is enabled. An invalid and unsupported block count
in the register results in an Aborted Command error and disallows Read Multiple and Write Multiple
commands.
Write Commands
Write Sector(s)
Writes from 1 to 256 sectors, beginning at a sector specified in the Command Block. (A sector count of 0
requests 256 sectors.)
When the Command register is written, the drive sets the DRQ bit and waits for the host to fill the sector
buffer with the data to be written. An interrupt is not generated to start the first buffer fill operation.
Once the buffer is full, the drive resets DRQ, sets BSY, and begins command execution. If the drive is not
already on the desired track, an implied seek is performed.
The data loaded in the buffer is written to the data field of the sector, followed by the ECC bytes. Upon
command completion, the Command Block registers contain the cylinder, head and sector number of the
last sector written. The next time the buffer is ready to be filled during back-to-back Write Sector
commands, DRQ is set and an interrupt is generated.
After the host fills the buffer, DRQ is reset and BSY is set. If an error occurs, Write Sector operations
terminate at the sector containing the error.
The Command Block registers then contain the numbers of the cylinder, head and sector where the error
occurred. The host may read the Command Block to determine the nature of that error, and on which
sector it happened. A Write Long may be executed by setting the Long bit in the command code. The
Write Long command writes the data and the ECC bytes directly from the sector buffer; the drive itself does
not generate the ECC bytes. Restrict Write Long commands to PIO Mode 0.
Write Verify Sector(s)
Identical to the Write Sector(s) command, except that the requested sectors are verified immediately after
being written. The verify operation reads (without transferring), and checks for data errors. Any errors
encountered during this operation are reported.
Write Sector Buffer
Allows the host to overwrite the contents of the drive’s sector buffer with a selected data pattern. When this
command is received, the drive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Sets BSY,
Sets up the sector buffer for a write operation,
Sets DRQ,
Resets BSY and
Generates an interrupt.
The host may then write up to 256 words of data to the buffer. A disk write task begins to store the host
data to disk. Host write commands continue to be accepted and data transferred to the buffer until either
the write command stack is full or the data buffer is full. The drive may reorder write commands to optimize
drive throughput.
7–4
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Write Multiple
Performs similarly to the Write Sector(s) command, except that:
1. The controller sets BSY immediately upon receipt of the command,
2. Data transfers are multiple sector blocks and
3. The Long bit and Retry bit is not valid.
Command execution differs from Write Sector(s) because:
1. Several sectors transfer to the host as a block without intervening interrupts.
2. DRQ qualification of the transfer is required at the start of the block, not on each sector.
The block count consists of the number of sectors to be transferred as a block and is programmed by the Set
Multiple Mode command, which must be executed prior to the Write Multiple command. When the Write
Multiple command is issued, the Sector Count register contains the number of sectors requested — not the
number of blocks or the block count.
If the number of sectors is not evenly divisible by the block count, as many full blocks as possible are
transferred, followed by a final, partial block transfer. This final, partial block transfer is for N sectors, where
N = (sector count) modulo (block count)
The Write Multiple operation will be rejected with an Aborted Command error if attempted:
1. Before the Set Multiple Mode command has been executed, or
2. When Write Multiple commands are disabled.
All disk errors encountered during Write Multiple commands report after the attempted disk write of the
block or partial block in which the error occurred.
The write operation ends with the sector in error, even if it was in the middle of a block. When an error
occurs, subsequent blocks are not transferred. When DRQ is set at the beginning of each full and partial
block, interrupts are generated.
Write DMA
Multi-word DMA
Identical to the Write Sector(s) command, except that:
1.
2.
3.
The host initializes a slave-DMA channel prior to issuing the command,
Data transfers are qualified by DMARQ and are performed by the slave-DMA channel and
The drive issues only one interrupt per command to indicate that data transfer has terminated
at status is available.
Ultra DMA
With the Ultra DMA Write protocol, the control signal (HSTROBE) that latches data from DD(15:0) is
generated by the devices which drives the data onto the bus. Ownership of DD(15:0) and this data
strobe signal are given to the host for an Ultra DMA data out burst.
During an Ultra DMA Write burst, the host always moves data onto the bus, and, after a sufficient time to
allow for propagation delay, cable settling, and setup time, the sender shall generate a HSTROBE edge to
latch the data. Both edges of HSTROBE are used for data transfers.
Any error encountered during Write DMA execution results in the termination of data transfer. The drive
issues an interrupt to indicate that data transfer has terminated and status is available in the error register.
The error posting is the same as that of the Write Sector(s) command.
7–5
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Set Feature Commands
Set Features Mode
Enables or disables features supported by the drive. When the drive receives this command it:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sets BSY,
Checks the contents of the Features register,
Clears BSY and
Generates an interrupt.
If the value of the register is not a feature supported by the drive, the command is aborted.
The acceptable values in the Features register are defined as follows:
VALUE
D E S C R IP T IO N
02h*
Enabled write cache
03h
Set transfer mode based on value in Sector Count register
44h
Length of data appended on Read Long/Write Long commands specified in the
Identify Device information
55h
Disable read look-ahead feature
66h*
Disable reverting to power-on defaults
82h
Disable write cache
AAh*
Enable read look-ahead feature
BBh*
4 bytes of Maxtor specific data appended on Read Long/Write Long commands
CCh
Enable reverting to power-on defaults
* Enabled at power up by default.
7–6
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Power Mode Commands
Standby Immediate – 94h/E0h
Spin down and do not change time out value. This command will spin the drive down and cause the drive
to enter the STANDBY MODE immediately. If the drive is already spun down, the spin down sequence is
not executed.
Idle Immediate – 95h/E1h
Spin up and do not change time out value. This command will spin up the spin motor if the drive is spun
down, and cause the drive to enter the IDLE MODE immediately. If the drive is already spinning, the spin
up sequence is not executed. The actuator is parked and some circuits are powered off.
Standby – 96h/E2h
Spin down and change time out value. This command will spin the drive down and cause the drive to enter
the STANDBY MODE immediately. If the drive is already spun down, the spin down sequence is not
executed. A non-zero value placed in the sector count register will enable the Automatic Power Down
sequence. The timer will begin counting down when the drive returns to the IDLE MODE. A value of zero
placed in the sector count register will disable the Automatic Power Down sequence.
Idle – 97h/E3h
Spin up and change time out value. This command will spin-up the spin motor if the drive is spun-down.
If the drive is already spinning, the spin up sequence is not executed. A non-zero value placed in the Sector
Count register will enable the Automatic Power Down sequence and their timer will begin counting down
immediately. A value of zero placed in the Sector Count register will disable the Automatic Power Down
sequence. The actuator is parked and some circuits are powered off.
Check Power Mode – 98h/E5h
This command returns a code in the Sector Count register that determines the current Power Mode status of
the drive. If the drive is in, going to, or recovering from the STANDBY MODE the drive sets the Sector
Count register to OOh. If the drive is in the IDLE MODE or ACTIVE MODE, the drive sets the Sector
Count register to FFh.
