Network Solutions Sector
™
Technical Overview
68P81095E55-E
Software Release 9.1
August 08, 2000
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Network Solutions Sector
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SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE
Printed in U.S.A.
Document Overview
Scope of Manual
This document is intended to summarize and explain the major principle and
functions of the iDEN® system. Technical information is presented at a introductory
level.
The iDEN system is designed for specific customer needs. Because of its complexity
and size it is not easy define, consequently this document is organized to describe:
• How the iDEN system addresses communication needs
• The hardware and software elements that are the iDEN system
• The technical developments of the latest version of the iDEN system
• How the iDEN system and the various elements work together
• A description of the functional aspcets of the communication methods
• An overview of how iDEN functions to meet communication needs
• What features are associated with these methods of operation.
The scope of this document encompasses the definition of the Motorola iDEN radio
communications system and identifies the items required to support inter-working
between iDEN systems and land based telecommunications networks such as the
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This description is also intended to
provide a general iDEN overview, to assist customers with the development of sales
and marketing literature (with written approval from Motorola), and to provide a
reference document to Motorola sales and area systems engineering personnel.
Because of the dispatch capability implicit in iDEN, the subscriber is not always the
intended user of the equipment and or features. For example: If a trucking firm
purchases iDEN for its fleet of trucks, the firm is the subscriber purchasing the
equipment while the drivers and dispatch personnel are users of the system. This
document makes the explicit distinction between user and subscriber but the reader
is cautioned that there can be instances where the subscriber and user are one and the
same.
The distinction also appliies to mobile equipment. Regardless of the equipment
(mobiles, PDA, pagers, or portable radios) or who specifically is using them, the
units are generally termed Mobile Stations (MSs).
This manual depicts new system operation and does not imply that all MSs (Legacy
Units) are capable of supporting all features listed in this document.
This manual attempts to include features released or baselined up to and including
System Release 9.1 and GSM10. Some features are considered optional and may
require additional cost. This manual is subject to change without notice.
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
iii
Version
Information
Manuals On-line
The following table lists the manual version, date of version, and remarks on the
version.
Issue
Date of Issue
Remarks
-O
07/18/95
First Release
-A
08/16/96
Major rewrite to include latest features, functions and
technological developments.
-B
10/10/98
Major rewrite to include latest features, functions and
technological developments, up to and including
GSM09 and SR7.0
-C
11/19/98
Minor corrections added from Formal technical Review
(FTR).
-C
4/19/99
Minor corrections added from Legal and Intellectual
Property review.
-D
5/1/99
Minor corrections
-D
9/24/99
Reformat and redraw
-E
08/08/00
Re-organize and re-write contents. Update for Software
Release 8.0 and 9.1
This manual is available on the World Wide Web at AccessSecure, the iDEN
customer site. This site was created to provide secure access to critical iDEN
Infrastructure and Subscriber information. AccessSecure features the following
categories of information:
• Quick reference to the iDEN organization, answers to frequently asked
questions, and definitions to iDEN acronyms.
• Product training information including course descriptions, prerequisites,
training planning tools, schedules, pricing and registration information.
• A library of iDEN Infrastructure and Subscriber technical documentation such
as bulletins, system release documents and product manuals.
• New product announcements and marketing bulletins.
• System product performance and customer satisfaction.
For information on obtaining an account on this site contact Motorola at
(847) 576-9541.
iv
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Table of Contents
Document Overview ...........................................................................
iii
Scope of Manual .......................................................................
Version Information ..................................................................
Manuals On-line .......................................................................
iii
iv
iv
Chapter 1
Introduction
August 08, 2000
System Overview ................................................................................
1-1
Reasons for Considering iDEN .......................................................
1-2
Organization ........................................................................................
1-2
Global ..............................................................................................
Region .............................................................................................
Domain ............................................................................................
Service Area ....................................................................................
Location Area ..................................................................................
Cell ..................................................................................................
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
Logical Environments .........................................................................
1-4
Global ..............................................................................................
Fleet .................................................................................................
TalkGroup ........................................................................................
Users ................................................................................................
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
Advantages ..........................................................................................
1-6
Network Scalability .........................................................................
RF Channel Usage ...........................................................................
Digital Data Networking .................................................................
Circuit Switched Data Networking ...........................................
Packet Data Networking ...........................................................
Dispatch Calling ..............................................................................
Interconnect Calling ........................................................................
Short Messaging Service .................................................................
Digital Communication Technology ...............................................
Mobile Stations ................................................................................
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-7
Physical Organization .........................................................................
Technological Advancements .............................................................
1-8
1-9
Software Release 8.0 .......................................................................
Y2K Compliance ......................................................................
Time-Of-Day Processing ..........................................................
Base Site Controller Software ...................................................
Data Communication Improvements ........................................
Dispatch Communications ........................................................
Enhanced Base Transceiver Station Improvements ..................
Network Management ...............................................................
Software Release 9.1 .......................................................................
1-9
1-9
1-9
1-9
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-12
68P81095E55-E
v
Table of Contents (continued)
Chapter 2
iDEN® System
Mobile Station ....................................................................................
Enhanced Base Transceiver System ...................................................
2-2
2-3
Physical Components ......................................................................
Access Control Gateway ...........................................................
Base Radio ................................................................................
RF Distribution System ............................................................
Site Timing Reference ..............................................................
LAN Interface ...........................................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Radio Link Maintenance ...........................................................
Site-to-Site Frame Synchronization ..........................................
Interface Conversion .................................................................
Switching Functions .................................................................
Operation, Maintenance, and Administration ...........................
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-6
Digital Access Cross Connect Switch ................................................
2-7
Physical Components ......................................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
2-7
2-7
Metro Packet Switch ...........................................................................
2-9
Physical Components ......................................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
2-9
2-9
Dispatch Application Processor .......................................................... 2-10
Physical Components ......................................................................
Standard System Controller ......................................................
Input Output Controller ............................................................
Central Processing Unit ............................................................
Router Controller Cards ............................................................
Mass Storage Devices ...............................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Dispatch and Packet Data Control ............................................
First-time User Registration ......................................................
Dispatch Mobility .....................................................................
Alarms and Performance ..........................................................
Dispatch Provisioning ...............................................................
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-12
2-13
2-13
Packet Duplicator ................................................................................ 2-13
Physical Components ......................................................................
MTX Boards .............................................................................
High Speed Serial Interface ......................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
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2-13
2-13
2-13
2-14
August 08, 2000
Table of Contents (continued)
Mobile Data Gateway ......................................................................... 2-15
Physical Components ......................................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Gateway ....................................................................................
Home Agent ..............................................................................
Foreign Agent ...........................................................................
2-15
2-15
2-15
2-16
2-16
Base Site Controller ............................................................................ 2-16
Physical Components ......................................................................
Base Site Controller - Control Processor ..................................
Base Site Controller - Transcoder .............................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Link Concentration ...................................................................
Radio Link Conversion .............................................................
Data Collection .........................................................................
Control Information Handling ..................................................
Multi-threading .........................................................................
BSC Implementation .......................................................................
Non-enhanced BSC Implementation ........................................
Enhanced BSC-XCDR Remote Located ..................................
Enhanced Local Located ...........................................................
2-16
2-16
2-16
2-17
2-17
2-17
2-18
2-18
2-18
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
Mobile Switching Center .................................................................... 2-20
Physical Components ......................................................................
Facilities Interface .....................................................................
Switch Matrix ...........................................................................
Core Processor ..........................................................................
Signaling Interface ....................................................................
Home Location Register ...........................................................
Visited Location Register .........................................................
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Home Location Register ...........................................................
Visited Location Register .........................................................
Short Message Service ..............................................................
Inter-Working Function ............................................................
Voice Mail System ....................................................................
2-20
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-21
2-22
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-24
Operations and Maintenance Center ................................................... 2-24
Physical Components ......................................................................
S1000 ........................................................................................
OMC 3000 ................................................................................
OMC 3500 ................................................................................
OMC Networking .....................................................................
Multiband OMC-R ....................................................................
OMC-R Interconnect ................................................................
August 08, 2000
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2-24
2-25
2-25
2-25
2-26
2-26
vii
Table of Contents (continued)
Functional Characteristics ...............................................................
Fault Management ....................................................................
Performance Management ........................................................
Configuration Management ......................................................
2-27
2-27
2-28
2-28
Administrative Data Center ................................................................ 2-29
Billing and Administration ..............................................................
Dispatch ....................................................................................
Packet Data ...............................................................................
Interconnect ..............................................................................
Service Database Provisioning .................................................
2-29
2-29
2-29
2-29
2-30
Chapter 3
Operating Characteristics
viii
Physical Interface ................................................................................
3-1
Air Interface ....................................................................................
Coaxial .............................................................................................
V.35 ..................................................................................................
EIA-232 ...........................................................................................
Twisted Pair .....................................................................................
T1/E1 ...............................................................................................
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
Interface Protocols ..............................................................................
3-2
Radio Link Protocol ........................................................................
Motorola Implementation A-bis ...................................................
Signalling System Seven .................................................................
X.25 .................................................................................................
Ethernet ...........................................................................................
Simple Network Management Protocol ..........................................
Vector Sum Excited Linear Predicting ............................................
Frame Relay ....................................................................................
Pulse Code Modulation ...................................................................
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-3
Radio Link ..........................................................................................
3-4
Frequency Bands .............................................................................
Radio Carrier Characteristics ..........................................................
Signal Processing ............................................................................
Carrier Characteristics .....................................................................
Carrier Modulation ..........................................................................
Digital Voice Processing ..................................................................
Radio Carrier Access Method .........................................................
Time Division Multiple Access ................................................
Timeslot Allocation ..................................................................
Time Division Duplex ..............................................................
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-9
3-9
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August 08, 2000
Table of Contents (continued)
Cell Sites ..........................................................................................
Omni-directional Site ................................................................
Sectored Site .............................................................................
Frequency Re-use ............................................................................
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-12
Signaling Scheme ............................................................................... 3-14
Over-The-Air Programming ............................................................... 3-15
Requirements ...................................................................................
Software ....................................................................................
Control Channel Band Map ......................................................
International Mobile Equipment Identifier ...............................
Authentication Key ...................................................................
Initial Registration ...........................................................................
Ongoing Registration ......................................................................
Authentication .................................................................................
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
DataBase Subsystems ......................................................................... 3-20
Administrative Data Center .............................................................
Dispatch Application Processor ......................................................
DAP Home Location Register ..................................................
DAP Visited Location Register ................................................
Mobile Switching Center .................................................................
MSC - Home Location Register ...............................................
MSC - Visited Location Register ..............................................
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-21
Over the Air Parameters ..................................................................... 3-22
MS Specific Parameters ..................................................................
International Mobile Subscriber Identity ..................................
Authentication Ki ......................................................................
Random Number .......................................................................
Signature Number .....................................................................
Temporary Mobile Station Identifier ........................................
Dispatch Identifiers ...................................................................
Urban ID ...................................................................................
Fleet ID .....................................................................................
Talk Group ID ...........................................................................
Fleet Member ID .......................................................................
Site Specific Parameters ...........................................................
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-22
3-23
3-23
3-23
Network Paths ..................................................................................... 3-24
Enhanced Base Transceiver System ................................................
Dispatch Application Processor ......................................................
Metro Packet Switch .......................................................................
Packet Duplicators ...........................................................................
Mobile Data Gateway ......................................................................
Base Site Controller .........................................................................
Mobile Switching Center .................................................................
Operations and Maintenance Center ...............................................
August 08, 2000
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3-26
3-26
3-26
3-27
3-27
3-28
3-28
ix
Table of Contents (continued)
Chapter 4
Dispatch Call Processing
General Dispatch Calling ....................................................................
4-1
Region .............................................................................................
Domain ............................................................................................
Service Area ....................................................................................
Dispatch Location Area ...................................................................
Cell ..................................................................................................
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
Functions .............................................................................................
4-3
Dispatch Only Service .....................................................................
General ............................................................................................
Establish Radio Link .................................................................
Route Digital Voice Packets .....................................................
Packet Duplication ....................................................................
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
System Identifiers ...............................................................................
4-5
Urban Identifier ...............................................................................
Fleet Identifier .................................................................................
Group Identifier ...............................................................................
Multiple Simultaneous Talk-group ...........................................
Fleet Member Identifier ...................................................................
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
Dispatch Call Procedure .....................................................................
Capacity Enhancements ......................................................................
Dispatch Call Types ............................................................................
4-6
4-7
4-7
Dispatch Private Call .......................................................................
Dispatch Group Calls ......................................................................
Local Service Area Dispatch Group Call ..................................
Selected Service Area Dispatch Group Call .............................
Wide Area Dispatch Group Call ...............................................
Call Alert ...................................................................................
Emergency Call .........................................................................
MS Status ..................................................................................
4-7
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-14
Limitations .......................................................................................... 4-15
Region .............................................................................................
Domain ............................................................................................
Service Area ....................................................................................
Location Area ..................................................................................
Enhanced Base Transceiver System ................................................
Dispatch Application Processor ......................................................
Fleet .................................................................................................
Group ...............................................................................................
User .................................................................................................
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4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
4-15
August 08, 2000
Table of Contents (continued)
Provisioning ........................................................................................ 4-16
Domain ............................................................................................
Service Area ....................................................................................
Fleet .................................................................................................
Group ...............................................................................................
Member ...........................................................................................
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
Chapter 5
Interconnect Call Processing
August 08, 2000
Interconnect Calling ............................................................................
Functions .............................................................................................
5-1
5-1
Interconnect Only Service ...............................................................
General ............................................................................................
Establish Radio Link .................................................................
Route Digital Voice Packets .....................................................
VSELP -- PCM Conversion ......................................................
Other Network Routing ............................................................
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Overdial .............................................
Call Restrictions ..............................................................................
Emergency Call ...............................................................................
Call Detail Records .........................................................................
Channel Efficiency ..........................................................................
6:1 Interleaved ..........................................................................
3:1 Interleaved ..........................................................................
System Identifiers ............................................................................
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-4
Interconnect Call Procedure ................................................................
5-5
Interconnect Call Types ...................................................................
Mobile to Other Network ..........................................................
Other Network To Mobile ........................................................
Mobile To Mobile .....................................................................
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-8
68P81095E55-E
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Table of Contents (continued)
Chapter 6
Packet Data Networking
General ................................................................................................
6-1
Non-Packet Data Network Service ..................................................
Overview .........................................................................................
Administration .................................................................................
Intranet .............................................................................................
Virtual Private Network ...................................................................
Extranet ...........................................................................................
Internet .............................................................................................
Internet Service Provider .................................................................
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
Mobile Computing ..............................................................................
6-3
Intra-System Mobility .....................................................................
Inter-System Mobility .....................................................................
6-3
6-4
Packet Data Flow ................................................................................
6-5
Dynamic Channel Allocation Procedure .........................................
Adaptive Rate Modulation ..............................................................
Queued Continuous Reservation ALOHA ......................................
6-5
6-5
6-6
Call Processing ...................................................................................
6-6
Chapter 7
Circuit Switched Data Networking
General Circuit Switched Networking ................................................
7-1
Non-Circuit Switch Network Service ..............................................
General ............................................................................................
Specifications ..................................................................................
7-1
7-1
7-2
Mobile Computing ..............................................................................
7-2
InterWorking Function ....................................................................
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Overdial .............................................
7-2
7-3
Appendix A
Network Planning
Timing ................................................................................................. A-1
Isochronous Timing .........................................................................
Pleisiochronous Timing ...................................................................
A-1
A-2
Dispatch Call Model ........................................................................... A-3
Interconnect Call Model ..................................................................... A-3
Capacity Tables ................................................................................... A-4
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Table of Contents (continued)
Appendix B
Radio Frequency Channel Types
Radio Link Communications Model ................................................... B-1
Physical Layer .................................................................................
Data Link Layer ...............................................................................
Logical Link Control ................................................................
Media Access Control ...............................................................
Network Layer .................................................................................
Transport Layer ...............................................................................
Session Layer ..................................................................................
Presentation Layer ...........................................................................
Application Layer ............................................................................
B-1
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-5
B-5
B-5
B-5
B-5
Control Channels ................................................................................ B-6
Primary Control Channel .................................................................
Secondary Control Channel .............................................................
Temporary Control Channel ............................................................
Dedicated Control Channel .............................................................
B-6
B-6
B-7
B-7
Traffic Channels ................................................................................. B-7
Traffic Channel ................................................................................
Associated Control Channel ............................................................
B-7
B-8
Unassigned Channel ........................................................................... B-8
Appendix C
Services and Features
Calling Features .................................................................................. C-1
Operational Controls .......................................................................
System Services ...............................................................................
User Control Services ......................................................................
User Services ...................................................................................
Switch-based Data Collection .........................................................
Network Administrative Features ...................................................
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C-3
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-7
xiii
Table of Contents (continued)
Appendix D
Handover
General ................................................................................................ D-1
Mobility Management ......................................................................... D-1
Mobility Management Procedures ..................................................
MS Tracking .............................................................................
MS Trolling ...............................................................................
MS Authentication ....................................................................
Location Request Control .........................................................
Home Neighbor Network Search ..............................................
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
Location Handover ............................................................................. D-3
Hosting Cell ........................................................................................ D-4
Reliability ........................................................................................
Contour Reliability ...................................................................
Area Reliably ............................................................................
System .......................................................................................
Fading ..............................................................................................
Small Scale ...............................................................................
Medium Scale ...........................................................................
Large Scale ...............................................................................
D-5
D-5
D-5
D-5
D-6
D-6
D-6
D-6
Neighbor Cell List .............................................................................. D-7
Handover Measurements .................................................................... D-7
Handover Operation ............................................................................ D-9
Dispatch Calls .................................................................................. D-9
Interconnect Calls ............................................................................ D-9
Handover System Defaults ....................................................... D-10
High Site / Low Site .................................................................. D-10
Coverage ............................................................................................. D-11
Dropped Calls ..................................................................................... D-11
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Chapter 1
Introduction
This chapter provides an introduction to the iDEN® system communications types, a
model to iDEN system, and a discussion of changes to the system that have taken
place since the last release of this document.
System Overview
The outgrowth of the wireless communications market has produced vast
opportunities to enhance and improve the communications between individuals.
Because of this growth the need to optimize Radio Frequency (RF) spectral
resources and provide ever-increasing services is essential.
To support the increase in wireless services while making best use of available
resources, the iDEN system capitalizes on the fact that communications can be:
• Half-duplex — where one user is transmitting (talking) and other users are
receiving (listening)
• Full-duplex — where there is an open bi-directional link that allows full twoway communication
Many times communication does not require a full-duplex link. Messaging, paging,
some forms of data communication and structured voice communication are, or can
effectively operate in, half-duplex mode (Chapter 4, Dispatch Call Processing).
