ZyXEL Communications PRESTIGE 335 User`s guide

Prestige 661H Series
ADSL 2+ Security Gateway
Prestige 661HW Series
802.11g Wireless ADSL 2+ Gateway
User’s Guide
Version 3.40
12/2005
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Copyright
2
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) Interference
Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice 1
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
Certifications
Go to www.zyxel.com
1 Select your product from the drop-down list box on the ZyXEL home page to go to that
product's page.
2 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
3
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger
telecommunication line cord.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel can
service the device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Use ONLY the dedicated power supply for your device. Connect the power cord or
power adaptor to the right supply voltage (110V AC in North America or 230V AC in
Europe).
• Do NOT use the device if the power supply is damaged as it might cause electrocution.
• If the power supply is damaged, remove it from the power outlet.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power supply. Contact your local vendor to order a new
power supply.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power cord and do NOT locate the product where
anyone can walk on the power cord.
• If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical, gas or water pipes will be
damaged.
• Do NOT install nor use your device during a thunderstorm. There may be a remote risk of
electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Safety Warnings
4
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not
apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or
subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind of character to the
purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information
at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
5
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
METHOD SUPPORT E-MAIL
TELEPHONEA
WEB SITE
FAX
FTP SITE
REGULAR MAIL
LOCATION
CORPORATE
HEADQUARTERS
(WORLDWIDE)
CZECH REPUBLIC
DENMARK
FINLAND
SALES E-MAIL
support@zyxel.com.tw +886-3-578-3942
sales@zyxel.com.tw
info@cz.zyxel.com
+420-241-091-350
info@cz.zyxel.com
+420-241-091-359
support@zyxel.dk
+45-39-55-07-00
sales@zyxel.dk
+45-39-55-07-07
support@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780-8411
sales@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780 8448
info@zyxel.fr
+33-4-72-52-97-97
HUNGARY
KAZAKHSTAN
Customer Support
ZyXEL Communications
Czech s.r.o.
Modranská 621
143 01 Praha 4 - Modrany
Ceská Republika
www.zyxel.dk
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Columbusvej
2860 Soeborg
Denmark
www.zyxel.fi
ZyXEL Communications Oy
Malminkaari 10
00700 Helsinki
Finland
www.zyxel.fr
ZyXEL France
1 rue des Vergers
Bat. 1 / C
69760 Limonest
France
www.zyxel.de
ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH.
Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146
Wuerselen
Germany
www.zyxel.hu
ZyXEL Hungary
48, Zoldlomb Str.
H-1025, Budapest
Hungary
www.zyxel.kz
ZyXEL Kazakhstan
43, Dostyk ave.,Office 414
Dostyk Business Centre
050010, Almaty
Republic of Kazakhstan
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller St.
Anaheim
CA 92806-2001
U.S.A.
support@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-0
sales@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-99
support@zyxel.hu
+36-1-3361649
info@zyxel.hu
+36-1-3259100
http://zyxel.kz/support
+7-3272-590-698
sales@zyxel.kz
+7-3272-590-689
support@zyxel.com
1-800-255-4101
+1-714-632-0882
www.us.zyxel.com
sales@zyxel.com
+1-714-632-0858
ftp.us.zyxel.com
support@zyxel.no
+47-22-80-61-80
www.zyxel.no
sales@zyxel.no
+47-22-80-61-81
NORTH AMERICA
NORWAY
www.zyxel.cz
+33-4-72-52-19-20
FRANCE
GERMANY
+886-3-578-2439
www.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications Corp.
www.europe.zyxel.com 6 Innovation Road II
Science Park
ftp.zyxel.com
Hsinchu 300
Taiwan
ftp.europe.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Nils Hansens vei 13
0667 Oslo
Norway
6
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
TELEPHONEA
WEB SITE
SALES E-MAIL
FAX
FTP SITE
info@pl.zyxel.com
+48-22-5286603
www.pl.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications
ul.Emilli Plater 53
00-113 Warszawa
Poland
www.zyxel.ru
ZyXEL Russia
Ostrovityanova 37a Str.
Moscow, 117279
Russia
www.zyxel.es
ZyXEL Communications
Alejandro Villegas 33
1º, 28043 Madrid
Spain
www.zyxel.se
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg
Sweden
www.ua.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Ukraine
13, Pimonenko Str.
Kiev, 04050
Ukraine
ZyXEL Communications UK
Ltd.,11 The Courtyard,
Eastern Road, Bracknell,
Berkshire, RG12 2XB,
United Kingdom (UK)
METHOD SUPPORT E-MAIL
REGULAR MAIL
LOCATION
POLAND
RUSSIA
SPAIN
SWEDEN
+48-22-5206701
http://zyxel.ru/support
+7-095-542-89-29
sales@zyxel.ru
+7-095-542-89-25
support@zyxel.es
+34-902-195-420
sales@zyxel.es
+34-913-005-345
support@zyxel.se
+46-31-744-7700
sales@zyxel.se
+46-31-744-7701
support@ua.zyxel.com +380-44-247-69-78
UKRAINE
sales@ua.zyxel.com
+380-44-494-49-32
support@zyxel.co.uk
+44-1344 303044
08707 555779 (UK only)
www.zyxel.co.uk
sales@zyxel.co.uk
+44-1344 303034
ftp.zyxel.co.uk
UNITED KINGDOM
a. “+” is the (prefix) number you enter to make an international telephone call.
7
Customer Support
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Copyright .................................................................................................................. 2
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement ............... 3
Safety Warnings ....................................................................................................... 4
ZyXEL Limited Warranty.......................................................................................... 5
Customer Support.................................................................................................... 6
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... 8
List of Figures ........................................................................................................ 24
List of Tables .......................................................................................................... 32
Preface .................................................................................................................... 38
Introduction to DSL................................................................................................ 40
Chapter 1
Getting To Know Your Prestige............................................................................. 42
1.1 Introducing the Prestige .....................................................................................42
1.1.1 Features of the Prestige ...........................................................................43
1.1.1.1 P-661HW Wireless Features ...........................................................46
1.1.2 Applications for the Prestige .....................................................................47
1.1.2.1 Protected Internet Access ...............................................................47
1.1.2.2 LAN to LAN Application ...................................................................48
1.1.3 Front Panel LEDs .....................................................................................49
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator........................................................................ 52
2.1 Web Configurator Overview ...............................................................................52
2.1.1 Accessing the Prestige Web Configurator ................................................52
2.1.2 Resetting the Prestige ..............................................................................53
2.1.2.1 Using the Reset Button ...................................................................53
2.1.3 Navigating the Prestige Web Configurator ...............................................54
Chapter 3
Wizard Setup for Internet Access ......................................................................... 58
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................58
3.1.1 Internet Access Wizard Setup ..................................................................58
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 4
Wizard Setup for Media Bandwidth Management ............................................... 68
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................68
4.1.1 Predefined Media Bandwidth Management Services ...............................68
4.2 Media Bandwidth Management Setup ...............................................................69
Chapter 5
LAN Setup............................................................................................................... 72
5.1 LAN Overview ....................................................................................................72
5.1.1 LANs, WANs and the Prestige ..................................................................72
5.1.2 DHCP Setup .............................................................................................72
5.1.2.1 IP Pool Setup ..................................................................................73
5.1.3 DNS Server Address ................................................................................73
5.1.4 DNS Server Address Assignment .............................................................73
5.2 LAN TCP/IP ........................................................................................................74
5.2.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask ...................................................................74
5.2.1.1 Private IP Addresses .......................................................................74
5.2.2 RIP Setup .................................................................................................75
5.2.3 Multicast ....................................................................................................75
5.2.4 Any IP .......................................................................................................76
5.2.4.1 How Any IP Works ..........................................................................77
5.2.5 Configuring LAN .......................................................................................77
5.3 Configuring Static DHCP ....................................................................................79
Chapter 6
Wireless LAN (Prestige 661HW)............................................................................ 82
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................82
6.2 Wireless Security Overview ...............................................................................82
6.2.1 Encryption .................................................................................................82
6.2.2 Authentication ...........................................................................................82
6.2.3 Restricted Access .....................................................................................83
6.2.4 Hide Prestige Identity ................................................................................83
6.2.5 Configuring Wireless LAN on the Prestige ...............................................83
6.3 Configuring the Wireless Screen ........................................................................84
6.3.1 WEP Encryption ........................................................................................84
6.3.2 Wireless g+ ...............................................................................................84
6.4 Configuring MAC Filters .....................................................................................87
6.5 Introduction to WPA ...........................................................................................88
6.5.1 WPA-PSK Application Example ................................................................88
6.5.2 WPA with RADIUS Application Example ..................................................89
6.5.3 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants ............................................................90
6.6 Configuring IEEE 802.1x and WPA ....................................................................90
6.6.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x ...............................................................91
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
6.6.2 Authentication Required: WPA .................................................................93
6.6.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK .........................................................95
6.7 Configuring Local User Authentication ...............................................................96
6.8 Configuring RADIUS ..........................................................................................97
6.9 Introduction to OTIST .........................................................................................98
6.9.1 Enabling OTIST ........................................................................................98
6.9.1.1 AP ...................................................................................................98
6.9.1.2 Wireless Client ..............................................................................100
6.9.2 Starting OTIST ........................................................................................100
6.9.3 Notes on OTIST ......................................................................................101
Chapter 7
WAN Setup............................................................................................................ 102
7.1 WAN Overview .................................................................................................102
7.1.1 Encapsulation .........................................................................................102
7.1.1.1 ENET ENCAP ...............................................................................102
7.1.1.2 PPP over Ethernet ........................................................................102
7.1.1.3 PPPoA ...........................................................................................102
7.1.1.4 RFC 1483 ......................................................................................103
7.1.2 Multiplexing .............................................................................................103
7.1.2.1 VC-based Multiplexing ..................................................................103
7.1.2.2 LLC-based Multiplexing .................................................................103
7.1.3 VPI and VCI ............................................................................................103
7.1.4 IP Address Assignment ..........................................................................103
7.1.4.1 IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation ...................103
7.1.4.2 IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation ...............................104
7.1.4.3 IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation ........................104
7.1.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP) ..................................................................104
7.1.6 NAT .........................................................................................................104
7.2 Metric ..............................................................................................................104
7.3 PPPoE Encapsulation ......................................................................................105
7.4 Traffic Shaping .................................................................................................105
7.5 Zero Configuration Internet Access ..................................................................106
7.6 Configuring WAN Setup ...................................................................................107
7.7 Traffic Redirect ................................................................................................110
7.8 Configuring WAN Backup ................................................................................. 111
Chapter 8
Network Address Translation (NAT) Screens .................................................... 114
8.1 NAT Overview ..................................................................................................114
8.1.1 NAT Definitions .......................................................................................114
8.1.2 What NAT Does ......................................................................................115
8.1.3 How NAT Works .....................................................................................115
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
8.1.4 NAT Application ......................................................................................116
8.1.5 NAT Mapping Types ...............................................................................117
8.2 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT ..........................................................118
8.3 SUA Server ......................................................................................................118
8.3.1 Default Server IP Address ......................................................................118
8.3.2 Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers ........................................118
8.3.3 Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example) ..........................................119
8.4 Selecting the NAT Mode ..................................................................................119
8.5 Configuring SUA Server ...................................................................................120
8.6 Configuring Address Mapping ..........................................................................122
8.7 Editing an Address Mapping Rule ....................................................................123
Chapter 9
Dynamic DNS Setup............................................................................................. 126
9.1 Dynamic DNS ...................................................................................................126
9.1.1 DYNDNS Wildcard ..................................................................................126
9.2 Configuring Dynamic DNS ...............................................................................126
Chapter 10
Time and Date....................................................................................................... 128
10.1 Configuring Time and Date ............................................................................128
Chapter 11
Firewalls................................................................................................................ 130
11.1 Firewall Overview ...........................................................................................130
11.2 Types of Firewalls ...........................................................................................130
11.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls ......................................................................130
11.2.2 Application-level Firewalls .....................................................................130
11.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls ................................................................131
11.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall .....................................................................131
11.3.1 Denial of Service Attacks ......................................................................132
11.4 Denial of Service ............................................................................................132
11.4.1 Basics ...................................................................................................132
11.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks ............................................................................133
11.4.2.1 ICMP Vulnerability ......................................................................135
11.4.2.2 Illegal Commands (NetBIOS and SMTP) ....................................135
11.4.2.3 Traceroute ...................................................................................136
11.5 Stateful Inspection ..........................................................................................136
11.5.1 Stateful Inspection Process ...................................................................137
11.5.2 Stateful Inspection and the Prestige .....................................................138
11.5.3 TCP Security .........................................................................................138
11.5.4 UDP/ICMP Security ..............................................................................139
11.5.5 Upper Layer Protocols ..........................................................................139
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11.6 Guidelines for Enhancing Security with Your Firewall ....................................139
11.6.1 Security In General ...............................................................................140
11.7 Packet Filtering Vs Firewall ............................................................................141
11.7.1 Packet Filtering: ....................................................................................141
11.7.1.1 When To Use Filtering .................................................................141
11.7.2 Firewall ..................................................................................................141
11.7.2.1 When To Use The Firewall ..........................................................141
Chapter 12
Firewall Configuration ......................................................................................... 144
12.1 Access Methods .............................................................................................144
12.2 Firewall Policies Overview .............................................................................144
12.3 Rule Logic Overview ......................................................................................145
12.3.1 Rule Checklist .......................................................................................145
12.3.2 Security Ramifications ..........................................................................145
12.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules .........................................................146
12.3.3.1 Action ..........................................................................................146
12.3.3.2 Service ........................................................................................146
12.3.3.3 Source Address ...........................................................................146
12.3.3.4 Destination Address ....................................................................146
12.4 Connection Direction ......................................................................................146
12.4.1 LAN to WAN Rules ...............................................................................146
12.4.2 Alerts .....................................................................................................147
12.5 Configuring Basic Firewall Settings ................................................................147
12.6 Rule Summary ...............................................................................................148
12.6.1 Configuring Firewall Rules ....................................................................150
12.7 Customized Services .....................................................................................153
12.8 Creating/Editing A Customized Service .........................................................153
12.9 Example Firewall Rule ...................................................................................154
12.10 Predefined Services .....................................................................................158
12.11 Anti-Probing ..................................................................................................160
12.12 DoS Thresholds ...........................................................................................161
12.12.1 Threshold Values ................................................................................162
12.12.2 Half-Open Sessions ............................................................................162
12.12.2.1 TCP Maximum Incomplete and Blocking Time .........................162
Chapter 13
Content Filtering .................................................................................................. 166
13.1 Content Filtering Overview .............................................................................166
13.2 Configuring Keyword Blocking .......................................................................166
13.3 Configuring the Schedule ..............................................................................167
13.4 Configuring Trusted Computers .....................................................................168
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 14
Introduction to IPSec ........................................................................................... 170
14.1 VPN Overview ................................................................................................170
14.1.1 IPSec ....................................................................................................170
14.1.2 Security Association .............................................................................170
14.1.3 Other Terminology ................................................................................170
14.1.3.1 Encryption ...................................................................................170
14.1.3.2 Data Confidentiality .....................................................................171
14.1.3.3 Data Integrity ...............................................................................171
14.1.3.4 Data Origin Authentication ..........................................................171
14.1.4 VPN Applications ..................................................................................171
14.2 IPSec Architecture .........................................................................................171
14.2.1 IPSec Algorithms ..................................................................................172
14.2.2 Key Management ..................................................................................172
14.3 Encapsulation .................................................................................................172
14.3.1 Transport Mode ....................................................................................173
14.3.2 Tunnel Mode ........................................................................................173
14.4 IPSec and NAT ...............................................................................................173
Chapter 15
VPN Screens......................................................................................................... 176
15.1 VPN/IPSec Overview .....................................................................................176
15.2 IPSec Algorithms ............................................................................................176
15.2.1 AH (Authentication Header) Protocol ....................................................176
15.2.2 ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol ..................................177
15.3 My IP Address ................................................................................................177
15.4 Secure Gateway Address ..............................................................................178
15.4.1 Dynamic Secure Gateway Address ......................................................178
15.5 VPN Summary Screen ...................................................................................178
15.6 Keep Alive ......................................................................................................180
15.7 Remote DNS Server ......................................................................................180
15.8 ID Type and Content ......................................................................................181
15.8.1 ID Type and Content Examples ............................................................182
15.9 Pre-Shared Key ..............................................................................................183
15.10 Editing VPN Policies ....................................................................................183
15.11 IKE Phases ..................................................................................................188
15.11.1 Negotiation Mode ................................................................................189
15.11.2 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups .........................................................189
15.11.3 Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) .........................................................190
15.12 Configuring Advanced IKE Settings .............................................................190
15.13 Manual Key Setup ........................................................................................193
15.13.1 Security Parameter Index (SPI) .........................................................193
15.14 Configuring Manual Key ...............................................................................194
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15.15 Viewing SA Monitor ......................................................................................197
15.16 Configuring Global Setting ...........................................................................198
15.17 Telecommuter VPN/IPSec Examples ...........................................................199
15.17.1 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example ..............................199
15.17.2 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example ...........................200
15.18 VPN and Remote Management ...................................................................202
Chapter 16
Remote Management Configuration .................................................................. 204
16.1 Remote Management Overview .....................................................................204
16.1.1 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................204
16.1.2 Remote Management and NAT ............................................................205
16.1.3 System Timeout ...................................................................................205
16.2 Telnet ..............................................................................................................205
16.3 FTP ................................................................................................................205
16.4 Web ................................................................................................................206
16.5 Configuring Remote Management .................................................................206
Chapter 17
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP) ......................................................................... 208
17.1 Introducing Universal Plug and Play ..............................................................208
17.1.1 How do I know if I'm using UPnP? ........................................................208
17.1.2 NAT Traversal .......................................................................................208
17.1.3 Cautions with UPnP ..............................................................................208
17.2 UPnP and ZyXEL ...........................................................................................209
17.2.1 Configuring UPnP .................................................................................209
17.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example ............................................................210
17.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ...........................................................214
Chapter 18
Logs Screens........................................................................................................ 222
18.1 Logs Overview ...............................................................................................222
18.1.1 Alerts and Logs .....................................................................................222
18.2 Configuring Log Settings ................................................................................222
18.3 Displaying the Logs ........................................................................................224
18.4 SMTP Error Messages ...................................................................................225
18.4.1 Example E-mail Log ..............................................................................226
Chapter 19
Media Bandwidth Management Advanced Setup.............................................. 228
19.1 Bandwidth Management Advanced Setup Overview .....................................228
19.2 Bandwidth Classes and Filters .......................................................................228
19.3 Proportional Bandwidth Allocation .................................................................229
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
19.4 Bandwidth Management Usage Examples ....................................................229
19.4.1 Application-based Bandwidth Management Example ..........................229
19.4.2 Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example .................................229
19.4.3 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example .......230
19.5 Scheduler .......................................................................................................231
19.5.1 Priority-based Scheduler ......................................................................231
19.5.2 Fairness-based Scheduler ....................................................................231
19.6 Maximize Bandwidth Usage ...........................................................................231
19.6.1 Reserving Bandwidth for Non-Bandwidth Class Traffic ........................231
19.6.2 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example ..................................................232
19.7 Bandwidth Borrowing .....................................................................................233
19.7.1 Maximize Bandwidth Usage With Bandwidth Borrowing ......................233
19.8 Configuring Summary ....................................................................................234
19.9 Configuring Class Setup ................................................................................235
19.9.1 Media Bandwidth Management Class Configuration ............................236
19.9.2 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics .............................................239
19.10 Bandwidth Monitor ......................................................................................240
Chapter 20
Trend Micro Security Services............................................................................ 242
20.1 Trend Micro Security Services Overview .......................................................242
20.1.1 TMSS Web Page ..................................................................................242
20.2 Configuring TMSS on the Prestige .................................................................245
20.2.1 TMSS Service Settings .........................................................................246
20.3 Configuring Virus Protection ..........................................................................247
20.4 Parental Controls Configuration .....................................................................249
20.4.1 Parental Controls Statistics ...................................................................252
Chapter 21
Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 254
21.1 Maintenance Overview ...................................................................................254
21.2 System Status Screen ....................................................................................254
21.2.1 System Statistics ...................................................................................256
21.3 DHCP Table Screen .......................................................................................258
21.4 Any IP Table Screen .......................................................................................259
21.5 Wireless Screen .............................................................................................259
21.5.1 Association List .....................................................................................259
21.6 Diagnostic Screens ........................................................................................260
21.6.1 Diagnostic General Screen ...................................................................260
21.6.2 Diagnostic DSL Line Screen .................................................................261
21.7 Firmware Screen ............................................................................................263
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Chapter 22
Introducing the SMT ............................................................................................ 266
22.1 SMT Introduction ............................................................................................266
22.1.1 Procedure for SMT Configuration via Telnet .........................................266
22.1.2 Entering Password ................................................................................266
22.1.3 Prestige SMT Menus Overview ............................................................267
22.2 Navigating the SMT Interface .........................................................................268
22.2.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary ..............................270
22.3 Changing the System Password ....................................................................270
Chapter 23
Menu 1 General Setup ......................................................................................... 272
23.1 General Setup ................................................................................................272
23.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1 ....................................................................272
23.2.1 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS .................................................273
Chapter 24
Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ................................................................................ 276
24.1 Introduction to WAN Backup Setup ................................................................276
24.2 Configuring WAN Backup in Menu 2 ..............................................................276
24.2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup ...........................................................................277
Chapter 25
Menu 3 LAN Setup ............................................................................................... 280
25.1 LAN Setup ......................................................................................................280
25.1.1 General Ethernet Setup ........................................................................280
25.2 Protocol Dependent Ethernet Setup ..............................................................281
25.3 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup and DHCP ................................................................281
Chapter 26
Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................................................. 284
26.1 Wireless LAN Overview .................................................................................284
26.2 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................................284
26.2.1 Wireless LAN MAC Address Filter ........................................................285
Chapter 27
Internet Access .................................................................................................... 288
27.1 Internet Access Overview ..............................................................................288
27.2 IP Policies ......................................................................................................288
27.3 IP Alias ...........................................................................................................288
27.4 IP Alias Setup .................................................................................................289
27.5 Route IP Setup ...............................................................................................290
27.6 Internet Access Configuration ........................................................................291
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Chapter 28
Remote Node Configuration ............................................................................... 294
28.1 Remote Node Setup Overview .......................................................................294
28.2 Remote Node Setup .......................................................................................294
28.2.1 Remote Node Profile ............................................................................294
28.2.2 Encapsulation and Multiplexing Scenarios ...........................................295
28.2.2.1 Scenario 1: One VC, Multiple Protocols ......................................295
28.2.2.2 Scenario 2: One VC, One Protocol (IP) ......................................295
28.2.2.3 Scenario 3: Multiple VCs .............................................................295
28.2.3 Outgoing Authentication Protocol .........................................................297
28.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ...........................................................298
28.3.1 My WAN Addr Sample IP Addresses ...................................................299
28.4 Remote Node Filter ........................................................................................300
28.5 Editing ATM Layer Options ............................................................................301
28.5.1 VC-based Multiplexing (non-PPP Encapsulation) ................................301
28.5.2 LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation ....................................301
28.5.3 Advance Setup Options ........................................................................302
Chapter 29
Static Route Setup ............................................................................................... 304
29.1 IP Static Route Overview ...............................................................................304
29.2 Configuration ..................................................................................................304
Chapter 30
Bridging Setup ..................................................................................................... 308
30.1 Bridging in General ........................................................................................308
30.2 Bridge Ethernet Setup ....................................................................................308
30.2.1 Remote Node Bridging Setup ...............................................................308
30.2.2 Bridge Static Route Setup .....................................................................310
Chapter 31
Network Address Translation (NAT) ................................................................... 312
31.1 Using NAT ......................................................................................................312
31.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT ..............................................312
31.2 Applying NAT .................................................................................................312
31.3 NAT Setup ......................................................................................................314
31.3.1 Address Mapping Sets ..........................................................................314
31.3.1.1 SUA Address Mapping Set .........................................................315
31.3.1.2 User-Defined Address Mapping Sets ..........................................316
31.3.1.3 Ordering Your Rules ....................................................................317
31.4 Configuring a Server behind NAT ..................................................................318
31.5 General NAT Examples ..................................................................................319
31.5.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only ..........................................................320
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31.5.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server ...............................320
31.5.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers .............321
31.5.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs ...............................325
Chapter 32
Enabling the Firewall ........................................................................................... 328
32.1 Remote Management and the Firewall ..........................................................328
32.2 Access Methods .............................................................................................328
32.3 Enabling the Firewall ......................................................................................328
Chapter 33
Filter Configuration .............................................................................................. 330
33.1 About Filtering ................................................................................................330
33.1.1 The Filter Structure of the Prestige .......................................................331
33.2 Configuring a Filter Set for the Prestige .........................................................332
33.3 Filter Rules Summary Menus .........................................................................333
33.4 Configuring a Filter Rule ................................................................................334
33.4.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule .................................................................................335
33.4.2 Generic Filter Rule ................................................................................337
33.5 Filter Types and NAT .....................................................................................339
33.6 Example Filter ................................................................................................339
33.7 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults ............................................................341
33.7.1 Ethernet Traffic .....................................................................................342
33.7.2 Remote Node Filters .............................................................................342
Chapter 34
SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................ 344
34.1 About SNMP ..................................................................................................344
34.2 Supported MIBs ............................................................................................345
34.3 SNMP Configuration ......................................................................................345
34.4 SNMP Traps ...................................................................................................346
Chapter 35
System Security ................................................................................................... 348
35.1 System Security .............................................................................................348
35.1.1 System Password .................................................................................348
35.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server ...................................................348
35.1.3 IEEE 802.1x ..........................................................................................350
35.2 Creating User Accounts on the Prestige ........................................................352
Chapter 36
System Information and Diagnosis .................................................................... 354
36.1 Overview ........................................................................................................354
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36.2 System Status ................................................................................................354
36.3 System Information ........................................................................................356
36.3.1 System Information ...............................................................................356
36.3.2 Console Port Speed ..............................................................................357
36.4 Log and Trace ................................................................................................358
36.4.1 Viewing Error Log .................................................................................358
36.4.2 Syslog and Accounting .........................................................................359
36.5 Diagnostic ......................................................................................................361
Chapter 37
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance ................................................. 364
37.1 Filename Conventions ...................................................................................364
37.2 Backup Configuration .....................................................................................365
37.2.1 Backup Configuration ...........................................................................365
37.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line ..............................366
37.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line .........................366
37.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients .........................................................................367
37.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations .............................367
37.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP .......................................................368
37.2.7 TFTP Command Example ....................................................................368
37.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients ......................................................................368
37.3 Restore Configuration ....................................................................................369
37.3.1 Restore Using FTP ...............................................................................369
37.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example ..................................................370
37.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files .................................................371
37.4.1 Firmware File Upload ............................................................................371
37.4.2 Configuration File Upload .....................................................................371
37.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example ................372
37.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload ...................................373
37.4.5 TFTP File Upload ..................................................................................373
37.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example ........................................................374
Chapter 38
System Maintenance............................................................................................ 376
38.1 Command Interpreter Mode ...........................................................................376
38.2 Call Control Support .......................................................................................377
38.2.1 Budget Management ............................................................................377
38.3 Time and Date Setting ....................................................................................378
38.3.1 Resetting the Time ................................................................................380
Chapter 39
Remote Management ........................................................................................... 382
39.1 Remote Management Overview .....................................................................382
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39.2 Remote Management .....................................................................................382
39.2.1 Remote Management Setup .................................................................382
39.2.2 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................383
39.3 Remote Management and NAT ......................................................................384
39.4 System Timeout .............................................................................................384
Chapter 40
IP Policy Routing.................................................................................................. 386
40.1 IP Policy Routing Overview ............................................................................386
40.2 Benefits of IP Policy Routing ..........................................................................386
40.3 Routing Policy ................................................................................................386
40.4 IP Routing Policy Setup .................................................................................387
40.5 Applying an IP Policy .....................................................................................390
40.5.1 Ethernet IP Policies ..............................................................................390
40.6 IP Policy Routing Example .............................................................................391
Chapter 41
Call Scheduling .................................................................................................... 396
41.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................396
Chapter 42
VPN/IPSec Setup .................................................................................................. 400
42.1 VPN/IPSec Overview .....................................................................................400
42.2 IPSec Summary Screen .................................................................................400
42.3 IPSec Setup ...................................................................................................403
42.4 IKE Setup .......................................................................................................406
42.5 Manual Setup .................................................................................................408
42.5.1 Active Protocol ......................................................................................408
42.5.2 Security Parameter Index (SPI) ............................................................408
Chapter 43
SA Monitor ............................................................................................................ 412
43.1 SA Monitor Overview .....................................................................................412
43.2 Using SA Monitor ...........................................................................................412
Chapter 44
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................... 416
44.1 Problems Starting Up the Prestige .................................................................416
44.2 Problems with the LAN ...................................................................................416
44.3 Problems with the WAN .................................................................................417
44.4 Problems Accessing the Prestige ..................................................................418
44.4.1 Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ..........................418
44.4.1.1 Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers ..............................................418
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44.4.1.2 JavaScripts ..................................................................................421
44.4.1.3 Java Permissions ........................................................................423
44.4.2 ActiveX Controls in Internet Explorer ....................................................425
Appendix A
Product Specifications ....................................................................................... 428
Appendix B
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 432
Windows 95/98/Me................................................................................................. 432
Installing Components ..................................................................................... 433
Configuring ...................................................................................................... 434
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 435
Windows 2000/NT/XP ............................................................................................ 435
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 440
Macintosh OS 8/9................................................................................................... 440
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 442
Macintosh OS X ..................................................................................................... 442
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 443
Appendix C
IP Subnetting ........................................................................................................ 444
IP Addressing......................................................................................................... 444
IP Classes .............................................................................................................. 444
Subnet Masks ........................................................................................................ 445
Subnetting .............................................................................................................. 445
Example: Two Subnets .......................................................................................... 446
Example: Four Subnets.......................................................................................... 448
Example Eight Subnets .......................................................................................... 449
Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks. ................................................... 450
Appendix D
Boot Commands .................................................................................................. 452
Appendix E
Command Interpreter........................................................................................... 454
Command Syntax................................................................................................... 454
Command Usage ................................................................................................... 454
Appendix F
Firewall Commands ............................................................................................. 456
Appendix G
NetBIOS Filter Commands .................................................................................. 462
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Introduction ............................................................................................................ 462
Display NetBIOS Filter Settings ............................................................................. 462
NetBIOS Filter Configuration.................................................................................. 463
Appendix H
VPN Setup............................................................................................................. 466
General Notes ........................................................................................................ 466
Dynamic IPSec Rule........................................................................................ 466
Full Feature NAT Mode.................................................................................... 466
VPN Configuration via Web Configurator............................................................... 467
Dialing the VPN Tunnel via Web Configurator................................................. 469
VPN Configuration via SMT ................................................................................... 471
Dialing the VPN Tunnel via SMT ..................................................................... 474
VPN Troubleshooting ............................................................................................. 474
VPN Log .......................................................................................................... 475
IPSec Debug.................................................................................................... 476
Use a VPN Tunnel.................................................................................................. 476
FTP Example ................................................................................................... 477
Appendix I
Splitters and Microfilters ..................................................................................... 480
Connecting a POTS Splitter ................................................................................... 480
Telephone Microfilters ............................................................................................ 480
Prestige With ISDN ................................................................................................ 481
Appendix J
PPPoE ................................................................................................................... 484
PPPoE in Action..................................................................................................... 484
Benefits of PPPoE.................................................................................................. 484
Traditional Dial-up Scenario ................................................................................... 484
How PPPoE Works ................................................................................................ 485
Prestige as a PPPoE Client ................................................................................... 485
Appendix K
Log Descriptions.................................................................................................. 486
Log Commands...................................................................................................... 500
Configuring What You Want the Prestige to Log ............................................. 500
Displaying Logs ............................................................................................... 501
Log Command Example......................................................................................... 501
Appendix L
Wireless LANs ...................................................................................................... 502
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Wireless LAN Topologies ....................................................................................... 502
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration ................................................................ 502
BSS.................................................................................................................. 502
ESS.................................................................................................................. 503
Channel.................................................................................................................. 504
RTS/CTS ................................................................................................................ 504
Fragmentation Threshold ....................................................................................... 505
Preamble Type ....................................................................................................... 506
IEEE 802.1x ........................................................................................................... 507
RADIUS.................................................................................................................. 507
Types of RADIUS Messages ........................................................................... 507
Types of Authentication.......................................................................................... 508
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5) ........................................................ 508
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security) ............................................................... 509
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service) .............................................. 509
PEAP (Protected EAP) .................................................................................... 509
LEAP................................................................................................................ 509
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange ......................................................................... 509
WPA ....................................................................................................................... 510
User Authentication ........................................................................................ 510
Encryption ....................................................................................................... 510
Security Parameters Summary .............................................................................. 511
Appendix M
Internal SPTGEN .................................................................................................. 512
Internal SPTGEN Overview ................................................................................... 512
The Configuration Text File Format........................................................................ 512
Internal SPTGEN File Modification - Important Points to Remember .............. 512
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example............................................................ 513
Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example ................................................................ 514
Command Examples.............................................................................................. 535
Index...................................................................................................................... 538
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List of Figures
Figure 1 Protected Internet Access Applications ................................................................ 48
Figure 2 P-661HW LAN-to-LAN Application Example ........................................................ 49
Figure 3 P-661H Front Panel .............................................................................................. 49
Figure 4 P-661HW Front Panel ........................................................................................... 49
Figure 5 Password Screen .................................................................................................. 53
Figure 6 Change Password at Login ................................................................................... 53
Figure 7 Web Configurator: P-661HW Site Map Screen ................................................... 55
Figure 8 Password .............................................................................................................. 57
Figure 9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters ................................................... 59
Figure 10 Internet Connection with PPPoE ......................................................................... 60
Figure 11 Internet Connection with RFC 1483 ................................................................... 61
Figure 12 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP ............................................................. 62
Figure 13 Internet Connection with PPPoA ......................................................................... 63
Figure 14 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen ...................................................... 64
Figure 15 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration ............................................. 65
Figure 16 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Tests ............................................... 66
Figure 17 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup ................................................................ 69
Figure 18 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Second Screen .................................... 70
Figure 19 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Finish ................................................... 71
Figure 20 LAN and WAN IP Addresses .............................................................................. 72
Figure 21 Any IP Example .................................................................................................. 76
Figure 22 LAN Setup ........................................................................................................... 78
Figure 23 LAN: Static DHCP ............................................................................................... 80
Figure 24 Wireless Security Methods ................................................................................. 84
Figure 25 Wireless Screen .................................................................................................. 85
Figure 26 MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................. 87
Figure 27 WPA - PSK Authentication .................................................................................. 89
Figure 28 WPA with RADIUS Application Example2 .......................................................... 90
Figure 29 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Access Allowed ................................................ 91
Figure 30 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Authentication .................................................. 91
Figure 31 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: 802.1xl ................................................................... 92
Figure 32 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA ....................................................................... 94
Figure 33 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA:WPA-PSK ............................................................... 95
Figure 34 Local User Database .......................................................................................... 96
Figure 35 RADIUS .............................................................................................................. 97
Figure 36 OTIST ................................................................................................................. 99
Figure 37 Example Wireless Client OTIST Screen ............................................................. 100
Figure 38 Security Key ........................................................................................................ 100
List of Figures
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 39 OTIST in Progress (Prestige) .............................................................................. 100
Figure 40 OTIST in Progress (Client) .................................................................................. 100
Figure 41 No AP with OTIST Found ................................................................................... 101
Figure 42 Start OTIST? ....................................................................................................... 101
Figure 43 Example of Traffic Shaping ................................................................................. 106
Figure 44 WAN Setup (PPPoE) .......................................................................................... 108
Figure 45 Traffic Redirect Example ..................................................................................... 111
Figure 46 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup ................................................................................. 111
Figure 47 WAN Backup ....................................................................................................... 112
Figure 48 How NAT Works .................................................................................................. 116
Figure 49 NAT Application With IP Alias ............................................................................. 116
Figure 50 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example ............................................................... 119
Figure 51 NAT Mode ........................................................................................................... 120
Figure 52 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set ................................................................................... 121
Figure 53 Address Mapping Rules ...................................................................................... 122
Figure 54 Address Mapping Rule Edit ................................................................................ 123
Figure 55 Dynamic DNS ..................................................................................................... 127
Figure 56 Time and Date ..................................................................................................... 128
Figure 57 Prestige Firewall Application ............................................................................... 132
Figure 58 Three-Way Handshake ....................................................................................... 134
Figure 59 SYN Flood ........................................................................................................... 134
Figure 60 Smurf Attack ....................................................................................................... 135
Figure 61 Stateful Inspection ............................................................................................... 137
Figure 62 Firewall: Default Policy ........................................................................................ 147
Figure 63 Firewall: Rule Summary ..................................................................................... 148
Figure 64 Firewall: Edit Rule ............................................................................................... 151
Figure 65 Firewall: Customized Services ............................................................................ 153
Figure 66 Firewall: Configure Customized Services ........................................................... 154
Figure 67 Firewall Example: Rule Summary ....................................................................... 155
Figure 68 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Destination Address ............................................. 156
Figure 69 Edit Custom Port Example .................................................................................. 156
Figure 70 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Select Customized Services ................................. 157
Figure 71 Firewall Example: Rule Summary: My Service .................................................. 158
Figure 72 Firewall: Anti Probing .......................................................................................... 161
Figure 73 Firewall: Threshold .............................................................................................. 163
Figure 74 Content Filter: Keyword ...................................................................................... 166
Figure 75 Content Filter: Schedule ..................................................................................... 167
Figure 76 Content Filter: Trusted ........................................................................................ 168
Figure 77 Encryption and Decryption .................................................................................. 171
Figure 78 IPSec Architecture .............................................................................................. 172
Figure 79 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation .............................................. 173
Figure 80 IPSec Summary Fields ....................................................................................... 179
Figure 81 VPN Summary .................................................................................................... 179
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Figure 82 VPN Host using Intranet DNS Server Example .................................................. 181
Figure 83 VPN IKE .............................................................................................................. 184
Figure 84 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA .................................................................. 188
Figure 85 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup ................................................................................. 191
Figure 86 VPN: Manual Key ................................................................................................ 194
Figure 87 VPN: SA Monitor ................................................................................................. 197
Figure 88 VPN: Global Setting ............................................................................................ 198
Figure 89 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example ............................................... 199
Figure 90 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example ........................................... 201
Figure 91 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ......................................................... 205
Figure 92 Remote Management ......................................................................................... 206
Figure 93 Configuring UPnP ............................................................................................... 209
Figure 94 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication ................................. 211
Figure 95 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components .......... 211
Figure 96 Network Connections .......................................................................................... 212
Figure 97 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard .......................................... 213
Figure 98 Networking Services ........................................................................................... 214
Figure 99 Network Connections .......................................................................................... 215
Figure 100 Internet Connection Properties ........................................................................ 216
Figure 101 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings ......................................... 217
Figure 102 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add ................................. 217
Figure 103 System Tray Icon .............................................................................................. 218
Figure 104 Internet Connection Status ................................................................................ 218
Figure 105 Network Connections ........................................................................................ 219
Figure 106 Network Connections: My Network Places ....................................................... 220
Figure 107 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example ..................... 220
Figure 108 Log Settings ...................................................................................................... 223
Figure 109 View Logs ......................................................................................................... 225
Figure 110 E-mail Log Example .......................................................................................... 226
Figure 111 Application-based Bandwidth Management Example ....................................... 229
Figure 112 Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example ............................................. 230
Figure 113 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example .................... 230
Figure 114 Bandwidth Allotment Example .......................................................................... 232
Figure 115 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example ............................................................... 233
Figure 116 Media Bandwidth Management: Summary ....................................................... 234
Figure 117 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Setup ................................................... 235
Figure 118 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Configuration ....................................... 237
Figure 119 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics ......................................................... 239
Figure 120 Media Bandwidth Management: Monitor ......................................................... 240
Figure 121 TMSS First Time Access ................................................................................... 242
Figure 122 Download ActiveX to View TMSS Web Page ................................................... 243
Figure 123 TMSS Web Page (Dashboard) ......................................................................... 243
Figure 124 TMSS Service Summary ................................................................................... 243
List of Figures
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Figure 125 TMSS 3 Steps ................................................................................................... 244
Figure 126 TMSS Registration Form .................................................................................. 244
Figure 127 Example TMSS Activated Service Summary Screen ....................................... 245
Figure 128 Example TMSS Activated Parental Controls Screen ........................................ 245
Figure 129 TMSS Main Screen ........................................................................................... 246
Figure 130 TMSS Service Settings ..................................................................................... 246
Figure 131 Virus Protection ................................................................................................. 247
Figure 132 No Parental Controls License ........................................................................... 249
Figure 133 Parental Controls .............................................................................................. 250
Figure 134 Parental Controls Statistics ............................................................................... 252
Figure 135 System Status ................................................................................................... 255
Figure 136 System Status: Show Statistics ......................................................................... 257
Figure 137 DHCP Table ...................................................................................................... 258
Figure 138 Any IP Table ...................................................................................................... 259
Figure 139 Association List ................................................................................................. 260
Figure 140 Diagnostic: General .......................................................................................... 261
Figure 141 Diagnostic: DSL Line ........................................................................................ 262
Figure 142 Firmware Upgrade ............................................................................................ 263
Figure 143 Network Temporarily Disconnected .................................................................. 264
Figure 144 Error Message .................................................................................................. 264
Figure 145 Login Screen ..................................................................................................... 267
Figure 146 Menu 23.1 Change Password ........................................................................... 271
Figure 147 Menu 1 General Setup ...................................................................................... 273
Figure 148 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS .................................................................. 274
Figure 149 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ............................................................................. 276
Figure 150 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup ......................................................................... 277
Figure 151 Menu 3 LAN Setup ............................................................................................ 280
Figure 152 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup ........................................................................ 280
Figure 153 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup ................................................... 281
Figure 154 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup ....................................................................... 284
Figure 155 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering ........................................................ 286
Figure 156 IP Alias Network Example ................................................................................. 289
Figure 157 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup ................................................................. 289
Figure 158 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup ................................................................................ 290
Figure 159 Menu 1 General Setup ...................................................................................... 291
Figure 160 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup .......................................................................... 291
Figure 161 Menu 11 Remote Node Setup ........................................................................... 295
Figure 162 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ...................................................................... 296
Figure 163 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................................ 298
Figure 164 Sample IP Addresses for a TCP/IP LAN-to-LAN Connection ........................... 300
Figure 165 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (RFC 1483 or ENET Encapsulation) ............... 300
Figure 166 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation) ................. 301
Figure 167 Menu 11.6 for VC-based Multiplexing ............................................................... 301
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Figure 168 Menu 11.6 for LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation .......................... 302
Figure 169 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ....................................................................... 302
Figure 170 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options .................................................................. 303
Figure 171 Sample Static Routing Topology ....................................................................... 304
Figure 172 Menu 12 Static Route Setup ............................................................................. 305
Figure 173 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup ...................................................................... 305
Figure 174 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route ....................................................................... 305
Figure 175 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ....................................................................... 309
Figure 176 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................................ 309
Figure 177 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route ............................................................... 310
Figure 178 Menu 4 Applying NAT for Internet Access ........................................................ 313
Figure 179 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3 ....................................................................... 313
Figure 180 Menu 15 NAT Setup ........................................................................................ 314
Figure 181 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets .................................................................... 315
Figure 182 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules .................................................. 315
Figure 183 Menu 15.1.1 First Set ........................................................................................ 316
Figure 184 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set ........................ 317
Figure 185 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup ........................................................................... 318
Figure 186 Menu 15.2.1 NAT Server Setup ........................................................................ 319
Figure 187 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example ............................................................. 319
Figure 188 NAT Example 1 ................................................................................................. 320
Figure 189 Menu 4 Internet Access & NAT Example .......................................................... 320
Figure 190 NAT Example 2 ................................................................................................. 321
Figure 191 Menu 15.2.1 Specifying an Inside Server ......................................................... 321
Figure 192 NAT Example 3 ................................................................................................. 322
Figure 193 Example 3: Menu 11.3 ...................................................................................... 323
Figure 194 Example 3: Menu 15.1.1.1 ................................................................................ 323
Figure 195 Example 3: Final Menu 15.1.1 .......................................................................... 324
Figure 196 Example 3: Menu 15.2.1 ................................................................................... 324
Figure 197 NAT Example 4 ................................................................................................. 325
Figure 198 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule ........................................... 325
Figure 199 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ............................................ 326
Figure 200 Menu 21.2 Firewall Setup ................................................................................. 329
Figure 201 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process .................................................................... 330
Figure 202 Filter Rule Process ............................................................................................ 331
Figure 203 Menu 21 Filter Set Configuration ...................................................................... 332
Figure 204 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary ............................................................. 332
Figure 205 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary .............................................................. 333
Figure 206 IGMP Filter Rules Summary ............................................................................ 333
Figure 207 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule ..................................................................... 335
Figure 208 Executing an IP Filter ........................................................................................ 337
Figure 209 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule ................................................................... 338
Figure 210 Protocol and Device Filter Sets ......................................................................... 339
List of Figures
28
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 211 Sample Telnet Filter .......................................................................................... 340
Figure 212 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter ............................................................................ 340
Figure 213 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter Rules Summary .................................................. 341
Figure 214 Filtering Ethernet Traffic .................................................................................... 342
Figure 215 Filtering Remote Node Traffic ........................................................................... 342
Figure 216 SNMP Management Model ............................................................................... 344
Figure 217 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration .......................................................................... 346
Figure 218 Menu 23 – System Security .............................................................................. 348
Figure 219 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server ................................................... 349
Figure 220 Menu 23 System Security ................................................................................. 350
Figure 221 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE 802.1x ........................................................ 350
Figure 222 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup .............................................................................. 353
Figure 223 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User .............................................................................. 353
Figure 224 Menu 24 System Maintenance ......................................................................... 354
Figure 225 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status ......................................................... 355
Figure 226 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed ................................. 356
Figure 227 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information ............................................... 357
Figure 228 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed ................... 358
Figure 229 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace ............................................. 358
Figure 230 Sample Error and Information Messages ......................................................... 359
Figure 231 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance: Syslog and Accounting ............................. 359
Figure 232 Syslog Example ................................................................................................ 360
Figure 233 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic ................................................... 361
Figure 234 Telnet in Menu 24.5 ........................................................................................... 366
Figure 235 FTP Session Example ...................................................................................... 367
Figure 236 Telnet into Menu 24.6 ........................................................................................ 370
Figure 237 Restore Using FTP Session Example ............................................................... 370
Figure 238 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware .......................................... 371
Figure 239 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance ................................................. 372
Figure 240 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload ............................................... 373
Figure 241 Command Mode in Menu 24 ............................................................................. 376
Figure 242 Valid Commands ............................................................................................... 376
Figure 243 Menu 24.9 System Maintenance: Call Control .................................................. 377
Figure 244 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management ................................ 378
Figure 245 Menu 24 System Maintenance ......................................................................... 379
Figure 246 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ............................... 379
Figure 247 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ....................................................... 383
Figure 248 Menu 25 IP Routing Policy Setup ..................................................................... 387
Figure 249 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup .................................................................. 388
Figure 250 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy .......................................................................... 389
Figure 251 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup ................................................... 391
Figure 252 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................................ 391
Figure 253 Example of IP Policy Routing ........................................................................... 392
29
List of Figures
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 254 IP Routing Policy Example ................................................................................ 393
Figure 255 IP Routing Policy Example ................................................................................ 394
Figure 256 Applying IP Policies Example ........................................................................... 394
Figure 257 Menu 26 Schedule Setup .................................................................................. 396
Figure 258 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup ....................................................................... 397
Figure 259 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPPoE) .................................... 398
Figure 260 Menu 27 VPN/IPSec Setup ............................................................................... 400
Figure 261 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary .............................................................................. 401
Figure 262 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup ................................................................................. 403
Figure 263 Menu 27.1.1.1KE Setup .................................................................................... 407
Figure 264 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup ............................................................................ 409
Figure 265 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor ...................................................................................... 413
Figure 266 Pop-up Blocker ................................................................................................. 419
Figure 267 Internet Options ............................................................................................... 419
Figure 268 Internet Options ................................................................................................ 420
Figure 269 Pop-up Blocker Settings ................................................................................... 421
Figure 270 Internet Options ................................................................................................ 422
Figure 271 Security Settings - Java Scripting ..................................................................... 423
Figure 272 Security Settings - Java .................................................................................... 424
Figure 273 Java (Sun) ......................................................................................................... 425
Figure 274 Internet Options Security .................................................................................. 426
Figure 275 Security Setting ActiveX Controls ..................................................................... 427
Figure 276 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration ..................................................... 433
Figure 277 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address ......................................... 434
Figure 278 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration ............................ 435
Figure 279 Windows XP: Start Menu .................................................................................. 436
Figure 280 Windows XP: Control Panel .............................................................................. 436
Figure 281 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties ....................... 437
Figure 282 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties .............................................. 437
Figure 283 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties ......................................... 438
Figure 284 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties ...................................................... 439
Figure 285 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties ......................................... 440
Figure 286 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu ........................................................................ 441
Figure 287 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP ................................................................................ 441
Figure 288 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu ........................................................................... 442
Figure 289 Macintosh OS X: Network ................................................................................. 443
Figure 290 Option to Enter Debug Mode ............................................................................ 452
Figure 291 Boot Module Commands .................................................................................. 453
Figure 292 VPN Rules ........................................................................................................ 467
Figure 293 Headquarters VPN Rule Edit ............................................................................ 468
Figure 294 Branch Office VPN Rule Edit ............................................................................ 469
Figure 295 VPN Rule Configured ........................................................................................ 470
Figure 296 VPN Dial ........................................................................................................... 470
List of Figures
30
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 297 VPN Tunnel Established ................................................................................... 471
Figure 298 Menu 27: VPN/IPSec Setup .............................................................................. 471
Figure 299 Menu 27.1: IPSec Summary ............................................................................. 472
Figure 300 Headquarters Menu 27.1.1: IPSec Setup ......................................................... 472
Figure 301 Branch Office Menu 27.1.1: IPSec Setup ......................................................... 473
Figure 302 Menu 27.1.1.1: IKE Setup ................................................................................. 474
Figure 303 VPN Log Example ............................................................................................ 475
Figure 304 IKE/IPSec Debug Example .............................................................................. 476
Figure 305 Connecting a POTS Splitter .............................................................................. 480
Figure 306 Connecting a Microfilter .................................................................................... 481
Figure 307 Prestige with ISDN ............................................................................................ 481
Figure 308 Single-Computer per Router Hardware Configuration ...................................... 485
Figure 309 Prestige as a PPPoE Client .............................................................................. 485
Figure 310 Displaying Log Categories Example ................................................................. 500
Figure 311 Displaying Log Parameters Example ................................................................ 500
Figure 312 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network ........................................ 502
Figure 313 Basic Service Set .............................................................................................. 503
Figure 314 Infrastructure WLAN ......................................................................................... 504
Figure 315 RTS/CTS .......................................................................................................... 505
Figure 316 Configuration Text File Format: Column Descriptions ....................................... 512
Figure 317 Invalid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example ....................................... 513
Figure 318 Valid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example ......................................... 513
Figure 319 Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example ..................................................... 514
Figure 320 Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example ........................................................... 514
31
List of Figures
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 1 ADSL Standards .................................................................................................... 42
Table 2 Front Panel LEDs .................................................................................................. 49
Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary .................................................................... 55
Table 4 Password ............................................................................................................... 57
Table 5 Internet Access Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters .................................................... 59
Table 6 Internet Connection with PPPoE .......................................................................... 60
Table 7 Internet Connection with RFC 1483 ...................................................................... 61
Table 8 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP ................................................................ 62
Table 9 Internet Connection with PPPoA ........................................................................... 63
Table 10 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration .............................................. 65
Table 11 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Services ................................................. 68
Table 12 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: First Screen ........................................... 70
Table 13 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Second Screen ...................................... 70
Table 14 LAN Setup ........................................................................................................... 78
Table 15 LAN: Static DHCP ................................................................................................ 80
Table 16 Wireless LAN ....................................................................................................... 85
Table 17 MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................. 88
Table 18 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Access/Authentication ...................................... 91
Table 19 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: 802.1x .................................................................... 92
Table 20 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA ....................................................................... 94
Table 21 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA-PSK ............................................................... 95
Table 22 Local User Database ........................................................................................... 96
Table 23 RADIUS ............................................................................................................... 97
Table 24 OTIST .................................................................................................................. 99
Table 25 WAN Setup .......................................................................................................... 108
Table 26 WAN Backup ....................................................................................................... 112
Table 27 NAT Definitions .................................................................................................... 114
Table 28 NAT Mapping Types ............................................................................................ 117
Table 29 Services and Port Numbers ................................................................................. 118
Table 30 NAT Mode ............................................................................................................ 120
Table 31 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set .................................................................................... 121
Table 32 Address Mapping Rules ...................................................................................... 122
Table 33 Address Mapping Rule Edit ................................................................................. 124
Table 34 Dynamic DNS ...................................................................................................... 127
Table 35 Time and Date ..................................................................................................... 129
Table 36 Common IP Ports ................................................................................................ 133
Table 37 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts .................................................................. 135
Table 38 Legal NetBIOS Commands ................................................................................. 135
List of Tables
32
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 39 Legal SMTP Commands .................................................................................... 136
Table 40 Firewall: Default Policy ........................................................................................ 147
Table 41 Rule Summary ..................................................................................................... 149
Table 42 Firewall: Edit Rule ................................................................................................ 152
Table 43 Customized Services ........................................................................................... 153
Table 44 Firewall: Configure Customized Services ............................................................ 154
Table 45 Predefined Services ........................................................................................... 158
Table 46 Firewall: Anti Probing ........................................................................................... 161
Table 47 Firewall: Threshold .............................................................................................. 163
Table 48 Content Filter: Keyword ....................................................................................... 167
Table 49 Content Filter: Schedule ...................................................................................... 168
Table 50 Content Filter: Trusted ......................................................................................... 168
Table 51 VPN and NAT ...................................................................................................... 174
Table 52 AH and ESP ........................................................................................................ 177
Table 53 VPN Summary ..................................................................................................... 179
Table 54 Local ID Type and Content Fields ....................................................................... 182
Table 55 Peer ID Type and Content Fields ........................................................................ 182
Table 56 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example ....................................... 182
Table 57 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example ................................. 183
Table 58 VPN IKE .............................................................................................................. 185
Table 59 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup .................................................................................. 191
Table 60 VPN: Manual Key ................................................................................................ 195
Table 61 VPN: SA Monitor ................................................................................................. 198
Table 62 VPN: Global Setting ............................................................................................. 198
Table 63 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example ............................................... 200
Table 64 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example ............................................ 201
Table 65 Remote Management .......................................................................................... 206
Table 66 Configuring UPnP ................................................................................................ 210
Table 67 Log Settings ......................................................................................................... 223
Table 68 View Logs ............................................................................................................ 225
Table 69 SMTP Error Messages ........................................................................................ 225
Table 70 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example ...................... 230
Table 71 Media Bandwidth Management: Summary .......................................................... 234
Table 72 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Setup ...................................................... 235
Table 73 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Configuration .......................................... 237
Table 74 Services and Port Numbers ................................................................................. 238
Table 75 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics ............................................................ 239
Table 76 Media Bandwidth Management: Monitor ............................................................. 240
Table 77 Service Settings ................................................................................................... 247
Table 78 Virus Protection ................................................................................................... 248
Table 79 Parental Controls ................................................................................................. 250
Table 80 Parental Controls Statistics .................................................................................. 252
Table 81 System Status ...................................................................................................... 255
33
List of Tables
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 82 System Status: Show Statistics ........................................................................... 257
Table 83 DHCP Table ......................................................................................................... 258
Table 84 Any IP Table ........................................................................................................ 259
Table 85 Association List .................................................................................................... 260
Table 86 Diagnostic: General ............................................................................................. 261
Table 87 Diagnostic: DSL Line ........................................................................................... 262
Table 88 Firmware Upgrade ............................................................................................... 263
Table 89 SMT Menus Overview ......................................................................................... 267
Table 90 Navigating the SMT Interface .............................................................................. 268
Table 91 SMT Main Menu .................................................................................................. 269
Table 92 Main Menu Summary .......................................................................................... 270
Table 93 Menu 1 General Setup ........................................................................................ 273
Table 94 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS ..................................................................... 274
Table 95 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ................................................................................ 276
Table 96 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup ........................................................................... 277
Table 97 DHCP Ethernet Setup ......................................................................................... 282
Table 98 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup ........................................................................................ 282
Table 99 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 284
Table 100 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering ........................................................ 286
Table 101 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup ................................................................................. 290
Table 102 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup .......................................................................... 292
Table 103 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ....................................................................... 296
Table 104 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................................. 298
Table 105 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options ................................................................... 303
Table 106 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route ........................................................................ 306
Table 107 Remote Node Network Layer Options: Bridge Fields ........................................ 309
Table 108 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route ................................................................ 310
Table 109 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3 ....................................................................... 314
Table 110 SUA Address Mapping Rules ............................................................................ 315
Table 111 Menu 15.1.1 First Set ......................................................................................... 317
Table 112 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set .......................... 318
Table 113 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu .................................... 333
Table 114 Rule Abbreviations Used ................................................................................... 334
Table 115 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule ...................................................................... 335
Table 116 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule ..................................................................... 338
Table 117 Filter Sets Table ................................................................................................. 341
Table 118 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ........................................................................... 346
Table 119 SNMP Traps ...................................................................................................... 346
Table 120 Ports and Permanent Virtual Circuits ................................................................. 347
Table 121 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server ................................................... 349
Table 122 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE 802.1x ......................................................... 351
Table 123 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User ............................................................................... 353
Table 124 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status ........................................................... 355
List of Tables
34
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 125 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information ................................................ 357
Table 126 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : Syslog and Accounting ............................ 359
Table 127 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic .......................................... 362
Table 128 Filename Conventions ....................................................................................... 365
Table 129 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients ............................................... 367
Table 130 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients ............................................. 369
Table 131 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management ................................. 378
Table 132 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting .............................. 379
Table 133 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ........................................................ 383
Table 134 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup ................................................................... 388
Table 135 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy .......................................................................... 389
Table 136 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup ......................................................................... 397
Table 137 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary ............................................................................... 401
Table 138 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup ................................................................................. 403
Table 139 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup .................................................................................. 407
Table 140 Active Protocol: Encapsulation and Security Protocol ....................................... 408
Table 141 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup ............................................................................ 409
Table 142 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor ....................................................................................... 413
Table 143 Troubleshooting Starting Up Your Prestige ........................................................ 416
Table 144 Troubleshooting the LAN ................................................................................... 416
Table 145 Troubleshooting the WAN .................................................................................. 417
Table 146 Troubleshooting Accessing the Prestige ........................................................... 418
Table 147 Device ................................................................................................................ 428
Table 148 Firmware ............................................................................................................ 429
Table 149 Classes of IP Addresses ................................................................................... 444
Table 150 Allowed IP Address Range By Class ................................................................. 445
Table 151 “Natural” Masks ................................................................................................ 445
Table 152 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ..................................................................... 446
Table 153 Two Subnets Example ....................................................................................... 446
Table 154 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................................ 447
Table 155 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................................ 447
Table 156 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................................ 448
Table 157 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................................ 448
Table 158 Subnet 3 ............................................................................................................ 448
Table 159 Subnet 4 ............................................................................................................ 449
Table 160 Eight Subnets .................................................................................................... 449
Table 161 Class C Subnet Planning ................................................................................... 449
Table 162 Class B Subnet Planning ................................................................................... 450
Table 163 Firewall Commands ........................................................................................... 456
Table 164 NetBIOS Filter Default Settings ......................................................................... 463
Table 165 System Maintenance Logs ................................................................................ 486
Table 166 System Error Logs ............................................................................................. 487
Table 167 Access Control Logs .......................................................................................... 487
35
List of Tables
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 168 TCP Reset Logs ................................................................................................ 488
Table 169 Packet Filter Logs .............................................................................................. 488
Table 170 ICMP Logs ......................................................................................................... 489
Table 171 CDR Logs .......................................................................................................... 489
Table 172 PPP Logs ........................................................................................................... 489
Table 173 UPnP Logs ........................................................................................................ 490
Table 174 Content Filtering Logs ....................................................................................... 490
Table 175 Attack Logs ........................................................................................................ 491
Table 176 IPSec Logs ........................................................................................................ 492
Table 177 IKE Logs ............................................................................................................ 492
Table 178 PKI Logs ............................................................................................................ 495
Table 179 Certificate Path Verification Failure Reason Codes ........................................... 496
Table 180 802.1X Logs ...................................................................................................... 497
Table 181 ACL Setting Notes ............................................................................................. 498
Table 182 ICMP Notes ....................................................................................................... 498
Table 183 Syslog Logs ....................................................................................................... 499
Table 184 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types ................................................................... 499
Table 185 IEEE 802.11g ..................................................................................................... 506
Table 186 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types ......................................................... 510
Table 187 Wireless Security Relational Matrix ................................................................... 511
Table 188 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table .............. 514
Table 189 Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1) .............................................................. 515
Table 190 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 ) ...................................................................................... 515
Table 191 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) .................................................. 518
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) ................................................................................... 520
Table 193 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) .................................................... 524
Table 194 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) ........................................................ 526
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) ........................................................ 529
Table 196 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23) .......................................................... 534
Table 197 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11) ......................... 535
Table 198 Command Examples ......................................................................................... 535
List of Tables
36
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
37
List of Tables
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Preface
The Prestige 661H (P-661H) and Prestige 661HW (P-661HW) are ADSL routers with a builtin switch. They allow super-fast, secure Internet access over analog (POTS) or digital (ISDN)
telephone lines (depending on your model).