Set Sleep Mode – 99h/E6h
This command will spin the drive down and cause the drive to enter the SLEEP MODE immediately. If the
drive is already spun down, the spin down sequence is not executed.
Note: The only way to recover from SLEEP MODE is with a software reset or a hardware reset.
Default Power-on Condition
The drive’s default power on condition is the ACTIVE MODE.
Upon receiving a Power Mode command, except the SLEEP MODE command, the drive sets BSY and
performs the requested power operation. Once the requested Power Mode change has begun, the drive
resets BSY and generates an interrupt - without waiting for the drive to spin up or spin down. Upon
receiving a SLEEP MODE command the drive is spun down, and when it is stopped, the drive resets BSY
and generates an interrupt.
7–7
INTERFACE COMMANDS
When enabling the Automatic Power Down sequence, the value placed in the Sector Count register is
multiplied by five seconds to obtain the Time-out Interval value. If no drive commands are received from
the host within the Time-out Interval, the drive automatically enters the STANDBY mode. The minimum
value is 5 seconds.
TIMER VALUE
0
1 - 240
241 - 251
252
253
254
255
T IM E -O U T P E R IO D
T im e -o u t d is a b le d
(value * 5) seconds
((value - 240) * 30) minutes
2 1 m in u t e s
Vendor unique period = 10
h o u rs
Reser ved
21 minutes, 15 seconds
While the drive is in STANDBY MODE, any commands received from the host are accepted and executed
as they would in normal operation, except that the spin motor is started if required to execute a disk
command. Under these conditions, the drive will set BSY when command processing would normally begin
and will leave BSY set until the drive comes up to speed and the disk command can be executed. Disk
commands issued while the drive is in STANDBY MODE, restarts the Time-out Interval after completing
the command. A reset must be issued before attempting to issue any commands while the drive in
SLEEP MODE.
7–8
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Initialization Commands
Identify Drive
Allows the host to receive parameter information from the drive.
When the command is received, the drive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sets BSY,
Stores the required parameter information in the sector buffer,
Sets the DRQ bit and
Generates an interrupt.
The host may then read the information out of the sector buffer. Parameter words in the buffer follow.
Note that all reserved bits or words should be zeroes.
WO R D
0
1
2
3
4-5
6
7-8
9
10 - 19
20
21
22
23 - 26
27 - 46
47
48
49
C O N T E N T D E S C R IP T IO N
General configuration
15 = device (0 = ATA device, 1 = ATAPI)
14-8 = retired
7, 1 = removable media device
6, 1 = not removable controller and/or device
5-3 = retired
2 = response incom plete
1 = retired
0 = reser ved
Num ber of logical cylinders
Reser ved
Num ber of logical heads
Retired
Number of logical sectors per logical track
Reser ved
Retired
Drive serial number (20 ASCII characters)
Not used
Buffer size in 512 byte increments (0 0 0 0h = not specified)
Number of Maxtor specific bytes available on Read/Write Long commands
Firmware revision (8 ASCII characters)
Model number (40 ASCII characters)
Maximum number of sectors that can be transferred per interrupt on read and write multiple commands
Reser ved
Capabilities
15 - 14 = reser ved
13 = st andby timer (1 = values as specified in this st andard are supported, 0 = values are Maxtor specific)
12 = reser ved (advanced PIO mode support)
11, 1 = IORDY supported, 0 = IORDY may be supported
10, 1 = IORDY can be disabled
9-8 = reser ved
7-0 = not used
7–9
INTERFACE COMMANDS
WO RD
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57 - 58
59
60 - 61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69-79
80
81
82
C O N T E N T D E S C R IP T IO N
Re s e r ve d
15-8 = PIO dat a transfer mode
7-0 = not used
15-8 = DMA dat a transfer mode
7-0 = not used
15 = reser ved
2 , 1 = t h e f i e l d s s u p p o r t e d i n w o r d s 8 8 a r e va l i d , 0 = t h e f i e l d s s u p p o r t e d i n w o r d s 8 8 a r e n o t va l i d
1 , 1 = t h e f i e l d s r e p o r t s i n w o r d s 6 4 - 7 0 a r e va l i d , 0 = t h e f i e l d s r e p o r t s i n w o r d s 6 4 - 7 0 a r e n o t va l i d
0 , 1 = t h e f i e l d s r e p o r t s i n w o r d s 5 4 - 5 8 a r e va l i d , 0 = t h e f i e l d s r e p o r t s i n w o r d s 5 4 - 5 8 a r e n o t va l i d
N u m b e r o f c u rr e n t l o g i c a l c y l i n d e r s
N u m b e r o f c u rr e n t l o g i c a l h e a d s
Number of logical sectors per track
C u rr e n t c a p a c i t y i n s e c t o r s
15-9 = reser ved
8, 1 = multiple sector setting is valid
7-0xxh = current setting for number of sectors that can per transferred per interrupt on Read/Write Multiple
command
Tot al number of user addressable sectors (LBA mode only)
Re s e r ve d
15-8 = Multi-word DMA transfer mode active
7-0 = Multi=word DMA transfer modes supported
15-8 = reser ved
7-0 = advanced PIO transfer modes supported
Minimum multi-word DMA transfer cycle time (15-0 = cycle time in nanoseconds)
Manufacturer's recommeded multi-word DMA transfer cycle time (15-0 = cycle time in nanoseconds)
Minimum PIO transfer cycle time without flow control (15-0 = cycle time in nanoseconds)
Minimum PIO transfer cycle time with IORDY flow control (15-0 = cycle time in nanoseconds)
Re s e r ve d
15-6 = reser ved
5, 1 = supports ATA/ATAPI-5
4, 1 = supports ATA/ATAPI-4
3, 1 = supports ATA-3
2, 1 = supports ATA-2
1, 1 = supports ATA-1
0 , r e s e r ve d
M i n o r ve r s i o n n u m b e r
C o m m a n d s e t s u p p o r t e d . I f wo r d s 8 2 a n d 8 3 = 0 0 0 0 h o r F F F F h c o m m a n d s e t n o t i f i c a t i o n n o t s u p p o r t e d .
15, 1 = supports the Identify Device DMA command
14, 1 = supports the NOP command
13, 1 = supports the Write Buffer command
12, 1 = supports the Read Buffer command
11, 1 = supports the Read Buffer command
10, 1 = supports Host-Protected Area feature set
9 , 1 = s u p p o r t s t h e D ev i c e Re s e t c o m m a n d
8, 1 = supports Ser vice Interupt
7, 1 = supports Release Interupt
6 , 1 = s u p p o r t s Lo o k A h e a d
5, 1 = supports Write Cache
4, 1 = supports the Packet command feature set
3, 1 = supports the Power Management feature command
2, 1 = supports the Removable feature command
1, 1 = supports the Securit y featurecommand
0, 1 = supports the SMART feature set
7 – 10
INTERFACE COMMANDS
WO R D
83
C O N T E N T D E S C R IP T IO N
Command sets supported. If words 82, 83 and 84 = 0000h or FFFFh command set notification not
s u p p o rte d .