Traditional telephone conversations and more intensive data links require the ability
to interrupt; that requires full-duplex operation (Chapter 5, Interconnect Call
Processing).
The iDEN system provides both full and half-duplex operations. This melding of
communications methods allows much of the voice traffic to be run in half-duplex
mode, while providing full-duplex functionality when required.
As part of the ongoing effort to support the outgrowth in wireless communication,
the iDEN system is an integration of traditional Push-To-Talk (PTT), half-duplex,
analog radio technology and feature-rich, full-duplex digital cellular
communications. This integration of mobile communication technologies provides
state-of-the-art functions and benefits to mobile users while optimizing the available
infrastructure resources.
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1-1
Organization
Reasons for Considering iDEN
Traditional PTT radio communications in corporate and municipal environments was
limited by the number of radios and Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
licensing. These restrictions limited the coverage area, contact outside the assigned,
licensed mobile units, and provided little privacy. The iDEN system:
• Removes end-user FCC licensing requirements
• Opens communication to other subscriber corporations and all telephones1
• Increases the coverage area
• Allows private and group calling
• Optimizes RF resources
• Improves quality with higher frequencies and digital technology
Because of the finite availability of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum and a need to
optimize this resource, iDEN technology increases the efficiency of a single 25 KHz
RF carrier by applying up to six times the traffic of an AMPS Cellular carrier.
In addition to the increased channel efficiency, an iDEN system may be deployed to
support communications outside the provider’s network (roaming). The telephonestyle interconnect capability allows users to roam seamlessly throughout linked
service areas. A user may place and receive calls as if the Mobile Station (MS) is on
its home system. This also allows the service provider to offer an integrated service
that includes:
• Messaging (Short Message Service)
• Private, Two-way & Group Call Cellular Telephony Service
• Voice Mail
• Data Networking (Intranet, Virtual Private Network (VPN), Internet).
Since the iDEN system uses digital technology, it provides clear voice quality,
interference is reduced and voice quality is enhanced.
As the wireless industry grows, subscribers are seeking more services and increased
functionality from a single service provider. With iDEN systems, these services and
system outgrowth can easily and quickly be provisioned and made available to the
end user because the radio link reduces installation time and cost when compared to
land-based approaches.
Organization
To support the growing need for emerging telecommunications services, iDEN
systems are organized into different levels or areas. These areas are based on
geographical areas of decreasing size. The areas are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Global
Region
Domain
Service Area
Location Area
Cell
1. Requires Software Release 8.0 or above.
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Organization
Global
Global refers to the worldwide, multi-provider, Public Telephone Switched Network
(PSTN). The telephone services available worldwide may be accessed from the
iDEN system using Interconnect calling. When the iDEN system uses the PSTN
(Interconnect) system, the rules and procedures of the PSTN are used. Interconnect
calling is the access to land-line systems and the services available and emerging in
the public switched environment. Global Two-Way (Dispatch) communications,
while currently not available, is emerging technology.
Region
A Region is a large geographic area that is usually associated with more than one
market or, more than one urban area. Just as urban areas tend to be adjacent and
overlap, so do service provider coverage areas. A single service providers provides
services by regions. A service provider may have adjacent or overlapping markets
that can be linked to provide contiguous service across the areas. Regions may be
covered by either Interconnect and Dispatch calling.
Domain
A Domain is an optional logical division of a region. This is usually defined by
marketing and sales strategies as a fleet-based geographical area. The intent is to
subdivide the region into smaller areas based on expected usage patterns.
Domain 0 is a system-wide domain. The default for Domain 0 is all service areas.
There can be up to 50 domains can be assigned. Each domain may contain up to 254
service areas and represents the area of operation for a fleet or fleets. A Domain:
• Can not split a service area
• Can cross MSO boundaries.
• Should be geographically contiguous and should not intertwine or overlap.
• Should conform to obvious geographic - demographic borders
• Should have borders in areas of zero, or few subscribers
• Should make use natural obstacles that constrain subscriber movement
To minimize movement of subscribers between domains, domain borders should
avoid major roads, highways, and thoroughfares. Obstacles like rivers, mountain
ranges, and diverse geographic areas separated by a lack of contiguous RF coverage
are good boundaries.
Users within a domain tend to stay within its borders. A business' fleet will normally
stay within a domain throughout the course of the work day.
Service Area
A Service Area is dispatch only and is defined in provisioning by the subscriber and
user databases. A service area is a group of Dispatch Service Areas (DLAs) that
define a range of operation. Multiple service areas may be defined. Service Areas
may overlap. Users in a service area tend to stay within its borders. A business' users
that travel outside the service area will not be able to obtain dispatch service.
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1-3
Organization
Location Area
A Location Area is logical geographical area that is based on the present (most
recent) location of a Mobile Station (MS). Each MS on the iDEN system has
Location Area Identifiers (LAIs). As the MS moves, different cell sites may service
the MS. The equipment that may service the MS defines the Location Area.
Interconnect service locations are not the same as Dispatch locations. Interconnect
Location Areas are most often larger than Dispatch Location Areas. In both cases,
the Location Area defines the general area where the MS is currently located for
paging and call setup.
Cell
A cell is the area serviced by the RF propagation pattern of the antennas and a radio
of a remote tower (cell site). The area is the effective size of a cell. An EBTS cell
site may be either omni-directional or sectored. An omni site will have 1 cell.
Sectored sites have 2, to 12 sectors (cells). Sectored sites most commonly have three
cells. An MS is located by radio link integrity between 1 or more cells. One cell acts
as host serving cell until a better radio link is detected from another cell.
Logical Environments
Most communications can be logically organized and grouped. When a sufficient
number of users is reached, call patterns and communication relationships can be
organized into a 4-tier functional model. The units of the model are:
• Global — all the potential users of voice and data communications
• Fleet — the broad logical group of users based on a common bond usually
consisting of between 15 and 65,000 users (95,000 for Software Release 8.0)
• Group — a subset of a fleet based on the inter-relationship of users in the
fleet (managers, sales, transportation, drivers, etc.)
• User — an individual or a compatible device that has access to the network
Global
As an increasing marketplace, the global, telecommunications market requires the
ability to access and communicate within and across service provider networks. To
provide access to these services, the iDEN system utilizes Global System for Mobile
Communication (GSM) based technology that is compatible with Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN) equipment and standards. This method provides direct
dial to other network subscribers and networking through internally-direct and dialup facilities. By linking directly to iDEN system and other-provider equipment, any
PSTN equipment in the world is a potential resource for users. Any connection
equipment outside the iDEN network is full-duplex and is discussed in greater detail
in Interconnect Call Processing.
iDEN also provides dial-up data communications (Chapter 7, Circuit Switched Data
Networking).
A single service provider may have markets in more than one geographical area. In
these cases, connections within the same provider in different markets or urban
centers are referred to as domains. Software Release 8.0 and above supports
designated domains (Dispatch Call Processing).
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Organization
Fleet
A Fleet is a logical organization of people and/or systems (users) that require
mobility. In the broadest terms, a fleet is a subscriber. A subscriber can be:
• An individual
• A business
• An agency
• A government or municipal department
• An extended family
• Any functional organization with members that communicate with each other.
The iDEN system provides fleet-based communications with Dispatch call
processing (half-duplex mode). Half-duplex mode is also called Push-to-Talk (PTT)
because a button is pushed when transmitting (talking) and the same button is
released when receiving (listening).
TalkGroup
Each fleet may contain subsets of localized communication. Like lines a multiline
telephone each MS may be linked to a talkgroup that includes other fleet members.
Individuals or groups may be selected to share in resources to engage in
conversation. Large groups can be defined and users may subscribe to
memberships in the group. The number of groups and members is flexible. Groups
are tailored to fleets and marketing plans. How fleets and talkgroups in the fleets are
organized in provisioned in the Dispatch call processing databases.
Users
Users are individuals with network devices (radios, phones and similar devices).
Users must be provisioned before they may use the system.
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Organization
Advantages
The iDEN network products provide several important advantages in wireless
communication. Broad capabilities and adaptive design provides:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flexible, multi-national, network scaling
Efficient RF Channel usage in several spectrum bandwidths
Circuit-switched (dial-up) and Packet-data (IP) digital data networking
Dispatch capability for Private, Local and Wide Area Group calling
Clear GSM cellular subscriber services
Alphanumeric Messaging (Short Messaging Service)
Reliable digital communication technology
Fully Featured, compact portable devices (Mobile Stations)
Network Scalability
By combining industry standards with modular design elements, iDEN technology
provides progressive, manageable, implementation, migration and outgrowth.
With consistent design standards and software upgrades, new technologies and
enhancements can be implemented on the network that minimize the need for new
hardware. The segmentation of tasks and functions to common hardware standards
and remotely upgradable software modules allows the implementation of new
technologies within the existing infrastructure. By reducing the amount of major
changes, the network can be expanded and adapted as demand dictates.
As the demands of the market increase, iDEN technology is continuing to provide
expandable hardware enhancements and inventive software upgrades that improve
reliability and service quality. The development of new technologies is being based
on the same principles and standards so migration is structured and more easily
managed. This philosophy allows forecasting and capacity planning to adapt to the
latest improvements while utilizing existing technology.
RF Channel Usage
RF spectrum resources are an increasingly valuable resource. The iDEN systems
make effective use of these resources. A iDEN system allows multiple users on a
single RF carrier. iDEN products provide precisely defined RF carriers with distinct
centers and very low noise separations that exceed United States Federal standards
and recommendation. This is discussed in greater detail in Radio Link.
Digital Data Networking
iDEN wireless networks support digital data communications for.
• Remote-mobile computing
• Fax
• Messaging
• Wireless internet (Packet Data)
The iDEN system’s Circuit-switched (dial-up) and Packet Data technologies provide
a communication link for data transfers and internet compatible wireless network
elements. Any mobile device on the wireless network must be compatible with the
channels in the local coverage area.
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Organization
Circuit Switched
Data Networking
Using traditional dial-up technologies, an iDEN MS can access and use remote
computing services based on the access rights and permissions of a Host server or
and internet service provider.
Packet Data
Networking
Packet data allows an MS to be logically linked to a host system of the internet.
Using packet data the MS becomes a remote mobile node on the associated network.
Dispatch Calling
Dispatch calls follows the half-duplex model of communication. Communication is
one-way at a time. This applies to most voice communication.
Dispatch calling splits a single 25 MHz carrier into 6 channels. This division
increases the carrier load from one (analog cellular) to a maximum of 6 per carrier.
During a dispatch talk, one channel on the carrier is used. For all those in the group
listening during a group call at a single cell site use only one channel -- reducing
resources. If everyone in the conversation, only one channel at each hosting EBTS is
used. A channel is used and allocated for the duration of the conversation (until
everybody hangs-up or times-out). This consolidation reduces the network traffic
and allows dynamic channel assignment to maximize the network resources.
Interconnect Calling
The iDEN system also provides clear, digital cellular subscriber services if a call is
made across a land-line network.
The service provider may chose to provision the system for optimum resource usage
or for optimum voice quality. The iDEN system splits a single 25 MHz carrier into 6
channels. The provider may provision one channel per call for optimum resource
usage or the provider may provision 2 channels for a call to improve interconnect
voice quality but reduce available resources. (page 3-7).
Short Messaging Service
As part of subscriber services, up-to 140 alphanumeric characters can be transmitted
to a mobile station. This Short Message Service (SMS) can be applied to voice and
data devices the are compatible with the local coverage area network. This service is
part of, and controlled by, the Mobile Switching Center (MSC).
Digital Communication Technology
Digital communication has several advantages over analog communications.
•
•
•
•
•
Voice compression maximizes network resources and reduces eavesdropping
Bad packet rejection reduces echoes and interference to improve voice quality
Improved security by encoded voice and digital data
Intranet, Virtual Private Network (VPN) and Internet Access
Increased potential for subscriber services
Mobile Stations
The type of devices that can be used as Mobile Stations (MSs) include:
• Dispatch Base Stations
• Radios/Telephones (Lingos 360s, i500s, i6000s, i6000+s.)
• Emerging RF Laptops (terminals) and Personal Data Assistants (PDAs)
To function, the devices must operate in the local network’s RF spectrum.
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1-7
Physical Organization
Physical Organization
The iDEN system consists of many components and pieces of physical hardware.
The components and hardware are located throughout the local service coverage
area. To simplify integration, the equipment uses industry standards for physical
size, power requirements, and interface connections wherever possible. Each major
component listed has sub-systems that perform more specific tasks. The layout of a
simplified iDEN network is shown in Figure 1-1. Each network element is discussed
individually.
Figure 1-1 Simplified iDEN Communications Network
Listen
T. N. French
Talk
Dispatch
Circuit Switch/Packet Data
Messaging
(SMS)
Mobile Data Gateway
(Packet Data
Internet interface)
Enhanced Base
Transceiver System
(EBTS)
half-duplex
Internet
Metro Packet Switch
(Dispatch/data router)
Dispatch Application
Processor
Interconnect
full-duplex
(Dispatch routing
management)
Digital Access
Cross Connect
(Facilities)
HLR
Dispatch
Services,
Features,
Fleet and
Groups
VLR
Dispatch
mobile
location
tracking
Base Site Controller
(Interconnect routing
and management)
Operations and Maintence Console
(Control Interface)
Mobile Switching Center
HLR
Interconnect
Services, Features
(may be remote)
VLR
(Switch-Features)
Interconnect
location
tracking
Public Switch Telephone Network
(other provider network)
City
Fax
Telephone
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Technological Advancements
Technological Advancements
Software Release 8.0
Software Release 8.0 (SR 8.0) introduces several important and major changes in the
operation and functionality. The changes are:
• Year 2000 compliance
• Advanced Time-of-day processing
• Improvements to Base Site Controller software
• Enhanced data communications handling
• Significant improvements to Dispatch communications
• Improvements to the Enhanced Base Transceiver System software
• More inclusive network management
Each of these changes is discussed individually and in greater detail as required
throughout this document.
Y2K Compliance
The iDEN system software has been extensively and inclusively tested to assure the
ability to accept and output proper day/date/year information for 1999, the year
2000, and the change from 1999 to 2000. The software is also tested to assure the
ability to recognize and adapt to the fact that the year 2000 is a leap year so the
system can correctly recognize and process February 29th, 2000 (02/29/2000).
Time-Of-Day
Processing
Time of day processing refers to the dynamics of local time zones. The time in a
coverage area may cross time zones. The coverage area may also include more than
one state or more than one country. SR 8.0 provides that ability to tailor the time of
day processing to each cell site. It also provides the ability to adjust to seasonal
changes (daylight savings). Since different states and countries adjust the seasonal
time of day differently, SR 8.0 can process the change at the cell level three ways.
• 1st, 2nd, Last — the first second or last day of a given month
• On or Before — on or before a specific time on a specific date
• Literal — at a specific time on a specific date.
Base Site
Software Release 8.0 provides five major upgrades to the Base Site Controller (BSC)
Controller Software software. These upgrades improve the event and error reporting. They are:
• BSC Event Reporting — to report a reason during event reporting if the BSC
is not busy or locked
• BSC System Activity Reporting — to establish controls and guidelines to
report and notify the need to load balance traffic on BSCs
• Voice Processor Recovery — to improve detection, monitoring and recovery
of suspect voice processors while keeping the transcoder online
• Transcoder PSTN Noise Reduction — to reduce noises from the public
networks with a new compression algorithm
• Autocoded Call Processor Application — to simplify and improve software
development with a 4th generation language
Each of these enhancements is discussed in greater detail as required.
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1-9
Technological Advancements
Data
Communication
Improvements
Data communications handling changes simplify MS configuration, increase
capacity, reduce data stream volume and improve routing failure recovery. The
improvement to data comminations include:
• Packet data bootstrap download — to simplify re-configuration of MS without
a PC or direct cable connection
• An increase in Mobile Data Gateway (MDG) — to increase MDG capacity
from 5,000 users to 15,000 users with a software change
• Packet Data Header Compression — to reduce the amount of data transmitted
on-air with IP header compression. (This requires IP header compression be
enabled on mobile during dial-up data networking)
• Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) Home Agent Redundancy — to help maintain a
data link if the master home agent fails by copying binding and routing
information to an assigned standby router.
Dispatch
Communications
Significant changes in Dispatch Call Processing have been introduced to improve
capacity, increase fleet size, allow cross fleet dispatch calls, and to reduce audio
degradation (dragging).
Cross Fleet Dispatch calling — a new identification scheme increases the number of
subscribers in a fleet and allow dispatch calls between different fleets.
New Dispatch Application Processor (DAP) hardware — a new version of the
dispatch switch controller and upgrade kits to convert exiting DAPs to the more
powerful configuration.
Home Location Register Portability — SR 8.0 improvements allow the HLR to be on
any T-DAP not a dedicated DAP.
Private Call Hang Time — a new dispatch call parameter to better define call tear
down and re-selection when a mobile travels across cell boundaries.
Enhanced Base
The Enhanced Base Transceiver System (EBTS) has been expanded and upgraded to
Transceiver Station increase frequency range, reduce recovery time and improve alarm and error
Improvements
reporting
• Introduction of 821-825 MHz spectrum capabilities
• Dynamic adjustment of Transmit power on Base Radio Recovery or
switchover to redundant control channel Base Radios
• iDEN Monitor Unit (iMU) Alarm Module Control improvements in
monitoring and reporting of EBTS activity.
These changes are discussed in greater detail as required throughout this document.
Network
Management
Changes to the hardware and software of the Operations and Maintenance Center
(OMC) vastly improve Network Management. These changes are driven by the
phasing out of production of the S1000 and OMC 3000 workstations by the supplier.
These computers are going out of production so new hardware is being introduced to
act as OMC. The changes include:
• Introduction of the OMC 3500 platform
• The ability to control multiple frequency bands on one OMC
• The ability to network OMCs
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Technological Advancements
The OMC 3500 is a newer, faster processor that is available in rack-mount and
cabinet configurations.
Software Release 8.0 also allows a single OMC to be connected to, and control
EBTS sites that cross RF spectra. If a multinational system exists with different
frequency ranges, some simple rules apply.
• All radios in a single EBTS must be of the same band
• All neighbor list candidates for an EBTS must be of the same band.
Legacy and new platforms of OMC may now be networked to share configuration
and event information. This allows broad services areas, more precise configuration
control, and better network management.
