USB 2.0 Compliance Testing

Members
USB-IF
USB 2.0 Compliance
Testing
How to design, test and debug your
products for success.
Jim Choate
Agilent Technologies
Outline
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USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
USB2.0 Basics – General
Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0:
•
All USB specifications are owned by the USB-IF
(Implementers Forum, Inc.)
•
USB2.0 is an EXTENSION of USB1.1
•
USB-IF states USB2.0 is the CURRENT ver. of the USB.
USB1.1 is available for historical reference only.
USB 2.0 Has 3 Transfer Speeds
USB2.0
HS
USB1.1
LS/FS
– Low Speed (LS) = 1.5Mbps
– Full Speed (FS) = 12Mbps
– Hi-Speed (HS) = 480Mbps
USB 3.0 Has 1 Transfer Speed
– Superspeed (SS) = 5Gbps
For more details on the USB 3.0 specification refer to the webinar:
USB 3.0 Superspeed PHY Testing Challenges: Verify your
5Gbps design to the specification
http://www.techonline.com/learning/webinar/215400047
USB 3.0
SS
USB2.0 Basics - Architecture
• USB Architecture
Host /
System
Down
stream
Hub
Up
stream
Devices
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Differential Signal
Max USB cable length of 5m
Up to 5 Hubs
Data from PC to the device is
called Downstream
• Data from device to PC is called
Upstream
USB Cable
+ Shield
VBUS
D+
DGround
USB2.0 Basics - Signal Rates & Levels
Sig Rate
Sig Level
Rise and Fall Times
Low Speed
1.5Mbps
3.3V
75ns < Tr <300ns
Full Speed
Hi-Speed
12Mbps
480Mbps
3.3V
400mV
4ns < Tr < 20ns Tr > 500ps*
*High Speed USB edge rate compliance measurement method and
pass/fail criteria have been changed. This will be explained in the
compliance requirements section.
Host test requirements
http://www.usb.org/developers/docs#comp_test_procedures
USB2.0: Logo compliance for Quality
• With 480Mbps, higher quality electrical signals are essential
• The market requires all USB products meet the specification by passing
the tests.
The USB
2.0 Compliance Tests are mandatory
When you pass the tests, you…
• Can use the High Speed USB 2.0 Logo
• Will be listed on the Integrator’s List
The HS Logo
The FS/LS Logo
Compliance Workshop Test Suites
• USB 2.0 Interoperability Gold Suite
• Interoperability with “gold tree”
components
• USB Command Verifier
• USB 2.0 Electrical Test Suite
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Signal Quality Testing
Receiver Testing
Packet parameters
EVM Test Suites
• USB 2.0 debug suite
• 1:1 Interoperability System Suites
• Staffed and equipped by product vendor
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
Agilent USB 2.0 Solution
• Test all aspects of your USB product
using Agilent USB test solutions
• At its heart: N5416A USB 2.0
Compliance Test Software
Additional USB testing products:
•N5417A USB OTG Test Fixture
•N5464A/B USB Protocol Triggering
and Decode
•E2649A High speed test fixtures
•E2646A Low/Full speed test fixture
•InfiniiMax probes
•Infiniium 90000 and 9000 series
scopes
USB Transmitter testing
The worlds most popular
USB test solution joins
with the Infiniium 9000
series scope
•Same automation and ease
of use
•NEW protocol analysis
and triggering
N5416A USB 2.0 Compliance Test Application
Agilent USB-IF approved compliance test
with Matlab scripts
NEW: Infiniium 9000 series Oscilloscope
Transmitter electrical test coverage
Application automates all compliance
tests and provides summary of all
testing performed
Receiver Testing
SE0_NAK Mode
•Test mode SW places DUT into RX
test mode
•Scope application auto adjusts
amplitude and packet types to test RX
Connection diagrams and integrated test procedures
make setup and execution of testing simple
•N5416A USB test application
measures results automatically with
histogram
Industries only
automated RX test
solution
Receiver Jitter tolerance testing
• Why Test USB 2.0 jitter tolerance?
• The N5990A option 102 provides
unprecedented USB 2.0 receiver device
test coverage.