15 = shall be cleared to zero
14 = shall be set to one
13-1 = reser ved
0, 1 = supports Download Microcode command
84
Command set extensions supported. If words 84, 85 and 86 = 0000h or FFFFh command set
n o t if ic a t io n n o t s u p p o r t e d .
15 = shall be cleared to zero
14 = shall be set to one
13-0 = reser ved
85
Command set enabled. If words 84, 85 and 86 = 0000h or FFFFh command set notification not
s u p p o rte d .
15, 1 = Identify Device DMA command enabled
14, 1 = NOP command enabled
13, 1 = Write Buffer command enabled
12, 1 = Read Buffer command enabled
11, 1 = Write Verify command enabled
10, 1 = Host Protected Area feature set enabled
9, 1 = Device Reset command enabled
8, 1 = Ser vice Interrupt enabled
7, 1 = Release Interrupt enabled
6, 1 = Look Ahead enabled
5, 1 = Write Cache enabled
4, 1 = Packet command feature set enabled
3, 1 = Power Mangement feature set enabled
2, 1 = Removable feature set enabled
1, 1 = Security feature set enabled
0, 1 = SMART feature set enabled
86
Command sets enabled. If words 85, 86 and 87 = 0000h or FFFFh command set notification not
s u p p o rte d .
15 = shall be cleared to zero
14 = shall be set to one
13-1 = reser ved
0, 1 = supports Download Microcode command
87
Command sets enabled. If words 85, 86 and 87 = 0000h or FFFFh command set notification not
s u p p o rte d .
15 = shall be cleared to zero
14 = shall be set to one
13-0 = reser ved
88
U lt r a D M A
15-13 Reser ved
12 1 = Ultra DMA mode 4 is selected
0 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 4 is n o t s e le c t e d
11 1 = Ultra DMA mode 3 is selected
0 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 3 is n o t s e le c t e d
10 1 = Ultra DMA mode 2 is selected
0 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 2 is n o t s e le c t e d
9
1 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 1 is s e le c t e d
0 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 1 is n o t s e le c t e d
8
1 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 0 is s e le c t e d
0 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 0 is n o t s e le c t e d
7-5 Reser ved
4
1 = Ultra DMA mode 4 and below are supported
3
1 = Ultra DMA mode 3 and below are supported
2
1 = Ultra DMA mode 2 and below are supported
1
1 = Ultra DMA mode 1 and below are supported
0
1 = U lt r a D M A m o d e 0 is s u p p o r t e d
127
Reser ved
128
Security Status
15-9 Reser ved
8 Security Level 0 = High, 1 = Maximum
7-5 Reser ved
4 1 = Security count expired
3 1 = Security frozen
2 1 = Security locked
1 1 = S e c u r it y e n a b le d
0 1 = S e c u r it y s u p p o r t e d
129-130 Reser ved
131
Spin at power-up, but 0 is asserted when no spin at power-up is enabled.
132-159 Maxtor-specific (not used)
160-255 Reser ved
7 – 11
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Initialize Drive Parameters
Enables the drive to operate as any logical drive type. The drive will always be in the translate mode because
of Zone Density Recording, which varies the number of sectors per track depending on the zone.
Through setting the Sector Count Register and Drive Head Register, this command lets the host alter the
drive's logical configuration. As a result, the drive can operate as any equal to or less than capacity drive type.
Do not exceed the total number of sectors available on the drive:
When this command is executed, the drive reads the Sector Counter Register and the Drive Head Register
(and so determines the number of the logical sectors per track and maximum logical head number per
cylinder and will calculate the number of logical cylinders.)
Upon receipt of the command, the drive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sets BSY,
Saves the parameters,
Resets BSY and
Generates an interrupt.
To specify maximum heads, write 1 less than the maximum (e.g. write 4 for a 5 head drive). To specify
maximum sectors, specify the actual number of sectors (e.g. 17 for a maximum of 17 sectors/track).
The sector count and head values are not checked for validity by this command. If they are invalid, no error
will be posted until an illegal access is made by some other command.
Moves the read/write heads from anywhere on the disk to cylinder 0.
When this command is received, the drive:
1. Sets BSY and
2. Issues a seek to cylinder zero.
The drive waits for the seek to complete, then the drive:
1. Updates status,
2. Resets BSY and
3. Generates an interrupt.
If the drive cannot reach cylinder 0, the Error bit is set in the Status register, and the Track 0 bit is set in the
Error register.
NOTE: If a maximum head and sector number is selected – such that the number of cylinders will exceed 65,535 – then
the maximum cylinder value will be reduced to 65, 535.
7 – 12
INTERFACE COMMANDS
Seek, Format and Diagnostic Commands
Seek
Initiates a seek to the track, and selects the head specified in the Command block.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sets BSY in the Status register,
Initiates the Seek,
Resets BSY and
Generates an interrupt.
The drive does not wait for the seek to complete before returning the interrupt. If a new command is issued
to a drive during the execution of a Seek command, the drive will wait (with BSY active) for the Seek to
complete before executing the new command.
Format Track
Formats the track specified in the Command Block. Shortly after the Command register is written, the drive
sets the bit, and waits for the host to fill the sector buffer with the interleave table. When the buffer is full,
the drive resets DRQ, sets BSY and begins command execution. If the drive is not already on the desired
track, an implied seek is performed. Once at the desired track the data fields are written with all zeroes.
Execute Drive Diagnostic
Commands the drive to implement the internal diagnostic tests. (These tests are executed only upon
command receipt; they do not run automatically at power up or after a reset.)
The drive sets BSY immediately upon receiving this command. The following table presents the codes and
their descriptions. Note that the value in the Error register should be viewed as a unique 8 bit Code.
E R RO R C O D E
D E S C R IP T IO N
01
No error detected
00
Master drive failed
80, 82
81
Master and slave drives failed
Slave drive failed
Note: If a slave drive fails diagnostics, the master drive OR’s 80h with its own status, and loads that code
into the Error register. If a slave drive passes diagnostics (or a slave is absent), the master drive OR’s 00
with its own status and loads that code into the Error register.
7 – 13
INTERFACE COMMANDS
S.M.A.R.T. Command Set
Execute S.M.A.R.T.
The Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) command has been implemented to
improve the data integrity and data availability of hard disk drives. In some cases, a S.M.A.R.T. capable device
will predict an impending failure with sufficient time to allow users to backup their data and replace the
drive before data loss or loss of service.
The S.M.A.R.T. sub-commands (listed below) comprise the ATA S.M.A.R.T. feature set that provide access
to S.M.A.R.T. attribute values, attribute thresholds and other logging and reporting information.