The Prestige 661HW also has IEEE 802.11g wireless capability.
Note: All wireless features pertain to the P-661HW series only.
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades
and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com
for North American products.
About This User's Guide
This manual is designed to guide you through the configuration of your Prestige for its various
applications. The web configurator parts of this guide contain background information on
features configurable by web configurator. The SMT parts of this guide contain background
information solely on features not configurable by web configurator.
Note: Use the web configurator, System Management Terminal (SMT) or command
interpreter interface to configure your Prestige. Not all features can be
configured through all interfaces.
Syntax Conventions
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters. “Select” or “Choose” means for
you to use one predefined choices.
• The SMT menu titles and labels are in Bold Times New Roman font. Predefined field
choices are in Bold Arial font. Command and arrow keys are enclosed in square
brackets. [ENTER] means the Enter, or carriage return key; [ESC] means the Escape key
and [SPACE BAR] means the Space Bar.
• Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, “click the Apple icon,
Control Panels and then Modem” means first click the Apple icon, then point your
mouse pointer to Control Panels and then click Modem.
• For brevity’s sake, we will use “e.g.,” as a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” for
“that is” or “in other words” throughout this manual.
• The Prestige 661H and Prestige 661HW series may be referred to as P-661H and P661HW in this User’s guide. Both series may be referred to as simply the “Prestige”.
Related Documentation
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• Quick Start Guide
Preface
38
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. They
contain connection information and instructions on getting started.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
• ZyXEL Glossary and Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for an online glossary of networking terms and additional
support documentation.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. E-mail all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to techwriters@zyxel.com.tw or send regular mail to The Technical Writing
Team, ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan. Thank you.
Graphics Icons Key
Prestige
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
DSLAM
Firewall
Telephone
Switch
Router
Wireless Signal
39
Preface
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Introduction to DSL
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology enhances the data capacity of the existing twistedpair wire that runs between the local telephone company switching offices and most homes
and offices. While the wire itself can handle higher frequencies, the telephone switching
equipment is designed to cut off signals above 4,000 Hz to filter noise off the voice line, but
now everybody is searching for ways to get more bandwidth to improve access to the Web hence DSL technologies.
There are actually seven types of DSL service, ranging in speeds from 16 Kbits/sec to 52
Mbits/sec. The services are either symmetrical (traffic flows at the same speed in both
directions), or asymmetrical (the downstream capacity is higher than the upstream capacity).
Asymmetrical services (ADSL) are suitable for Internet users because more information is
usually downloaded than uploaded. For example, a simple button click in a web browser can
start an extended download that includes graphics and text.
As data rates increase, the carrying distance decreases. That means that users who are beyond
a certain distance from the telephone company’s central office may not be able to obtain the
higher speeds.
A DSL connection is a point-to-point dedicated circuit, meaning that the link is always up and
there is no dialing required.
Introduction to ADSL
It is an asymmetrical technology, meaning that the downstream data rate is much higher than
the upstream data rate. As mentioned, this works well for a typical Internet session in which
more information is downloaded, for example, from Web servers, than is uploaded. ADSL
operates in a frequency range that is above the frequency range of voice services, so the two
systems can operate over the same cable.
Introduction to DSL
40
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
41
Introduction to DSL
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER 1
Getting To Know Your Prestige
This chapter describes the key features and applications of your Prestige.
1.1 Introducing the Prestige
The Prestige 661H (P-661H) and Prestige 661HW (P-661HW) are ADSL routers with a builtin switch. They allow super-fast, secure Internet access over analog (POTS) or digital (ISDN)
telephone lines (depending on your model).
This guide covers the following Prestige models (at the time of writing):
P-661H-61, P-661H-63, P-661H-67, P-661HW-61, P-661HW-63 and P-661HW-67.
In the Prestige product name, “H” denotes an integrated 4-port hub and “W” denotes wireless
functionality. The Prestige 661HW has an embedded mini-PCI module for 802.11g Wireless
LAN connectivity.
Note: All wireless features in this guide pertain to the P-661HW series only.
Models ending in “1”, for example Prestige 661HW-61, denote a device that works over the
analog telephone system, POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Models ending in “3” denote a
device that works over ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). Models ending in “7”
denote a device that works over T-ISDN (UR-2).
Note: Only use firmware for your Prestige’s specific model. Refer to the label on the
bottom of your Prestige.
The built-in Ethernet switch consists of four auto-negotiating 10/100BASE-T, auto-crossover
RJ-45 ports (either a crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable can be used) for connecting
to your local computers.
The DSL RJ-11 (ADSL over POTS models) or RJ-45 (ADSL over ISDN models) connects to
your ADSL-enabled telephone line. The Prestige is compatible with the ADSL/ADSL2/
ADSL2+ standards. Maximum data rates attainable by the Prestige for each standard are
shown in the next table.
Table 1 ADSL Standards
DATA RATE STANDARD
UPSTREAM
DOWNSTREAM
ADSL
832 kbps
8Mbps
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
42
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 1 ADSL Standards
DATA RATE STANDARD
UPSTREAM
DOWNSTREAM
ADSL2
3.5Mbps
12Mbps
ADSL2+
3.5Mbps
24Mbps
Note: The standard your ISP supports determines the maximum upstream and
downstream speeds attainable. Actual speeds attained also depend on the
distance from your ISP, line quality, etc.
The Prestige is also a complete security solution with TMSS, a robust firewall, content
filtering and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) for wireless network security.
1.1.1 Features of the Prestige
The following sections describe the features of the Prestige.
Note: See the product specifications in the appendix for detailed features and
standards support.
Built-in Switch
The 10/100 Mbps auto-negotiating Ethernet ports allow the Prestige to detect the speed of
incoming transmissions and adjust appropriately without manual intervention. It allows data
transfer of either 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps in either half-duplex or full-duplex mode depending
on your Ethernet network. The ports are also auto-crossover (MDI/MDI-X) meaning they
automatically adjust to either a crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable.
High Speed Internet Access
Your Prestige ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ router can support downstream transmission rates of
up to 24Mbps and upstream transmission rates of 3.5Mbps. Actual speeds attained depend on
the ADSL service you subscribed to, distance from your ISP, line quality, etc.
Zero Configuration Internet Access
Once you connect and turn on the Prestige, it automatically detects the Internet connection
settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method) from the ISP and makes
the necessary configuration changes. In cases where additional account information (such as
an Internet account user name and password) is required or the Prestige cannot connect to the
ISP, you will be redirected to web screen(s) for information input or troubleshooting.
Any IP
The Any IP feature allows a computer to access the Internet and the Prestige without changing
the network settings (such as IP address and subnet mask) of the computer, when the IP
addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
43
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Trend Micro Security Services
TMSS (Trend Micro Security Services) identifies vulnerabilities and protects computers
and networks that have Internet connections. TMSS is enabled by default on the Prestige
but you must register at the TMSS web page. After you register, you can configure TMSS
using the Prestige web configurator.
Firewall
The Prestige is a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial of Service) protection. By
default, when the firewall is activated, all incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is
blocked unless it is initiated from the LAN. The Prestige firewall supports TCP/UDP
inspection, DoS detection and prevention, real time alerts, reports and logs.
Content Filtering
Content filtering allows you to block access to forbidden Internet web sites, schedule when the
Prestige should perform the filtering and give trusted LAN IP addresses unfiltered Internet
access.
IPSec VPN Capability
Establish a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to connect with business partners and branch
offices using data encryption and the Internet to provide secure communications without the
expense of leased site-to-site lines. The Prestige VPN is based on the IPSec standard and is
fully interoperable with other IPSec-based VPN products.
Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards WAN traffic to a backup gateway when the Prestige cannot connect
to the Internet, thus acting as an auxiliary if your regular WAN connection fails.
Media Bandwidth Management
ZyXEL’s Media Bandwidth Management allows you to specify bandwidth classes based on an
application and/or subnet. You can allocate specific amounts of bandwidth capacity
(bandwidth budgets) to different bandwidth classes.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
Using the standard TCP/IP protocol, the Prestige and other UPnP enabled devices can
dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address and convey its capabilities to other devices
on the network.
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PPPoE (RFC2516)
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) emulates a dial-up connection. It allows your
ISP to use their existing network configuration with newer broadband technologies such as
ADSL. The PPPoE driver on the Prestige is transparent to the computers on the LAN, which
see only Ethernet and are not aware of PPPoE thus saving you from having to manage PPPoE
clients on individual computers. The Prestige also includes PPPoE idle time-out (the PPPoE
connection terminates after a period of no traffic that you configure) and PPPoE Dial-onDemand (the PPPoE connection is brought up only when an Internet access request is made).
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol address
used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local network) to a
different IP address known within another network (for example a public IP address used on
the Internet).
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS support, you can have a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP address,
allowing the host to be more easily accessible from various locations on the Internet. You must
register for this service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) allows the individual clients (computers)
to obtain the TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a centralized DHCP server. The
Prestige has built-in DHCP server capability enabled by default. It can assign IP
addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS servers to DHCP clients. The Prestige can now
also act as a surrogate DHCP server (DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address assignment
from the actual real DHCP server to the clients.
IP Alias
IP Alias allows you to partition a physical network into logical networks over the same
Ethernet interface. The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single
physical Ethernet interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
IP Policy Routing (IPPR)
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the router takes the
shortest path to forward a packet. IP Policy Routing (IPPR) provides a mechanism to
override the default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy
defined by the network administrator.
Packet Filters
The Prestige's packet filtering functions allows added network security and management.
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Housing
Your Prestige's compact and ventilated housing minimizes space requirements making it easy
to position anywhere in your busy office.
1.1.1.1 P-661HW Wireless Features
Wireless LAN
The Prestige supports the IEEE 802.11g standard, which is fully compatible with the IEEE
802.11b standard, meaning that you can have both IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g wireless
clients in the same wireless network.
Note: The P-661HW may be prone to RF (Radio Frequency) interference from other
2.4 GHz devices such as microwave ovens, wireless phones, Bluetooth
enabled devices, and other wireless LANs.
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification standard.
Key differences between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data
encryption.
Wireless g+
Wireless g+ technology allows super fast transmission rates (actual speed depends on
environment) among Wireless g+ enabled access points and wireless clients.
Antenna
The Prestige is equipped with a 2dBi fixed antenna to provide clear radio signal between the
wireless stations and the access points.
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering
Your Prestige can check the MAC addresses of wireless stations against a list of allowed or
denied MAC addresses.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless
network to help keep network communications private.
OTIST (One Touch Intelligent Security Technology)
OTIST allows your Prestige to assign its ESSID and security settings (WEP or WPA-PSK) to
the ZyXEL wireless adapters that support OTIST and are within transmission range. The
ZyXEL wireless adapters must also have OTIST enabled.
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1.1.2 Applications for the Prestige
Here are some example uses for which the Prestige is well suited.
1.1.2.1 Protected Internet Access
The Prestige is the ideal high-speed Internet access solution. It is compatible with all major
ADSL DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) providers and supports the
ADSL standards as shown in Table 1 on page 42. In addition, the P-661HW allows wireless
clients access to your network resources.
The Prestige provides protection from attacks by Internet hackers. By default, the firewall
blocks all incoming traffic from the WAN. The firewall supports TCP/UDP inspection and
DoS (Denial of Services) detection and prevention, as well as real time alerts, reports and logs.
In addition you may use TMSS to protect against viruses, spyware, spam and Parental Control
to forbid access to undesirable web site content based on pre-defined web site categories.
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Figure 1 Protected Internet Access Applications
ss
1.1.2.2 LAN to LAN Application
You can use the Prestige to connect two geographically dispersed networks over the ADSL
line. A typical LAN-to-LAN application example for the P-661HW is shown as follows.
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Figure 2 P-661HW LAN-to-LAN Application Example
1.1.3 Front Panel LEDs
Figure 3 P-661H Front Panel
Figure 4 P-661HW Front Panel
The following table describes the LEDs.
Table 2 Front Panel LEDs
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
PWR/SYS
Green
On
The Prestige is receiving power and functioning properly.
Blinking
The Prestige is rebooting or performing diagnostics.
Red
On
Power to the Prestige is too low.
None
Off
The system is not ready or has malfunctioned.
Green
On
The Prestige has a successful 10Mb Ethernet connection.
Blinking
The Prestige is sending/receiving data.
On
The Prestige has a successful 100Mb Ethernet connection.
Blinking
The Prestige is sending/receiving data.
Off
The LAN is not connected.
LAN 1-4
Amber
None
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Table 2 Front Panel LEDs (continued)
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
On
The Prestige is ready, but is not sending/receiving data
through the wireless LAN.
Blinking
The Prestige is sending/receiving data through the wireless
LAN.
None
Off
The wireless LAN is not ready or has failed.
Green
Fast
Blinking
The Prestige is sending/receiving non-PPP data.
Slow
Blinking
The Prestige is initializing the DSL line.
On
The system is ready, but is not sending/receiving non-PPP
data.
On
The connection to the PPPoE server is up.
Blinking
The Prestige is sending/receiving PPP data.
Off
The DSL link is down.
WLAN (PGreen
661HW only)
DSL/PPP
Amber
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for information on hardware connections.
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CHAPTER 2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
This chapter describes how to access and navigate the web configurator.
2.1 Web Configurator Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Prestige
setup and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Netscape
Navigator 7.0 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by
default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
See the Troubleshooting chapter if you need to make sure these functions are allowed in
Internet Explorer.
2.1.1 Accessing the Prestige Web Configurator
Note: Even though you can connect to the P-661HW wirelessly, it is recommended
that you connect your computer to a LAN port for initial configuration.
1 Make sure your Prestige hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2 Prepare your computer/computer network to connect to the Prestige (refer to the Quick
Start Guide).
3 Launch your web browser.
4 Type "192.168.1.1" as the URL.
5 An Enter Network Password window displays.The Password field already contains the
default password “1234”. Click Login to proceed to a screen asking you to change your
password or click Cancel to revert to the default password.
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Figure 5 Password Screen
6 It is highly recommended you change the default password! Enter a new password
between 1 and 30 characters, retype it to confirm and click Apply; alternatively click
Ignore to proceed to the main menu if you do not want to change the password now.
Note: If you do not change the password at least once, the following screen appears
every time you log in.
Figure 6 Change Password at Login
7 You should now see the SITE MAP screen.
Note: The Prestige automatically times out after five minutes of inactivity. Simply log
back into the Prestige if this happens to you.
2.1.2 Resetting the Prestige
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the
RESET button at the back of the Prestige to reload the factory-default configuration file. This
means that you will lose all configurations that you had previously and the password will be
reset to “1234”.
2.1.2.1 Using the Reset Button
1 Make sure the PWR/SYS LED is on (not blinking).
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2 Press the RESET button for ten seconds or until the PWR/SYS LED begins to blink and
then release it. When the PWR/SYS LED begins to blink, the defaults have been restored
and the Prestige restarts.
2.1.3 Navigating the Prestige Web Configurator
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator from the SITE MAP screen.
We use the Prestige 661HW-61 web screens in this guide as an example. Screens vary slightly
for different Prestige models.
• Click Wizard Setup to begin a series of screens to configure your Prestige for the first
time.
• Click a link under Advanced Setup to configure advanced Prestige features.
• Click a link under Maintenance to see Prestige performance statistics, upload firmware
and back up, restore or upload a configuration file.
• Click Site Map to go to the Site Map screen. The P-661H and P-661HW web
configurator screens are the same except the P-661HW has additional wireless LAN
screens.
• Click Logout in the navigation panel when you have finished a Prestige management
session.
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Figure 7
Web Configurator: P-661HW Site Map Screen
Note: Click the
icon (located in the top right corner of most screens) to view
embedded help.
Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Wizard Setup
Connection Setup
Use these screens for initial configuration including general
setup, ISP parameters for Internet Access and WAN IP/DNS
Server/MAC address assignment.
Media Bandwidth
Mgnt
Use these screens to limit bandwidth usage by application.
Advanced Setup
Password
Use this screen to change your password.
LAN
Use this screen to configure LAN DHCP and TCP/IP settings.
Wireless LAN (P- Wireless
661HW only)
MAC Filter
Use this screen to configure the wireless LAN settings.
WAN
NAT
55
Use this screen to change MAC filter settings on the Prestige.
802.1x/WPA
Use this screen to configure WLAN authentication and security
settings.
Local User
Database
Use this screen to set up built-in user profiles for wireless station
authentication.
RADIUS
Use this screen to specify the external RADIUS server for
wireless station authentication.
OTIST
Use this screen to have the Prestige set your wireless station to
use the same wireless settings as the Prestige.
WAN Setup
Use this screen to change the Prestige’s WAN remote node
settings.
WAN Backup
Use this screen to configure your traffic redirect properties and
WAN backup settings.
SUA Only
Use this screen to configure servers behind the Prestige.
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Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Full Feature
Use this screen to configure network address translation
mapping rules.
Dynamic DNS
Use this screen to set up dynamic DNS.
Time and Date
Use this screen to change your Prestige’s time and date.
Firewall
Content Filter
VPN
Default Policy
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the firewall and the
direction of network traffic to which to apply the rule.
Rule Summary
This screen shows a summary of the firewall rules, and allows
you to edit/add a firewall rule.
Anti Probing
Use this screen to change your anti-probing settings.
Threshold
Use this screen to configure the threshold for DoS attacks.
Keyword
Use this screen to block sites containing certain keywords in the
URL.
Schedule
Use this screen to set the days and times for the Prestige to
perform content filtering.
Trusted
Use this screen to exclude a range of users on the LAN from
content filtering on your Prestige.
Setup
Use this screen to configure VPN tunnels.
Monitor
Use this screen to view what tunnels are active and to disconnect
an active tunnel(s) if you want.
Global Setting
Use this screen to allow NetBIOS traffic through all tunnels.
Remote
Management
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use Telnet/FTP/Web to manage
the Prestige.
UPnP
Use this screen to enable UPnP on the Prestige.
Logs
Log Settings
Use this screen to change your Prestige’s log settings.
View Log
Use this screen to view the logs for the categories that you
selected.
Media Bandwidth Summary
Management
TMSS
Use this screen to assign bandwidth limits to specific types of
traffic.
Class Setup
Use this screen to define a bandwidth class.
Monitor
Use this screen to view bandwidth class statistics.
Service Settings
Use this screen to enable TMSS and configure computers
exempt from TMSS monitoring.
Virus Protection
Use this screen to check for security updates and to view if all
Prestige LAN computers have the latest updates.
Parental Controls
Use this screen to schedule and block web sites based on
categories such as pornography, gambling etc.
Maintenance
System Status
This screen contains administrative and system-related
information.
DHCP Table
This screen displays DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol) related information and is READ-ONLY.
Any IP Table
Use this screen to view the IP and MAC addresses of LAN
computers communicating with the Prestige.
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Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Wireless LAN (P- Association List
661HW only)
This screen displays the MAC address(es) of the wireless
stations that are currently associating with the Prestige.
Diagnostic
General
These screens display information to help you identify problems
with the Prestige general connection.
DSL Line
These screens display information to help you identify problems
with the DSL line.
Firmware
Use this screen to upload firmware to your Prestige
LOGOUT
Click Logout to exit the web configurator.
It is highly recommended that you periodically change the password for accessing the
Prestige. If you didn’t change the default one after you logged in or you want to change to a
new password again, then click Password in the Site Map screen to display the screen as
shown next.
Figure 8 Password
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 4 Password
57
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Old Password
Type the default password or the existing password you use to access the system
in this field.
New Password
Type the new password in this field.
Retype to Confirm
Type the new password again in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 3
Wizard Setup for Internet Access
This chapter provides information on the Wizard Setup screens for Internet access in the web
configurator.
3.1 Introduction
Use the Wizard Setup screens to configure your system for Internet access with the
information given to you by your ISP.
Note: See the advanced menu chapters for background information on these fields.
3.1.1 Internet Access Wizard Setup
1 In the SITE MAP screen click Wizard Setup to display the first wizard screen.
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Figure 9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5 Internet Access Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
From the Mode drop-down list box, select Routing (default) if your ISP allows
multiple computers to share an Internet account. Otherwise select Bridge.
Encapsulation
Select the encapsulation type your ISP uses from the Encapsulation drop-down list
box. Choices vary depending on what you select in the Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or RFC 1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483, ENET ENCAP or
PPPoE.
Multiplex
Select the multiplexing method used by your ISP from the Multiplex drop-down list
box either VC-based or LLC-based.
Virtual Circuit
ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define a virtual circuit.
Refer to the appendix for more information.
VPI
Enter the VPI assigned to you. This field may already be configured.
VCI
Enter the VCI assigned to you. This field may already be configured.
Next
Click this button to go to the next wizard screen. The next wizard screen you see
depends on what protocol you chose above. Click on the protocol link to see the next
wizard screen for that protocol.
2 The next wizard screen varies depending on what mode and encapsulation type you use.
All screens shown are with routing mode. Configure the fields and click Next to continue.
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Figure 10 Internet Connection with PPPoE
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 6
Internet Connection with PPPoE
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
User Name
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the form
user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter both components
exactly as given.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the text
box below.
Connection
Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time and
specify an idle time-out (in seconds) in the Max. Idle Timeout field. The default
setting selects Connection on Demand with 0 as the idle time-out, which means the
Internet session will not timeout.
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time. The
Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 has priority over your Connection settings.
Network
Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to the NAT
chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
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Figure 11
Internet Connection with RFC 1483
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 7 Internet Connection with RFC 1483
61
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
This field is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
Type your ISP assigned IP address in this field.
Network Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-down list box. Refer to the
NAT chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
Chapter 3 Wizard Setup for Internet Access
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Figure 12 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 8 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP
Address text box below.
Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to the appendices to calculate a subnet mask If you are implementing subnetting.
ENET ENCAP You must specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP) when you use ENET
Gateway
ENCAP in the Encapsulation field in the previous screen.
Network
Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to the NAT
chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
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Figure 13 Internet Connection with PPPoA
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 9 Internet Connection with PPPoA
63
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Enter the login name that your ISP gives you.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Click Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise click Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP
Address text box below.
Connection
Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time and
specify an idle time-out (in seconds) in the Max. Idle Timeout field. The default setting
selects Connection on Demand with 0 as the idle time-out, which means the Internet
session will not timeout.
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time. The
Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 has priority over your Connection settings.
Network
Address
Translation
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to the NAT
chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
Chapter 3 Wizard Setup for Internet Access
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3 Verify the settings in the screen shown next. To change the LAN information on the
Prestige, click Change LAN Configurations. Otherwise click Save Settings to save the
configuration and skip to the section 3.13.
Figure 14 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen
If you want to change your Prestige LAN settings, click Change LAN Configuration to
display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 15 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 10 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1 (factory default).
If you changed the Prestige's LAN IP address, you must use the new IP
address if you want to access the web configurator again.
LAN Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
DHCP
DHCP Server
From the DHCP Server drop-down list box, select On to allow your Prestige to
assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS servers to computer
systems that support the DHCP client. Select Off to disable DHCP server.
When DHCP server is used, set the following items:
Client IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address
pool.
Size of Client IP Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to
the DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Secondary DNS Server As above.
Back
Click Back to go back to the previous screen.
Finish
Click Finish to save the settings and proceed to the next wizard screen.
4 The Prestige automatically tests the connection to the computer(s) connected to the LAN
ports. To test the connection from the Prestige to the ISP, click Start Diagnose.
Otherwise click Return to Main Menu to go back to the Site Map screen.
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Figure 16 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Tests
5 Launch your web browser and navigate to www.zyxel.com. Internet access is just the
beginning. Refer to the rest of this guide for more detailed information on the complete
range of Prestige features. If you cannot access the Internet, open the web configurator
again to confirm that the Internet settings you configured in the Wizard Setup are correct.
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CHAPTER 4
Wizard Setup for Media
Bandwidth Management
This chapter shows you how to configure basic bandwidth management using the wizard
screens.
4.1 Introduction
The web configurator’s Media Bandwidth Magnt. screens under Wizard Setup allows you
to specify bandwidth classes based on an application (or service). You can allocate specific
amounts of bandwidth capacity (bandwidth budgets) to different bandwidth classes.
The Prestige applies bandwidth management to traffic that it forwards out through an
interface. The Prestige does not control the bandwidth of traffic that comes into an interface.
Bandwidth management applies to all traffic flowing out of the Prestige through the interface,
regardless of the traffic's source.
Traffic redirect or IP alias may cause LAN-to-LAN traffic to pass through the Prestige and be
managed by bandwidth management.
4.1.1 Predefined Media Bandwidth Management Services
The following is a description of the services that you can select and to which you can apply
media bandwidth management using the Wizard Setup screens.
Table 11 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
Xbox Live
This is Microsoft’s online gaming service that lets you play multiplayer Xbox games
on the Internet via broadband technology. Xbox Live uses port 3074.
VoIP (SIP)
Sending voice signals over the Internet is called Voice over IP or VoIP. Session
Initiated Protocol (SIP) is an internationally recognized standard for implementing
VoIP. SIP is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that handles the
setting up, altering and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the
Internet.
SIP is transported primarily over UDP but can also be transported over TCP, using
the default port number 5060.
FTP
File Transfer Program enables fast transfer of files, including large files that may
not be possible by e-mail. FTP uses port number 21.
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Table 11 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Services (continued)
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
E-Mail
Electronic mail consists of messages sent through a computer network to specific
groups or individuals. Here are some default ports for e-mail:
POP3 - port 110
IMAP - port 143
SMTP - port 25
HTTP - port 80
eMule
These programs use advanced file sharing applications relying on central servers
to search for files. They use default port 4662.
WWW
The World Wide Web (WWW) is an Internet system to distribute graphical, hyperlinked information, based on Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - a client/server
protocol for the World Wide Web. The Web is not synonymous with the Internet;
rather, it is just one service on the Internet. Other services on the Internet include
Internet Relay Chat and Newsgroups. The Web is accessed through use of a
browser.
4.2 Media Bandwidth Management Setup
1 Click Media Bandwidth Mgnt. under Wizard Setup in the SITE MAP screen.
Figure 17 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: First Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the Active check box to have the Prestige apply bandwidth management
to traffic going out through the Prestige’s WAN, LAN or WLAN port.
Select the service to These checkboxes are applicable when you select the Active check box above.
apply bandwidth
Create bandwidth management classes by selecting services from the list
management.
provided.
• XBox Live
• VoIP (SIP)
• FTP
• E-Mail
• eMule
• WWW
Refer to Table 13 on page 70for more information.
Next
Click Next to continue.
2 The Prestige automatically creates the bandwidth class for each service you select. You
may set the priority for each bandwidth class in the second wizard screen.
Figure 18 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Second Screen
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 13 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Second Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service
These fields display the service(s) selected in the previous screen.
Priority
Select High, Mid or Low priority for each service to have your Prestige use a priority
for traffic that matches that service.
If the rules set up in this wizard are changed in ADVANCED - Media Bandwidth
Mgnt. - Class Setup, then the service priority radio button will be set to Others.
The Class Configuration screen allow you to edit these rule configurations.
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Table 13 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Second Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Finish
Click Finish to complete and save the bandwidth management setup.
3 Well done! You have finished configuration of Media Bandwidth Management. You may
now continue configuring your device.
Click Return to Main Menu to return to the Site Map screen.
Figure 19 Media Bandwidth Mgnt. Wizard Setup: Finish
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CHAPTER 5
LAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure LAN settings and set up static DHCP.
5.1 LAN Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many computers
are attached. A LAN is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same
building or floor of a building. The LAN screens can help you configure a LAN DHCP server
and manage IP addresses.
5.1.1 LANs, WANs and the Prestige
The actual physical connection determines whether the Prestige ports are LAN or WAN ports.
There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN network and the other outside the
WAN network as shown next.
Figure 20 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
5.1.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Prestige
as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Prestige provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If you turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP
server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
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5.1.2.1 IP Pool Setup
The Prestige is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP clients (DHCP Pool).
See the product specifications in the appendices. Do not assign static IP addresses from the
DHCP pool to your LAN computers.
5.1.3 DNS Server Address
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address
and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the
IP address of a machine before you can access it. The DNS server addresses that you enter in
the DHCP setup are passed to the client machines along with the assigned IP address and
subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses. The first is for an ISP
to tell a customer the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when
s/he signs up. If your ISP gives you the DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server
fields in DHCP Setup, otherwise, leave them blank.
Some ISP’s choose to pass the DNS servers using the DNS server extensions of PPP IPCP (IP
Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If your ISP did not give you explicit DNS
servers, chances are the DNS servers are conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The Prestige
supports the IPCP DNS server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
If the Primary and Secondary DNS Server fields in the LAN Setup screen are not specified,
for instance, left as 0.0.0.0, the Prestige tells the DHCP clients that it itself is the DNS server.
When a computer sends a DNS query to the Prestige, the Prestige forwards the query to the
real DNS server learned through IPCP and relays the response back to the computer.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server extensions. It
does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP setup under all circumstances.
If your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make sure that you enter their IP addresses in the
LAN Setup screen. This way, the Prestige can pass the DNS servers to the computers and the
computers can query the DNS server directly without the Prestige’s intervention.
5.1.4 DNS Server Address Assignment
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP
address of a computer before you can access it.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet,
when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS
Server fields in the LAN Setup screen.
• The Prestige acts as a DNS proxy when the Primary and Secondary DNS Server fields
are left blank in the LAN Setup screen.
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5.2 LAN TCP/IP
The Prestige has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to
systems that support DHCP client capability.
5.2.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a
LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT)
feature of the Prestige. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block
of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are
told otherwise. Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254
individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other
words, the first three numbers specify the network number while the last number identifies an
individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember,
for instance, 192.168.1.1, for your Prestige, but make sure that no other device on your
network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Prestige will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the Prestige unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
5.2.1.1 Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
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You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets
and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
5.2.2 RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information with
other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets.
When set to:
• Both - the Prestige will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate the RIP
information that it receives.
• In Only - the Prestige will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP packets
received.
• Out Only - the Prestige will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP packets
received.
• None - the Prestige will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets
received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
Prestige sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported;
but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless
you have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that
RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
5.2.3 Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to
a group of hosts on the network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC
2236) is an improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP address is
used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address
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224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers. The address
224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP.
The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The Prestige supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP version 2 (IGMP-v2). At
start up, the Prestige queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership.
After that, the Prestige periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/
disabled on the Prestige LAN and/or WAN interfaces in the web configurator (LAN; WAN).
Select None to disable IP multicasting on these interfaces.
5.2.4 Any IP
Traditionally, you must set the IP addresses and the subnet masks of a computer and the
Prestige to be in the same subnet to allow the computer to access the Internet (through the
Prestige). In cases where your computer is required to use a static IP address in another
network, you may need to manually configure the network settings of the computer every time
you want to access the Internet via the Prestige.
With the Any IP feature and NAT enabled, the Prestige allows a computer to access the
Internet without changing the network settings (such as IP address and subnet mask) of the
computer, when the IP addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
Whether a computer is set to use a dynamic or static (fixed) IP address, you can simply
connect the computer to the Prestige and access the Internet.
The following figure depicts a scenario where a computer is set to use a static private IP
address in the corporate environment. In a residential house where a Prestige is installed, you
can still use the computer to access the Internet without changing the network settings, even
when the IP addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
Figure 21 Any IP Example
The Any IP feature does not apply to a computer using either a dynamic IP address or a static
IP address that is in the same subnet as the Prestige’s IP address.
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Note: You must enable NAT/SUA to use the Any IP feature on the Prestige.
5.2.4.1 How Any IP Works
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC
address, on the local area network. IP routing table is defined on IP Ethernet devices (the
Prestige) to decide which hop to use, to help forward data along to its specified destination.
The following lists out the steps taken, when a computer tries to access the Internet for the first
time through the Prestige.
1 When a computer (which is in a different subnet) first attempts to access the Internet, it
sends packets to its default gateway (which is not the Prestige) by looking at the MAC
address in its ARP table.
2 When the computer cannot locate the default gateway, an ARP request is broadcast on the
LAN.
3 The Prestige receives the ARP request and replies to the computer with its own MAC
address.
4 The computer updates the MAC address for the default gateway to the ARP table. Once
the ARP table is updated, the computer is able to access the Internet through the Prestige.
5 When the Prestige receives packets from the computer, it creates an entry in the IP
routing table so it can properly forward packets intended for the computer.
After all the routing information is updated, the computer can access the Prestige and the
Internet as if it is in the same subnet as the Prestige.
5.2.5 Configuring LAN
Click LAN and LAN Setup to open the following screen.
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Figure 22 LAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 14 LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
DHCP
If set to Server, your Prestige can assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway
and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems that support
the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the Prestige acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays DHCP
requests and responses between the remote server and the clients. Enter the IP
address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the Remote DHCP Server field in
this case.
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
Client IP Pool
Starting Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Size of Client IP
Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to the
DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
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Table 14 LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Secondary DNS
Server
As above.
Remote DHCP
Server
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP address of the
actual remote DHCP server here.
TCP/IP
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1 (factory default).
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to you by your ISP (if given).
RIP Direction
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a multicast group. The Prestige supports both IGMP
version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP-v2. Select None to disable it.
Any IP Setup
Select the Active check box to enable the Any IP feature. This allows a computer
to access the Internet without changing the network settings (such as IP address
and subnet mask) of the computer, even when the IP addresses of the computer
and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
When you disable the Any IP feature, only computers with dynamic IP addresses
or static IP addresses in the same subnet as the Prestige’s LAN IP address can
connect to the Prestige or access the Internet through the Prestige.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.3 Configuring Static DHCP
This table allows you to assign fixed private IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual
computers based on their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
To change your Prestige’s static DHCP settings, click LAN, then the Static DHCP tab. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 23 LAN: Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 LAN: Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the Static IP table entry (row).
MAC Address
Type the MAC address (with colons) of a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 6
Wireless LAN (Prestige 661HW)
This chapter discusses how to configure Wireless LAN.
6.1 Introduction
A wireless LAN can be as simple as two computers with wireless LAN adapters
communicating in a peer-to-peer network or as complex as a number of computers with
wireless LAN adapters communicating through access points which bridge network traffic to
the wired LAN.
Note: See the WLAN appendix for more detailed information on WLANs.
6.2 Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
stations, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the Prestige are data encryption, wireless client
authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding the Prestige identity.
6.2.1 Encryption
• Use WPA security if you have WPA-aware wireless clients and a RADIUS server. WPA
has user authentication and improved data encryption over WEP.
• Use WPA-PSK if you have WPA-aware wireless clients but no RADIUS server.
• If you don’t have WPA-aware wireless clients, then use WEP key encrypting. A higher
bit key offers better security at a throughput trade-off. You can use Passphrase to
automatically generate 64-bit or 128-bit WEP keys or manually enter 64-bit, 128-bit or
256-bit WEP keys.
6.2.2 Authentication
WPA has user authentication and you can also configure IEEE 802.1x to use the built-in
database (Local User Database) or a RADIUS server to authenticate wireless clients before
joining your network.
• Use RADIUS authentication if you have a RADIUS server. See the appendices for
information on protocols used when a client authenticates with a RADIUS server via the
Prestige.
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• Use the Local User Database if you have less than 32 wireless clients in your network.
The Prestige uses MD5 encryption when a client authenticates with the Local User
Database
6.2.3 Restricted Access
The MAC Filter screen allows you to configure the AP to give exclusive access to devices
(Allow Association) or exclude them from accessing the AP (Deny Association).
6.2.4 Hide Prestige Identity
If you hide the ESSID, then the Prestige cannot be seen when a wireless client scans for local
APs. The trade-off for the extra security of “hiding” the Prestige may be inconvenience for
some valid WLAN clients. If you don’t hide the ESSID, at least you should change the default
one.
6.2.5 Configuring Wireless LAN on the Prestige
1 Configure the ESSID
and WEP in the
Wireless screen. If you
configure WEP, you
can’t configure WPA or
WPA-PSK.
2 Use the MAC Filter
screen to restrict access
to your wireless
network by MAC
address.
3 Configure WPA or
WPA-PSK in the
802.1x/WPA screen.
You can also configure 802.1x wireless client authentication in the 802.1x/WPA screen.
4 Configure the RADIUS authentication database settings in the RADIUS screen.
5 Configure the built-in authentication database in the Local User Database screen.
6 If you have OTIST-enabled clients, configure OTIST in the OTIST screen. OTIST
transfers device SSID and WEP or WPA-PSK key settings (if enabled) to wireless
clients.
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security methods
available on your Prestige.
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Figure 24 Wireless Security Methods
Note: You must enable the same wireless security settings on the Prestige and on all
wireless clients that you want to associate with it.
If you do not enable any wireless security on your Prestige, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
6.3 Configuring the Wireless Screen
6.3.1 WEP Encryption
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access
points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast
communications in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the
same WEP key.
Your Prestige allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 256-bit WEP keys but only
one key can be enabled at any one time.
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption; click Wireless LAN and Wireless to the
display the Wireless screen.
6.3.2 Wireless g+
Wireless g+ combines multiple frames into a larger frame size, thus allowing super-fast
wireless transmission speeds.
Wireless g+ speed applies only to unicast traffic (not broadcast or multicast). Wireless g+ is
automatically disabled if wireless transmission speeds fall below 11 Mbps.
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Figure 25 Wireless Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Wireless LAN
85
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Wireless
LAN
You should configure some wireless security (see Figure 24 on page 84) when you
enable the wireless LAN. Select the check box to enable the wireless LAN.
Enable Wireless
g+
Select this checkbox to allow the Prestige to transmit at super fast transmission
rates (actual speed depends on environment) among Wireless g+ enabled access
points and wireless clients.
ESSID
The ESSID (Extended Service Set IDentification) is a unique name to identify the
Prestige in the wireless LAN. Wireless stations associating to the Prestige must
have the same ESSID.
Enter a descriptive name of up to 32 printable characters (including spaces;
alphabetic characters are case-sensitive).
Hide ESSID
Select Yes to hide the ESSID in so a station cannot obtain the ESSID through AP
scanning.
Select No to make the ESSID visible so a station can obtain the ESSID through AP
scanning.
Channel ID
The radio frequency used by IEEE 802.11a, b or g wireless devices is called a
channel.
Select a channel from the drop-down list box.
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Table 16 Wireless LAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS
Threshold
The RTS (Request To Send) threshold (number of bytes) is for enabling RTS/CTS.
Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake.
Setting this value to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC service data unit)
size turns off RTS/CTS. Setting this value to zero turns on RTS/CTS.
Select the check box to change the default value and enter a new value between 0
and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent.
Select the check box to change the default value and enter a value between 256
and 2432.
You won’t see the following WEP-related fields if you have WPA or WPA-PSK enabled.
Passphrase
Enter a "passphrase" (password phrase) of up to 63 case-sensitive printable
characters and click Generate to have the Prestige create four different WEP keys.
At the time of writing, you cannot use passphrase to generate 256-bit WEP keys.
Generate
After you enter the passphrase, click Generate to have the Prestige generate four
different WEP keys automatically. The keys display in the fields below.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the
wireless network.
Select Disable to allow all wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 256-bit WEP to use data encryption.
Key 1 to Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the Prestige and the wireless stations
must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you want to manually set the WEP keys, enter the key in the field provided.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 256-bit WEP, then enter 29 ASCII characters or 58 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
The values for the WEP keys must be set up exactly the same on all wireless
devices in the same wireless LAN.
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be used at any one time. The
default key is key 1.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: If you are configuring the Prestige from a computer connected to the wireless
LAN and you change the Prestige’s ESSID or security settings (see Figure 24
on page 84), you will lose your wireless connection when you press Apply to
confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of your computer to match
the Prestige’s new settings.
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6.4 Configuring MAC Filters
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC addresses of the devices to configure this
screen. To change your Prestige’s MAC filter settings, click Wireless LAN, MAC Filter to
open the MAC Filter screen. The screen appears as shown.
Note: Be careful not to list your computer’s MAC address and set the Action field to
Deny Association when managing the Prestige via a wireless connection.
This would lock you out.
Figure 26 MAC Address Filter
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 17 MAC Address Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select Yes from the drop down list box to enable MAC address filtering.
Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address table.
Select Deny Association to block access to the router, MAC addresses not listed will
be allowed to access the Prestige. Select Allow Association to permit access to the
router, MAC addresses not listed will be denied access to the Prestige.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC addresses in a valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal
character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc of the wireless stations that are
allowed or denied access to the Prestige in these address fields.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.5 Introduction to WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA is preferred to
WEP as WPA has user authentication and improved data encryption. See the appendix for
more information on WPA user authentication and WPA encryption.
If you don’t have an external RADIUS server, you should use WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared
Key). WPA-PSK only requires a single (identical) password entered into each WLAN
member. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to a WLAN.
Note: You can’t use the Local User Database for authentication when you select
WPA.
6.5.1 WPA-PSK Application Example
A WPA-PSK application looks as follows.
1 First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key
(PSK) must be between 8 and 63 printable characters (including spaces; alphabetic
characters are case-sensitive).
2 The AP checks each client’s password and (only) allows it to join the network if the
passwords match.
3 The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
4 The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP encryption process to encrypt data exchanged
between them.
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Figure 27 WPA - PSK Authentication
6.5.2 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address, port number (default is 1812) and shared secret of a RADIUS server.
A WPA application example with an external RADIUS server looks as follows. "A" is the
RADIUS server. "DS" is the distribution system (wired link to the LAN).
1 The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2 The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants
or denies network access accordingly.
3 The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
transmitted between the AP and the wireless clients
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Figure 28 WPA with RADIUS Application Example2
6.5.3 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the
wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicants
are the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client, and Meetinghouse Data
Communications' AEGIS client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's builtin "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
6.6 Configuring IEEE 802.1x and WPA
To change your Prestige’s authentication settings, click the Wireless LAN link under
Advanced Setup and then the 802.1x/WPA tab. The screen varies by the key management
protocol you select.
You see the next screens when you select No Access Allowed or No Authentication
Required in the Wireless Port Control field.
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Figure 29 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Access Allowed
Figure 30 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Authentication
The following table describes the label in these screens.
Table 18 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: No Access/Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
To control wireless station access to the wired network, select a control method from
the drop-down list box. Choose from No Access Allowed, No Authentication
Required and Authentication Required.
No Access Allowed blocks all wireless stations access to the wired network.
No Authentication Required allows all wireless stations access to the wired network
without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default setting.
Authentication Required means that all wireless stations have to enter usernames
and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select Authentication Required to configure Key Management Protocol and other
related fields.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.6.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x
You need the following for IEEE 802.1x authentication.
• A computer with an IEEE 802.11 a/b/g wireless LAN adapter and equipped with a web
browser (with JavaScript enabled) and/or Telnet.
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• A wireless station computer must be running IEEE 802.1x-compliant software. Not all
Windows operating systems support IEEE 802.1x (see the Microsoft web site for details).
For other operating systems, see their documentation. If your operating system does not
support IEEE 802.1x, then you may need to install IEEE 802.1x client software.
• An optional network RADIUS server for remote user authentication and accounting.
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and 802.1x in the Key
Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
Figure 31 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: 802.1xl
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
To control wireless station access to the wired network, select a control method
from the drop-down list box. Choose from No Authentication Required,
Authentication Required and No Access Allowed.
The following fields are only available when you select Authentication Required.
ReAuthentication
Timer
(in Seconds)
Specify how often wireless stations have to reenter usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected. This field is activated only when you select
Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
(in Seconds)
The Prestige automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
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Table 19 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose 802.1x from the drop-down list.
Dynamic WEP Key This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Exchange
Wireless Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to
RADIUS Only. Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without using dynamic WEP key exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 256-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the Prestige when you configure dynamic WEP key
exchange.
This field is not available when you set Key Management Protocol to WPA or
WPA-PSK.
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the Prestige. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this drop-down list box to select which database the Prestige should
use (first) to authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
Select Local User Database Only to have the Prestige just check the built-in user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the Prestige just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the Prestige first check the user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password. If the
user name is not found, the Prestige then checks the user database on the
specified RADIUS server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the Prestige first check the user
database on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and
password. If the Prestige cannot reach the RADIUS server, the Prestige then
checks the local user database on the Prestige. When the user name is not found
or password does not match in the RADIUS server, the Prestige will not check the
local user database and the authentication fails.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS
server or create local user accounts on the Prestige for authentication.
6.6.2 Authentication Required: WPA
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA in the Key
Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
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Figure 32 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 20 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA in this field.
WPA Mixed Mode
The Prestige can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients
running WPA and clients running dynamic WEP key exchange with 802.1x in the
same Wi-Fi network.
Select the check box to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, clear the check
box and configure the Group Data Privacy field.
Group Data Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast ("group") traffic if the Key Management Protocol is
WPA and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have
enabled WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK
Key Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Group Key
Update Timer
The WPA Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPAPSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management)
sends a new group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA
equivalent of automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a
WLAN on a periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Group Key Update Timer is also
supported in WPA-PSK mode. The Prestige default is 1800 seconds (30
minutes).
Authentication
Databases
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
Only with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
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6.6.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA-PSK in the
Key Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
Figure 33 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA:WPA-PSK
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed.
Table 21 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA: WPA-PSK
95
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA-PSK in this field.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 printable characters (including spaces;
alphabetic characters are case-sensitive).
WPA Mixed Mode
The Prestige can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients
running WPA and clients running dynamic WEP key exchange with 802.1x in the
same Wi-Fi network.
Select the check box to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, clear the check
box and configure the Group Data Privacy field.
Group Data Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast ("group") traffic if the Key Management Protocol is
WPA and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have
enabled WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK
Key Management Protocol is selected.
Authentication
Databases
This field is only visible when WPA Mixed Mode is enabled.
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6.7 Configuring Local User Authentication
By storing user profiles locally, your Prestige is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server. However, there is a limit on the number of users
you may authenticate in this way.
To change your Prestige’s local user database, click Wireless LAN, Local User Database.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 34 Local User Database
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 22 Local User Database
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of a local user account.
Active
Select this check box to enable the user profile.
User Name
Enter a user name of up to 31 alphanumeric characters (case-sensitive), hyphens ('-')
and underscores ('_') if you’re using MD5 encryption and maximum 14 if you’re using
PEAP.
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Table 22 Local User Database (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Password
Enter a password of up to 31 printable characters (including spaces; alphabetic
characters are case-sensitive) if you’re using MD5 encryption and maximum 14 if you’re
using PEAP.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save these settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen again.
6.8 Configuring RADIUS
To set up your Prestige’s RADIUS server settings, click WIRELESS LAN, RADIUS. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 35 RADIUS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 23 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
97
Active
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable user authentication
through an external authentication server.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
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Table 23 RADIUS (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external authentication server and Prestige.
Accounting Server
Active
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable user authentication
through an external accounting server.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external accounting server and the Prestige.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save these settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen again.
6.9 Introduction to OTIST
In a wireless network, the wireless clients must have the same SSID and security settings as
the access point (AP) or wireless router (we will refer to both as “AP” here) in order to
associate with it. Traditionally this meant that you had to configure the settings on the AP and
then manually configure the exact same settings on each wireless client.
OTIST (One-Touch Intelligent Security Technology) allows you to transfer your AP’s SSID
and WEP or WPA-PSK security settings to wireless clients that support OTIST and are within
transmission range. You can also choose to have OTIST generate a WPA-PSK key for you if
you didn’t configure one manually.
Note: OTIST replaces the pre-configured wireless settings on the wireless clients.
6.9.1 Enabling OTIST
You must enable OTIST on both the AP and wireless client before you start transferring
settings.
Note: The AP and wireless client(s) MUST use the same Setup key.
6.9.1.1 AP
You can enable OTIST using the Reset button or the web configurator.
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6.9.1.1.1 Reset button
If you use the Reset button, the default (01234567) or previous saved (through the web
configurator) Setup key is used to encrypt the settings that you want to transfer.
Hold in the Reset button for one or two seconds.
Note: If you hold in the Reset button too long, the device will reset to the factory
defaults!
6.9.1.1.2 Web Configurator
Click WIRELESS LAN, OTIST to display the next screen.
Figure 36 OTIST
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 24 OTIST
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key
Enter the setup key up to eight printable characters. The default OTIST setup key is
"01234567".
Note: If you change the OTIST setup key here, you must also make the
same change on the wireless client(s).
99
Yes!
To have OTIST automatically generate a WPA-PSK key, select this check box. If you
manually configured a WEP key or a WPA-PSK key and you also select this check box,
then the key you manually configured is used.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Start
Click Start to encrypt the wireless security data using the setup key and have the
Prestige set the wireless station to use the same wireless settings as the Prestige. You
must also activate and start OTIST on the wireless station at the same time.
The process takes three minutes to complete.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen again.
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6.9.1.2 Wireless Client
Start the ZyXEL utility and click the Adapter tab. Select the OTIST check box, enter the
same Setup Key as your AP’s and click Save.
Figure 37 Example Wireless Client OTIST Screen
6.9.2 Starting OTIST
Note: You must click Start in the AP OTIST web configurator screen and in the
wireless client(s) Adapter screen all within three minutes (at the time or
writing). You can start OTIST in the wireless clients and AP in any order but
they must all be within range and have OTIST enabled.
1 In the AP, a web configurator screen pops Figure 38 Security Key
up showing you the security settings to
transfer. After reviewing the settings, click
OK.
2 This screen appears while OTIST settings are being transferred. It closes when the
transfer is complete.
Figure 39 OTIST in Progress (Prestige)
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Figure 40 OTIST in Progress (Client)
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•
In the wireless client, you see this screen Figure 41 No AP with OTIST Found
if it can't find an OTIST-enabled AP
(with the same Setup key). Click OK to
go back to the ZyXEL utility main
screen.
•
If there is more than one OTIST-enabled AP within range, you see a screen asking
you to select one AP to get settings from.
6.9.3 Notes on OTIST
1 If you enabled OTIST in the wireless client, you see this screen each time you start the
utility. Click Yes for it to search for an OTIST-enabled AP.
Figure 42 Start OTIST?
2 If an OTIST-enabled wireless client loses its wireless connection for more than ten
seconds, it will search for an OTIST-enabled AP for up to one minute. (If you manually
have the wireless client search for an OTIST-enabled AP, there is no timeout; click
Cancel in the OTIST progress screen to stop the search.)
3 When the wireless client finds an OTIST-enabled AP, you must still click Start in the AP
OTIST web configurator screen or hold in the Reset button (for one or two seconds) for
the AP to transfer settings.
4 If you change the SSID or the keys on the AP after using OTIST, you need to run OTIST
again or enter them manually in the wireless client(s).
5 If you configure OTIST to generate a WPA-PSK key, this key changes each time you run
OTIST. Therefore, if a new wireless client joins your wireless network, you need to run
OTIST on the AP and ALL wireless clients again.
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CHAPTER 7
WAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure WAN settings.
7.1 WAN Overview
A WAN (Wide Area Network) is an outside connection to another network or the Internet.
7.1.1 Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The Prestige supports the
following methods.
7.1.1.1 ENET ENCAP
The MAC Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) is only implemented with the
IP network protocol. IP packets are routed between the Ethernet interface and the WAN
interface and then formatted so that they can be understood in a bridged environment. For
instance, it encapsulates routed Ethernet frames into bridged ATM cells. ENET ENCAP
requires that you specify a gateway IP address in the ENET ENCAP Gateway field in the
second wizard screen. You can get this information from your ISP.
7.1.1.2 PPP over Ethernet
PPPoE provides access control and billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services
using PPP. The Prestige bridges a PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC 2516)
from your computer to an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) which connects to ADSL
Access Concentrator where the PPP session terminates. One PVC can support any number of
PPP sessions from your LAN. For more information on PPPoE, see the appendices.
7.1.1.3 PPPoA
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A PPPoA
connection functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The Prestige encapsulates the PPP
session based on RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) to
the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (digital access multiplexer). Please refer to RFC
2364 for more information on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
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7.1.1.4 RFC 1483
RFC 1483 describes two methods for Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation
Layer 5 (AAL5). The first method allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single
ATM virtual circuit (LLC-based multiplexing) and the second method assumes that each
protocol is carried over a separate ATM virtual circuit (VC-based multiplexing). Please refer
to the RFC for more detailed information.
7.1.2 Multiplexing
There are two conventions to identify what protocols the virtual circuit (VC) is carrying. Be
sure to use the multiplexing method required by your ISP.
7.1.2.1 VC-based Multiplexing
In this case, by prior mutual agreement, each protocol is assigned to a specific virtual circuit;
for example, VC1 carries IP, etc. VC-based multiplexing may be dominant in environments
where dynamic creation of large numbers of ATM VCs is fast and economical.
7.1.2.2 LLC-based Multiplexing
In this case one VC carries multiple protocols with protocol identifying information being
contained in each packet header. Despite the extra bandwidth and processing overhead, this
method may be advantageous if it is not practical to have a separate VC for each carried
protocol, for example, if charging heavily depends on the number of simultaneous VCs.
7.1.3 VPI and VCI
Be sure to use the correct Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)
numbers assigned to you. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255 and for the VCI is 32 to
65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM traffic). Please see the appendix for
more information.
7.1.4 IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP assigns you
a different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be enabled or disabled if you
have either a dynamic or static IP. However the encapsulation method assigned influences
your choices for IP address and ENET ENCAP gateway.
7.1.4.1 IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation
If you have a dynamic IP, then the IP Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields are not
applicable (N/A). If you have a static IP, then you only need to fill in the IP Address field and
not the ENET ENCAP Gateway field.
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7.1.4.2 IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation
In this case the IP Address Assignment must be static with the same requirements for the IP
Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields as stated above.
7.1.4.3 IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation
In this case you can have either a static or dynamic IP. For a static IP you must fill in all the IP
Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields as supplied by your ISP. However for a
dynamic IP, the Prestige acts as a DHCP client on the WAN port and so the IP Address and
ENET ENCAP Gateway fields are not applicable (N/A) as the DHCP server assigns them to
the Prestige.
7.1.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP)
A nailed-up connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up regardless of traffic
demand. The Prestige does two things when you specify a nailed-up connection. The first is
that idle timeout is disabled. The second is that the Prestige will try to bring up the connection
when turned on and whenever the connection is down. A nailed-up connection can be very
expensive for obvious reasons.
Do not specify a nailed-up connection unless your telephone company offers flat-rate service
or you need a constant connection and the cost is of no concern
7.1.6 NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a
host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one
network to a different IP address known within another network.
7.2 Metric
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route for
transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop count as the
measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected networks. The number
must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15" means the link is down. The
smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
The metric sets the priority for the Prestige’s routes to the Internet. If any two of the default
routes have the same metric, the Prestige uses the following pre-defined priorities:
• Normal route: designated by the ISP (see Section 7.6 on page 107)
• Traffic-redirect route (see Section 7.7 on page 110)
• WAN-backup route, also called dial-backup (see Section 7.8 on page 111)
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For example, if the normal route has a metric of "1" and the traffic-redirect route has a metric
of "2" and dial-backup route has a metric of "3", then the normal route acts as the primary
default route. If the normal route fails to connect to the Internet, the Prestige tries the trafficredirect route next. In the same manner, the Prestige uses the dial-backup route if the trafficredirect route also fails.
If you want the dial-backup route to take first priority over the traffic-redirect route or even the
normal route, all you need to do is set the dial-backup route’s metric to "1" and the others to
"2" (or greater).
IP Policy Routing overrides the default routing behavior and takes priority over all of the
routes mentioned above.
7.3 PPPoE Encapsulation
The Prestige supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is an IETF Draft
standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband
modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection
using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with
existing access control systems (for example Radius). PPPoE provides a login and
authentication method that the existing Microsoft Dial-Up Networking software can activate,
and therefore requires no new learning or procedures for Windows users.
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network services,
a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily
create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as it requires
no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the Prestige (rather than individual computers), the
computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the Prestige does that part
of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of the LANs’ computers will have access.
7.4 Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping is an agreement between the carrier and the subscriber to regulate the average
rate and fluctuations of data transmission over an ATM network. This agreement helps
eliminate congestion, which is important for transmission of real time data such as audio and
video connections.
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Peak Cell Rate (PCR) is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. This parameter
may be lower (but not higher) than the maximum line speed. 1 ATM cell is 53 bytes (424 bits),
so a maximum speed of 832Kbps gives a maximum PCR of 1962 cells/sec. This rate is not
guaranteed because it is dependent on the line speed.
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) is the mean cell rate of each bursty traffic source. It specifies the
maximum average rate at which cells can be sent over the virtual connection. SCR may not be
greater than the PCR.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the PCR.
After MBS is reached, cell rates fall below SCR until cell rate averages to the SCR again. At
this time, more cells (up to the MBS) can be sent at the PCR again.
If the PCR, SCR or MBS is set to the default of "0", the system will assign a maximum value
that correlates to your upstream line rate.
The following figure illustrates the relationship between PCR, SCR and MBS.
Figure 43 Example of Traffic Shaping
7.5 Zero Configuration Internet Access
Once you turn on and connect the Prestige to a telephone jack, it automatically detects the
Internet connection settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method)
from the ISP and makes the necessary configuration changes. In cases where additional
account information (such as an Internet account user name and password) is required or the
Prestige cannot connect to the ISP, you will be redirected to web screen(s) for information
input or troubleshooting.
Zero configuration for Internet access is disable when
• the Prestige is in bridge mode
• you set the Prestige to use a static (fixed) WAN IP address.
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7.6 Configuring WAN Setup
To change your Prestige’s WAN remote node settings, click WAN and WAN Setup. The
screen differs by the encapsulation.
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Figure 44 WAN Setup (PPPoE)
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 25 WAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter the name of your Internet Service Provider, e.g., MyISP. This information is
for identification purposes only.
Mode
Select Routing (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP allows multiple
computers to share an Internet account. Otherwise select Bridge.
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Table 25 WAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the drop-down list
box. Choices vary depending on the mode you select in the Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or RFC 1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483, ENET
ENCAP or PPPoE.
Multiplex
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list.
Choices are VC or LLC.
Virtual Circuit ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define a virtual
circuit. Refer to the appendix for more information.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for
voice or data traffic. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select VBR (Variable Bit Rate) for bursty
traffic and bandwidth sharing with other applications.
Cell Rate
Cell rate configuration often helps eliminate traffic congestion that slows
transmission of real time data such as audio and video connections.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak
Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells.
Type the PCR here.
Sustain Cell Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system
default is 0 cells/sec.
Maximum Burst Size Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be
sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
Login Information
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only)
Service Name
(PPPoE only) Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
User Name
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the
form user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter both
components exactly as given.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is
not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the
Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in
the IP Address field below.
Connection
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 have priority over your Connection
(PPPoA and PPPoE settings.
encapsulation only)
Nailed-Up
Connection
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Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time.
The Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
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Table 25 WAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Connect on Demand Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time
and specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Max Idle Timeout
Specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field when you select Connect
on Demand. The default setting is 0, which means the Internet session will not
timeout.
PPPoE Passthrough This field is available when you select PPPoE encapsulation.
(PPPoE
In addition to the Prestige's built-in PPPoE client, you can enable PPPoE pass
encapsulation only) through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client software on their
computers to connect to the ISP via the Prestige. Each host can have a separate
account and a public WAN IP address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for application where NAT is not
appropriate.