N5990A USB test solution
USB 2.0 jitter tolerance test result
Completing the Solution: Fixtures and probing
Automated drop/droop
InfiniiMax
Differential
Probes:
•The world’s best
probing system
•The right BW for
the job
N2774A Current Probe
E2649A High speed USB
compliance test fixture set
9000 Series ships standard with
N2873A probes
E2646A SQiDD fixture
•FS/LS Signal quality,
Inrush
N5417A USB OET
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
Design Challenges
• HS Signal Integrity
– Trace and Driver Impedance
– Proper decoupling
• Current Draw
– Operating current
– Unconfigured current
– Suspend current
• Receiver Testing
• Test Modes
USB Impedance Spec Explained
• What does the spec say?
• High-Speed Zo
– Zo – cable = 90 +/-15 %
– ZHSTERM = 80 to 100 ohms differential
– ZHSTHRU = 70 to 110 ohms differential
• FS Driver Impedance
– Not HS capable: Zdrv = 28-44 ohms
– HS Capable: Zdrv = 40.5-49.5 ohms
USB Impedance Measurement
• 86100C DCA-J paired with
54754A Differential TDR module
Test
Bed
PC
ZHSTHRU
110
ZHSTERM
100
80
70
USB Connector
reference location
BGA
discontinuity
Proper Decoupling
• Prevent signal integrity problems by
understanding how to properly decouple power
and grounds on your chip
• Bulk vs filter capacitance
– Electrolytic Bulk Capacitance
C = I / (dV/dt), size in uF depends on max transients
For example: I peak = 3A, Vnom = 3.3V, 10% V tolerance,
10usec delta time
C = 3A*(10us/(3.3V*0.10) = 90.9uF => use 100uF Bulk cap*
– Ceramic High Frequency Capacitance
Typical values are 0.01uF, 0.1uF to 1uF depending on
filtering frequency needed
*note: Devices are required to limit inrush on hot attach by limiting load to
10uF in parallel with 44ohms.
Design
Proper Cap Selection and routing
• Proper route/placement of capacitors
• Choose the right kind of capacitor
depending on it’s purpose
– NPO (lowest ESR), X7R, X5R, Y5V
Lowest pad
inductance
Vcc
Gnd
Standard method
of Cap routing
Vcc
Gnd
Much
smaller
ground
loop
Measuring Device Inrush Current
• Inrush is a function of device load on hot
attach and hub port voltage/ESR
•Spec limit = ~50uC
•Inrush waiver built in to
scripts
•Limit inrush events
by using sequential power
on for controller logic
N2774A Current Probe
Inrush event time
Rise and Fall time
• As designs move to smaller process technology the
edge rates are increasing
• USB 2.0 specification limits RT/FT to 500ps as
measured at 10%-90%
• Errors in consistency of these measurements due to:
– Shape of signal edge
10%-90% variations
– Noise
– Amplitude variations
– Probe peaking due to insufficient BW
• Slow corners give 10/90
rise time that is slower than
actual edge rate
• RT/FT faster than 400ps have observed
• Oscilloscope AND Probe BW must be at least 2.5Ghz
to accurately observe and measure these fast edges
Slew rate RT/FT methodology
Slew
Rate
Method
Design
10-90% Method
small ∆V of 10% and
90% = large ∆RT/FT
Refer to http://compliance.usb.org/index.html for the latest compliance test updates
Test Modes
• Test_SEO_NAK
• Receiver test mode
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Test_J
Test_K
Test_Packet
Other tests driven by HSET using
normal USB device requests
– Example: suspend, resume, reset, etc
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
Compliance Pitfalls
• Failure to properly support USB suspend
– Low power state required of all devices
• < 2.5mA (spec says 500uA = auto waiver)
• Improperly report bus vs self powered if
battery powered
• RX Sensitivity failure vs Squelch
• Backdrive
• SW Driver loading sequence
• Test mode not implemented
Compliance Pitfalls – RX Test
•Misinterpretation of RX sensitivity and Squelch requirements has
caused considerable confusion and discrepancy in test results
•As you can see from the waveform at the right the artifacts on the
transition and non-transition bits due to reflections are significant
Compliance Pitfalls – RX Test
Compliance
•Agilent uses a histogram function to standardize measurement of
sensitivity and squelch thresholds
•Other solutions require manual placement cursors based on “flat
spot” on waveform
•This automation greatly improves consistency of test results at
workshops and test labs
Receiver Sensitivity (EL_17) and Squelch (EL_16)
Compliance
•Please note that it is the combination of EL_16 and EL_17 that
validates the "transmission detection envelope" defined in section
7.1.4.2 of the USB 2.0 Specification
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
Waivers
• Some failures are due to measurement errors
or non-critical failures
• It is important to understand how the USBIF
handles some types of failures
• Automatic waivers
– Always granted
– May be built into test tools
• Conditional waivers
• Permanent waivers
Non-Critical = No End User Impact
Waivers
Waivers
• The criterion for granting a waiver varies
greatly and tends to be specific to the device.