Prior to writing a S.M.A.R.T. command to the device’s command register, key values must be written by the
host into the device’s Cylinder Low and Cylinder High registers, or the command will be aborted. For any
S.M.A.R.T. sub-command, if a device register is not specified as being written with a value by the host, then
the value in that register is undefined and will be ignored by the device. The key values are:
Key
4Fh
C2h
Register
Cylinder Low (1F4h)
Cylinder High (1F5h)
The S.M.A.R.T. sub-commands use a single command code (B0h) and are differentiated from one another
by the value placed in the Features register. In order to issue a command, the host must write the subcommand-specific code to the device’s Features register before writing the command code to the command
register. The sub-commands and their respective codes are:
7 – 14
D0h
S.M.A.R.T. Read Attribute Value
This feature returns 512 bytes of attribute information to the host.
D1h
S.M.A.R.T. Read Attribute Thresholds
This feature returns 512 bytes of warranty failure thresholds to the host.
D2h
Enable/Disable Autosave
To enable this feature, set the sector count register to F1h (enable) or 0 (disable). Attribute values
are automatically saved to non-volatile storage on the device after five minutes of idle time and
before entering idle, sleep or standby modes. This feature is defaulted to “enabled” when
S.M.A.R.T. is enabled via the S.M.A.R.T. Enable Operations commands. The autosave feature
will not impact host system performance and does not need to be disabled.
D3h
S.M.A.R.T. Save Attribute Value
This feature saves the current attribute values to non-volatile storage.
D4h
Perform Off-Line Data Collection
Data is collected from random seeks, timed pattern seek times and head margin tests.
D8h
Enable S.M.A.R.T.
D9h
Disable S.M.A.R.T.
DAh
S.M.A.R.T. Return Status
This feature allows the host to assess the status of a S.M.A.R.T. capable device by comparing all
saved attribute values with their corresponding warranty failure thresholds. If no thresholds are
exceeded, the drive is declared to have a positive health status. If any warranty failure threshold is
exceeded, the drive is declared to have a negative health status. Executing this sub-command
results in all attribute values being saved to non-volatile storage on the device.
DBh
Enable/Disable Automatic Off-Line
To enable this feature, set the Sector Count register to F1h or 0 to disable.
SERVICE AND SUPPORT
SECTION 8
Service and Support
Service Policy
If a customer discovers a defect in a DiamondMax® Plus 40 drive, Maxtor will, at its option, repair or replace
the disk drive at no charge to the customer, provided it is returned during the warranty period. Drives must be
properly packaged in Maxtor packaging or Maxtor-approved packaging to obtain warranty service. Any
unauthorized repairs or adjustments to the drive void the warranty.
To consistently provide our customers with the best possible products and services, Maxtor developed the
Total Customer Satisfaction (TCS) program. Through the ongoing TCS process, Maxtor employees take
direct responsibility for every customer’s level of satisfaction – with Maxtor technology, price, quality,
delivery, service and support.
No Quibble® Service
Another TCS feature is Maxtor’s No Quibble® Service policy. By minimizing paperwork and processing,
No Quibble Service dramatically cuts the turnaround time normally required for repairs and returns.
Here’s how it works:
1. Customer calls 1-800-2MAXTOR for a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number
and provides a credit card number,
2. Maxtor ships a replacement drive within 2 business days, and
3. Customer returns the original drive and credit card draft is destroyed.
Support
Technical Assistance
Highly-trained technicians are available 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. (Mountain Standard Time) Monday through Friday
to provide detailed technical support.
U.S. and Canada
Voice
E-mail
Fax
Outside U.S. and Canada
Language support: English, Spanish
800-2MAXTOR, press 1 (800-262-9867)
Technical_Assistance@maxtor.com
303-678-2260
303-678-2015
Europe
Voice
E-mail
Fax
Language support: English, French, German
+ 353 1 286 62 22
Eurotech_Assistance@maxtor.com
+ 353 1 286 45 77
Asia/Pacific
Voice
E-mail
Contact your local Maxtor Sales Office for assistance
Apactech_Assistance@maxtor.com
Language support: English
MaxInfo Service
Use a touch-tone phone to listen to technical information about Maxtor products and the top Q&A’s
from our 24-hour automated voice system.
U.S. and Canada
Outside U.S. and Canada
800-2MAXTOR (800-262-9867)
Press 1, wait for announcement, listen for option
303-678-2015, listen for option
8–1
SERVICE AND SUPPORT
MaxFax™ Service
Use a touch-tone phone to order Technical Reference Sheets, Drive Specifications, Installation Sheets and other
documents from our 24-hour automated fax retrieval system. Requested items are sent to your fax machine.
U.S. and Canada
Phone
Outside U.S. and Canada
Europe
Phone
Asia/Pacific
Phone
Language support: English
800-2MAXTOR, listen for option (800-262-9867)
303-678-2618
Language support: English, French, German
+ 353 1 204 11 22
Language support: English
+ 61 2 9369 4733
Internet
Browse the Maxtor home page on Internet, download files from our FTP site.
Home Page
http://www.maxtor.com
Customer Service
All Maxtor products are backed by No Quibble® Service, the benchmark for service and support in the industry.
Customer Service is available 5 a.m. to 5 p.m. (Pacific Standard Time) Monday through Friday.
U.S. and Canada
Voice
E-mail
Fax
Europe
Voice
E-mail
Fax
Asia/Pacific
Language support: English, Spanish
800-2MAXTOR, press 2 (800-262-9867)
RMA@maxtor.com
408-922-2085
Language support: English, French, German
+ 353 1 286 62 22
Eurotech_Assistance@maxtor.com
+ 353 1 286 14 19
Call Singapore Customer Service from the countries listed below.
Customer Service is available 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. (Singapore time is GMT +8).
From
Australia
Hong Kong
Indonesia
Japan
South Korea
Malaysia
New Zealand
Singapore
Taiwan
Thailand
8–2
Dial
1-800-124-328
+800-96-3387
+001-803-65-6500
+0031-65-3616
+0078-65-800-6500
1-800-1126
+0800-44-6542
1-800-481-6788
+0080-65-1062
+001-800-65-6500
GLOSSARY
GLOSSARY
Glossary
A
BPI
Acronym for bits per inch. See bit density.
BLOCK
ACCESS
To obtain data from, or place data into, RAM, a register, or data
storage device.
A group of bytes handled, stored, and accessed as a logical data
unit, such as an individual file record.
BUFFER
ACCESS TIME
The interval between the issuing of an access command and the
instant that the target data may be read or written. Access time
includes seek time, latency and controller overhead time.
A temporary data storage area that compensates for a difference in
data transfer rates and/or data processing rates between sender
and receiver.
BUS
ADDRESS
A number, generally binary, distinguishing a specific member of an
ordered set of locations. In disk engineering, the address may
consist of drives (unit address), radial positions (cylinder address),
or circumferential position (sector address).