Disable PPPoE pass through if you do not need to allow hosts on the LAN to use
PPPoE client software on their computers to connect to the ISP.
Subnet Mask
(ENET ENCAP
encapsulation only)
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to the appendices to calculate a subnet mask If you are implementing
subnetting.
ENET ENCAP
Gateway
(ENET ENCAP
encapsulation only)
You must specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP) when you select
ENET ENCAP in the Encapsulation field
Zero Configuration
This feature is not applicable/available when you configure the Prestige to use a
static WAN IP address or in bridge mode.
Select Yes to set the Prestige to automatically detect the Internet connection
settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method) from the
ISP and make the necessary configuration changes.
Select No to disable this feature. You must manually configure the Prestige for
Internet access.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.7 Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards traffic to a backup gateway when the Prestige cannot connect to the
Internet. An example is shown in the figure below.
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Figure 45 Traffic Redirect Example
The following network topology allows you to avoid triangle route security issues when the
backup gateway is connected to the LAN. Use IP alias to configure the LAN into two or three
logical networks with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Put the
protected LAN in one subnet (Subnet 1 in the following figure) and the backup gateway in
another subnet (Subnet 2). Configure filters that allow packets from the protected LAN
(Subnet 1) to the backup gateway (Subnet 2).
Figure 46 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup
7.8 Configuring WAN Backup
To change your Prestige’s WAN backup settings, click WAN, then WAN Backup. The screen
appears as shown.
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Figure 47 WAN Backup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 26 WAN Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Backup Type
Select the method that the Prestige uses to check the DSL connection.
Select DSL Link to have the Prestige check if the connection to the DSLAM is up.
Select ICMP to have the Prestige periodically ping the IP addresses configured in
the Check WAN IP Address fields.
Check WAN IP
Address1-3
Configure this field to test your Prestige's WAN accessibility. Type the IP address of
a reliable nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server address).
Note: If you activate either traffic redirect, you must configure at
least one IP address here.
When using a WAN backup connection, the Prestige periodically pings the
addresses configured here and uses the other WAN backup connection (if
configured) if there is no response.
Fail Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your Prestige may ping the IP
addresses configured in the Check WAN IP Address field without getting a
response before switching to a WAN backup connection (or a different WAN
backup connection).
Recovery Interval When the Prestige is using a lower priority connection (usually a WAN backup
connection), it periodically checks to whether or not it can use a higher priority
connection.
Type the number of seconds (30 recommended) for the Prestige to wait between
checks. Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of traffic.
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Table 26 WAN Backup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Timeout
Type the number of seconds (3 recommended) for your Prestige to wait for a ping
response from one of the IP addresses in the Check WAN IP Address field before
timing out the request. The WAN connection is considered "down" after the Prestige
times out the number of times specified in the Fail Tolerance field. Use a higher
value in this field if your network is busy or congested.
Traffic Redirect
Active
Select this check box to have the Prestige use traffic redirect if the normal WAN
connection goes down.
Note: If you activate traffic redirect, you must configure at least one
Check WAN IP Address.
113
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the Prestige uses.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route
for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected
networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15"
means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
Backup Gateway
Type the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation. The
Prestige automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the Prestige's Internet
connection terminates.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 8
Network Address Translation
(NAT) Screens
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Prestige.
8.1 NAT Overview
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a
host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one
network to a different IP address known within another network.
8.1.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Prestige, for example, the
computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are
the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP
address of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an
inside host in a packet when the packet is still in the local network, while an inside global
address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside host when the packet is on the WAN side.
The following table summarizes this information.
Table 27 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
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8.1.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a
subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding
the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination
address (the inside global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the
original inside host. Note that the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never
changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the
ISP. In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web server and a telnet server, on
your local network and make them accessible to the outside world. If you do not define any
servers (for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping – see Table 28 on page 117),
NAT offers the additional benefit of firewall protection. With no servers defined, your
Prestige filters out all incoming inquiries, thus preventing intruders from probing your
network. For more information on IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network
Address Translator (NAT).
8.1.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing
packets, the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside
Global Address) is the source address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the
destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is the destination address on the WAN. NAT
maps private (local) IP addresses to globally unique ones required for communication with
hosts on other networks. It replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source
port numbers for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet
and then forwards it to the Internet. The Prestige keeps track of the original addresses and port
numbers so incoming reply packets can have their original values restored. The following
figure illustrates this.
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Figure 48 How NAT Works
8.1.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical
LANs using IP Alias) behind the Prestige can communicate with three distinct WAN
networks. More examples follow at the end of this chapter.
Figure 49 NAT Application With IP Alias
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8.1.5 NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
• One to One: In One-to-One mode, the Prestige maps one local IP address to one global
IP address.
• Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the Prestige maps multiple local IP addresses to
one global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (for instance, PAT, port address
translation), ZyXEL’s Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers
supported (the SUA Only option in today’s routers).
• Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the Prestige maps the
multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: In Many-to-Many No Overload mode, the Prestige maps
each local IP address to a unique global IP address.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the
NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Port numbers do not change for One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload NAT
mapping types.
The following table summarizes these types.
Table 28 NAT Mapping Types
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TYPE
IP MAPPING
SMT ABBREVIATION
One-to-One
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
1:1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA1
…
M:1
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA1
ILA4ÅÆ IGA2
…
M:M Ov
Many-to-Many No Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA3
…
M:M No OV
Server
Server 1 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 2 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 3 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server
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8.2 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports two
types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. The Prestige also supports Full Feature NAT
to map multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers
using mapping types as outlined in Table 28 on page 117.
• Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
• Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
8.3 SUA Server
A SUA server set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or
FTP, that you can make visible to the outside world even though SUA makes your whole
inside network appear as a single computer to the outside world.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local
IP address of the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web
service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or
where one server can support more than one service (for example both FTP and web service),
it might be better to specify a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that
corresponds to a port or a range of ports.
Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server processes (such
as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may periodically check for servers and
may suspend your account if it discovers any active services at your location. If you are
unsure, refer to your ISP.
8.3.1 Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A
default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
If you do not assign an IP address in Server Set 1 (default server) the Prestige discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
8.3.2 Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700
for further information about port numbers.
Table 29 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
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Table 29 Services and Port Numbers (continued)
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
8.3.3 Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the
example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of
192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP
assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
IP address assigned by ISP.
Figure 50 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
8.4 Selecting the NAT Mode
You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow traffic from the
WAN to be forwarded through the Prestige.
Click NAT to open the following screen.
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Figure 51 NAT Mode
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 NAT Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this radio button to disable NAT.
SUA Only
Select this radio button if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
The Prestige uses Address Mapping Set 1 in the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
screen.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set screen.
Full Feature
Select this radio button if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Address Mapping Rules screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your configuration.
8.5 Configuring SUA Server
If you do not assign an IP address in Server Set 1 (default server) the Prestige discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
Click NAT, select SUA Only and click Edit Details to open the following screen.
Refer to Table 29 on page 118 for port numbers commonly used for particular services.
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Figure 52 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 31 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Port No.
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the End Port No. field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the end port
number in the End Port No. field.
End Port No.
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the Start Port No. field
above and then enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that begins with
the port number in the Start Port No. field above.
Server IP Address Enter your server IP address in this field.
121
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
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8.6 Configuring Address Mapping
Ordering your rules is important because the Prestige applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the Prestige takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9. Now if you delete rule
4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so old rules 5, 6 and 7 become new rules 4, 5 and 6.
To change your Prestige’s address mapping settings, click NAT, Select Full Feature and click
Edit Details to open the following screen.
Figure 53 Address Mapping Rules
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 32 Address Mapping Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Start IP
This is the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for
Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP addresses,
then this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255
as the Local End IP address. This field is N/A for One-to-one and Server mapping
types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a
dynamic IP address from your ISP. You can only do this for Many-to-One and
Server mapping types.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-one,
Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
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Table 32 Address Mapping Rules (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
1-1: One-to-one mode maps one local IP address to one global IP address. Note that
port numbers do not change for the One-to-one NAT mapping type.
M-1: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP address.
This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), ZyXEL's Single User
Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers supported only.
M-M Ov (Overload): Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local IP addresses
to shared global IP addresses.
MM No (No Overload): Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps each local IP
address to unique global IP addresses.
Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the
NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Back
Click Back to return to the NAT Mode screen.
8.7 Editing an Address Mapping Rule
To edit an address mapping rule, click the rule’s link in the NAT Address Mapping Rules
screen to display the screen shown next.
Figure 54 Address Mapping Rule Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 33 Address Mapping Rule Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the port mapping type from one of the following.
• One-to-One: One-to-One mode maps one local IP address to one global IP
address. Note that port numbers do not change for One-to-one NAT mapping
type.
• Many-to-One: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one
global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation),
ZyXEL's Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers supported
only.
• Many-to-Many Overload: Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local IP
addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps each
local IP address to unique global IP addresses.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind
the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Local Start IP
This is the starting local IP address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for Server port
mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end local IP address (ILA). If your rule is for all local IP addresses, then
enter 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255 as the Local End
IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a dynamic
IP address from your ISP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One, Manyto-One and Server mapping types.
Server Mapping Only available when Type is set to Server.
Set
Select a number from the drop-down menu to choose a server set from the NAT Address Mapping Rules screen.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set screen to edit a server
set that you have selected in the Server Mapping Set field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
Delete
Click Delete to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER 9
Dynamic DNS Setup
This chapter discusses how to configure your Prestige to use Dynamic DNS.
9.1 Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many
dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You
can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain name (for
instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never change
instead of using an IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives
will always be able to call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is
for people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a
domain name. The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
9.1.1 DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the
same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use,
for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
9.2 Configuring Dynamic DNS
To change your Prestige’s DDNS, click Dynamic DNS. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 55 Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 34 Dynamic DNS
127
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service Provider
This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Host Names
Type the domain name assigned to your Prestige by your Dynamic DNS provider.
E-mail Address
Type your e-mail address.
User
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Select the check box to enable DYNDNS Wildcard.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 10
Time and Date
This screen is not available on all models. Use this screen to configure the Prestige’s time and
date settings.
10.1 Configuring Time and Date
To change your Prestige’s time and date, click Time And Date. The screen appears as shown.
Use this screen to configure the Prestige’s time based on your local time zone.
Figure 56 Time and Date
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 35 Time and Date
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Server
Use Protocol when Select the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on the
Bootup
Prestige. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check with
your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC 1305) is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Select None to enter the time and date manually.
IP Address or URL Enter the IP address or URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/network
administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Time and Date
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between
your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Select this option if you use daylight savings time. Daylight saving is a period from
late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks ahead of normal local
time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Start Date
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time starts on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
End Date
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time ends on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
Synchronize
system clock with
Time Server now.
Select this option to have your Prestige use the time server (that you configured
above) to set its internal system clock.
Please wait for up to 60 seconds while the Prestige locates the time server. If the
Prestige cannot find the time server, please check the time server protocol and its
IP address. If the IP address was entered correctly, try pinging it for example to
test the connection.
Date
Current Date
This field displays the date of your Prestige.
Each time you reload this page, the Prestige synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server.
When you select None in the Use Protocol when Bootup field, enter the new
date in this field and then click Apply.
Time
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Current Time
This field displays the time of your Prestige.
Each time you reload this page, the Prestige synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Time
This field displays the last updated time from the time server.
When you select None in the Use Protocol when Bootup field, enter the new
time in this field and then click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 11
Firewalls
This chapter gives some background information on firewalls and introduces the Prestige
firewall.
11.1 Firewall Overview
Originally, the term firewall referred to a construction technique designed to prevent the
spread of fire from one room to another. The networking term “firewall” is a system or group
of systems that enforces an access-control policy between two networks. It may also be
defined as a mechanism used to protect a trusted network from an untrusted network. Of
course, firewalls cannot solve every security problem. A firewall is one of the mechanisms
used to establish a network security perimeter in support of a network security policy. It
should never be the only mechanism or method employed. For a firewall to guard effectively,
you must design and deploy it appropriately. This requires integrating the firewall into a broad
information-security policy. In addition, specific policies must be implemented within the
firewall itself.
11.2 Types of Firewalls
There are three main types of firewalls:
• Packet Filtering Firewalls
• Application-level Firewalls
• Stateful Inspection Firewalls
11.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls
Packet filtering firewalls restrict access based on the source/destination computer network
address of a packet and the type of application.
11.2.2 Application-level Firewalls
Application-level firewalls restrict access by serving as proxies for external servers. Since they
use programs written for specific Internet services, such as HTTP, FTP and telnet, they can
evaluate network packets for valid application-specific data. Application-level gateways have
a number of general advantages over the default mode of permitting application traffic directly
to internal hosts:
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Information hiding prevents the names of internal systems from being made known via DNS
to outside systems, since the application gateway is the only host whose name must be made
known to outside systems.
Robust authentication and logging pre-authenticates application traffic before it reaches
internal hosts and causes it to be logged more effectively than if it were logged with standard
host logging. Filtering rules at the packet filtering router can be less complex than they would
be if the router needed to filter application traffic and direct it to a number of specific systems.
The router need only allow application traffic destined for the application gateway and reject
the rest.
11.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls
Stateful inspection firewalls restrict access by screening data packets against defined access
rules. They make access control decisions based on IP address and protocol. They also
"inspect" the session data to assure the integrity of the connection and to adapt to dynamic
protocols. These firewalls generally provide the best speed and transparency, however, they
may lack the granular application level access control or caching that some proxies support.
See Section 11.5 on page 136 for more information on stateful inspection.
Firewalls, of one type or another, have become an integral part of standard security solutions
for enterprises.
11.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall
The Prestige firewall is a stateful inspection firewall and is designed to protect against Denial
of Service attacks when activated (in SMT menu 21.2 or in the web configurator). The
Prestige’s purpose is to allow a private Local Area Network (LAN) to be securely connected
to the Internet. The Prestige can be used to prevent theft, destruction and modification of data,
as well as log events, which may be important to the security of your network. The Prestige
also has packet filtering capabilities.
The Prestige is installed between the LAN and the Internet. This allows it to act as a secure
gateway for all data passing between the Internet and the LAN.
The Prestige has one DSL/ISDN port and one Ethernet LAN port, which physically separate
the network into two areas.
• The DSL/ISDN port connects to the Internet.
• The LAN (Local Area Network) port attaches to a network of computers, which needs
security from the outside world. These computers will have access to Internet services
such as e-mail, FTP, and the World Wide Web. However, “inbound access” will not be
allowed unless you configure remote management or create a firewall rule to allow a
remote host to use a specific service.
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11.3.1 Denial of Service Attacks
Figure 57 Prestige Firewall Application
11.4 Denial of Service
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a connection to the
Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a device or network so users no
longer have access to network resources. The Prestige is pre-configured to automatically
detect and thwart all known DoS attacks.
11.4.1 Basics
Computers share information over the Internet using a common language called TCP/IP. TCP/
IP, in turn, is a set of application protocols that perform specific functions. An “extension
number”, called the "TCP port" or "UDP port" identifies these protocols, such as HTTP
(Web), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), POP3 (E-mail), etc. For example, Web traffic by default
uses TCP port 80.
When computers communicate on the Internet, they are using the client/server model, where
the server "listens" on a specific TCP/UDP port for information requests from remote client
computers on the network. For example, a Web server typically listens on port 80. Please note
that while a computer may be intended for use over a single port, such as Web on port 80,
other ports are also active. If the person configuring or managing the computer is not careful, a
hacker could attack it over an unprotected port.
Some of the most common IP ports are:
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Table 36 Common IP Ports
21
FTP
53
DNS
23
Telnet
80
HTTP
25
SMTP
110
POP3
11.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks
There are four types of DoS attacks:
1 Those that exploit bugs in a TCP/IP implementation.
2 Those that exploit weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification.
3 Brute-force attacks that flood a network with useless data.
4 IP Spoofing.
5 "Ping of Death" and "Teardrop" attacks exploit bugs in the TCP/IP implementations of
various computer and host systems.
• Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create an IP packet that exceeds the maximum
65,536 bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. The oversize packet is then sent to
an unsuspecting system. Systems may crash, hang or reboot.
• Teardrop attack exploits weaknesses in the re-assembly of IP packet fragments. As data is
transmitted through a network, IP packets are often broken up into smaller chunks. Each
fragment looks like the original IP packet except that it contains an offset field that says,
for instance, "This fragment is carrying bytes 200 through 400 of the original (non
fragmented) IP packet." The Teardrop program creates a series of IP fragments with
overlapping offset fields. When these fragments are reassembled at the destination, some
systems will crash, hang, or reboot.
6 Weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification leave it open to "SYN Flood" and "LAND"
attacks. These attacks are executed during the handshake that initiates a communication
session between two applications.
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Figure 58 Three-Way Handshake
Under normal circumstances, the application that initiates a session sends a SYN
(synchronize) packet to the receiving server. The receiver sends back an ACK
(acknowledgment) packet and its own SYN, and then the initiator responds with an ACK
(acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
• SYN Attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet causes
the targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted system waits for
the ACK that follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding SYN-ACK responses
on what is known as a backlog queue. SYN-ACKs are moved off the queue only when an
ACK comes back or when an internal timer (which is set at relatively long intervals)
terminates the three-way handshake. Once the queue is full, the system will ignore all
incoming SYN requests, making the system unavailable for legitimate users.
Figure 59 SYN Flood
• In a LAND Attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a spoofed source
IP address of the targeted system. This makes it appear as if the host computer sent the
packets to itself, making the system unavailable while the target system tries to respond
to itself.
7 A brute-force attack, such as a "Smurf" attack, targets a feature in the IP specification
known as directed or subnet broadcasting, to quickly flood the target network with
useless data. A Smurf hacker floods a router with Internet Control Message Protocol
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(ICMP) echo request packets (pings). Since the destination IP address of each packet is
the broadcast address of the network, the router will broadcast the ICMP echo request
packet to all hosts on the network. If there are numerous hosts, this will create a large
amount of ICMP echo request and response traffic. If a hacker chooses to spoof the
source IP address of the ICMP echo request packet, the resulting ICMP traffic will not
only clog up the "intermediary" network, but will also congest the network of the spoofed
source IP address, known as the "victim" network. This flood of broadcast traffic
consumes all available bandwidth, making communications impossible.
Figure 60 Smurf Attack
11.4.2.1 ICMP Vulnerability
ICMP is an error-reporting protocol that works in concert with IP. The following ICMP types
trigger an alert:
Table 37 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts
5
REDIRECT
13
TIMESTAMP_REQUEST
14
TIMESTAMP_REPLY
17
ADDRESS_MASK_REQUEST
18
ADDRESS_MASK_REPLY
11.4.2.2 Illegal Commands (NetBIOS and SMTP)
The only legal NetBIOS commands are the following - all others are illegal.
Table 38 Legal NetBIOS Commands
MESSAGE:
REQUEST:
POSITIVE:
VE:
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Table 38 Legal NetBIOS Commands
RETARGET:
KEEPALIVE:
All SMTP commands are illegal except for those displayed in the following tables.
Table 39
Legal SMTP Commands
AUTH
DATA
EHLO
ETRN
EXPN
HELO
HELP
MAIL
QUIT
RCPT
RSET
SAML
SEND
SOML
TURN
VRFY
NOOP
11.4.2.3 Traceroute
Traceroute is a utility used to determine the path a packet takes between two endpoints.
Sometimes when a packet filter firewall is configured incorrectly an attacker can traceroute
the firewall gaining knowledge of the network topology inside the firewall.
Often, many DoS attacks also employ a technique known as "IP Spoofing" as part of their
attack. IP Spoofing may be used to break into systems, to hide the hacker's identity, or to
magnify the effect of the DoS attack. IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized
access to computers by tricking a router or firewall into thinking that the communications are
coming from within the trusted network. To engage in IP spoofing, a hacker must modify the
packet headers so that it appears that the packets originate from a trusted host and should be
allowed through the router or firewall. The Prestige blocks all IP Spoofing attempts.
11.5 Stateful Inspection
With stateful inspection, fields of the packets are compared to packets that are already known
to be trusted. For example, if you access some outside service, the proxy server remembers
things about your original request, like the port number and source and destination addresses.
This “remembering” is called saving the state. When the outside system responds to your
request, the firewall compares the received packets with the saved state to determine if they
are allowed in. The Prestige uses stateful packet inspection to protect the private LAN from
hackers and vandals on the Internet. By default, the Prestige’s stateful inspection allows all
communications to the Internet that originate from the LAN, and blocks all traffic to the LAN
that originates from the Internet. In summary, stateful inspection:
• Allows all sessions originating from the LAN (local network) to the WAN (Internet).
• Denies all sessions originating from the WAN to the LAN.
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Figure 61 Stateful Inspection
The previous figure shows the Prestige’s default firewall rules in action as well as
demonstrates how stateful inspection works. User A can initiate a Telnet session from within
the LAN and responses to this request are allowed. However other Telnet traffic initiated from
the WAN is blocked.
11.5.1 Stateful Inspection Process
In this example, the following sequence of events occurs when a TCP packet leaves the LAN
network through the firewall's WAN interface. The TCP packet is the first in a session, and the
packet's application layer protocol is configured for a firewall rule inspection:
1 The packet travels from the firewall's LAN to the WAN.
2 The packet is evaluated against the interface's existing outbound access list, and the
packet is permitted (a denied packet would simply be dropped at this point).
3 The packet is inspected by a firewall rule to determine and record information about the
state of the packet's connection. This information is recorded in a new state table entry
created for the new connection. If there is not a firewall rule for this packet and it is not an
attack, then the settings in the Default Policy screen determine the action for this packet.
4 Based on the obtained state information, a firewall rule creates a temporary access list
entry that is inserted at the beginning of the WAN interface's inbound extended access
list. This temporary access list entry is designed to permit inbound packets of the same
connection as the outbound packet just inspected.
5 The outbound packet is forwarded out through the interface.
6 Later, an inbound packet reaches the interface. This packet is part of the connection
previously established with the outbound packet. The inbound packet is evaluated against
the inbound access list, and is permitted because of the temporary access list entry
previously created.
7 The packet is inspected by a firewall rule, and the connection's state table entry is updated
as necessary. Based on the updated state information, the inbound extended access list
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temporary entries might be modified, in order to permit only packets that are valid for the
current state of the connection.
8 Any additional inbound or outbound packets that belong to the connection are inspected
to update the state table entry and to modify the temporary inbound access list entries as
required, and are forwarded through the interface.
9 When the connection terminates or times out, the connection's state table entry is deleted
and the connection's temporary inbound access list entries are deleted.
11.5.2 Stateful Inspection and the Prestige
Additional rules may be defined to extend or override the default rules. For example, a rule
may be created which will:
• Block all traffic of a certain type, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the
Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic from the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow access to a Web server to everyone but competitors.
• Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by evaluating the network traffic’s Source IP address, Destination IP
address, IP protocol type, and comparing these to rules set by the administrator.
Note: The ability to define firewall rules is a very powerful tool. Using custom rules, it
is possible to disable all firewall protection or block all access to the Internet.
Use extreme caution when creating or deleting firewall rules. Test changes
after creating them to make sure they work correctly.
Below is a brief technical description of how these connections are tracked. Connections may
either be defined by the upper protocols (for instance, TCP), or by the Prestige itself (as with
the "virtual connections" created for UDP and ICMP).
11.5.3 TCP Security
The Prestige uses state information embedded in TCP packets. The first packet of any new
connection has its SYN flag set and its ACK flag cleared; these are "initiation" packets. All
packets that do not have this flag structure are called "subsequent" packets, since they
represent data that occurs later in the TCP stream.
If an initiation packet originates on the WAN, this means that someone is trying to make a
connection from the Internet into the LAN. Except in a few special cases (see "Upper Layer
Protocols" shown next), these packets are dropped and logged.
If an initiation packet originates on the LAN, this means that someone is trying to make a
connection from the LAN to the Internet. Assuming that this is an acceptable part of the
security policy (as is the case with the default policy), the connection will be allowed. A cache
entry is added which includes connection information such as IP addresses, TCP ports,
sequence numbers, etc.
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When the Prestige receives any subsequent packet (from the Internet or from the LAN), its
connection information is extracted and checked against the cache. A packet is only allowed to
pass through if it corresponds to a valid connection (that is, if it is a response to a connection
which originated on the LAN).
11.5.4 UDP/ICMP Security
UDP and ICMP do not themselves contain any connection information (such as sequence
numbers). However, at the very minimum, they contain an IP address pair (source and
destination). UDP also contains port pairs, and ICMP has type and code information. All of
this data can be analyzed in order to build "virtual connections" in the cache.
For instance, any UDP packet that originates on the LAN will create a cache entry. Its IP
address and port pairs will be stored. For a short period of time, UDP packets from the WAN
that have matching IP and UDP information will be allowed back in through the firewall.
A similar situation exists for ICMP, except that the Prestige is even more restrictive.
Specifically, only outgoing echoes will allow incoming echo replies, outgoing address mask
requests will allow incoming address mask replies, and outgoing timestamp requests will
allow incoming timestamp replies. No other ICMP packets are allowed in through the firewall,
simply because they are too dangerous and contain too little tracking information. For
instance, ICMP redirect packets are never allowed in, since they could be used to reroute
traffic through attacking machines.
11.5.5 Upper Layer Protocols
Some higher layer protocols (such as FTP and RealAudio) utilize multiple network
connections simultaneously. In general terms, they usually have a "control connection" which
is used for sending commands between endpoints, and then "data connections" which are used
for transmitting bulk information.
Consider the FTP protocol. A user on the LAN opens a control connection to a server on the
Internet and requests a file. At this point, the remote server will open a data connection from
the Internet. For FTP to work properly, this connection must be allowed to pass through even
though a connection from the Internet would normally be rejected.
In order to achieve this, the Prestige inspects the application-level FTP data. Specifically, it
searches for outgoing "PORT" commands, and when it sees these, it adds a cache entry for the
anticipated data connection. This can be done safely, since the PORT command contains
address and port information, which can be used to uniquely identify the connection.
Any protocol that operates in this way must be supported on a case-by-case basis. You can use
the web configurator’s Custom Ports feature to do this.
11.6 Guidelines for Enhancing Security with Your Firewall
• Change the default password via SMT or web configurator.
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• Limit who can telnet into your router.
• Don't enable any local service (such as SNMP or NTP) that you don't use. Any enabled
service could present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might be able to find
creative ways to misuse the enabled services to access the firewall or the network.
• For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring the
services to communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring rules to
block packets for the services at specific interfaces.
• Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
• Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
11.6.1 Security In General
You can never be too careful! Factors outside your firewall, filtering or NAT can cause
security breaches. Below are some generalizations about what you can do to minimize them.
• Encourage your company or organization to develop a comprehensive security plan.
Good network administration takes into account what hackers can do and prepares
against attacks. The best defense against hackers and crackers is information. Educate all
employees about the importance of security and how to minimize risk. Produce lists like
this one!
• DSL or cable modem connections are “always-on” connections and are particularly
vulnerable because they provide more opportunities for hackers to crack your system.
Turn your computer off when not in use.
• Never give out a password or any sensitive information to an unsolicited telephone call or
e-mail.
• Never e-mail sensitive information such as passwords, credit card information, etc.,
without encrypting the information first.
• Never submit sensitive information via a web page unless the web site uses secure
connections. You can identify a secure connection by looking for a small “key” icon on
the bottom of your browser (Internet Explorer 3.02 or better or Netscape 3.0 or better). If
a web site uses a secure connection, it is safe to submit information. Secure web
transactions are quite difficult to crack.
• Never reveal your IP address or other system networking information to people outside
your company. Be careful of files e-mailed to you from strangers. One common way of
getting BackOrifice on a system is to include it as a Trojan horse with other files.
• Change your passwords regularly. Also, use passwords that are not easy to figure out.
The most difficult passwords to crack are those with upper and lower case letters,
numbers and a symbol such as % or #.
• Upgrade your software regularly. Many older versions of software, especially web
browsers, have well known security deficiencies. When you upgrade to the latest
versions, you get the latest patches and fixes.
• If you use “chat rooms” or IRC sessions, be careful with any information you reveal to
strangers.
• If your system starts exhibiting odd behavior, contact your ISP. Some hackers will set off
hacks that cause your system to slowly become unstable or unusable.
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• Always shred confidential information, particularly about your computer, before
throwing it away. Some hackers dig through the trash of companies or individuals for
information that might help them in an attack.
11.7 Packet Filtering Vs Firewall
Below are some comparisons between the Prestige’s filtering and firewall functions.
11.7.1 Packet Filtering:
• The router filters packets as they pass through the router’s interface according to the filter
rules you designed.
• Packet filtering is a powerful tool, yet can be complex to configure and maintain,
especially if you need a chain of rules to filter a service.
• Packet filtering only checks the header portion of an IP packet.
11.7.1.1 When To Use Filtering
• To block/allow LAN packets by their MAC addresses.
• To block/allow special IP packets which are neither TCP nor UDP, nor ICMP packets.
• To block/allow both inbound (WAN to LAN) and outbound (LAN to WAN) traffic
between the specific inside host/network "A" and outside host/network "B". If the filter
blocks the traffic from A to B, it also blocks the traffic from B to A. Filters can not
distinguish traffic originating from an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
• To block/allow IP trace route.
11.7.2 Firewall
• The firewall inspects packet contents as well as their source and destination addresses.
Firewalls of this type employ an inspection module, applicable to all protocols, that
understands data in the packet is intended for other layers, from the network layer (IP
headers) up to the application layer.
• The firewall performs stateful inspection. It takes into account the state of connections it
handles so that, for example, a legitimate incoming packet can be matched with the
outbound request for that packet and allowed in. Conversely, an incoming packet
masquerading as a response to a nonexistent outbound request can be blocked.
• The firewall uses session filtering, i.e., smart rules, that enhance the filtering process and
control the network session rather than control individual packets in a session.
• The firewall provides e-mail service to notify you of routine reports and when alerts
occur.
11.7.2.1 When To Use The Firewall
• To prevent DoS attacks and prevent hackers cracking your network.
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• A range of source and destination IP addresses as well as port numbers can be specified
within one firewall rule making the firewall a better choice when complex rules are
required.
• To selectively block/allow inbound or outbound traffic between inside host/networks and
outside host/networks. Remember that filters can not distinguish traffic originating from
an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
• The firewall performs better than filtering if you need to check many rules.
• Use the firewall if you need routine e-mail reports about your system or need to be alerted
when attacks occur.
• The firewall can block specific URL traffic that might occur in the future. The URL can
be saved in an Access Control List (ACL) database.
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CHAPTER 12
Firewall Configuration
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure the Prestige firewall.
12.1 Access Methods
The web configurator is, by far, the most comprehensive firewall configuration tool your
Prestige has to offer. For this reason, it is recommended that you configure your firewall using
the web configurator. SMT screens allow you to activate the firewall. CLI commands provide
limited configuration options and are only recommended for advanced users.
12.2 Firewall Policies Overview
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply:
•
LAN to LAN/ Router
•
WAN to LAN
•
LAN to WAN
•
WAN to WAN/ Router
Note: The LAN includes both the LAN port and the WLAN.
By default, the Prestige’s stateful packet inspection allows packets traveling in the following
directions:
• LAN to LAN/ Router
This allows computers on the LAN to manage the Prestige and communicate between
networks or subnets connected to the LAN interface.
• LAN to WAN
By default, the Prestige’s stateful packet inspection blocks packets traveling in the following
directions:
• WAN to LAN
• WAN to WAN/ Router
This prevents computers on the WAN from using the Prestige as a gateway to
communicate with other computers on the WAN and/or managing the Prestige.
You may define additional rules and sets or modify existing ones but please exercise
extreme caution in doing so.
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Note: If you configure firewall rules without a good understanding of how they work,
you might inadvertently introduce security risks to the firewall and to the
protected network. Make sure you test your rules after you configure them.
For example, you may create rules to:
• Block certain types of traffic, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the
Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database synchronization, from
specific hosts on the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow everyone except your competitors to access a Web server.
• Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by comparing the Source IP address, Destination IP address and IP
protocol type of network traffic to rules set by the administrator. Your customized rules take
precedence and override the Prestige’s default rules.
12.3 Rule Logic Overview
Note: Study these points carefully before configuring rules.
12.3.1 Rule Checklist
State the intent of the rule. For example, “This restricts all IRC access from the LAN to the
Internet.” Or, “This allows a remote Lotus Notes server to synchronize over the Internet to an
inside Notes server.”
1 Is the intent of the rule to forward or block traffic?
2 What direction of traffic does the rule apply to (refer to Section 12.2 on page 144)?
3 What IP services will be affected?
4 What computers on the LAN are to be affected (if any)?
5 What computers on the Internet will be affected? The more specific, the better. For
example, if traffic is being allowed from the Internet to the LAN, it is better to allow only
certain machines on the Internet to access the LAN.
12.3.2 Security Ramifications
1 Once the logic of the rule has been defined, it is critical to consider the security
ramifications created by the rule:
2 Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet? For
example, if IRC is blocked, are there users that require this service?
3 Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked for all
users, will a rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
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4 Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a security
vulnerability? For example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the Internet to the
LAN, Internet users may be able to connect to computers with running FTP servers.
5 Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
6 Once these questions have been answered, adding rules is simply a matter of plugging the
information into the correct fields in the web configurator screens.
12.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules
12.3.3.1 Action
Should the action be to Block or Forward? “Block” means the firewall silently discards the
packet.
12.3.3.2 Service
Select the service from the Service scrolling list box. If the service is not listed, it is necessary
to first define it. See Section 12.10 on page 158 for more information on predefined services.
12.3.3.3 Source Address
What is the connection’s source address; is it on the LAN, WAN? Is it a single IP, a range of
IPs or a subnet?
12.3.3.4 Destination Address
What is the connection’s destination address; is it on the LAN, WAN? Is it a single IP, a range
of IPs or a subnet?
12.4 Connection Direction
This section describes examples for firewall rules for connections going from LAN to WAN
and from WAN to LAN.
LAN to LAN/ Router, WAN to WAN/ Router rules apply to packets coming in on the
associated interface (LAN, WAN respectively). LAN to LAN/ Router means policies for
LAN-to-Prestige (the policies for managing the Prestige through the LAN interface) and
policies for LAN-to-LAN (the policies that control routing between two subnets on the LAN).
Similarly, WAN to WAN/ Router polices apply in the same way to the WAN ports.
12.4.1 LAN to WAN Rules
The default rule for LAN to WAN traffic is that all users on the LAN are allowed nonrestricted access to the WAN. When you configure a LAN to WAN rule, you in essence want
to limit some or all users from accessing certain services on the WAN. WAN to LAN Rules
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The default rule for WAN to LAN traffic blocks all incoming connections (WAN to LAN). If
you wish to allow certain WAN users to have access to your LAN, you will need to create
custom rules to allow it.
12.4.2 Alerts
Alerts are reports on events, such as attacks, that you may want to know about right away. You
can choose to generate an alert when an attack is detected in the Edit Rule screen (select the
Send Alert Message to Administrator When Matched check box) or when a rule is matched
in the Edit Rule screen (see Section 12.6.1 on page 150). When an event generates an alert, a
message can be immediately sent to an e-mail account that you specify in the Log Settings
screen (see the chapter on logs).
12.5 Configuring Basic Firewall Settings
Click Firewall and then Default Policy to display the following screen. Activate the firewall
by selecting the Firewall Enabled check box as seen in the following screen.
Figure 62 Firewall: Default Policy
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Firewall: Default Policy
147
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Enabled
Select this check box to activate the firewall. The Prestige performs access control
and protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when the firewall is activated.
Allow
Asymmetrical
Route
Select this check box to have the Prestige firewall permit the use of triangle route
topology on the network. See the appendix for more on triangle route topology.
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Table 40 Firewall: Default Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packet Direction
This is the direction of travel of packets (LAN to LAN/Router, LAN to WAN, WAN
to WAN/Router, WAN to LAN).
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they
apply. For example, LAN to LAN/Router means packets traveling from a
computer/subnet on the LAN to either another computer/subnet on the LAN
interface of the Prestige or the Prestige itself.
Default Action
Use the radio buttons to select whether to Block (silently discard) or Forward
(allow the passage of) packets that are traveling in the selected direction.
Log
Select the check box to create a log (when the above action is taken) for packets
that are traveling in the selected direction and do not match any of the rules below.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.6 Rule Summary
Note: The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in turn.
Click on Firewall, then Rule Summary to bring up the following screen. This screen is a
summary of the existing rules. Note the order in which the rules are listed.
Figure 63 Firewall: Rule Summary
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Rule Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Rules
Storage Space
in Use
This read-only bar shows how much of the Prestige's memory for recording firewall
rules it is currently using. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the
bar is green. When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red.
Packet Direction Use the drop-down list box to select a direction of travel of packets for which you
want to configure firewall rules.
Default Policy
This field displays the default action and log policy you selected in the Default Rule
screen for the packet direction shown in the field above.
The following read-only fields summarize the rules you have created that apply to
traffic traveling in the selected packet direction. The firewall rules that you configure
(summarized below) take priority over the general firewall action settings above.
149
Rule
This is your firewall rule number. The ordering of your rules is important as rules are
applied in turn.
Click a rule’s number to go to the Firewall Edit Rule screen to configure or edit a
firewall rule.
Active
This field displays whether a firewall is turned on (Y) or not (N).
Source IP
This drop-down list box displays the source addresses or ranges of addresses to
which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Destination IP
This drop-down list box displays the destination addresses or ranges of addresses to
which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Service
This drop-down list box displays the services to which this firewall rule applies.
Please note that a blank service type is equivalent to Any. See Section 12.10 on
page 158 for more information.
Action
This is the specified action for that rule, either Block or Forward. Note that Block
means the firewall silently discards the packet.
Schedule
This field tells you whether a schedule is specified (Yes) or not (No).
Log
This field shows you whether a log is created when packets match this rule
(Enabled) or not (Disable).
Alert
This field tells you whether this rule generates an alert (Yes) or not (No) when the
rule is matched.
Insert/Append
Type the index number for where you want to put a rule. For example, if you type “6”,
your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if there is one) becomes
rule 7.
Click Insert to add a new firewall rule before the specified index number.
Click Append to add a new firewall rule after the specified index number.
Move
Type a rule’s index number and the number for where you want to put that rule. Click
Move to move the rule to the number that you typed. The ordering of your rules is
important as they are applied in order of their numbering.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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12.6.1 Configuring Firewall Rules
Follow these directions to create a new rule.
1 In the Rule Summary screen, type the index number for where you want to put the rule.
For example, if you type “6”, your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if
there is one) becomes rule 7.
2 Click Insert to display this screen and refer to the following table for information on the
labels.
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Figure 64 Firewall: Edit Rule
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Firewall: Edit Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this firewall rule.
Action for Matched
Packet
Use the radio button to select whether to discard (Block) or allow the passage of
(Forward) packets that match this rule.
Source/Destination
Address
Address Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets with a particular (single) IP, a range of
IP addresses (e.g., 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50), a subnet or any IP address?
Select an option from the drop-down list box that includes: Single Address,
Range Address, Subnet Address and Any Address.
Start IP Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
End IP Address
Enter the ending IP address in a range here.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask here, if applicable.
Add
Click Add to add a new address to the Source or Destination Address box.
You can add multiple addresses, ranges of addresses, and/or subnets.
Edit
To edit an existing source or destination address, select it from the box and click
Edit.
Delete
Highlight an existing source or destination address from the Source or
Destination Address box above and click Delete to remove it.
Services
Available/ Selected Please Section 12.10 on page 158see for more information on services
Services available. Highlight a service from the Available Services box on the left, then
click Add>> to add it to the Selected Services box on the right. To remove a
service, highlight it in the Selected Services box on the right, then click
Remove.
Edit Customized Click the Edit Customized Services link to bring up the screen that you use to
Service configure a new custom service that is not in the predefined list of services.
Schedule
Day to Apply Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to apply the rule.
Time of Day to Select All Day or enter the start and end times in the hour-minute format to
Apply (24-Hour apply the rule.
Format)
Log
Log Packet Detail This field determines if a log for packets that match the rule is created (Enable)
Information or not (Disable). Go to the Log Settings page and select the Access Control
logs category to have the Prestige record these logs.
Alert
Send Alert Message Select the check box to have the Prestige generate an alert when the rule is
to Administrator matched.
When Matched
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
Delete
Click Delete to remove this firewall rule and return to the Firewall Rule
Summary screen.
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12.7 Customized Services
Configure customized services and port numbers not predefined by the Prestige. For a
comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number
Authority) website. For further information on these services, please read Section 12.10 on
page 158. Click the Customized Services link while editing a firewall rule to configure a
custom service port. This displays the following screen.
Figure 65 Firewall: Customized Services
Table 43 Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No.
This is the number of your customized port. Click a rule’s number of a service to go to the
Firewall Customized Services Config screen to configure or edit a customized service.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Protocol
This shows the IP protocol (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your customized
service.
Port
This is the port number or range that defines your customized service.
Back
Click Back to return the Firewall Edit Rule screen.
12.8 Creating/Editing A Customized Service
Click a rule number in the Firewall Customized Services screen to create a new custom port
or edit an existing one. This action displays the following screen.
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Figure 66 Firewall: Configure Customized Services
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Firewall: Configure Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Type a unique name for your custom port.
Service Type
Choose the IP port (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your customized port from
the drop down list box.
Port Configuration
Type
Click Single to specify one port only or Range to specify a span of ports that define
your customized service.
Port Number
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your customized
service.
Back
Click Back to return to the Firewall Customized Services screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the current rule.
12.9 Example Firewall Rule
The following Internet firewall rule example allows a hypothetical “My Service” connection
from the Internet.
1 Click Firewall in the navigation panel and click Rule Summary.
2 Select WAN to LAN in the Packet Direction field.
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Figure 67 Firewall Example: Rule Summary
3 In the Rule Summary screen, type the index number for where you want to put the rule.
For example, if you type “6”, your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if
there is one) becomes rule 7.
4 Click Insert to display the firewall rule configuration screen.
5 Select Any in the Destination Address box and then click Delete.
6 Configure the destination address screen as follows and click Add.
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Figure 68 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Destination Address
7 In the Edit Rule screen, click the Customized Services link to open the Customized
Service screen.
8 Click an index number to display the Customized Services -Config screen and configure
the screen as follows and click Apply.
Figure 69 Edit Custom Port Example
9 In the Edit Rule screen, use the Add>> and Remove buttons between Available
Services and Selected Services list boxes to configure it as follows. Click Apply when
you are done.
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Figure 70 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Select Customized Services
Note: Custom ports show up with an “*” before their names in the Services list box
and the Rule Summary list box. Click Apply after you’ve created your custom
port.
On completing the configuration procedure for this Internet firewall rule, the Rule Summary
screen should look like the following.
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Rule 2 allows a “My Service” connection from the WAN to IP addresses 10.0.0.10 through
10.0.0.15 on the LAN.
Figure 71 Firewall Example: Rule Summary: My Service
12.10 Predefined Services
The Available Services list box in the Edit Rule screen (see Section 12.6.1 on page 150)
displays all predefined services that the Prestige already supports. Next to the name of the
service, two fields appear in brackets. The first field indicates the IP protocol type (TCP, UDP,
or ICMP). The second field indicates the IP port number that defines the service. (Note that
there may be more than one IP protocol type. For example, look at the default configuration
labeled “(DNS)”. (UDP/TCP:53) means UDP port 53 and TCP port 53. Up to 128 entries are
supported. Custom service ports may also be configured using the Edit Customized Services
function discussed previously.
Table 45
Predefined Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
AIM/NEW_ICQ(TCP:5190)
AOL’s Internet Messenger service, used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH(TCP:113)
Authentication protocol used by some servers.
BGP(TCP:179)
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT(UDP:68)
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER(UDP:67)
DHCP Server.
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Table 45
159
Predefined Services (continued)
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
CU-SEEME(TCP/UDP:7648,
24032)
A popular videoconferencing solution from White Pines Software.
DNS(UDP/TCP:53)
Domain Name Server, a service that matches web names (e.g.
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
FINGER(TCP:79)
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command that can be used to find
out if a user is logged on.
FTP(TCP:20.21)
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast transfer of files,
including large files that may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323(TCP:1720)
Net Meeting uses this protocol.
HTTP(TCP:80)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/server protocol for the world
wide web.
HTTPS
HTTPS is a secured http session often used in e-commerce.
ICQ(UDP:4000)
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IPSEC_TRANSPORT/
TUNNEL(AH:0)
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
IPSEC_TUNNEL(ESP:0)
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security Protocol) tunneling protocol
uses this service.
IRC(TCP/UDP:6667)
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MSN Messenger(TCP:1863)
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service uses this protocol.
MULTICAST(IGMP:0)
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when sending packets to a
specific group of hosts.
NEWS(TCP:144)
A protocol for news groups.
NFS(UDP:2049)
Network File System - NFS is a client/server distributed file service that
provides transparent file-sharing for network environments.
NNTP(TCP:119)
Network News Transport Protocol is the delivery mechanism for the
USENET newsgroup service.
PING(ICMP:0)
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends out ICMP echo
requests to test whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3(TCP:110)
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client computer get e-mail from a
POP3 server through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or other).
PPTP(TCP:1723)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL(GRE:0)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD(TCP:512)
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO(TCP:7070)
A streaming audio service that enables real time sound over the web.
REXEC(TCP:514)
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN(TCP:513)
Remote Login.
RTELNET(TCP:107)
Remote Telnet.
RTSP(TCP/UDP:554)
The Real Time Streaming (media control) Protocol (RTSP) is a remote
control for multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP(TCP:115)
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
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Table 45
Predefined Services (continued)
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
SMTP(TCP:25)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the message-exchange standard for
the Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one e-mail
server to another.
SNMP(TCP/UDP:161)
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS (TCP/
UDP:162)
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET(TCP:1521)
Structured Query Language is an interface to access data on many
different types of database systems, including mainframes, midrange
systems, UNIX systems and network servers.
SSDP(UDP:1900)
Simole Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) is a discovery service
searching for Universal Plug and Play devices on your home network
or upstream Internet gateways using DUDP port 1900.
SSH(TCP/UDP:22)
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRMWORKS(UDP:1558)
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG(UDP:514)
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a UNIX server.
TACACS(UDP:49)
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal Access Controller Access
Control System).
TELNET(TCP:23)
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation protocol common on the
Internet and in UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/IP networks.
Its primary function is to allow users to log into remote host systems.
TFTP(UDP:69)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file transfer protocol similar
to FTP, but uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE(TCP:7000)
Another videoconferencing solution.
12.11 Anti-Probing
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your Prestige, an ICMP response
packet is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the Prestige exists. The
Prestige supports anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent.
This keeps outsiders from discovering your Prestige when unsupported ports are probed.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP)
datagrams, but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software and directly apparent to the
application user.
Click Firewall in the navigation panel and click Anti Probing to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 72 Firewall: Anti Probing
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Firewall: Anti Probing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Respond to PING
on
The Prestige does not respond to any incoming Ping requests when Disable is
selected.
Select LAN to reply to incoming LAN Ping requests.
Select WAN to reply to incoming WAN Ping requests.
Otherwise select LAN & WAN to reply to both incoming LAN and WAN Ping
requests.
Do not respond to
requests for
unauthorized
services.
Select this option to prevent hackers from finding the Prestige by probing for
unused ports. If you select this option, the Prestige will not respond to port
request(s) for unused ports, thus leaving the unused ports and the Prestige
unseen. By default this option is not selected and the Prestige will reply with an
ICMP Port Unreachable packet for a port probe on its unused UDP ports, and a
TCP Reset packet for a port probe on its unused TCP ports.
Note that the probing packets must first traverse the Prestige 's firewall
mechanism before reaching this anti-probing mechanism. Therefore if the firewall
mechanism blocks a probing packet, the Prestige reacts based on the firewall
policy, which by default, is to send a TCP reset packet for a blocked TCP packet.
You can use the command "sys firewall tcprst rst [on|off]" to change this policy.
When the firewall mechanism blocks a UDP packet, it drops the packet without
sending a response packet.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.12 DoS Thresholds
For DoS attacks, the Prestige uses thresholds to determine when to drop sessions that do not
become fully established. These thresholds apply globally to all sessions.
You can use the default threshold values, or you can change them to values more suitable to
your security requirements.
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12.12.1 Threshold Values
Tune these parameters when something is not working and after you have checked the firewall
counters. These default values should work fine for most small offices. Factors influencing
choices for threshold values are:
•
•
•
•
•
The maximum number of opened sessions.
The minimum capacity of server backlog in your LAN network.
The CPU power of servers in your LAN network.
Network bandwidth.
Type of traffic for certain servers.
If your network is slower than average for any of these factors (especially if you have servers
that are slow or handle many tasks and are often busy), then the default values should be
reduced.
You should make any changes to the threshold values before you continue configuring
firewall rules.
12.12.2 Half-Open Sessions
An unusually high number of half-open sessions (either an absolute number or measured as
the arrival rate) could indicate that a Denial of Service attack is occurring. For TCP, "halfopen" means that the session has not reached the established state-the TCP three-way
handshake has not yet been completed (see Figure 58 on page 134). For UDP, "half-open"
means that the firewall has detected no return traffic.
The Prestige measures both the total number of existing half-open sessions and the rate of
session establishment attempts. Both TCP and UDP half-open sessions are counted in the total
number and rate measurements. Measurements are made once a minute.
When the number of existing half-open sessions rises above a threshold (max-incomplete
high), the Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions as required to accommodate new
connection requests. The Prestige continues to delete half-open requests as necessary, until the
number of existing half-open sessions drops below another threshold (max-incomplete low).
When the rate of new connection attempts rises above a threshold (one-minute high), the
Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions as required to accommodate new connection
requests. The Prestige continues to delete half-open sessions as necessary, until the rate of new
connection attempts drops below another threshold (one-minute low). The rate is the number
of new attempts detected in the last one-minute sample period.
12.12.2.1 TCP Maximum Incomplete and Blocking Time
An unusually high number of half-open sessions with the same destination host address could
indicate that a Denial of Service attack is being launched against the host.
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Whenever the number of half-open sessions with the same destination host address rises above
a threshold (TCP Maximum Incomplete), the Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions
according to one of the following methods:
• If the Blocking Time timeout is 0 (the default), then the Prestige deletes the oldest
existing half-open session for the host for every new connection request to the host. This
ensures that the number of half-open sessions to a given host will never exceed the
threshold.
• If the Blocking Time timeout is greater than 0, then the Prestige blocks all new
connection requests to the host giving the server time to handle the present connections.
The Prestige continues to block all new connection requests until the Blocking Time
expires.
The Prestige also sends alerts whenever TCP Maximum Incomplete is exceeded. The global
values specified for the threshold and timeout apply to all TCP connections.
Click Firewall, and Threshold to bring up the next screen.
Figure 73 Firewall: Threshold
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Firewall: Threshold
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DEFAULT VALUES
Denial of Service
Thresholds
One Minute Low
163
This is the rate of new half-open sessions that 80 existing half-open sessions.
causes the firewall to stop deleting half-open
sessions. The Prestige continues to delete
half-open sessions as necessary, until the
rate of new connection attempts drops below
this number.
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Table 47 Firewall: Threshold (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DEFAULT VALUES
One Minute High
This is the rate of new half-open sessions that
causes the firewall to start deleting half-open
sessions. When the rate of new connection
attempts rises above this number, the
Prestige deletes half-open sessions as
required to accommodate new connection
attempts.
100 half-open sessions per minute.
The above numbers cause the
Prestige to start deleting half-open
sessions when more than 100
session establishment attempts
have been detected in the last
minute, and to stop deleting halfopen sessions when fewer than 80
session establishment attempts
have been detected in the last
minute.
Maximum
Incomplete Low
This is the number of existing half-open
sessions that causes the firewall to stop
deleting half-open sessions. The Prestige
continues to delete half-open requests as
necessary, until the number of existing halfopen sessions drops below this number.
80 existing half-open sessions.
Maximum
Incomplete High
This is the number of existing half-open
sessions that causes the firewall to start
deleting half-open sessions. When the
number of existing half-open sessions rises
above this number, the Prestige deletes halfopen sessions as required to accommodate
new connection requests. Do not set
Maximum Incomplete High to lower than the
current Maximum Incomplete Low number.
100 existing half-open sessions.
The above values causes the
Prestige to start deleting half-open
sessions when the number of
existing half-open sessions rises
above 100, and to stop deleting
half-open sessions with the
number of existing half-open
sessions drops below 80.
TCP Maximum
Incomplete
This is the number of existing half-open TCP 30 existing half-open TCP
sessions with the same destination host IP
sessions.
address that causes the firewall to start
dropping half-open sessions to that same
destination host IP address. Enter a number
between 1 and 256. As a general rule, you
should choose a smaller number for a smaller
network, a slower system or limited
bandwidth.
Action taken when the TCP Maximum Incomplete threshold is reached.
Delete the oldest
half open session
when new
connection
request comes
Select this radio button to clear the oldest half
open session when a new connection request
comes.
Deny new
connection
request for
Select this radio button and specify for how
long the Prestige should block new
connection requests when TCP Maximum
Incomplete is reached.
Enter the length of blocking time in minutes
(between 1 and 256).
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 13
Content Filtering
This chapter covers how to configure content filtering.
13.1 Content Filtering Overview
Internet content filtering allows you to create and enforce Internet access policies tailored to
your needs. Content filtering gives you the ability to block web sites that contain key words
(that you specify) in the URL. You can set a schedule for when the Prestige performs content
filtering. You can also specify trusted IP addresses on the LAN for which the Prestige will not
perform content filtering.
13.2 Configuring Keyword Blocking
Use this screen to block sites containing certain keywords in the URL. For example, if you
enable the keyword "bad", the Prestige blocks all sites containing this keyword including the
URL http://www.website.com/bad.html, even if it is not included in the Filter List.
To have your Prestige block Web sites containing keywords in their URLs, click Content
Filter and Keyword. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 74 Content Filter: Keyword
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Content Filter: Keyword
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Keyword Blocking
Select this check box to enable this feature.
Block Websites that contain This box contains the list of all the keywords that you have configured the
these keywords in the URL: Prestige to block.
Delete
Highlight a keyword in the box and click Delete to remove it.
Clear All
Click Clear All to remove all of the keywords from the list.
Keyword
Type a keyword in this field. You may use any character (up to 127
characters). Wildcards are not allowed.
Add Keyword
Click Add Keyword after you have typed a keyword.
Repeat this procedure to add other keywords. Up to 64 keywords are
allowed.
When you try to access a web page containing a keyword, you will get a
message telling you that the content filter is blocking this request.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
13.3 Configuring the Schedule
To set the days and times for the Prestige to perform content filtering, click Content Filter
and Schedule. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 75 Content Filter: Schedule
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Content Filter: Schedule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Days to Block:
Select a check box to configure which days of the week (or everyday) you want the
content filtering to be active.
Time of Day to
Block:
Use the 24 hour format to configure which time of the day (or select the All day check
box) you want the content filtering to be active.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
13.4 Configuring Trusted Computers
To exclude a range of users on the LAN from content filtering on your Prestige, click Content
Filter and Trusted. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 76 Content Filter: Trusted
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Content Filter: Trusted
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trusted User IP Range
From
Type the IP address of a computer (or the beginning IP address of a specific
range of computers) on the LAN that you want to exclude from content
filtering.
To
Type the ending IP address of a specific range of users on your LAN that
you want to exclude from content filtering. Leave this field blank if you want
to exclude an individual computer.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER 14
Introduction to IPSec
This chapter introduces the basics of IPSec VPNs.
14.1 VPN Overview
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) provides secure communications between sites without the
expense of leased site-to-site lines. A secure VPN is a combination of tunneling, encryption,
authentication, access control and auditing technologies/services used to transport traffic over
the Internet or any insecure network that uses the TCP/IP protocol suite for communication.
14.1.1 IPSec
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standards-based VPN that offers flexible solutions for
secure data communications across a public network like the Internet. IPSec is built around a
number of standardized cryptographic techniques to provide confidentiality, data integrity and
authentication at the IP layer.
14.1.2 Security Association
A Security Association (SA) is a contract between two parties indicating what security
parameters, such as keys and algorithms they will use.
14.1.3 Other Terminology
14.1.3.1 Encryption
Encryption is a mathematical operation that transforms data from "plaintext" (readable) to
"ciphertext" (scrambled text) using a "key". The key and clear text are processed by the
encryption operation, which leads to the data scrambling that makes encryption secure.
Decryption is the opposite of encryption: it is a mathematical operation that transforms
“ciphertext” to plaintext. Decryption also requires a key.
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Figure 77 Encryption and Decryption
14.1.3.2 Data Confidentiality
The IPSec sender can encrypt packets before transmitting them across a network.
14.1.3.3 Data Integrity
The IPSec receiver can validate packets sent by the IPSec sender to ensure that the data has not
been altered during transmission.
14.1.3.4 Data Origin Authentication
The IPSec receiver can verify the source of IPSec packets. This service depends on the data
integrity service.
14.1.4 VPN Applications
The Prestige supports the following VPN applications.
• Linking Two or More Private Networks Together
Connect branch offices and business partners over the Internet with significant cost
savings and improved performance when compared to leased lines between sites.
• Accessing Network Resources When NAT Is Enabled
When NAT is enabled, remote users are not able to access hosts on the LAN unless the
host is designated a public LAN server for that specific protocol. Since the VPN tunnel
terminates inside the LAN, remote users will be able to access all computers that use
private IP addresses on the LAN.
• Unsupported IP Applications
A VPN tunnel may be created to add support for unsupported emerging IP applications.
See the chapter on Getting to Know Your Prestige for an example of a VPN application.
14.2 IPSec Architecture
The overall IPSec architecture is shown as follows.
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Figure 78 IPSec Architecture
14.2.1 IPSec Algorithms
The ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol (RFC 2406) and AH (Authentication
Header) protocol (RFC 2402) describe the packet formats and the default standards for packet
structure (including implementation algorithms).
The Encryption Algorithm describes the use of encryption techniques such as DES (Data
Encryption Standard) and Triple DES algorithms.
The Authentication Algorithms, HMAC-MD5 (RFC 2403) and HMAC-SHA-1 (RFC 2404,
provide an authentication mechanism for the AH and ESP protocols. Please seeSection 15.2
on page 176for more information.
14.2.2 Key Management
Key management allows you to determine whether to use IKE (ISAKMP) or manual key
configuration in order to set up a VPN.
14.3 Encapsulation
The two modes of operation for IPSec VPNs are Transport mode and Tunnel mode.
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Figure 79 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation
14.3.1 Transport Mode
Transport mode is used to protect upper layer protocols and only affects the data in the IP
packet. In Transport mode, the IP packet contains the security protocol (AH or ESP) located
after the original IP header and options, but before any upper layer protocols contained in the
packet (such as TCP and UDP).
With ESP, protection is applied only to the upper layer protocols contained in the packet. The
IP header information and options are not used in the authentication process. Therefore, the
originating IP address cannot be verified for integrity against the data.
With the use of AH as the security protocol, protection is extended forward into the IP header
to verify the integrity of the entire packet by use of portions of the original IP header in the
hashing process.
14.3.2 Tunnel Mode
Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet to transmit it securely. A Tunnel mode is
required for gateway services to provide access to internal systems. Tunnel mode is
fundamentally an IP tunnel with authentication and encryption. This is the most common
mode of operation. Tunnel mode is required for gateway to gateway and host to gateway
communications. Tunnel mode communications have two sets of IP headers:
• Outside header: The outside IP header contains the destination IP address of the VPN
gateway.
• Inside header: The inside IP header contains the destination IP address of the final
system behind the VPN gateway. The security protocol appears after the outer IP header
and before the inside IP header.
14.4 IPSec and NAT
Read this section if you are running IPSec on a host computer behind the Prestige.
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NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both Transport and Tunnel mode. An IPSec
VPN using the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data payload and
headers, with a hash value appended to the packet. When using AH protocol, packet contents
(the data payload) are not encrypted.
A NAT device in between the IPSec endpoints will rewrite either the source or destination
address with one of its own choosing. The VPN device at the receiving end will verify the
integrity of the incoming packet by computing its own hash value, and complain that the hash
value appended to the received packet doesn't match. The VPN device at the receiving end
doesn't know about the NAT in the middle, so it assumes that the data has been maliciously
altered.
IPSec using ESP in Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire original packet (including headers)
in a new IP packet. The new IP packet's source address is the outbound address of the sending
VPN gateway, and its destination address is the inbound address of the VPN device at the
receiving end. When using ESP protocol with authentication, the packet contents (in this case,
the entire original packet) are encrypted. The encrypted contents, but not the new headers, are
signed with a hash value appended to the packet.