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1-11
Technological Advancements
Software Release 9.1
Software Release 9.1 (SR 9.1) provides significant improvements in the operations
and maintenance of the iDEN system. SR 9.1 is supplied for equipment under
warranty and is offered as part of the Software Maintenance Program (SMP) that is
available as a subscription. The changes are summarized in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1 Software Release 9.1 Summary
SubEnhancement Hardware
System
Impact
ACG
Background
Download
(operations)
Fast Site
Initialization
EBTS
GPS Fault
Reporting
(additional stats
to OMC)
FNE Notes
Requires Redundant Site Controller
Subscriber
Impact
None
This allows site controller software to be loaded without taking the
cell out of service (in the background). An EBTS must have a
redundant controller to allow software is loads to the redundant
(standby) controller while the active controller processes traffic.
Controllers may then be switched and loaded.
Not fully supported on VME ACG
None
If a EBTS is not moved, but is re-initialized, this enhancement
bypasses the GPS synchronization of the initialization process
because Latitude and Longitude are remembered. This reduces
initialization time where line of site to the GPS satellites may be
blocked (buildings, similar obstructions). VME sites may track 6
GPS satellites, iSC sites may track 8 GPS satellites. If a site is
relocated, perform the GPS synchronization prior to service.
Not fully supported on VME ACG
None
This improves commonality of hardware indicators and software
alarms and messages, GPS related reporting, and diagnostics for
coordination of information between the OMC and the field
technicians. Hardware is not changed.
None
None
RF uplink
Channel Quality
New statistics help Radio Link quality reporting:
Statistics
1) The number of time below optimum SQE (20 dB)
2) The number of SQE per all calls
3) Average interference on idle channels
4) The carrier cabinet position
This identifies radios and sites with substandard radio link
performance
ACG Enhanced
Redundancy
EBTS
Requires Redundant Site Controller
None
Provides greater recognition and automation of EBTS ACG
critical faults and cutover to the standby ACG in sites with
redundant ACGs. The EBTS site must be provisioned as;
redundant equipped or unequipped. Any background software load
is interrupted and superseded (cutover has priority of loads)
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Technological Advancements
SubEnhancement Hardware
System
Impact
Performance
Management
Phase 1
(Operations)
None
Isolated Site
Operation for
Multiple OMCs
None
XCDR Voice
Processor
Recovery
None
OMC
FNE Notes
S1000 OMC is no longer supported
Subscriber
Impact
None
This improves reporting and prioritization of alarms and messages
for E3000/U2 and E3500/U60 OMC-R platforms. The OMC-R
will poll for missing statistics until they are received. Network
elements stagger the delivery of statistics to reduce the load on the
CPU.
None
Isolated Site operation is now available for networked OMCs
None
XCDR processor can be software reloaded if it is in standby, reset,
reloaded, and re-initialized status.
None
Enhanced BSC None
Event Reporting
Provides a smart tool to assist in fault isolation. New status
(OMC/ BSC)
information is acquired, and root causes are displayed.
Operations
Caution
This is not backwardly compatible with SR 8.0. BSC elements
must be upgraded at the same time.
BSC
BSC system
Audit Trail
(OMC & BSC)
None
None
Helps identify BSC under-utilization or over-utilization with
proactive CPU utilization reporting. This reports average CPU
utilization between reporting periods for each control processor.
New alarms are available and thresholds are configurable.
BSC Time
None
None
Synchronization
To reduce BSC - OMC-R timing differences, the BSC will not poll
the OMC for timing information. This may be enabled or disabled
at the OMC.
Packet Data
Compression
Capacity
Data
Yes
Requires new MDG
None
SR 9.1 provides Packet Data compression. Packet data may be
compressed for transmission. This is provisioned in the iHLR
Enhanced MDG New MDG 15K subscriber MDG not supported None
- Phase 1
A new MDG increases the number of subscribers per MDG from
15,000 to 64,000. The replacement should be 1 to 1 to reduce
downtime.
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Technological Advancements
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Chapter 2
iDEN® System
This section describes the iDEN® system Network Elements (Figure 2-1). Network
elements are hardware and software that form operational components of the system.
Each of the depicted components is described individually.
Figure 2-1 Generalized iDEN System Architecture
GPS
T1/E1
iSC
ACG
circuit
breakers
Rx/Tx
interface
Rx/Tx
interface
RFDS
BR
BR
BR
BR
BR
RF
T. N. French
circuit
breakers
connectors
iMU
BR
BR
BR
BR
BR
T. N. French
Mobile Station
(MS)
Enhanced Base Transceiver Station
(ETBS)
Interconnect
&
Circuit Switched
Dispatch Calls & Packet Data
T. N. French
Digital Access
Cross-connect
Switch
Dispatch Call
Processing
by
FCS
(DACS)
circuit
breakers
circuit
breakers
XCDR
Operations
and
Maintenace
Operations
and
Maintenance
Console
(OMC)
Base Site
Controller
(BSC)
Interconnect
&
Circuit Switched
Dispatch
Application
Processor
Billing and
Administration
(not provided)
Interconnect Call
Processing
Inter-Working
Function (IWF)
Short Message
System (SMS)
VLR
D-HLR,
i-HLR
(MPS)
Packet
Duplicator
VLR
(PD)
Packet Data
Packet Data
(Internet
VPN
Intranet)
Voice Mail
(VMS)
HLR
(DAP)
Metro
Packet
Switch
Mobile
Switching
Center
Mobile Data
Gateway
(MSC)
(MDG)
T. N. French
Digital Access
Cross-connect
Switch
(DACS)
T. N. French
T. N . French
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2-1
Mobile Station
Mobile Station
The Mobile Station (MS) is the end-user interface to the network. A Mobile Station
is a phone, pager, modem, mobile transceiver, end-user base transceiver, or similar
device that is registered in, and compatible with, the iDEN system. Mobile Stations,
also called mobiles or subscriber units, are capable of:
• Multi-service (capable of several functions)
• Dispatch calling
• Interconnect calling
• Roaming
• Message Mail
• Data communications
The network supports these services for all mobile stations, however, some mobile
stations may not be compatible with all the functions. Product listings are available
on the Internet at: http://www.mot.com/LMPS/iDEN/.
iDEN® System
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Enhanced Base Transceiver System
Enhanced Base Transceiver System
Physical Components
In the iDEN system, the base station radios and associated control equipment are
contained in the Enhanced Base Transceiver System (EBTS) or, more commonly,
cell sites. The EBTS provides the Radio Frequency link between the land network
and the MSs. The Base Radios (BRs) perform the communications with the MSs,
sending both the control information and the compressed speech over a radio
channel. EBTS components (Figure 2-2) are rack-mounted. A standard
configuration is recommended, but an EBTS can be configured with different
equipment to tailor the performance.
Figure 2-2 Enhanced Base Transceiver System (typical).
The EBTS site consists of:
•
an Access Control Gateway (ACG), which is either an integrated Site
Controller (iSC) or the aging, VME platform
• one or more Base Radios (BRs)
• an RF Distribution System (RFDS) (hybrid or cavity)
• a site synchronization Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver
• a Local Area Network (LAN) interface
Motorola does not typically supply:
• the site antennas
• the site to infrastructure transport facilities
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Enhanced Base Transceiver System
Access Control
Gateway
The Access Control Gateway (ACG) is the site controller and the communications
gateway between an EBTS site and the System's central network. The ACG exists in
two versions. The legacy VME-bus version and the modular iDEN Site Controller
(iSC) version. The iSC version of the ACG consists of two units the:
• iDEN Site Controller (iSC) that integrates the access gateway, timing
reference and facilities termination functions.
• iDEN Monitor Unit (iMU) that integrates the Environmental Alarm System
(EAS) and the Base Monitor Radio (BMR).
The iSC discriminates between Dispatch, Interconnect and Packet Data calls and
routes the traffic accordingly. It also controls base radio timing and terminates
transport facilities. Network infrastructure facilities (T1/E1s) are terminated at the
iSC.
The iMU integrates the Environmental Alarm System (EAS) and Base Monitor
Radio (BMR) functionality in a single unit. Alarm and status information is reported
to the Operations and Maintenance Center - Radio (OMC-R) through the EAS/BMR
on VME systems and the iMU on shelf-oriented systems.
Two site controllers (iSCs) are recommended for redundant/standby operation.
These units are software switchable (active-standby). Communication between the
master (active) and standby is initiated by the active controller. This redundancy
reduces maintenance and downtime. In the event of an EBTS failure, the iSC allows
an OMC-R operator to perform tests to isolate faults between the EBTS and the
facilities (T1/E1) and, with SR 9.1, load new software. The ACG also allows the
operator to remotely switch to a site’s standby ACG.
The ACG controls the RF base radios through an Ethernet LAN.
Base Radio
The EBTS requires one Base Radio (BR) for each 25 MHz carrier. The EBTS
currently supports up to 20 radios when configured as an omni site and 24 radios as a
3-sector site. A BR can be removed from the EBTS and replaced with a new BR
without taking the site off the air (can be hot-swapped). The base radios and the
radio link traffic (voice and data) are controlled by the ACG over a LAN.
RF Distribution
System
The Radio Frequency Distribution System (RFDS) is the frequency combiner that
allows several BRs to share a common antenna system. The EBTS can be
configured with either hybrid or cavity combiners. This creates minor changes in
maintenance and operation but does not affect the functionality of the radio link.
Site Timing
Reference
Each site requires precise timing and location information to synchronize data across
the network. To obtain and maintain this information each EBTS uses GPS satellites
obtain a precise, timing reference pulse (Refer to Site-to-Site Frame
Synchronization).
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Enhanced Base Transceiver System
LAN Interface
Each EBTS component is monitored and communicates with each other directly or
over a LAN. The LAN interface is the path for traffic flow. The LAN also supports
the Alarm and Messaging monitoring functions (iMU or BMR/EAS). Operations and
Maintenance uses the iMU and the LAN to access the cell site.
The LAN is a thinwire, coaxial Ethernet (10base2) that runs Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) protocol. This allows the BRs and the iSC to
access each other as time and traffic requires with a minimum of control overhead.
BR Antennas
Antennas will vary with each installation. Each EBTS cell requires has a minimum
of one antenna for the radiation and reception of the RF energy that is the Radio
Link. There is usually more than one antenna or branched antennas (Diversity
Antennas).
Functional Characteristics
The EBTS can be configured to support multiple RF frequencies in a omnidirectional or sectored configuration. Major functions of the EBTS are:
•
•
•
•
•
Maintenance of the radio link
Radio link formatting, coding, timing, error control & framing
Timing control supervision to subscriber units (time advance)
Radio link quality measurements — Signal Quality Estimate (SQE)
Recognition and separation of traffic (Interconnect, Dispatch, Circuit Data or
Packet Data)
• Site-to-site frame synchronization
• Interface conversion - radio link to DS0
• Switching functions between base transceivers
• Operation, maintenance, and administration of Radio Link equipment
The EBTS also relieves the network from the lower level site control functions. This
helps isolate the central network functions and the RF radio link. Because the EBTS
performs most control functions, the number of network messages is minimized.
This results in a shorter call setup time and decreased link control overhead.
Radio Link
Maintenance
The basic wireless radio link is a 64 kbs digital baseband signal subdivided into 6
timeslots. Each timeslot at the cell site is a radio link. The MS constantly analyzes
the quality of the radio link. When the MS and the FNE determine that a better
signal exists and the MSs radio link is processed accordingly.Some of the radio link
functions the EBTS is responsible for include:
•
•
•
•
•
Channel disconnect and failure
Trolling — contact, position update, and identification of the MS
Handover — changing to a cell site with a better signal
Cell selection — choosing a cell to host the MS
Disconnect and re-connect
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Enhanced Base Transceiver System
Site-to-Site Frame
Synchronization
Timing is a critical issue to assure the proper transfer of voice and data calls between
cell sites. To assure proper processing, each site must have highly accurate time
information to provide a timing offset to adjust for the signal propagation time across
the network. By using the common GPS timing pulse as a network clock, circuits
and software in the EBTS can assure that input and output data streams within the
iDEN system are synchronized.
Interface
Conversion
The radio link is a voice and data is a digital signal. This over-the-air data stream is
specific to the radio link and must be converted to more a traditional data stream to
be transported across the network. The EBTS converts the radio link voice or control
data between radio link timeslots and the data packets that can be applied to T1/E1
links between the EBTS and the rest of the network. The EBTS network interface
consists of 64 kbps DS0/timeslots that are either T1 (24 DS0s) or E1 (32 DS0s). The
allocation of DS0s on a single T1from the EBTS to the central network will depend
on the number of BRs, the total traffic loading and the traffic mix at the EBTS. The
information the EBTS passes to the iDEN network through T1/E1 facilities includes:
• Network Management (status/control, and statistics)
• Telephone Interconnect Traffic
• Inter-Working Function Traffic
• Dispatch Traffic
• Packet Data Traffic
Compressed voice for Interconnect and circuit switched dial-up networking data is
sent in a 16 kilo-bit-per-second (kbs) sub-rated (shared DS0) format. Dispatch and
Packet Data packets are sent in Frame-Relay format. T1/E1 Requirements are:
• T1 Speed: 1.544 Mps, framing: ESF, coding: B8ZS, DS0: 64 kbps, Clear
channel capability
• E1 Speed: 2.048 Mps, coding: HDB3
This functionality is discussed in greater in separate manuals.
Switching
Functions
For calls in the range of a single EBTS, the EBTS handles and controls handover in
conjunction with the MS. The EBTS handles intra-site (sector-to-sector) handovers
between sectors of the same site. For handovers involving multiple sites, the
handover metrics are passed to the BSC-MSC or the DAP-MPS (Appendix D,
Handover).
Operation,
Maintenance, and
Administration
Part of the EBTS is the network management agent. The operation maintenance and
administration functions are managed by the OMC-R. The OMC-R is responsible
for performing the EBTS network management functions such as:
• Configuration Management (code download)
• Fault Management (alarm processing and re-configuration support)
• Performance Management (statistics gathering).
Configuration Management allows for parallel BR downloads. This allows software
downloads to each BR in the EBTS simultaneously and reduces downtime.
Statistics are sent to the OMC-R every 30 minutes. Alarms, state events, and faults
are sent as they occur.
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Digital Access Cross Connect Switch
Digital Access Cross Connect Switch
Physical Components
The Digital Access Cross Connect Switch (DACS) is the attachment point of T1/E1
span lines (trunks) between the iDEN system equipment and the external transport
facilities. The point-to-point connections are discussed in separate manuals and in
Interfaces. The DACS is not part of the iDEN network’s equipment but is required
to connect the remote locations to the Mobile Switching Office (MS)
Functional Characteristics
The DACS is a channel bank/multiplexer that distributes the DS0s (span lines) of the
T1s to EBTSs and the Fixed Network Elements that are connected though the
external equipment or transport facilities (Figure 2-3). These may include T1, DS3s
DS4s Fiber Optics or microwave.
• Dispatch and Packet Data DS0s (frame relay spans) are routed from the EBTS
to the Metro Packet Switch
• Interconnect paths and control signalling is wired from the EBTS spans to the
Base Site Controllers
• Operations and Maintenance information on a single DS0 between the EBTS
and the OMC
• External transport facilities are often connected to the iDEN system through a
DACS
Trunking and span line connections are discussed in Networking and in separate
manuals.
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Digital Access Cross Connect Switch
New or changed hardware may be installed and configured before being activated.
The DACS can act as a switch to electronically route (re-route) signalling to place
new or changed hardware in-service or remove old hardware from service. The
cutover method can significantly reduce downtime. Procedures for this type of
maintenance are usually site specific but may be available from Motorola in print
and/or online at AccessSecure.com.
Figure 2-3 Digital Access Cross Connect Switch
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Metro Packet Switch
Metro Packet Switch
Physical Components
The Metro Packet Switch (MPS) is a subsystem that connects the EBTS frame relay
connections to the Dispatch Application Processor and the Packet Duplicators. It
consists of the system cabinet and attachment point for frame relay span lines.
Figure 2-4 Metro Packet Switch
Functional Characteristics
The MPS is a Frame Relay digital data packet switch. The MPS manipulates the
paths dispatch voice packets use during a Dispatch call and the data packet paths
during a Packet Data networking. For group dispatch calls and data network
multicasts, the MPS routes packets to and from the Packet Duplicators (PDs) and
Advanced Packet Duplicators (APDs) to the appropriate destination. The MPS also
routes control and signalling information between the DAP, MDG and the EBTS
sites.
The source and destination definitions for routing and movement of voice and data
packets (signalling) is under the control of the Dispatch Application Processor. The
MPS controls the overhead and manages the flow of voice and data between the
associated dispatch network elements.
The MPSs are usually implemented in a tiered architecture (Figure 2-5). One or
more MPSs control the routing of voice and data between the PDs and the Dispatch
Application Processor cluster, and a second tier of MPSs that actually route the data
the appropriate radio in the correct EBTS.
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Dispatch Application Processor
Figure 2-5 Two-Tier MPS Implementation
6- DAP Cluster
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP
Tier -1 MPS
(DAP to DAP,
MPS to MPS)
T. N.
French
MPS
APD
MPS
Tier -2 MPS
(Tier - 1 to
EBTS)
MPS
APD
Tier -2 MPS
(Tier - 1 to
EBTS)
MPS
MPS
Dispatch Application Processor
Physical Components
The Dispatch Application Processor (DAP) is usually installed in a standard rack.
DAPs are usually deployed in groups (clusters) of up to 6 DAPs. DAPs and DAPclusters vary with age and capacity. The DAP (Figure 2-6) exists in several
configurations:
• IMP-DAP — that supports 300 EBTS sites and 45,000 users
• N-DAP — that may be a 6-DAP cluster with up to 1000 EBTS sites and
90,000 users
• T-DAP — That supports clusters 1000 EBTS sites and 180,000 users
The DAP consists of:
•
•
•
•
•
Standard System Controllers
Input Output Controllers
Central Processing Unit
Router Controller
Mass Storage Devices
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Dispatch Application Processor
Figure 2-6 Dispatch Application Processor (typical)
Standard System
Controller
The Standard System Controller (SSC) cards provide the ServerNet communications
routing for the:
• I/O controllers
• Internal control and maintenance system
• Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) disk drives
• Host bus adapters (HBAs)
• Configuration and maintenance
• I/O expansion functions for the system
There are two SSCs in the unit for fault tolerant redundancy.
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Dispatch Application Processor
Input Output
Controller
The Input Output Controller (IOC) cards provide for the connection of external
equipment. In most cases synchronous V.35 may be used to handle frame relay
communications (dispatch call and packet data processing) with the MPS and
Operations and Maintenance communications. Some installations may use another
card to provide a single port to an Ethernet LAN transceiver for Operations and
Maintenance. The Ethernet LAN controller is a single-height IOC Card. The
Synchronous controller is a double-height card.