ALLOCATION
A process of assigning designated areas of the disk to particular
files.
ALTERNATE TRACK
A spare track used in the event that a normal track becomes
damaged or is unusable.
A collection of functionally parallel conductors that forms an
interconnection between functional blocks in a digital device. A
length of parallel conductors that forms a major interconnection
route between the computer system CPU (central processing unit)
and its peripheral subsystems. Depending on its design, a bus may
carry data, addresses, power, and more.
BYTE
An ordered collection of bits treated as a unit. Most often, a byte is
understood to consist of eight bits. One byte is necessary to define
an alphanumeric character.
C
ANALOG
A signal or system that does not use digital states to convey
information. A signal may have any number of significant states
(values), contrasted to digital signals which can only have two
states.
CACHE
ANSI
CAPACITY
American National Standards Institute.
The amount of data, usually expressed in bytes, which can be stored
in a given device or portion of same.
Random access memory (RAM) used as a buffer between the CPU
and the disk drive.
APPLICATIONPROGRAM
A sequence of programmed instructions that tell the computer how
to perform some end-user task, such as accounting or word
processing.
AREAL DENSITY
Bit density (bits per inch) multiplied by track density (tracks per inch)
or bits per square inch.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
The heart of the computer system that executes programmed
instructions. It includes the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) for performing
all math and logic operations, a control section for interpreting and
executing instructions, internal memory for temporary storage of
program variables and other functions.
CHANNEL
ASYMMETRY
A distortion of the readback signal which is shown in different
intervals between the positive and negative voltage peaks.
A collection of electronic circuits used in the process of writing and
reading information to and from magnetic media.
CHARACTER
AUXILIARYMEMORY
Memory other than main memory; generally a mass-storage
subsystem containing disk drives and backup tape drives,
controller(s) and buffer memory (also called peripheral memory).
An ordered collection of bits representing one of a set of
predefined symbols. Often the term is used interchangeably with
byte, but this is inexact.
CLOSEDLOOP
AVERAGE ACCESS TIME
The average time to make all possible length accesses (seeks).
AVERAGE SEEK TIME
The average time to make all possible length seeks. A typical
measure of performance.
B
A control technique that enables the positioning system to correct
off-track errors in real time. The actual head position is monitored
and compared to the ideal track position to determine any position
error that might be occurring. This information is then used to
produce a correction signal (feedback) that goes to the positioner
to correct the error. (See also track following servo).
CLOSEDLOOPSERVO
A servo control technique that uses position feedback to correct
off-track errors. See Track Following Servo.
BADBLOCK
CLUSTER
A block that cannot store data because of a media flaw.
The smallest allocatable unit of disk storage allowed by MS-DOS;
each FAT entry represents one cluster.
BIT
An abbreviation for binary digit, of which there are two (0 and 1). A
bit is the basic data unit of most digital computers. A bit is usually
part of a data byte or word, but bits may be used singly to control or
read logic “on-off” functions. The fundamental unit information,
often used loosely to refer to a circuit or magnetization state at a
particular instant in time.
CONTROLLER
An electronic device for connecting one or more mass storage
peripherals (rigid disk drives, tape drives, and optical disk drives) to
the input/output circuits of a host computer. Controllers vary in
complexity, with more sophisticated units able to buffer and
schedule commands, correct data errors, and bypass media defects
without host intervention.
BIOS
Acronym for Basic Input/Output System. The firmware area of a CPU
that controls operations through the system bus and to the
attached cards and peripheral devices.
GL – 1
GLOSSARY
CONTROLLER
DIGITALMAGNETICRECORDING
A miniature CPU dedicated to controlling a peripheral device, such
as a disk drive, tape drive, video display terminal, or printer. The
controller executes commands from the central processing unit and
reissues commands to the peripheral device.
See magnetic recording.
CORRECTABLEERROR
An error that can be overcome by the use of Error Detection and
Correction.
CYLINDER
On several disk surfaces sharing a common rotational axis, the
aggregate of tracks at a given radial position. A set of disk tracks
that are simultaneously under the set of read/write heads. This
three-dimensional storage volume can be accessed after a single
seek.
CYLINDER ZERO
The outermost cylinder in a drive that can be used for data storage.
D
DATA
An ordered collection of information. In a specific case, it is the
information processed by a computer.
DATASEPARATOR
An electronic circuit which decodes playback data and produces
separate clock and data bits. Sometimes incorrectly used to denote
data synchronizer.
DATASYNCHRONIZER
An electronic circuit producing a clock signal that is synchronous
with the incoming data stream. This clock signal is then used to
decode the recording code being used into user data.
DATA TRANSFER RATE
DIRECT ACCESS
Access directly to memory location. (See random access).
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
A mean of data transfer between the device and host memory
without processor intervention.
DIRECTORY
A listing of files maintained by the disk operation system (DOS) or a
data base management system to enable a user to quickly access
data files.
DISK
A flat, circular piece of metal (usually aluminum) or plastic (usually
mylar) with a magnetic coating upon which information can be
recorded. (See, for example, floppy disk or Winchester disk)
DISK DRIVE OR DISK MEMORY DEVICE
The total electromechanical storage device containing disks and
read/write heads, head positioning mechanism, drive motor, and
electronics.
DISKPACK
A number of metal disks packaged in a canister for removal from the
disk drive (predecessor of Winchester technology).
DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS)
The master computer system program that schedules tasks,
allocates the computer system resources, controls accesses to
mass storage devices, manages files, and so forth. Typical disk
operating systems include CP/M, MS-DOS, and UNIX.
DISKSTORAGE
Auxiliary memory system containing disk drives.
In a disk or tape drive, the rate at which data is transferred to or
from the storage media. It is usually given in thousands of bits per
second (Kbit/second) or millions of bits per second (Mbit/second).
DISK TRANSFER RATE
DEDICATEDLANDINGZONE
DOUBLEFREQUENCYENCODING
A designated radial zone on the disk where contact starting and
stopping occur by design.
The rate that digital data is transferred from one point to another.
Expressed in either bits/second or bytes/second.
Another name for FM encoding. This is because all possible data
combinations will result in only two possible temporal displacements
of adjacent data bits, specifically “1F” and 2F.”
DEDICATEDSERVO
A servo scheme in which a prerecorded pattern on an otherwise
unused disk surface provides position information to the servo
circuitry by means of a head reading that surface.
DEFECT
EARLYWINDOW
A magnetic imperfection in a recording surface.
A data window that has been intentionally shifted in time in an early
direction.
DEFECTMANAGEMENT
EMBEDDEDSERVO
A general methodology of avoiding data errors on a recording
surface by avoiding the use of known bad areas of media. Usually
defective sectors or tracks are retired and data are written in
alternate locations. Several algorithms are possible such as “sector
slipping,” or “spare sector per track.”