Tunnel mode ESP with authentication is compatible with NAT because integrity checks are
performed over the combination of the "original header plus original payload," which is
unchanged by a NAT device.
Transport mode ESP with authentication is not compatible with NAT.
Table 51 VPN and NAT
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
ESP
Transport
N
ESP
Tunnel
Y
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CHAPTER 15
VPN Screens
This chapter introduces the VPN screens. See the Logs chapter for information on viewing
logs and the appendix for IPSec log descriptions.
15.1 VPN/IPSec Overview
Use the screens documented in this chapter to configure rules for VPN connections and
manage VPN connections.
15.2 IPSec Algorithms
The ESP and AH protocols are necessary to create a Security Association (SA), the
foundation of an IPSec VPN. An SA is built from the authentication provided by the AH and
ESP protocols. The primary function of key management is to establish and maintain the SA
between systems. Once the SA is established, the transport of data may commence.
15.2.1 AH (Authentication Header) Protocol
AH protocol (RFC 2402) was designed for integrity, authentication, sequence integrity (replay
resistance), and non-repudiation but not for confidentiality, for which the ESP was designed.
In applications where confidentiality is not required or not sanctioned by government
encryption restrictions, an AH can be employed to ensure integrity. This type of
implementation does not protect the information from dissemination but will allow for
verification of the integrity of the information and authentication of the originator.
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15.2.2 ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol
The ESP protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as the services offered by AH. ESP
authenticating properties are limited compared to the AH due to the non-inclusion of the IP
header information during the authentication process. However, ESP is sufficient if only the
upper layer protocols need to be authenticated.
An added feature of the ESP is payload padding, which further protects communications by
concealing the size of the packet being transmitted.
Table 52 AH and ESP
ESP
AH
DES (default)
MD5 (default)
Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a widely
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
used method of data encryption using a
digest to authenticate packet data.
private (secret) key. DES applies a 56-bit key
to each 64-bit block of data.
ENCRYPTION
3DES
SHA1
Triple DES (3DES) is a variant of DES, which SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
iterates three times with three separate keys 160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
(3 x 56 = 168 bits), effectively doubling the
strength of DES.
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard is a newer
method of data encryption that also uses a
secret key. This implementation of AES
applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a phase 2 tunnel
without encryption.
AUTHENTICATION
MD5 (default)
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
digest to authenticate packet data.
MD5 (default)
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
digest to authenticate packet data.
SHA1
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
SHA1
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA1 for maximum security.
15.3 My IP Address
My IP Address is the WAN IP address of the Prestige. The Prestige has to rebuild the VPN
tunnel if the My IP Address changes after setup.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
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• The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set up the
VPN tunnel.
• If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the LAN IP address when using
traffic redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on traffic redirect.
15.4 Secure Gateway Address
Secure Gateway Address is the WAN IP address or domain name of the remote IPSec router
(secure gateway).
If the remote secure gateway has a static WAN IP address, enter it in the Secure Gateway
Address field. You may alternatively enter the remote secure gateway’s domain name (if it
has one) in the Secure Gateway Address field.
You can also enter a remote secure gateway’s domain name in the Secure Gateway Address
field if the remote secure gateway has a dynamic WAN IP address and is using DDNS. The
Prestige has to rebuild the VPN tunnel each time the remote secure gateway’s WAN IP
address changes (there may be a delay until the DDNS servers are updated with the remote
gateway’s new WAN IP address).
15.4.1 Dynamic Secure Gateway Address
If the remote secure gateway has a dynamic WAN IP address and does not use DDNS, enter
0.0.0.0 as the secure gateway’s address. In this case only the remote secure gateway can
initiate SAs. This may be useful for telecommuters initiating a VPN tunnel to the company
network (seeSection 15.17 on page 199for configuration examples).
The Secure Gateway IP Address may be configured as 0.0.0.0 only when using IKE key
management and not Manual key management.
15.5 VPN Summary Screen
The following figure helps explain the main fields in the web configurator.
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Figure 80 IPSec Summary Fields
Local and remote IP addresses must be static.
Click VPN and Setup to open the VPN Summary screen. This is a read-only menu of your
IPSec rules (tunnels). The IPSec summary menu is read-only. Edit a VPN by selecting an
index number and then configuring its associated submenus.
Figure 81 VPN Summary
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 53 VPN Summary
179
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No.
This is the VPN policy index number. Click a number to edit VPN policies.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Active
This field displays whether the VPN policy is active or not. A Yes signifies that this
VPN policy is active. No signifies that this VPN policy is not active.
Local Address
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on your local network behind your Prestige.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Local Address Type field
in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Single.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Local Address Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key)
screen is configured to Range.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Local Address
Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Subnet.
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Table 53 VPN Summary (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote
Address
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on the remote network behind the remote
IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when the Secure Gateway Address field displays 0.0.0.0. In
this case only the remote IPSec router can initiate the VPN.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Remote Address Type
field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Single.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Remote Address Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual
Key) screen is configured to Range.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Remote Address
Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Subnet.
Encap.
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode (Tunnel is the default selection).
IPSec Algorithm This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Secure Gateway This is the static WAN IP address or URL of the remote IPSec router. This field
IP
displays 0.0.0.0 when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in the VPNIKE screen to 0.0.0.0.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
15.6 Keep Alive
When you initiate an IPSec tunnel with keep alive enabled, the Prestige automatically
renegotiates the tunnel when the IPSec SA lifetime period expires (see Section 15.11 on page
188 for more on the IPSec SA lifetime). In effect, the IPSec tunnel becomes an “always on”
connection after you initiate it. Both IPSec routers must have a Prestige-compatible keep alive
feature enabled in order for this feature to work.
If the Prestige has its maximum number of simultaneous IPSec tunnels connected to it and
they all have keep alive enabled, then no other tunnels can take a turn connecting to the
Prestige because the Prestige never drops the tunnels that are already connected.
When there is outbound traffic with no inbound traffic, the Prestige automatically drops the
tunnel after two minutes.
15.7 Remote DNS Server
In cases where you want to use domain names to access Intranet servers on a remote network
that has a DNS server, you must identify that DNS server. You cannot use DNS servers on the
LAN or from the ISP since these DNS servers cannot resolve domain names to private IP
addresses on the remote network
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The following figure depicts an example where three VPN tunnels are created from Prestige
A; one to branch office 2, one to branch office 3 and another to headquarters. In order to
access computers that use private domain names on the headquarters (HQ) network, the
Prestige at branch office 1 uses the Intranet DNS server in headquarters. The DNS server
feature for VPN does not work with Windows 2000 or Windows XP.
Figure 82 VPN Host using Intranet DNS Server Example
If you do not specify an Intranet DNS server on the remote network, then the VPN host must
use IP addresses to access the computers on the remote network.
15.8 ID Type and Content
With aggressive negotiation mode (seeSection 15.11.1 on page 189), the Prestige identifies
incoming SAs by ID type and content since this identifying information is not encrypted. This
enables the Prestige to distinguish between multiple rules for SAs that connect from remote
IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP addresses. Telecommuters can use separate
passwords to simultaneously connect to the Prestige from IPSec routers with dynamic IP
addresses (seeSection 15.17 on page 199 for a telecommuter configuration example).
Regardless of the ID type and content configuration, the Prestige does not allow you to save
multiple active rules with overlapping local and remote IP addresses.
With main mode (seeSection 15.11.1 on page 189), the ID type and content are encrypted to
provide identity protection. In this case the Prestige can only distinguish between up to 12
different incoming SAs that connect from remote IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP
addresses. The Prestige can distinguish up to 12 incoming SAs because you can select between
three encryption algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES), two authentication algorithms (MD5 and
SHA1) and two key groups (DH1 and DH2) when you configure a VPN rule (seeSection 15.12
on page 190). The ID type and content act as an extra level of identification for incoming SAs.
The type of ID can be a domain name, an IP address or an e-mail address. The content is the IP
address, domain name, or e-mail address.
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Table 54 Local ID Type and Content Fields
LOCAL ID TYPE= CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of your computer or leave the field blank to have the Prestige
automatically use its own IP address.
DNS
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
E-mail
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address.
Table 55 Peer ID Type and Content Fields
PEER ID TYPE= CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of the computer with which you will make the VPN connection
or leave the field blank to have the Prestige automatically use the address in the
Secure Gateway field.
DNS
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec
router.
E-mail
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec
router.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address. The domain name also does not have to match the remote router’s IP
address or what you configure in the Secure Gateway Addr field below.
15.8.1 ID Type and Content Examples
Two IPSec routers must have matching ID type and content configuration in order to set up a
VPN tunnel.
The two Prestiges in this example can complete negotiation and establish a VPN tunnel.
Table 56 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
PRESTIGE A
PRESTIGE B
Local ID type: E-mail
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
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The two Prestiges in this example cannot complete their negotiation because Prestige B’s
Local ID type is IP, but Prestige A’s Peer ID type is set to E-mail. An “ID mismatched”
message displays in the IPSEC LOG.
Table 57 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
PRESTIGE A
PRESTIGE B
Local ID type: IP
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID content: aa@yahoo.com
Peer ID content: N/A
15.9 Pre-Shared Key
A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation
(seeSection 15.11 on page 188for more on IKE phases). It is called “pre-shared” because you
have to share it with another party before you can communicate with them over a secure
connection.
15.10 Editing VPN Policies
Click a number (No.) on the Summary screen to edit VPN policies.
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Figure 83 VPN IKE
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 58 VPN IKE
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPSec Setup
Active Select this check box to activate this VPN policy. This option determines whether
a VPN rule is applied before a packet leaves the firewall.
Keep Alive Select either Yes or No from the drop-down list box.
Select Yes to have the Prestige automatically reinitiate the SA after the SA lifetime
times out, even if there is no traffic. The remote IPSec router must also have keep
alive enabled in order for this feature to work.
Name Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the Prestige drops trailing spaces.
IPSec Key Mode Select IKE or Manual from the drop-down list box. IKE provides more protection
so it is generally recommended. Manual is a useful option for troubleshooting if
you have problems using IKE key management.
Negotiation Mode Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs connecting
through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Encapsulation Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
Mode
DNS Server (for If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here.
IPSec VPN) The Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige's DHCP clients
that have IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on
the VPN by their (private) domain names.
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs can have the same configured local or remote IP address, but not
both. You can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP
addresses, as long as only one is active at any time.
In order to have more than one active rule with the Secure Gateway Address
field set to 0.0.0.0, the ranges of the local IP addresses cannot overlap between
rules.
If you configure an active rule with 0.0.0.0 in the Secure Gateway Address field
and the LAN’s full IP address range as the local IP address, then you cannot
configure any other active rules with the Secure Gateway Address field set to
0.0.0.0.
Local Address Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single for
Type a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses. Select
Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type field is
configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of
computers on your LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type
field is configured to Subnet, this is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
End / Subnet Mask When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static)
IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the
Local Address Type field is configured to Subnet, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
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Table 58 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses. The remote fields do not apply when the Secure
Gateway IP Address field is configured to 0.0.0.0. In this case only the remote
IPSec router can initiate the VPN.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Remote Address Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single
Type with a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses.
Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote
Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
End / Subnet Mask When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Address
Information
Local ID Type Select IP to identify this Prestige by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this Prestige by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this Prestige by an e-mail address.
Content When you select IP in the Local ID Type field, type the IP address of your
computer in the local Content field. The Prestige automatically uses the IP
address in the My IP Address field (refer to the My IP Address field description)
if you configure the local Content field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 in the local
Content field or use the DNS or E-mail ID type in the following situations.
When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
When you want the remote IPSec router to be able to distinguish between VPN
connection requests that come in from IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP
addresses.
When you select DNS or E-mail in the Local ID Type field, type a domain name
or e-mail address by which to identify this Prestige in the local Content field. Use
up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although trailing spaces are
truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for identification purposes only
and can be any string.
My IP Address Enter the WAN IP address of your Prestige. The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if
this IP address changes.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set
up the VPN tunnel.
If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the LAN IP address when
using traffic redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on traffic redirect.
Peer ID Type Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by an e-mail address.
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Table 58 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Content The configuration of the peer content depends on the peer ID type.
For IP, type the IP address of the computer with which you will make the VPN
connection. If you configure this field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank, the Prestige will
use the address in the Secure Gateway Address field (refer to the Secure
Gateway Address field description).
For DNS or E-mail, type a domain name or e-mail address by which to identify the
remote IPSec router. Use up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although
trailing spaces are truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for
identification purposes only and can be any string.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 or use the DNS
or E-mail ID type in the following situations:
When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
When you want the Prestige to distinguish between VPN connection requests that
come in from remote IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP addresses.
Secure Gateway Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
Address with which you're making the VPN connection. Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the
remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN IP address (the Key Management field
must be set to IKE).
In order to have more than one active rule with the Secure Gateway Address
field set to 0.0.0.0, the ranges of the local IP addresses cannot overlap between
rules.
If you configure an active rule with 0.0.0.0 in the Secure Gateway Address field
and the LAN’s full IP address range as the local IP address, then you cannot
configure any other active rules with the Secure Gateway Address field set to
0.0.0.0.
Security Protocol
VPN Protocol Select ESP if you want to use ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload). The ESP
protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as some of the services offered
by AH. If you select ESP here, you must select options from the Encryption
Algorithm and Authentication Algorithm fields (described below).
Pre-Shared Key Type your pre-shared key in this field. A pre-shared key identifies a
communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation. It is called "pre-shared"
because you have to share it with another party before you can communicate with
them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62 hexadecimal
("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key with a "0x” (zero
x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62 character range for the key. For
example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", “0x” denotes that the key is hexadecimal
and “0123456789ABCDEF” is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive a
“PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key is
not used on both ends.
Encryption Select DES, 3DES, AES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
Algorithm When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
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Table 58 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Advanced
Click Advanced to configure more detailed settings of your IKE key management.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the current rule.
15.11 IKE Phases
There are two phases to every IKE (Internet Key Exchange) negotiation – phase 1
(Authentication) and phase 2 (Key Exchange). A phase 1 exchange establishes an IKE SA and
the second one uses that SA to negotiate SAs for IPSec.
Figure 84 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA
In phase 1 you must:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Choose a negotiation mode.
Authenticate the connection by entering a pre-shared key.
Choose an encryption algorithm.
Choose an authentication algorithm.
Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group (DH1 or DH2).
Set the IKE SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long an IKE SA should
stay up before it times out. An IKE SA times out when the IKE SA lifetime period
expires. If an IKE SA times out when an IPSec SA is already established, the IPSec SA
stays connected.
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In phase 2 you must:
•
•
•
•
Choose which protocol to use (ESP or AH) for the IKE key exchange.
Choose an encryption algorithm.
Choose an authentication algorithm
Choose whether to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) using Diffie-Hellman publickey cryptography – seeSection 15.11.3 on page 190. Select None (the default) to disable
PFS.
• Choose Tunnel mode or Transport mode.
• Set the IPSec SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long the IPSec SA
should stay up before it times out. The Prestige automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA
if there is traffic when the IPSec SA lifetime period expires. The Prestige also
automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA if both IPSec routers have keep alive enabled,
even if there is no traffic. If an IPSec SA times out, then the IPSec router must renegotiate
the SA the next time someone attempts to send traffic.
15.11.1 Negotiation Mode
The phase 1 Negotiation Mode you select determines how the Security Association (SA) will
be established for each connection through IKE negotiations.
• Main Mode ensures the highest level of security when the communicating parties are
negotiating authentication (phase 1). It uses 6 messages in three round trips: SA
negotiation, Diffie-Hellman exchange and an exchange of nonces (a nonce is a random
number). This mode features identity protection (your identity is not revealed in the
negotiation).
• Aggressive Mode is quicker than Main Mode because it eliminates several steps when
the communicating parties are negotiating authentication (phase 1). However the tradeoff is that faster speed limits its negotiating power and it also does not provide identity
protection. It is useful in remote access situations where the address of the initiator is not
know by the responder and both parties want to use pre-shared key authentication.
15.11.2 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups
Diffie-Hellman (DH) is a public-key cryptography protocol that allows two parties to establish
a shared secret over an unsecured communications channel. Diffie-Hellman is used within
IKE SA setup to establish session keys. 768-bit (Group 1 - DH1) and 1024-bit (Group 2 –
DH2) Diffie-Hellman groups are supported. Upon completion of the Diffie-Hellman
exchange, the two peers have a shared secret, but the IKE SA is not authenticated. For
authentication, use pre-shared keys.
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15.11.3 Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
Enabling PFS means that the key is transient. The key is thrown away and replaced by a brand
new key using a new Diffie-Hellman exchange for each new IPSec SA setup. With PFS
enabled, if one key is compromised, previous and subsequent keys are not compromised,
because subsequent keys are not derived from previous keys. The (time-consuming) DiffieHellman exchange is the trade-off for this extra security.
This may be unnecessary for data that does not require such security, so PFS is disabled
(None) by default in the Prestige. Disabling PFS means new authentication and encryption
keys are derived from the same root secret (which may have security implications in the long
run) but allows faster SA setup (by bypassing the Diffie-Hellman key exchange).
15.12 Configuring Advanced IKE Settings
Click Advanced in the VPN IKE screen. This is the VPN IKE- Advanced Setup screen as
shown next.
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Figure 85 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 59 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VPN - IKE
Protocol Enter 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, etc. 0 is the default and signifies any
protocol.
Enable Replay As a VPN setup is processing intensive, the system is vulnerable to Denial of
Protection Service (DoS) attacks The IPSec receiver can detect and reject old or duplicate
packets to protect against replay attacks. Select YES from the drop-down menu to
enable replay detection, or select NO to disable it.
Local Start Port 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Some
of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. If Local Start Port is left at 0, End
will also remain at 0.
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Table 59 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote Start Port 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Some
of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. If Remote Start Port is left at 0,
End will also remain at 0.
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs connecting
through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Pre-Shared Key Type your pre-shared key in this field. A pre-shared key identifies a
communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation. It is called "pre-shared"
because you have to share it with another party before you can communicate with
them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62 hexadecimal
("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key with a "0x” (zero
x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62-character range for the key. For
example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", “0x” denotes that the key is hexadecimal
and “0123456789ABCDEF” is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive
a “PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key
is not used on both ends.
Encryption Select DES, 3DES or AES from the drop-down list box.
Algorithm When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
SA Life Time Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this field.
(Seconds) It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Key Group You must choose a key group for phase 1 IKE setup. DH1 (default) refers to DiffieHellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2
a 1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
Phase 2
Active Protocol Use the drop-down list box to choose from ESP or AH.
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Table 59 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption This field is available when you select ESP in the Active Protocol field.
Algorithm Select DES, 3DES, AES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
SA Life Time Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this field.
(Seconds) It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Encapsulation Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
Perfect Forward Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is disabled (NONE) by default in phase 2 IPSec
Secrecy (PFS) SA setup. This allows faster IPSec setup, but is not so secure. Choose DH1 or
DH2 from the drop-down list box to enable PFS. DH1 refers to Diffie-Hellman
Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024
bit (1Kb) random number (more secure, yet slower).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige and return to the VPN-IKE
screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the VPN-IKE screen without saving your changes.
15.13 Manual Key Setup
Manual key management is useful if you have problems with IKE key management.
15.13.1 Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An SPI is used to distinguish different SAs terminating at the same destination and using the
same IPSec protocol. This data allows for the multiplexing of SAs to a single gateway. The
SPI (Security Parameter Index) along with a destination IP address uniquely identify a
particular Security Association (SA). The SPI is transmitted from the remote VPN gateway to
the local VPN gateway. The local VPN gateway then uses the network, encryption and key
values that the administrator associated with the SPI to establish the tunnel.
Current ZyXEL implementation assumes identical outgoing and incoming SPIs.
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15.14 Configuring Manual Key
You only configure VPN Manual Key when you select Manual in the IPSec Key Mode field
on the VPN IKE screen. This is the VPN Manual Key screen as shown next.
Figure 86 VPN: Manual Key
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 60 VPN: Manual Key
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPSec Setup
Active
Select this check box to activate this VPN policy.
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the Prestige drops trailing spaces.
IPSec Key Mode
Select IKE or Manual from the drop-down list box. Manual is a useful option for
troubleshooting if you have problems using IKE key management.
SPI
Type a number (base 10) from 1 to 999999 for the Security Parameter Index.
Encapsulation
Mode
Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
DNS Server (for
IPSec VPN)
If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here.
The Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige 's DHCP clients
that have IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on
the VPN by their (private) domain names.
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Local Address Type Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single for
a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses. Select
Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
195
IP Address Start
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type field is
configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of
computers on your LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type
field is configured to Subnet, this is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
End / Subnet Mask
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static)
IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the
Local Address Type field is configured to Subnet, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Remote Address
Type
Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single
with a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses.
Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote
Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
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Table 60 VPN: Manual Key (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End / Subnet Mask
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Address
Information
My IP Address
Enter the WAN IP address of your Prestige. The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if
this IP address changes.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set
up the VPN tunnel.
If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the LAN IP address when
using traffic redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on traffic redirect.
Secure Gateway
Address
Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
with which you're making the VPN connection.
Security Protocol
IPSec Protocol
Select ESP if you want to use ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload). The ESP
protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as some of the services offered
by AH. If you select ESP here, you must select options from the Encryption
Algorithm and Authentication Algorithm fields (described next).
Encryption
Algorithm
Select DES, 3DES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
When DES is used for data communications, both sender and receiver must know
the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to
generate and verify a message authentication code. The DES encryption
algorithm uses a 56-bit key. Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a
168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more
processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased throughput.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
Encapsulation Key
(only with ESP)
With DES, type a unique key 8 characters long. With 3DES, type a unique key 24
characters long. Any characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing
spaces are truncated.
Authentication
Algorithm
Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Authentication Key
Type a unique authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. Enter 16
characters for MD5 authentication or 20 characters for SHA-1 authentication. Any
characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are truncated.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the current rule.
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15.15 Viewing SA Monitor
Click VPN and Monitor to open the SA Monitor screen as shown. Use this screen to display
and manage active VPN connections.
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
This screen displays active VPN connections. Use Refresh to display active VPN
connections. This screen is read-only. The following table describes the fields in this tab.
When there is outbound traffic but no inbound traffic, the SA times out automatically after two
minutes. A tunnel with no outbound or inbound traffic is "idle" and does not timeout until the
SA lifetime period expires. SeeSection 15.6 on page 180on keep alive to have the Prestige
renegotiate an IPSec SA when the SA lifetime expires, even if there is no traffic.
Figure 87 VPN: SA Monitor
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 61 VPN: SA Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Encapsulation
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode.
IPSec Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Disconnect
Select Disconnect next to a security association and then click Apply to stop that
security association.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current active VPN connection(s).
15.16 Configuring Global Setting
To change your Prestige’s global settings, click VPN and then Global Setting. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 88 VPN: Global Setting
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 62 VPN: Global Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Windows Networking
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
(NetBIOS over TCP/IP) enable a computer to find other computers. It may sometimes be necessary to
allow NetBIOS packets to pass through VPN tunnels in order to allow local
computers to find computers on the remote network and vice versa.
Allow NetBIOS Traffic
Through All IPSec
Tunnels
Select this check box to send NetBIOS packets through the VPN connection.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
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Table 62 VPN: Global Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.17 Telecommuter VPN/IPSec Examples
The following examples show how multiple telecommuters can make VPN connections to a
single Prestige at headquarters. The telecommuters use IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP
addresses. The Prestige at headquarters has a static public IP address.
15.17.1 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
See the following figure and table for an example configuration that allows multiple
telecommuters (A, B and C in the figure) to use one VPN rule to simultaneously access a
Prestige at headquarters (HQ in the figure). The telecommuters do not have domain names
mapped to the WAN IP addresses of their IPSec routers. The telecommuters must all use the
same IPSec parameters but the local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) should not overlap.
Figure 89 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
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Table 63 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
FIELDS
TELECOMMUTERS
My IP Address:
0.0.0.0 (dynamic IP address assigned Public static IP address
by the ISP)
Secure Gateway IP
Address:
Public static IP address
0.0.0.0
With this IP address only the
telecommuter can initiate the IPSec
tunnel.
Local IP Address:
Telecommuter A: 192.168.2.12
Telecommuter B: 192.168.3.2
Telecommuter C: 192.168.4.15
192.168.1.10
Remote IP Address: 192.168.1.10
HEADQUARTERS
0.0.0.0 (N/A)
15.17.2 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
In this example the telecommuters (A, B and C in the figure) use IPSec routers with domain
names that are mapped to their dynamic WAN IP addresses (use Dynamic DNS to do this).
With aggressive negotiation mode (seeSection 15.11.1 on page 189), the Prestige can use the
ID types and contents to distinguish between VPN rules. Telecommuters can each use a
separate VPN rule to simultaneously access a Prestige at headquarters. They can use different
IPSec parameters. The local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) of the rules configured on
the Prestige at headquarters can overlap. The local IP addresses of the rules configured on the
telecommuters’ IPSec routers should not overlap.
See the following table and figure for an example where three telecommuters each use a
different VPN rule for a VPN connection with a Prestige located at headquarters. The Prestige
at headquarters (HQ in the figure) identifies each incoming SA by its ID type and content and
uses the appropriate VPN rule to establish the VPN connection.
The Prestige at headquarters can also initiate VPN connections to the telecommuters since it
can find the telecommuters by resolving their domain names.
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Figure 90 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
Table 64 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
TELECOMMUTERS
HEADQUARTERS
All Telecommuter Rules:
All Headquarters Rules:
My IP Address 0.0.0.0
My IP Address: bigcompanyhq.com
Secure Gateway Address: bigcompanyhq.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.1.10
Remote IP Address: 192.168.1.10
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
Peer ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
Telecommuter A (telecommutera.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 1:
Local ID Type: IP
Peer ID Type: IP
Local ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Peer ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Local IP Address: 192.168.2.12
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuter1.com
Remote Address 192.168.2.12
Telecommuter B (telecommuterb.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 2:
Local ID Type: DNS
Peer ID Type: DNS
Local ID Content: telecommuterb.com
Peer ID Content: telecommuterb.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.3.2
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuterb.com
Remote Address 192.168.3.2
Telecommuter C (telecommuterc.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 3:
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Peer ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.4.15
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuterc.com
Remote Address 192.168.4.15
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15.18 VPN and Remote Management
If a VPN tunnel uses Telnet, FTP, WWW, then you should configure remote management
(Remote Management) to allow access for that service.
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CHAPTER 16
Remote Management
Configuration
This chapter provides information on configuring remote management.
16.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
Prestige interface (if any) from which computers.
When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you still need
to configure a firewall rule to allow access.
You may manage your Prestige from a remote location via:
•
•
•
•
Internet (WAN only)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only,
Neither (Disable).
When you Choose WAN only or ALL (LAN & WAN), you still need to configure a firewall
rule to allow access.
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The Prestige
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1 Telnet
2 HTTP
16.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
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• A filter in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet,
FTP or Web service.
• You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the session immediately.
• There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
16.1.2 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
16.1.3 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The Prestige automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer
than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics screen is
polling.
16.2 Telnet
You can configure your Prestige for remote Telnet access as shown next.
Figure 91 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
16.3 FTP
You can upload and download Prestige firmware and configuration files using FTP. To use
this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
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16.4 Web
You can use the Prestige’s embedded web configurator for configuration and file
management. See the online help for details.
16.5 Configuring Remote Management
Click Remote Management to open the following screen.
Figure 92 Remote Management
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 65 Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Type
Each of these labels denotes a service that you may use to remotely manage the
Prestige.
Access Status
Select the access interface. Choices are All, LAN Only, WAN Only and Disable.
Port
This field shows the port number for the remote management service. You may
change the port number for a service in this field, but you must use the same port
number to use that service for remote management.
Secured Client
IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service to remotely manage the
Prestige. Type an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 17
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP)
This chapter introduces the UPnP feature in the web configurator.
17.1 Introducing Universal Plug and Play
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP
for simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can
dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other
devices on the network. In turn, a device can leave a network smoothly and automatically
when it is no longer in use.
17.1.1 How do I know if I'm using UPnP?
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP).
Each UPnP compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon.
Selecting the icon of a UPnP device will allow you to access the information and properties of
that device.
17.1.2 NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through
NAT. UPnP network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their
presence in the network to other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and
service descriptions. NAT traversal allows the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
See the NAT chapter for more information on NAT.
17.1.3 Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and
opening firewall ports may present network security issues. Network information and
configuration may also be obtained and modified by users in some network environments.
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All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional
configuration. Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
17.2 UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum Creates
UPnP™ Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports IGD 1.0
(Internet Gateway Device). At the time of writing ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports
Windows Messenger 4.6 and 4.7 while Windows Messenger 5.0 and Xbox are still being
tested.
UPnP broadcasts are only allowed on the LAN.
See later sections for examples of installing UPnP in Windows XP and Windows Me as well
as an example of using UPnP in Windows.
17.2.1 Configuring UPnP
From the Site Map in the main menu, click UPnP under Advanced Setup to display the
screen shown next.
Figure 93 Configuring UPnP
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 66 Configuring UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable the Universal Plug
and Play (UPnP) Service
Select this check box to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use
a UPnP application to open the web configurator's login screen without
entering the Prestige's IP address (although you must still enter the
password to access the web configurator).
Allow users to make
configuration changes
through UPnP
Select this check box to allow UPnP-enabled applications to
automatically configure the Prestige so that they can communicate
through the Prestige, for example by using NAT traversal, UPnP
applications automatically reserve a NAT forwarding port in order to
communicate with another UPnP enabled device; this eliminates the
need to manually configure port forwarding for the UPnP enabled
application.
Allow UPnP to pass through
Firewall
Select this check box to allow traffic from UPnP-enabled applications to
bypass the firewall.
Clear this check box to have the firewall block all UPnP application
packets (for example, MSN packets).
Apply
Click Apply to save the setting to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
17.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows Me.
1 Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
2 Click on the Windows Setup tab and select Communication in the Components
selection box. Click Details.
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Figure 94 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication
3 In the Communications window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box in the
Components selection box.
Figure 95 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
4 Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties window and click Next.
5 Restart the computer when prompted.
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Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1 Click Start and Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and select
Optional Networking Components ….
Figure 96 Network Connections
4 The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays. Select
Networking Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
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Figure 97 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
5 In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box.
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Figure 98 Networking Services
6 Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard
window and click Next.
17.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must already have
UPnP installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the Prestige.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the Prestige. Turn on your computer
and the Prestige.
Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
1 Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon displays
under Internet Gateway.
2 Right-click the icon and select Properties.
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Figure 99 Network Connections
3 In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port mappings
there were automatically created.
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Figure 100 Internet Connection Properties
4 You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port mappings.
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Figure 101 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
Figure 102 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5 When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port mappings
will be deleted automatically.
6 Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK. An icon
displays in the system tray.
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Figure 103 System Tray Icon
7 Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Figure 104 Internet Connection Status
Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the Prestige without finding out the
IP address of the Prestige first. This comes helpful if you do not know the IP address of the
Prestige.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
1 Click Start and then Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 Select My Network Places under Other Places.
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Figure 105 Network Connections
4 An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local
Network.
5 Right-click on the icon for your Prestige and select Invoke. The web configurator login
screen displays.
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Figure 106 Network Connections: My Network Places
6 Right-click on the icon for your Prestige and select Properties. A properties window
displays with basic information about the Prestige.
Figure 107 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
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CHAPTER 18
Logs Screens
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the
Prestige’s logs. Refer to the appendix for example log message explanations.
18.1 Logs Overview
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or alerts to have
the Prestige log and then display the logs or have the Prestige send them to an administrator
(as e-mail) or to a syslog server.
18.1.1 Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors,
attacks (access control) and attempted access to blocked web sites. Some categories such as
System Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the
View Log screen. Alerts display in red and logs display in black.
18.2 Configuring Log Settings
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where the Prestige is to send logs; the schedule for
when the Prestige is to send the logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the Prestige is to
record.
To change your Prestige’s log settings, click Logs, then the Log Settings. The screen appears
as shown.
Alerts are e-mailed as soon as they happen. Logs may be e-mailed as soon as the log is full
(see Log Schedule). Selecting many alert and/or log categories (especially Access Control)
may result in many e-mails being sent.
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Figure 108 Log Settings
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 67 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Info
223
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail addresses
specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages will not be sent via
e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message that the
Prestige sends.
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Table 67 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Send log to
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left blank,
logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send alerts to
Alerts are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left blank,
alerts will not be sent via e-mail.
UNIX Syslog
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server used to store logs.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log the
messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your
syslog program for more details.
Send Log
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages being
sent as E-mail:
Daily
Weekly
Hourly
When Log is Full
None.
If you select Weekly or Daily, specify a time of day when the E-mail should be sent.
If you select Weekly, then also specify which day of the week the E-mail should be
sent. If you select When Log is Full, an alert is sent when the log fills up. If you
select None, no log messages are sent
Day for Sending
Log
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00 pm) to
Log
send the logs.
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record. Logs include alerts.
Send Immediate Select the categories of alerts for which you want the Prestige to instantly e-mail
Alert
alerts to the e-mail address specified in the Send Alerts To field.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
18.3 Displaying the Logs
Click Logs and then View Log to open the View Logs screen. Use the View Logs screen to
see the logs for the categories that you selected in the Log Settings screen (see Section 18.2 on
page 222).
Log entries in red indicate alerts. The log wraps around and deletes the old entries after it fills.
Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates ascending or descending sort
order.
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Figure 109 View Logs
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 68 View Logs
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
The categories that you select in the Log Settings screen (see Section 18.2 on
page 222) display in the drop-down list box.
Select a category of logs to view; select All Logs to view logs from all of the log
categories that you selected in the Log Settings page.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
Notes
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the
Log Settings page (make sure that you have first filled in the Address Info fields in
Log Settings, see Section 18.2 on page 222).
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to delete all the logs.
18.4 SMTP Error Messages
If there are difficulties in sending e-mail the following error messages appear.
E-mail error messages appear in SMT menu 24.3.1 as "SMTP action request failed. ret= ??".
The “??"are described in the following table.
Table 69 SMTP Error Messages
-1 means Prestige out of socket
-2 means tcp SYN fail
-3 means smtp server OK fail
-4 means HELO fail
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Table 69 SMTP Error Messages
-5 means MAIL FROM fail
-6 means RCPT TO fail
-7 means DATA fail
-8 means mail data send fail
18.4.1 Example E-mail Log
An "End of Log" message displays for each mail in which a complete log has been sent. The
following is an example of a log sent by e-mail.
•
•
•
•
You may edit the subject title.
The date format here is Day-Month-Year.
The date format here is Month-Day-Year. The time format is Hour-Minute-Second.
"End of Log" message shows that a complete log has been sent.
Figure 110 E-mail Log Example
Subject:
Firewall Alert From Prestige
Date:
Fri, 07 Apr 2000 10:05:42
From:
user@zyxel.com
To:
user@zyxel.com
1|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy
|forward
| 09:54:03 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
2|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy
|forward
| 09:54:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
3|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.6
To:10.10.10.10 |match
|forward
| 09:54:19 |UDP
src port:03516 dest port:00053 |<1,01>
|
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
126|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:00 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
127|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
128|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:30 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
End of Firewall Log
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CHAPTER 19
Media Bandwidth Management
Advanced Setup
This chapter describes bandwidth management with one level of child class.
19.1 Bandwidth Management Advanced Setup Overview
Bandwidth management allows you to allocate an interface’s outgoing capacity to specific
types of traffic. It can also help you make sure that the Prestige forwards certain types of
traffic (especially real-time applications) with minimum delay. With the use of real-time
applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) increasing, the requirement for bandwidth
allocation is also increasing.
Bandwidth management addresses questions such as:
•
•
•
•
Who gets how much access to specific applications?
What priority level should you give to each type of traffic?
Which traffic must have guaranteed delivery?
How much bandwidth should be allotted to guarantee delivery?
Bandwidth management also allows you to configure the allowed output for an interface to
match what the network can handle. This helps reduce delays and dropped packets at the next
routing device. For example, you can set the WAN interface speed to 1000kbps if the ADSL
connection has an upstream speed of 1Mbps. All configuration screens display measurements
in kbps (kilobits per second), but this User’s Guide also uses Mbps (megabits per second) for
brevity’s sake.
You can use the wizard setup screens to configure basic bandwidth management. Refer to
Chapter 4 on page 68 for more information.
19.2 Bandwidth Classes and Filters
Use bandwidth classes and child-classes to allocate specific amounts of bandwidth capacity
(bandwidth budgets). Configure a bandwidth filter to define a bandwidth class (or child-class)
based on a specific application and/or subnet. Use the Class Configuration screen (see
Section 19.9 on page 235) to set up a bandwidth class’s name, bandwidth allotment, and
bandwidth filter. You can configure up to one bandwidth filter per bandwidth class. You can
also configure bandwidth classes without bandwidth filters. However, it is recommended that
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you configure child-classes with filters for any classes that you configure without filters. The
Prestige leaves the bandwidth budget allocated and unused for a class that does not have a
filter itself or child-classes with filters. View your configured bandwidth classes and childclasses in the Class Setup screen (see Section 19.9 on page 235 for details).
The total of the configured bandwidth budgets for child-classes cannot exceed the configured
bandwidth budget speed of the parent class.
19.3 Proportional Bandwidth Allocation
Bandwidth management allows you to define how much bandwidth each class gets; however,
the actual bandwidth allotted to each class decreases or increases in proportion to actual
available bandwidth.
19.4 Bandwidth Management Usage Examples
These examples show bandwidth management allotments on a WAN interface that is
configured for 640Kbps.
19.4.1 Application-based Bandwidth Management Example
The bandwidth classes in the following example are based solely on application. Each
bandwidth class (VoIP, Web, FTP, E-mail and Video) is allotted 128kbps.
Figure 111 Application-based Bandwidth Management Example
19.4.2 Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
The following example uses bandwidth classes based solely on LAN subnets. Each bandwidth
class (Subnet A and Subnet B) is allotted 320kbps.
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Figure 112 Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
19.4.3 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management
Example
The following example uses bandwidth classes based on LAN subnets and applications
(specific applications in each subnet are allotted bandwidth).
Table 70 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
TRAFFIC TYPE
FROM SUBNET A
FROM SUBNET B
VoIP
64 kbps
64 kbps
Web
64 kbps
64 kbps
FTP
64 kbps
64 kbps
E-mail
64 kbps
64 kbps
Video
64 kbps
64 kbps
Figure 113 Application and Subnet-based Bandwidth Management Example
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19.5 Scheduler
The scheduler divides up an interface’s bandwidth among the bandwidth classes. The Prestige
has two types of scheduler: fairness-based and priority-based.
19.5.1 Priority-based Scheduler
With the priority-based scheduler, the Prestige forwards traffic from bandwidth classes
according to the priorities that you assign to the bandwidth classes. The larger a bandwidth
class’s priority number is, the higher the priority. Assign real-time applications (like those
using audio or video) a higher priority number to provide smoother operation.
19.5.2 Fairness-based Scheduler
The Prestige divides bandwidth equally among bandwidth classes when using the fairnessbased scheduler; thus preventing one bandwidth class from using all of the interface’s
bandwidth.
19.6 Maximize Bandwidth Usage
The maximize bandwidth usage option (see Section 19.7.1 on page 233) allows the Prestige to
divide up any available bandwidth on the interface (including unallocated bandwidth and any
allocated bandwidth that a class is not using) among the bandwidth classes that require more
bandwidth.
When you enable maximize bandwidth usage, the Prestige first makes sure that each
bandwidth class gets up to its bandwidth allotment. Next, the Prestige divides up an interface’s
available bandwidth (bandwidth that is unbudgeted or unused by the classes) depending on
how many bandwidth classes require more bandwidth and on their priority levels. When only
one class requires more bandwidth, the Prestige gives extra bandwidth to that class.
When multiple classes require more bandwidth, the Prestige gives the highest priority classes
the available bandwidth first (as much as they require, if there is enough available bandwidth),
and then to lower priority classes if there is still bandwidth available. The Prestige distributes
the available bandwidth equally among classes with the same priority level.
19.6.1 Reserving Bandwidth for Non-Bandwidth Class Traffic
Do the following three steps to configure the Prestige to allow bandwidth for traffic that is not
defined in a bandwidth filter.
1 Leave some of the interface’s bandwidth unbudgeted.
2 Do not enable the interface’s Maximize Bandwidth Usage option.
3 Do not enable bandwidth borrowing on the child-classes that have the root class as their
parent (see Section 19.7 on page 233).
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19.6.2 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example
Here is an example of a Prestige that has maximized bandwidth usage enabled on an interface.
The first figure shows each bandwidth class’s bandwidth budget and priority. The classes are
set up based on subnets. The interface is set to 10 Mbps. Each subnet is allocated 2 Mbps. The
unbudgeted 2 Mbps allows traffic not defined in one of the bandwidth filters to go out when
you do not select the maximize bandwidth option.
Figure 114 Bandwidth Allotment Example
The following figure shows the bandwidth usage with the maximize bandwidth usage option
enabled. The Prestige divides up the unbudgeted 2 Mbps among the classes that require more
bandwidth. If the administration department only uses 1 Mbps of the budgeted 2 Mbps, the
Prestige also divides the remaining 1 Mbps among the classes that require more bandwidth.
Therefore, the Prestige divides a total of 3 Mbps total of unbudgeted and unused bandwidth
among the classes that require more bandwidth.
In this case, suppose that all of the classes except for the administration class need more
bandwidth.
• Each class gets up to its budgeted bandwidth. The administration class only uses 1 Mbps
of its budgeted 2 Mbps.
• Sales and Marketing are first to get extra bandwidth because they have the highest
priority (6). If they each require 1.5 Mbps or more of extra bandwidth, the Prestige
divides the total 3 Mbps total of unbudgeted and unused bandwidth equally between the
sales and marketing departments (1.5 Mbps extra to each for a total of 3.5 Mbps for each)
because they both have the highest priority level.
• R&D requires more bandwidth but only gets its budgeted 2 Mbps because all of the
unbudgeted and unused bandwidth goes to the higher priority sales and marketing
classes.
• The Prestige does not send any traffic that is not defined in the bandwidth filters because
all of the unbudgeted bandwidth goes to the classes that need it.
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Figure 115 Maximize Bandwidth Usage Example
19.7 Bandwidth Borrowing
Bandwidth borrowing allows a child-class to borrow unused bandwidth from its parent class,
whereas maximize bandwidth usage allows bandwidth classes to borrow any unused or
unbudgeted bandwidth on the whole interface.
Enable bandwidth borrowing on a child-class to allow the child-class to use its parent class’s
unused bandwidth. A parent class’s unused bandwidth is given to the highest-priority childclass that has bandwidth borrowing configured, first.
The total of the bandwidth allotments for child-classes cannot exceed the bandwidth allotment
of their parent class. The Prestige uses the scheduler to divide a parent class’s unused
bandwidth among the child-classes.
19.7.1 Maximize Bandwidth Usage With Bandwidth Borrowing
If you configure both maximize bandwidth usage (on the interface) and bandwidth borrowing
(on individual child-classes), the Prestige functions as follows.
1 The Prestige sends traffic according to each bandwidth class’s bandwidth budget.
2 The Prestige assigns a parent class’s unused bandwidth to its child-classes that have more
traffic than their budgets and have bandwidth borrowing enabled. The Prestige gives
priority to bandwidth child-classes of higher priority and treats bandwidth classes of the
same priority equally.
3 The Prestige assigns any remaining unused or unbudgeted bandwidth on the interface to
any bandwidth class that requires it. The Prestige gives priority to bandwidth classes of
higher priority and treats bandwidth classes of the same level equally.
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4 The Prestige assigns any remaining unbudgeted bandwidth to traffic that does not match
any of the bandwidth classes.
19.8 Configuring Summary
Click Media Bandwidth Management, Summary to open the screen as shown next.
Enable bandwidth management on an interface and set the maximum allowed bandwidth for
that interface.
Figure 116 Media Bandwidth Management: Summary
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 Media Bandwidth Management: Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN
WLAN
WAN
These read-only labels represent the physical interfaces. Select an interface’s check box
to enable bandwidth management on that interface. Bandwidth management applies to
all traffic flowing out of the router through the interface, regardless of the traffic’s source.
Traffic redirect or IP alias may cause LAN-to-LAN traffic to pass through the Prestige
and be managed by bandwidth management.
Active
Select an interface’s check box to enable bandwidth management on that interface.
Speed (kbps)
Enter the amount of bandwidth for this interface that you want to allocate using
bandwidth management.
This appears as the bandwidth budget of the interface’s root class. The recommendation
is to set this speed to match what the interface’s connection can handle. For example,
set the WAN interface speed to 10000 kbps if the ADSL connection has an upstream
speed of 10Mbps.
Scheduler
Select either Priority-Based or Fairness-Based from the drop-down menu to control
the traffic flow.
Select Priority-Based to give preference to bandwidth classes with higher priorities.
Select Fairness-Based to treat all bandwidth classes equally.
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Table 71 Media Bandwidth Management: Summary (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Maximize
Bandwidth
Usage
Select this check box to have the Prestige divide up all of the interface’s unallocated
and/or unused bandwidth among the bandwidth classes that require bandwidth. Do not
select this if you want to reserve bandwidth for traffic that does not match a bandwidth
class or you want to limit the speed of this interface (see the Speed field description).
Back
Click Back to go to the main Media Bandwidth Management screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
19.9 Configuring Class Setup
The class setup screen displays the configured bandwidth classes by individual interface.
Select an interface and click the buttons to perform the actions described next. Click “+” to
expand the class tree or click “-“to collapse the class tree. Each interface has a permanent root
class. The bandwidth budget of the root class is equal to the speed you configured on the
interface (see Section 19.8 on page 234 to configure the speed of the interface). Configure
child-class layers for the root class.
To add or delete child classes on an interface, click Media Bandwidth Management, then
Class Setup. The screen appears as shown (with example classes).
Figure 117 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Setup
235
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list box for which you wish to set up classes.
Back
Click Back to go to the main Media Bandwidth Management screen.
Add Child-Class
Click Add Child-class to add a sub-class.
Edit
Click Edit to configure the selected class. You cannot edit the root class.
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Table 72 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to delete the class and all its child-classes. You cannot delete the root
class.
Statistics
Click Statistics to display the status of the selected class.
19.9.1 Media Bandwidth Management Class Configuration
Configure a bandwidth management class in the Class Configuration screen. You must use
the Media Bandwidth Management - Summary screen to enable bandwidth management on
an interface before you can configure classes for that interface.
To add a child class, click Media Bandwidth Management, then Class Setup. Click the Add
Child-Class button to open the following screen.
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Figure 118 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen
Table 73 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Name
Use the auto-generated name or enter a descriptive name of up to 20
alphanumeric characters, including spaces.
BW Budget (kbps)
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed for the class in kbps. The
recommendation is a setting between 20 kbps and 20000 kbps for an individual
class.
Priority
Enter a number between 0 and 7 to set the priority of this class. The higher the
number, the higher the priority. The default setting is 3.
Borrow bandwidth
from parent class
Select this option to allow a child-class to borrow bandwidth from its parent class
if the parent class is not using up its bandwidth budget.
Bandwidth borrowing is governed by the priority of the child-classes. That is, a
child-class with the highest priority (7) is the first to borrow bandwidth from its
parent class.
Do not select this for the classes directly below the root class if you want to leave
bandwidth available for other traffic types or you want to set the interface’s
speed to match what the next device in network can handle (see the Speed field
description in the Summary screen).
Bandwidth Filter
The Prestige uses a bandwidth filter to identify the traffic that belongs to a bandwidth class.
Active
237
Select the check box to have the Prestige use this bandwidth filter when it
performs bandwidth management.
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Table 73 Media Bandwidth Management: Class Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service
You can select a predefined service instead of configuring the Destination Port,
Source Port and Protocol ID fields.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a signaling protocol used in Internet
telephony, instant messaging and other VoIP (Voice over IP) applications. Select
SIP from the drop-down list box to configure this bandwidth filter for traffic that
uses SIP.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet file transfer service that operates on
the Internet and over TCP/IP networks. A system running the FTP server
accepts commands from a system running an FTP client. The service allows
users to send commands to the server for uploading and downloading files.
Select FTP from the drop-down list box to configure this bandwidth filter for FTP
traffic.
H.323 is a standard teleconferencing protocol suite that provides audio, data and
video conferencing. It allows for real-time point-to-point and multipoint
communication between client computers over a packet-based network that
does not provide a guaranteed quality of service. Select H.323 from the dropdown list box to configure this bandwidth filter for traffic that uses H.323.
When you select None, the bandwidth class applies to all services unless you
specify one by configuring the Destination Port, Source Port and Protocol ID
fields.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the destination IP address in dotted decimal notation. A blank destination
IP address means any destination IP address.
Destination Subnet
Mask
Enter the destination subnet mask. This field is N/A if you do not specify a
Destination IP Address. Refer to the appendix for more information on IP
subnetting.
Destination Port
Enter the port number of the destination. A blank destination port means any
destination port.
Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address. A blank source IP address means any source IP
address.
Source Subnet
Mask
Enter the source subnet mask. This field is N/A if you do not specify a Source IP
Address. Refer to the appendix for more information on IP subnetting.
Source Port
Enter the port number of the source. See the following table for some common
services and port numbers. A blank source port means any source port number.
Protocol ID
Enter the protocol ID (service type) number, for example: 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP
or 17 for UDP. A blank protocol ID means any protocol number.
Back
Click Back to go to the main Media Bandwidth Management screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Table 74 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
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Table 74 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
19.9.2 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics
Use the Media Bandwidth Management Statistics screen to view network performance
information. Click the Statistics button in the Class Setup screen to open the Statistics
screen.
Figure 119 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Name
This field displays the name of the class the statistics page is showing.
Budget (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth allocated to the class.
Tx Packets
This field displays the total number of packets transmitted.
Tx Bytes
This field displays the total number of bytes transmitted.
Dropped Packets
This field displays the total number of packets dropped.
Dropped Bytes
This field displays the total number of bytes dropped.
Bandwidth Statistics for the Past 8 Seconds (t-8 to t-1)
This field displays the bandwidth statistics (in bps) for the past one to eight seconds. For example, t-1
means one second ago.
Update Period
(seconds)
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Enter the time interval in seconds to define how often the information should be
refreshed.
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Table 75 Media Bandwidth Management Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Set Interval
Click Set Interval to apply the new update period you entered in the Update
Period field above.
Stop Update
Click Stop Update to stop the browser from refreshing bandwidth management
statistics.
Clear Counter
Click Clear Counter to clear all of the bandwidth management statistics.
19.10 Bandwidth Monitor
To view the Prestige’s bandwidth usage and allotments, click Media Bandwidth
Management, then Monitor. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 120 Media Bandwidth Management: Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Media Bandwidth Management: Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select an interface from the drop-down list box to view the bandwidth usage of
its bandwidth classes.
Class Name
This field displays the name of the class.
Budget (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth allocated to the class.
Current Usage (kbps)
This field displays the amount of bandwidth that each class is using.
Back
Click Back to go to the main Media Bandwidth Management screen.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the page.
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CHAPTER 20
Trend Micro Security Services
This chapter contains information about configuring Trend Micro Security Services (TMSS).
20.1 Trend Micro Security Services Overview
TMSS helps protect computers on a network that access the Internet through the Prestige.
TMSS scans computers behind the Prestige for potential vulnerabilities such as spyware,
missing security patches, trojans etc. and then tells you how to update the computer so as to fix
the vulnerability.
The Prestige includes TMSS “parental controls” that allows you to block web pages based on
pre-defined web site categories such as pornography, gambling etc.
20.1.1 TMSS Web Page
TMSS is enabled by default on the Prestige, so you should see the following screen after you
launch your web browser to connect to the Internet via the Prestige for the first time. You
might not see this screen if you have a web pop-up blocker enabled, so disable it or manually
enter http://tmss.trendmicro.com as the URL. Click Continue to go to the Active X control
installation page.
Figure 121 TMSS First Time Access
1 Download the ActiveX control to view the TMSS web page (“dashboard”).
Note: Make sure that you have not restricted access to ActiveX, Cookies or Web
Proxy features in the Prestige or web browser or you will not be able to access
the TMSS web page. See the Troubleshooting chapter to see how to make
sure that ActiveX controls are allowed in Internet Explorer.
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Figure 122 Download ActiveX to View TMSS Web Page
2 In the TMSS web page, click Service Summary.
Figure 123 TMSS Web Page (Dashboard)
3 Click Activate My Services to begin a 3-step process to activate TMSS.
Figure 124 TMSS Service Summary
4 Click Next to begin the process as outlined in the screen.
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Figure 125 TMSS 3 Steps
5 Fill in the registration form and submit it.
Figure 126 TMSS Registration Form
6 After you submit the registration form, you will receive an e-mail with instructions for
validating your e-mail address. Follow the instructions.
7 Download TMSS to each computer (behind the Prestige) that you want TMSS to monitor.
TMSS is now active and can now monitor Prestige LAN computers with TMSS installed
(TMSS clients) for security updates. The following screen is an example of the Service
Summary screen with TMSS activated.
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Figure 127 Example TMSS Activated Service Summary Screen
You need a Parental Control license to activate configure Parental Control categories on
the Prestige (see Figure 133 on page 250). The following screen is an example of the Parental
Control screen with TMSS activated.
Figure 128 Example TMSS Activated Parental Controls Screen
After the free trial expires, you can buy the Trend micro Internet Security (TIS)1 package. This
package contains anti-virus software and a license for Parental Control (to forbid access to
undesirable web site content based on pre-defined web site categories).
Note: See the TM User’s Guide for details on all features.
20.2 Configuring TMSS on the Prestige
Click TMSS under Advanced Setup.
1.
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All TMSS processes and names used are correct at the time of writing.
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Figure 129 TMSS Main Screen
1 Use the Service Settings screen to enable or disable
TMSS, configure how often the TMSS web page
displays (Figure 123 on page 243) and exempt
computers from TMSS monitoring.
2 Use the Virus Protection screen to configure if and
how often updates are checked and to display the
status of computers under TMSS monitoring.
3 Use the Parental Controls screen to schedule and
block web pages based on pre-defined web site
categories such as pornography, gambling etc.
20.2.1 TMSS Service Settings
Click Service Settings from the TMSS main screen (Figure 129 on page 246) to display the
screen shown next.
Note: At the time of writing, TMSS may monitor up to 10 Prestige LAN computers with
TMSS installed.
The Prestige must have an Internet connection for TMSS clients to display in
this screen.
Figure 130 TMSS Service Settings
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Service Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Trend Micro
Security Services
Select the check box to enable Trend Micro Security Services on your
Prestige.
Security Services Display
Interval
Automatically display
TMSS Web page every:
Select from the drop-down list box how often the TMSS web page appears
in your web browser.
Exception List
Computer(s) that will
display Trend Micro
Home Network Security
Services:
This box displays the Prestige LAN computers with TMSS installed (TMSS
clients) that can be monitored by TMSS.
Computer(s) to exclude:
This box displays the Prestige LAN computers that are exempted from
TMSS monitoring.
Select a computer IP address from the previous list box and then click
Add>> to omit it from TMSS monitoring.
Select a computer IP address from this list box and then click <<Remove
to have TMSS monitor it.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.3 Configuring Virus Protection
Select Virus Protection in the TMSS main screen (Figure 129 on page 246) to display the
following screen. The anti-virus software is part of the TIS package (see the footnote on
page 245). The virus pattern and the scan engine are both version numbers related to the antivirus software.
Figure 131 Virus Protection
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Virus Protection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Check for Trend Micro Internet Security
Automatically check for
update components
Select the check box to have the Prestige download the latest scan engine
and virus pattern version numbers (not the actual software) from the Trend
Micro website. The Prestige can then compare version numbers currently
on Prestige LAN computers with its latest downloaded version numbers
and display the status in the table below.
Check for update
components every
Select how often the Prestige should automatically check the Trend Micro
Active Update server for updated components. Choose more frequent
checking if there are many current virus threats or less frequent checking if
there aren’t and you have a lot of Internet traffic.
Scan engine
This field displays the latest TMSS anti-virus scan engine version number
that the Prestige has downloaded.
Virus pattern
This field displays the latest TMSS anti-virus pattern version number that
the Prestige has downloaded. N/A displays if there has been no reply for
an update request.
Client Antivirus Protection This table provides information on all TMSS client computers and the
Status
Prestige itself.
#
This field displays the index number of a TMSS client computer or the
Prestige.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of a TMSS client computer or Prestige.
Computer Name
This field displays the host name of a TMSS client computer or the
Prestige system name.
Antivirus Software
This field displays Internet Security if TIS is installed on the TMSS client
computer. It displays N/A if you don’t have TM anti-virus software installed.
Virus Pattern
This field displays the current TMSS anti-virus pattern version number on a
TMSS client.
Scan Engine
This field displays the current TMSS anti-virus scan engine version number
of a TMSS client.
Status
This field displays whether you have (the latest) Trend Micro anti-virus
software installed on a TMSS client computer.
Potential Threat displays if:
• The Prestige had no response after an update request.
• There is currently no Trend Micro anti-virus installed on the TMSS
client.
• The LAN computer is using a UNIX or Macintosh operating system.
This message displayed for computers with these operating systems
does not mean they may be a “potential threat” but rather that TMSS
cannot monitor them.
Needs Update displays if:
• The Trend Micro anti-virus version numbers on the TMSS client is older
than the version numbers downloaded to the Prestige.
In both of these cases, you should either buy TM anti-virus software (TIS) if
the free trial has expired and you have no other anti-virus software
installed or update the TIS package.
Up to date displays if:
• The Trend Micro anti-virus version numbers on the TMSS client
computer are the same as the numbers downloaded to the Prestige.
You don’t have to do anything in this case.
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Table 78 Virus Protection (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save the settings.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.4 Parental Controls Configuration
Select Parental Controls from the TMSS main screen. You need a Trend Micro Parental
Control license in order to configure this screen. If you don’t have one or it has expired, you
will see the following message when you access the Parental Controls screen.
Figure 132 No Parental Controls License
If you have completed the TMSS registration process and your license is valid, you can
configure the Parental Controls configuration screen as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 133 Parental Controls
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Parental Controls
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Parental Controls
Select the check box to enable this feature on your Prestige.
Blocking Schedule
The blocking schedule for TMSS is the same as that used for content
filtering (web site blocking by keyword). If blocking schedule configuration
changes are made here, then the same changes apply to the CONTENT
FILTER screen and vice versa.
Day to Block
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to activate web page blocking
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Table 79 Parental Controls
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time of Day to Block (24Hour Format)
Select the time of day you want web page blocking to take effect.
Configure blocking to take effect all day by selecting the All Day check
box. You can also configure specific times by entering the start time in the
Start (hr) and Start (min) fields and the end time in the End (hr) and End
(min) fields. Enter times in 24-hour format; for example, "3:00pm" should
be entered as "15:00".
Select Categories
Pornography
Selecting this category excludes pages that contain sexually explicit
material for the purpose of arousing a sexual or prurient interest.
Illegal/Questionable
Selecting this category excludes pages that advocate or give advice on
performing illegal acts such as service theft, evading law enforcement,
fraud, burglary techniques and plagiarism. It also includes pages that
provide or sell questionable educational materials, such as term papers.
This category includes sites identified as being malicious in any way such
as web pages that may contain viruses, spyware etc.).
Violence/Hate/Racism
Selecting this category excludes pages that depict extreme physical harm
to people or property, or that advocate or provide instructions on how to
cause such harm. It also includes pages that advocate, depict hostility or
aggression toward, or denigrate an individual or group on the basis of race,
religion, gender, nationality, ethnic origin, or other characteristics.
Illegal Drugs
Selecting this category excludes pages that promote, offer, sell, supply,
encourage or otherwise advocate the illegal use, cultivation, manufacture,
or distribution of drugs, pharmaceuticals, intoxicating plants or chemicals
and their related paraphernalia.
Alcohol/Tobacco
Selecting this category excludes pages that promote or offer the sale
alcohol/tobacco products, or provide the means to create them. It also
includes pages that glorify, tout, or otherwise encourage the consumption
of alcohol/tobacco. It does not include pages that sell alcohol or tobacco as
a subset of other products.
Gambling
Selecting this category excludes pages where a user can place a bet or
participate in a betting pool (including lotteries) online. It also includes
pages that provide information, assistance, recommendations, or training
on placing bets or participating in games of chance. It does not include
pages that sell gambling related products or machines. It also does not
include pages for offline casinos and hotels (as long as those pages do not
meet one of the above requirements).