Central Processing The Central Processing Unit (CPU) provides the central processing engine and
Unit
memory for the DAP. There are two CPUs in the processor shelf for each hardware
fault-tolerant processor. CPUs provide the logic circuits to execute dispatch
processing code and access the databases for service and location information.
Router Controller
Cards
The Router Controller Cards (ROCs) manage communications routing of control
signaling and Operations and Maintenance information between the DAP processor
and the rest of the system. There are two cards for redundancy and fault tolerance.
Mass Storage
Devices
The DAP mass storage devices are used to store and maintain the operating software
and databases. Tape backup and CD-ROM devices are also available. All of these
devices are SCSI. The databases contain the identification, location and
authentication information for dispatch enabled MSs.
Functional Characteristics
The DAP is the processing entity responsible for the overall coordination and control
of Dispatch and Packet Data services. The DAP has been optimized to support rapid
response time for services, which include but are not limited to: Group calls, Private
calls, Call Alerts, Emergency calls and Packet Data networking. To increase
subscriber capacity, the DAP may be expanded to form a six-DAP cluster. The DAP
provides:
•
•
•
•
•
Control for all Dispatch and Packet Data functions
First-time registration for all Interconnect and Dispatch subscribers
Maintenance and tracking of MS mobility (Dispatch and Packet Data)
Alarms and performance statistics for the OMC
Maintenance of all Dispatch subscriber provisioned information
Dispatch and
Packet Data
Control
The DAP assigns the signalling and routing paths for Dispatch calls and Packet Data.
When the MS requests service the DAP verifies the mobile, confirms the services
availability to the MS, and processes the request (See Dispatch Call Processing).
First-time User
Registration
When an MS is powered-on, the MS sends a service request. If the mobile’s
identification is not valid in the system, service is denied. (See Over-The-Air
Programming).
Dispatch Mobility
The DAP maintains the last known dispatch location area for all active and recently
active MSs. This is used by the DAP to route calls (See Dispatch Call Processing).
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Packet Duplicator
Alarms and
Performance
The DAP collects and maintains performance metrics, usage and call record
information. Alarms and status information is collected and reported every halfhour. Performance metrics and usage is also collected for optimization and billing.
Dispatch
Provisioning
The DAP maintains databases that are used to control the activity of a mobile MS on
the system.
• Dispatch Home Location Register (D-HLR) — for conditional dispatch call
users
• iDEN Home Location Register (iHLR) — for conditional packet data users
• Dispatch Visited Location Register (D-VLR) — for mobility and activity of
all dispatch and packet data users
These are discussed in On-Air Programming and Dispatch Call Processing.
Packet Duplicator
Physical Components
Each Advanced Packet Duplicator contains:
• MTX Boards
• High Speed Serial Interface
MTX Boards
The processing and control logic for the operation of the APD is on the MTX single
board processor. The OMC-R exchanges status and control information with the
MTX through a RJ45 twisted pair connector on the board. The MTX board also
contains 4 slots that use the 32-bit Peripheral Component Interface (PCI) bus
standard for the connection of 4 serial interface boards
High Speed Serial
Interface
The High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) contain ports that are opened and closed
under the control of the MTX board. When a port is opened the incoming packet is
duplicated to the output ports to the EBTS sites as determined by the mobility
management of the DAP.
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Packet Duplicator
Figure 2-7 Advanced Packet Duplicator (typical)
Functional Characteristics
The Packet Duplicators provide the functionality to allow broadcast, group and
multicast operation with dispatch calls. Each packet duplicator has the processing
power to make enough duplicate packets for each EBTS in the system. The packet
duplicator is used to replicate voice and data packet for output to multiple MSs in
Dispatch calling and Packet Data networking. If a dispatch call is to a group, the
voice packets from the sender must be duplicated for output to each of sites hosting a
receive unit.
The Packet Duplicators are under operations control of the OMC-R. Alarm and
status information is set to the OMC-R every half-hour. The OMC-R may download
software and control the operation of the PDs using X.25 protocol over V.35 cables
to PD and 10BaseT ethernet to the APDs.
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Mobile Data Gateway
Mobile Data Gateway
The Mobile Data Gateway (MDG) is the interface to the Internet and the World Wide
Web for the iDEN system during Packet Data operation.
Physical Components
The MDG is a Enterprise level switching router. This device is rack mounted and
has direct connections to the Internet. The number of ports available will vary
according to the provisioning and growth planning of the individual iDEN system.
Functional Characteristics
The MDG isolates the iDEN system for other devices on the Internet. The MDG is
programmed and managed as a discreet unit. The Operations and Maintenance
Center has no direct control over this device. The MDG has three major functions
during Packet Data operation:
• Gateway
• Home Agent
• Foreign Agent
The MDG supports 15,000 users. Software Release 9.1 includes a new MDG
platform that supports 65,000 users. Earlier versions of the MDG are not supported
by SR 9.1.
Figure 2-8 Mobile Data Gateway
Gateway
The MDG is a logical point-of-presence for the iDEN system on the Internet. This
universally addressable device provides secure networking routing, switching and
network masking functions. These functions are individually unique and are tailored
to specific applications and installations
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Base Site Controller
Home Agent
The MDG stores a provisioned MSs Internet Protocol (IP) address in a database.
This IP address is used to identify, permission and route data packets from the
internet to the MS during Packet Data operation. The Home Agent identifies an
MDG as the point-of-presence on the Internet that accepts data packets addressed to
IPs in the Home Agent database.
A home agent MDG can a communicate with remote MDGs and temporarily transfer
the logical addressing to the remote MDG (foreign agent) when the MS is roaming in
another system. The Home Agent will transfer a roaming MSs IP address to the
remote MDG so the remote MDG will accept packets for the MS. The Home Agent
then re-routes packet data information to the remote MDG (Foreign Agent) as
required.
Foreign Agent
During roaming, an MS will register and attempt to authenticate in a remote system.
For Packet Data operation, the remote system will contact the MSs home system
MDG (Home Agent) and obtain authentication, identification, services and
permissions information. If allowed, the MDG will receive the visiting MSs IP
address and allocate resources to service the MS. This enables the remote (visited)
MDG to accept packets routed to it by the Home Agent MDG.
Base Site Controller
Physical Components
A Base Site Controller (BSC) may be linked to one or more EBTS sites. The BSC
manages Interconnect Call Processing between EBTS sites and other network
devices. The BSC (Figure 2-9) is divided by function into to physical shelves in a
rack or it may be divided into individual racks. The major BSC shelves are:
• Base Site Controller - Control Processor (BSC-CP)
• Base Site Controller - Transcoder (BSC-XCDR)
Base Site
The Base Site Controller - Control Processor (BSC-CP) contains the memory and
Controller - Control logic circuits to administer and monitor the routing of Interconnect Calls. The BSCProcessor
CP manages the general call signalling and voice paths of the BSC-XCDR. One side
of the BSC-CP connects to the Mobile Switching Center with SS7 signalling and the
Operations and Maintenance Center with X.25 protocol. The other side connects to
the EBTS through the DACS with modified A-bis interface (Mobis) signalling and
alarm and maintenance data with X.25 protocol. The BSC-CP consists of:
• MegaStream Interfaces — to physically connect external paths (T1 spans)
• Cross Connect Switch — to dynamically connect control paths
• Generic Processors — for overall control and monitoring of BSC operation
Base Site
Controller Transcoder
The BSC Transcoder (BSC-XCDR) converts the voice packets used on the radio link
to the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) used by local and interconnected Public Switch
Telephone Networks (PSTNs). The BSC-XCDR consists of:
•
•
•
•
MegaStream Interfaces — to physically connect external paths (T1 spans)
Cross Connect Switch — to physically connect traffic paths
Generic Processors — to route traffic packets internally to the XCDR
Transcoders — to convert between radio link packets and PCM
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Base Site Controller
Figure 2-9 .Typical Base Site Controller
Functional Characteristics
The BSC provides control and concentration functions for one or more EBTS sites
and their associated mobile stations. The functions are segregated into separate
circuits to improve the adaptability of the system to the local network requirements.
The functions include:
•
•
•
•
•
Link concentration from multiple EBTS sites
Conversion of the radio link to the land network format
Handover data collection, preparation, and execution to sites under its control
Operation, maintenance and administration agent for OMC X.25 network
Call Processing control of interconnect audio
Link Concentration The number of remote cell sites that can be linked to a single BSC will depend on the
traffic, location and outgrowth potential of the network. The T1/E1 span lines from
the EBTS sites link to a MegaStream Interface (MSI) card in the BSC rack. Since
the configuration of the BSC will limit the number of available slots for MSI cards,
the number of EBTS sites a BSC can support may vary.
Radio Link
Conversion
The conversion of the radio link is handled by the Transcoder (XCDR) or the
Enhanced Transcoder (EXCDR). These cards convert between the Vector Sum
Excited Linear Predicting (VSELP) compressed signal from the radio link to 64 kbps
PCM used on the PSTN.
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Base Site Controller
The PCM voice packets for a call arrive at the XCDR on a single span (DS0). The
XCDR converts the packets to radio link packets and applies them to the timeslot
scheme used by the EBTSs. Because of the difference in the amount of data between
PCM (64 kbs) and the radio link timeslot (VSELP in a 16 kbs timeslot). The
timeslots can be shared. Four radio link packets can be applied to a single timeslot
with routing and signalling overhead. This sub-rated concentration allows 4
conversations to one DS0 on the T1 line (Figure 2-10).
Figure 2-10 4:1 Sub-Rated T1 Concentration
1
2
3
4
Generic
Processor
(GPROC)
(routes voice
packets)
DS01 - (voice 1)
DS02 - (voice 2)
DS03 - (voice 3)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Transcoder
(XCDR)
(VSELP<> PCM)
64 kbs PCM
BSC
Cross Connect
(KSW)
MegaStream
Interface
(MSI)
T. N. French
(PCM side From
MSC)
DS04 - (voice 4)
64 kbs PCM
VSELP
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Downlink (to mobile) path shown.
Reverse for uplink (to MSC).
VSELP sub-rated DS0
(X = control overhead)
frame positioning may vary
1 2 X 1 2 X
4 3 X 4 3 X
MegaStream
Interface
(MSI)
(VSELP side)
T1
EBTS
The number slots available for XCDR cards will vary with configuration.
Data Collection
The BSC also provides limited call processing. The BSC monitors call metrics from
the EBTS and uses this data for facilitate the transfer of call routing between EBTS
sites during Interconnect calls. The BSC will route calls to the appropriate DACS so
it can route the call the appropriate EBTS. This function is handled by the BSC-CP
or the BSC - Enhanced Control Processor (BSC-ECP).
Control
Information
Handling
The BSC also routes data across the X.25 Operations and Maintenance network to
the OMC. Alarm and status information for the EBTSs is routed to the OMC for
collection and display. Administrative control commands such as cut-overs and
loads from the OMC are routed to a EBTS by the BSC. This function is handled by
BSC-CP or the BSC-ECP.
Multi-threading
In cases where a a BSC-CP has access to more than one XCDRs, the traffic may be
routed two or more XCDRs (XCDR Multi-Threading) to reduce XCDR failure
downtime. Multi-threading allows for redundant XCDRs and helps optimize their
usage.
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Base Site Controller
BSC Implementation
The BSC may be implemented in several ways depending on the network
configuration, the mix of legacy systems with new devices, and the location of the
hardware that converts the radio link to the network link. The configurations are:
• Non-enhanced
• Enhanced BSC remote located
• Enhanced local located
Non-enhanced
BSC
Implementation
Slower and more legacy system may use the BSC for both control and transcoding
functions in the same cabinet to form an integral BSC/CP/XCDR. This
implementation uses one set of hardware to provide all interface, conversion and
control functions. In an non-enhanced BSC, all traffic and signalling passes through
both the BSC-CP and the BSC-XCDR. The advantage of this method is lower cost
and the ability to locate the cabinets remote from the Mobile Switching Office
(MSO) and then use larger transport facilities to connect them (Figure 2-11). The
disadvantage is limited capacity, redundancy and growth.
Figure 2-11 BSC Implementations
MSC co-located BSC configuration
EBTS
(radio link)
T1s
1 per EBTS
XCDR
T1s To each site
CP
Mobis
& VSELP
EBTS
DACS
PCM
T1
DS0s
SS7
Control
MSC
BSC
MSC remote located BSC configuration
Radio Link
(voice & control)
T1s,
DS3s,
DS4s,
SONET,
ATM, ...
EBTS
(radio link)
To site
DACS
T1s
Mobis
CP
T1
SS7
Control
SS7
Control
T1s
XCDR
MSC
Control
CP
EBTS
DACS
BSC
DACS
VSELP
RLP
XCDR
PCM
BSC
Enhanced BSCXCDR Remote
Located
An Enhanced remote located implementation distributes the control, conversion and
interface hardware. The BSC-CP may be remotely located amid several EBTSs and
handle the processing for those sites. While the BSC-XDCR is located at the central
location. This offloads MSO space and allows larger transport facilities in cases
were the MSO location is overcrowded. The disadvantages of this implementation
are remote maintenance, transport issues and a potential circuit under-utilization.
Enhanced Local
Located
An MSO co-located implementation places the BSC-CP/XCDR at the same location
as the MSO. XCDRs may still be multi-threaded. Local location centralizes the
radio link conversion function at the MSO. This impacts transport facility design
because it limits the size of transport facilities to the EBTSs and increases the
demand on space at the centralized MSO.
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Base Site Controller
Mobile Switching Center
The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is a GSM-based Mobile Telephone Switch
which provides Interconnect services. The MSC provides the interface between the
mobile network and other service provider’s PSTNs.
Physical Components
The MSC is a variation of the Nortel DMS switch family. The implementation of
this equipment is a coordinated effort between the provider, Motorola and Nortel.
The MSC is detailed in the manufacturer’s documentation. This equipment may be
configured and upgraded according to capacity and outgrowth requirements. The
MSC is available in three sizes:
• DMS-MSC Supernode
• SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
• MicroNode
In general, all versions of the MSC (Figure 2-12) consists of:
• Facilities Interface
• Switch Matrix
• Core Processor
• Signalling Interface
• Home Location Register
• Visited Location Register
Each of these components is discussed individually.
Figure 2-12 Mobile Switching Center Components
PSTN
Signalling
VLR
T1
E1
DS0's
Signaling
DS30's
Digital
Trunk
Controller
DS0's
Signaling
(User activitiy,
location,
access &
services
profile)
T. N. French
(DTC)
(terminates
facilites for
switch)
T1
60K
spans
Max.
Uses E1
interface
Signaling
Core
Proccessor
MSC
Cross-Connect
Switch
Link
Peripherial
Processor
(LLP)
Signalling
conversion
(Switch
Control)
HLR
User database
(May be remote)
BSC
Signalling
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Base Site Controller
Facilities Interface
Both iDEN system span line and the PSTN transport facilities (T1 and/or E1) are
connected to the MSC through Digital Trunk Controllers (DTCs). The DTC is the
interface between the MSC, the iDEN system, and the external world. T1 or E1
telephony connections may be hardwired to the DTC. The Signalling and data span
lines of the T1/E1s are split off and connected to the switch matrix for telephony data
and the LLP for signal processing. The DTC cards may be one of two types: T1 for
North American markets and E1 for International markets.
Specialty markets are also supported with other tailored DTC cards. The MSC
provides enough space for the connection of 60,000 simultaneous phone calls
(14,000 for the SNSE). The exact number will depend on the market and system
configuration as specified by planning and capacity. The DTC is the interface
between the external T1/E1 lines, the Core Processor and the Switch Matrix.
Switch Matrix
The Switch Matrix a set of digital cross connections between input and output lines
that represents the path to be followed for a particular call setup. The design of the
matrix uses E1 style connections. Up to 60,000 lines may be attached to the switch
matrix (14,000 for the SNSE). Traffic flow and routing is controlled by the Core.
Core Processor
The Core Processor is an Motorola 8800 series based CPU that interprets signaling
from the external PSTN and the iDEN network equipment to identify, authenticate,
service and route call signalling and traffic in the MSC.
Signaling Interface The Link Peripheral Processor (LLP) is the signaling interface of the MSC. All
interconnect signaling from the PSTN and the iDEN system passes through the LLP.
Home Location
Register
The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database system that is often implemented
as a stand-alone device or an outside service that is shared by one of more MSCs.
Visited Location
Register
The Visited Location Register is the location and activity database of the MSC.
Functional Characteristics
The MSC is the telephone switch for mobile originated or terminated traffic. Each
MSC provides service within a geographic coverage area, and a single iDEN
network may contain more than one MSC. Major functions of the MSC are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Control and Interface to the PSTN
Call Processing for Interconnect calls
Echo Cancellation for Voice Calls (with associated equipment)
Provisioning of Subscriber Supplementary Services
Authentication of Subscriber Units
Intra-System Roaming and/or Handover between BSCs
Inter-System Roaming and/or Handover between MSCs
Billing Record Collection
Interface to a customer supplied billing system
Control of Inter-Working Function for data networking
Interface to the Voice Mail System
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Base Site Controller
The MSC controls the Interconnect call setup and routing procedures like a land
network end-office. On the land network side, the MSC performs call signaling
functions. Other call control functions include:
• Number translations and routing
• Matrix path control
• Allocation of outgoing trunks.
• Collection of Interconnect call billing data
• Format of the call records
• Transfer of call records to the billing center or to tape
• Collection of traffic statistics for performance management
The MSC also helps to administer interconnect handover procedures. The handover
procedure preserves call connections as mobiles move from one coverage area to
another during an established interconnect call. Handovers within a cell group that is
controlled by a single BSC are controlled entirely by that BSC. When handovers are
between cells controlled by different BSCs, the handover procedure is coordinated at
the MSC. This is discussed in greater detail in Appendix D, Handover.
Home Location
Register
During an Interconnect call MSs are validated by the Home Location Register (HLR)
database. This database may exist as, part of the MSC, as separate computing system,
or a provided service. The identity, billing information, usage limitations and active
services for each MS are stored in the HLR. The HLR is the source of information on
the service provider’s network for the users’ service profile (identity and services)
that is used to assure the subscriber’s services follow the MS throughout the network.