DEFECTMAP
A list of defects that fall within a pass/fail criteria of a user. This list
is usually used by an operating system or a disk drive controller for
defect management.
DEFECT SKIPPING
A defect management scheme for avoiding surface defects. It has
data written before and after the defect, instead of using alternate
tracks or sectors to avoid use of the defective area.
DENSITY
Generally, recording density. See areal, bit, and storage density.
DCERASE
The method of erasing a track using a DC write/erase current
through either a Read/Write or Erase head.
DIGITAL
Any system that processes digital binary signals (having only values
of a 1 or 0; usually in bits and bytes) rather than analog signals
(signals that can have many values)
GL – 2
E
A servo technique used for track following. Position information is
prerecorded between data areas in a track so that a data head, and
proper additional circuitry, can determine the data head location
with respect to the center position of the track (or cylinder) in
question.
ERASE
A process by which a signal recorded on a medium is removed and
the medium made ready for rerecording.
ERROR CORRECTION CODE (ECC)
A mathematical algorithm that can detect and correct errors in a
data field. This is accomplished with the aid of Check Bits added to
the raw data.
ERROR FREE
A recording surface that has no defects.
ERROR RATE
The number of errors (type must be specified) that occur in a
specified number of bits read.
ERRORRECOVERYPROCEDURE
The process that occurs in response to a data error. In a drive
without ECC, this would include re-calibration and re-seeking to the
specified track and rereading the specified data.
GLOSSARY
EXTRA PULSE
HEAD DISK ASSEMBLY (HDA)
Term used in surface certification. It is when a flux field
discontinuity remains after the recording surface is erased, thereby
producing an electrical output of a read head passing over the area
with the discontinuity. An extra pulse occurs when the electrical
output is larger than a specified threshold.
The mechanical portion of a rigid, fixed disk drive. It usually includes
disks, heads, spindle motor, and actuator.
F
FEEDBACK
In a closed-loop system, the output signal (from the servo head) is
used to modify the input signal (to the positioner).
HEADLOADINGZONE
The non-data area on the disk set aside for the controlled takeoff
and landing of the Winchester heads when the drive is turned on
and off. Dedicated annulus on each disk surface in which heads are
loaded, unloaded, or flying height is established. Head-disk contact
may occur in some instances; no data is recorded in this area.
HEADPOSITIONER
Also known as actuator, a mechanism that moves the arms that carry
read/write heads to the cylinder being accessed.
FETCH
I
A read operation and its related data transfer operations.
FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT)
Allocates space on the disk for files, one cluster at a time; locks out
unusable clusters; identifies unused (free) area; and lists a file’s
location. With two FAT’s present, the second copy ensures
consistency and protects against loss of data if one of the sectors
on the first FAT is damaged.
INDEX
Similar to a directory, but used to establish a physical to logical
cross reference. Used to update the physical disk address (tracks
and sectors) of files and to expedite accesses.
INSIDE DIAMETER
FLUX CHANGES PER INCH
The smallest radial position used for the recording and playback of
flux reversals on a magnetic disk surface.
Synonymous with frpi (flux reversals per inch). Only in MFM recording
does 1 fci equal 1 bpi (bit per inch). In run-length-limited encoding
schemes, generally 1 fci equals 1.5 bpi.
INITIALIZATION
FORMAT
Applying input patterns or instructions to a device so that all
operational parameters are at a known value.
In a disk drive, the arrangement of data on a storage media. A
standard 5.25-inch disk format consists of 17, 26, or 36 sectors per
track, and 512 bytes of data per sector, plus identification, error
correction, and other bytes necessary for accessing and
synchronizing data.
FORMATTEDCAPACITY
The actual capacity available to store data in a mass storage
device. The formatted capacity is the gross capacity, less the
capacity taken up by the overhead data used in formatting the
sectors.
FREQUENCYMODULATION
A recording code. A flux reversal at the beginning of a cell time
represents clock bit; a “1” bit is a flux reversal at the center of the
cell time, and a “0” bit is an absence of a flux reversal.
FREQUENCYRESPONSE
A measure of how effectively a circuit or device transmits the
different frequencies applied to it. In disk and tape drives this refers
to the read/write channel. In disk drives, it can also refer to the
dynamic mechanical characteristics of a positioning system.
G
INPUT
Data entering the computer to be processed; also user commands.
INPUT/OUTPUT (I/O)
The process of entering data into or removing data from a computer
system or a peripheral device.
INTELLIGENT PERIPHERAL
A peripheral device that contains a processor or microprocessor to
enable it to interpret and execute commands.
INTERFACE
The data transmitters, data receivers, logic, and wiring that link one
piece of computer equipment to another, such as a disk drive to a
controller or a controller to a system bus.
INTERFACESTANDARD
The interface specifications agreed to by various manufacturers to
promote industry-wide interchangeability of products such as a disk
drive. Interface standards generally reduce product costs, allows
buyers to purchase from more than one source, and allow faster
market acceptance of new products.
INTERLEAVE
An ordering of physical sectors to be skipped between logical
sectors on your hard disk.
GIGABYTE (GB)
One billion bytes (one thousand megabytes) or 109.
H
HARDERROR
An error that is not able to be overcome by repeated readings and
repositioning means.
I/O PROCESSOR
Intelligent processor or controller that handles the input/output
operations of a computer.
INTERRUPT
A signal, usually from a subsystem to a central processing unit, to
signify that an operation has been completed or cannot be
completed.
HARDSECTORED
A technique where a digital signal indicates the beginning of a
sector on a track. This is contrasted to soft sectoring, where the
controller determines the beginning of a sector by the reading of
format information from the disk.
HEAD
The electromagnetic device that write (records), reads (plays back),
and erases data on a magnetic media. It contains a read core(s)
and/or a write core(s) and/or erase core(s) which is/are used to
produce or receive magnetic flux. Sometimes the term is all inclusive
to mean the carriage assembly which includes the slider and flexure.
HEADCRASH
The inadvertent touching of a disk by a head flying over the disk
(may destroy a portion of the media and/or the head).
J
JUMPER
A small piece of plastic that slides over pairs of pins that protrude
from the circuit board on the hard drive to make an electrical
connection and activate a specific option.
K
KILOBYTE (KB)
A unit of measure of approximately 1,000 bytes. (However, because
computer memory is partitioned into sizes that are a power of two, a
kilobyte is really 1,024 bytes.)
GL – 3
GLOSSARY
L
LANDING ZONE OR LZONE
The cylinder number to where ParkHeads move the read/write heads.
LATE BIT
A bit that is in the late half of the data window.
MODIFIEDMODIFIEDFREQUENCYMODULATION(MMFM)
A recording code similar to MFM that has a longer run length limited
distance.
MODULATION
1. Readback voltage fluctuation usually related to the rotational
period of a disk. 2. A recording code, such as FM, MFM, or RLL, to
translate between flux reversals and bits or bytes.