Abortion
Selecting this category excludes pages that provide information or
arguments in favor of or against abortion, describe abortion procedures,
offer help in obtaining or avoiding abortion, or provide information on the
effects, or lack thereof, of abortion.
Exception List
Use the Exception List to specify which computers are not to be restricted
by Parental Controls. All TMSS clients are displayed in the Available IP
Addresses list box. Use the Add>> or <<Remove buttons to move
computer IP addresses to the Selected IP Addresses list box and then
select one of the following radio buttons to apply an action.
Enforce Parental Control Select the radio button to have Parental Controls enabled on computers
policies for all computers with IP addresses listed in the Available IP Addresses list box. This is the
default setting.
Include specified address Select the radio button to apply Parental Controls only to the computers
ranges in the Parental with IP addresses listed in the Selected IP Addresses list box.
Control enforcement.
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Table 79 Parental Controls
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Exclude specified address Select the radio button to exempt computers with IP addresses displayed
ranges from the Parental in the Selected IP Addresses list box from Parental Controls.
Control enforcement.
Available IP Addresses
This box displays the IP addresses of all TMSS clients.
Selected IP Addresses
This box displays the IP addresses of the computer(s) chosen from the
Available IP Addresses box, to which you want to apply or exclude from
Parental Controls.
Select an IP address(es) in the Available IP Addresses list box and click
Add>> to move it/them to the Selected IP Addresses box.
Select an IP address(es) in the Selected IP Addresses list box and click
<<Remove to move it/them to the Available IP Addresses list box.
Apply
Click Apply to save the settings.
Show Statistics
Click Show Statistics to view a record of access attempts and successes
to web pages belonging to each category.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.4.1 Parental Controls Statistics
Click Show Statistics in the screen as shown in the previous figure to display a record of
attempted entries to web pages or actual entries to web pages from a list of categories.
Figure 134 Parental Controls Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Parental Controls Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Category
All Parental Control categories are displayed as shown.
Access Attempts
This field displays the number of attempts that have been made to access
web page(s) from a category of web pages that you have selected in the
Parental Controls screen (see Figure 133 on page 250).
Actual Accesses
This field displays the number of times access has been made to web
page(s) from a category of web pages that you have not selected in the
Parental Controls screen (see Figure 133 on page 250) or that have been
accesses by exempted computers.
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Table 80 Parental Controls Statistics
253
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reset
Click Reset to clear all of the fields in this screen.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the statistics screen.
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CHAPTER 21
Maintenance
This chapter displays system information such as ZyNOS firmware, port IP addresses and port
traffic statistics.
21.1 Maintenance Overview
The maintenance screens can help you view system information, upload new firmware,
manage configuration and restart your Prestige.
21.2 System Status Screen
Click System Status to open the following screen, where you can use to monitor your
Prestige. Note that these fields are READ-ONLY and only for diagnostic purposes.
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Figure 135 System Status
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 81 System Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Status
System Name
255
This is the name of your Prestige. It is for identification purposes.
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Table 81 System Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ZyNOS Firmware
Version
This is the ZyNOS firmware version and the date created. ZyNOS is ZyXEL's
proprietary Network Operating System design.
DSL FW Version
This is the DSL firmware version associated with your Prestige.
Standard
This is the standard that your Prestige is using.
WAN Information
IP Address
This is the WAN port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the WAN port IP subnet mask.
Default Gateway
This is the IP address of the default gateway, if applicable.
VPI/VCI
This is the Virtual Path Identifier and Virtual Channel Identifier that you entered in
the first Wizard screen.
LAN Information
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address unique to your
Prestige.
IP Address
This is the LAN port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the LAN port IP subnet mask.
DHCP
This is the WAN port DHCP role - Server, Relay (not all Prestige models) or
None.
DHCP Start IP
This is the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
DHCP Pool Size
This is the number of IP addresses in the IP address pool.
WLAN Information
ESSID
This is the descriptive name used to identify the Prestige in the wireless LAN.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the Prestige now.
WEP
This displays the status of WEP data encryption.
Show Statistics
Click Show Statistics to see the performance statistics such as number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
21.2.1 System Statistics
Click Show Statistics in the System Status screen to open the following screen. Read-only
information here includes port status and packet specific statistics. Also provided are "system
up time" and "poll interval(s)". The Poll Interval(s) field is configurable.
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Figure 136 System Status: Show Statistics
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 82 System Status: Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System up Time
This is the elapsed time the system has been up.
CPU Load
This field specifies the percentage of CPU utilization.
LAN or WAN Port
Statistics
This is the WAN or LAN port.
Link Status
This is the status of your WAN link.
Upstream Speed
This is the upstream speed of your Prestige.
Downstream Speed This is the downstream speed of your Prestige.
257
Node-Link
This field displays the remote node index number and link type. Link types are
PPPoA, ENET, RFC 1483 and PPPoE.
Interface
This field displays the type of port.
Status
For the WAN port, this displays the port speed and duplex setting if you're using
Ethernet encapsulation and down (line is down), idle (line (ppp) idle), dial
(starting to trigger a call) and drop (dropping a call) if you're using PPPoE
encapsulation.
For a LAN port, this shows the port speed and duplex setting.
TxPkts
This field displays the number of packets transmitted on this port.
RxPkts
This field displays the number of packets received on this port.
Errors
This field displays the number of error packets on this port.
Tx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes transmitted in the last second.
Rx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes received in the last second.
Up Time
This field displays the elapsed time this port has been up.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this port.
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Table 82 System Status: Show Statistics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Poll Interval(s)
Type the time interval for the browser to refresh system statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Poll Interval
field above.
Stop
Click this button to halt the refreshing of the system statistics.
21.3 DHCP Table Screen
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Prestige
as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Prestige provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If set to None, DHCP service will be disabled and you must have
another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
Click Maintenance, and then the DHCP Table tab. Read-only information here relates to
your DHCP status. The DHCP table shows current DHCP Client information (including IP
Address, Host Name and MAC Address) of all network clients using the DHCP server.
Figure 137 DHCP Table
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 83 DHCP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Host Name
This is the name of the host computer.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the Host Name field.
MAC Address This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the computer with the
displayed host name.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
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21.4 Any IP Table Screen
Click Maintenance, Any IP. The Any IP table shows current read-only information
(including the IP address and the MAC address) of all network devices that use the Any IP
feature to communicate with the Prestige.
Figure 138 Any IP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Any IP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the index number.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the network device.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the computer with the
displayed IP address.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update this screen.
21.5 Wireless Screen
The read-only screen displays information about the Prestige’s wireless LAN.
21.5.1 Association List
This screen displays the MAC address(es) of the wireless stations that are currently logged in
to the network. Click Wireless LAN and then Association List to open the screen shown next.
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Figure 139 Association List
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 85 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of an associated wireless
station.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Association
Time
This field displays the time a wireless station is associated to the Prestige.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the information in the table.
21.6 Diagnostic Screens
These read-only screens display information to help you identify problems with the Prestige.
21.6.1 Diagnostic General Screen
Click Diagnostic and then General to open the screen shown next.
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Figure 140 Diagnostic: General
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 86 Diagnostic: General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TCP/IP
Address
Type the IP address of a computer that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
Ping
Click this button to ping the IP address that you entered.
Reset System
Click this button to reboot the Prestige. A warning dialog box is then displayed asking
you if you're sure you want to reboot the system. Click OK to proceed.
Back
Click this button to go back to the main Diagnostic screen.
21.6.2 Diagnostic DSL Line Screen
Click Diagnostic and then DSL Line to open the screen shown next.
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Figure 141 Diagnostic: DSL Line
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 87 Diagnostic: DSL Line
LABEL
Reset ADSL
Line
DESCRIPTION
Click this button to reinitialize the ADSL line. The large text box above then displays
the progress and results of this operation, for example:
"Start to reset ADSL
Loading ADSL modem F/W...
Reset ADSL Line Successfully!"
ATM Status
Click this button to view ATM status.
ATM Loopback
Test
Click this button to start the ATM loopback test. Make sure you have configured at
least one PVC with proper VPIs/VCIs before you begin this test. The Prestige sends
an OAM F5 packet to the DSLAM/ATM switch and then returns it (loops it back) to the
Prestige. The ATM loopback test is useful for troubleshooting problems with the
DSLAM and ATM network.
Upstream Noise
Margin
Click this button to display the upstream noise margin.
Downstream
Noise Margin
Click this button to display the downstream noise margin.
Back
Click this button to go back to the main Diagnostic screen.
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21.7 Firmware Screen
Find firmware at www.zyxel.com in a file that (usually) uses the system model name with
a.bin extension, for example, "Prestige.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will
reboot. See Chapter 37 on page 364 for upgrading firmware using FTP/TFTP commands.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the label on the bottom of your
device.
Click Firmware to open the following screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your Prestige.
Figure 142 Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 88 Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
Reset
Click this button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the
Prestige to its factory defaults.
Note: Do not turn off the Prestige while firmware upload is in progress!
After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the Prestige again.
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The Prestige automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 143 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the System Status
screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Back to go back to
the Firmware screen.
Figure 144 Error Message
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CHAPTER 22
Introducing the SMT
This chapter explains how to access and navigate the System Management Terminal and gives
an overview of its menus.
22.1 SMT Introduction
The Prestige’s SMT (System Management Terminal) is a menu-driven interface that you can
access from a terminal emulator over a telnet connection. This chapter shows you how to
access the SMT (System Management Terminal) menus via Telnet, how to navigate the SMT
and how to configure SMT menus.
22.1.1 Procedure for SMT Configuration via Telnet
The following procedure details how to telnet into your Prestige.
1 In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type "telnet
192.168.1.1" (the default IP address) and click OK.
2 Enter “1234” in the Password field.
3 After entering the password you will see the main menu.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes (default timeout period)
after you log in, your Prestige will automatically log you out. You will then have to telnet into
the Prestige again.
22.1.2 Entering Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as
shown next.
For your first login, enter the default password "1234". As you type the password, the screen
displays an asterisk "*" for each character you type.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes after you log in, your
Prestige will automatically log you out.
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Figure 145 Login Screen
Enter Password: ****
22.1.3 Prestige SMT Menus Overview
The following table gives you an overview of your Prestige’s various SMT menus.
Table 89 SMT Menus Overview
MENUS
SUB MENUS
1 General Setup
1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
2 WAN Backup Setup
3 LAN Setup
3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
3.5 Wireless LAN Setup (P-661HW)
3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address
Filter
4 Internet Access Setup
11 Remote Node Setup
11.1 Remote Node Profile
11.3 Remote Node Network Layer
Options
11.5 Remote Node Filter
11.6 Remote Node ATM Layer
Options
11.8 Advance Setup Options (PPPoE
passthrough)
12 Static Routing Setup
12.1 Edit Static Route Setup
12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
12.3 Bridge Static Route Setup
12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route
14 Dial-in User Setup
14.1 Edit Dial-in User
15 NAT Setup
15.1 Address Mapping Sets
15.1.x Address Mapping Rules
15.2 NAT Server Sets
15.2.x NAT Server Setup
21.1 Filter Setup
21.1 Filter Rules Summary
21 Filter and Firewall
Rule Setup
15.1.x.x Address
Mapping Rule
21.1.x.1 Generic
Filter Rule
21.1.x.1 TCP/IP
Filter Rule
21.2 Firewall Setup
22 SNMP Configuration
23 System Security
23.1 Change Password
23.2 RADIUS Server
23.4 IEEE 802.1X
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Table 89 SMT Menus Overview (continued)
MENUS
SUB MENUS
24 System Maintenance 24.1 Status
24.2 System Information and Console 24.2.1 Information
Port Speed
24.2.2 Change Console Port
Speed
24.3 Log and Trace
24.3.1 View Error Log
24.3.2 UNIX Syslog
24.4 Diagnostic
24.5 Backup Configuration
24.6 Restore Configuration
24.7 Upload Firmware
24.7.1 Upload System
Firmware
24.7.2 Upload System
Configuration File
24.8 Command Interpreter Mode
24.9 Call Control
24.9.1 Budget Management
24.10 Time and Date Setting
24.11 Remote Management Control
25 IP Routing Policy
Setup
25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
26 Schedule Setup
26.1 Schedule Set Setup
27 VPN/IPSec Setup
27.1 IPSec Summary
25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
27.1.1 IPSec Setup
27.1.1.1 IKE
Setup
27.1.1.2 Manual
Setup
27.2 SA Monitor
22.2 Navigating the SMT Interface
The SMT (System Management Terminal) is the interface that you use to configure your
Prestige.
Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the
configuration are listed in the table below.
Table 90 Navigating the SMT Interface
OPERATION
KEY STROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move down to
another menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the
desired submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous menu
[ESC]
Press [ESC] to move back to the previous menu.
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Table 90 Navigating the SMT Interface
OPERATION
KEY STROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move to a hidden Press [SPACE
menu
BAR] to change
No to Yes then
press [ENTER].
Fields beginning with "Edit" lead to hidden menus and have a
default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] once to change No
to Yes, then press [ENTER] to go to the "hidden" menu.
Move the cursor
[ENTER] or [UP]/
[DOWN] arrow
keys.
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field. You
can also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to the
previous and the next field, respectively.
Entering
information
Type in or press
[SPACE BAR],
then press
[ENTER].
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you to
type in the appropriate information. The second allows you to
cycle through the available choices by pressing [SPACE BAR].
Required fields
<? > or
ChangeMe
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order to be able
to save the new configuration.
All fields with ChangeMe must not be left blank in order to be
able to save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This symbol
refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the message
"Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel". Saving the data on
the screen will take you, in most cases to the previous menu.
Exit the SMT
Type 99, then press [ENTER].Type 99 at the main menu prompt
and press [ENTER] to exit the SMT interface.
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the main menu, as shown next.
Table 91 SMT Main Menu
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2005 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
Prestige 661HW-61 Main Menu
Getting Started
1. General Setup
2. WAN Backup Setup
3. LAN Setup
4. Internet Access Setup
Advanced Applications
11. Remote Node Setup
12. Static Routing Setup
14. Dial-in User Setup
15. NAT Setup
Advanced Management
21. Filter and Firewall Setup
22. SNMP Configuration
23. System Security
24. System Maintenance
25. IP Routing Policy Setup
26. Schedule Setup
99. Exit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
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22.2.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary
Table 92 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up your general information.
2
WAN Backup Setup
Use this menu to setup traffic redirect and dial-back up.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your wireless LAN and LAN connection.
4
Internet Access Setup
A quick and easy way to set up an Internet connection.
11
Remote Node Setup
Use this menu to set up the Remote Node for LAN-to-LAN
connection, including Internet connection.
12
Static Routing Setup
Use this menu to set up static routes.
14
Dial-in User Setup
Use this menu to set up local user profiles on the Prestige.
15
NAT Setup
Use this menu to specify inside servers when NAT is enabled.
21
Filter and Firewall Setup
Use this menu to configure filters, activate/deactivate the firewall
and view the firewall log.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to set up SNMP related parameters.
23
System Security
Use this menu to set up wireless security and change your
password.
24
System Maintenance
This menu provides system status, diagnostics, software upload,
etc.
25
IP Routing Policy Setup
Use this menu to configure your IP routing policy.
26
Schedule Setup
Use this menu to schedule outgoing calls.
99
Exit
Use this to exit from SMT and return to a blank screen.
22.3 Changing the System Password
Change the Prestige default password by following the steps shown next.
1 Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 - System Security.
2 Enter 1 to display Menu 23.1 - System Security - Change Password as shown next.
3 Type your existing system password in the Old Password field, for example “1234", and
press [ENTER].
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Figure 146 Menu 23.1 Change Password
Menu 23.1 - System Security - Change Password
Old Password= ?
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm=?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
4 Type your new system password in the New Password field (up to 30 characters), and
press [ENTER].
5 Re-type your new system password in the Retype to confirm field for confirmation and
press [ENTER].
Note: Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an “*” for each character
you type.
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CHAPTER 23
Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
23.1 General Setup
Menu 1 — General Setup contains administrative and system-related information (shown
next). The System Name field is for identification purposes. However, because some ISPs
check this name you should enter your computer's "Computer Name".
• In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the
Identification tab, note the entry for the Computer name field and enter it as the
Prestige System Name.
• In Windows 2000 click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click System.
Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties button. Note the entry for
the Computer name field and enter it as the Prestige System Name.
• In Windows XP, click start, My Computer, View system information and then click
the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field and enter it as
the Prestige System Name.
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. If you leave
this blank, the domain name obtained by DHCP from the ISP is used. While you must enter
the host name (System Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can be assigned
from the Prestige via DHCP.
23.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1
Enter 1 in the Main Menu to open Menu 1 — General Setup (shown next).
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Figure 147 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 General Setup
System Name= ?
Location=
Contact Person's Name=
Domain Name=
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Route IP= Yes
Bridge= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Fill in the required fields. Refer to the table shown next for more information about these
fields.
Table 93 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name can be up to
30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and
underscores "_" are accepted.
Location (optional)
Enter the geographic location (up to 31 characters) of your Prestige.
Contact Person's
Name (optional)
Enter the name (up to 30 characters) of the person in charge of this Prestige.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP
may assign a domain name via DHCP. You can go to menu 24.8 and type "sys
domainname" to see the current domain name used by your gateway.
If you want to clear this field just press the [SPACE BAR]. The domain name
entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned domain name.
Edit Dynamic DNS
Press the [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No (default). Select Yes to configure
Menu 1.1 — Configure Dynamic DNS (discussed next).
Route IP
Set this field to Yes to enable or No to disable IP routing. You must enable IP
routing for Internet access.
Bridge
Turn on/off bridging for protocols not supported (for example, SNA) or not turned
on in the previous Route IP field.
Select Yes to turn bridging on; select No to turn bridging off.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
23.2.1 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS
Note: If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use dynamic DNS.
To configure dynamic DNS, go to Menu 1 — General Setup and select Yes in the Edit
Dynamic DNS field. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 1.1— Configure Dynamic DNS as
shown next.
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Figure 148 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
Menu 1.1 - Configure Dynamic DNS
Service Provider= WWW.DynDNS.ORG
Active= No
Host=
EMAIL=
USER=
Password= ********
Enable Wildcard= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Follow the instructions in the next table to configure dynamic DNS parameters.
Table 94 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service Provider This is the name of your dynamic DNS service provider.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to make dynamic DNS
active.
Host
Enter the domain name assigned to your Prestige by your dynamic DNS provider.
EMAIL
Enter your e-mail address.
User
Enter your user name.
Password
Enter the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Your Prestige supports DYNDNS Wildcard. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
to select Yes or No This field is N/A when you choose DDNS client as your service
provider.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 24
Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
This chapter describes how to configure traffic redirect and dial-backup using menu 2 and 2.1.
24.1 Introduction to WAN Backup Setup
This chapter explains how to configure the Prestige for traffic redirect connections.
24.2 Configuring WAN Backup in Menu 2
From the main menu, enter 2 to open menu 2.
Figure 149 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
Menu 2 - Wan Backup Setup
Check Mechanism = DSL Link
Check WAN IP Address1 = 0.0.0.0
Check WAN IP Address2 = 0.0.0.0
Check WAN IP Address3 = 0.0.0.0
KeepAlive Fail Tolerance = 0
Recovery Interval(sec) = 0
ICMP Timeout(sec) = 0
Traffic Redirect = No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 95 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Check Mechanism
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to select the method that the
Prestige uses to check the DSL connection.
Select DSL Link to have the Prestige check the DSL connection’s physical
layer. Select ICMP to have the Prestige periodically ping the IP addresses
configured in the Check WAN IP Address fields.
Check WAN IP
Address1-3
Configure this field to test your Prestige's WAN accessibility. Type the IP
address of a reliable nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server
address). When using a WAN backup connection, the Prestige periodically
pings the addresses configured here and uses the other WAN backup
connection (if configured) if there is no response.
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Table 95 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
KeepAlive Fail
Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your Prestige may ping the IP
addresses configured in the Check WAN IP Address field without getting a
response before switching to a WAN backup connection (or a different WAN
backup connection).
Recovery Interval(sec) When the Prestige is using a lower priority connection (usually a WAN backup
connection), it periodically checks to whether or not it can use a higher priority
connection.
Type the number of seconds (30 recommended) for the Prestige to wait
between checks. Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of
traffic.
ICMP Timeout
Type the number of seconds for an ICMP session to wait for the ICMP
response
Traffic Redirect
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No.
Select Yes and press [ENTER] to configure Menu 2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup.
Select No (default) if you do not want to configure this feature.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
24.2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup
Configure parameters that determine when the Prestige will forward WAN traffic to the
backup gateway using Menu 2.1 — Traffic Redirect Setup.
Figure 150 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
Menu 2.1 - Traffic Redirect Setup
Active= No
Configuration:
Backup Gateway IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Metric= 15
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 96 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active.
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes (to enable) or No (to disable) traffic redirect
setup. The default is No
Configuration
Backup Gateway Enter the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation.
IP Address
The Prestige automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the Prestige’s
Internet connection terminates.
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Table 96 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the Prestige uses.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route
for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected
networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15"
means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the "cost"
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 25
Menu 3 LAN Setup
This chapter covers how to configure your wired Local Area Network (LAN) settings.
25.1 LAN Setup
This section describes how to configure the Ethernet using Menu 3 — LAN Setup. From the
main menu, enter 3 to display menu 3.
Figure 151 Menu 3 LAN Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
1. LAN Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
5. Wireless LAN Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
25.1.1 General Ethernet Setup
This menu allows you to specify filter set(s) that you wish to apply to the Ethernet traffic. You
seldom need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block certain
packets, reduce traffic and prevent security breaches.
Figure 152 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
Menu 3.1 - LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If you need to define filters, please read Chapter 33 on page 330 first, then return to this menu
to define the filter sets.
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25.2 Protocol Dependent Ethernet Setup
Depending on the protocols for your applications, you need to configure the respective
Ethernet Setup, as outlined below.
• TCP/IP Ethernet setup
• Bridging Ethernet setup
25.3 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup and DHCP
Use menu 3.2 to configure your Prestige for TCP/IP.
To edit menu 3.2, enter 3 from the main menu to display Menu 3 — LAN Setup. When menu
3 appears, press 2 and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2 — TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet
Setup, as shown next:
Figure 153 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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Follow the instructions in the following table on how to configure the DHCP fields.
Table 97 DHCP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Setup
DHCP
If set to Server, your Prestige can assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems
that support the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the Prestige acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays
DHCP requests and responses between the remote server and the clients.
Enter the IP address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the Remote
DHCP Server in this case.
When DHCP server is used, the following items need to be set:
Client IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address
pool.
Size of Client IP Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server
Secondary DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to
the DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Remote DHCP Serve
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP address of the
actual remote DHCP server here.
Follow the instructions in the following table to configure TCP/IP parameters for the Ethernet port.
Table 98 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
TCP/IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the (LAN) IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask
Your Prestige will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the Prestige (refer to the appendices for more information).
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are Both, In Only, Out
Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group. The Prestige supports both IGMP
version 1 (IGMP-v1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press the [SPACE BAR] to enable
IP Multicasting or select None to disable it.
IP Policies
Create policies using SMT menu 25 and apply them on the Prestige LAN interface
here. You can apply up to four IP Policy sets (from twelve) by entering their numbers
separated by commas.
Edit IP Alias
The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet
interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Press
[SPACE BAR] to change No to Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2.1.
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CHAPTER 26
Wireless LAN Setup
This chapter covers how to configure wireless LAN settings in SMT menu 3.5.
26.1 Wireless LAN Overview
Refer to the chapter on the wireless LAN screens for wireless LAN background information.
26.2 Wireless LAN Setup
Use menu 3.5 to set up your Prestige as the wireless access point. To edit menu 3.5, enter 3
from the main menu to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup. When menu 3 appears, press 5 and then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup as shown next.
Figure 154
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5- Wireless LAN Setup
ESSID= Wireless
Hide ESSID= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
WEP= Disable
Default Key= N/A
Key1= N/A
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Key4= N/A
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 99 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ESSID
The ESSID (Extended Service Set IDentifier) identifies the AP to which the wireless
stations associate. Wireless stations associating to the Access Point must have the
same ESSID. Enter a descriptive name of up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters.
Hide ESSID Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes to hide the ESSID in the outgoing beacon frame so
a station cannot obtain the ESSID through passive scanning.
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Table 99 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Channel ID
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a channel. This allows you to set the operating frequency/
channel depending on your particular region.
RTS
Threshold
RTS(Request To Send) threshold (number of bytes) enables RTS/CTS handshake. Data
with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting
this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit) size turns
off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS
handshake. Enter a value between 0 and 2432.
Frag.
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed messages.
It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value between 256 and
2432.
WEP
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) provides data encryption to prevent wireless stations
from accessing data transmitted over the wireless network.
Select Disable allows wireless stations to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to for the type of data encryption. WEP causes
performance degradation.
Default Key
Enter the number of the key as an active key.
Key 1 to Key If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 5 characters or 10
4
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key (1-4).
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13 characters or 26
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key (1-4).
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the same on
the access points as they are on the wireless stations.
Edit MAC
Address
Filter
To edit MAC address filtering table, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to open menu 3.5.1.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
26.2.1 Wireless LAN MAC Address Filter
The next layer of security is MAC address filter. To allow a wireless station to associate with
the Prestige, enter the MAC address of the wireless LAN adapter on that wireless station in the
MAC address table.
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Figure 155 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering
Menu 3.5.1 - WLAN MAC Address Filter
Active= No
Filter Action= Allowed Association
-------------------------------------------------------------------------1=
00:00:00:00:00:00
13=
00:00:00:00:00:00
25=
00:00:00:00:00:00
2=
00:00:00:00:00:00
14=
00:00:00:00:00:00
26=
00:00:00:00:00:00
3=
00:00:00:00:00:00
15=
00:00:00:00:00:00
27=
00:00:00:00:00:00
4=
00:00:00:00:00:00
16=
00:00:00:00:00:00
28=
00:00:00:00:00:00
5=
00:00:00:00:00:00
17=
00:00:00:00:00:00
29=
00:00:00:00:00:00
6=
00:00:00:00:00:00
18=
00:00:00:00:00:00
30=
00:00:00:00:00:00
7=
00:00:00:00:00:00
19=
00:00:00:00:00:00
31=
00:00:00:00:00:00
8=
00:00:00:00:00:00
20=
00:00:00:00:00:00
32=
00:00:00:00:00:00
9=
00:00:00:00:00:00
21=
00:00:00:00:00:00
10=
00:00:00:00:00:00
22=
00:00:00:00:00:00
11=
00:00:00:00:00:00
23=
00:00:00:00:00:00
12=
00:00:00:00:00:00
24=
00:00:00:00:00:00
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 100 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
To enable MAC address filtering, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER].
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
To deny access to the Prestige, press [SPACE BAR] to select Deny Association and
press [ENTER]. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to access the router.
The default action, Allowed Association, permits association with the Prestige. MAC
addresses not listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address Filter
Address 1.
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless stations that
are allowed or denied access to the Prestige in these address fields.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 27
Internet Access
This chapter shows you how to configure the LAN and WAN of your Prestige for Internet
access.
27.1 Internet Access Overview
Refer to the chapters on the web configurator’s wizard, LAN and WAN screens for more
background information on fields in the SMT screens covered in this chapter.
27.2 IP Policies
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the router takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. IP Policy Routing (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override the
default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per interface
basis, prior to the normal routing. Create policies using SMT menu 25 and apply them on the
Prestige LAN and/or WAN interfaces using menus 3.2 (LAN) and 11.3 (WAN).
27.3 IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface. The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single
physical Ethernet interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access between the
LAN's logical networks (subnets).
Note: Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
The following figure shows a LAN divided into subnets A, B, and C.
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Figure 156 IP Alias Network Example
Use menu 3.2.1 to configure IP Alias on your Prestige.
27.4 IP Alias Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to Edit IP Alias field and press
[SPACEBAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to configure the second and third network.
Figure 157 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Pressing [ENTER] displays Menu 3.2.1 — IP Alias Setup, as shown next.
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Figure 158 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Follow the instructions in the following table to configure IP Alias parameters.
Table 101 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias
Choose Yes to configure the LAN network for the Prestige.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask Your Prestige will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the Prestige
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are None, Both, In Only
or Out Only.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP2M.
Incoming
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the incoming traffic between this node and
the Prestige.
Outgoing
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the outgoing traffic between this node and
the Prestige.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
27.5 Route IP Setup
The first step is to enable the IP routing in Menu 1 — General Setup.
To edit menu 1, type 1 in the main menu and press [ENTER]. Set the Route IP field to Yes
by pressing [SPACE BAR].
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Figure 159 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= ?
Location= location
Contact Person's Name=
Domain Name=
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Route IP= Yes
Bridge= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
27.6 Internet Access Configuration
Menu 4 allows you to enter the Internet Access information in one screen. Menu 4 is actually
a simplified setup for one of the remote nodes that you can access in menu 11. Before you
configure your Prestige for Internet access, you need to collect your Internet account
information.
Note that if you are using PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation, then the only ISP information you
need is a login name and password. You only need to know the Ethernet Encapsulation
Gateway IP address if you are using ENET ENCAP encapsulation.
From the main menu, type 4 to display Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup, as shown next.
Figure 160 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= CBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table contains instructions on how to configure your Prestige for Internet access
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.
Table 102 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ISP’s Name
Enter the name of your Internet Service Provider (ISP). This information is for
identification purposes only.
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP.
Choices are PPPoE, PPPoA, RFC 1483 or ENET ENCAP.
Multiplexing
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP.
Choices are VC-based or LLC-based.
VPI #
Enter the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) assigned to you.
VCI #
Enter the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) assigned to you.
ATM QoS Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed
(always-on) bandwidth. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select VBR (Variable Bit Rate) for bursty traffic
and bandwidth sharing with other applications.
Peak Cell Rate
(PCR)
This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the PCR.
Sustain Cell Rate
(SCR)= 0
Sustained Cell Rate is the mean cell rate of a bursty, on-off traffic source that can
be sent at the peak rate, and a parameter for burst-traffic. Type the SCR; it must
be less than the PCR.
Maximum Burst
Size (MBS)= 0
Refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the peak rate. Type the
MBS. The MBS must be less than 65535.
My Login
Configure the My Login and My Password fields for PPPoA and PPPoE
encapsulation only. Enter the login name that your ISP gives you. If you are using
PPPoE encapsulation, then this field must be of the form user@domain where
domain identifies your PPPoE service name.
My Password
Enter the password associated with the login name above.
ENET ENCAP
Gateway
Enter the gateway IP address supplied by your ISP when you are using ENET
ENCAP encapsulation.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the number of idle seconds that elapse before the Prestige
automatically disconnects the PPPoE session.
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Static or Dynamic address assignment.
IP Address
Enter the IP address supplied by your ISP if applicable.
Network Address
Translation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select None, SUA Only or Full Feature. Please see the
NAT chapter for more details on the SUA (Single User Account) feature.
Address Mapping
Set
Type the numbers of mapping sets (1-8) to use with NAT.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
If all your settings are correct your Prestige should connect automatically to the Internet. If the
connection fails, note the error message that you receive on the screen and take the appropriate
troubleshooting steps.
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CHAPTER 28
Remote Node Configuration
This chapter covers remote node configuration.
28.1 Remote Node Setup Overview
This section describes the protocol-independent parameters for a remote node. A remote node
is required for placing calls to a remote gateway. A remote node represents both the remote
gateway and the network behind it across a WAN connection. When you use menu 4 to set up
Internet access, you are configuring one of the remote nodes.
You first choose a remote node in Menu 11- Remote Node Setup. You can then edit that
node’s profile in menu 11.1, as well as configure specific settings in three submenus: edit IP
and bridge options in menu 11.3; edit ATM options in menu 11.6; and edit filter sets in menu
11.5.
28.2 Remote Node Setup
This section describes the protocol-independent parameters for a remote node.
28.2.1 Remote Node Profile
To configure a remote node, follow these steps:
1 From the main menu, enter 11 to display Menu 11 - Remote Node Setup.
2 When menu 11 appears, as shown in the following figure, type the number of the remote
node that you want to configure.
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Figure 161 Menu 11 Remote Node Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Menu 11 - Remote Node Setup
MyISP (ISP, SUA)
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Node # to Edit:
28.2.2 Encapsulation and Multiplexing Scenarios
For Internet access you should use the encapsulation and multiplexing methods used by your
ISP. Consult your telephone company for information on encapsulation and multiplexing
methods for LAN-to-LAN applications, for example between a branch office and corporate
headquarters. There must be prior agreement on encapsulation and multiplexing methods
because they cannot be automatically determined. What method(s) you use also depends on
how many VCs you have and how many different network protocols you need. The extra
overhead that ENET ENCAP encapsulation entails makes it a poor choice in a LAN-to-LAN
application. Here are some examples of more suitable combinations in such an application.
28.2.2.1 Scenario 1: One VC, Multiple Protocols
PPPoA (RFC-2364) encapsulation with VC-based multiplexing is the best combination
because no extra protocol identifying headers are needed. The PPP protocol already contains
this information.
28.2.2.2 Scenario 2: One VC, One Protocol (IP)
Selecting RFC-1483 encapsulation with VC-based multiplexing requires the least amount of
overhead (0 octets). However, if there is a potential need for multiple protocol support in the
future, it may be safer to select PPPoA encapsulation instead of RFC-1483, so you do not
need to reconfigure either computer later.
28.2.2.3 Scenario 3: Multiple VCs
If you have an equal number (or more) of VCs than the number of protocols, then select RFC1483 encapsulation and VC-based multiplexing.
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Figure 162 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Active= Yes
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Service Name= N/A
Incoming:
Rem Login= N/A
Rem Password= N/A
Outgoing:
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Authen= N/A
Route= IP
Bridge= No
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Edit ATM Options= No
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= N/A
Period(hr)= N/A
Schedule Sets= N/A
Nailed-Up Connection= N/A
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
In Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile, fill in the fields as described in the following table.
Table 103 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rem Node Name
Type a unique, descriptive name of up to eight characters for this node.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate or No to
deactivate this node. Inactive nodes are displayed with a minus sign –“ in SMT
menu 11.
Encapsulation
PPPoA refers to RFC-2364 (PPP Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5).
If RFC-1483 (Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5) of ENET
ENCAP are selected,
then the Rem Login, Rem Password, My Login, My Password and Authen
fields are not applicable (N/A).
Multiplexing
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the method of multiplexing that
your ISP uses, either VC-based or LLC-based.
Service Name
When using PPPoE encapsulation, type the name of your PPPoE service here.
Incoming:
Rem Login
Type the login name that this remote node will use to call your Prestige. The login
name and the Rem Password will be used to authenticate this node.
Rem Password
Type the password used when this remote node calls your Prestige.
Outgoing:
My Login
Type the login name assigned by your ISP when the Prestige calls this remote
node.
My Password
Type the password assigned by your ISP when the Prestige calls this remote
node.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls. Options for this
field are:
CHAP/PAP – Your Prestige will accept either CHAP or PAP when requested by
this remote node.
CHAP – accept CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) only.
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Table 103 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
PAP – accept PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) only.
Route
This field determines the protocol used in routing. Options are IP and None.
Bridge
When bridging is enabled, your Prestige will forward any packet that it does not
route to this remote node; otherwise, the packets are discarded. Select Yes to
enable and No to disable.
Edit IP/Bridge
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.3 –
Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Edit ATM Options
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.6 –
Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
Edit Advance
Options
This field is only available when you select PPPoE in the Encapsulation field.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.8 –
Advance Setup Options.
Telco Option
Allocated Budget
(min)
This sets a ceiling for outgoing call time for this remote node. The default for this
field is 0 meaning no budget control.
Period (hr)
This field is the time period that the budget should be reset. For example, if we
are allowed to call this remote node for a maximum of 10 minutes every hour,
then the Allocated Budget is (10 minutes) and the Period (hr) is 1 (hour).
Schedule Sets
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation. You can apply
up to four schedule sets here. For more details please refer to Chapter 41 on
page 396.
Nailed up
Connection
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation. This field
specifies if you want to make the connection to this remote node a nailed-up
connection. More details are given earlier in this section.
Session Options
Edit Filter Sets
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to open menu 11.5 to edit
the filter sets. See Chapter 33 on page 330 for more details.
Idle Timeout (sec)
Type the number of seconds (0-9999) that can elapse when the Prestige is idle
(there is no traffic going to the remote node), before the Prestige automatically
disconnects the remote node. 0 means that the session will not timeout.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
28.2.3 Outgoing Authentication Protocol
For obvious reasons, you should employ the strongest authentication protocol possible.
However, some vendors’ implementation includes specific authentication protocol in the user
profile. It will disconnect if the negotiated protocol is different from that in the user profile,
even when the negotiated protocol is stronger than specified. If the peer disconnects right after
a successful authentication, make sure that you specify the correct authentication protocol
when connecting to such an implementation.
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28.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
For the TCP/IP parameters, perform the following steps to edit Menu 11.3 – Remote Node
Network Layer Options as shown next.
1 In menu 11.1, make sure IP is among the protocols in the Route field.
2 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 163 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment = Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout(min)= N/A
Rem IP Addr = 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= None
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The next table explains fields in Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Table 104 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Dynamic if the remote node is using
a dynamically assigned IP address or Static if it is using a static (fixed) IP address.
You will only be able to configure this in the ISP node (also the one you configure in
menu 4), all other nodes are set to Static.
Rem IP Addr
This is the IP address you entered in the previous menu.
Rem Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to the remote node.
My WAN Addr
Some implementations, especially UNIX derivatives, require separate IP network
numbers for the WAN and LAN links and each end to have a unique address within
the WAN network number. In that case, type the IP address assigned to the WAN port
of your Prestige.
NOTE: Refers to local Prestige address, not the remote router address.
NAT
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you have multiple
public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
Select SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige. The
SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255 (seeFigure 181 on page 315).
Select None to disable NAT.
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Table 104 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Address
Mapping Set
When Full Feature is selected in the NAT field, configure address mapping sets in
menu 15.1. Select one of the NAT server sets (2-10) in menu 15.2 (see Chapter 31 on
page 312 for details) and type that number here.
When SUA Only is selected in the NAT field, the SMT uses NAT server set 1 in menu
15.2 (see Chapter 31 on page 312 for details).
Metric
The metric represents the cost of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses
hop count as the cost measurement, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected
networks. Type a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need
not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
Private
This determines if the Prestige will include the route to this remote node in its RIP
broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP broadcast.
If No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other hosts through RIP
broadcasts.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP Direction. Options are
Both, In Only, Out Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version. Options are RIP-1,
RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP-v1 sets IGMP to version 1, IGMP-v2 sets IGMP to version 2 and None disables
IGMP.
IP Policies
You can apply up to four IP Policy sets (from 12) by typing in their numbers separated
by commas. Configure the filter sets in menu 25 first (see Chapter 40 on page 386)
and then apply them here.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
28.3.1 My WAN Addr Sample IP Addresses
The following figure uses sample IP addresses to help you understand the field of My WAN
Addr in menu 11.3. My WAN Addr indicates the local Prestige WAN IP (172.16.0.1 in the
following figure) while Rem IP Addr indicates the peer WAN IP (172.16.0.2 in the following
figure).
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Figure 164 Sample IP Addresses for a TCP/IP LAN-to-LAN Connection
28.4 Remote Node Filter
Move the cursor to the Edit Filter Sets field in menu 11.1, then press [SPACE BAR] to select
Yes. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.5 – Remote Node Filter.
Use Menu 11.5 – Remote Node Filter to specify the filter set(s) to apply to the incoming and
outgoing traffic between this remote node and the Prestige and also to prevent certain packets
from triggering calls. You can specify up to 4 filter sets separated by comma, for example, 1,
5, 9, 12, in each filter field.
Note that spaces are accepted in this field. The Prestige has a prepackaged filter set,
NetBIOS_WAN, that blocks NetBIOS packets. Include this in the call filter sets if you want to
prevent NetBIOS packets from triggering calls to a remote node.
Figure 165 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (RFC 1483 or ENET Encapsulation)
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
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Figure 166 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation)
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
28.5 Editing ATM Layer Options
Follow the steps shown next to edit Menu 11.6 – Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
In menu 11.1, move the cursor to the Edit ATM Options field and then press [SPACE BAR]
to select Yes. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.6 – Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
There are two versions of menu 11.6 for the Prestige, depending on whether you chose VCbased/LLC-based multiplexing and PPP encapsulation in menu 11.1.
28.5.1 VC-based Multiplexing (non-PPP Encapsulation)
For VC-based multiplexing, by prior agreement, a protocol is assigned a specific virtual
circuit, for example, VC1 will carry IP. Separate VPI and VCI numbers must be specified for
each protocol.
Figure 167 Menu 11.6 for VC-based Multiplexing
Menu 11.6 - Remote Node ATM Layer Options
VPI/VCI (VC-Multiplexing)
VC Options for IP:
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
VC Options for Bridge:
VPI #= 1
VCI #= 36
ATM QoS Type= N/A
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= N/A
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= N/A
Maximum Burst Size (MBR)= N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
28.5.2 LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation
For LLC-based multiplexing or PPP encapsulation, one VC carries multiple protocols with
protocol identifying information being contained in each packet header.
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Figure 168 Menu 11.6 for LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation
Menu 11.6 - Remote Node ATM Layer Options
VPI/VCI (LLC-Multiplexing or PPP-Encapsulation)
VPI #= 0
VCI #= 38
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
ENTER here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
In this case, only one set of VPI and VCI numbers need be specified for all protocols. The
valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255 and for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (1 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic).
28.5.3 Advance Setup Options
In menu 11.1, select PPPoE in the Encapsulation field.
Figure 169 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= No
Encapsulation= PPPoE
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name=
Edit Advance Options= Yes
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login=
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Rem Password= ********
Period(hr)= 0
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets=
My Login= ?
Nailed-Up Connection= No
My Password= ?
Session Options:
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Move the cursor to the Edit Advance Options field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.8 – Advance Setup Options.
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Figure 170 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options
Menu 11.8 - Advance Setup Options
PPPoE pass-through= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 105 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
PPPoE pass-through
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable PPPoE pass
through. In addition to the Prestige's built-in PPPoE client, you can enable
PPPoE pass through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client
software on their computers to connect to the ISP via the Prestige. Each host
can have a separate account and a public WAN IP address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for applications where NAT is
not appropriate.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select No and press [ENTER] to disable PPPoE pass
through if you do not need to allow hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client
software on their computers to connect to the ISP.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 29
Static Route Setup
This chapter shows how to setup IP static routes.
29.1 IP Static Route Overview
Static routes tell the Prestige routing information that it cannot learn automatically through
other means. This can arise in cases where RIP is disabled on the LAN or a remote network is
beyond the one that is directly connected to a remote node.
Each remote node specifies only the network to which the gateway is directly connected and
the Prestige has no knowledge of the networks beyond. For instance, the Prestige knows about
network N2 in the following figure through remote node Router 1. However, the Prestige is
unable to route a packet to network N3 because it does not know that there is a route through
remote node Router 1 (via Router 2). The static routes allow you to tell the Prestige about the
networks beyond the remote nodes.
Figure 171 Sample Static Routing Topology
29.2 Configuration
To configure an IP static route, use Menu 12 – Static Route Setup (shown next).
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Figure 172 Menu 12 Static Route Setup
Menu 12 - Static Route Setup
1. IP Static Route
3. Bridge Static Route
Please enter selection:
From menu 12, select 1 to open Menu 12.1 — IP Static Route Setup (shown next).
Figure 173 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup
Menu 12.1 - IP Static Route Setup
1. ________
2. ________
3. ________
4. ________
5. ________
6. ________
7. ________
8. ________
9. ________
10. ________
11. ________
12. ________
13. ________
14. ________
15. ________
16. ________
Enter selection number:
Now, type the route number of a static route you want to configure.
Figure 174 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
Menu 12.1.1 - Edit IP Static Route
Route #: 1
Route Name= ?
Active= No
Destination IP Address= ?
IP Subnet Mask= ?
Gateway IP Address= ?
Metric= 2
Private= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields for Menu 12.1.1 – Edit IP Static Route Setup.
Table 106 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the index number of the static route that you chose in menu 12.1.
Route Name
Type a descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purpose only.
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Destination IP Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to
a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask
field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway IP Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the
same network segment as the device’s LAN or WAN port. The gateway
helps forward packets to their destinations.
Metric
Metric represents the cost of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing
uses hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly
connected networks. Type a number that approximates the cost for this link.
The number need not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In
practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Private
This parameter determines if the Prestige will include the route to this remote
node in its RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and is not
included in RIP broadcasts. If No, the route to this remote node will be
propagated to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 30
Bridging Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure the bridging parameters of your Prestige.
30.1 Bridging in General
Bridging bases the forwarding decision on the MAC (Media Access Control), or hardware
address, while routing does it on the network layer (IP) address. Bridging allows the Prestige
to transport packets of network layer protocols that it does not route, for example, SNA, from
one network to another. The caveat is that, compared to routing, bridging generates more
traffic for the same network layer protocol, and it also demands more CPU cycles and
memory.
For efficiency reasons, do not turn on bridging unless you need to support protocols other than
IP on your network. For IP, enable the routing if you need it; do not bridge what the Prestige
can route.
30.2 Bridge Ethernet Setup
Basically, all non-local packets are bridged to the WAN. Your Prestige does not support IPX.
30.2.1 Remote Node Bridging Setup
Follow the procedure in another section to configure the protocol-independent parameters in
Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile. For bridging-related parameters, you need to configure
Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
1 To setup Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options shown in the next figure,
follow these steps:
2 In menu 11.1, make sure the Bridge field is set to Yes.
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Figure 175 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ?
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= Yes
Encapsulation= ENET ENCAP
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= VC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name= N/A
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login= N/A
Allocated Budget(min)= N/A
Rem Password= N/A
Period(hr)= N/A
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets= N/A
My Login= N/A
Nailed-Up Connection= N/A
My Password= N/A
Session Options:
Authen= N/A
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, then press [SPACE BAR] to set the value to
Yes and press [ENTER] to edit Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 176 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set=2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 107 Remote Node Network Layer Options: Bridge Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Bridge (menu 11.1)
Make sure this field is set to Yes.
Edit IP/Bridge (menu 11.1) Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display menu
11.3.
Ethernet Addr Timeout
(min.) (menu 11.3)
309
Type the time (in minutes) for the Prestige to retain the Ethernet Address
information in its internal tables while the line is down. If this information is
retained, your Prestige will not have to recompile the tables when the line
comes back up.
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30.2.2 Bridge Static Route Setup
Similar to network layer static routes, a bridging static route tells the Prestige the route to a
node before a connection is established. You configure bridge static routes in menu 12.3.1 (go
to menu 12, choose option 3, then choose a static route to edit) as shown next.
Figure 177 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route
Menu 12.3.1 - Edit Bridge Static Route
Route #: 1
Route Name=
Active= No
Ether Address= ?
IP Address=
Gateway Node= 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the Edit Bridge Static Route menu.
Table 108 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the route index number you typed in Menu 12.3 – Bridge Static Route Setup.
Route Name
Type a name for the bridge static route for identification purposes.
Active
Indicates whether the static route is active (Yes) or not (No).
Ether Address
Type the MAC address of the destination computer that you want to bridge the
packets to.
IP Address
If available, type the IP address of the destination computer that you want to bridge
the packets to.
Gateway Node
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the number of the remote node (one
to eight) that is the gateway of this static route.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 31
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Prestige.
31.1 Using NAT
You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow traffic from the
WAN to be forwarded through the Prestige.
31.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports two
types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. See Section 31.3 on page 314 or a detailed
description of the NAT set for SUA. The Prestige also supports Full Feature NAT to map
multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers using
mapping types.
• Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
• Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
31.2 Applying NAT
You apply NAT via menus 4 or 11.3 as displayed next. The next figure shows you how to
apply NAT for Internet access in menu 4. Enter 4 from the main menu to go to Menu 4 Internet Access Setup.
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Figure 178 Menu 4 Applying NAT for Internet Access
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following figure shows how you apply NAT to the remote node in menu 11.1.
1 Enter 11 from the main menu.
2 When menu 11 appears, as shown in the following figure, type the number of the remote
node that you want to configure.
3 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then
press [ENTER] to bring up Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 179 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment = Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout(min)= N/A
Rem IP Addr = 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the options for Network Address Translation.
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Table 109 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
NAT
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you have multiple public
WAN IP addresses for your Prestige. The SMT uses the address mapping set that you
configure and enter in the Address Mapping Set field (seeFigure 181 on page 315).
Select None to disable NAT.
When you select SUA Only, the SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255 (seeFigure 182 on
page 315). Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your
Prestige.
31.3 NAT Setup
Use the address mapping sets menus and submenus to create the mapping table used to assign
global addresses to computers on the LAN. Set 255 is used for SUA. When you select Full
Feature in menu 4 or 11.3, the SMT will use Set 1. When you select SUA Only, the SMT
will use the pre-configured Set 255 (read only).
The server set is a list of LAN servers mapped to external ports. To use this set, a server rule
must be set up inside the NAT address mapping set. Please see the web configurator NAT
chapter for further information on these menus. To configure NAT, enter 15 from the main
menu to bring up the following screen.
Figure 180
Menu 15 NAT Setup
Menu 15 - NAT Setup
1. Address Mapping Sets
2. NAT Server Sets
Enter Menu Selection Number:
31.3.1 Address Mapping Sets
Enter 1 to bring up Menu 15.1 — Address Mapping Sets.
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Figure 181 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets
Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping Sets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
255. SUA (read only)
Enter Menu Selection Number:
31.3.1.1 SUA Address Mapping Set
Enter 255 to display the next screen (see also Section 31.1.1 on page 312). The fields in this
menu cannot be changed.
Figure 182 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules
Set
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.255 - Address Mapping Rules
Name=
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- --------------- --------------0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Global End IP
-------------
Type
---M-1
Server
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table explains the fields in this menu.
Menu 15.1.255 is read-only.
Table 110 SUA Address Mapping Rules
315
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
This is the name of the set you selected in menu 15.1 or enter the name of a new set
you want to create.
Idx
This is the index or rule number.
Local Start IP
Local Start IP is the starting local IP address (ILA).
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Table 110 SUA Address Mapping Rules (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Local End IP
Local End IP is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then
the Start IP is 0.0.0.0 and the End IP is 255.255.255.255.
Global Start IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter 0.0.0.0 as
the Global Start IP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA).
Type
These are the mapping types. Server allows us to specify multiple servers of different
types behind NAT to this machine. See later for some examples.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.3.1.2 User-Defined Address Mapping Sets
Now let’s look at option 1 in menu 15.1. Enter 1 to bring up this menu. We’ll just look at the
differences from the previous menu. Note the extra Action and Select Rule fields mean you
can configure rules in this screen. Note also that the [?] in the Set Name field means that this
is a required field and you must enter a name for the set.
Figure 183 Menu 15.1.1 First Set
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= NAT_SET
Idx Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP Global End IP
Type
--- --------------- --------------- --------------- --------=----- --1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Action= Edit
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If the Set Name field is left blank, the entire set will be deleted.
The Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs are configured in menu 15.1.1.1 (described later)
and the values are displayed here.
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31.3.1.3 Ordering Your Rules
Ordering your rules is important because the Prestige applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the Prestige takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9.
Now if you delete rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so as old rule 5 becomes rule
4, old rule 6 becomes rule 5 and old rule 7 becomes rule 6.
Table 111 Menu 15.1.1 First Set
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
Enter a name for this set of rules. This is a required field. If this field is left blank, the
entire set will be deleted.
Action
The default is Edit. Edit means you want to edit a selected rule (see following field).
Insert Before means to insert a rule before the rule selected. The rules after the
selected rule will then be moved down by one rule. Delete means to delete the
selected rule and then all the rules after the selected one will be advanced one rule.
None disables the Select Rule item.
Select Rule
When you choose Edit, Insert Before or Delete in the previous field the cursor
jumps to this field to allow you to select the rule to apply the action in question.
You must press [ENTER] at the bottom of the screen to save the whole set. You must do this
again if you make any changes to the set – including deleting a rule. No changes to the set take
place until this action is taken.
Selecting Edit in the Action field and then selecting a rule brings up the following menu,
Menu 15.1.1.1 - Address Mapping Rule in which you can edit an individual rule and
configure the Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs.
An End IP address must be numerically greater than its corresponding IP Start address.
Figure 184 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table explains the fields in this menu.
Table 112 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select from a total of five types. These are
the mapping types discussed in the web configurator NAT chapter. Server allows you
to specify multiple servers of different types behind NAT to this computer.
Local IP
Only local IP fields are N/A for server; Global IP fields MUST be set for Server.
Start
This is the starting local IP address (ILA).
End
This is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then put the Start
IP as 0.0.0.0 and the End IP as 255.255.255.255. This field is N/A for One-to-One and
Server types.
Global IP
Start
This is the starting inside global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter
0.0.0.0 as the Global IP Start. Note that Global IP Start can be set to 0.0.0.0 only if
the types are Many-to-One or Server.
End
This is the ending inside global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One,
Many-to-One and Server types.
Server
Mapping Set
Only available when Type is set to Server. Type a number from 1 to 10 to choose a
server set from menu 15.2.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.4 Configuring a Server behind NAT
Follow these steps to configure a server behind NAT:
1 Enter 15 in the main menu to go to Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
2 Enter 2 to display Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets as shown next.
Figure 185 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets
1. Server Set 1 (Used for SUA Only)
2. Server Set 2
3. Server Set 3
4. Server Set 4
5. Server Set 5
6. Server Set 6
7. Server Set 7
8. Server Set 8
9. Server Set 9
10. Server Set 10
Enter Set Number to Edit:
3 Enter 1 to go to Menu 15.2.1 NAT Server Setup as follows.
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Figure 186 Menu 15.2.1 NAT Server Setup
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
21
21
192.168.1.33
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Enter a port number in an unused Start Port No field. To forward only one port, enter it
again in the End Port No field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be
forwarded in the End Port No field.
5 Enter the inside IP address of the server in the IP Address field. In the following figure,
you have a computer acting as an FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (ports 21, 23 and 25) at
192.168.1.33.
6 Press [ENTER] at the “Press ENTER to confirm ...” prompt to save your
configuration after you define all the servers or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Figure 187 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
31.5 General NAT Examples
The following are some examples of NAT configuration.
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31.5.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only
In the following Internet access example, you only need one rule where your ILAs (Inside
Local addresses) all map to one dynamic IGA (Inside Global Address) assigned by your ISP.
Figure 188 NAT Example 1
Figure 189 Menu 4 Internet Access & NAT Example
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
From menu 4, choose the SUA Only option from the Network Address Translation field.
This is the Many-to-One mapping discussed in Section 31.5 on page 319. The SUA Only
read-only option from the Network Address Translation field in menus 4 and 11.3 is
specifically pre-configured to handle this case.
31.5.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server
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Figure 190 NAT Example 2
In this case, you do exactly as above (use the convenient pre-configured SUA Only set) and
also go to menu 15.2 to specify the Inside Server behind the NAT as shown in the next figure.
Figure 191 Menu 15.2.1 Specifying an Inside Server
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup (Used for SUA Only)
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
192.168.1.10
2.
0
0
0.0.0.0
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
31.5.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers
In this example, there are 3 IGAs from our ISP. There are many departments but two have
their own FTP server. All departments share the same router. The example will reserve one
IGA for each department with an FTP server and all departments use the other IGA. Map the
FTP servers to the first two IGAs and the other LAN traffic to the remaining IGA. Map the
third IGA to an inside web server and mail server. Four rules need to be configured, two bidirectional and two unidirectional as follows.
Map the first IGA to the first inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
Map the second IGA to our second inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
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Map the other outgoing LAN traffic to IGA3 (Many : 1 mapping).
You also map your third IGA to the web server and mail server on the LAN. Type Server
allows you to specify multiple servers, of different types, to other computers behind NAT on
the LAN.
The example situation looks somewhat like this:
Figure 192 NAT Example 3
In this case you need to configure Address Mapping Set 1 from Menu 15.1 - Address
Mapping Sets. Therefore you must choose the Full Feature option from the Network
Address Translation field (in menu 4 or menu 11.3) inFigure 193 on page 323.
1 Enter 15 from the main menu.
2 Enter 1 to configure the Address Mapping Sets.
3 Enter 1 to begin configuring this new set. Enter a Set Name, choose the Edit Action and
then enter 1 for the Select Rule field. Press [ENTER] to confirm.
4 Select Type as One-to-One (direct mapping for packets going both ways), and enter the
local Start IP as 192.168.1.10 (the IP address of FTP Server 1), the global Start IP as
10.132.50.1 (our first IGA). (SeeFigure 194 on page 323).
5 Repeat the previous step for rules 2 to 4 as outlined above.
When finished, menu 15.1.1 should look like as shown inFigure 195 on page 324.
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Figure 193 Example 3: Menu 11.3
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set= 2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following figures show how to configure the first rule
Figure 194 Example 3: Menu 15.1.1.1
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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Figure 195 Example 3: Final Menu 15.1.1
Set
Idx
--1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Name= Example3
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- ------------- --------------192.168.1.10
10.132.50.1
192.168.1.11
10.132.50.2
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 10.132.50.3
10.132.50.3
Action= Edit
Global End IP
--------------
Type
---1-1
1-1
M-1
Server
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Now configure the IGA3 to map to our web server and mail server on the LAN.
1 Enter 15 from the main menu.
2 Enter 2 in Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
3 Enter 1 in Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets to see the following menu. Configure it as
shown.
Figure 196 Example 3: Menu 15.2.1
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
80
80
192.168.1.21
3.
25
25
192.168.1.20
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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31.5.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs
Some applications do not support NAT Mapping using TCP or UDP port address translation.
In this case it is better to use Many-to-Many No Overload mapping as port numbers do not
change for Many-to-Many No Overload (and One-to-One) NAT mapping types. The
following figure illustrates this.
Figure 197 NAT Example 4
Other applications such as some gaming programs are NAT unfriendly because they embed
addressing information in the data stream. These applications won’t work through NAT even
when using One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload mapping types.
Follow the steps outlined in example 3 to configure these two menus as follows.
Figure 198 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= Many-to-Many No Overload
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = 192.168.1.12
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = 10.132.50.3
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you’ve configured your rule, you should be able to check the settings in menu 15.1.1 as
shown next.
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Figure 199 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
Set
Idx
--1.
NO OV
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Name= Example4
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- -------------------------192.168.1.10
192.168.1.12
10.132.50.1
Action= Edit
Global End IP
--------------10.132.50.3
Type
---M:M
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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CHAPTER 32
Enabling the Firewall
This chapter shows you how to get started with the Prestige firewall.
32.1 Remote Management and the Firewall
When SMT menu 24.11 is configured to allow management and the firewall is enabled:
• The firewall blocks remote management from the WAN unless you configure a firewall
rule to allow it.
• The firewall allows remote management from the LAN.
32.2 Access Methods
The web configurator is, by far, the most comprehensive firewall configuration tool your
Prestige has to offer. For this reason, it is recommended that you configure your firewall using
the web configurator, see the following chapters for instructions. SMT screens allow you to
activate the firewall and view firewall logs.
32.3 Enabling the Firewall
From the main menu enter 21 to go to Menu 21 - Filter Set and Firewall Configuration to
display the screen shown next.
Enter option 2 in this menu to bring up the following screen. Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Yes in the Active field to activate the firewall. The firewall must be active
to protect against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Additional rules may be configured using
the web configurator.
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Figure 200 Menu 21.2 Firewall Setup
Menu 21.2 - Firewall Setup
The firewall protects against Denial of Service (DOS) attacks when
it is active. The default Policy sets
1. allow all sessions originating from the LAN to the WAN and
2. deny all sessions originating from the WAN to the LAN
You may define additional Policy rules or modify existing ones but
please exercise extreme caution in doing so
Active: Yes
LAN-to-WAN Set Name: ACL Default Set
WAN-to-LAN Set Name: ACL Default Set
Please configure the Firewall function through Web Configurator.
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Use the web configurator or the command interpreter to configure the firewall rules
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CHAPTER 33
Filter Configuration
This chapter shows you how to create and apply filters.
33.1 About Filtering
Your Prestige uses filters to decide whether or not to allow passage of a data packet and/or to
make a call. There are two types of filter applications: data filtering and call filtering. Filters
are subdivided into device and protocol filters, which are discussed later.
Data filtering screens data to determine if the packet should be allowed to pass. Data filters are
divided into incoming and outgoing filters, depending on the direction of the packet relative to
a port. Data filtering can be applied on either the WAN side or the Ethernet side. Call filtering
is used to determine if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call.