The HLR:
• Contains the master database for all subscribers
• Supports multiple MSCs
• Contains the basic and active supplementary services for each subscriber
• Contains the location of the current VLR for each subscriber
• Contains information used by supplementary services
• Supports roaming by being remotely accessible to all MSCs and VLRs
• Provides a Fault Tolerant computer platform
• Support interfaces to a customer supplied Administrative Data Center (ADC)
• Contains the Authentication Center (AUC) with MSs Authentication Keys
• Supports SS7 connectivity to network’s Signal Transfer Point (STP) switches
The Administrative Data Center (ADC) is the service provider’s administrative and
business control equipment. The ADC may be used to enter/provision user
information and accepts system metrics and call records.
Visited Location
Register
MS units are tracked via fixed geographic Interconnect Location Areas (ILAs).
These areas are defined by the system operator based on the coverage area of the
EBTS sites. Location data is stored in the VLR. These records contain current
information like most recent location area and the feature provisioning table. The
VLR is always integrated with the MSC and the VLR accesses the HLR to download
subscriber information as MSs move into the VLRs coverage area. The functions
include:
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Base Site Controller
•
•
•
•
Short Message
Service
Subscriber database local to the switch for fast access during call set-up
Contains most of the HLR information about the active MS units
Contains the most recent location information within the coverage area
Adds/deletes MSs as units roam into or out of, the coverage areas
The Short Message Service -Service Center (SMS-SC) will deliver short messages
(up to 140 characters) to a full alpha-numeric display MS. The MS can store up to
16 messages. There is additional storage in the SMS-SC database. These sources of
a short message can include:
• Operator entry of alpha-numeric messages
• Messages from an online message site
• Numeric messages entered using DTMF overdial from a telephone
• Optional voice mail indications from a connected voice mail system
The SMS-SC delivers the short message to the MS. Messages are sent to the MS
when space is available in the MS memory or when a stored message in the MS is
cleared. The MS can receive a message when it is either idle or during an
interconnect call. A MS active in an dispatch call cannot receive a message. If the
MS is unavailable or unable to accept the message, the SMS-SC stores the message
for delivery when it becomes available.
The SMS-SC is optional and requires an MSC. Functions of the SMS-SC include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inter-Working
Function
Short Message Service with message acknowledgment
Short Message delivery when MS is idle or on a Interconnect Call
Delivery of messages to subscriber through retries
Delivery of messages across MSC boundaries for roamers
Optional link to Voice Mail & E-Mail to send a Message Waiting to an MS
Entry of messages from operator positions
Entry of messages from dial up devices utilizing the TAP protocol
Entry of messages from E-mail systems through an Internet interface
The Inter-Working Function (IWF) performs the data-rate adaptation between the
PSTN and the iDEN system. The IWF provides a modem bank that allows data
transmitted from data devices on an external the network to access MSs and RF
modems. The IWF terminates the PCM digital data format such as Teletype (TTY)
facsimile and dial-up networking (Figure 2-13). Functions of the IWF include:
•
•
•
•
•
Circuit switched data services for the MS
Data connectivity to TTY devices with Bell 103 compatible modem
Data modem functions to the PSTN
Group 3 FAX Modem
Non-transparent Data Services up to 9600 Baud
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Operations and Maintenance Center
Figure 2-13 Interworking Function Non-Transparent Modems Services
EBTS
iDEN SYSTEM
WITH IWF
PSTN
FAX
MODEM
TERMINAL
Voice Mail System
The MSC supports Voice mail capabilities. If an incoming call cannot be completed
the Voice Mail may be provisioned to allow the caller to leave a brief voice
announcement for the called party. Voice Mail allows otherwise interminable calls to
be routed to a Voice Mail system.
Voice Mail is a system option. Motorola can act a coordinator to help implement this
type of system or, the provider can add this type of system independently.
Operations and Maintenance Center
The Operations and Maintenance Center (OMC) is the network element management
subsystem that establishes, maintains, collects information about the network, and
presents it to the system operator. This data is used primarily to support the daily
operation of the network radio system elements and to provide the system operator
with valid information for future planning decisions. As the complexity and control
requirements of the iDEN system and its relationship to other systems increases, the
need for control and monitoring equipment also increases. The OMC exists in at
least one form in every system.
• OMC - Radio (OMC-R) — required for radio system management
• OMC - System (OMC-S) — for possible Switching system management
• OMC - Network (OMC-N) — a possible Network Operation Center (NOC)
Others may be implemented as the need arises. Only the OMC-R is discussed.
Physical Components
The OMC-R (Figure 2-14) may exist in different platforms:
• S1000
• OMC 3000
• OMC 3500
S1000
The OMC S1000 is a legacy system used in older and smaller service areas.
Advances in technology and aging of the S1000 indicate this system my not have the
performance and handling capacity for continued use. The S1000 can support up to
300 EBTS sites and may be networked with other OMCs running a minimum of
Software Release 8.0. The S1000 must be a secondary processor in this network
configuration. The S1000 is no longer supported with SR 9.1.
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Operations and Maintenance Center
OMC 3000
The OMC 3000 is based on the Sun Microsystems E30001 processor. This processor
has been superseded and support is being phased out. The OMC 3000 can support
either 300 or 500 EBTSs. This processor may be upgraded to run Software
Release 8.0. The OMC 3000 may be networked with other OMCs with SR 8.0. The
OMC 300 may act as a primary OMC in a networked environment with some
limitations on performance and long-term support.
OMC 3500
The OMC 3500 is the latest version of the OMC. Based on the Sun Microsystems
E3500 processor, it is introduced with Software Release 8.0 because the
manufacturer has upgraded system performance and is phasing out support for the
OMC 300 platform.The MC 3500 can support:
• up to 500 EBTS sites
• 6 DAPs (6-DAP cluster)
• 8 active MDGs and 1 standby MDG.
The OMC 3500 can effectively act as the primary processor in a OMC network.
Figure 2-14 OMC 3500 Platform Options
OMC Networking
OMC-R networking is an enhancement of Software Release 8.0. To reduce the
maintenance overhead and improve performance, OMCs may be networked to share
configuration, event, and status information. This provides the facility to create and
maintain a centralized configuration and mertics set of databases. In a networked
environment the primary OMC can maintain configuration, event and status
information that can be recovered to secondary OMC should the need arise. The
centralized databases make it easier to assure and manage the configuration across a
Wide Area Network (WAN). Larger networks may require a primary processor be
dedicated to the primary processor function. OMCs of other functions may also be
networked as implementation requirements dictate.
The networked environment does not allow remote diagnostic and cutover of
network resources that are not directly controlled (MSC and MPS). An OMC in one
network does not have control of network equipment associated with another OMC.
1. E3000 and E3500 are registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems
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Operations and Maintenance Center
Multiband OMC-R
With Software Release 8.0, an single OMC can mange and control EBTSs in more
than one frequency range. If muli-national, a single OMC may be connected to
EBTSs that use frequencies in different RF spectrum ranges. Limitations are:
• All EBTS sites must use the same spectrum at one site
• All neighbor list candidates of a site also may the same spectrum.
OMC-R
Interconnect
The OMC-R controls and monitors the radio network elements, including the:
• Dispatch Application Processors (DAPs)
• Base Site Controllers (BSCs)
• Enhanced Base Transceiver Systems (EBTS)
• Mobile Data Gateways (MDGs)
• Advanced Packet Duplicators (APDs)
The scope of responsibility for the OMC-R is the Fixed Network Radio Equipment
(FNE). The OMC-R does not control:
• Mobility Management of the subscriber within the network
• Mobile Switching Center
• Telco Transmission management.
• Inter-region administration and control
Each of the radio network elements can be managed remotely by the OMC. The
OMC supports connection to the other network entities through:
• X.25 packet network (BSCs and EBTSs)
• Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) (MDG)
• Ethernet networks (DAP and APD)
The general interconnection of network devices is shown in Figure 2-15
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Operations and Maintenance Center
Figure 2-15 .Operation and Maintenance Console - Radio Interconnections
X-Term
(MMI)
T. French
Mobile Switching
Center
(MSC)
EIA-232
X.25
X-Term
(MMI)
Operations and
Maintenance Console
(OMC)
Ethernet
X.25
(T-DAP)
V.35
X.25
V.35
X.25
circuit
breakers
circuit
breakers
iMU BMR
GPS
iSC TFR
CSU
ACG
Enhanced
Base
Transceiver
Station
(ETBS)
Base Site
Controller
(BSC)
Packet
Duplicators
(PD/APD)
Dispatch
Application
Processor
(DAP)
Functional Characteristics
Functions the OMC provides include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fault Management
Event/Alarm Management
Fault Management
Performance Management
Configuration Management
Security Management
Performance Statistics
Event Data Repository (event archive)
View Operations, Administrative & Maintenance (OA&M) of the MSC/HLR
Limited interaction with the EBTS through SNMP (power level, frequency
and software level)
The fault management function of the OMC collects alarms and events from the
network. If an alarm or event window is open on the OMC display, these alarms and
events are displayed in the order in which they arrive. The OMC provides the
required alarm handling functions to report and log alarms generated by the radio
network elements. Specific events the agents will report to their managers include:
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Operations and Maintenance Center
• Processing
• Equipment and Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) level failure reporting
• Environmental
• Communication
• Quality of service data
• File available
• Test results available
• State change events
Fault management enables the system operator to detect and respond to network
element faults within the system. The OMC provides fault management by using
Network Management agents that are resident on the various network elements to
pass events to the OMC. The events are reported and identified by priority level. The
system operators are able to filter the reporting of events based on priority (severity).
For example, if a power amplifier fails on a BR, the BR will send an event message
to OMC indicating a failure exists. The system operator can then send a technician.
Alarms and Events are stored on the OMC for future reference. If a higher order
management Network Maintenance Computer (NMC), is connected to the OMC
through a LAN, the event stream can be directed to the NMC for correlation with
other events not reported to the OMC.
Performance
Management
The performance management function controls the collection and presentation of
metrics to the system operator. These statistics files are stored in a database on the
OMC for the creation of reports. There are several generic reports that can be
selected for local analysis. The statistics files can be transferred to a higher order
manager such as an NMC. Metrics are gathered in four broad categories:
• Call Processing
• System Performance Metrics
• Link Layer Communications Metrics
• Meta-management Metrics.
Call Processing metrics are concerned with the number, duration and quality of calls
placed by the end-user for the various types of services available on the network.
System Performance metrics relate to service-oriented status and events such as
availability and outage impact.
The Link Layer Communications metrics provide information on the functional
operation of the radio links as discussed in Fault Management of this section.
The Meta-management statistics help the system operators control the impact of the
management system on the call processing system.
Configuration
Management
Configuration Management is monitoring and control of system and subsystem
components for state, software release, and components. The system configuration
databases of the DAP, EBTS, BSC, MDG and APDs are downloaded from the OMC.
These databases change as the physical configuration of the network expands to
accommodate growth. This configuration management relates to:
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Administrative Data Center
• Software Load Management
• Database Management
• State Management
Software Load Management refers to the distribution and version control of all
software objects placed into service in the network. The OMC keeps track of which
radio network elements are running which versions of software. Configuration
Management provides the command structure to load new software into the various
network elements. Software loads can be downloaded from the OMC.
Database Management refers to the creation and distribution of the databases of
configurable parameters used to tune performance of the network. There is also a
version control requirement for the database objects as well.
The current state of each network element is maintained. The state tells the system
operators if the device is, in-service or out-of-service.
Administrative Data Center
Billing and Administration
The Billing and Administration equipment is customer supplied equipment.
Business operations are solely the responsibility of the service provider. The iDEN
system supplied usage and performance data for business operations and decision
support.
Policies, procedures and mechanisms for the exchange of data and administrative
and operational control of the information is the responsibility of the service
provider.
Dispatch
Usage and call record data for dispatch calls is collected by the DAP. These records
are available through tape transfer or through direct network connections.
Packet Data
Time and data bit rates are collected by the Billing Accumulator of the MDG. The
usage and performance information may be transferred to the business unit by tape
of direct network connections.
Interconnect
The MSC provides all the metrics billing and data collection facilities normally
required for production of complete call record data. The MSC also provides
industry standard network and interface connections to allow the exchange of data
between the MSC and the service provider’s internal data processing infrastructure.
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Administrative Data Center
Service Database
Provisioning
The ADC may also have the facilities to populate and maintain the iDEN system
databases. The databases to be maintained include:
• HLR - for interconnect calling identification and services
• D-HLR - for dispatch calling identification and services
• iHLR - for Packet Data networking identification and services
The Interconnect database, the HLR, may be a centralized system or a provided
service from a third party. The provisioning requirements of the HLR is a
coordinated effort between the MSC provider, the service provider and any third
party that may be involved.
The Dispatch database, D-HLR, and the Packet Data database, the iHLR, are resident
on the DAP. The ADC may be also used to provision the subscribers and services for
dispatch calling and packet data processing. The Interface between customer
supplied equipment and the DAP is discussed in greater detail in iDEN DAP ADC
Manual - SR 7.0/SR 7.1 68P81130E31.
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Chapter 3
Operating Characteristics
This section describes how the individual iDEN® system Network Elements are
physically and logically linked together and how the elements interact to perform
Dispatch, Interconnect, Circuit Switched and/or Packet Data operations.
Physical Interface
The iDEN system uses several interface types. The transport facilities between the
DACS may include microwave, fiber, and/or copper. The iDEN system uses:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Air Interface
Coaxial
V.35
EIA - 232
Twisted Pair
T1/E1
Air Interface
The network link between the mobile (MS) and the Fixed Network Equipment
(FNE) is Radio Frequency (RF). This is discussed in greater detail in Radio Link.
Coaxial
Within the system, coaxial cable is the physical interface between the EBTS BRs and
the antenna system. Coaxial cable is also used between the BRs and the cell site
(EBTS) distribution and control circuitry.
V.35
The OMC-R Operations and Maintenance Link (OML) uses V.35 cabling between
the OMC and the DAP. The connection to the BSC may also be V.35 cabling.
EIA-232
The OMC-R, OML also uses EIA-232 cabling to the switched circuits (MSC).
Twisted Pair
Thin-wire (10baseT) Ethernet may be used between the OMC and the T-DAP. A
minimum of Category 5 cable and connections is required. Other elements may be
optionally networked by Ethernet. With Software Release 8.0 and above OMC-Rs
may be networked using an Ethernet link.
T1/E1
The iDEN network has standardized on the T1 as the physical interface. The
exchange of information between the various pieces of equipment is over direct link
or dedicated facilities using T1 (E1) industry standards. Full or fractional T1s are
used. In the MSO, the network devices are interconnected with T1s. Optimization,
load balancing and capacity planning will be affected by the physical backbone used.
Network and iDEN equipment is ordered with the appropriate hardware to support
either E1 or T1 facility. The equipment may be re-configured between the span
types by replacing hardware. Since an E1s have a different configuration than T1s,
reconfiguring may impact the capacity of network elements.
Operating Characteristics
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68P81095E55-E
3-1
Interface Protocols
Interface Protocols
The iDEN system supports and uses several protocols and interface standards. These
include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Radio Link Protocol
Motorola Implementation A-Bis interface
Signalling System Seven
X.25
Ethernet
Simple Network Management Protocol
VSLEP
Frame Relay
Pulse Code Modulation
Radio Link Protocol
Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is the method of transferring compressed character data
between the MS and the MSC-IWF during Circuit Switch data networking.
Motorola Implementation A-bis
Motorola’s implementation of GSM A-bis (Mobis) is a modified version of the GSM
A-bis interface (GSM 8.08). Mobis provides increased timing and error handling
capabilities to provide greater radio link reliability and improved link quality. These
modifications include changes in message format and the inclusion of additional
parameters for handover messaging. Modifications adapt the A-bis standard to the
RF link sideband and help to assure timing and mapping of radio link data packets.
Signalling System Seven
Signalling System Seven (SS7) is the routing and control interface between the other
provider networks and the MSC and from the MSC to the BSC-CP. SS7 is used by
the MSC-based InterWorking Function, Short Message Service and Voice Mail.
Interconnect calls use SS7 at the BSC. SS7 is the Message Transfer Link (MTL) and
is implemented in accordance with ANSI SS7-ISUP. CCITT SS7 signaling is used
between the MSC and the HLR and; the MSC and the SMS-SC.
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
X.25
The X.25 protocol is used primarily in the Operation and Maintenance functions of
the network. The X.25 link is used by the Operation and Maintenance Link (OML)
and its functions between network devices linked to the OMC. The OMC uses X.25
- Link Access Protocol -B-Channel (LAP-B) and Link Access Protocol - Data (LAPD). The LAP-D protocol is used in signalling as the Message Transport Protocol
(MTP) between the EBTS and the BSC. LAP-B is the protocol used between the
BSC, the MSC and the OMC. The BSC handles the translation between LAP-D and
LAP-B. X.25 functions primarily at 19.2 kbps on V.35 cables (including the DAP).
The T-DAP uses an Ethernet link but maintains X.25.
Ethernet
The principle use of Ethernet in the iDEN system is between components in the
EBTS. The EBTS uses Ethernet for traffic and control by running Carrier Sense
Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) protocol. Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is supported in the Ethernet environment in
accordance with IEEE 802.X. TCP/IP may be used to communicate with the
Administration and Data and other service provider equipment. The TDAP - OMC
interface is Ethernet running X.25 protocol.
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used over the dedicated links
between the EBTS and BSC. SNMP is used within the X.25 OML to manage the
alarm, messaging, control and performance data routing to the EBTSs.
Vector Sum Excited Linear Predicting
Vector Sum Excited Linear Predicting (VSELP) protocol is a voice compression
method used in the mobile station and the XCDR. The MS compresses voice for all
transmits and decompresses on voice on all receives. The MPS-DAP cluster controls
the movement of VSELP packets between EBTSs during Dispatch calls. The BSCXCDR converts VSELP to Pulse Code Modulation for interconncet calls.
Frame Relay
The iDEN system supports Frame Relay protocol during Dispatch communications.
Depending on how the EBTS is configured for Interconnect and Dispatch, the
number of DS0s available will vary. The iDEN system engineering staff provides
guidelines to allow service providers to provision the T1/E1s for interconnect and
dispatch.
Link Access Protocol-Data (LAP-D) is used between the EBTS and the MPS-DAPAPD cluster.
The Advanced Packet Duplicators (APD) and iSC are linked using Frame Relay LAP-D on a V.35 link. This is an indirect link through the MPS. The speed is at least
256 kbps from the DAP to the MPS, and is set by the MPS. The T-DAP uses High
Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) to interface to the APDs.
Pulse Code Modulation
Pulse Code Modulation is the telephone industry standard for the format and
encoding of data packets transmitted across voice networks. PCM is used by iDEN
for interconnect calls to land networks. The MSC and the BSC XCDR use PCM for
voice and data transmission. The XCDR converts between PCM and VSELP.