N
LATEWINDOW
A data window that has been shifted in a late direction to facilitate
data recovery.
NON-RETURN TO ZERO
LATENCY
A delay encountered in a computer when waiting for a specific
response. In a disk drive there is both seek latency and rotational
latency. The time required for the addressed sector to arrive under
the head after the head is positioned over the correct track. It is a
result of the disk’s rotational speed and must be considered in
determining the disk drive’s total access time.
A form of data encoding that is not self-clocking, in other words, it
needs to be provided with an external bit cell clock signal. Generally
used in higher-performance disk drives.
O
OFF-LINE
LOGIC
Electronic circuitry that switches on and off (“1” and “0”) to perform
functions.
processing or peripheral operations performed while disconnected
from the system CPU via the system bus.
LOGICALADDRESS
ON-LINE
A storage location address that may not relate directly to a physical
location. Usually used to request information from a controller,
which performs a logical to physical address conversion, and in turn,
retrieves the data from a physical location in the mass storage
peripheral.
LOGICALBLOCKADDRESSING
Defines the addressing of the device by the linear mapping of
sectors.
LOGICALSECTOR
The lowest unit of space that DOS can access through a device
driver; one or more physical sectors.
processing or peripheral operations performed while disconnected
from the system CPU via the system bus.
OPENLOOPSERVO
A head positioning system that does not use positional information
to verify and correct the radial location of the head relative to the
track. This is usually achieved by use of a stepper motor which has
predetermined stopping point that corresponds to track locations.
OPERATINGSYSTEM
A software program that organizes the actions of the parts of the
computer and its peripheral devices. (See disk operating system.)
OUTSIDEDIAMETER
LOWFREQUENCY
The largest radius recording track on a disk.
The lowest recording frequency used in a particular magnetic
recording device. With FM or MFM channel codes, this frequency is
also called “IF.”
OVERWRITE
A test that measures the residual 1F recorded frequency on a track
after being overwritten by a 2F signal. Variations of the test exist.
M
MAINMEMORY
Random-access memory (RAM) used by the central processing unit
(CPU) for storing program instructions and data currently being
processed by those instructions. (See also random access memory.)
MASSSTORAGE
Auxiliary memory used in conjunctions with main memory; generally
having a large, on-line storage capacity.
MEGABYTE(MB)
A unit of measure approximately one million bytes (actually 1,048,576
bytes) or 106.
P
PARALLELISM
1. The condition of two planes or lines being parallel. Important in
disk drives because a lack of it in mechanical assemblies can result
in positioning inaccuracy. More precisely: planes-coplanar; linescolinear. 2. Is the local variation in disk thickness measured
independently of thickness itself. 3. The ability of a multiprocessor
computer to allocate more than one processor (CPU) to a computing
problem, where each CPU works on a separate problem or separate
segment of that problem. Also referred to as parallel processing.
PARITY
A computer whose central processing unit is a microprocessor. It is
usually, but not necessarily, desktop size.
A simple method of data error detections that always makes numbers
either odd or even, using an extra bit in which the total number of
binary 1s (or 0s) in a byte is always odd or always even; thus, in an
odd parity scheme, every byte has eight bits of data and one parity
bit. If using odd parity and the number of 1 bits comprising the byte
of data is not odd, the ninth or parity bit is set to 1 to create the odd
parity. In this way, a byte of data can be checked for accurate
transmission by simply counting the bits for an odd parity indication.
If the count is ever even, an error is indicated.
MICROPROCESSOR
PARTITION
A central processing unit (CPU) manufactured as a chip or a small
number of chips.
A logical section of a disk drive, each of which becomes a logical
device with a drive letter.
MISSINGPULSE
PEAK SHIFT
A term used in surface certification. It is when a prerecorded signal
is reduced in amplitude by a certain specified percentage.
The shifting in time of the zero-slope portion of a readback voltage
from the values contained in the write current waveform. Sometimes
incorrectly used to describe bit jitter.
MEMORY
Any device or storage system capable of storing and retrieving
information. (See also storage definitions.)
MICROCOMPUTER
MODIFIEDFREQUENCYMODULATION(MFM)
A method of encoding digital data signals for recording on magnetic
media. Also called “three frequency recording.” Recording code
that only uses synchronizing clock pulse if data bits are not present.
Doubles the lineal bit density without increasing the lineal flux
reversal density, compared to Frequency Modulation.
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
Auxiliary memory, displays, printers, and other equipment usually
attached to a computer system’s CPU by controllers and cables.
(They are often packaged together in a desktop computer.)
PHASE LOCKED LOOP (PLL)
A circuit whose output locks onto and tracks the frequency of an
input signal. Sometimes incorrectly called a data separator.
GL – 4
GLOSSARY
PHASEMARGIN
Measure in degrees of the amount of difference between
excursions from the window center where flux reversals can occur
and the edge of the data window. Similar to window margin.
S
SECTOR
The smallest grouping of data on the hard disk; always 512 bytes.
A logical segment of information on a particular track. The smallest
addressable unit of storage on a disk. Tracks are made of sectors.
PIO
SECTOR PULSE SIGNAL
PHYSICAL SECTOR
Programmable Input Output. A means of accessing device registers.
Also describes one form of data transfers. PIO data transfers are
performed by the host processor using PIO register accesses to the
data register.
A digital signal pulse present in hard sectored drives which
indicates the beginning of a sector. Embedded servo pattern or
other prerecorded information may be present on the disk when
sector is active.
SEEK
PLATED THIN FILM MEDIA
Magnetic disk memory media having its surface plated with a thin
coating of a metallic alloy instead of being coated with oxide.
PROCESSING
The process of the computer handling, manipulating and modifying
data such as arithmetic calculation, file lookup and updating, and
word pressing.
A random access operation by the disk drive. The act of moving a set
of read/write heads so that one of them is over the desired cylinder.
The actuator or positioner moves the heads to the cylinder
containing the desired track and sector.
SEEK COMPLETE SIGNAL
A digital signal level which indicates that the positioner is not
moving and is located over a cylinder or offset position.
SEEK TIME
PULSECROWDING
Modification of playback amplitude due to super-positioning of
adjacent flux reversal fields being sensed by the read/write gap.
PULSE DETECT
A digital pulse train in which each leading edge or each edge
corresponds to a magnetic transition read from the disk. If transition
qualification circuitry exists in the drive, this signal is the output of
same. Also known as transition detect.
R
The amount of time between when a step pulse or seek command is
issued until the head settles onto the desired cylinder. Sometimes is
measured without settling times.
SEQUENTIALACCESS
The writing or reading of data in a sequential order such as reading
data blocks stored one after the other on magnetic tape. This is
contrasted to random access of information.
SERVOBURST
A momentary servo pattern used in embedded servo control systems
usually positioned between sectors or at the end of a track.
RANDOMACCESSMEMORY(RAM)
SERVOCONTROL
Memory designed so that any storage location can be accessed
randomly, directly and individually. This is contrasted to sequential
access devices such as tape drives.