Outgoing packets must undergo data filtering before they encounter call filtering. Call filters
are divided into two groups, the built-in call filters and user-defined call filters. Your Prestige
has built-in call filters that prevent administrative, for example, RIP packets from triggering
calls. These filters are always enabled and not accessible to you. Your Prestige applies the
built-in filters first and then the user-defined call filters, if applicable, as shown next.
Figure 201 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process
Two sets of factory filter rules have been configured in menu 21 to prevent NetBIOS traffic
from triggering calls. A summary of their filter rules is shown in the figures that follow.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow when executing a filter rule.
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Figure 202 Filter Rule Process
You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block various types of packets.
Because each filter set can have up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for
a single port.
For incoming packets, your Prestige applies data filters only. Packets are processed depending
on whether a match is found. The following sections describe how to configure filter sets.
33.1.1 The Filter Structure of the Prestige
A filter set consists of one or more filter rules. Usually, you would group related rules, for
example, all the rules for NetBIOS, into a single set and give it a descriptive name. You can
configure up to twelve filter sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72 filter rules in the
system.
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33.2 Configuring a Filter Set for the Prestige
To configure a filter set, follow the steps shown next.
1 Enter 21 in the main menu to display Menu 21 – Filter and Firewall Setup.
2 Enter 1 to display Menu 21.1 – Filter Set Configuration as shown next.
Figure 203 Menu 21 Filter Set Configuration
Menu 21.1 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Comments
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Comments
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Comments= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3 Type the filter set to configure (no. 1 to 12) and press [ENTER].
4 Type a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field and press [ENTER].
5 Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to confirm…” to display Menu 21.1.1 –
Filter Rules Summary (that is, if you selected filter set 1 in menu 21.1).
Figure 204 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary
# A
- - 1 Y
2 Y
3 Y
4 Y
5 Y
6 Y
Menu 21.1.2 - Filter Rules Summary
Type
Filter Rules
M m n
---- --------------------------------------------------------------- IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
N
N
N
N
N
N
D
D
D
D
D
D
N
N
N
N
N
F
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
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Figure 205 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.3 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- ------------------------------------------------------------ - - 1 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, SP=137, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D F
2 N
3 N
4 N
5 N
6 N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Figure 206 IGMP Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
Menu 21.1.4 - Filter Rules Summary
A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- ---- ------------------------------------------------------------ - - Y Gen Off=0, Len=3, Mask=ffffff, Value=01005e
N D F
N
N
N
N
N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
33.3 Filter Rules Summary Menus
The following tables briefly describe the abbreviations used in menus 21.1.1 and 21.1.2.
Table 113 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu
333
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
The filter rule number: 1 to 6.
A
Active: “Y” means the rule is active. “N” means the rule is inactive.
Type
The type of filter rule: “GEN” for Generic, “IP” for TCP/IP.
Filter Rules
These parameters are displayed here.
M
More.
“Y” means there are more rules to check which form a rule chain with the present rule.
An action cannot be taken until the rule chain is complete.
“N” means there are no more rules to check. You can specify an action to be taken for
instance, forward the packet, drop the packet or check the next rule. For the latter, the
next rule is independent of the rule just checked.
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Table 113 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
m
Action Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N“means to check the next rule.
n
Action Not Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N” means to check the next rule.
The protocol dependent filter rules abbreviation are listed as follows:
Table 114 Rule Abbreviations Used
FILTER TYPE
DESCRIPTION
IP
Pr
Protocol
SA
Source Address
SP
Source Port Number
DA
Destination Address
DP
Destination Port Number
GEN
Off
Offset
Len
Length
33.4 Configuring a Filter Rule
To configure a filter rule, type its number in Menu 21.1.x – Filter Rules Summary and press
[ENTER] to open menu 21.1.x.1 for the rule.
There are two types of filter rules: TCP/IP and Generic. Depending on the type of rule, the
parameters for each type will be different. Use [SPACE BAR] to select the type of rule that
you want to create in the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open the respective menu.
To speed up filtering, all rules in a filter set must be of the same class, for instance, protocol
filters or generic filters. The class of a filter set is determined by the first rule that you create.
When applying the filter sets to a port, separate menu fields are provided for protocol and
device filter sets. If you include a protocol filter set in a device filters field or vice versa, the
Prestige will warn you and will not allow you to save.
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33.4.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a TCP/IP filter rule. TCP/IP rules allow you to base
the rule on the fields in the IP and the upper layer protocol, for example, UDP and TCP
headers.
To configure TCP/IP rules, select TCP/IP Filter Rule from the Filter Type field and press
[ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.x.1 – TCP/IP Filter Rule, as shown next.
Figure 207 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= No
IP Protocol= 0
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
Source: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes how to configure your TCP/IP filter rule.
Table 115 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3 refers to the second filter
set and the third filter rule of that set.
Filter Type
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose a rule. Parameters displayed for
each type will be different. Choices are TCP/IP Filter Rule or Generic Filter Rule.
Active
Select Yes to activate or No to deactivate the filter rule.
IP Protocol
This is the upper layer protocol, for example, TCP is 6, UDP is 17 and ICMP is 1.
The value must be between 0 and 255. A value of 0 matches ANY protocol.
IP Source Route
IP Source Route is an optional header that dictates the route an IP packet takes
from its source to its destination. If Yes, the rule applies to any packet with an IP
source route. The majority of IP packets do not have source route.
Destination:
335
IP Addr
Type the destination IP address of the packet you want to filter. This field is ignored
if it is 0.0.0.0.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Destination: IP Addr field.
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Table 115 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port #
Type the destination port of the packets you want to filter. The field range is 0 to
65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Port # Comp
Select the comparison to apply to the destination port in the packet against the value
given in Destination: Port #. Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not
Equal.
Source:
IP Addr
Type the source IP Address of the packet you want to filter. A 0.0.0.0 field is ignored.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Source: IP Addr field.
Port #
Type the source port of the packets you want to filter. The range of this field is 0 to
65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Port # Comp
Select the comparison to apply to the source port in the packet against the value
given in Source: Port # field. Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not
Equal.
TCP Estab
This applies only when the IP Protocol field is 6, TCP. If Yes, the rule matches
packets that want to establish TCP connection(s) (SYN=1 and ACK=0); else it is
ignored.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken or
else the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be N/A.
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only packets that match the rule parameters will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check Next Rule, Forward or
Drop.
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices are Check Next Rule,
Forward or Drop.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow of an IP filter.
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Figure 208 Executing an IP Filter
33.4.2 Generic Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a generic filter rule. The purpose of generic rules is
to allow you to filter non-IP packets. For IP, it is generally easier to use the IP rules directly.
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For generic rules, the Prestige treats a packet as a byte stream as opposed to an IP packet. You
specify the portion of the packet to check with the Offset (from 0) and the Length fields, both
in bytes. The Prestige applies the Mask (bit-wise ANDing) to the data portion before
comparing the result against the Value to determine a match. The Mask and Value fields are
specified in hexadecimal numbers. Note that it takes two hexadecimal digits to represent a
byte, so if the length is 4, the value in either field will take 8 digits, for example, FFFFFFFF.
To configure a generic rule select an empty filter set in menu 21, for example 5. Select
Generic Filter Rule in the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.5.1 –
Generic Filter Rule, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 209 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.5.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 5,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= No
Offset= 0
Length= 0
Mask= N/A
Value= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The next table describes the fields in the Generic Filter Rule menu.
Table 116 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3 refers to the second filter
set and the third rule of that set.
Filter Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a type of rule. Parameters displayed
below each type will be different. Choices are Generic Filter Rule or TCP/IP Filter
Rule.
Active
Select Yes to turn on or No to turn off the filter rule.
Offset
Type the starting byte of the data portion in the packet that you want to compare. The
range for this field is from 0 to 255.
Length
Type the byte count of the data portion in the packet that you want to compare. The
range for this field is 0 to 8.
Mask
Type the mask (in Hexadecimal) to apply to the data portion before comparison.
Value
Type the value (in Hexadecimal) to compare with the data portion.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken or
else the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be N/A.
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Table 116 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only matching packets and rules will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action
Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check Next Rule, Forward or
Drop.
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices are Check Next Rule,
Forward or Drop.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
33.5 Filter Types and NAT
There are two classes of filter rules, Generic Filter Device rules and Protocol Filter (TCP/IP)
rules. Generic Filter rules act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol Filter rules act
on IP packets.
When NAT (Network Address Translation) is enabled, the inside IP address and port number
are replaced on a connection-by-connection basis, which makes it impossible to know the
exact address and port on the wire. Therefore, the Prestige applies the protocol filters to the
“native” IP address and port number before NAT for outgoing packets and after NAT for
incoming packets. On the other hand, the generic (or device) filters are applied to the raw
packets that appear on the wire. They are applied at the point where the Prestige is receiving
and sending the packets; for instance, the interface. The interface can be an Ethernet, or any
other hardware port. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 210 Protocol and Device Filter Sets
33.6 Example Filter
Let’s look at an example to block outside users from telnetting into the Prestige.
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Figure 211 Sample Telnet Filter
1 Enter 1 in the menu 21 to display Menu 21.1 — Filter Set Configuration.
2 Enter the index number of the filter set you want to configure (in this case 6).
3 Type a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field (for example,
TELNET_WAN) and press [ENTER].
4 Press [ENTER] at the message “Press [ENTER] to confirm or [ESC] to
cancel...” to open Menu 21.1.6 — Filter Rules Summary.
5 Type 1 to configure the first filter rule. Make the entries in this menu as shown next.
When you press [ENTER] to confirm, the following screen appears. Note that there is only
one filter rule in this set.
Figure 212 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter
Menu 21.1.6.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 6,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 23
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= Equal
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you have created the filter set, you must apply it.
1 Enter 11 in the main menu to display menu 11 and type the remote node number to edit.
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2 Go to the Edit Filter Sets field, press [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER].
This brings you to menu 11.5. Apply the example filter set (for example, filter set 3) in this
menu as shown in the next section.
This shows you that you have configured and activated (A = Y) a TCP/IP filter rule (Type =
IP, Pr = 6) for destination telnet ports (DP = 23).
M = N means an action can be taken immediately. The action is to drop the packet (m = D) if
the action is matched and to forward the packet immediately (n = F) if the action is not
matched no matter whether there are more rules to be checked (there aren’t in this example).
Figure 213 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.6 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - 1 Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=23
N D F
2 N
3 N
4 N
5 N
6 N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure: 1
33.7 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults
This section shows you where to apply the filter(s) after you design it (them). Sets of factory
default filter rules have been configured in menu 21 (but have not been applied) to filter
traffic.
Table 117 Filter Sets Table
341
FILTER SETS
DESCRIPTION
Input Filter Sets:
Apply filters for incoming traffic. You may apply protocol or device filter rules. See
earlier in this chapter for information on filters.
Output Filter Sets:
Apply filters for traffic leaving the Prestige. You may apply filter rules for protocol
or device filters. See earlier in this section for information on types of filters.
Call Filter Sets:
Apply filters to decide if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call.
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33.7.1 Ethernet Traffic
You seldom need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block
certain packets, reduce traffic and prevent security breaches. Go to menu 3.1 (shown next) and
type the number(s) of the filter set(s) that you want to apply as appropriate. You can choose up
to four filter sets (from twelve) by typing their numbers separated by commas, for example, 3,
4, 6, 11. The factory default filter set, NetBIOS_LAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field
under Input Filter Sets in menu 3.1 in order to prevent local NetBIOS messages from
triggering calls to the DNS server.
Figure 214 Filtering Ethernet Traffic
Menu 3.1 – LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 3
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
33.7.2 Remote Node Filters
Go to menu 11.5 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the filter set(s) as appropriate. You
can cascade up to four filter sets by typing their numbers separated by commas. The factory
default filter set, NetBIOS_WAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field under Call Filter Sets
in menu 11.5 to block local NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls to the ISP.
Figure 215 Filtering Remote Node Traffic
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 6
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 2
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
Protocol filters=
Device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Note that call filter sets are visible when you select PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation.
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CHAPTER 34
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP Configuration menu 22.
34.1 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your Prestige supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager
station to manage and monitor the Prestige through the network. The Prestige supports SNMP
version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an SNMP
management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 216 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the Prestige).
An agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
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The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include the number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
34.2 Supported MIBs
The Prestige supports RFC-1215 and MIB II as defined in RFC-1213 as well as ZyXEL
private MIBs. The focus of the MIBs is to let administrators collect statistic data and monitor
status and performance.
34.3 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, select option 22 from the main menu to open Menu 22 — SNMP
Configuration as shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP
terminology for password.
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Figure 217 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 118 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
SNMP:
Get Community
Type the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext requests from the management station.
Set Community
Type the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from
the management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your Prestige will only respond to SNMP messages
from this address. A blank (default) field means your Prestige will respond to all
SNMP messages it receives, regardless of source.
Trap:
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
34.4 SNMP Traps
The Prestige will send traps to the SNMP manager when any one of the following events
occurs:
Table 119 SNMP Traps
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
2
warmStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
3
linkDown (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent with the port number when any of the
links are down. See the following table.
4
linkUp (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent with the port number.
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Table 119 SNMP Traps (continued)
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
5
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any
SNMP gets or sets requirements with wrong
community (password).
6
whyReboot (defined in ZYXEL-MIB) A trap is sent with the reason of restart before
rebooting when the system is going to restart (warm
start).
6a
For intentional reboot :
A trap is sent with the message "System reboot by
user!" if reboot is done intentionally, (for example,
download new files, CI command "sys reboot", etc.).
The port number is its interface index under the interface group.
Table 120 Ports and Permanent Virtual Circuits
347
PORT
PVC (PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUIT)
1
Ethernet LAN
2
1
3
2
…
…
13
12
14
xDSL
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CHAPTER 35
System Security
This chapter describes how to configure the system security on the Prestige.
35.1 System Security
You can configure the system password.
35.1.1 System Password
Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 – System Security.
You should change the default password. If you forget your password you have to restore the
default configuration file.
Figure 218 Menu 23 – System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Enter Menu Selection Number:
35.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server
From Menu 23- System Security, enter 2 to display Menu 23.2 - System Security-RADIAS
Server.
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Figure 219 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server
Menu 23.2 - System Security - RADIUS Server
Authentication Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1812
Shared Secret= ********
Accounting Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1813
Shared Secret= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 121 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable user
authentication through an external authentication server.
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external authentication server and Prestige.
Accounting Server
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable user
authentication through an external accounting server.
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external accounting server and Prestige.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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35.1.3 IEEE 802.1x
The IEEE 802.1x standards outline enhanced security methods for both the authentication of
wireless stations and encryption key management.
Follow the steps below to enable EAP authentication on your Prestige.
1 From the main menu, enter 23 to display Menu23 – System Security.
Figure 220 Menu 23 System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Enter 4 to display Menu 23.4 – System Security – IEEE 802.1x.
Figure 221 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE 802.1x
Menu 23.4 - System Security - IEEE 802.1x
Wireless Port Control= No Authentication Required
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)= N/A
Idle Timeout (in second)= N/A
Key Management Protocol= N/A
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange= N/A
PSK= N/A
WPA Mixed Mode= N/A
Data Privacy for Broadcast/Multicast packets= N/A
WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update Timer= N/A
Authentication Databases= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
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Table 122 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE 802.1x
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
Press [SPACE BAR] and select a security mode for the wireless LAN access.
Select No Authentication Required to allow any wireless stations access to your
wired network without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default
setting.
Selecting Authentication Required means wireless stations have to enter
usernames and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select No Access Allowed to block all wireless stations access to the wired
network.
The following fields are not available when you select No Authentication Required
or No Access Allowed.
ReAuthentication Timer
(in second)
Specify how often a client has to re-enter username and password to stay
connected to the wired network.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 (in
seconds). The default time interval is 1800 seconds (or 30 minutes).
Idle Timeout (in
second)
The Prestige automatically disconnects a client from the wired network after a
period of inactivity. The client needs to enter the username and password again
before access to the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Key Management Press [SPACE BAR] to select 802.1x, WPA or WPA-PSK and press [ENTER].
Protocol
Dynamic WEP
Key Exchange
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to
RADIUS Only. Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without using Dynamic WEP Key Exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the Prestige when you configure Dynamic WEP Key
Exchange. This field is not available when you set Key Management Protocol to
WPA or WPA-PSK.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols) when you select WPA-PSK in the Key Management
Protocol field.
WPA Mixed
Mode
Select Enable to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, select Disable and
configure Group Data Privacy field.
Data Privacy for This field allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for broadcast and
Broadcast/
multicast (“group”) traffic if the Key Management Protocol is WPA and WPA
Multicast packets Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have enabled WPA
Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK Key
Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Broadcast/
Multicast Key
Update Timer
351
The WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if
using WPA-PSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key
management) sends a new group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the
WPA equivalent of automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in
a WLAN on a periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update
Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK mode. The Prestige default is 1800 seconds
(30 minutes).
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Table 122 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE 802.1x (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the Prestige. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this field to decide which database the Prestige should use (first) to
authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
Select Local User Database Only to have the Prestige just check the built-in user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the Prestige just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the Prestige first check the user database
on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is
not found, the Prestige then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS
server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the Prestige first check the user database
on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If
the Prestige cannot reach the RADIUS server, the Prestige then checks the local
user database on the Prestige. When the user name is not found or password does
not match in the RADIUS server, the Prestige will not check the local user database
and the authentication fails.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS server or create
local user accounts on the Prestige for authentication.
35.2 Creating User Accounts on the Prestige
By storing user profiles locally, your Prestige is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server.
Follow the steps below to set up user profiles on your Prestige.
1 From the main menu, enter 14 to display Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup.
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Figure 222 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup
Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Type a number and press [ENTER] to edit the user profile.
Figure 223 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
Menu 14.1 - Edit Dial-in User
User Name= test
Active= Yes
Password= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 123 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Enter a username up to 31 alphanumeric characters long for this user profile.
This field is case sensitive.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable the user profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 36
System Information and
Diagnosis
This chapter covers the information and diagnostic tools in SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
36.1 Overview
These tools include updates on system status, port status, log and trace capabilities and
upgrades for the system software. This chapter describes how to use these tools in detail.
Type 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance, as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 224 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
36.2 System Status
The first selection, System Status gives you information on the status and statistics of the
ports, as shown next. System Status is a tool that can be used to monitor your Prestige.
Specifically, it gives you information on your DSL telephone line status, number of packets
sent and received.
To get to System Status, type 24 to go to Menu 24 — System Maintenance. From this menu,
type 1. System Status. There are two commands in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status. Entering 1 resets the counters; [ESC] takes you back to the previous screen.
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The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status which are read-only and meant for diagnostic purposes.
Figure 225 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
Node-Lnk Status
1-ENET N/A
2
N/A
3
N/A
4
N/A
5
N/A
6
N/A
7
N/A
8
N/A
TxPkts
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RxPkts
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
03:53:21
Sat. Jan. 01, 2000
Errors Tx B/s Rx B/s
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Up Time
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
My WAN IP (from ISP): 0.0.0.0
Ethernet:
Status:
Collisions: 0
CPU Load =
2.17%
Tx Pkts: 1319
Rx Pkts: 0
WAN:
Line Status: Down
Upstream Speed:
0 kbps
Downstream Speed:
0 kbps
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 1-Reset Counters ESC-Exit
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status.
Table 124 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
355
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Node-Lnk
This is the node index number and link type. Link types are: PPP, ENET, 1483.
Status
This shows the status of the remote node.
TxPkts
The number of transmitted packets to this remote node.
RxPkts
The number of received packets from this remote node.
Errors
The number of error packets on this connection.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission rate in bytes per second.
Rx B/s
This shows the receiving rate in bytes per second.
Up Time
This is the time this channel has been connected to the current remote node.
My WAN IP
(from ISP)
This is the IP address of the ISP remote node.
Ethernet
This shows statistics for the LAN.
Status
This shows the current status of the LAN.
Tx Pkts
This is the number of transmitted packets to the LAN.
Rx Pkts
This is the number of received packets from the LAN.
Collision
This is the number of collisions.
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Table 124 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
WAN
This shows statistics for the WAN.
Line Status
This shows the current status of the xDSL line, which can be Up or Down.
Upstream
Speed
This shows the upstream transfer rate in kbps.
Downstream
Speed
This shows the downstream transfer rate in kbps.
CPU Load
This specifies the percentage of CPU utilization.
36.3 System Information
To get to the System Information:
1 Enter 24 to display Menu 24 — System Maintenance.
2 Enter 2 to display Menu 24.2 — System Information and Console Port Speed.
From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Figure 226 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
36.3.1 System Information
Enter 1 in menu 24.2 to display the screen shown next.
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Figure 227 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name: P-661HW
Routing: IP
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.40(PE.8) | 12/23/2004
ADSL Chipset Vendor: TI AR7 03.00.09.00
Standard: Multi-Mode
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:a0:c5:99:96:23
IP Address: 192.168.1.1
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: Server
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 125 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
Displays the system name of your Prestige. This information can be changed in
Menu 1 – General Setup.
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware
version. ZyNOS is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
ADSL Chipset
Vendor
Displays the vendor of the ADSL chipset and DSL version.
Standard
This refers to the operational protocol the Prestige and the DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) are using.
LAN
Ethernet Address
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) of your Prestige.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the Prestige in dotted decimal notation.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the Prestige.
DHCP
This field shows the DHCP setting (None, Relay or Server) of the Prestige.
36.3.2 Console Port Speed
Note: The console port is internal and reserved for technician use only.
You can set up different port speeds for the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – System
Maintenance – Console Port Speed. Your Prestige supports 9600 (default), 19200, 38400,
57600 and 115200 bps. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the desired speed in
menu 24.2.2, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 228 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance – Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Once you change the Prestige console port speed, you must also set the speed parameter for
the communication software you are using to connect to the Prestige.
36.4 Log and Trace
There are two logging facilities in the Prestige. The first is the error logs and trace records that
are stored locally. The second is the syslog facility for message logging.
36.4.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error log. Follow
the procedures to view the local error/trace log:
1 Type 24 in the main menu to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From menu 24, type 3 to display Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace.
Figure 229 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
2. UNIX Syslog
Please enter selection
3 Enter 1 from Menu 24.3 — System Maintenance — Log and Trace to display the error
log in the system.
After the Prestige finishes displaying the error log, you will have the option to clear it.
Samples of typical error and information messages are presented in the next figure.
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Figure 230 Sample Error and Information Messages
53 Sat Jan 01 00:00:03 2000 PP01 -WARN SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
54 Sat Jan 01 00:00:03 2000 PP01 INFO main: init completed
55 Sat Jan 01 00:00:03 2000 PP01 INFO Starting Connectivity Monitor
56 Sat Jan 01 00:00:03 2000 PP20 INFO adjtime task pause 1 day
57 Sat Jan 01 00:00:03 2000 PP21 INFO monitoring WAN connectivity
58 Sat Jan 01 00:03:06 2000 PP19 INFO SMT Password pass
59 Sat Jan 01 00:03:06 2000 PP01 INFO SMT Session Begin
60 Sat Jan 01 00:23:21 2000 PP01 INFO SMT Session End
62 Sat Jan 01 00:23:38 2000 PP19 INFO SMT Password pass
63 Sat Jan 01 00:23:38 2000 PP01 INFO SMT Session Begin
Clear Error Log (y/n):
36.4.2 Syslog and Accounting
The Prestige uses the syslog facility to log the CDR (Call Detail Record) and system messages
to a syslog server. Syslog and accounting can be configured in Menu 24.3.2 — System
Maintenance — UNIX Syslog, as shown next.
Figure 231 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance: Syslog and Accounting
Menu 24.3.2 - System Maintenance - UNIX Syslog
UNIX Syslog:
Active= No
Syslog IP Address= ?
Log Facility= Local 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You need to configure the UNIX syslog parameters described in the following table to activate
syslog then choose what you want to log.
Table 126 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : Syslog and Accounting
PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
UNIX Syslog:
Active
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to turn syslog on or off.
Syslog IP Address
Type the IP address of your syslog server.
Log Facility
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select one of seven different local
options. The log facility lets you log the message in different server files. Refer to
your UNIX manual.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
The following are examples of the four types of syslog messages sent by the Prestige:
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Figure 232 Syslog Example
1 - CDR
SdcmdSyslogSend ( SYSLOG_CDR, SYSLOG_INFO, String);
String = board xx line xx channel xx, call xx, str
board = the hardware board ID
line = the WAN ID in a board
Channel = channel ID within the WAN
call = the call reference number which starts from 1 and increments by 1 for each new
call
str = C01 Outgoing Call dev xx ch xx (dev:device No. ch:channel No.)
C01 Incoming Call xxxxBps xxxxx (L2TP, xxxxx = Remote Call ID)
C01 Incoming Call xxxx (= connected speed) xxxxx (= Remote Call ID)
L02 Tunnel Connected (L2TP)
C02 OutCall Connected xxxx (= connected speed) xxxxx (= Remote Call ID)
C02 CLID call refused
L02 Call Terminated
C02 Call Terminated
Jul 19 11:19:27
Call dev=2 ch=0
Jul 19 11:19:32
Connected 64000
Jul 19 11:20:06
Terminated
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C01 Outgoing
40002
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 OutCall
40002
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 Call
2 - Packet Triggered
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_PKTTRI, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = Packet trigger: Protocol=xx Data=xxxxxxxxxx…..x
Protocol: (1:IP 2:IPX 3:IPXHC 4:BPDU 5:ATALK 6:IPNG)
Data: We will send forty-eight Hex characters to the server
Jul 19 11:28:39 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500003c100100001f010004c0a86614ca849a7b08004a5c020001006162636465666768696a6b6c
6d6e6f7071727374
Jul 19 11:28:56 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500002c1b0140001f06b50ec0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b3e00000000600220008cd40000
020405b4
Jul 19 11:29:06 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=45000028240140001f06ac12c0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b451d1430135004000077600000
3 - Filter Log
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_FILLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = IP[Src=xx.xx.xx.xx Dst=xx.xx.xx.xx prot spo=xxxx dpo=xxxx] S04>R01mD
IP[…] is the packet header and S04>R01mD means filter set 4 (S) and rule 1 (R), match
(m), drop (D).
Src: Source Address
Dst: Destination Address
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Figure 232 Syslog Example (continued)
prot: Protocol (“TCP”, ”UDP”, ”ICMP”)
spo: Source port
dpo: Destination port
Jul 19 14:43:55 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=202.132.154.123 Dst=255.255.255.255 UDP
spo=0208 dpo=0208]} S03>R01mF
Jul 19 14:44:00 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=192.168.102.20 Dst=202.132.154.1 UDP
spo=05d4 dpo=0035]} S03>R01mF
Jul 19 14:44:04 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=192.168.102.20 Dst=202.132.154.1 UDP
spo=05d4 dpo=0035]} S03>R01mF
4 - PPP Log
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_PPPLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = ppp:Proto Starting / ppp:Proto Opening / ppp:Proto Closing / ppp:Proto
Shutdown
Proto = LCP / ATCP / BACP / BCP / CBCP / CCP / CHAP/ PAP / IPCP / IPXCP
Jul 19 11:42:44 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:LCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:49 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:IPCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:54 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:CCP Closing
36.5 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your Prestige to determine if
it is working properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of diagnostic
tests to evaluate your system, as shown in the following figure.
Follow the procedure next to get to Diagnostic:
1 From the main menu, type 24 to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From this menu, type 4. Diagnostic to open Menu 24.4 – System Maintenance –
Diagnostic.
Figure 233 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
xDSL
1.
Reset xDSL
System
21. Reboot System
22. Command Mode
TCP/IP
12. Ping Host
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Host IP Address= N/A
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The following table describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for and the
connections.
Table 127 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Reset xDSL
Re-initialize the xDSL link to the telephone company.
Ping Host
Ping the host to see if the links and TCP/IP protocol on both systems are working.
Reboot System
Reboot the Prestige.
Command Mode
Type the mode to test and diagnose your Prestige using specified commands.
Host IP Address
If you typed 12 to Ping Host, now type the address of the computer you want to
ping.
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CHAPTER 37
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to backup and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and configuration files.
37.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings
in the menus such as password, DHCP Setup, TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from ZyXEL with a
“rom” filename extension. Once you have customized the Prestige's settings, they can be
saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the
filenames are similar to those seen next.
Note: Only use firmware for your Prestige’s specific model. Refer to the label on the
bottom of your Prestige.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the
Prestige.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file
“config.cfg”.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the Prestige only recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
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The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename
on the Prestige and the external filename refers to the filename not on the Prestige, that is, on
your computer, local network or FTP site and so the name (but not the extension) may vary.
After uploading new firmware, see the ZyNOS F/W Version field in Menu 24.2.1 – System
Maintenance – Information to confirm that you have uploaded the correct firmware version.
The AT command is the command you enter after you press “y” when prompted in the SMT
menu to go into debug mode.
Table 128 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL NAME EXTERNAL NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration Rom-0
File
This is the configuration filename on the
Prestige. Uploading the rom-0 file replaces the
entire ROM file system, including your Prestige
configurations, system-related data (including
the default password), the error log and the
trace log.
*.rom
Firmware
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS
firmware on the Prestige.
*.bin
Ras
37.2 Backup Configuration
Option 5 from Menu 24 – System Maintenance allows you to backup the current Prestige
configuration to your computer. Backup is highly recommended once your Prestige is
functioning properly. FTP is the preferred methods for backing up your current configuration
to your computer since they are faster. Any serial communications program should work fine;
however, you must use Xmodem protocol to perform the download/upload and you don’t have
to rename the files.
Please note that terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download
means to transfer from the Prestige to the computer, while upload means from your computer
to the Prestige.
37.2.1 Backup Configuration
Follow the instructions as shown in the next screen.
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Figure 234 Telnet in Menu 24.5
Menu 24.5 - System Maintenance - Backup Configuration
To transfer the configuration file to your workstation, follow the procedure
below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your Prestige. Then type "root" and SMT
password as requested.
3. Locate the 'rom-0' file.
4. Type 'get rom-0' to back up the current Prestige configuration to
your workstation.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain
in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your Prestige manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
37.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “get” to transfer files from the Prestige to the computer, for example, “get rom-0
config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the Prestige to your computer and
renames it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename
conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
37.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line
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Figure 235 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
37.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP
clients.
Table 129 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the
server for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP
or service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Initial Remote Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
37.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations
TFTP, FTP and Telnet over WAN will not work when:
• You have disabled Telnet service in menu 24.11.
• You have applied a filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) to block Telnet
service.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field in menu 24.11 does not match the client IP.
If it does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the Telnet session immediately.
• You have an SMT console session running.
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37.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The Prestige supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as
well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the Prestige and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the Prestige records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will
not be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT
timeout (default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the Prestige. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the Prestige and the
computer. The file name for the configuration file is “rom-0” (rom-zero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the
Prestige to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
37.2.7 TFTP Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the Prestige IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the Prestige (rom-0,
name of the configuration file on the Prestige) to the file destination on the computer and
renames it config.rom.
37.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients.
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Table 130 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the Prestige. 192.168.1.1 is the Prestige’s default IP address
when shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the Prestige and “Fetch” to back up the file on your
computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration file (*.rom
extension) on your computer.
Remote File This is the filename on the Prestige. The filename for the firmware is “ras” and for the
configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 367 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
37.3 Restore Configuration
This section shows you how to restore a previously saved configuration. Note that this
function erases the current configuration before restoring a previous back up configuration;
please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup configuration file stored on disk.
FTP is the preferred method for restoring your current computer configuration to your Prestige
since FTP is faster. Please note that you must wait for the system to automatically restart after
the file transfer is complete.
Note: Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR Prestige.
37.3.1 Restore Using FTP
For details about backup using (T)FTP please refer to earlier sections on FTP and TFTP file
upload in this chapter.
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Figure 236 Telnet into Menu 24.6
Menu 24.6 -- System Maintenance - Restore Configuration
To transfer the firmware and configuration file to your workstation, follow
the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your Prestige. Then type "root" and SMT
password as requested.
3. Type "put backupfilename rom-0" where backupfilename is the name of
your backup configuration file on your workstation and rom-0 is the
remote file name on the Prestige. This restores the configuration
to
your Prestige.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful file transfer
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain
in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your Prestige manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Find the “rom” file (on your computer) that you want to restore to your Prestige.
7 Use “put” to transfer files from the Prestige to the computer, for example, “put
config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration file “config.rom” on your computer
to the Prestige. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
8 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt. The Prestige will automatically restart after a
successful restore process.
37.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example
Figure 237 Restore Using FTP Session Example
ftp> put config.rom rom-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR rom-0
226 File received OK
221 Goodbye for writing flash
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 0.06Seconds 273.07Kbytes/sec.
ftp>quit
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 367 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
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37.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files
This section shows you how to upload firmware and configuration files. You can upload
configuration files by following the procedure in Section 37.2 on page 365 or by following the
instructions in Menu 24.7.2 – System Maintenance – Upload System Configuration File.
Note: Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR Prestige.
37.4.1 Firmware File Upload
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use this feature,
your computer must have an FTP client.
When you telnet into the Prestige, you will see the following screens for uploading firmware
and the configuration file using FTP.
Figure 238 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload the system firmware, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put firmware filename ras" where "firmwarefilename" is the name
of your firmware upgrade file on your workstation and "ras" is the
remote file name on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful firmware upload.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
37.4.2 Configuration File Upload
You see the following screen when you telnet into menu 24.7.2.
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Figure 239 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To upload the system configuration file, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put configuration filename rom-0" where "configurationfilename"
is the name of your system configuration file on your workstation, which
will be transferred to the "rom-0" file on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after the upload system configuration
file process is complete.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
To upload the firmware and the configuration file, follow these examples
37.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the Prestige, for example, “put
firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the
Prestige and renames it “ras”. Similarly, “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.rom) to the Prestige and renames it “rom-0”.
Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the Prestige to
your computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter for more
information on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
The Prestige automatically restarts after a successful file upload.
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37.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
Figure 240 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 1103936 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands (found in GUI-based FTP clients) are listed earlier in this chapter.
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 367 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
37.4.5 TFTP File Upload
The Prestige also supports the uploading of firmware files using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer
Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware
and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the Prestige and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the Prestige records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the console timeout, so the TFTP transfer
will not be interrupted. Enter “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute console timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the Prestige. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the Prestige and the
computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras”.
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the Prestige in CI mode before and during
the TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the
Prestige to the computer, “put” the other way around, and “binary” to set binary transfer
mode.
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37.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the Prestige’s IP address and “put” transfers the file source on the computer
(firmware.bin – name of the firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the
remote host (ras - name of the firmware on the Prestige).
Commands that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
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CHAPTER 38
System Maintenance
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 to 24.10.
38.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main system firmware. The CI provides much of
the same functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic
functions. Enter the CI from the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. See the included disk or the
zyxel.com web site for more detailed information on CI commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 —
System Maintenance. A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the
command prompt. Type “exit” to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Figure 241 Command Mode in Menu 24
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 242 Valid Commands
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
ether
wan
wlan
ip
ipsec
bridge
lan
radius
8021x
autoSec
ras>
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38.2 Call Control Support
Call Control Support is only applicable when Encapsulation is set to PPPoE in menu 4 or
menu 11.1.
The budget management function allows you to set a limit on the total outgoing call time of
the Prestige within certain times. When the total outgoing call time exceeds the limit, the
current call will be dropped and any future outgoing calls will be blocked.
To access the call control menu, select option 9 in menu 24 to go to Menu 24.9 — System
Maintenance — Call Control, as shown in the next table.
Figure 243 Menu 24.9 System Maintenance: Call Control
Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control
1. Budget Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
38.2.1 Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 shows the budget management statistics for outgoing calls. Enter 1 from Menu
24.9 — System Maintenance — Call Control to bring up the following menu.
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Figure 244 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 - System Maintenance - Budget Management
Remote Node
1.MyIsp
2.-------3.-------4.-------5.-------6.-------7.-------8.--------
Connection Time/Total Budget
No Budget
---------------
Elapsed Time/Total Period
No Budget
---------------
Reset Node (0 to update screen):
The total budget is the time limit on the accumulated time for outgoing calls to a remote node.
When this limit is reached, the call will be dropped and further outgoing calls to that remote
node will be blocked. After each period, the total budget is reset. The default for the total
budget is 0 minutes and the period is 0 hours, meaning no budget control. You can reset the
accumulated connection time in this menu by entering the index of a remote node. Enter 0 to
update the screen. The budget and the reset period can be configured in menu 11.1 for the
remote node when PPPoE encapsulation is selected.
Table 131 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Remote Node
Enter the index number of the remote node you want to reset (just one in
this case)
Connection Time/Total
Budget
This is the total connection time that has gone by (within the allocated
budget that you set in menu 11.1.
Elapsed Time/Total Period
The period is the time cycle in hours that the allocation budget is reset
(see menu 11.1.) The elapsed time is the time used up within this period.
Enter “0” to update the screen or press [ESC] to return to the previous screen.
38.3 Time and Date Setting
The Prestige keeps track of the time and date. There is also a software mechanism to set the
time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you turn on your
Prestige. Menu 24.10 allows you to update the time and date settings of your Prestige. The real
time is then displayed in the Prestige error logs and firewall logs.
Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 System Maintenance, as shown next.
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Figure 245 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Then enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 System Maintenance Time and Date Setting to update
the time and date settings of your Prestige as shown in the following screen.
Figure 246 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Use Time Server when Bootup= None
Time Server Address= N/A
Current Time:
00 : 51 : 24
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
00 : 51 : 19
Current Date:
2000 - 01 - 01
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
2000 - 01 - 01
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-dd):
01 - 00
End Date (mm-dd):
01 - 00
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Table 132
379
Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on
the Prestige. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to
check with your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a
protocol that works. The main differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None. The default, enter the time manually.
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your time server. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
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Table 132
Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you re-enter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it starts on.
End Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it ends on
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
38.3.1 Resetting the Time
•
•
•
•
The Prestige resets the time in three instances:
On leaving menu 24.10 after making changes.
When the Prestige starts up, if there is a timeserver configured in menu 24.10.
24-hour intervals after starting.
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CHAPTER 39
Remote Management
This chapter covers remote management (SMT menu 24.11).
39.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
Prestige interface (if any) from which computers.
When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you still need
to configure a firewall rule to allow access. See the firewall chapters for details on configuring
firewall rules.
39.2 Remote Management
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
Enter 11 from menu 24 to display Menu 24.11 — Remote Management Control.
39.2.1 Remote Management Setup
You may manage your Prestige from a remote location via:
the Internet (WAN only), the LAN only, All (LAN and WAN) or Disable (neither).
•
•
•
•
WAN only (Internet)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only
Disable (Neither)
If you enable remote management of a service, but have applied a filter to block the service,
then you will not be able to remotely manage the Prestige using the service.
Enter 11, from menu 24, to display Menu 24.11 — Remote Management Control (shown
next).
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Figure 247 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
Server Port = 23
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
FTP Server:
Server Port = 21
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Web Server:
Server Port = 80
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Server Access = LAN only
Server Access = LAN only
Server Access = LAN only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 133 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Telnet Server
FTP Server
Web Server
Each of these read-only labels denotes a service or protocol.
Port
This field shows the port number for the service or protocol. You may change the
port number if needed, but you must use the same port number to access the
Prestige.
Access
Select the access interface (if any) by pressing the [SPACE BAR]. Choices are:
LAN only, WAN only, All or Disable. The default is LAN only.
Secured Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service or protocol to access the
Prestige. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
39.2.2 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
• A filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or
Web service.
• You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the session immediately.
• There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
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39.3 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
39.4 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The Prestige automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer
than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when it is continuously
updating the status in menu 24.1 or when sys stdio has been changed on the command
line.
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CHAPTER 40
IP Policy Routing
This chapter covers setting and applying policies used for IP routing.
40.1 IP Policy Routing Overview
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the IAD takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. IP Routing Policy (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override the
default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per interface
basis, prior to the normal routing.
40.2 Benefits of IP Policy Routing
Source-Based Routing – Network administrators can use policy-based routing to direct traffic
from different users through different connections.
Quality of Service (QoS) – Organizations can differentiate traffic by setting the precedence or
TOS (Type of Service) values in the IP header at the periphery of the network to enable the
backbone to prioritize traffic.
Cost Savings – IPPR allows organizations to distribute interactive traffic on high-bandwidth,
high-cost paths while using low-cost paths for batch traffic.
Load Sharing – Network administrators can use IPPR to distribute traffic among multiple
paths.
40.3 Routing Policy
Individual routing policies are used as part of the overall IPPR process. A policy defines the
matching criteria and the action to take when a packet meets the criteria. The action is taken
only when all the criteria are met. The criteria includes the source address and port, IP protocol
(ICMP, UDP, TCP, etc.), destination address and port, TOS and precedence (fields in the IP
header) and length. The inclusion of length criterion is to differentiate between interactive and
bulk traffic. Interactive applications, for example, telnet, tend to have short packets, while bulk
traffic, for example, file transfer, tends to have large packets.
The actions that can be taken include:
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• routing the packet to a different gateway (and hence the outgoing interface).
• setting the TOS and precedence fields in the IP header.
IPPR follows the existing packet filtering facility of RAS in style and in implementation. The
policies are divided into sets, where related policies are grouped together. A user defines the
policies before applying them to an interface or a remote node, in the same fashion as the
filters. There are 12 policy sets with six policies in each set.
40.4 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25 shows all the policies defined.
Figure 248 Menu 25 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Policy
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Name
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Name
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Policy Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
To setup a routing policy, perform the following procedures:
1 Type 25 in the main menu to open Menu 25 – IP Routing Policy Setup.
2 Type the index of the policy set you want to configure to open Menu 25.1 – IP Routing
Policy Setup.
Menu 25.1 shows the summary of a policy set, including the criteria and the action of a single
policy, and whether a policy is active or not. Each policy contains two lines. The former part is
the criteria of the incoming packet and the latter is the action. Between these two parts,
separator “|” means the action is taken on criteria matched and separator “=” means the action
is taken on criteria not matched.
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Figure 249 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
# A
Criteria/Action
- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------1 Y SA=1.1.1.1-1.1.1.1,DA=2.2.2.2-2.2.2.5
SP=20-25,DP=20-25,P=6,T=NM,PR=0
|GW=192.168.1.1,T=MT,PR=0
2 N ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
3 N ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
4 N ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
5 N ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
6 N ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Enter Policy Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Table 134 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
Criterion
Source IP Address
SA
SP
Source Port
DA
Destination IP Address
DP
Destination Port
P
IP layer 4 protocol number (TCP=6, UDP=17…)
T
Type of service of incoming packet
PR
Precedence of incoming packet
Action
GW
Gateway IP address
T
Outgoing Type of service
P
Outgoing Precedence
Service
NM
Normal
MD
Minimum Delay
MT
Maximum Throughput
MR
Maximum Reliability
MC
Minimum Cost
Type a number from 1 to 6 to display Menu 25.1.1 – IP Routing Policy (see the next figure).
This menu allows you to configure a policy rule.
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Figure 250 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= test
Active= No
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 0
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= N/A
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= N/A
Action= Matched
Gateway addr
= 0.0.0.0
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 0
Len Comp= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
Log= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 135 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Policy Set Name
This is the policy set name assigned in Menu 25 – IP Routing Policy Setup.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate or No to
deactivate the policy. Inactive policies are displayed with a minus sign “-“ in SMT
menu 25.
Criteria
IP Protocol
IP layer 4 protocol, for example, UDP, TCP, ICMP, etc.
Type of Service
Prioritize incoming network traffic by choosing from Don’t Care, Normal, Min
Delay, Max Thruput, Min Cost or Max Reliable.
Precedence
Precedence value of the incoming packet. Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select a value from 0 to 7 or Don’t Care.
Packet Length
Type the length of incoming packets (in bytes). The operators in the Len Comp
(next field) apply to packets of this length.
Len Comp
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose from Equal, Not Equal,
Less, Greater, Less or Equal or Greater or Equal.
Source:
addr start / end
Source IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Source port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Destination:
389
addr start / end
Destination IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Destination port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Action
Specifies whether action should be taken on criteria Matched or Not Matched.
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Table 135 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Gateway addr
Defines the outgoing gateway address. The gateway must be on the same
subnet as the Prestige if it is on the LAN, otherwise, the gateway must be the IP
address of a remote node. The default gateway is specified as 0.0.0.0.
Type of Service
Set the new TOS value of the outgoing packet. Prioritize incoming network traffic
by choosing No Change, Normal, Min Delay, Max Thruput, Max Reliable or
Min Cost.
Precedence
Set the new outgoing packet precedence value. Values are 0 to 7 or No
Change.
Log
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to make an entry in the
system log when a policy is executed.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
40.5 Applying an IP Policy
This section shows you where to apply the IP policies after you design them.
40.5.1 Ethernet IP Policies
From Menu 3 — Ethernet Setup, type 2 to go to Menu 3.2 — TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet
Setup.
You can choose up to four IP policy sets (from 12) by typing their numbers separated by
commas, for example, 2, 4, 7, 9.
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Figure 251 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Go to menu 11.3 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the IP Routing Policy set(s) as
appropriate. You can cascade up to four policy sets by typing their numbers separated by
commas.
Figure 252 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set= 2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Bridge Options:
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
40.6 IP Policy Routing Example
If a network has both Internet and remote node connections, you can route Web packets to the
Internet using one policy and route FTP packets to a remote network using another policy. See
the next figure.
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Route 1 represents the default IP route and route 2 represents the configured IP route.
Figure 253 Example of IP Policy Routing
To force packets coming from clients with IP addresses of 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.64 to be
routed to the Internet via the WAN port of the Prestige, follow the steps as shown next.
1 Create a routing policy set in menu 25.
2 Create a rule for this set in Menu 25.1.1 — IP Routing Policy as shown next.
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Figure 254 IP Routing Policy Example
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= set1
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 192.168.1.2
port start= 0
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 80
Action= Matched
Gateway addr = 192.168.1.1
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 10
Len Comp= N/A
end=
end=
end=
end=
Log=
192.168.1.64
N/A
N/A
80
No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
1 Check Menu 25.1 — IP Routing Policy Setup to see if the rule is added correctly.
2 Create another policy set in menu 25.
3 Create a rule in menu 25.1 for this set to route packets from any host (IP=0.0.0.0
means any host) with protocol TCP and port FTP access through another gateway
(192.168.1.100).
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Figure 255 IP Routing Policy Example
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= set2
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 0
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 20
Action= Matched
Gateway addr =192.168.1.100
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 10
Len Comp= N/A
end=
end=
end=
end=
Log=
N/A
N/A
N/A
21
No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Check Menu 25.1 — IP Routing Policy Setup to see if the rule is added correctly.
5 Apply both policy sets in menu 3.2 as shown next.
Figure 256 Applying IP Policies Example
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 64
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies= 1,2
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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CHAPTER 41
Call Scheduling
Call scheduling (applicable for PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation only) allows you to dictate
when a remote node should be called and for how long.
41.1 Introduction
The call scheduling feature allows the Prestige to manage a remote node and dictate when a
remote node should be called and for how long. This feature is similar to the scheduler in a
videocassette recorder (you can specify a time period for the VCR to record). You can apply
up to 4 schedule sets in Menu 11.1 — Remote Node Profile. From the main menu, enter 26
to access Menu 26 — Schedule Setup as shown next.
Figure 257 Menu 26 Schedule Setup
Menu 26 - Schedule Setup
Schedule
Set #
Name
------ ----------------1
_______________
2
_______________
3
_______________
4
_______________
5
_______________
6
_______________
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Name
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Schedule Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Lower numbered sets take precedence over higher numbered sets thereby avoiding scheduling
conflicts. For example, if sets 1, 2 ,3 and 4 in are applied in the remote node then set 1 will
take precedence over set 2, 3 and 4 as the Prestige, by default, applies the lowest numbered set
first. Set 2 will take precedence over set 3 and 4, and so on.
You can design up to 12 schedule sets but you can only apply up to four schedule sets for a
remote node.
To delete a schedule set, enter the set number and press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
(or delete) in the Edit Name field.
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To setup a schedule set, select the schedule set you want to setup from menu 26 (1-12) and
press [ENTER] to see Menu 26.1 — Schedule Set Setup as shown next.
Figure 258
Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
Active= Yes
Start Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
How Often= Once
Once:
Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
Weekdays:
Sunday= N/A
Monday= N/A
Tuesday= N/A
Wednesday= N/A
Thursday= N/A
Friday= N/A
Saturday= N/A
Start Time(hh:mm)= 00: 00
Duration(hh:mm)= 00: 00
Action= Forced On
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If a connection has been already established, your Prestige will not drop it. Once the
connection is dropped manually or it times out, then that remote node can't be triggered up
until the end of the Duration.
Table 136 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
397
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to activate
the schedule set.
Start Date
Enter the start date when you wish the set to take effect in year -month-date format.
Valid dates are from the present to 2036-February-5.
How Often
Should this schedule set recur weekly or be used just once only? Press the [SPACE
BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Once or Weekly. Both these options are mutually
exclusive. If Once is selected, then all weekday settings are N/A. When Once is
selected, the schedule rule deletes automatically after the scheduled time elapses.
Once:
Date
If you selected Once in the How Often field above, then enter the date the set should
activate here in year-month-date format.
Weekday:
Day
If you selected Weekly in the How Often field above, then select the day(s) when the
set should activate (and recur) by going to that day(s) and pressing [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes, then press [ENTER].
Start Time
Enter the start time when you wish the schedule set to take effect in hour-minute format.
Duration
Enter the maximum length of time this connection is allowed in hour-minute format.
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Table 136 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Action
Forced On means that the connection is maintained whether or not there is a demand
call on the line and will persist for the time period specified in the Duration field.
Forced Down means that the connection is blocked whether or not there is a demand
call on the line.
Enable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule permits a demand call on the line.
Disable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule prevents a demand call on the line.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once your schedule sets are configured, you must then apply them to the desired remote
node(s). Enter 11 from the Main Menu and then enter the target remote node index. Using
[SPACE BAR], select PPPoE or PPPoA in the Encapsulation field and then press
[ENTER] to make the schedule sets field available as shown next.
Figure 259 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPPoE)
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Active= Yes
Encapsulation= PPPoA
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Service Name= N/A
Incoming:
Rem Login=
Rem Password= ********
Outgoing:
My Login= ChangeMe
My Password= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Route= IP
Bridge= No
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Edit ATM Options= No
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedule Sets=
Nailed-Up Connection= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You can apply up to four schedule sets, separated by commas, for one remote node. Change
the schedule set numbers to your preference(s).
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CHAPTER 42
VPN/IPSec Setup
This chapter introduces the VPN SMT menus.
42.1 VPN/IPSec Overview
The VPN/IPSec main SMT menu has these main submenus:
Define VPN policies in menu 27.1 submenus, including security policies, endpoint IP
addresses, peer IPSec router IP address and key management.
Menu 27.2 - SA Monitor allows you to manage (refresh or disconnect) your SA connections.
From the main menu, enter 27 to display the first VPN menu (shown next).
Figure 260 Menu 27 VPN/IPSec Setup
Menu 27 - VPN/IPSec Setup
1. IPSec Summary
2. SA Monitor
Enter Menu Selection Number:
42.2 IPSec Summary Screen
Type 1 in menu 27 and then press [ENTER] to display Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary. This is a
summary read-only menu of your IPSec rules (tunnels). Edit or create an IPSec rule by
selecting an index number and then configuring the associated submenus.
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Figure 261 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary
Menu 27.1 – IPSec Summary
#
Name
A
Key Mgt
Local Addr Start
- Addr End / Mask
Remote Addr Start
- Addr End / Mask
Encap
IPSec Algorithm
Secure GW Addr
-
------
-
-----------------
---------------
------
------------------
001
Taiwan
Y
192.168.1.35
192.168.1.38
Tunnel
ESP AES MD5
172.16.2.40
172.16.2.46
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1
4.4.4.4
255.255.0.0
192.168.1.40
192.168.1.42
N/A
N/A
IKE
002
zw50
N
IKE
003
China
N
IKE
193.81.13.2
Tunnel
AH SHA1
zw50test.zyxel.
Tunnel
ESP DES MD5
0.0.0.0
004
005
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Table 137 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary
401
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the VPN policy index number.
Name
This field displays the unique identification name for this VPN rule. The name may be up
to 32 characters long but only 10 characters will be displayed here.
A
Y signifies that this VPN rule is active.
Local Addr
Start
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is a
static IP address on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a static IP address on the LAN behind your Prestige.
Addr End /
Mask
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is
the same (static) IP address as in the Local Addr Start field.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the end (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a subnet mask on the LAN behind your Prestige.
Encap
This field displays Tunnel mode or Transport mode. See earlier for a discussion of
these. You need to finish configuring the VPN policy in menu 27.1.1.1 or 27.1.1.2 if ???
is displayed.
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Table 137 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IPSec
Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA. ESP provides confidentiality
and integrity of data by encrypting the data and encapsulating it into IP packets.
Encryption methods include 56-bit DES and 168-bit 3DES. NULL denotes a tunnel
without encryption.168-bit 3DES and 128-bit AES. NULL denotes a tunnel without
encryption.
AH (Authentication Header) provides strong integrity and authentication by adding
authentication information to IP packets. This authentication information is calculated
using header and payload data in the IP packet. This provides an additional level of
security. AH choices are MD5 (default - 128 bits) and SHA -1(160 bits).
Both AH and ESP increase the Prestige’s processing requirements and
communications latency (delay).
You need to finish configuring the VPN policy in menu 27.1.1.1 or 27.1.1.2 if ??? is
displayed.
Key Mgt
This field displays the SA’s type of key management, (IKE or Manual).
Remote Addr When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is a
Start
static IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the
remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a static IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT
27.1.1 to 0.0.0.0.
Addr End /
Mask
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is
the same (static) IP address as in the Remote Addr Start field.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the end (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT
27.1.1 to 0.0.0.0.
Secure GW
Addr
This is the WAN IP address or the domain name (up to the first 15 characters are
displayed) of the IPSec router with which you are making the VPN connection. This field
displays 0.0.0.0 when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT 27.1.1
to 0.0.0.0.
Select
Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from None, Edit, Delete, Go To Rule, Next Page or
Previous Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a rule in the next field when
you choose the Edit, Delete or Go To commands.
Select None and then press [ENTER] to go to the “Press ENTER to Confirm…” prompt.
Use Edit to create or edit a rule. Use Delete to remove a rule. To edit or delete a rule,
first make sure you are on the correct page. When a VPN rule is deleted, subsequent
rules do not move up in the page list.
Use Go To Rule to view the page where your desired rule is listed.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of rules
(respectively).
Select Rule
Type the VPN rule index number you wish to edit or delete and then press [ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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42.3 IPSec Setup
Select Edit in the Select Command field; type the index number of a rule in the Select Rule
field and press [ENTER] to edit the VPN using the menu shown next.
Note: You must also configure menu 27.1.1.1 or menu 27.1.1.2 to fully configure and
use a VPN.
Figure 262 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup
Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup
Index= 1
Name= Taiwan
Active= Yes
Keep Alive= No
Local ID type= IP
Nat Traversal= No
Content:
My IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Peer ID type= IP
Content:
Secure Gateway Address= zw50test.zyxel.com.tw
Protocol= 0
Local:
DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Addr Type= SINGLE
IP Addr Start= 1.1.1.1
Port Start= 0
Remote:
End/Subnet Mask= N/A
End= N/A
Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 4.4.4.4
Port Start= 0
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.0.0
End= N/A
Enable Replay Detection = No
Key Management= IKE
Edit Key Management Setup= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 138
403
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the VPN rule index number you selected in the previous menu.
Name
Enter a unique identification name for this VPN rule. The name may be up to 32
characters long but only 10 characters will be displayed in Menu 27.1 - IPSec
Summary.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
activate the VPN tunnel. This field determines whether a VPN rule is applied before a
packet leaves the firewall.
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Table 138
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Keep Alive
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
have the Prestige automatically re-initiate the SA after the SA lifetime times out, even
if there is no traffic. The remote IPSec router must also have keep alive enabled in
order for this feature to work.
Local ID type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose IP, DNS, or E-mail and press [ENTER].
Select IP to identify this Prestige by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this Prestige by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this Prestige by an e-mail address.
Content
When you select IP in the Local ID Type field, type the IP address of your computer
or leave the field blank to have the Prestige automatically use its own IP address.
When you select DNS in the Local ID Type field, type a domain name (up to 31
characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
When you select E-mail in the Local ID Type field, type an e-mail address (up to 31
characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address.
My IP Addr
Enter the IP address of your Prestige. The Prestige uses its current WAN IP address
(static or dynamic) in setting up the VPN tunnel if you leave this field as 0.0.0.0.
The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if this IP address changes.
Peer ID type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose IP, DNS, or E-mail and press [ENTER].
Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by an e-mail address.
Content
When you select IP in the Peer ID Type field, type the IP address of the computer
with which you will make the VPN connection or leave the field blank to have the
Prestige automatically use the address in the Secure Gateway Address field.
When you select DNS in the Peer ID Type field, type a domain name (up to 31
characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec router.
When you select E-mail in the Peer ID Type field, type an e-mail address (up to 31
characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec router.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address. The domain name also does not have to match the remote router’s IP
address or what you configure in the Secure Gateway Address field below.
Secure
Gateway
Address
Type the IP address or the domain name (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
with which you’re making the VPN connection.
Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN IP address (the
Key Management field must be set to IKE, see later).
Protocol
Enter 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, etc. 0 is the default and signifies any
protocol.
DNS Server
If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here. The
Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige's DHCP clients that have
IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on the
VPN by their (private) domain names.
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Table 138
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router’s
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same. Two
active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You can
configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as long as
only one is active at any time.
Addr Type Press [SPACE BAR] to choose SINGLE, RANGE, or SUBNET and press [ENTER].
Select SINGLE with a single IP address. Select RANGE for a specific range of IP
addresses. Select SUBNET to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet
mask.
IP Addr Start When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, enter a static IP address on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on your LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type is configured to SUBNET, this is a (static) IP address on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
End/Subnet When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
Mask When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static) IP address,
in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
Port Start 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. You
cannot create a VPN tunnel if you try to connect using a port number that does not
match this port number or range of port numbers.
Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. This field is N/A when 0 is configured
in the Port Start field.
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router’s
configured local IP addresses. The remote fields are N/A when the Secure Gateway
Address field is configured to 0.0.0.0.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same. Two
active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You can
configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as long as
only one is active at any time.
Addr Type Press [SPACE BAR] to choose SINGLE, RANGE, or SUBNET and press [ENTER].
Select SINGLE with a single IP address. Use RANGE for a specific range of IP
addresses. Use SUBNET to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Addr Start When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, enter a static IP address on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, enter a static IP address on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field to
0.0.0.0.
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Table 138
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
End/Subnet When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
Mask When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static) IP address,
in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, enter a subnet mask on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field to
0.0.0.0.
Port Start 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Someone
behind the remote IPSec router cannot create a VPN tunnel when attempting to
connect using a port number that does not match this port number or range of port
numbers.
Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. This field is N/A when 0 is configured
in the Port Start field.
Enable Replay
Detection
As a VPN setup is processing intensive, the system is vulnerable to Denial of Service
(DoS) attacks The IPSec receiver can detect and reject old or duplicate packets to
protect against replay attacks. Enable replay detection by setting this field to Yes.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to enable
replay detection.
Key
Management
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either IKE or Manual and then press [ENTER].
Manual is useful for troubleshooting if you have problems using IKE key
management.
Edit Key
Management
Setup
Press [SPACE BAR] to change the default No to Yes and then press [ENTER] to go
to a key management menu for configuring your key management setup (described
later). If you set the Key Management field to IKE, this will take you to Menu 27.1.1.1
– IKE Setup. If you set the Key Management field to Manual, this will take you to
Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
42.4 IKE Setup
To edit this menu, the Key Management field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup must be set to
IKE. Move the cursor to the Edit Key Management Setup field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec
Setup; press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to display Menu 27.1.1.1
– IKE Setup.
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Figure 263 Menu 27.1.1.1KE Setup
Menu 27.1.1.1 - IKE Setup
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode= Main
PSK=
Encryption Algorithm = AES
Authentication Algorithm = SHA1
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Key Group= DH1
Phase 2
Active Protocol = ESP
Encryption Algorithm = AES
Authentication Algorithm = MD5
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Encapsulation = Tunnel
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)= None
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 139 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Phase 1
407
Negotiation
Mode
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Main or Aggressive and then press [ENTER].
See earlier for a discussion of these modes. Multiple SAs connecting through a
secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
PSK
Prestige gateways authenticate an IKE VPN session by matching pre-shared keys.