Operating Characteristics
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68P81095E55-E
3-3
Interface Protocols
Radio Link
Frequency Bands
The iDEN system supports Radio Frequency (RF) communications in International
and United States domestic spectrum designations. These bands are regulated by
Federal and international agencies. Since the service provider is the licensed pointof-presence on the RF spectrum, the user has the advantages of RF communication
without the need for FCC licensing.
Not all frequency ranges for RF communications are supported. Within each
supported frequency range, the iDEN system uses the 25 MHz frequency carrier
pairs. One carrier is used for transmit, the other for receive. This is summarized in
Table 2-1. Some bands cannot be combined.
Table 2-1.IDEN Radio Frequency Bands
Range
(in MHz)
Channel
Spacing
806-821
25 kHz
821-825*
25 kHz
896-901
25 kHz
1453-1465
25 kHz
Carrier
pairs (MHz)
Link
806-821
Uplink (from MS)
851-866
Downlink (to MS)
821-825*
Uplink (from MS)
866-870*
Downlink (to MS)
896-901
Uplink (from MS)
935-940
Downlink (to MS)
1453-1465
Uplink (from MS)
1501-1513
Downlink (to MS)
Spacing
Offset
45 MHz
12 KHz
45 MHz
12 KHz
39 Mhz
12 KHz
48 Mhz
12 KHz
* Requires Software Release 8.0
SR 8.0 also allows the use of more than one frequency range in a network. There are
specific limitations to multiple range implementation. They are:
• All radios (BRs) in a cell site (EBTS) must have the same frequency range
• All members of neighbor list must have the same frequency range
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Radio Carrier Characteristics
Motorola has long been noted for an ability to provide clear and distinct frequency
channel definitions. This is accomplished with superior out-of-band rejection and a
narrow in-band frequency sensitivity at a precise frequency center. The iDEN
system provides high modulation efficiency, carrier sensitivity, optimal Carrier-toInterference Ratio trade-offs, with low adjacent carrier interference. The carrier fits
within the FCC digital emission mask (Figure 3-1). The mean power in either
adjacent carrier is greater than 60 dB below the mean output power in the desired
carrier. Filtering to prevent cellular interference is also performed.
Figure 3-1 Radio Carrier Definition showing Motorola Precision
Signal Processing
The iDEN system uses digital technologies to process and broadcast voice and data
communication information. Digital processing provides improved voice and data
quality when compared to analog because digital signals provide superior abilities to
filter out noise, compress data, and multiplex signals on a single carrier.
Noise filtering improves voice and data quality because the characteristics of nonvoice and spurious data signals can be identified and removed with digital filters.
The compression of voice and data streams allows the system to transmit more
information in a given timeframe.
Since data is compressed and digitized, the iDEN system can optimize system
resources by sharing the resources.
Operating Characteristics
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68P81095E55-E
3-5
Interface Protocols
Carrier Characteristics
The iDEN system does not use the entire 25 Mhz range allocated for each carrier.
The iDEN system sub-divides the carrier into four sidebands. This helps reduce
interference to the data. Data is transmitted on each of the four sidebands. Using
four sidebands allows more data to be transmitted because it increases the data rate.
The iDEN RF signal consists of four independent side bands. The center frequencies
of these side bands are 4.5 KHz apart from each other, and they are spaced
symmetrically about a suppressed RF carrier frequency (Figure 3-2). Each sideband
is a logical 16 kbps data carrier. The resulting signal produces a
64 kilo-bit-per-second (64 kps) gross-radio-channel-bit-rate.
Figure 3-2 Logical RF Channel Sidebands
Frequency Center
16 kilo-bit-per-second
16 kilo-bit-per-second
16 kilo-bit-per-second
+ 16 kilo-bit-per-second
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
(4x4.5Mhz) + 0.6 ramp (actual carrier)
3.2Mhz
T. N. French
64 kilo-bit-per-second - Total
3.2Mhz
Guard Bands and Doppler shift
25KHz (FCC carrier size)
Carrier Modulation
The method used to modulate digital voice and data on the RF carrier is Motorola 16Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M16-QAM). This implementation of the data
transfer standard uses phase and amplitude modulation to create 16 offset points
around the carrier waveform. Each point represents a bit pattern (Figure 3-3).
Figure 3-3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation on 4 carrier sidebands
+2a, +2t
offset
+2a, -2t
offset
Frequency
Center
3.2Mhz
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
(4x4.5Mhz) + 0.6 ramp (actual carrier)
T. N. French
4.5KHz
1100
0100
0000
1001
1101
0101
0001
Logical point in
time on carrier
Phase and Amplitude
modulation of each signal
produces 16 possible offset
points
4.5KHz
1000
-2a, -2t
offset
1011
1111
0111
0011
1010
1110
0110
0010
Each offset point represents a
4-bit pattern
-2a, +2t
offset
One pattern every 1/4000th of a second is 16kbs (4X4)
3.2Mhz
Guard Bands and Doppler shift
25KHz (FCC carrier size)
One pattern each sideband is 64kbs (4X16)
Operating Characteristics
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August 08, 2000
Interface Protocols
Digital Voice Processing
The iDEN system converts analog voice into digital data for transmission across the
radio link of the network. The iDEN system a standard to convert and compress the
analog voice into digital data that can be applied to the carrier using M16-QAM.
Voice sounds are converted to digital data by sampling the analog waveform and
reducing it to a set of numbers. The analog voice is interpreted by an algorithm that
measures and predicts the waveform and converts it to a digital data stream. The 8bit voice codec (vocoder) used is Vector Sum Excited Linear Predicting (VSELP).
By sampling the voice in small timeslices (milliseconds), summing the vectors
(changes in amplitude slope), and predicting changes (gross sum of changes), the
voice can be converted to digital with a response time to accurately reproduce
speech. The data stream is then compressed before it is applied to the 4 carrier
sidebands. This converts and compresses 90 ms of speech into 15 ms of digital data.
The resultant data packets are applied to the radio link (Figure 3-4).
Figure 3-4 iDEN VSELP Voice Compression to 6: 1the Radio Link
Spoken Word
90ms
Analog to Digital Conversion
VSELP
Data
Compression
15ms
Radio Carrier Access Method
To support and facilitate the use of resources by more than one conversation, the
iDEN system divides the radio link data stream by time.
Time Division
Multiple Access
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) allows more than one user or device to
multiplex on (share) a given carrier. In the iDEN system the radio carrier’s digital
data stream is divided by time (Figure 3-5). Since the data stream runs much faster
than is required during communication, other data or conversations can be placed on
a single radio carrier (may be interleaved) without degrading or interfering with each
other. This increases the possible conversations per radio from one (analog cellular)
to:
• 3 per radio (Interconnect)
• 4 per radio (2-Dispatch and 2-Interconnect)
• 6 per radio (Dispatch only)
This provides several benefits:
• Reduced base station costs as compared to analog transmissions
• Full-duplex support — allowing the MS to switch between transmit and
receive.
• No incremental hardware to support dispatch, interconnect, and messages.
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
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Interface Protocols
Figure 3-5 TDMA Radio Link timeslots.
Analog = 1 conversation per radio
64 kilo-bit-per-second
1
2
3
4
Signaling or conversation 1
Signaling or conversation 2
time
time
Signaling or conversation 3
Signaling or conversation 4
5
Signaling or conversation 5
6
Signaling or conversation 6
Digital = 3 to 6 conversations per radio
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
(4x4.5Mhz) + 0.6 ramp (actual carrier)
The iDEN TDMA system divides the RF carrier into 6 discrete timeslots of 15 ms in
duration. Each of these timeslots is a separate unit that contains; overhead for
transmitter turn-on, training & synchronization, propagation delay, or conversation.
Auxiliary data imbedded within each slot provides associated signaling. The sharing
of the timeslots (interleaving) increases the carriers capacity.
Timeslot 1 on a BR of each sector or cell is designated as a Primary Control Channel.
These channels are used for call setup, MS contact and MS location. Secondary
Control Channels may be assigned if traffic volume is high enough to saturate the
Primary Control Channels.
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Timeslot Allocation A typical iDEN option increases radio link timeslots allocated to a single voice
conversation for interconnect calls from 1 to 2 per frame. By doubling the timeslots
available, the voice sampling rate can be increased. An increase the voice sample
rate results in improved audio quality. The voice bits are transmitted using two
timeslots of the 6 timeslot frame. This allows the use of the 8.0 kbs VSELP vocoder,
which increases the voice sampling rate to improve tone and richness. The iDEN
system also uses forward error correction to reduce corrupted bits in the voice
transmissions. This results in improved audio quality even in weak signal and
interference areas. This 3:1 interleave is used in interconnect calls.
Figure 3-6 Voice Packet Interleaving
90ms
Spoken Word
Analog to Digital Conversion
VSELP
Data
Compression
15ms
Dispatch/
Interconnect
6:1 interleave
T.
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
N.
Fre
nc
h
Radio Link timeslots
(15ms slots mimics DS0)
One timeslot per call
(Conserves resources)
Enhanced
Interconnect
3:1 Interleave
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
Two timeslots per call
(Improved Voice Quality)
Doubling the number of timeslots per call reduces the traffic carrying capacity of the
system. The timeslot allocation methods provides flexibility for the operator to
balance the requirements for superior audio quality against a reduction in capacity
and support for other services. The breakdown on 3:1 interleave voice channels is:
• Embedded signalling = 0.533333 kbps (24 bits per slot)
• FEC = 6.755555 kbps (304 bits per slot)
• Voice = 8 kbps (360 bits per slot)
• Total = 15.28888 kbps
Both 3:1 and 6:1 voice channels use the same transmission unit defined in the
Layer 2 RF Interface protocol. The main difference is that 3:1 interleave slots arrive
twice as often as 6:1 interleave slots. The method used will affect RF optimization
and planning.
Time Division
Duplex
To further optimize resources, the discrete timeslots in conversation are divided and
offset so transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) control and voice information can share
resources. Both the uplink to the network and the downlink to the mobile can share
timelsots during interconnect calls. Interconnect calls use two carriers. The Mobile
Transmit and Receive frequencies are separate. With Time Division Duplex the
mobile dynamically shifts frequencies to send and receive voice, data and signalling
information.
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
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Interface Protocols
Time Division Duplex (TDD) further reduces network’s packet overhead and
eliminates the need for RF duplexer on the MS. To reduce errors in propagation
delay and allow the mobile to re-tune, the radio link’s mobile receive packet is offset
ahead of the mobile transmit packet (Figure 3-7).
Figure 3-7 Time Division Duplex Operation
Rx
1a
2a
Rx1
Rx2
Downlink Control signalling and
voice packets from network
6a
Rx3
19ms delay for propagation
and mobile frequency changes
Tx
1a
2a
Tx1
Tx1
Tx3
6a
Uplink Control signalling and
voice packets to network
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Cell Sites
In normal operating conditions, output power of a Base Radio (BR) at a cell site will
be limited to the cell’s coverage area. The signalling and timing of the system
restricts the maximum cell size to approximately 70 miles. The size of a cell
coverage area is typically between one and 10 miles. By limiting the range of a radio
with its output power, the base radio’s frequency may be used in other parts of the
network at the distance defined by the re-use pattern. The iDEN system supports
both Omi-directional and Sectored cell site configurations in the same system.
Note
System design, frequency coordination and planning is primarily a service
provider responsibility. Network Element and system capacity may vary based
on system design and implementation.
Omni-directional
Site
An Omni site uses an antenna system that radiates RF power equally in all directions.
In ideal conditions the coverage area would form a circular pattern (Figure 3-8). The
Omni cell pattern reduces the number of radio channels (BRs) required but limits the
number of calls that the site can handle.
Figure 3-8 Omni-Directional Site
N
W
E
S
Sectored Site
T. N. French
T. N. French
R
A sectored site uses an antenna system the divides the logical coverage area into
areas (usually 3 but maybe 6 or 12). Under ideal conditions a 3-sectored site will
produce a circular pattern would be divided into 3 “pie” segments of 120° each
(Figure 3-9). This increase the number of channels required to cover a given area but
it also increases the traffic capacity and frequency re-use.
T. N. French
Figure 3-9 3-Sector Site
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
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Interface Protocols
Frequency Re-use
The system designer selects the reuse pattern during the design process to address
traffic, coverage and frequency requirements.
The iDEN system supports 12-cell/omni re-use pattern or a 7-cell, 3-sector frequency
re-use pattern.
System design goals may be specified as a ratio of carrier energy to interference and
noise energy. Optimal Dispatch call performance is obtained when the Carrier to
Noise plus Interference ratio over 90% of the coverage area is:
C ⁄ ( N + I ) ≥ 18db
For Interconnect calls the ratio over 90% of the coverage area should be:
C ⁄ ( N + I ) ≥ 20db
This ratio is a prime factor in RF design and frequency reuse planning. If there is 1
Base Radio per cell:
• a 12 cell/omni pattern requires 12 channel sets of frequencies
• a 7 cell/3 sector pattern requires 21 channel sets of frequencies.
Frequency distribution maps uses 16 color codes to distinguish between frequency
re-use sites. (Refer Appendix A Planning)
The two patterns are graphically depicted in Figure 3-10 and Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-10 12 Cell Omni Re-use Pattern
R= radius of contour
5a
6a
5b
4a
1a
7a
6b
12a
3a
2a
8a
7b
11a
10a
9a
4b
1b
2b
8b
5c
6c
12b
3b
N = Number of cells in reuse pattern (12)
11b
10b
9b
4c
1c
7c
12c
D = distance
D
= 3× N
R
3c
2c
8c
11c
10c
9c
Frequencies used in a cell (pattern-a) can be
used in patterns-b & c if distance formula is met.
Operating Characteristics
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68P81095E55-E
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Interface Protocols
Figure 3-11 7 Cell 3-Sector Frequency Re-Use Pattern
R= radius of contour
3b
3a
1a
1b
6a
4a
2a
6b
4b
2b
7a
5a
N = Number of cells in reuse pattern (7)
7b
5b
3c
1c
6c
D = distance
4c
2c
7c
5c
D
= 3× N
R
Frequencies used in sector in cells (pattern-a)
can be used in patterns- b&c if formula is met.
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
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Interface Protocols
Signaling Scheme
Different protocols are used to complete a call. The process to complete an
Interconnect call is more complex than a Dispatch call. The protocols used to
complete an Interconnect call are the same as those used for Circuit Switched data
networking. Dispatch and Packet Data processing use different paths and protocols.
Figure 3-12 shows the various signaling schemes and protocols encountered when a
user places a call or networks from the MS.
Multi-frequency (MF) Inband signaling is used to connect the MSC with other
networks. This process requires the MSC seize the PSTN circuits, send dialed
information and supervise the call. This process uses ANSI SS7-ISUP if it is
supported and available on the other networks (PSTN).
Figure 3-12 Signal Paths and Protocols
Mobile Station
Microphone
Vocoder
4.2kbs
VSELP
A to D
&
VSELP
RF
Modulator/
Demodulator
Modem
Speaker
Display
T.
French
RF
Data
(SMS - Packet Data)
M16QAM TDMA
7.2 kbs/channel
(1-6) timeslots
Data
RS-232
(Circuit Switched)
Computer
MOBIS/RLP
DS0's
T1
EBTS
1/radio
RLP
MOBIS
DACS
Coaxial
Ethernet LAN
ACG
CMSA/CD
audio and data
M16QAM TDMA
MOBIS
Modem
(1-6) timeslots
RF
Modulator/
Demodulator
Frame Relay
Facilities
Dispatch/Packet Data
T1, E1, DSx,
Fiber, µwave,
ATM, FDDI,...
T1
DACS
T1
Frame Relay
PD APD
MPS
V.35
Packet Data
MDG
Frame Relay
DAP
PSTN
DS1
T1
BSC
CP
SS7
ML
4.2kbs
VSELP
XCDR
PCM
64kbs
Modem tones
MSC
IWF
Facilities
SS7 ML
PCM
DACS
T1, E1, DSx,
Fiber
microwave,
ATM, FDDI ..
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Over-The-Air Programming
The information needed to define an MSs operating parameters is sent to the MS by
the system using the over-the-air, Radio Link Protocol (RLP).
Other optional data (user convenience options) must be programmed by the user or
service technician with the MS keypad or with a Radio Service Software (RSS)
programmer. The method of programming will depend on the model of the MS. The
RSS programmer can also be used to upgrade the MS operating software version or
to modify the Control Channel Band Map.
Requirements
The MS units are operational from the factory. An MS does not require
programming by the dealer or customer. System access is denied until the service
provider can authorize the MS on the system. To identify and authorize the MS, each
unit is shipped with:
• a version of code software
• a Control Channel Band Map
• an International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
• an Authentication Ki
Each of these are discussed individually.
Software
The mobile operating software is loaded when it is manufactured. Software update
and new revision may be loaded to the mobile as they become available with the
service providers RSS programmer.
Control Channel
Band Map
The Control Channel Band Map is the set of frequencies used as home frequencies.
Each provider has a designated set of frequencies that are used to locate and identify
the MS within the iDEN system. This Band Map is a lookup table. The mobile
scans the frequencies in the band map until an iDEN system is contacted. These
frequencies (Primary Control Channels) are used to register, authenticate and track a
mobile within the iDEN system. The mobile will always return to this channel set to
locate the iDEN system on an error or loss of contact.
International
Mobile Equipment
Identifier
The International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMESI) is the mobile’s unique
identifier. Analogous to the serial number, each mobile has a unique IMESI.
Authentication Key An authentication Key is a set of algorithms that produce a signature number when
provided with a random number. The FNE sends a random number to the mobile.
The returned signature is compared with the expected result to confirm the mobile’s
identity. This is discussed in greater detail in Authentication in the chapter.
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August 08, 2000
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Interface Protocols
Initial Registration
Before an MS can obtain service, it must be activated and registered in the system.
Service activation requires that International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI),
basic device parameters and the services definition be entered in the Home Location
Register (HLR) on the home MSC and a home DAP. The data entry requirements are
shown in Figure 3-13. and discussed in greater detail in Database Subsystems of this
section.
Figure 3-13 Initial MS System Contact
MSC HLR:
CUSTOMER:
- TMSI ASSIGNED
- TELEPHONEUNIT ID ASSIGNED
- SYSTEM SERVICES SET
- ACCESS PRIVILEGES
- REQUEST SERVICE
SERVICE PROVIDER:
ENTERS USER INFO THRU ADC
- IMEI
- SYSTEM ACCESS PRIVILEGES
DAP HLR:
- IMSI ASSIGNED
- DISPATCH INDIVIDUAL ID ASSIGNED
- DISPATCH GROUP IDS ASSIGNED
FLEET, TALK GROUPS, FLEET MEMBER
- SYSTEM SERVICES SET
- ACCESS PRIVILEGES
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Ongoing Registration
Whenever an MS contacts a system, it will transmit its unique number to the FNE.