Some general factors used to consider
granting or denying waiver requests are:
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Violation's effect on end-user experience
Violation's affect on other USB product
Market share of affected product
Cost of corrective action to the vendor
• Waiver decisions are at the discretion of the
USB-IF Compliance Chairman and members
of the Certification Review Board.
Waivers
Waivers
• Products with waivers post to IL and
receive logo usage rights
• General USBIF rule is waivers are not
published
• Design to specification not to waiver
limits
Waivers
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB 2.0 Basics
Agilent’s USB 2.0 Solution
Design challenges
Common compliance pitfalls
What are Waivers?
Advanced Debug and Testing with the 9000
series Oscilloscope
• Conclusion / Q&A
USB Protocol Triggering and Decode
• Industries first on-scope USB protocol triggering and
decode capability
• Debug protocol
issues
• Trigger on
different packet
types
• Test embedded
designs
• Isolate logical
from electrical
issues
Testing a Complex Bus Topology with the Agilent
Infiniium 9000 Scope
SATA
Best 3-in-1
Instrument
IDE
ULPI
Scope:
• Up to: 4 GHz BW, 20 GSa/s, 1 Gpts
• Powerful triggering
• Packed with rich features/analysis.
Logic Analyzer:
• 16 integrated channels
• 128 Mpts std memory, up to 2 GSa/s
• Precise analog + digital triggering
USB 2.0
In today’s world many subsystems are
tightly integrated into multi function
Embedded products:
•USB 2.0 interface
•IDE parallel interface
•SATA interface
Protocol Analyzer:
• I2C, SPI, CAN, RS-232/UART, USB,
PCIe, 8B/10B
• HW trigger and decode
• First scope with multi-tab viewer
•.Phy to protocol time correlation
Debugging multiple bus interfaces
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In the past each interface would need to be tested separately often with
different types of equipment
Today you can use the 9000 series oscilloscope to test it all with a
single instrument
To LA Testing and debugging a USB 2.0
to IDE and SATA adapter
Diff probe
on USB2
LA on IDE
E2649A USB test fixture
Data read latency
shown by read arrows
Advanced protocol triggers for debugging
The serial search and
real time HW trigger
capabilities open a
new realm of debug
capabilities
Summary
• USB compliance testing has grown over the years to address
real product problems
• Agilent has been a key partner with the USBIF in the growth
and phenomenal success of the USB compliance test program
• Agilent offers everything you need to test and certify all of
your USB products
• The N5416A USB Test Option offers the most accurate and
highest level of USB test automation in the industry today
• Agilent’s N5990A test automation sw takes testing to the next
level with full USB 2.0 jitter tolerance characterization
• The Infiniium 9000 Series is the best 3-in-1 instrument with
scope, logic analyzer, protocol analyzer test capabilities
Agilent Delivers the Worlds Best USB Test Solutions
Additional Information
• Go to www.usb.org to get additional information
on certifying your USB products
• For specific updates to compliance requirements
go to http://compliance.usb.org/index.html
• Agilent Application Note: Debugging USB 2.0: It’s
Not Just a Digital World
• Go to www.agilent.com/find/usb to find more
about Agilent Superior Signal Integrity Solutions
and Probing for Your Applications
Miscellaneous topics
• Workshops
– Very good place for hands on training
– Talk to experts
• USBET – required for compliance, integrated into
Agilent’s sw solutions
• HSET tool issues – supports Win7/8 with by disabling
signed driver requirement (F8 on boot)
• Fixture standardization
- USBIF will soon require probe less test method – using only
SMA probing.
- Agilent fixtures support this now.