Pre-shared keys are best for small networks with fewer than ten nodes. Enter your
pre-shared key here. Enter up to 31 characters. Any character may be used, including
spaces, but trailing spaces are truncated.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive a
“PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key is not
used on both ends.
Encryption
Algorithm
The Prestige and the remote IPSec router generate an encryption key from the DiffieHellman key exchange. Prestige DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES), is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is
more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting in slightly
increased latency and decreased throughput.
This implementation of AES uses a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from DES, 3DES or AES and then press [ENTER].
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms
used to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered
stronger than MD5, but is slightly slower.
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from SHA1 or MD5 and then press [ENTER].
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE Security Association automatically
renegotiates in this field. It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to update
the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN tunnel
renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily disconnected.
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Table 139 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Key Group
You must choose a key group for phase 1 IKE setup. DH1 (default) refers to DiffieHellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a
1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
Phase 2
Active Protocol
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from ESP or AH and then press [ENTER]. See earlier
for a discussion of these protocols.
Encryption
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from NULL, DES, 3DES or AES and then press
[ENTER]. Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption.
Authentication
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from SHA1 or MD5 and then press [ENTER].
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IPSec Security Association automatically
renegotiates in this field. It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Tunnel mode or Transport mode and then
press [ENTER]. See earlier for a discussion of these.
Perfect Forward Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is disabled (None) by default in phase 2 IPSec SA
Secrecy (PFS) setup. This allows faster IPSec setup, but is not so secure. Press [SPACE BAR] and
choose from DH1 or DH2 to enable PFS. DH1 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768
bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb) random
number (more secure, yet slower).
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
42.5 Manual Setup
You only configure Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup when you select Manual in the Key
Management field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup. Manual key management is useful if you
have problems with IKE key management.
42.5.1 Active Protocol
This field is a combination of mode and security protocols used for the VPN. See the Web
Configurator part on VPN for more information on these parameters.
Table 140 Active Protocol: Encapsulation and Security Protocol
MODE
SECURITY PROTOCOL
Tunnel
ESP
Transport
AH
42.5.2 Security Parameter Index (SPI)
To edit this menu, move the cursor to the Edit Manual Setup field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec
Setup press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to go to Menu 27.1.1.2 –
Manual Setup.
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Figure 264 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup
Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup
Active Protocol= ESP Tunnel
ESP Setup
SPI (Decimal)= 0
Encryption Algorithm= DES
Key1= ?
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Authentication Algorithm= MD5
Key= ?
AH Setup
SPI (Decimal)= N/A
Authentication Algorithm= N/A
Key= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 141 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Protocol
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from ESP Tunnel, ESP Transport, AH Tunnel or AH
Transport and then press [ENTER]. Choosing an ESP combination causes the AH
Setup fields to be non-applicable (N/A)
ESP Setup
The ESP Setup fields are N/A if you chose an AH Active Protocol.
SPI (Decimal)
The SPI must be unique and from one to four integers ("0" to "9").
Encryption
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from NULL, DES, 3DES or AES and then press
[ENTER]. Fill in the Key1 field below when you choose DES and fill in fields Key1 to
Key3 when you choose 3DES. Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption.
When you select NULL, you do not enter any encryption keys.
Key1 Enter a unique eight-character key. Any character may be used, including spaces, but
trailing spaces are truncated.
Fill in the Key1 field when you choose DES and fill in fields Key1 to Key3 when you
choose 3DES.
Key2 Enter a unique eight-character key. It can be comprised of any character including
spaces (but trailing spaces are truncated).
Key3 Enter a unique eight-character key. It can be comprised of any character including
spaces (but trailing spaces are truncated).
Authentication Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from MD5 or SHA1 and then press [ENTER].
Algorithm
Key Enter the authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. The key must be
unique. Enter 16 characters for MD5 authentication and 20 characters for SHA-1
authentication. Any character may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are
truncated.
409
AH Setup
The AH Setup fields are N/A if you chose an ESP Active Protocol.
SPI (Decimal)
The SPI must be from one to four unique decimal characters ("0" to "9") long.
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Table 141 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from MD5 or SHA1 and then press [ENTER].
Algorithm
Key Enter the authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. The key must be
unique. Enter 16 characters for MD5 authentication and 20 characters for SHA-1
authentication. Any character may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are
truncated.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 43
SA Monitor
This chapter teaches you how to manage your SAs by using the SA Monitor in SMT menu
27.2.
43.1 SA Monitor Overview
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
This menu (shown next) displays active VPN connections.
Note: When there is outbound traffic but no inbound traffic, the SA times out
automatically after two minutes. A tunnel with no outbound or inbound traffic is "idle"
and does not timeout until the SA lifetime period expires. See the Web configurator
part on keep alive to have the Prestige renegotiate an IPSec SA when the SA lifetime
expires, even if there is no traffic.
43.2 Using SA Monitor
Use the Refresh function to display active VPN connections.
Use the Disconnect function to cut off active connections.
Type 2 in Menu 27 - VPN/IPSec Setup, and then press [ENTER] to go to Menu 27.2 - SA
Monitor.
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Figure 265 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor
Menu 27.2 - SA Monitor
#
Name
Encap.
IPSec ALgorithm
---
--------------------------------
---------
----------------
001
Taiwan : 3.3.3.1 – 3.3.3.3.100
Tunnel
ESP DES MD5
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
Select Command= Refresh
Select Connection= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 142 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor
413
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy. This name is unique for
each connection where the secure gateway IP address is a public static IP address.
When the secure gateway IP address is 0.0.0.0 (as discussed in the last chapter), there
may be different connections using this same VPN rule. In this case, the name is
followed by the remote IP address as configured in Menu 27.1.1. – IPSec Setup.
Individual connections using the same VPN rule may be terminated without affecting
other connections using the same rule.
Encap.
This field displays Tunnel mode or Transport mode. See previous for discussion.
IPSec
Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA. ESP provides confidentiality
and integrity of data by encrypting the data and encapsulating it into IP packets.
Encryption methods include 56-bit DES and 168-bit 3DES. NULL denotes a tunnel
without encryption.
An incoming SA may have an AH in addition to ESP. The Authentication Header
provides strong integrity and authentication by adding authentication information to IP
packets. This authentication information is calculated using header and payload data in
the IP packet. This provides an additional level of security. AH choices are MD5 (default
- 128 bits) and SHA -1(160 bits).
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
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Table 142 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Select
Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Refresh, Disconnect, None, Next Page, or
Previous Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a connection in the next field
when you choose the Disconnect command. Refresh displays current active VPN
connections. None allows you to jump to the “Press ENTER to Confirm…” prompt.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of rules
(respectively).
Select
Connection
Type the VPN connection index number that you want to disconnect and then press
[ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 44
Troubleshooting
This chapter covers potential problems and the corresponding remedies.
44.1 Problems Starting Up the Prestige
Table 143 Troubleshooting Starting Up Your Prestige
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
None of the
LEDs turn on
when I turn on
the Prestige.
Make sure that the Prestige’s power adaptor is connected to the Prestige and plugged
in to an appropriate power source. Make sure that the Prestige and the power source
are both turned on.
Turn the Prestige off and on.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you should
contact your vendor.
44.2 Problems with the LAN
Table 144 Troubleshooting the LAN
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The LAN LEDs
do not turn on.
Check your Ethernet cable connections (refer to the Quick Start Guide for details).
Check for faulty Ethernet cables.
Make sure your computer’s Ethernet Card is working properly.
I cannot access
If Any IP is disabled, make sure that the IP address and the subnet mask of the
the Prestige from Prestige and your computer(s) are on the same subnet.
the LAN.
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44.3 Problems with the WAN
Table 145 Troubleshooting the WAN
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The DSL LED is
off.
Check the telephone wire and connections between the Prestige DSL port and the
wall jack.
Make sure that the telephone company has checked your phone line and set it up
for DSL service.
Reset your ADSL line to reinitialize your link to the DSLAM. For details, refer to the
Table 87 on page 262 (web configurator) or Table 127 on page 362 (SMT).
I cannot get a
WAN IP address
from the ISP.
417
The ISP provides the WAN IP address after authenticating you. Authentication
may be through the user name and password, the MAC address or the host name.
The username and password apply to PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation only.
Make sure that you have entered the correct Service Type, User Name and
Password (be sure to use the correct casing). Refer to the WAN Setup chapter
(web configurator or SMT).
I cannot access
the Internet.
Make sure the Prestige is turned on and connected to the network.
Verify your WAN settings. Refer to the chapter on WAN setup (web configurator)
or the section on Internet Access (SMT).
Make sure you entered the correct user name and password.
If you use PPPoE pass through, make sure that bridge mode is turned on.
The Internet
connection
disconnects.
Check the schedule rules. Refer to Chapter 41 on page 396 (SMT).
If you use PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation, check the idle time-out setting. Refer
to the Chapter 7 on page 102 (web configurator) or Chapter 28 on page 294
(SMT).
Contact your ISP.
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44.4 Problems Accessing the Prestige
Table 146 Troubleshooting Accessing the Prestige
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot
access the
Prestige.
The username is “admin”. The default password is “1234”. The Password and
Username fields are case-sensitive. Make sure that you enter the correct password
and username using the proper casing.
If you have changed the password and have now forgotten it, you will need to upload
the default configuration file. This restores all of the factory defaults including the
password.
I cannot
access the
web
configurator.
Make sure that there is not an SMT console session running.
Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN. Refer to the
instructions on checking your WAN connection.
Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN. Refer to for
instructions on checking your LAN connection.
Check that you have enabled web service access. If you have configured a secured
client IP address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on
remote management for details.
Your computer’s and the Prestige’s IP addresses must be on the same subnet for LAN
access.
If you changed the Prestige’s LAN IP address, then enter the new one as the URL.
Remove any filters in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or menu 11.5 (WAN) that block web
service.
See the following section to check that pop-up windows, JavaScripts and Java
permissions are allowed.
44.4.1 Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Note: Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
44.4.1.1 Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or
allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
44.4.1.1.1 Disable pop-up Blockers
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
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Figure 266 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the
Privacy tab.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2 Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This
disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 267
Internet Options
3 Click Apply to save this setting.
44.4.1.1.2 Enable pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following
steps.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
2 Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
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Figure 268 Internet Options
3 Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked)
with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.1.1.
4 Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
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Figure 269 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5 Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6 Click Apply to save this setting.
44.4.1.2 JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that
JavaScripts are allowed.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
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Figure 270 Internet Options
2 Click the Custom Level... button.
3 Scroll down to Scripting.
4 Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
5 Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
6 Click OK to close the window.
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Figure 271 Security Settings - Java Scripting
44.4.1.3 Java Permissions
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
2 Click the Custom Level... button.
3 Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
4 Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
5 Click OK to close the window.
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Figure 272 Security Settings - Java
44.4.1.3.1 JAVA (Sun)
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2 make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3 Click OK to close the window.
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Figure 273 Java (Sun)
44.4.2 ActiveX Controls in Internet Explorer
If ActiveX is disabled, you will not be able to download ActiveX controls or to use Trend
Micro Security Services. Make sure that ActiveX controls are allowed in Internet Explorer.
Screen shots for Internet Explorer 6 are shown. Steps may vary depending on your version of
Internet Explorer.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
2 In the Internet Options window, click Custom Level.
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Figure 274 Internet Options Security
3 Scroll down to ActiveX controls and plug-ins.
4 Under Download signed ActiveX controls select the Prompt radio button.
5 Under Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins make sure the Enable radio button is
selected.
6 Then click the OK button.
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Figure 275 Security Setting ActiveX Controls
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Appendix A
Product Specifications
See also the Introduction chapter for a general overview of the key features.
Specification Tables
Table 147 Device
Default IP Address
192.168.1.1
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Default Password
1234
DHCP Pool
192.168.1.32 to 192.168.1.64
Dimensions
(180 W) x (128 D) x (36 H) mm
Weight
P-661HW: 350g; P-661H: 325g
Power Specification
12VDC 1A
Built-in Switch
Four auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X 10/100 Mbps RJ-45 Ethernet ports
Operation Temperature
0º C ~ 40º C
Storage Temperature
-20º ~ 60º C
Operation Humidity
20% ~ 85% RH
Storage Humidity
10% ~ 90% RH
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Table 148 Firmware
429
ADSL Standards
Multi-Mode standard (ANSI T1.413,Issue 2; G.dmt(G.992.1); G.lite(G992.2)).
ADSL2 G.dmt.bis (G.992.3)
ADSL2 G.lite.bis (G.992.4)
ADSL2+ (G.992.5)
Reach-Extended ADSL (RE ADSL)
SRA (Seamless Rate Adaptation)
Auto-negotiating rate adaptation
ADSL physical connection ATM AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer type 5)
Multi-protocol over AAL5 (RFC2684/1483)
PPP over ATM AAL5 (RFC 2364)
PPP over Ethernet (RFC 2516)
RFC 1483 encapsulation over ATM
MAC encapsulated routing (ENET encapsulation)
VC-based and LLC-based multiplexing
Up to 8 PVCs (Permanent Virtual Circuits)
I.610 F4/F5 OAM
Other Protocol Support
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) link layer protocol.
Transparent bridging for unsupported network layer protocols.
DHCP Server/Client/Relay
RIP I/RIP II
ICMP
ATM QoS
SNMP v1 and v2c with MIB II support (RFC 1213)
IP Multicasting IGMP v1 and v2
IGMP Proxy
UPnP
Management
Embedded Web Configurator
Menu-driven SMT (System Management Terminal) management
CLI (Command Line Interpreter)
Remote Management via Telnet or Web
SNMP manageable
FTP/TFTP for firmware downloading, configuration backup and restoration.
Syslog
Built-in Diagnostic Tools for FLASH memory, ADSL circuitry, RAM and LAN
port
“Multimedia Auto Provisioner” (multimedia installation tutorial and automatic
configurator)
Appendix A
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Table 148 Firmware (continued)
Wireless (P-661HW
only)
IEEE 802.11g Compliance
Wireless g+ technology
Frequency Range: 2.4 GHz
Advanced Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Data Rates: 54Mbps and Auto Fallback
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Data Encryption 64/128/256 bit.
WLAN bridge to LAN
Up to 32 MAC Address filters
WPA, WPA-PSK
OTIST (One Touch Intelligent Security Technology)
IEEE 802.1x
Store up to 32 built-in user profiles using EAP-MD5 (Local User Database)
External Radius server using EAP-MD5, TLS, TTLS
Firewall
Stateful Packet Inspection.
Prevent Denial of Service attacks such as Ping of Death, SYN Flood, LAND,
Smurf etc.
Real time E-mail alerts.
Reports and logs.
NAT/SUA
Port Forwarding
1024 NAT sessions
Multimedia application.
PPTP under NAT/SUA.
IPSec passthrough
SIP ALG passthrough.
VPN
2 IPSec tunnels.
Trend Micro Security
Service
Anti-virus scan engine, virus pattern version check.
Web page blocking by category.
Content Filtering
Web page blocking by URL keyword.
Static Routes
16 IP and 4 Bridge
Other Features
Any IP
Zero Configuration (VC auto-hunting)
Traffic Redirect
Dynamic DNS
IP Alias
IP Policy Routing
MBM (Multimedia Bandwidth Management) QoS (Quality of Service)
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Appendix A
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Appendix B
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all
versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/
IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application
package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS
7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order
to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that
your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the Prestige’s LAN
port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window.
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Figure 276 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Adapter and then click Add.
3 Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Protocol and then click Add.
3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1 Click Add.
2 Select Client and then click Add.
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3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5 Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1 In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry
and click Properties
2 Click the IP Address tab.
•
•
If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address
automatically.
If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type
your information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 277 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3 Click the DNS Configuration tab.
•
•
If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the
information in the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
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Figure 278 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4 Click the Gateway tab.
•
•
If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously
installed gateways.
If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field
and click Add.
5 Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6 Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start and then Run.
2 In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3 Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
1 Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
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Figure 279 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dial-up
Connections in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 280 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
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Figure 281 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4 Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then click
Properties.
Figure 282 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in Windows
XP).
•
437
If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
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•
•
If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address
and fill in the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
Click Advanced.
Figure 283 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6 If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways
in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet
mask in Subnet mask, and then click Add.
Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by
clicking Add in Default gateways.
In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default
gateway in Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the
number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic metric check box
and type a metric in Metric.
Click Add.
Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to
add.
Click OK when finished.
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Figure 284 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7 In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows XP):
•
•
Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know
your DNS server IP address(es).
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following
DNS server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server
and Alternate DNS server fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and
then the DNS tab to order them.
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Figure 285 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9 Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection Properties
window.
10 Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections in
Windows 2000/NT).
11Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then
click the Support tab.
Macintosh OS 8/9
1 Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
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Figure 286 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2 Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 287 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
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4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
5 Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6 Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1 Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences
window.
Figure 288 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2 Click Network in the icon bar.
•
•
•
Select Automatic from the Location list.
Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
Click the TCP/IP tab.
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
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Figure 289 Macintosh OS X: Network
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
5 Click Apply Now and close the window.
6 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
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Appendix C
IP Subnetting
IP Addressing
Routers “route” based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the
correct destination host uses the host ID.
IP Classes
An IP address is made up of four octets (eight bits), written in dotted decimal notation, for
example, 192.168.1.1. IP addresses are categorized into different classes. The class of an
address depends on the value of its first octet.
• Class “A” addresses have a 0 in the left most bit. In a class “A” address the first octet is
the network number and the remaining three octets make up the host ID.
• Class “B” addresses have a 1 in the left most bit and a 0 in the next left most bit. In a class
“B” address the first two octets make up the network number and the two remaining
octets make up the host ID.
• Class “C” addresses begin (starting from the left) with 1 1 0. In a class “C” address the
first three octets make up the network number and the last octet is the host ID.
• Class “D” addresses begin with 1 1 1 0. Class “D” addresses are used for multicasting.
(There is also a class “E” address. It is reserved for future use.)
Table 149 Classes of IP Addresses
IP ADDRESS:
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class A
0
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Host ID
Class B
10
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Class C
110
Network number
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Note: Host IDs of all zeros or all ones are not allowed.
Therefore:
A class “C” network (8 host bits) can have 28 –2 or 254 hosts.
A class “B” address (16 host bits) can have 216 –2 or 65534 hosts.
A class “A” address (24 host bits) can have 224 –2 hosts (approximately 16 million hosts).
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Since the first octet of a class “A” IP address must contain a “0”, the first octet of a class “A”
address can have a value of 0 to 127.
Similarly the first octet of a class “B” must begin with “10”, therefore the first octet of a class
“B” address has a valid range of 128 to 191. The first octet of a class “C” address begins with
“110”, and therefore has a range of 192 to 223.
Table 150 Allowed IP Address Range By Class
CLASS
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(BINARY)
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
Class A
00000000 to 01111111
0 to 127
Class B
10000000 to 10111111
128 to 191
Class C
11000000 to 11011111
192 to 223
Class D
11100000 to 11101111
224 to 239
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). A subnet mask has 32 is a “1” then
the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet
mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just as IP addresses are. The “natural”
masks for class A, B and C IP addresses are as follows.
Table 151
“Natural” Masks
CLASS
NATURAL MASK
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Subnetting
With subnetting, the class arrangement of an IP address is ignored. For example, a class C
address no longer has to have 24 bits of network number and 8 bits of host ID. With
subnetting, some of the host ID bits are converted into network number bits. By convention,
subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from the left most bit
of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
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Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128.
The following table shows all possible subnet masks for a class “C” address using both
notations.
Table 152 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
SUBNET MASK “1” BITS
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
The first mask shown is the class “C” natural mask. Normally if no mask is specified it is
understood that the natural mask is being used.
Example: Two Subnets
As an example, you have a class “C” address 192.168.1.0 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Table 153 Two Subnets Example
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
HOST ID
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
0
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000
The first three octets of the address make up the network number (class “C”). You want to
have two separate networks.
Divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnets by converting one of the host ID bits
of the IP address to a network number bit. The “borrowed” host ID bit can be either “0” or “1”
thus giving two subnets; 192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 and 192.168.1.128 with
mask 255.255.255.128.
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Note: In the following charts, shaded/bolded last octet bit values indicate host ID bits
“borrowed” to form network ID bits. The number of “borrowed” host ID bits determines
the number of subnets you can have. The remaining number of host ID bits (after
“borrowing”) determines the number of hosts you can have on each subnet.
Table 154 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 155 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
The remaining 7 bits determine the number of hosts each subnet can have. Host IDs of all
zeros represent the subnet itself and host IDs of all ones are the broadcast address for that
subnet, so the actual number of hosts available on each subnet in the example above is 27 – 2
or 126 hosts for each subnet.
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is the subnet itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is the directed broadcast address for the first subnet. Therefore, the lowest IP
address that can be assigned to an actual host for the first subnet is 192.168.1.1 and the highest
is 192.168.1.126. Similarly the host ID range for the second subnet is 192.168.1.129 to
192.168.1.254.
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Example: Four Subnets
The above example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a class “C” address space
into two subnets. Similarly to divide a class “C” address into four subnets, you need to
“borrow” two host ID bits to give four possible combinations of 00, 01, 10 and 11. The subnet
mask is 26 bits (11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192. Each subnet
contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26-2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (all 0’s is the subnet itself, all
1’s is the broadcast address on the subnet).
Table 156 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 157 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 158 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Appendix C IP Subnetting
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Table 159 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example Eight Subnets
Similarly use a 27-bit mask to create 8 subnets (001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110).
The following table shows class C IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 160 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET ADDRESS FIRST ADDRESS
LAST ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
The following table is a summary for class “C” subnet planning.
Table 161 Class C Subnet Planning
449
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
Appendix C IP Subnetting
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks.
For class “A” and class “B” addresses the subnet mask also determines which bits are part of
the network number and which are part of the host ID.
A class “B” address has two host ID octets available for subnetting and a class “A” address has
three host ID octets (see Table 149 on page 444) available for subnetting.
The following table is a summary for class “B” subnet planning.
Table 162 Class B Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Appendix C IP Subnetting
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Appendix C IP Subnetting
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix D
Boot Commands
The BootModule AT commands execute from within the router’s bootup software, when
debug mode is selected before the main router firmware is started. When you start up your
Prestige, you are given a choice to go into debug mode by pressing a key at the prompt shown
in the following screen. In debug mode you have access to a series of boot module commands,
for example ATUR (for uploading firmware) and ATLC (for uploading the configuration file).
These are already discussed in the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter.
Figure 290 Option to Enter Debug Mode
Bootbase Version: V1.02 | 08/08/2001 15:40:50
RAM: Size = 16384 Kbytes
DRAM Post: Testing: 16384K OK
FLASH: Intel 16M
RAS Version: V3.50(WB.0)b3 | 08/08/2001 16:21:27
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3
seconds.
.................................................
Enter ATHE to view all available Prestige boot module commands as shown in the next
screen. ATBAx allows you to change the console port speed. The x denotes the number
preceding the colon to give the console port speed following the colon in the list of numbers
that follows; for example ATBA3 will give a console port speed of 9.6 Kbps. ATSE displays
the seed that is used to generate a password to turn on the debug flag in the firmware. The
ATSH command shows product related information such as boot module version, vendor
name, product model, RAS code revision, etc. ATGO allows you to continue booting the
system. Most other commands aid in advanced troubleshooting and should only be used by
qualified engineers.
Appendix D Boot Commands
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Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 291 Boot Module Commands
AT
just answer OK
ATHE
print help
ATBAx
change baudrate. 1:38.4k, 2:19.2k, 3:9.6k 4:57.6k
5:115.2k
ATENx,(y)
set BootExtension Debug Flag (y=password)
ATSE
show the seed of password generator
ATTI(h,m,s)
change system time to hour:min:sec or show
current time
ATDA(y,m,d)
change system date to year/month/day or show
current date
ATDS
dump RAS stack
ATDT
dump Boot Module Common Area
ATDUx,y
dump memory contents from address x for length y
ATRBx
display the 8-bit value of address x
ATRWx
display the 16-bit value of address x
ATRLx
display the 32-bit value of address x
ATGO(x)
run program at addr x or boot router
ATGR
boot router
ATGT
run Hardware Test Program
ATRTw,x,y(,z) RAM test level w, from address x to y (z
iterations)
ATSH
dump manufacturer related data in ROM
ATDOx,y
download from address x for length y to PC via
XMODEM
ATTD
download router configuration to PC via XMODEM
ATUR
upload router firmware to flash ROM
ATLC
upload router configuration file to flash ROM
ATXSx
xmodem select: x=0: CRC mode(default); x=1:
checksum mode
ATSR
system reboot
453
Appendix D Boot Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix E
Command Interpreter
The following describes how to use the command interpreter. Enter 24 in the main menu to
bring up the system maintenance menu. Enter 8 to go to Menu 24.8 - Command Interpreter
Mode. See the included disk or zyxel.com for more detailed information on these commands.
Note: Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit and
possibly render it unusable.
Command Syntax
•
•
•
•
•
The command keywords are in courier new font.
Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means or.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
Command Usage
A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or? at the command prompt. Always
type the full command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Appendix E Command Interpreter
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Appendix E Command Interpreter
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix F
Firewall Commands
The following describes the firewall commands.
Table 163 Firewall Commands
FUNCTION
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
config edit firewall active
<yes | no>
This command turns the firewall on or off.
config retrieve firewall
This command returns the previously saved
firewall settings.
config save firewall
This command saves the current firewall
settings.
config display firewall
This command shows the of all the firewall
settings including e-mail, attack, and the sets/
rules.
config display firewall set
<set #>
This command shows the current
configuration of a set; including timeout
values, name, default-permit, and etc.If you
don’t put use a number (#) after “set”,
information about all of the sets/rules appears.
config display firewall set
<set #> rule <rule #>
This command shows the current entries of a
rule in a firewall rule set.
config display firewall attack
This command shows all of the attack
response settings.
config display firewall e-mail
This command shows all of the e-mail
settings.
config display firewall?
This command shows all of the available
firewall sub commands.
config edit firewall e-mail
mail-server <ip address of
mail server>
This command sets the IP address to which
the e-mail messages are sent.
Firewall SetUp
Display
Edit
E-mail
Appendix F Firewall Commands
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Table 163 Firewall Commands (continued)
FUNCTION
Attack
457
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
config edit firewall e-mail
return-addr <e-mail address>
This command sets the source e-mail address
of the firewall e-mails.
config edit firewall e-mail
email-to <e-mail address>
This command sets the e-mail address to
which the firewall e-mails are sent.
config edit firewall e-mail
policy <full | hourly | daily |
weekly>
This command sets how frequently the firewall
log is sent via e-mail.
config edit firewall e-mail
day <sunday | monday | tuesday
| wednesday | thursday | friday
| saturday>
This command sets the day on which the
current firewall log is sent through e-mail if the
Prestige is set to send it on a weekly basis.
config edit firewall e-mail
hour <0-23>
This command sets the hour when the firewall
log is sent through e- mail if the Prestige is set
to send it on an hourly, daily or weekly basis.
config edit firewall e-mail
minute <0-59>
This command sets the minute of the hour for
the firewall log to be sent via e- mail if the
Prestige is set to send it on a hourly, daily or
weekly basis.
config edit firewall attack
send-alert <yes | no>
This command enables or disables the
immediate sending of DOS attack notification
e-mail messages.
config edit firewall attack
block <yes | no>
Set this command to yes to block new traffic
after the tcp-max-incomplete threshold is
exceeded. Set it to no to delete the oldest halfopen session when traffic exceeds the tcpmax-incomplete threshold.
config edit firewall attack
block-minute <0-255>
This command sets the number of minutes for
new sessions to be blocked when the tcpmax-incomplete threshold is reached. This
command is only valid when block is set to
yes.
config edit firewall attack
minute-high <0-255>
This command sets the threshold rate of new
half-open sessions per minute where the
Prestige starts deleting old half-opened
sessions until it gets them down to the minutelow threshold.
Appendix F Firewall Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 163 Firewall Commands (continued)
FUNCTION
Sets
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
config edit firewall attack
minute-low <0-255>
This command sets the threshold of half-open
sessions where the Prestige stops deleting
half-opened sessions.
config edit firewall attack
max-incomplete-high <0-255>
This command sets the threshold of half-open
sessions where the Prestige starts deleting old
half-opened sessions until it gets them down
to the max incomplete low.
config edit firewall attack
max-incomplete-low <0-255>
This command sets the threshold where the
Prestige stops deleting half-opened sessions.
config edit firewall attack
tcp-max-incomplete <0-255>
This command sets the threshold of half-open
TCP sessions with the same destination
where the Prestige starts dropping half-open
sessions to that destination.
config edit firewall set <set
#> name <desired name>
This command sets a name to identify a
specified set.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> default-permit <forward |
block>
This command sets whether a packet is
dropped or allowed through, when it does not
meet a rule within the set.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> icmp-timeout <seconds>
This command sets the time period to allow an
ICMP session to wait for the ICMP response.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> udp-idle-timeout <seconds>
This command sets how long a UDP
connection is allowed to remain inactive
before the Prestige considers the connection
closed.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> connection-timeout
<seconds>
This command sets how long Prestige waits
for a TCP session to be established before
dropping the session.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> fin-wait-timeout <seconds>
This command sets how long the Prestige
leaves a TCP session open after the firewall
detects a FIN-exchange (indicating the end of
the TCP session).
Config edit firewall set <set
#> tcp-idle-timeout <seconds>
This command sets how long Prestige lets an
inactive TCP connection remain open before
considering it closed.
Appendix F Firewall Commands
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Table 163 Firewall Commands (continued)
FUNCTION
Rules
459
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Config edit firewall set <set
#> log <yes | no>
This command sets whether or not the
Prestige creates logs for packets that match
the firewall’s default rule set.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> permit
<forward | block>
This command sets whether packets that
match this rule are dropped or allowed
through.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> active <yes |
no>
This command sets whether a rule is enabled
or not.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> protocol
<integer protocol value >
This command sets the protocol specification
number made in this rule for ICMP.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> log <none |
match | not-match | both>
This command sets the Prestige to log traffic
that matches the rule, doesn't match, both or
neither.
Config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> alert <yes |
no>
This command sets whether or not the
Prestige sends an alert e-mail when a DOS
attack or a violation of a particular rule occurs.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> srcaddrsingle <ip address>
This command sets the rule to have the
Prestige check for traffic with this individual
source address.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> srcaddrsubnet <ip address> <subnet
mask>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for traffic from a particular subnet
(defined by IP address and subnet mask).
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> srcaddr-range
<start ip address> <end ip
address>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for traffic from this range of addresses.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> destaddrsingle <ip address>
This command sets the rule to have the
Prestige check for traffic with this individual
destination address.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> destaddrsubnet <ip address> <subnet
mask>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for traffic with a particular subnet
destination (defined by IP address and subnet
mask).
Appendix F Firewall Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 163 Firewall Commands (continued)
FUNCTION
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> destaddrrange <start ip address> <end
ip address>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for traffic going to this range of
addresses.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> TCP destportsingle <port #>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for TCP traffic with this destination
address. You may repeat this command to
enter various, non-consecutive port numbers.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> TCP destportrange <start port #> <end port
#>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for TCP traffic with a destination port in
this range.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> UDP destportsingle <port #>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for UDP traffic with this destination
address. You may repeat this command to
enter various, non-consecutive port numbers.
config edit firewall set <set
#> rule <rule #> UDP destportrange <start port #> <end port
#>
This command sets a rule to have the Prestige
check for UDP traffic with a destination port in
this range.
config delete firewall e-mail
This command removes all of the settings for
e-mail alert.
config delete firewall attack
This command resets all of the attack
response settings to their defaults.
config delete firewall set
<set #>
This command removes the specified set from
the firewall configuration.
config delete firewall set
<set #> rule<rule #>
This command removes the specified rule in a
firewall configuration set.
Delete
Appendix F Firewall Commands
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461
Appendix F Firewall Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix G
NetBIOS Filter Commands
The following describes the NetBIOS packet filter commands.
Introduction
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP broadcast packets that
enable a computer to connect to and communicate with a LAN.
For some dial-up services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS packets cause unwanted calls.
You can configure NetBIOS filters to do the following:
• Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WAN and from
the WAN to the LAN.
• Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the DMZ and from
the DMZ to the LAN.
• Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets from the WAN to the DMZ and from
the DMZ to the WAN.
• Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets through VPN connections.
• Allow or disallow NetBIOS packets to initiate calls.
Display NetBIOS Filter Settings
Syntax:
sys filter netbios disp
This command gives a read-only list of the current NetBIOS filter modes for The Prestige.
NetBIOS Display Filter Settings Command Example
=========== NetBIOS Filter Status ===========
Between LAN and WAN: Block
Between LAN and DMZ: Block
Between WAN and DMZ: Block
IPSec Packets: Forward
Trigger Dial: Disabled
Appendix G NetBIOS Filter Commands
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The filter types and their default settings are as follows.
Table 164 NetBIOS Filter Default Settings
NAME
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Between LAN
and WAN
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are blocked or forwarded Block
between the LAN and the WAN.
Between LAN
and DMZ
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are blocked or forwarded Block
between the LAN and the DMZ.
Between WAN
and DMZ
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are blocked or forwarded Block
between the WAN and the DMZ.
IPSec Packets This field displays whether NetBIOS packets sent through a VPN
connection are blocked or forwarded.
Trigger dial
Forward
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are allowed to initiate
Disabled
calls. Disabled means that NetBIOS packets are blocked from initiating
calls.
NetBIOS Filter Configuration
Syntax:sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
where
<type> =
Identify which NetBIOS filter (numbered 0-3) to configure.
0 = Between LAN and WAN
1 = Between LAN and DMZ
2 = Between WAN and DMZ
3 = IPSec packet pass through
4 = Trigger Dial
<on|off> =
For type 0 and 1, use on to enable the filter and block NetBIOS
packets. Use off to disable the filter and forward NetBIOS packets.
For type 3, use on to block NetBIOS packets from being sent
through a VPN connection. Use off to allow NetBIOS packets to be
sent through a VPN connection..
Example commands
463
sys filter netbios
config 0 on
This command blocks LAN to WAN and WAN to LAN NetBIOS
packets.
sys filter netbios
config 1 off
This command forwards LAN to DMZ and DMZ to LAN NetBIOS
packets.
sys filter netbios
config 3 on
This command blocks IPSec NetBIOS packets.
sys filter netbios
config 4 off
This command stops NetBIOS commands from initiating calls.
Appendix G NetBIOS Filter Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix G NetBIOS Filter Commands
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465
Appendix G NetBIOS Filter Commands
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix H
VPN Setup
This appendix will help you to quickly create a IPSec/VPN connection between two ZyXEL
IPSec routers. It should be considered a quick reference for experienced users.
General Notes
• The private networks behind the IPSec routers must be on different subnets.
For example, 192.168.10.0/24 and 192.168.20.0/24.
• If the sites are/were previously connected using a leased line or ISDN router, physically
disconnect these devices from the network before testing your new VPN connection. The
old route may have been learnt by RIP and would take priority over the new VPN
connection.
• To test whether or not a tunnel is working, ping from a computer at one site to a computer
at the other.
Before doing so, ensure that both computers have Internet access (via the IPSec routers).
• You can use the “E-MAIL” Peer Type and the “SUBNET” Local and Remote Address
Type to simplify the configuration.
• Do not manually create any static IP routes for the remote VPN site. They are not
required.
Dynamic IPSec Rule
Create a dynamic rule by setting the Secure Gateway Address to ‘0.0.0.0’. A single dynamic
rule can support multiple simultaneous incoming IPSec connections.
All users of a dynamic rule have the same pre-shared key. You may need to change the preshared key if one of the users leaves. See the support notes at http://www.zyxel.com for
configuration examples for software VPN clients.
Full Feature NAT Mode
With Full Feature NAT mode, you must map the intended VPN rule’s local policy addresses
as the Inside Local Address (ILA) to a public IP address assigned by the ISP (an Inside Global
Address or IGA) before you can configure the VPN rule. For example, you could create a
One-to-One address mapping rule that maps the VPN rule’s local policy addresses as the ILA
to the VPN rule’s my IP address as the IGA.
You may have to specify the public IP address in the My IP Addr field of the local IPSec rule.
If you have not configured the address mapping properly, a “SPD doesn’t match configuration
of NAT” message displays when you try to save the IPSec rule.
Appendix H VPN Setup
466
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The following pages show a typical configuration that builds a tunnel between two private
networks. One network is the headquarters (HQ) and the other is a branch office. Both sites
have static (fixed) public addresses. Replace the Secure Gateway Address and Local/
Remote IP Address Start settings with your own values.
VPN Configuration via Web Configurator
This section gives a VPN rule configuration example using the web configurator.
1 Click VPN to display the following screen. Click the Add button.
Figure 292 VPN Rules
2 Configure the screens in the headquarters and the branch office as follows and click
Apply.
The pre-shared key must be exactly the same on both IPSec routers. Use a simple key
and/or copy and paste the setting into the other IPSec router to avoid typos.
467
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Figure 293 Headquarters VPN Rule Edit
IP addresses on
different subnets.
The IP address of
the branch office
IPSec router.
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Figure 294 Branch Office VPN Rule Edit
IP addresses on
different subnets.
The IP address of
the headquarters
IPSec router.
Dialing the VPN Tunnel via Web Configurator
469
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To test whether the IPSec routers can build the VPN tunnel, click the dial icon in the VPN
Rules screen’s Modify column to have the IPSec routers set up the tunnel.1
Figure 295 VPN Rule Configured
Dial Icon
The following screen displays.
Figure 296 VPN Dial
This screen displays later if the IPSec routers can build the VPN tunnel.
1.
This feature is not available on all Prestige models.
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Figure 297 VPN Tunnel Established
VPN Configuration via SMT
This section gives a VPN rule configuration example using the SMT.
1 From the main menu, enter 27 to display the first VPN menu (shown next).
Figure 298 Menu 27: VPN/IPSec Setup
Menu 27 - VPN/IPSec Setup
1. IPSec Summary
2. SA Monitor
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Type 1 in menu 27 and then press [ENTER] to display Menu 27.1 — IPSec Summary.
This is a summary read-only menu of your IPSec rules (tunnels). Select Edit in the Select
Command field; type the index number of a rule in the Select Rule field and press
[ENTER].
471
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Figure 299 Menu 27.1: IPSec Summary
Menu 27.1 - IPSec Summary
#
Name
A Local Addr Start - Addr End / Mask Encap IPSec Algorithm
Key Mgt
Remote Addr Start - Addr End / Mask
Secure Gw Addr
--- ---------- - --------------------------------- ------ -------------001
002
003
004
005
Select Command=
None
Select Rule=
N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 Configure the rules in the headquarters and the branch office as follows.
Figure 300 Headquarters Menu 27.1.1: IPSec Setup
Menu 27.1.1 - IPSec Setup
Index #= 1
Name= BRANCH
Active= Yes
Keep Alive= Yes
Nat Traversal= No
Local ID type= E-MAIL
Content= test@example.com
My IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Peer ID type= E-MAIL
Content= test@example.com
Secure Gateway Address= 1.2.3.4
Protocol= 0
DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Local: Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 192.168.10.0
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Port Start= 0
End= N/A
Remote: Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 192.168.20.0
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Port Start= 0
End= N/A
Enable Replay Detection= No
Key Management= IKE
Edit Key Management Setup= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Appendix H VPN Setup
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Note: Press [ENTER] at the bottom of each screen to save your configuration.
You can press the ‘Up’ arrow at the top of a menu to quickly reach the bottom of the
menu.
Figure 301 Branch Office Menu 27.1.1: IPSec Setup
Menu 27.1.1 - IPSec Setup
Index #= 1
Name= HQ
Active= Yes
Keep Alive= Yes
Nat Traversal= No
Local ID type= E-MAIL
Content= test@example.com
My Addr Type= IP
Address= 0.0.0.0
Peer ID type= E-MAIL
Content= test@example.com
Secure Gateway Address= 5.6.7.8
Protocol= 0
DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Local: Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 192.168.20.0
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Port Start= 0
End= N/A
Remote: Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 192.168.10.1
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Port Start= 0
End= N/A
Enable Replay Detection= No
Key Management= IKE
Edit Key Management Setup= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Move the cursor to the Edit Key Management Setup field in Menu 27.1.1 - IPSec
Setup; press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to display Menu
27.1.1.1 - IKE Setup.
Only configure the pre-shared key. Leave the default settings for the other fields.
The pre-shared key must be exactly the same on both IPSec routers. Use a simple key
and/or copy and paste the setting into the other IPSec router to avoid typos.
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Figure 302 Menu 27.1.1.1: IKE Setup
Menu 27.1.1.1 - IKE Setup
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode= Main
Authentication Method= Pre-Shared Key
PSK= 12345678
Certificate= N/A
Encryption Algorithm= DES
Authentication Algorithm= MD5
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Key Group= DH1
Phase 2
Active Protocol= ESP
Encryption Algorithm= DES
Authentication Algorithm= SHA1
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Encapsulation= Tunnel
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)= None
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
Dialing the VPN Tunnel via SMT
If you would like to test whether the IPSec devices can build the IPSec tunnel before trying to
ping a computer, use the ‘ipsec dial n’ (where “n” is the number of the VPN rule) command
from the Command Interpreter - Menu 24.8 to have the IPSec device set up the tunnel.
Here is an example.
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ipsec dial 1
Tunnel built successfully!
VPN Troubleshooting
If the IPSec tunnel does not build properly, the problem is likely a configuration error at one of
the IPSec routers. The following steps will help you to rapidly identify and correct
configuration problems.
Log into the SMTs of both ZyXEL IPSec routers via telnet.
Position the telnet windows side-by-side and visually compare the configuration in Menu
27.1.1 (IPSec Rule) and Menu 27.1.1.1 (IKE Setup). Check the settings in each field
methodically and slowly.
Appendix H VPN Setup
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VPN Log
The system log can often help to identify a configuration problem.
Enable IKE & IPSec logging via the web configurator at both ends, clear the log and then
build the tunnel.
View the log via the web configurator or type ‘sys log disp’ from SMT Menu 24.8.
Figure 303 VPN Log Example
zw5> sys log disp ike ipsec
#.time
475
source
destination
notes
message
0|09/21/2004 05:45:08 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Rule [1] Tunnel built successfully
1|09/21/2004 05:45:08 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Send:[HASH]
2|09/21/2004 05:45:08 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Adjust TCP MSS to 1398
3|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.185
|172.21.3.43
|IKE
Recv:[HASH][SA][NONCE][ID][ID]
4|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Send:[HASH][SA][NONCE][ID][ID]
5|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Start Phase 2: Quick Mode
6|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Phase 1 IKE SA process done
7|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.185
|172.21.3.43
|IKE
Recv:[ID][HASH][NOTFY:INIT_CONTACT]
8|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Send:[ID][HASH][NOTFY:INIT_CONTACT]
9|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.185
|172.21.3.43
|IKE
Recv:[KE][NONCE]
10|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.43
|172.21.3.185
|IKE
Send:[KE][NONCE]
11|09/21/2004 05:45:07 |172.21.3.185
|172.21.3.43
|IKE
Appendix H VPN Setup
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
IPSec Debug
If you are having difficulty building an IPSec tunnel to a non-ZyXEL IPSec router, advanced
users may wish to examine the IPSec debug feature (Menu 24.8).
Figure 304 IKE/IPSec Debug Example
ras> ipsec debug
type
level
display
ras> ipsec debug type
<0:Disable | 1:Original on|off | 2:IKE on|off | 3: IPSec [SPI]|on|off |
4:XAUTH on|off | 5:CERT on|off | 6: All>
ras> ipsec debug level
<0:None | 1:User | 2:Low | 3:High>
ras> ipsec debug type 1 on
ras> ipsec debug type 2 on
ras> ipsec debug level 3
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ipsec dial 1
Start dialing for tunnel <rule# 1>...
ikeStartNegotiate(): saIndex<0>
peerIp<xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx> protocol: <NONE>(0)
peer Ip <xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx> initiator(): type<IPSEC_ESP>, exch<Main>
initiator:
protocol: IPSEC_ESP, exchange mode: Main mode find_ipsec_sa():
find ipsec saNot found
Not found isadb_is_outstanding_req():
Send event to LBN task for DH processLBN task proc event <DH param req>
Main Mode processing done successfully, state=MM wait DH param.
LBN task proc event <DH param req>genDHParameters(): dh_len=96
gen DH Parameters: dh_len=96 GenRand: A(secret_val)
GenRand: A(secret_val) done
done lbnTwoExpMod(): elen=48, mlen=48
...
...
Tunnel built successfully!!!
Use a VPN Tunnel
A VPN tunnel gives you a secure connection to another computer or network. The VPN
Status screen displays whether or not your VPN tunnel is connected. Example VPN tunnel
uses are securely sending and retrieving files, and accessing corporate network drives, web
servers and email. Services work as if you were at the office instead of connected through the
Internet.
Appendix H VPN Setup
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FTP Example
The following example shows a text-based login from a branch office computer to an FTP
server behind the remote IPSec router at headquarters. The server’s IP address
(192.168.10.33) is in the subnet configured in the Local Policy fields in Figure 293 on
page 468. The directory is then displayed and a file named Report.doc is transferred via FTP
from the branch office computer to the server at headquarters.
C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>ftp 192.168.10.33
Connected to 192.168.109.33.
220 Serv-U FTP-Server v2.5b for WinSock ready...
User (192.168.109.33:(none)): test
331 User name okay, need password.
Password:
230 User logged in, proceed.
ftp> dir
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for directory listing.
total 1170904
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
2691072 Jun 11 2004 074-13
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
9200517 May 6 2004 10.txt
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
9486336 Nov 3 14:40 10m.txt
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
0 Apr 16 2004 2.log
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
11816924 Dec 27 09:12
2neo1b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
21354248 Dec 27 09:09
2neo2b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
0 Dec 2 16:37 30m
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
153600 Apr 16 2004 30m-1
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
663552 Jun 29 2004 33333
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
1603646 Dec 10 09:19
360MN0b8.bin
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
11816924 Dec 27 09:11
3neo1b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
21354248 Dec 27 09:10
3neo2b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
2555865 Dec 27 09:12
4neo1b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
21167805 Dec 27 09:11
4neo2b.10mb
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
2157876 Apr 22 2004 6.LOG
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
5201920 Apr 28 2004 6.log
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
1318 Sep 4 2004
AutoParam.html
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
9538116 Aug 10 2004
C2KRADIU.GHO
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
390064320 Sep 27 2004 CCdown.GHO
drwxrwxr-x
6 505
505
4096 Dec 17 17:06 Download
-rw-r--r-1 505
505
36 Aug 11 2003 Download.TXT
226 Transfer complete.
ftp: 4197 bytes received in 1.0Seconds 10.70Kbytes/sec.
ftp> put Report.doc
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for Report.doc.
226-WARNING! 23858 bare linefeeds received in ASCII mode
File may not have transferred correctly.
226 Transfer complete.
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ftp: 5631148 bytes sent in 614.8Seconds 9.17Kbytes/sec.
Appendix H VPN Setup
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Appendix I
Splitters and Microfilters
This appendix tells you how to install a POTS splitter or a telephone microfilter.
Connecting a POTS Splitter
When you use the Full Rate (G.dmt) ADSL standard, you can use a POTS (Plain Old
Telephone Service) splitter to separate the telephone and ADSL signals. This allows
simultaneous Internet access and telephone service on the same line. A splitter also eliminates
the destructive interference conditions caused by telephone sets.
Install the POTS splitter at the point where the telephone line enters your residence, as shown
in the following figure.
Figure 305 Connecting a POTS Splitter
1 Connect the side labeled “Phone” to your telephone.
2 Connect the side labeled “Modem” to your Prestige.
3 Connect the side labeled “Line” to the telephone wall jack.
Telephone Microfilters
Telephone voice transmissions take place in the lower frequency range, 0 - 4KHz, while
ADSL transmissions take place in the higher bandwidth range, above 4KHz. A microfilter acts
as a low-pass filter, for your telephone, to ensure that ADSL transmissions do not interfere
with your telephone voice transmissions. The use of a telephone microfilter is optional.
Appendix I Splitters and Microfilters
480
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1 Connect a phone cable from the wall jack to the single jack end of the Y- Connector.
2 Connect a cable from the double jack end of the Y-Connector to the “wall side” of the
microfilter.
3 Connect another cable from the double jack end of the Y-Connector to the Prestige.
4 Connect the “phone side” of the microfilter to your telephone as shown in the following
figure.
Figure 306 Connecting a Microfilter
Prestige With ISDN
This section relates to people who use their Prestige with ADSL over ISDN (digital telephone
service) only. The following is an example installation for the Prestige with ISDN.
Figure 307 Prestige with ISDN
481
Appendix I Splitters and Microfilters
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix I Splitters and Microfilters
482
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
483
Appendix I Splitters and Microfilters
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Appendix J
PPPoE
PPPoE in Action
An ADSL modem bridges a PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC 2516) from
your computer to an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) which connects to a DSL Access
Concentrator where the PPP session terminates (see Figure 308 on page 485). One PVC can
support any number of PPP sessions from your LAN. PPPoE provides access control and
billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP.
Benefits of PPPoE
PPPoE offers the following benefits:
It provides you with a familiar dial-up networking (DUN) user interface.
It lessens the burden on the carriers of provisioning virtual circuits all the way to the ISP on
multiple switches for thousands of users. For GSTN (PSTN and ISDN), the switching fabric
is already in place.
It allows the ISP to use the existing dial-up model to authenticate and (optionally) to provide
differentiated services.
Traditional Dial-up Scenario
The following diagram depicts a typical hardware configuration where the computers use
traditional dial-up networking.
Appendix J PPPoE
484
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Figure 308 Single-Computer per Router Hardware Configuration
How PPPoE Works
The PPPoE driver makes the Ethernet appear as a serial link to the computer and the computer
runs PPP over it, while the modem bridges the Ethernet frames to the Access Concentrator
(AC). Between the AC and an ISP, the AC is acting as a L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)
LAC (L2TP Access Concentrator) and tunnels the PPP frames to the ISP. The L2TP tunnel is
capable of carrying multiple PPP sessions.
With PPPoE, the VC (Virtual Circuit) is equivalent to the dial-up connection and is between
the modem and the AC, as opposed to all the way to the ISP. However, the PPP negotiation is
between the computer and the ISP.
Prestige as a PPPoE Client
When using the Prestige as a PPPoE client, the computers on the LAN see only Ethernet and
are not aware of PPPoE. This alleviates the administrator from having to manage the PPPoE
clients on the individual computers.
Figure 309 Prestige as a PPPoE Client
485
Appendix J PPPoE
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix K
Log Descriptions
This appendix provides descriptions of example log messages.
Table 165 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from the
time server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
WAN interface gets IP:%s
A WAN interface got a new IP address from the DHCP,
PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns%s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
Successful SMT login
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
Successful WEB login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface.
WEB login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface.
Successful TELNET login
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Successful FTP login
Someone has logged on to the router via ftp.
FTP login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via ftp.
NAT Session Table is Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries has been
exceeded and the table is full.
Starting Connectivity Monitor Starting Connectivity Monitor.
Time initialized by Daytime
Server
The router got the time and date from the Daytime server.
Time initialized by Time
server
The router got the time and date from the time server.
Time initialized by NTP
server
The router got the time and date from the NTP server.
Connect to Daytime server
fail
The router was not able to connect to the Daytime server.
Connect to Time server fail
The router was not able to connect to the Time server.
Connect to NTP server fail
The router was not able to connect to the NTP server.
Too large ICMP packet has
been dropped
The router dropped an ICMP packet that was too large.
SMT Session Begin
An SMT management session has started.
SMT Session End
An SMT management session has ended.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Table 165 System Maintenance Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Configuration Change: PC =
0x%x, Task ID = 0x%x
The router is saving configuration changes.
Successful SSH login
Someone has logged on to the router’s SSH server.
SSH login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router’s SSH server.
Successful HTTPS login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
HTTPS login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
Table 166 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the maximum
number of NAT session table entries allowed to be created per
host.
setNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter settings.
readNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter settings.
WAN connection is down.
A WAN connection is down. You cannot access the network
through this interface.
Table 167 Access Control Logs
487
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: [TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF]
<Packet Direction>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched the default policy and was blocked or forwarded
according to the default policy’s setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match:[TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF]
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched (or did not match) a configured firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
[TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF]
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: [TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP
| GRE | OSPF]
The router blocked a packet that didn't have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Router sent blocked web site
message: TCP
The router sent a message to notify a user that the router
blocked access to a web site that the user requested.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 168 TCP Reset Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Under SYN flood attack,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a host was under a SYN
flood attack (the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.)
Exceed TCP MAX
incomplete, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of TCP
incomplete connections exceeded the user configured threshold.
(the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.) Note: Refer to
TCP Maximum Incomplete in the Firewall Attack Alerts screen.
Peer TCP state out of
order, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a TCP connection state
was out of order.Note: The firewall refers to RFC793 Figure 6 to
check the TCP state.
Firewall session time
out, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a dynamic firewall
session timed out.
The default timeout values are as follows:
ICMP idle timeout: 3 minutes
UDP idle timeout: 3 minutes
TCP connection (three way handshaking) timeout: 270 seconds
TCP FIN-wait timeout: 2 MSL (Maximum Segment Lifetime set in
the TCP header).
TCP idle (established) timeout (s): 150 minutes
TCP reset timeout: 10 seconds
Exceed MAX incomplete,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
incomplete connections (TCP and UDP) exceeded the userconfigured threshold. (Incomplete count is for all TCP and UDP
connections through the firewall.)Note: When the number of
incomplete connections (TCP + UDP) > “Maximum Incomplete
High”, the router sends TCP RST packets for TCP connections
and destroys TOS (firewall dynamic sessions) until incomplete
connections < “Maximum Incomplete Low”.
Access block, sent TCP
RST
The router sends a TCP RST packet and generates this log if you
turn on the firewall TCP reset mechanism (via CI command: "sys
firewall tcprst").
Table 169 Packet Filter Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
[TCP | UDP | ICMP | IGMP |
Generic] packet filter
matched (set:%d, rule:%d)
Attempted access matched a configured filter rule (denoted by
its set and rule number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Table 170 ICMP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <type:%d>,
<code:%d>
ICMP access matched the default policy and was blocked
or forwarded according to the user's setting. For type and
code details, see Table 182 on page 498.
Firewall rule [NOT] match: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>,
<type:%d>, <code:%d>
ICMP access matched (or didn’t match) a firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule. For type and code details, see
Table 182 on page 498.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
ICMP
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: ICMP
The router blocked a packet that didn’t have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Unsupported/out-of-order ICMP:
ICMP
The firewall does not support this kind of ICMP packets or
the ICMP packets are out of order.
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP
The router sent an ICMP reply packet to the sender.
Table 171 CDR Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
board%d line%d channel%d,
call%d,%s C01 Outgoing Call
dev=%x ch=%x%s
The router received the setup requirements for a call. “call” is
the reference (count) number of the call. “dev” is the device
type (3 is for dial-up, 6 is for PPPoE, 10 is for PPTP).
"channel" or “ch” is the call channel ID.For example,"board 0
line 0 channel 0, call 3, C01 Outgoing Call dev=6 ch=0
"Means the router has dialed to the PPPoE server 3 times.
board%d line%d channel%d,
call%d,%s C02 OutCall
Connected%d%s
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call is connected.
board%d line%d channel%d,
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call was disconnected.
call%d,%s C02 Call Terminated
Table 172 PPP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Starting
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage has started.
ppp:LCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:CHAP Opening
The PPP connection’s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol stage is
opening.
ppp:IPCP Starting The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is starting.
ppp:IPCP Opening
489
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is opening.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 172 PPP Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is closing.
ppp:IPCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is closing.
Table 173 UPnP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
UPnP pass through Firewall
UPnP packets can pass through the firewall.
Table 174 Content Filtering Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s: Keyword blocking
The content of a requested web page matched a user defined keyword.
%s: Not in trusted web
list
The web site is not in a trusted domain, and the router blocks all traffic
except trusted domain sites.
%s: Forbidden Web site The web site is in the forbidden web site list.
%s: Contains ActiveX
The web site contains ActiveX.
%s: Contains Java
applet
The web site contains a Java applet.
%s: Contains cookie
The web site contains a cookie.
%s: Proxy mode
detected
The router detected proxy mode in the packet.
%s
The content filter server responded that the web site is in the blocked
category list, but it did not return the category type.
%s:%s
The content filter server responded that the web site is in the blocked
category list, and returned the category type.
%s(cache hit)
The system detected that the web site is in the blocked list from the
local cache, but does not know the category type.
%s:%s(cache hit)
The system detected that the web site is in blocked list from the local
cache, and knows the category type.
%s: Trusted Web site
The web site is in a trusted domain.
%s
When the content filter is not on according to the time schedule or you
didn't select the "Block Matched Web Site” check box, the system
forwards the web content.
Waiting content filter
server timeout
The external content filtering server did not respond within the timeout
period.
DNS resolving failed
The Prestige cannot get the IP address of the external content filtering
via DNS query.
Creating socket failed The Prestige cannot issue a query because TCP/IP socket creation
failed, port:port number.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
490
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 174 Content Filtering Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Connecting to content
filter server fail
The connection to the external content filtering server failed.
License key is invalid The external content filtering license key is invalid.
Table 175 Attack Logs
491
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
attack [TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF attack.
attack ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP attack. For type and code details,
see Table 182 on page 498.
land [TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF land
attack.
land ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP land attack. For type and code
details, see Table 182 on page 498.
ip spoofing - WAN [TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF]
The firewall detected an IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
ip spoofing - WAN ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
For type and code details, see Table 182 on page 498.
icmp echo: ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP echo attack. For type and code
details, see Table 182 on page 498.
syn flood TCP
The firewall detected a TCP syn flood attack.
ports scan TCP
The firewall detected a TCP port scan attack.
teardrop TCP
The firewall detected a TCP teardrop attack.
teardrop UDP
The firewall detected an UDP teardrop attack.
teardrop ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP teardrop attack. For type and code
details, see Table 182 on page 498.
illegal command TCP
The firewall detected a TCP illegal command attack.
NetBIOS TCP
The firewall detected a TCP NetBIOS attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry [TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF]
The firewall classified a packet with no source routing entry as an
IP spoofing attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall classified an ICMP packet with no source routing entry
as an IP spoofing attack.
vulnerability ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP vulnerability attack. For type and
code details, see Table 182 on page 498.
traceroute ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP traceroute attack. For type and
code details, see Table 182 on page 498.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 176 IPSec Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Discard REPLAY packet
The router received and discarded a packet with an incorrect
sequence number.
Inbound packet
authentication failed
The router received a packet that has been altered. A third party may
have altered or tampered with the packet.
Receive IPSec packet,
but no corresponding
tunnel exists
The router dropped an inbound packet for which SPI could not find a
corresponding phase 2 SA.
Rule <%d> idle time out,
disconnect
The router dropped a connection that had outbound traffic and no
inbound traffic for a certain time period. You can use the "ipsec timer
chk_conn" CI command to set the time period. The default value is 2
minutes.
WAN IP changed to <IP>
The router dropped all connections with the “MyIP” configured as
“0.0.0.0” when the WAN IP address changed.
Table 177 IKE Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Active connection allowed
exceeded
The IKE process for a new connection failed because the limit
of simultaneous phase 2 SAs has been reached.
Start Phase 2: Quick Mode
Phase 2 Quick Mode has started.
Verifying Remote ID failed:
The connection failed during IKE phase 2 because the router
and the peer’s Local/Remote Addresses don’t match.
Verifying Local ID failed:
The connection failed during IKE phase 2 because the router
and the peer’s Local/Remote Addresses don’t match.
IKE Packet Retransmit
The router retransmitted the last packet sent because there
was no response from the peer.
Failed to send IKE Packet
An Ethernet error stopped the router from sending IKE
packets.
Too many errors! Deleting SA
An SA was deleted because there were too many errors.
Phase 1 IKE SA process done
The phase 1 IKE SA process has been completed.
Duplicate requests with the
same cookie
The router received multiple requests from the same peer
while still processing the first IKE packet from the peer.
IKE Negotiation is in process The router has already started negotiating with the peer for
the connection, but the IKE process has not finished yet.
No proposal chosen
Phase 1 or phase 2 parameters don’t match. Please check all
protocols / settings. Ex. One device being configured for
3DES and the other being configured for DES causes the
connection to fail.
Local / remote IPs of
incoming request conflict
with rule <%d>
The security gateway is set to “0.0.0.0” and the router used
the peer’s “Local Address” as the router’s “Remote Address”.