The ID is sent to the DAP and it searches the D-HLR for the number. If the number
is located the services are confirmed (dispatch allowed/conditional allowed). If
dispatch calling is allowed, the mobile is dispatch authenticated. If the mobile is OK
the D-HLR assigns an internal tracking/billing number (IMSI) and sends it to the
MS. The MS will use the IMSI for all further dispatch call requests.
The same process occurs at the HLR for Interconnect permissions. The interconnect
HLR is queried for validity and services. The difference is the returned number is a
Temporary Mobile System Identifier (TMSI). Packet Data also uses this procedure
except a mobile IP address is assigned to the MS by the iHLR (Figure 3-14).
Figure 3-14 Ongoing Mobile Registration
A
dynamic number
assingment
MS enters area or
activates (registration)
MS sends IMSI to
FNE
FNE sends ID to
MS
FNE assigns ID
ID = TMSI - Interconnect
ID= IMSI - Dispatch/Interconnect
ID = IP Packet Data
Change
Location Area?
Mobile
identification
may change
mid-call
Yes
A
No
FNE
authentication
request?
FNE may
request at any
time
No
MS
Power OFF /
Power ON?
Yes
A
No
Call Processing
sequence(s)
Yes
A
A
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Authentication
Authentication is the process between the MS and the iDEN system that identifies
the MS and permits access to the system and the provisioned services.
MSs are authenticated using a signature number. During initial registration, the MS
identifies itself with a IMEI and an authentication algorithm (Ki). The HLRs use the
MSs signature algorithm to generate a set of 32 signature numbers from a set of 32
random numbers. Both number sets are transferred to a lookup table in the VLRs.
During authentication the mobile sends an ID to the VLRs. The ID is one of:
• International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI) — at initial registration
• International Mobile Subscriber Identifier (IMSI) — ongoing registrations
• Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identifier (TMSI) — for interconnect calls
• Internet Protocol (IP) address — for Packet Data Networking
The VLRs sends one of the random numbers to the mobile. The mobile runs the
signature generator and obtains a signature number. The MS returns signature to the
VLR where it is compared the expected signature in the lookup table. Services are
allowed or denied depending on the results of the comparison (Figure 3-15).
Figure 3-15 Mobile Station Authentication Process
HLR (MSC & DAP)
Authentication Center
Random
Ki
Number
(1 of 32)
Input on
activation
MS
Ki
Authentication Request
and Random number
Transmitted
Algorithm
Preprogrammed
Algorithm
Signature
Response
Signature
Response
(1 of 32)
Transmited
Compare
Signatures
Yes
Access
OK
Signature Response
No
Signature
OK?
No
Access
T. N. French
When the MS powers up, it attempts to register with the system. During this initial
registration, the MS:
1) Sends its IMEI to the iDEN FNE
2) Receives an IMSI assigned by the DAP/MSC
3) Receives the essential operating parameters
These parameters are downloaded over-the-air to the MS and allow system access
over one of the Primary Control Channels for the provider.
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Once the MS has received the system IDs, the IMEI is no longer used as an access
ID, until a Master Reset (mobile memory wipe) is performed (Figure 3-16).
Figure 3-16 Downloading the Operating Parameters
IMSI
DISPATCH GROUP IDS
PACKET DATA IP
DAP - HLR & i-HLR
IMEI
MSC - HLR
TMSI
TELEPHONE UNIT ID
AUTHENTICATION
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
DataBase Subsystems
Administrative Data Center
The Administrative Data Center (ADC) is customer supplied and may be used to
enter user information into the DAP and MSC Home Location Registers (HLRs).
Dispatch Application Processor
Dispatch Call Processing uses data in the DAP to define and control access to the
iDEN system and the system services.
DAP Home
Location Register
The Dispatch Home Location Register (D-HLR) is a DAP-resident database that
stores information about dispatch access rights and features allocated to each MS.
The D-HLR performs the Subscriber Access Control. It is queried each time a
dispatch call is initiated or call features are requested to manages access to the
system and services. The D-HLR database contains Mobile Station ID data and
Fixed Network data. Mobile Station ID data includes:
• International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
• Billing Number or International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
• Dispatch Individual ID
• Dispatch Group IDs
• Dispatch Fleet ID
• Urban ID
• Fleet, Talk Group, Fleet Member
Dispatch Home Location Register Fixed Network data includes:
• Services: Allow/Deny
• Private Call, Group Call, Call Alert, PTT ID
• Optional features (Priority and Emergency)
This data is loaded into the D-HLR database by individual service provider policies
and procedures often using the Administrative Data Center (ADC).
DAP Visited
Location Register
The DAP - Visited Location Register (D-VLR) is a Random Access Memory (RAM)
resident database that contains the most recent location information on each MS. As
an MS travels it reports its location to the DAP which updates the D-VLR with the
latest data. The D-VLR contains the MS ID, subscriber data and the current status of
the MS. The D-VLR is a very fast access database with data about recently active
and active MSs. It is a fast look up of authentication and services during Dispatch
call processing. The fast lookup helps reduce the call setup delay because the recent
list is shorter than the complete list in the D-HLR.
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Mobile Switching Center
Interconnect Call Processing uses data in the MSC to define and control access to the
iDEN system and the system services.
MSC - Home
Location Register
The MSC-Home Location Register (HLR) is where the MSs permanent subscriber
Interconnect records are stored. The database may be internal to the MSC (iNode) or
it may be a large, remote, shared, system or service. Remote HLR systems are more
common because the database processing demands on the MSC may have an adverse
affect on call processing.
All MS identities and the various supplementary services are provisioned in the
HLR. The HLR performs Subscriber Access Control. It is queried each time an
interconnect call is initiated or interconncet call features are requested.
The MSC manages access to the system by verifying requests for service against a
database of subscriber privileges. The HLR database also contains Mobile Station
Identification data and Fixed Network Data.
The HLR Mobile Station Data includes:
• IMSI
• Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI)
• MS Authentication (Random Number and Signature Number table)
• Telephone Unit ID
The HLR Fixed Network data includes:
•
•
•
•
MSC - Visited
Location Register
Services: Allow/Deny
Telephone, Short Message Service, Data
Telephone Access Privileges
Local Calls only, Inbound Calls only
- Supplemental Services: Telephone
- Call Waiting, Call forwarding, etc.
The MSC - Visited Location Register (VLR) contains the most recent location
information on each MS. The MSC VLR is part of the MSC. As an MS travels it
reports its location to the MSC which updates the VLR with the latest data. The VLR
contains the same MS ID and subscriber specific data that is contained in the HLR.
Additionally, the VLR contains the current location and status of the MS.
The VLR is a fast access database storing data about the MS units that are now or
have been recently active. It is a fast look up for Interconnect calls permissions and
services. The VLR speeds call setup because the entire HLR subscriber database on
disk is not searched.
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
3-21
Interface Protocols
Over the Air Parameters
MS Specific Parameters
The Radio Link contains mobile specific information this link operates according to
the RLP and Mobis protocols. Information about the MS that is transmitted includes:
• International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
• Authentication Ki
• Temporary Mobile Station Identifier (TMSI)
International
Mobile Subscriber
Identity
The IMSI is a unique ID downloaded by the home system to the MS at initialization
that is specific to the MS The IMSI is commonly used as a billing number.
Authentication Ki
The authentication key (Ki) is an identification of the algorithm the MS uses to create
signature numbers from random numbers.
Random Number
The Random Number is part of the table used to authenticate the MS. This is
discussed in greater detail in Authentication previously in this chapter.
Signature Number
The Signature Number is part of the table used to authenticate the MS. This is
discussed in greater detail in Authentication previously in this chapter.
Temporary Mobile
Station Identifier
The TMSI is a dynamic interconnect call processing, temporary ID that is used to
identify an MS while it is active. This parameter minimizes broadcasting the more
critical IMSI over the air. The IMSI is only transmitted when the MS initially roams
onto a system and registers. The system assigns a TMSI for the MS immediately that
is used to identify the MS until it roams out of the system. A new TMSI is assigned
to the MS each time it changes its location area with the VLR.
Dispatch Identifiers Several parameters are unique to dispatch call processing. The parameters used to
define access and services are:
•
•
•
•
Urban ID
Fleet ID
Group ID
Fleet Member ID
Urban ID
The Urban Identifier applies to Software Release 8.0 and above. This ID is used to
define the home region (market) of the MS. Motorola assigns Urban ID to markets
and regions. Introduction of this ID allows an MS to roam outside the home region
and maintain a unique identifier that may be used to control service and permit interregion and cross-fleet dispatch calling (Horizontal Dispatch).
Fleet ID
A Fleet ID is a number that is assigned by the service provider to distinguish major
subscribers (corporate or municipal entities). This defines the largest functional unit
of a dispatch call. Individual users are members of fleets. With SR 8.0 the fleet ID
may be re-used in different Urban ID areas (regions).
Operating Characteristics
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Interface Protocols
Talk Group ID
A Talk Group ID (Group ID) is a provider defined number that defines a functional
subset of a fleet. The type and number of groups in a fleet will vary with the
organization and requirements of each fleet. Each group has a dispatcher (user 0) that
is assigned as a logical control point for all dispatch communication.
Fleet Member ID
A Fleet Member ID (Member ID) is a number assigned by the provider to uniquely
designate an MS. The ID is used to indicate a specific MS during dispatch calls, such
as the originator or target MS during a Private Call. It is also used to indicate the
specific MS transmitting in the PTT-ID service. Ultimately access and service are
designated by Fleet Member ID.
Site Specific
Parameters
Each EBTS on the iDEN system has unique identifiers to coordinate the activity and
maintain the integrity of the Radio Link. A list of Site specific parameter values is
transmitted on the BCCH by each iDEN cell to MSs on that cell. These values are
read and used by each MS as it executes its link control procedures (Chapter D,
Handover).
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
3-23
Interface Protocols
Network Paths
There are four logical subscriber paths.
• Dispatch calls
• Data Packet within and across networks
• Interconnect calls with other provider networks
• Circuit Switched Data using the IWF in the MSC
Figure 3-17 presents a simplified view of the network paths and protocols.
Figure 3-17 Simplified Dispatch and Interconnect Traffic Paths
Interconnect
SMS/IVR
Voice Mail
SS7
SS7
CCITT
PCM
Ethernet
(optional)
(ADC)
SS7
ISUP
PCM - Data
(DS1 modem tones)
PCM (voice)
Ethernet
(optional)
T1
X.25
OML
Echo Canceller
Other
Network
iDEN MSC
Network Management
Channel X.25/OML
RS232
Bank
Packet
Switch
SS7
MTL
T1
X.25
OML
XCDR
X.25/OML
V.35
Operations and
Maintenance
Console
(OMC)
OML
x.25
V.35
PCM
voice
&
data
VSLEP
voice
RLP
data
Administrative Data Center
IWF
OML X.25 Ethernet (T-DAP)
circuit
breakers
Frame
Relay
Mobis
Signaling
CP
Sub-rated
VSLEP Voice
RLP Data
T. N. French
Base Site
Controller
(BSC)
OML
x.25 Dispatch
V.35 Application
DS0 - OML
(SNMP LAP-D)
T1
Processor
(DAP)
V.35
Patch
Panel
V.35
LAPD
Metro
Packet
Switch
(MPS)
Packet
Duplicator(s)
Frame Relay
RLP/ VSLEP
Mobis
Signaling
Dispatch & Packet Data
OML
SNMP
iMU BMR
GPS
iSC TFR
CSU
ACG
Frame Relay
(LAP-D)
T1
circuit
breakers
connectors
RFDS
BR
BR
BR
BR
BR
T. N. French
circuit
breakers
Rx/Tx
interface
Rx/Tx
interface
Digital Access
Cross-connect
Switch
(DACS)
BR
BR
BR
BR
BR
T. N. French
Enhanced Base Transceiver
Station (ETBS)
Operating Characteristics
3-24
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Interface Protocols
The diagram also illustrates the various protocols used throughout the network. As
shown in the diagram, the control and processing of different services is segregated
into different network entities. Services are implemented by single operational units
or in conjunction with other network elements (DAP and MSC).
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dispatch calls are routed between EBTSs by the DAP
Packet Data is routed by the DAP through the MDG to the internet
Interconnect calls are controlled by the MSC using the VLR and HLR.
Circuit Data is controlled by the MSC with the aid of the IWF.
Short Message Service (SMS) is controlled at the MSC using the HLR
Fixed Network Elements are monitored and administered by the OMC
Enhanced Base Transceiver System
The EBTS functionally converts the Radio Link to land-based protocols depending
on the call. Interconnect calls use a T1 DS0 structure. Dispatch calls use Frame
Relay. The physical connection is summarized in (Figure 3-18).
Figure 3-18 EBTS Pathways
spare
1 DS0
OML
(X.25 to OMC)
RF (Coaxial)
EBTS
RFDS
iMU
Ethernet
LAN
DAC
PSTN
Interconnect
sub-rated DS0's
(1 to 18 spans
to BSC-XCDR)
(Leased Line)
Base Radios
RF
(Coxial)
Base Radios
Base Radios
10base2
(Coaxial)
Ethernet
1 DSO - Signaling
(Mobis to BSC-CP)
ACG
Dispatch
Frame Relay
(typically 6 spans max.
to MPS)
Base Radios
CSMA/CD
FNE
OR
iSC
T1
OR
24 spans
(1 per EBTS)
1.544 Mps
framing: ESF
coding: B8ZS
DS0: 64 kbps
Clear channel capability
T. N. French
Connection between the Base Radios and the antenna system is coaxial cable sized
and rated according to the output power of all the radios attached to the antennas.
This carries M16-QAM modulated VSELP/RLP traffic.
Connection between the Base Radios and the ACG is also coaxial but is sized and
rated for Carrier Sensing Multiple Access /Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) Ethernet.
This link carries VSELP/RLP Traffic, Operation and Maintenance Link (OMLSNMP), Mobis signaling Packet Data and Circuit Data.
The connection between the EBTS and the FNE is over a direct link, microwave or
dedicated lines of another carrier. The multiple protocols for different services are
applied onto that single T1. A typical T1 setup uses:
•
•
•
•
1 DS0 with iSC/ACG Operations Signaling & Control (Mobis)
1 or more DS0s with 16 kbps Subrated Compressed (Circuit Data)
1 or more DS0s for Frame Relay (Dispatch and Packet Data)
1 DS0 for the Operations and Maintenance Link (OML SNMP)
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
3-25
Interface Protocols
Dispatch Application Processor
The DAPs are the dispatch call managers/router(s) in the network. Because of the
switch functions of the DAP, it has several interface types (Figure 3-19). The DAPs
connection to:
• EBTS-iSC using Frame Relay - LAP-D on V.35. This is an indirect link
through the MPS. The speed is at least 256 kbps from the DAP to the MPS,
and is set by the MPS. The Tandem DAP uses High Speed Serial Interface
(HSSI) to interface to the APDs
• OMC using X.25 - LAP-B / V.35. This is a 19.2 kbps direct link. However, the
newer Tandem DAP (TDAP) interface to the OMC is Ethernet.
• ADC using asynchronous RS-232. The subscriber information connection is
either an Ethernet link or a modem dial-up at 9.6 kbps
Metro Packet Switch
The MPS performs the cross connect functions under DAP control. The MPS
connects to the EBTSs over transport facilities. Connections between the DACS and
the MPS are T1. The MPS has no OMC-R link. Control and routing from the DAP
is exchanged over T1/E1 links using Frame Relay (Figure 3-19).
Packet Duplicators
APDs use a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) to communicate with the Tandem
version of the DAP.
The Operations and Maintenance Link (OML) for the PDs is by Frame relay on a T1
to the MPS and then using X.25 on V.35 cabling to the DAP. The OML with the
Tandem version of the DAP and APD is Ethernet running X.25.
Figure 3-19 Dispatch Interface Paths
OML
Frame Relay
logical on T1
T1
Frame Relay
T1's
LAP-D
LAP-D
circuit
breakers
DAC
(HSSI)
T-DAP-APD
only
MPS
To Transport
facilities
High
Speed
Serial
Interface
APD
(multi-packet
source)
(packet routing )
V.35
RS-232 Dial-up
or
Ethernet
X.25
OML
Ethernet
OMC-R
X.25
OML
T-DAP only
T. N. French
DAP
(Services &
Authentication)
ADC
Provisioining
Operating Characteristics
3-26
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Interface Protocols
Mobile Data Gateway
The MDG is an enterprise switching router. Ports are provided allow for T1
attachments to the MPS/DAP and for the attachment of transport facilities of other
carriers to the Internet (Figure 3-20).
Figure 3-20 MDG Pathways
Internet
IP
T1
IP
Frame Relay
ATM.
Frame Relay
FDDI, µwave
fiber...
T1
circuit
breakers
DAC
To Transport
facilities
MDG
MPS
(Internet Route
& Switch)
(packet routing )
DAP
T. N. French
(Services &
Authentication)
Base Site Controller
The BSCs have interfaces to the iDEN RF environment and the telephone
interconnect environment. This requires different traffic, signaling and maintenance
paths. They are:
•
•
•
•
•
SS7 signaling between the BSCs and the MSC
PCM traffic pathways between the BSCs and the MSC
VSELP/RLP traffic pathways between the BSCs and the EBTSs
Mobis signaling pathways between the BSC and the EBTSs
Operations and Maintenance pathways (BSC-OMC-R and EBTS-OMC-R)
Operating Characteristics
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
3-27
Interface Protocols
Mobile Switching Center
The MSC is a dynamic and flexible device within the network. It will vary greatly
between provider requirements and market-based installations. A typical MSC will
have several traffic and data pathways:
• SS7 to the global telephone environment, attached hardware and the BSC
• PCM traffic pathways between the MSC and attached hardware and the BSC
• EIA-232, X.25 pathway to the OMC-R
Figure 3-21 MSC Interconnection Paths
22 DS0's
DTC
PCM
T1
2 DS0's
PSTN
DS30's
LLP
DTC
LLP
2 DS0's
DTC
DTC
SS7
Core
Processor
DS0
DS0
PCM
LLP
E1
IWF
Switch
Matrix
DTC
LLP
22 DS0's
HLR
SS7
2 DS0's
T1
(May be remote)
BSC
up to
128 DS0's
(MSI)
VMS
VLR
OMC
SS7
Optional
RS-232
X.25
Operations and Maintenance Center
The OMC-R is the center of a X.25 network. The interface used will vary with the
aging of the system and the devices being monitored and controlled.