A technique by which the speed or position of a moving device is
forced into conformity with a desired or standard speed or position.
READ
To access a storage location and obtain previously recorded data.
To sense the presence of flux reversals on magnetic media. Usually
implemented such that a dynamic flux amplitude will cause a
proportional electrical output from the transducer.
SERVOHEAD
A magnetic head designed specifically for accurately reading servo
data.
SERVO PATTERN
A readback signal that indicates the position of a head relative to a
track.
READGATESIGNAL
A digital input signal which causes the drive circuitry to recover
data.
READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
SERVOSURFACE
A recording surface in a multi-surface disk drive that only contains
control information which provides timing, head position, and trackfollowing information for the data surfaces.
A form of memory which cannot be changed in formal operational
modes. Many different types are available. RAM is used for
permanent information storage. Computer control programs are
often stored in ROM applications.
SERVOSYSTEM
READ/WRITEHEAD
SERVOTRACK
The recording element which writes data to the magnetic media and
reads recorded data from the media.
RE-CALIBRATE
An automatic system for maintaining the read/write head on track;
can be either “open loop,” “quasi-closed loop,” or “closed loop.”
A track on a servo surface. The prerecorded reference track on the
dedicated servo surface of a disk drive. All data track positions are
compared to their corresponding servo track to determine “off
track”/”on track” position.
The action of moving the head of a disk drive to cylinder zero.
RECOVERABLEERROR
SETTLING TIME
The time it takes a head to stop vibrating, within specified limits,
after it reaches the desired cylinder.
A read error, transient or otherwise, falling within the capability of
an ECC mechanism to correct, or able to overcome by rereading the
data in question.
SILICON
ROTATIONALLATENCY
Semiconductor material generally used to manufacture
microprocessors and other integrated circuit chips.
The amount of delay in obtaining information from a disk drive
attributable to the rotation of the disk.
SMALL COMPUTER SYSTEM INTERFACE (SCSI)
RUN-LENGTH LIMITED
An intelligent interface that incorporates controller functions
directly into the drive.
An encoding process that repositions data bits and limits the length
of zero bits in order to compress information being stored on disks.
S.M.A.R.T. CAPABILITY
RUN-LENGTH LIMITED ENCODING
Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology. Prediction of
device degradation and/or faults.
A recording code. Sometimes meant to denote “2.7 RLL” which can
signify 1.5 times the bits as MFM, given the same number of flux
reversals in a given lineal distance.
GL – 5
GLOSSARY
SOFTERROR
UN-CORRECTABLEERROR
A data error which can be overcome by rereading the data or
repositioning the head.
An error that is not able to be overcome with Error Detection and
Correction.
SOFT SECTORED
UNFORMATTEDCAPACITY
A technique where the controller determines the beginning of a
sector by the reading of format information from the disk. This is
contrasted to hard sectoring where a digital signal indicates the
beginning of a sector on a track.
Storage capacity of disk drive prior to formatting; also called the
gross capacity. (See format.) The raw capacity of a drive not taking
into account the capacity loss due to storage of the format control
information on the disk surfaces.
SOFTWARE
UNRECOVERABLEERROR
Applications programs, operating systems, and other programs (as
opposed to hardware).
A read error falling outside the capability of an ECC mechanism to
correct, or not able to be overcome by rereading the data in
question, with or without repositioning the head.
SPINDLE
The rotating hub structure to which the disks are attached.
V
SPINDLEMOTOR
The motor that rotates the spindle and therefore the disks.
SPUTTEREDMEDIA
Magnetic disk or tape that has the magnetic layer deposited by
sputtering means.
VOICE COIL MOTOR
A positioning motor that uses the same principle as a voice coil in a
loudspeaker. The motor has no detent positions. The mechanical
motion output of it can be either rotary or linear.
W
STEPPERMOTOR
A motor that has known detent positions where the rotor will stop
with the proper control in some cases. The digitally controlled motor
moves the head positioner from track to track in small, step-like
motions.
STORAGECAPACITY
The amount of data that can be stored in a memory location, usually
specified in kilobytes for main memory and floppy drives and
megabytes for mass storage devices.
WHITNEYHEAD
A successor to the original Winchester read/write head design. The
primary change was to make the flexure smaller and more rigid. First
used in IBM 3370/3380.
WHITNEYTECHNOLOGY
STORAGE DENSITY
A method of constructing a read/write head in a rigid disk drive
using a Whitney head. In all other details it is the same as
Winchester technology.
Usually refers to recording density (BPI, TPI, or a combination of the
two.)
WINCHESTERHEAD
A memory location, identified by an address where information may
be read or written.
The read/write head used in Winchester technology, non-removable
media disk drives. May be either a monolithic or composite type. It is
aerodynamically designed to fly within microinches of the disk
surface.
STROBE OFFSET SIGNAL
WINCHESTERTECHNOLOGY
A group of digital input signal levels which cause the read PLL and/
or data decoder to shift the decoding windows by fractional
amounts. Often early/late are modified when two signals are used.
A method of constructing a rigid disk drive using concepts
introduced in the IBM model 3340 disk drive. The primary changes
from prior technology was to lower the mass of the slider, use of a
monolithic slider, radically changing the design of the flexure and
having the slider come to rest on a lubricated disk surface when disk
rotation ceases. In addition to the above, a totally sealed chamber
containing the read/write heads and disks was used to protect
against contamination.
STORAGELOCATION
T
THIN-FILMHEAD
A magnetic transducer manufactured by deposition of magnetic and
electrical materials on a base material contrasted with prior art
mechanical methods. Read/write heads whose read/write element is
deposited using integrated circuit techniques rather than being
manually wound.
The amount of tolerance a read/write system has for transition jitter
at a specified error rate level.
WORD
See plated thin film media.
A number of bits, typically a multiple of eight, processed in parallel
(in a single operation). Standard word lengths are 8, 16, 32 and 64
bits (1, 2, 4, or 8 bytes).
TRACK
WRITE
One surface of a cylinder. A path which contains reproducible
information left on a magnetic medium by recording means
energized from a single channel.
The recording of flux reversals on a magnetic media.
WRITEPRE-COMPENSATION
TRACK-FOLLOWINGSERVO
The intentional time shifting of write data to offset the effects of bit
shift in magnetic recording.
A closed-loop positioner control system that continuously corrects
the position of the disk drive’s heads by utilizing a reference track
and a feedback loop in the head positioning system. (See also
closed loop.)
WRITE GATE SIGNAL
THIN-FILM MEDIA
TRACKS PER INCH (TPI)
A measurement of radial density. Tracks per inch of disk radius.
TRACK POSITIONING
The method, both mechanical and electrical, used to position the
heads over the correct cylinder in a disk drive system.
U
GL – 6
WINDOWMARGIN
A digital input signal level which causes the drive circuitry to record
(write) data.