This information conflicted with static rule #d; thus the
connection is not allowed.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Table 177 IKE Logs (continued)
493
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Cannot resolve Secure Gateway
Addr for rule <%d>
The router couldn’t resolve the IP address from the domain
name that was used for the secure gateway address.
Peer ID: <peer id> <My remote
type> -<My local type>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
vs. My Remote <My remote> <My remote>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
vs. My Local <My local>-<My
local>
The displayed ID information did not match between the two
ends of the connection.
Send <packet>
A packet was sent.
Recv <packet>
IKE uses ISAKMP to transmit data. Each ISAKMP packet
contains many different types of payloads. All of them show in
the LOG. Refer to RFC2408 – ISAKMP for a list of all ISAKMP
payload types.
Recv <Main or Aggressive>
Mode request from <IP>
The router received an IKE negotiation request from the peer
address specified.
Send <Main or Aggressive>
Mode request to <IP>
The router started negotiation with the peer.
Invalid IP <Peer local> /
<Peer local>
The peer’s “Local IP Address” is invalid.
Remote IP <Remote IP> /
<Remote IP> conflicts
The security gateway is set to “0.0.0.0” and the router used
the peer’s “Local Address” as the router’s “Remote Address”.
This information conflicted with static rule #d; thus the
connection is not allowed.
Phase 1 ID type mismatch
This router’s "Peer ID Type" is different from the peer IPSec
router's "Local ID Type".
Phase 1 ID content mismatch
This router’s "Peer ID Content" is different from the peer
IPSec router's "Local ID Content".
No known phase 1 ID type
found
The router could not find a known phase 1 ID in the
connection attempt.
ID type mismatch. Local /
Peer: <Local ID type/Peer ID
type>
The phase 1 ID types do not match.
ID content mismatch
The phase 1 ID contents do not match.
Configured Peer ID Content:
<Configured Peer ID Content>
The phase 1 ID contents do not match and the configured
"Peer ID Content" is displayed.
Incoming ID Content:
<Incoming Peer ID Content>
The phase 1 ID contents do not match and the incoming
packet's ID content is displayed.
Unsupported local ID Type:
<%d>
The phase 1 ID type is not supported by the router.
Build Phase 1 ID
The router has started to build the phase 1 ID.
Adjust TCP MSS to%d
The router automatically changed the TCP Maximum
Segment Size value after establishing a tunnel.
Rule <%d> input idle time
out, disconnect
The tunnel for the listed rule was dropped because there was
no inbound traffic within the idle timeout period.
XAUTH succeed! Username:
<Username>
The router used extended authentication to authenticate the
listed username.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 177 IKE Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
XAUTH fail! Username:
<Username>
The router was not able to use extended authentication to
authenticate the listed username.
Rule[%d] Phase 1 negotiation
mode mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 negotiation mode did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 encryption
algorithm mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 encryption algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1
authentication algorithm
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 authentication algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1
authentication method
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 authentication method did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 key group
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 key group did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2 protocol
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 protocol did not match between
the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2 encryption
algorithm mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 encryption algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2
authentication algorithm
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 authentication algorithm did not
match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2
encapsulation mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 encapsulation did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d]> Phase 2 pfs
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 perfect forward secret (pfs)
setting did not match between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 ID mismatch The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 ID did not match between the
router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 hash
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 hash did not match between the
router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 preshared
key mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 pre-shared key did not match
between the router and the peer.
Rule [%d] Tunnel built
successfully
The listed rule’s IPSec tunnel has been built successfully.
Rule [%d] Peer's public key
not found
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 peer’s public key was not found.
Rule [%d] Verify peer's
signature failed
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1verification of the peer’s
signature failed.
Rule [%d] Sending IKE request IKE sent an IKE request for the listed rule.
Rule [%d] Receiving IKE
request
IKE received an IKE request for the listed rule.
Swap rule to rule [%d]
The router changed to using the listed rule.
Rule [%d] Phase 1 key length
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 key length (with the AES
encryption algorithm) did not match between the router and
the peer.
Rule [%d] phase 1 mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 1 did not match between the router
and the peer.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Table 177 IKE Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Rule [%d] phase 2 mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 did not match between the router
and the peer.
Rule [%d] Phase 2 key length
mismatch
The listed rule’s IKE phase 2 key lengths (with the AES
encryption algorithm) did not match between the router and
the peer.
Table 178 PKI Logs
495
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Enrollment successful
The SCEP online certificate enrollment was successful. The
Destination field records the certification authority server IP address
and port.
Enrollment failed
The SCEP online certificate enrollment failed. The Destination field
records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Failed to resolve
<SCEP CA server url>
The SCEP online certificate enrollment failed because the certification
authority server’s address cannot be resolved.
Enrollment successful
The CMP online certificate enrollment was successful. The Destination
field records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Enrollment failed
The CMP online certificate enrollment failed. The Destination field
records the certification authority server’s IP address and port.
Failed to resolve <CMP
CA server url>
The CMP online certificate enrollment failed because the certification
authority server’s IP address cannot be resolved.
Rcvd ca cert: <subject
name>
The router received a certification authority certificate, with subject
name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose IP address and port
are recorded in the Source field.
Rcvd user cert:
<subject name>
The router received a user certificate, with subject name as recorded,
from the LDAP server whose IP address and port are recorded in the
Source field.
Rcvd CRL <size>:
<issuer name>
The router received a CRL (Certificate Revocation List), with size and
issuer name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose IP address and
port are recorded in the Source field.
Rcvd ARL <size>:
<issuer name>
The router received an ARL (Authority Revocation List), with size and
issuer name as recorded, from the LDAP server whose address and
port are recorded in the Source field.
Failed to decode the
received ca cert
The router received a corrupted certification authority certificate from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Failed to decode the
received user cert
The router received a corrupted user certificate from the LDAP server
whose address and port are recorded in the Source field.
Failed to decode the
received CRL
The router received a corrupted CRL (Certificate Revocation List) from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Failed to decode the
received ARL
The router received a corrupted ARL (Authority Revocation List) from
the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the Source
field.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 178 PKI Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Rcvd data <size> too
large! Max size
allowed: <max size>
The router received directory data that was too large (the size is listed)
from the LDAP server whose address and port are recorded in the
Source field. The maximum size of directory data that the router allows
is also recorded.
Cert trusted: <subject
name>
The router has verified the path of the certificate with the listed subject
name.
Due to <reason codes>,
cert not trusted:
<subject name>
Due to the reasons listed, the certificate with the listed subject name
has not passed the path verification. The recorded reason codes are
only approximate reasons for not trusting the certificate. Please see
Table 179 on page 496 for the corresponding descriptions of the
codes.
Table 179 Certificate Path Verification Failure Reason Codes
CODE
DESCRIPTION
1
Algorithm mismatch between the certificate and the search constraints.
2
Key usage mismatch between the certificate and the search constraints.
3
Certificate was not valid in the time interval.
4
(Not used)
5
Certificate is not valid.
6
Certificate signature was not verified correctly.
7
Certificate was revoked by a CRL.
8
Certificate was not added to the cache.
9
Certificate decoding failed.
10
Certificate was not found (anywhere).
11
Certificate chain looped (did not find trusted root).
12
Certificate contains critical extension that was not handled.
13
Certificate issuer was not valid (CA specific information missing).
14
(Not used)
15
CRL is too old.
16
CRL is not valid.
17
CRL signature was not verified correctly.
18
CRL was not found (anywhere).
19
CRL was not added to the cache.
20
CRL decoding failed.
21
CRL is not currently valid, but in the future.
22
CRL contains duplicate serial numbers.
23
Time interval is not continuous.
24
Time information not available.
25
Database method failed due to timeout.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Table 179 Certificate Path Verification Failure Reason Codes (continued)
CODE
DESCRIPTION
26
Database method failed.
27
Path was not verified.
28
Maximum path length reached.
Table 180 802.1X Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Local User Database accepts
user.
A user was authenticated by the local user database.
Local User Database reports user
credential error.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because of an incorrect user password.
Local User Database does not
find user`s credential.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because the user is not listed in the local user database.
RADIUS accepts user.
A user was authenticated by the RADIUS Server.
RADIUS rejects user. Pls check
RADIUS Server.
A user was not authenticated by the RADIUS Server.
Please check the RADIUS Server.
Local User Database does not
support authentication method.
The local user database only supports the EAP-MD5
method. A user tried to use another authentication
method and was not authenticated.
User logout because of session
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose session expired.
User logout because of user
deassociation.
The router logged out a user who ended the session.
User logout because of no
authentication response from
user.
The router logged out a user from which there was no
authentication response.
User logout because of idle
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose idle timeout period
expired.
User logout because of user
request.
A user logged out.
Local User Database does not
support authentication mothed.
A user tried to use an authentication method that the local
user database does not support (it only supports EAPMD5).
No response from RADIUS. Pls
check RADIUS Server.
There is no response message from the RADIUS server,
please check the RADIUS server.
Use Local User Database to
authenticate user.
The local user database is operating as the
authentication server.
Use RADIUS to authenticate user. The RADIUS server is operating as the authentication
server.
497
No Server to authenticate user.
There is no authentication server to authenticate a user.
Local User Database does not
find user`s credential.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because the user is not listed in the local user database.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 181 ACL Setting Notes
PACKET DIRECTION
DIRECTION
DESCRIPTION
(L to W)
LAN to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the WAN.
(W to L)
WAN to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the LAN.
(D to L)
DMZ to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the LAN.
(D to W)
DMZ to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the WAN.
(W to D)
WAN to DMZ
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the DMZ.
(L to D)
LAN to DMZ
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the DMZ.
(L to L/ZW)
LAN to LAN/
Prestige
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the LAN or
the Prestige.
(W to W/ZW)
WAN to WAN/
Prestige
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the WAN
or the Prestige.
(D to D/ZW)
DMZ to DMZ/
Prestige
ACL set for packets traveling from the DMZ to the DM or
the Prestige.
Table 182 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to
the destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Echo message
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Table 182 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 183 Syslog Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
<Facility*8 + Severity>Mon dd
hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
devID="<mac address last three
numbers>" cat="<category>
"This message is sent by the system ("RAS" displays as the
system name if you haven’t configured one) when the router
generates a syslog. The facility is defined in the web MAIN
MENU->LOGS->Log Settings page. The severity is the
log’s syslog class. The definition of messages and notes
are defined in the various log charts throughout this
appendix. The “devID” is the last three characters of the
MAC address of the router’s LAN port. The “cat” is the same
as the category in the router’s logs.
The following table shows RFC-2408 ISAKMP payload types that the log displays. Please
refer to the RFC for detailed information on each type.
Table 184 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types
499
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SA
Security Association
PROP
Proposal
TRANS
Transform
KE
Key Exchange
ID
Identification
CER
Certificate
CER_REQ
Certificate Request
HASH
Hash
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 184 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types (continued)
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SIG
Signature
NONCE
Nonce
NOTFY
Notification
DEL
Delete
VID
Vendor ID
Log Commands
Go to the command interpreter interface.
Configuring What You Want the Prestige to Log
1 Use the sys logs load command to load the log setting buffer that allows you to configure
which logs the Prestige is to record.
2 Use sys logs category to view a list of the log categories.
Figure 310 Displaying Log Categories Example
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras>?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
ether
aux
ip
ipsec
bridge
bm
certificates
cnm
8021x
radius
ras>
3 Use sys logs category followed by a log category to display the parameters that are
available for the category.
Figure 311 Displaying Log Parameters Example
ras> sys logs category access
Usage: [0:none/1:log/2:alert/3:both] [0:don't show debug type/
1:show debug type]
4 Use sys logs category followed by a log category and a parameter to decide what to
record.
Appendix K Log Descriptions
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Use 0 to not record logs for that category, 1 to record only logs for that
category, 2 to record only alerts for that category, and 3 to record both
logs and alerts for that category. Not every parameter is available with
every category.
5 Step 5.Use the sys logs save command to store the settings in the Prestige (you must do
this in order to record logs).
Displaying Logs
• Use the sys logs display command to show all of the logs in the Prestige’s log.
• Use the sys logs category display command to show the log settings for all of the log
categories.
• Use the sys logs display [log category] command to show the logs in an individual
Prestige log category.
• Use the sys logs clear command to erase all of the Prestige’s logs.
Log Command Example
This example shows how to set the Prestige to record the access logs and alerts and then view
the results.
ras>
ras>
ras>
ras>
sys
sys
sys
sys
#.time
logs
logs
logs
logs
load
category access 3
save
display access
source
destination
message
0|06/08/2004 05:58:21 |172.21.4.154
|224.0.1.24
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: IGMP (W to W/ZW)
1|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.3.56
|239.255.255.250
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: IGMP (W to W/ZW)
2|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.0.2
|239.255.255.254
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: IGMP (W to W/ZW)
3|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.3.191
|224.0.1.22
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: IGMP (W to W/ZW)
4|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.0.254
|224.0.0.1
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: IGMP (W to W/ZW)
5|06/08/2004 05:58:20 |172.21.4.187:137
|172.21.255.255:137
BLOCK
Firewall default policy: UDP (W to W/ZW)
501
notes
|ACCESS
|ACCESS
|ACCESS
|ACCESS
|ACCESS
|ACCESS
Appendix K Log Descriptions
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Appendix L
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless stations (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless adapters are within
range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as
an Ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an
example of notebook computers using wireless adapters to form an Ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 312 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or
between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled,
wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other.
When Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but
cannot communicate with each other.
Appendix L Wireless LANs
502
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Figure 313 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access Points not
only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic
in the immediate neighborhood.
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their
associated wireless stations within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to
communicate.
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Figure 314 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless devices. Channels
available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your
region) so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce
interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap
causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA)
are within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other,
so they cannot "hear" each other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being
used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each other.
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Figure 315
RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the
channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets
of data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the
biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP
for permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all
other stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and
confirms with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network
and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in
the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will
be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432
bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will fragment the packet into
smaller data frames.
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A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference
while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to
interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously)
you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as
data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Preamble Type
A preamble is used to synchronize the transmission timing in your wireless network. There are
two preamble modes: Long and Short.
Short preamble takes less time to process and minimizes overhead, so it should be used in a
good wireless network environment when all wireless stations support it.
Select Long if you have a ‘noisy’ network or are unsure of what preamble mode your wireless
stations support as all IEEE 802.11b compliant wireless adapters must support long preamble.
However, not all wireless adapters support short preamble. Use long preamble if you are
unsure what preamble mode the wireless adapters support, to ensure interpretability between
the AP and the wireless stations and to provide more reliable communication in ‘noisy’
networks.
Select Dynamic to have the AP automatically use short preamble when all wireless stations
support it, otherwise the AP uses long preamble.
Note: The AP and the wireless stations MUST use the same preamble mode in order
to communicate.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an IEEE
802.11b adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at
11 Mbps or lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has several intermediate rate steps
between the maximum and minimum data rates. The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation
are as follows:
Table 185 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
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IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control
features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices. Some advantages
of IEEE 802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
stations.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected
to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay between the
wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
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• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The
access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another AccessRequest message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared
secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In
addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the
network from unauthorized access.
Types of Authentication
This appendix discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAPTTLS, PEAP and LEAP.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. Consult your
network administrator for more information.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless station. The wireless station ‘proves’ that it knows the
password by encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information.
Password is not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to
get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
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EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations
for mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the
identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of
certificates is done in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity
vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the
sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to
handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done
by sending username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is
protected. For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy
authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection,
then use simple username and password methods through the secured connection to
authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP
methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2 and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card),
for client authentication. EAP-GTC is implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE
802.1x.
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when
the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key
is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the
Wireless screen. You may still configure and store keys here, but they will not be used while
Dynamic WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
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For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use
dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for
public deployment, a simple user name and password pair is more practical. The following
table is a comparison of the features of authentication types.
Table 186 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
WPA
User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless stations using an external RADIUS database.
Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) or
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
TKIP uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the authentication
server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check (MIC) named
Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying
mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up
a key hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate unique data
encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP
and the wireless stations. This all happens in the background automatically.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) also uses a secret key. This implementation of AES
applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
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The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decrypt data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-touse, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
Authentication Method/ key management protocol type. MAC address filters are not
dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 187 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTION ENTER
METHOD/ KEY
METHOD
MANUAL KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
ENABLE IEEE 802.1X
Open
None
No
No
Open
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
Shared
511
WEP
WPA
WEP
No
Yes
WPA
TKIP
No
Yes
WPA-PSK
WEP
Yes
Yes
WPA-PSK
TKIP
Yes
Yes
Appendix L Wireless LANs
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX M
Internal SPTGEN
Internal SPTGEN Overview
Internal SPTGEN (System Parameter Table Generator) is a configuration text file useful for
efficient configuration of multiple Prestiges. Internal SPTGEN lets you configure, save and
upload multiple menus at the same time using just one configuration text file – eliminating the
need to navigate and configure individual SMT menus for each Prestige.
The Configuration Text File Format
All Internal SPTGEN text files conform to the following format:
<field identification number = field name = parameter values
allowed = input>,
where <input> is your input conforming to <parameter values allowed>.
The figure shown next is an example of an Internal SPTGEN text file.
Figure 316 Configuration Text File Format: Column Descriptions
/ Menu 1 General Setup
10000000 = Configured
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000001 = System Name
<Str>
= Prestige
10000002 = Location
<Str>
=
10000003 = Contact Person’s Name
<Str>
=
10000004 = Route IP
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000005 = Route IPX
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 0
10000006 = Bridge
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 0
Note: DO NOT alter or delete any field except parameters in the Input column.
For more text file examples, refer to the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Appendix.
Internal SPTGEN File Modification - Important Points to Remember
Each parameter you enter must be preceded by one “=”sign and one space.
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Some parameters are dependent on others. For example, if you disable the Configured field in
menu 1 (see Figure 316 on page 512), then you disable every field in this menu.
If you enter a parameter that is invalid in the Input column, the Prestige will not save the
configuration and the command line will display the Field Identification Number. Figure
317 on page 513, shown next, is an example of what the Prestige displays if you enter a value
other than “0” or “1” in the Input column of Field Identification Number 1000000 (refer to
Figure 316 on page 512).
Figure 317 Invalid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example
field value is not legal error:-1
ROM-t is not saved, error Line ID:10000000
reboot to get the original configuration
Bootbase Version: V2.02 | 2/22/2001 13:33:11
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
FLASH: Intel 8M *2
The Prestige will display the following if you enter parameter(s) that are valid.
Figure 318 Valid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example
Please wait for the system to write SPT text file(ROM-t)...
Bootbase Version: V2.02 | 2/22/2001 13:33:11
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
FLASH: Intel 8M *2
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example
1 Launch your FTP application.
2 Enter "bin". The command “bin” sets the transfer mode to binary.
3 Get "rom-t" file. The command “get” transfers files from the Prestige to your computer.
The name “rom-t” is the configuration filename on the Prestige.
4 Edit the "rom-t" file using a text editor (do not use a word processor). You must leave
this FTP screen to edit.
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Figure 319
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example
c:\ftp 192.168.1.1
220 PPP FTP version 1.0 ready at Sat Jan 1 03:22:12 2000
User (192.168.1.1:(none)):
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp>bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-t
ftp>bye
c:\edit rom-t
(edit the rom-t text file by a text editor and save it)
Note: You can rename your “rom-t” file when you save it to your computer but it must
be named “rom-t” when you upload it to your Prestige.
Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example
1 Launch your FTP application.
2 Enter "bin". The command “bin” sets the transfer mode to binary.
3 Upload your “rom-t” file from your computer to the Prestige using the “put” command.
computer to the Prestige.
4 Exit this FTP application.
Figure 320 Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example
c:\ftp 192.168.1.1
220 PPP FTP version 1.0 ready at Sat Jan 1 03:22:12 2000
User (192.168.1.1:(none)):
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp>bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put rom-t
ftp>bye
Example Internal SPTGEN Screens
This section covers Prestige Internal SPTGEN screens.
Table 188 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
FIN
Field Identification Number (not seen in SMT screens)
FN
Field Name
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Table 188 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table (continued)
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
PVA
Parameter Values Allowed
INPUT
An example of what you may enter
*
Applies to the Prestige.
The following are Internal SPTGEN screens associated with the SMT screens of your Prestige.
Table 189 Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1)
/ Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
10000000 =
Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
10000001 =
System Name
<Str>
= Prestige
10000002 =
Location
<Str>
=
10000003 =
Contact Person's Name
<Str>
=
10000004 =
Route IP
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000006 =
Bridge
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 190 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 )
/ Menu 3.1 General Ethernet Setup (SMT menu 3.1)
FIN
30100001 =
FN
Input Protocol filters Set 1
PVA
INPUT
= 2
30100002 =
Input Protocol filters Set 2
= 256
30100003 =
Input Protocol filters Set 3
= 256
30100004 =
Input Protocol filters Set 4
= 256
30100005 =
Input device filters Set 1
= 256
30100006 =
Input device filters Set 2
= 256
30100007 =
Input device filters Set 3
= 256
30100008 =
Input device filters Set 4
= 256
30100009 =
Output protocol filters Set 1
= 256
30100010 =
Output protocol filters Set 2
= 256
30100011 =
Output protocol filters Set 3
= 256
30100012 =
Output protocol filters Set 4
= 256
30100013 =
Output device filters Set 1
= 256
30100014 =
Output device filters Set 2
= 256
30100015 =
Output device filters Set 3
= 256
30100016 =
Output device filters Set 4
= 256
/ Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup (SMT Menu 3.2)
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Table 190 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30200001 =
DHCP
<0(None) |
1(Server) |
2(Relay)>
= 0
30200002 =
Client IP Pool Starting Address
=
192.168.1.33
30200003 =
Size of Client IP Pool
= 32
30200004 =
Primary DNS Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200005 =
Secondary DNS Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200006 =
Remote DHCP Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200008 =
IP Address
=
172.21.2.200
30200009 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 16
30200010 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30200011 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30200012 =
Multicast
<0(IGMP-v2) |
1(IGMP-v1) |
2(None)>
= 2
30200013 =
IP Policies Set 1 (1~12)
= 256
30200014 =
IP Policies Set 2 (1~12)
= 256
30200015 =
IP Policies Set 3 (1~12)
= 256
30200016 =
IP Policies Set 4 (1~12)
= 256
/ Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup (SMT Menu 3.2.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30201001 =
IP Alias 1
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
30201002 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
30201003 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 0
30201004 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30201005 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30201006 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201007 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
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Table 190 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
30201008 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201009 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201010 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201011 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201012 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201013 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201014 =
IP Alias 2 <0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
30201015 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
30201016 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 0
30201017 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30201018 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30201019 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201020 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201021 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201022 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201023 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201024 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201025 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201026 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
*/ Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup (SMT Menu 3.5)
517
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30500001 =
ESSID
30500002 =
Hide ESSID
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
30500003 =
Channel ID
<1|2|3|4|5|6|7 = 1
|8|9|10|11|12|
13>
Wireless
= 0
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Table 190 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
30500004 =
RTS Threshold
<0 ~ 2432>
= 2432
30500005 =
FRAG. Threshold
<256 ~ 2432>
= 2432
30500006 =
WEP
<0(DISABLE) |
1(64-bit WEP)
| 2(128-bit
WEP)>
= 0
30500007 =
Default Key
30500008 =
WEP Key1
=
30500009 =
WEP Key2
=
30500010 =
WEP Key3
=
30500011 =
WEP Key4
30500012 =
Wlan Active
<1|2|3|4> = 0
=
<0(Disable) |
1(Enable)>
= 0
*/ MENU 3.5.1 WLAN MAC ADDRESS FILTER (SMT MENU 3.5.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30501001 =
Mac Filter Active
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
30501002 =
Filter Action
<0(Allow) |
1(Deny)>
= 0
30501003 =
Address
1
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
30501004 =
Address
2
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
30501005 =
Address
3
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
Continued
…
30501034 =
Address
…
32
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
Table 191 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4)
/ Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
40000000 =
Configured
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000001 =
ISP
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
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Table 191 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) (continued)
519
40000002 =
Active
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000003 =
ISP's Name
40000004 =
Encapsulation
<2(PPPOE) |
3(RFC 1483)|
4(PPPoA )|
5(ENET ENCAP)>
= 2
40000005 =
Multiplexing
<1(LLC-based)
| 2(VC-based)
= 1
40000006 =
VPI #
= 0
40000007 =
VCI #
= 35
40000008 =
Service Name
<Str>
= any
40000009 =
My Login
<Str>
= test@pqa
40000010 =
My Password
<Str>
= 1234
40000011 =
Single User Account
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000012 =
IP Address Assignment
<0(Static)|1(D = 1
ynamic)>
40000013 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
40000014 =
Remote IP address
= 0.0.0.0
40000015 =
Remote IP subnet mask
= 0
40000016 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 1
= 6
40000017 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 2
= 256
40000018 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 3
= 256
40000019 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 4
= 256
40000020 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 1
= 256
40000021 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 2
= 256
40000022 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 3
= 256
40000023 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 4
= 256
40000024 =
ISP PPPoE idle timeout
= 0
40000025 =
Route IP
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000026 =
Bridge
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
40000027 =
ATM QoS Type
<0(CBR) | (1
(UBR)>
= 1
40000028 =
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)
= 0
40000029 =
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)
= 0
40000030 =
Maximum Burst Size(MBS)
= 0
40000031=
RIP Direction
= ChangeMe
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 191 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) (continued)
40000032=
RIP Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
40000033=
Nailed-up Connection
<0(No)
|1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12)
/ Menu 12.1.1 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120101001 =
IP Static Route set #1, Name
<Str>
=
120101002 =
IP Static Route set #1, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120101003 =
IP Static Route set #1, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120101004 =
IP Static Route set #1, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120101005 =
IP Static Route set #1, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120101006 =
IP Static Route set #1, Metric
= 0
120101007 =
IP Static Route set #1, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
PVA
INPUT
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.2 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.2)
FIN
FN
120102001 =
IP Static Route set #2, Name
120102002 =
IP Static Route set #2, Active
120102003 =
IP Static Route set #2, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120102004 =
IP Static Route set #2, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120102005 =
IP Static Route set #2, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120102006 =
IP Static Route set #2, Metric
= 0
120102007 =
IP Static Route set #2, Private
=
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.3 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120103001 =
IP Static Route set #3, Name
<Str>
=
120103002 =
IP Static Route set #3, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120103003 =
IP Static Route set #3, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120103004 =
IP Static Route set #3, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120103005 =
IP Static Route set #3, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120103006 =
IP Static Route set #3, Metric
120103007 =
IP Static Route set #3, Private
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
520
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
/ Menu 12.1.4 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120104001 =
IP Static Route set #4, Name
<Str>
=
120104002 =
IP Static Route set #4, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120104003 =
IP Static Route set #4, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120104004 =
IP Static Route set #4, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120104005 =
IP Static Route set #4, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120104006 =
IP Static Route set #4, Metric
= 0
120104007 =
IP Static Route set #4, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.5 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120105001 =
IP Static Route set #5, Name
<Str>
=
120105002 =
IP Static Route set #5, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120105003 =
IP Static Route set #5, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120105004 =
IP Static Route set #5, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120105005 =
IP Static Route set #5, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120105006 =
IP Static Route set #5, Metric
= 0
120105007 =
IP Static Route set #5, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.6 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.6)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120106001 =
IP Static Route set #6, Name
<Str>
=
120106002 =
IP Static Route set #6, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120106003 =
IP Static Route set #6, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120106004 =
IP Static Route set #6, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120106005 =
IP Static Route set #6, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120106006 =
IP Static Route set #6, Metric
= 0
120106007 =
IP Static Route set #6, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.7 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.7)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120107001 =
IP Static Route set #7, Name
<Str>
=
120107002 =
IP Static Route set #7, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120107003 =
IP Static Route set #7, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120107004 =
IP Static Route set #7, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120107005 =
IP Static Route set #7, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
521
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120107006 =
IP Static Route set #7, Metric
120107007 =
IP Static Route set #7, Private
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.8 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.8)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120108001 =
IP Static Route set #8, Name
<Str>
=
120108002 =
IP Static Route set #8, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120108003 =
IP Static Route set #8, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120108004 =
IP Static Route set #8, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120108005 =
IP Static Route set #8, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120108006 =
IP Static Route set #8, Metric
= 0
120108007 =
IP Static Route set #8, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.9 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.9)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120109001 =
IP Static Route set #9, Name
<Str>
=
120109002 =
IP Static Route set #9, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120109003 =
IP Static Route set #9, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120109004 =
IP Static Route set #9, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120109005 =
IP Static Route set #9, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120109006 =
IP Static Route set #9, Metric
= 0
120109007 =
IP Static Route set #9, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
PVA
INPUT
*/ Menu 12.1.10 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.10)
FIN
FN
120110001 =
IP Static Route set #10, Name
120110002 =
IP Static Route set #10, Active
120110003 =
IP Static Route set #10, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120110004 =
IP Static Route set #10, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120110005 =
IP Static Route set #10, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120110006 =
IP Static Route set #10, Metric
= 0
120110007 =
IP Static Route set #10, Private
=
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.11 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.11)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120111001 =
IP Static Route set #11, Name
<Str>
=
120111002 =
IP Static Route set #11, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120111003 =
IP Static Route set #11, Destination
IP address
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
= 0.0.0.0
522
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120111004 =
IP Static Route set #11, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120111005 =
IP Static Route set #11, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120111006 =
IP Static Route set #11, Metric
= 0
120111007 =
IP Static Route set #11, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.12 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.12)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120112001 =
IP Static Route set #12, Name
<Str>
=
120112002 =
IP Static Route set #12, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120112003 =
IP Static Route set #12, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120112004 =
IP Static Route set #12, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120112005 =
IP Static Route set #12, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120112006 =
IP Static Route set #12, Metric
= 0
120112007 =
IP Static Route set #12, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.13 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.13)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120113001 =
IP Static Route set #13, Name
<Str>
=
120113002 =
IP Static Route set #13, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120113003 =
IP Static Route set #13, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120113004 =
IP Static Route set #13, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120113005 =
IP Static Route set #13, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120113006 =
IP Static Route set #13, Metric
= 0
120113007 =
IP Static Route set #13, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.14 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 14)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120114001 =
IP Static Route set #14, Name
<Str>
=
120114002 =
IP Static Route set #14, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120114003 =
IP Static Route set #14, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120114004 =
IP Static Route set #14, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120114005 =
IP Static Route set #14, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120114006 =
IP Static Route set #14, Metric
= 0
120114007 =
IP Static Route set #14, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.15 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 15)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120115001 =
IP Static Route set #15, Name
<Str>
=
523
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 192 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120115002 =
IP Static Route set #15, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
120115003 =
IP Static Route set #15, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120115004 =
IP Static Route set #15, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120115005 =
IP Static Route set #15, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120115006 =
IP Static Route set #15, Metric
= 0
120115007 =
IP Static Route set #15, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.16 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 16)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120116001 =
IP Static Route set #16, Name
<Str>
=
120116002 =
IP Static Route set #16, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120116003 =
IP Static Route set #16, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120116004 =
IP Static Route set #16, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120116005 =
IP Static Route set #16, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120116006 =
IP Static Route set #16, Metric
= 0
120116007 =
IP Static Route set #16, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 193 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15)
/ Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15)
FIN
FN
150000001 =
SUA Server IP address for default
port
150000002 =
SUA Server #2 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000003 =
SUA Server #2 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000004 =
SUA Server #2 Port Start
= 0
150000005 =
SUA Server #2 Port End
= 0
150000006 =
SUA Server #2 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000007 =
SUA Server #3 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000008 =
SUA Server #3 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000009 =
SUA Server #3 Port Start
= 0
150000010 =
SUA Server #3 Port End
= 0
150000011 =
SUA Server #3 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000012 =
SUA Server #4 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000013 =
SUA Server #4 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
PVA
INPUT
= 0.0.0.0
524
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 193 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) (continued)
150000014 =
SUA Server #4 Port Start
= 0
150000015 =
SUA Server #4 Port End
= 0
150000016 =
SUA Server #4 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000017 =
SUA Server #5 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000018 =
SUA Server #5 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000019 =
SUA Server #5 Port Start
= 0
150000020 =
SUA Server #5 Port End
= 0
150000021 =
SUA Server #5 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000022 =
SUA Server #6 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)> =
0
= 0
150000023 =
SUA Server #6 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000024 =
SUA Server #6 Port Start
= 0
150000025 =
SUA Server #6 Port End
= 0
150000026 =
SUA Server #6 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000027 =
SUA Server #7 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000028 =
SUA Server #7 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0.0.0.0
150000029 =
SUA Server #7 Port Start
= 0
150000030 =
SUA Server #7 Port End
= 0
150000031 =
SUA Server #7 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000032 =
SUA Server #8 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000033 =
SUA Server #8 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000034 =
SUA Server #8 Port Start
= 0
150000035 =
SUA Server #8 Port End
= 0
150000036 =
SUA Server #8 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000037 =
SUA Server #9 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000038 =
SUA Server #9 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000039 =
SUA Server #9 Port Start
= 0
150000040 =
SUA Server #9 Port End
= 0
150000041 =
SUA Server #9 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000042
= SUA Server #10 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000043 =
SUA Server #10 Protocol
150000044 =
SUA Server #10 Port Start
= 0
150000045 =
SUA Server #10 Port End
= 0
150000046 =
SUA Server #10 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000047 =
525
SUA Server #11 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 193 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) (continued)
150000048 =
SUA Server #11 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000049 =
SUA Server #11 Port Start
= 0
150000050 =
SUA Server #11 Port End
= 0
150000051 =
SUA Server #11 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000052 =
SUA Server #12 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000053 =
SUA Server #12 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000054 =
SUA Server #12 Port Start
= 0
150000055 =
SUA Server #12 Port End
= 0
150000056 =
SUA Server #12 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
Table 194 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1)
/ Menu 21 Filter set #1 (SMT Menu 21)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210100001 =
Filter Set 1, Name
<Str>
=
/ Menu 21.1.1.1 set #1, rule #1 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210101001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210101002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210101003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Protocol
= 6
210101004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210101005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210101006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Port
= 137
210101007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Port Comp
210101008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210101009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210101010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Port
= 0
210101011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210101013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210101014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 1
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not equal)|
3(less)|
4(greater)>
= 1
526
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 194 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
/ Menu 21.1.1.2 set #1, rule #2 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210102001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210102002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210102003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Protocol
= 6
210102004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210102005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210102006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Port
= 138
210102007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Port Comp
210102008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210102009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210102010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Port
= 0
210102011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210102013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210102014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.3 set #1, rule #3 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210103001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210103002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210103003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Protocol
= 6
210103004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210103005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210103006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Port
= 139
210103007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Port Comp
210103008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210103009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210103010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Port
= 0
210103011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Port Comp
527
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
= 0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 194 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210103013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 3
210103014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.4 set #1, rule #4 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210104001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210104002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210104003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Protocol
= 17
210104004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210104005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210104006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Port
= 137
210104007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Port Comp
210104008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210104009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210104010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Port
= 0
210104011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210104013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Act Match
<1(check next)
|2( forward) |
3(drop)
= 3
210104014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.5 set #1, rule #5 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210105001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210105002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210105003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Protocol
= 17
210105004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210105005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210105006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Port
= 138
210105007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Port Comp
210105008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src IP Address
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
= 0.0.0.0
528
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 194 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210105009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210105010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Port
= 0
210105011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210105013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210105014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Act Not Match
<1(Check Next)
|2(Forward)|3(Dro
p)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.6 set #1, rule #6 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.6)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210106001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210106002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210106003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Protocol
= 17
210106004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210106005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210106006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Port
= 139
210106007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Port Comp
210106008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210106009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210106010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Port
= 0
210106011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210106013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210106014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 2
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1)
/ Menu 21.1 filter set #2,
529
(SMT Menu 21.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210200001 =
Filter Set 2, Nam
<Str>
=
NetBIOS_WAN
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
/ Menu 21.1.2.1 Filter set #2, rule #1 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210201001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210201002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210201003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Protocol
= 6
210201004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210201005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210201006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest Port
= 137
210201007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest Port
Comp
210201008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210201009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210201010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Port
= 0
210201011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210201013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210201014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.2 Filter set #2, rule #2 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
210202001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210202002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210202003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Protocol
= 6
210202004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210202005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210202006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest Port
= 138
210202007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest Port
Comp
210202008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src IP
address
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
INPUT
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
= 0.0.0.0
530
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210202009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210202010 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 2 Src Port
= 0
210202011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210202013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210202014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.3 Filter set #2, rule #3 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210203001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210203002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210203003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Protocol
= 6
210203004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210203005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210203006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest Port
= 139
210203007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest Port
Comp
210203008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210203009 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 3 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210203010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src Port
= 0
210203011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210203013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210203014 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 3 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.4 Filter set #2, rule #4 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.4)
531
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210204001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210204002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes
)> = 1
210204003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Protocol
= 17
210204004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210204005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210204006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest Port
210204007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest Port
Comp
210204008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210204009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210204010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Port
= 0
210204011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210204013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210204014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 137
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.5 Filter set #2, rule #5 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
210205001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210205002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210205003 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 5 Protocol
= 17
210205004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210205005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210205006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest Port
= 138
210205007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest Port
Comp
210205008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210205009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210205010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Port
= 0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
INPUT
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
532
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 195 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210205011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210205013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210205014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.6 Filter set #2, rule #6 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.5)
533
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210206001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210206002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210206003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Protocol
= 17
210206004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210206005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210206006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest Port
= 139
210206007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest Port
Comp
210206008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210206009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210206010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Port
= 0
210206011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210206013 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 6 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210206014 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 6 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 2
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
241100005 =
FTP Server Access
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
241100006 =
FTP Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100007 =
WEB Server Port
= 80
241100008 =
WEB Server Access
241100009 =
WEB Server Secured IP address
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an) |3(Wan)>
= 0.0.0.0
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 196 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23)
*/ Menu 23.1 System Password Setup (SMT Menu 23.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
230000000 =
System Password
INPUT
= 1234
*/ Menu 23.2 System security: radius server (SMT Menu 23.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
230200001 =
Authentication Server Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200002 =
Authentication Server Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200003 =
Authentication Server IP Address
=
192.168.1.32
230200004 =
Authentication Server Port
= 1822
230200005 =
Authentication Server Shared
Secret
=
111111111111
111
111111111111
1111
230200006 =
Accounting Server Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200007 =
Accounting Server Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200008 =
Accounting Server IP Address
=
192.168.1.44
230200009 =
Accounting Server Port
= 1823
230200010 =
Accounting Server Shared Secret
= 1234
*/ Menu 23.4 System security: IEEE 802.1x (SMT Menu 23.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
230400001 =
Wireless Port Control
<0(Authentication
Required) |1(No
Access Allowed)
|2(No
Authentication
Required)>
= 2
230400002 =
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)
= 555
230400003 =
Idle Timeout (in second)
= 999
230400004 =
Authentication Databases
<0(Local User
Database Only)
|1(RADIUS Only)
|2(Local,RADIUS)
|3(RADIUS,Local)>
= 1
230400005 =
Key Management Protocol
<0(8021x) |1(WPA)
|2(WPAPSK)>
= 0
230400006 =
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
<0(Disable) |1(64bit WEP) |2(128-bit
WEP)>
= 0
230400007 =
PSK
=
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
=
534
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 196 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23) (continued)
230400008 =
WPA Mixed Mode
230400009 =
Data Privacy for Broadcast/
Multicast packets
230400010 =
WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update
Timer
<0(Disable)
|1(Enable)>
<0(TKIP) |1(WEP)>
= 0
= 0
= 0
Table 197 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11)
/ Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
241100001 =
TELNET Server Port
241100002 =
TELNET Server Access
241100003 =
TELNET Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100004 =
FTP Server Port
= 21
241100005 =
FTP Server Access
241100006 =
FTP Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100007 =
WEB Server Port
= 80
241100008 =
WEB Server Access
241100009 =
WEB Server Secured IP address
= 23
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an) |3(Wan)>
= 0.0.0.0
Command Examples
The following are example Internal SPTGEN screens associated with the Prestige’s command
interpreter commands.
Table 198 Command Examples
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
/ci command (for annex a): wan adsl opencmd
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
990000001 =
ADSL OPMD
<0(glite)|1(t1.413
)|2(gdmt)|3(multim
ode)>
= 3
/ci command (for annex B): wan adsl opencmd
535
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Table 198 Command Examples (continued)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
990000001 =
ADSL OPMD
<0(etsi)|1(normal)
|2(gdmt)|3(multimo
de)>
= 3
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
536
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
537
Appendix M Internal SPTGEN
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Index
Authority 3
auto-negotiation 43
AWG 4
Numerics
B
110V AC 4
230V AC 4
Backup 365
Backup Typ 112
Bandwidth Borrowing 233
bandwidth budget 228
bandwidth capacity 228
Bandwidth Class 228
bandwidth class 228
Bandwidth Filter 228
bandwidth filter 228
Bandwidth Management 228
Bandwidth Management Statistics 239
Bandwidth Manager Class Configuration 236
Bandwidth Manager Class Setup 235
Bandwidth Manager Monitor 240
Bandwidth Manager Summary 234
Basement 4
Blocking Time 162, 163
Borrow bandwidth from parent class 237
Bridging 297, 308
Ether Address 310
Ethernet 308
Ethernet Addr Timeout 309
Remote Node 308
Static Route Setup 310
bridging 273
Brute-force Attack, 134
BSS 502
Budget Management 377, 378
BW Budget 237
A
Abnormal Working Conditions 5
AC 4
Access methods 328
Accessories 4
Acts of God 5
Address Assignment 73
Address mapping 122
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 77
ADSL, what is it? 40
ADSLstandards 42
AH 172
AH (Authentication Header) 402
AH Protocol 176
Airflow 4
Alternative Subnet Mask Notation 446
American Wire Gauge 4
Any IP 43, 76
How it works 77
note 77
Any IP Setup 79
Any IP table 259
AP (access point) 504
applicaions
Internet access 47
Application-level Firewalls 130
AT command 365
ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) 102
ATM layer options 301
Attack Alert 163
Attack Types 135
Authentication 296, 297
Authentication databases 93
authentication databases 352
Authentication Header 176
Authentication protocol 297
Index
C
CA 509
Cables, Connecting 4
Call filtering 330
Call filters
Built-in 330
User-defined 330
Call Scheduling 396
Maximum Number of Schedule Sets 396
PPPoE 398
Precedence 396
538
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Precedence Example 396
CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) 109
CDR 360
CDR (Call Detail Record) 359
Certificate Authority 509
Certifications 3
change password at login 53
Changes or Modifications 3
Channel 504
Interference 504
Channel ID 285
CHAP 296
Charge 5
Circuit 3
Class B 3
Class Name 237
Collision 355
Command Interpreter Mode 376
Communications 3
Community 345
compact 46
compact guide 52
Compliance, FCC 3
Components 5
Computer Name 272
Condition 5
Conditions that prevent TFTP and FTP from working
over WAN 367
Configuration 72, 258
configuration file 364
Connecting Cables 4
Consequential Damages 5
Contact Information 6
Contacting Customer Support 6
Content Filtering 166
Categories 166
Schedule 167
Tursted computers 168
URL keyword blocking 166
Content filtering 166
content filtering 44
Copyright 2
Correcting Interference 3
Corrosive Liquids 4
Cost Of Transmission 299, 306
Country Code 357
Covers 4
CPU Load 356
CTS (Clear to Send) 505
Custom Ports
Creating/Editing 153
539
Customer Support 6
Customized Services 153
Customized services 153
D
Damage 4
Dampness 4
Danger 4
Data Confidentiality 171
Data Filtering 330
Data Integrity 171
Data Origin Authentication 171
data privacy 351
Dealer 3
default LAN IP address 52
Defective 5
Denial of Service 131, 132, 162, 328
Denmark, Contact Information 6
Destination Address 146
Device Filter rules 339
device model number 263
Device rule 339
DH 189
DHCP 45, 72, 74, 126, 258, 282, 357
DHCP client 45
DHCP relay 45
DHCP server 45, 258, 282
DHCP table 258
diagnostic 260
Diagnostic Tools 354
Diffie-Hellman Key Groups 189
Disclaimer 2
Discretion 5
Distribution System (DS) 89
DNS 282
DNS Server
For VPN Host 180
DNS server 404
Domain Name 73, 119
domain name 272
Domain Name System 73
DoS 132
Basics 132
Types 133
DoS (Denial of Service) 44
DoS attacks, types of 133
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) 40
Index
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
DSL line, reinitialize 262
DSL, What Is It? 40
DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) 47
Dust 4
Dynamic DNS 45, 126, 273
dynamic DNS 45, 273
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 45
Dynamic Secure Gateway Address 178
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange 509
Dynamic WEP key exchange 93
dynamic WEP key exchange 351
DYNDNS Wildcard 126
E
EAP 82
EAP Authentication 508
EAP authentication 350
ECHO 118
Electric Shock 4
Electrical Pipes 4
Electrocution 4
E-mail
Log Example 226
embedded help 55
Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) 102
Encapsulation 102, 172, 292, 295
ENET ENCAP 102
PPP over Ethernet 102
PPPoA 102
RFC 1483 103
Encapsulation Security Payload 177
Encryption 170, 510
Equal Value 5
Error Log 358
ESP 172
ESP Protocol 177
ESS 503
ESSID (Extended Service Set Identification) 85
Ethernet 429
Europe 4
Exposure 4
Extended Service Set 503
F
Failure 5
Index
Fairness-based Scheduler 231
FCC 3
Compliance 3
Rules, Part 15 3
FCC Rules 3
Federal Communications Commission 3
Filename Conventions 364
filename conventions 365
Filter 280, 330
Applying Filters 341
Ethernet Traffic 342
Ethernet traffic 342
Filter Rules 333
Filter structure 331
Generic Filter Rule 337
Remote Node 300
Remote Node Filter 300
Remote Node Filters 342
Sample 340
SUA 339
TCP/IP Filter Rule 335
Filter Log 360
Filter Rule Process 331
Filter Rule Setup 334
Filter Set
Class 334
Filtering 330, 334
Filtering Process
Outgoing Packets 330
Finger 119
Finland, Contact Information 6
Firewall
Access Methods 144, 328
Address Type 152
Alerts 147
Anti-Probing 160
Creating/Editing Rules 150
Custom Ports 153
Enabling 147
Firewall Vs Filters 141
Guidelines For Enhancing Security 139
Introduction 131
LAN to WAN Rules 146
Policies 144
Remote Management 328
Rule Checklist 145
Rule Logic 145
Rule Security Ramifications 145
Services 158
SMT menus 328
Types 130
When To Use 141
firmware 263, 364
upgrade 263
upload 263
upload error 264
540
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Fitness 5
Fragment Threshold 285
Fragmentation Threshold 505
Fragmentation threshold 505
France, Contact Information 6
FTP 118, 204, 383
Restrictions 383
FTP File Transfer 371
FTP Restrictions 204, 367
FTP Server 322
Full Rate 480
Functionally Equivalent 5
G
Gas Pipes 4
Gateway 306
Gateway Node 310
General Setup 272
Generic filter 339
Germany, Contact Information 6
God, act of 5
H
Half-Open Sessions 162
Harmful Interference 3
Hidden Menus 269
Hidden node 504
High Voltage Points 4
Hop Count 299, 306
Host 57
Host IDs 444
HTTP 119, 130, 132, 133, 405, 406
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) 263
I
IANA 74, 75
IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) 153
IBSS 502
ICMP echo 135
ID Type and Content 181
Idle timeout 297
541
IEEE 802.11g 46, 506
IEEE 802.11i 46
IEEE802.1x 350
IGMP 75, 76
IGMP support 299
IKE Phases 188
Independent Basic Service Set 502
Indirect Damages 5
initialization vector (IV) 510
Inside Header 173
Install UPnP 210
Windows Me 210
Windows XP 212
Insurance 5
Integrated Services Digital Network 42
Interactive Applications 386
Interference 3
Interference Correction Measures 3
Interference Statement 3
Internal SPTGEN 512
FTP Upload Example 514
Points to Remember 512
Text File 512
Internet Access 43, 48, 288, 291, 292
Internet access 58, 288
Internet Access Setup 312, 417
Internet access wizard setup 58
Internet Assigned Numbers AuthoritySee IANA 74
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 135, 160
Internet Key Exchange 188
Internet Protocol Security 170
IP Address 74, 118, 258, 282, 306, 310, 336, 357, 362,
388
IP Address Assignment 103
ENET ENCAP 104
PPPoA or PPPoE 103
RFC 1483 104
IP Addressing 444
IP alias 45, 288
IP Alias Setup 289
IP Classes 444
IP Filter 337
Logic Flow 336
IP mask 335
IP Packet 337
IP Policies 390
IP policy 288
IP policy routing 386
IP Policy Routing (IPPR) 45, 288
Applying an IP Policy 390
Ethernet IP Policies 390
Gateway 390
Index
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
IP Pool Setup 73
IP Ports 405, 406
IP Protocol 389
IP protocol 386
IP protocol type 158
IP Routing Policy (IPPR) 386
Benefits 386
Cost Savings 386
Criteria 386
Load Sharing 386
Setup 387
IP Spoofing 133, 136
IP Static Route 304
IP Static Route Setup 305
IPSec 170
IPSec Algorithm 402
IPSec algorithm 413
IPSec Algorithms 172, 176
IPSec and NAT 173
IPSec Architecture 171
IPSec rule 400
IPSec standard 44
IPSec VPN Capability 44
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 42
K
Keep Alive 180
Key Fields For Configuring Rules 146
Key management protocol 351
L
Labor 5
LAN 355
LAN Setup 72, 102
LAN TCP/IP 74
LAN to WAN Rules 146
LAND 133, 134
Legal Rights 5
Liability 2
License 2
Lightning 4
Link type 355
Liquids, Corrosive 4
LLC-based Multiplexing 301
Local Network
Index
Rule Summary 148
Local User Database 352
Local user database 96
Log and Trace 358
Log Facility 359
Logging Option 336, 339
Logical networks 288
Login 296
Logs 222
M
MAC (Media Access Control) 258
MAC (Media Access Control) address. 87
MAC address 310
MAC Address Filter 285
MAC address filter 285
Filter action 286
MAC Address Filter Action 88, 286
MAC Address Filtering 87
MAC filter 83
Main Menu 269
maintenance 254
management idle timeout period 53
Management Information Base (MIB) 345
Materials 5
Maximize Bandwidth Usage 231
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) 106, 109
Max-incomplete High 162
Max-incomplete Low 162
MBSSee Maximum Burst Size 292
MD5 (Message Digest 5) 407
Media Access Control 308
Media Bandwidth Management 44
Merchantability 5
Message Integrity Check (MIC) 510
Message Logging 358
Metric 104, 299, 306
Modifications 3
MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit) 285
Multicast 75, 299
Multiplexing 103, 292, 295
multiplexing 103
LLC-based 103
VC-based 103
Multiprotocol Encapsulation 103
My IP Address 177
My WAN Address 298
542
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
N
Nailed-Up Connection 104
NAT 74, 118, 119, 339
Address mapping rule 123
Application 116
Applying NAT in the SMT Menus 312
Configuring 314
Definitions 114
Examples 319
How it works 115
Mapping Types 117
Non NAT Friendly Application Programs 325
Ordering Rules 317
What it does 115
What NAT does 115
NAT (Network Address Translation) 114
NAT mode 120
NAT Traversal 208
navigating the web configurator 54
Negotiation Mode 189, 407
NetBIOS commands 135
Network Address Translation 292
Network Address Translation (NAT) 45, 312
Network Management 119
New 5
NNTP 119
North America 4
North America Contact Information 6
Norway, Contact Information 6
O
One-Minute High 162
Opening 4
Operating Condition 5
Operating frequency 285
Out-dated Warranty 5
Outlet 3
Outside Header 173
P
Packet
Error 355
Received 355
Transmitted 355
Packet Filtering 141
543
Packet filtering
When to use 141
Packet Filtering Firewalls 130
Packet Triggered 360
Packets 355
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 510
PAP 297
Parts 5
Password 266, 270, 296, 345
password 266
Patent 2
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) 106, 109
Perfect Forward Secrecy 190
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) 408
Permission 2
PFS 190
Photocopying 2
Ping 362
Ping of Death 133
Pipes 4
Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
(AAL5) 102
Point-to-Point 40
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 119
policy-based routing 386
Pool 4
POP3 119, 132, 133
Port Numbers 118
Postage Prepaid. 5
Power Adaptor 4
Power Cord 4
Power Outlet 4
Power Supply 4
Power Supply, repair 4
PPP Encapsulation 301
PPP Log 361
PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC
2516) 102
PPPoA 295
PPPoE 105, 484
Benefits 105
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) 45, 105
PPPoE pass-through 303
PPTP 119
Preamble Mode 506
Precedence 386, 389
Pre-Shared Key 183, 351, 407
Format 88
Prestige model 364
Priority 237
Index
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
Priority-based Scheduler 231
Private 299, 306
Product Model 6
Product Page 3
Product Serial Number 6
Products 5
Proof of Purchase 5
Proper Operating Condition 5
Proportional Bandwidth Allocation 229
Protocol 335
Protocol filter 339
Protocol Filter Rules 339
PSK 351
Purchase, Proof of 5
Purchaser 5
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) 102
Q
Qualified Service Personnel 4
Quality of Service 386
Quick Start Guide 39
R
Radio Communications 3
Radio frequency 85
Radio Frequency Energy 3
Radio Interference 3
Radio Reception 3
Radio Technician 3
RADIUS 507
Configuring 97
Shared Secret Key 508
RADIUS Message Types 507
RADIUS Messages 507
RADIUS server 348
RAS 357, 387
Rate
Receiving 355
Transmission 355
real-time application 228
Receiving Antenna 3
Registered 2
Registered Trademark 2
Regular Mail 6
reinitialize the ADSL line 262
Index
Related Documentation 38
Relocate 3
Re-manufactured 5
Remote DHCP Server 282
Remote Management
Firewall 328
Remote Management and NAT 205
Remote Management Limitations 204, 383
Remote Management Setup 382
Remote Node 294, 355
Remote Node Profile 296
Remote Node Setup 294
Remote node 294
Remote Node Index Number 355
Removing 4
Reorient 3
Repair 4, 5
Replace 5
Replacement 5
Reproduction 2
Required fields 269
Reset button, the 54
resetting the Prestige 53
Restore 5
Restore Configuration 369
Return Material Authorization (RMA) Number 5
Returned Products 5
Returns 5
RF (Radio Frequency) 46
RFC 1483 103
RFC 1631 114
RFC-1483 295
RFC-2364 295, 296
RFC2516 45
Rights 2
Rights, Legal 5
RIP 282, 299
RIPSee Routing Information Protocol 75
Risk 4
Risks 4
RMA 5
romfile 364
Root Class 235
Routing 288
Routing Information Protocol 75
Direction 75
Version 75
Routing Policy 386
RTS (Request To Send) 505
RTS (Request To Send) threshold 86
544
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
RTS Threshold 285, 504, 505
RTS(Request To Send) 285
Rule Summary 148
Rules 146
Checklist 145
Key Fields 146
LAN to WAN 146
Logic 145
Predefined Services 158
Summary 148
S
SA 170, 405
SA life time 407
SA lifetime 412
SA Monitor 412
SA monitor 412
Safety Warnings 4
Sample IP Addresses 299
Saving the State 136
Schedule Sets
Duration 397
Scheduler 231
SCRSee Sustain Cell Rate 292
Secure Gateway Address 178, 404
Security Association 170, 412
Security In General 140
Security Parameter Index 193
Security Parameter Index (SPI) 408
Security Parameters 511
security protocols 402
Security Ramifications 145
Separation Between Equipment and Receiver 3
Serial Number 6
Server 117, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 379
Server behind NAT 318
Service 4, 5, 146
Service Personnel 4
Service Type 154, 417
Services 118
setup a schedule 397
Shared secret 98, 349
Shipping 5
Shock, Electric 4
SMT Menu Overview 267
SMTP 119
SMTP Error Messages 225
Smurf 134, 135
545
SNMP 119
Community 346
Configuration 345
Get 345
GetNext 345
Manager 344
MIBs 345
Set 345
Trap 345
Trusted Host 346
Source Address 146, 152
Source-Based Routing 386
Spain, Contact Information 6
SPI 193, 408, 409
Splitters 480
Stateful Inspection 44, 130, 131, 136, 137
Prestige 138
Process 137
Static DHCP 79
Static route 304
Static Routing Topology 304
SUA 118, 119
SUA (Single User Account) 118, 312
SUA server 118, 120
Default server set 118
SUA vs NAT 118
SUA/NAT Server Set 121
Sub-class Layers 235
Subnet Mask 74, 152, 282, 298, 306, 357
Subnet Masks 445
Subnetting 445
Supply Voltage 4
Support E-mail 6
Supporting Disk 38
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) 109
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) 106
Sweden, Contact Information 6
Swimming Pool 4
SYN Flood 133, 134
SYN-ACK 134
Syntax Conventions 38
Syslog 158, 359
Syslog IP Address 359
Syslog Server 359
System
Console Port Speed 357
Diagnostic 361
Log and Trace 358
Syslog and Accounting 359
System Information 356
System Status 354
System Information 356
Index
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
System Information & Diagnosis 354
System Maintenance 354, 356, 365, 368, 373, 376, 377,
379
System Management Terminal 268
System Parameter Table Generator 512
System password 348
System Security 348
System Status 355
System Timeout 205, 384
T
Tampering 5
TCP Maximum Incomplete 162, 163
TCP Security 138
TCP/IP 132, 133, 205, 339, 362
Teardrop 133
Telecommunication Line Cord. 4
Telephone 6
Television Interference 3
Television Reception 3
Telnet 205, 266
Telnet Configuration 205
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) 510
Text File Format 512
TFTP
Restrictions 383
TFTP File Transfer 373
TFTP Restrictions 204, 367
Three-Way Handshake 134
Threshold Values 162
Thunderstorm 4
Time and Date Setting 378, 379
Time Zone 380
Timeout 277
TOS (Type of Service) 386
Trace Records 358
Traceroute 136
Trademark 2
Trademark Owners 2
Trademarks 2
Traffic Redirect 110, 111
Setup 277
Traffic redirect 110
traffic redirect 44
Traffic shaping 105
Translation 2
Transmission Rates 43
Index
Transport Mode 173
Triple DES (3DES) 407
Tunnel Mode 173
TV Technician 3
Type of Service 386, 388, 389, 390
U
UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) 109
UDP/ICMP Security 139
Undesired Operations 3
Universal Plug and Play 208
Application 208
Security issues 208
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) 44
Universal Plug and Play Forum 209
UNIX Syslog 358, 359
UNIX syslog parameters 359
Upload Firmware 371
UPnP 208
Upper Layer Protocols 138, 139
User Authentication 510
User Name 127
User Profiles 96
user profiles 352
V
Value 5
VBR (Variable Bit Rate) 109
VC-based Multiplexing 295
Vendor 4
Ventilation Slots 4
Viewing Certifications 3
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) 103
virtual circuit (VC) 103
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) 103
Virtual Private Network 44, 170
Voice-over-IP (VoIP) 228
Voltage Supply 4
Voltage, High 4
VPI & VCI 103
VPN 170
VPN Applications 171
VPN/IPSec 400
546
Prestige 661H/HW Series User’s Guide
W
X
Wall Mount 4
WAN (Wide Area Network) 102
WAN backup 111
WAN Setup 276
WAN to LAN Rules 146
Warnings 4
Warranty 5
Warranty Information 6
Warranty Period 5
Water 4
Water Pipes 4
Web Configurator 52, 54, 55, 131, 139, 146, 329
web configurator screen summary 55
Web Site 6
WEP
Default Key 285
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) 46, 86, 285
WEP Encryption 285
WEP encryption 84
Wet Basement 4
Wi-Fi Protected Access 88
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 46
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants 90
Wireless LAN 284
Configuring 84
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering 46
Wireless LAN Setup 284
Wireless port control 91, 351
Wireless security 82
Wizard Setup 69
WLAN
Interference 504
Security parameters 511
Workmanship 5
Worldwide Contact Information 6
WPA 88, 351
Supplicants 90
with RADIUS Application Example 89
WPA Mixed Mode 351
WPA -Pre-Shared Key 88
WPA with RADIUS Application 89
WPA-PSK 88
WPA-PSK Application 88
Written Permission 2
XMODEM protocol 365
547
Z
Zero Configuration Internet Access 43
Zero configuration Internet access 106
ZyNOS 2, 365
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 364
ZyNOS F/W Version 365
ZyXEL Communications Corporation 2
ZyXEL Home Page 3
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
Note 5
ZyXEL Network Operating System 2
ZyXEL_s Firewall
Introduction 131
Index