Operating Characteristics
3-28
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Chapter 4
Dispatch Call Processing
Dispatch calls are voice communications that use the half-duplex Push-To-Talk
(PTT) form of communication. This type of call does not use other provider
networks except as transport facilities. These calls may cross service areas if the
DAPs of both service areas are networked together and have shared processing
(provisioning and roaming agreements). Some iDEN systems are implemented as
dispatch-only. As dispatch-only, the interconnect portion of the system is not
installed and cannot be used. This chapter describes the fundamentals of the
Dispatch Call Processing. Further information is available in MSO Dispatch SubSystem 68P80800H45 and MSO Dispatch Planning and Expansion 68P80800H85.
General Dispatch Calling
To support the logical Global, Fleet, Group and Member calls. Dispatch calling uses
most of the levels of the communications model. The model has different levels
(Figure 4-1). These areas are based on geographical areas. The areas are:
• Region
• Domain
• Service Area
• Location Area
• Cell
Figure 4-1 Logical Organization of Dispatch Locators
Location Area
Cell
Domain 0 = Market = Region
Service Area 1
SA2
(SA1)
Doman 2
SA14
SA13
SA3 SA5
Domain 1
SA4
SA6
SA7
SA11
SA12
Domain 3
SA10 SA9
Domain 4
SA8
Dispatch Call Processing
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
4-1
General Dispatch Calling
Region
A Dispatch region is a large geographic area that is usually associated with more than
one market or, more than one urban area. Just as urban areas tend to be adjacent and
overlap, so do service provider coverage areas. A Dispatch region is serviced by a
single provider. If a service provider has adjacent or overlapping markets they may
be linked to provide contiguous service across urban areas.
Domain
A Dispatch domain is an optional division of a system and/or region (Figure 4-2 )
and consists of one of more service areas. A domain may be used to divide a region
into operating areas. These areas define the dispatch operational area based on a
DAP (Fleets). The domain are defined in provisioning. In dispatch calling this
generally limits the range and mobility of a fleet’s subscriber mobiles. With a 6-DAP
cluster, up to 50 domains may be defined. Domain 0 is the entire system. Domains
may contain up to 254 service areas but are usually designed using a smaller number
of smaller service areas. A fleet may be provisioned to allow coverage in a specific
domain.
Figure 4-2 Dispatch Domain Areas
Service Areas
define Domains
Domains may use
different Service Areas
Common boundries
should be avoided
(arrow)
Service Area
A service area consists of 1 or more location areas. Service areas are service provider
defined areas. When placing a group call, an end-user may:
• Call to the same service area only
• Call to a selected service area
• Call to all service areas
Multiple service area provide opportunities of the service provider to structure billing
along coverage areas.
A service area is logically defined in the system provisioning and includes location
areas that can be accessed during private and group calls as described in Dispatch
Call Types. Multiple Service Areas can be defined. Service Areas can overlap. The
Fleet’s MS can Dispatch call with the defined service area. Outside the defined
service area, Interconnect calling must be used.
Dispatch Call Processing
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68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Functions
Dispatch Location Area
A Dispatch Location Area (DLA) is logical area that consists of one or more EBTS
sites. Each mobile on the iDEN system has a location area identifier (LAI).
The DLA on a single DAP
The interconnect and dispatch location areas may be different. A Dispatch Location
Area is generally more specific (services fewer cells) than an Interconnect Location
Area.
Cell
A site has a RF propagation pattern that will define the effective size of a cell. An
EBTS may be either omni-directional or sectored. A user MS is located by radio link
integrity between 1 or more cells. How the MS is located between sites is discussed
in greater detail in Appendix D, Handover.
Functions
Dispatch Only Service
Because dispatch calls exist entirely within the iDEN system, the services,
configuration and administration of individual MSs on the system can be tightly
controlled. If desired, a MS on the network may be excluded from using the PSTN
networks. Conversely, a MS may be restricted from making dispatch calls. Both of
these options are defined by service provisioning in the D-HLR and HLR.
General
Figure 4-3 represents a simplified diagram of the iDEN system elements involved in
Dispatch services. The MS sends, receives voice and displays data. The EBTS
converts the radio link to the land network link and discriminates between Dispatch,
Packet Data and Interconnect calls. The MPS routes dispatch call voice packets and
packet data packets. The DAP determines service availability and location
information. The APD duplicates voice packet that need to be sent to multiple MSs
in group calling.
Figure 4-3 Simplified Dispatch Diagram
Talk
Listen
T. N. French
half-duplex
iMU
circuit
breakers
APD
(multi-packet
source)
iSC
ACG
ETBS
DAC
(transport
facilities))
MPS
(packet
routing )
T. N. French
DAP
(Services &
authentication)
The control and monitoring steps to complete a dispatch call are internal to the iDEN
system. Aside from dialing, sending and receiving, the steps to complete the call are
user transparent. There three major steps in a typical dispatch call:
Dispatch Call Processing
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
4-3
Functions
• Establish Radio Link
• Route digital voice packets
• Duplicate packets for group calls
Establish Radio
Link
The radio link is the on-air connection. The radio link is a coordinated effort
between the MS, the EBTS, MPS and the DAP. The EBTS/DAC/MPS complex
routes the call setup information to the DAP. The DAP queries the D-HLR and DVLR to determine service access, authentication, and service availability. The EBTS
establishes and maintains the radio link on the RF control channels. If the MSs
location indicates another EBTS has better radio link quality, the mobile re-connects
to the EBTSs without handover control overhead. The MS re-selects and connects
dynamically as required.
Route Digital Voice Once the radio link is established, the EBTS discriminates between a Interconnect
Packets
call and a Dispatch call. The DAC will cross-connect dispatch voice packets to the
MPS. The MPS coordinates the movement of packets between the EBTSs and the
DAPs. The MPS re-routes calls to another EBTS if the MS reconnects. If more than
one called MS is involved (group call) the MPS routes the voice packet to the DAP
and Packet Duplicator to be copied. The copied packets are routed to the appropriate
EBTS as determined by the call type.
Packet Duplication For Dispatch group calls the VSELP voice packets are routed to the Packet
Duplicator where they are copied and applied to the appropriated link by the MPS.
The DAP controls call routing and coordinates the services. The MPS handles the
timing and routing of the voice packets.
Dispatch Call Processing
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68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Functions
System Identifiers
The iDEN system allows several dispatch call types. To uniquely identify an MS on
the iDEN system several logical IDs are used. This information is maintained in the
dispatch provisioning databases on the DAP.
In dispatch calling the identification, call processing, tracking, and selection of
services requires logical tags to identify iDEN system users.
Urban Identifier
Software Release 8.0 introduces the concept of urban areas. Motorola assigns Urban
IDs to a urban area.
The Urban ID increases the number of fleets available globally and provides a
mechanism to establish fleet-to-fleet dispatch calls.
This information is maintained in the Dispatch Home Location Register (D-HLR)
and Visited Location Register (D-VLR).
Fleet Identifier
A Fleet ID is a logical designation of a corporate or municipal entity that usually
receives the billing. A fleet consists of groups and users (members). As a businessoriented communication service, the iDEN system bases the dispatch calling on the
fleet basis. One user in each fleet is designated as a dispatcher (user 0).
Group Identifier
A Group Identifier is used to subdivide fleets into logical units. One fleet member is
always the dispatcher (User 0) and is a member of all groups. Other users in the fleet
are assigned to groups based on organization, function, task or some other fleet
related method. The type and number of groups within a fleet are fleet specific.
The service provider may configure each MS in the fleet with specific operating
limits so a user will hear only the conversations and announcements that relate to the
members of the same group.
An MS may be part of more the one talk group. An end-user may change the default
talk group as required if the service provider allows this in provisioning and the MS
can support it. An MS cannot be in more than one group at the same time.
Multiple
The Multiple Simultaneous Talk-group (MST) is an optional feature associated with
Simultaneous Talk- MSs with advanced feature. An Advanced Feature Unit (AFU) MS and the
group
Advanced Feature software are required to support MST.
MST allows an MS to be part of up to four groups in the same fleet. This allows a
user to monitor and participate with groups other than the MS’ currently registered
group. The MS can use a mode switch to change its current (selected) group. One
group is Selected and the others (up to 3) groups are Associated. There can only be
one Selected group per mode switch setting. Associated talkgroups for all modes can
also be toggled On/Off.
Dispatch Call Processing
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
4-5
Dispatch Call Procedure
Fleet Member Identifier
Each end-user (MS) capable of dispatch calling has a unique Fleet Member ID. This
ID is specific to the fleet and may be re-used in different fleets. Dispatch services,
limitations and provisioning, are specified by Fleet ID, Group ID and Fleet Member
ID. The Fleet member ID is logically the same as the suffix used for in land line
communications.
The Fleet Member Identifier is used to indicate the caller and called MSs private
dispatch calls and to indicate the transmitter in the PTT-ID service in group dispatch
calls. The numbering within a fleet need not be contiguous, so removing a MS will
not require the others to be renumbered.
Dispatch Call Procedure
The simplified steps of a typical dispatch call are:
1) A dispatch call is requested via PTT activation.
The call request packet is routed to the DAP.
The DAP recognizes the MSs group and finds the group members by location
area (DLA).
2) The DAP sends location requests to the member's DLA to obtain current sector
or cell.
3) The group member MSs respond with each’s current sector or cell location.
4) The DAP supplies each member’s routing information to the MPS and PD.
5) Call voice packets are sent to the PD, where they are replicated and distributed to
the MSs sites.
Figure 4-4 Typical Dispatch Call Summary
PTT REQUEST
1
LOCATION REQUESTS
.
.
2
LOCATION RESPONSES
ROUTING INFORMATION
3
4
VOICE PACKETS
5
Dispatch Call Processing
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68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Capacity Enhancements
Capacity Enhancements
One of the limiting factors to the capacity in a large sector/cell is control channel
traffic and the ability of the Primary Control Channel (PCCH) to handle system
messages. When the capacity of a site is increased, the number of messages per
control channel may become high enough to require additional control channels. The
use of a Secondary Control Channel solves this problem by allowing one or more RF
link timeslots to be assigned as Secondary Control Channels. Secondary Control
Channels are configured on a per-cell basis.
Dispatch Call Types
The iDEN system supports the several Dispatch Call types, some of which are
optional and require the purchase of additional hardware and software. They are:
• Private Call - Individual dispatch call between 2 users
• Talkgroup Call - Subfleet dispatch call across 1 or more sites and include:
Local Area
Wide Area
Selected Service Area
• Call Alert - Alert message sent from 1 user to another
• Emergency Call - A high priority subfleet dispatch call across 1 or more sites
• MS Status - Alert message with additional field sent from 1 user to another
Dispatch Private Call
A Private Call is similar to a one-to-one call. One user enters another user’s
designation (Fleet Member ID) and the call connection is one-way and exclusive.
Other members of the fleet and group are not involved in the conversation.
A private dispatch call was limited to another member of the same fleet in the same
region. There are specific limitations to cross-fleet calling. These limitations are
discussed in greater detail in Dispatch Provisioning of this chapter.
The caller enters the called MSs Fleet Member ID and presses the talk button on the
MS to hail the iDEN system. The hail sends a request for service over the radio link
control channel to the EBTS then to the DAP.
During call setup, the DAP validates the MS (caller), the request, and the target
(authentication). After validation, the DAP sends a location request to the called MS
unit. If resources are not available to either the caller or called MS, the call is queued.
If resources are available and the called party is available, a call establishment
indicates to the originator that the called party has been located and is ready for the
call.
The called MS activates the audio. The caller’s Fleet Member ID is sent to the called
MS during the set-up process for display on the called user’s MS or for returning
another call. The called MS may display the caller’s alias if it has the feature and is
programmed to display the alias.
Dispatch Call Processing
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
4-7
Dispatch Call Types
During the conversation, a hang time is provided so that the two parties may
exchange transmissions. After each transmission, the Fixed Network Equipment
(FNE) maintains the call for the hang time to allow either user time to respond. If at
any time during the process, the called or caller MS does not respond in a
programmable timeframe, the FNE disconnects all the channels and tears down the
call. The call hang timer is reset by each new transmission.
Figure 4-5 Private Call Functionality
Called MS
Caller MS
MESSAGE
FNE
PC REQUEST
PC PROCEEDING INITIATOR
PC PAGING REQUEST
PC PAGING RESPONSE
PC GRANT INITIATOR
PC GRANT TARGET
1. A Private Call (PC) is set up automatically. No other users hears the communication.
When a PC is initiated, after the PC proceeding message, a PC Page message is sent.
2. Only the cell returning a PC Page Response to the DAP is included in the PC. If no
resources are available, the PC MS will be put into a queue. The DAP PC queue timer is
adjustable. If no resources are available after the queue timer expires, the MS will
receive an indication that the PC setup is being torn down.
Examples of private Call Scenarios are shown in Table 4-1
Table 4-1Private Call Scenario
Event/State
Notification
Called MS idle
If MS and resources available - Successful Call
Called MS on an Interconnect Call
Caller receives 1 sec Busy Tone / Low and MS
displays TARGET NOT AVAILABLE along with
1 sec high tone
Called MS on a dispatch Group Call
Caller receives 1 sec Busy Tone / Low and MS
displays TARGET NOT AVAILABLE along with
1 sec high tone
Called MS on a dispatch Private Call
Caller MS displays TARGET BUSY IN
PRIVATE along with 1 sec high tone
Called MS is powered down
Caller receives Busy Tone / High and the MS
displays TARGET NOT AVAILABLE
MS initiates a Private Call to itself
Caller receives 1 sec Busy Tone/High and the
MS displays TARGET BUSY IN PRIVATE
MS attempts invalid Call Alert (private
call)
Caller MS displays SERVICE RESTRICTED
along with a short tone
MS calls an MS without Private Calling
Caller MS displays TARGET NOT AUTHORIZED
along with a short tone
MS calls an invalid MS
Caller MS displays INVALID ENTRY along with
a short high tone
MS initiates a Private Call in other than
the home market
Caller MS displays SERVICE NOT AVAILABLE
along with a short high tone
Dispatch Call Processing
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Dispatch Call Types
Dispatch Group Calls
Dispatch Group Calls allow MSs which are members of predefined groups to
communicate in half-duplex (one person talking at a time and the others listening)
among themselves. Only members of the group can participate in the conversation
and any authorized group member can either set-up or participate in the call. The call
can be set up without all group members being available and can involve members
being served at different sites. Any group member can leave the group at any time.
After one MS makes the request, the Fixed Network Equipment (FNE):
•
•
•
•
Validates the Dispatch Group Call request
Determines the Dispatch Location Areas (DLAs) of the group’s members
Pages members (sends a Location Request) in those DLAs
On Page response, assigns a channel at each site that needs to be added and
have resources available.
Figure 4-6 Dispatch Call Setup
Called MSs
Caller MS
MESSAGE
FNE
DGC REQUEST
DGC PROCESSING
DGC PAGING REQUEST
DGC PAGING RESPONSE
DGC GRANT INITIATOR
DGC GRANT TARGET
Three types of Dispatch Group Calls (DGC):
Local Area Call - communications between MS in the “Home” or “Local” service area.
Selected Area Call - communications between a caller and a group in a different service
areas.
Wide Area Call - communications between a caller and a group anywhere in the network.
If no servers are available at the caller’s site, the call is queued. If a server is
available at the caller’s site but not at other sites, those sites are included into the call
as servers become available. Pages will be sent out only in those Location Areas
where active group members are registered (provisioned). Once an MS responds to
the page, only those cells with active MSs will have voice channels assigned. After
each transmission, the FNE maintains the call for the pre-defined hang time. If the
hang time expires, the channels are disconnected and the call is torn down.
The types of Dispatch Group Calls that define the extent of the area of the call are:
Wide Area, Local Service Area, and Selected Service Area Dispatch Group Calls.
Dispatch Call Processing
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
4-9
Dispatch Call Types
Local Service Area A Local Area Group call is a voice multicast to members of the fleet’s group in the
Dispatch Group
callers service area, the group dispatcher, and members of the group in the
Call
dispatcher’s service area (Figure 4-7). Once a group is selected and a Group Call is
initiated, all members of the group will be activated on the group call (Table 4-2).
Figure 4-7 Local Area Group Calling
Group A
Group A
Group B
Cell
Group A
Group B
Location Area
T. N. French
Group A
Group B
Group A
Dispatcher
Group A
Group A
Group A
Group B
Group B
Group A
Group B
Dispatcher
Location
Area
Other Location Areas
Table 4-2 Local Service Area Group Selection
MS User Selects
System Locates and Includes
Local Service Area
Group
• Members of group in initiator’s service area
• Dispatch station (user 0) for the group
Examples Call Scenarios of Local Group Calls are shown in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3Local Group Call Scenario
Event/State
Notification
MS in service area
If called MS and resources are available,
Successful Call
MS out of service area
Called MS idle. If it attempts a Group Call,
it will be brought into the active group call
MS enters the active group call area
MS will be brought into the active call
MS active in call leaves service area
MS remains active in call
MS powers up during call
MS activates. If MS is outside the service
area and tries a Group Call, it joins the call
MS ends another service in the service area
and is in the active group call area
MS will be brought into the active call
MS ends another service in the service area
and is not in the active group call area
MS is idle. If MS tries a Group Call, or other
MS enters cell, MSs joins the active call
MS ends another service out of service area
MS remains idle. If MS attempts a Group
Call, it joins the active call.
MS ends an service out of service area and
enters the active call group area
MS will be brought into the active call
Dispatch Call Processing
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Dispatch Call Types
Selected Service
Area Dispatch
Group Call
A Selected Area Group call is a voice multicast to all members of the fleet’s group in
the caller’s service area and a selected service area (Figure 4-8). Once a group is
selected and a Selected Area Group Call is initiated, all members of the group in the
callers service area and the selected service area as defined by the fleet’s
provisioning will be hailed and activated on the group call (Table 4-4)
Figure 4-8 Selected Area Group Calling
Group A
Group A
Group B
Cell
Group A
Group B
Location Area
T. N. French
Group A
Dispatcher
Group A
Group A
Group A
Group A
Group A
Group B
Group B
Group B
Group B
Dispatcher
Location
Area
Another Selected Location
Area
Table 4-4 Selected Service Area Group Selection
MS User Selects
Selected Service Area Group
System Locates and Includes
• Members of the group in initiator’s service area
• Members of the group in selected service area
Example Call Scenarios of Selected Area Group Calls are shown in Table 4-5
Table 4-5 Selected Group Area Call Events
Event/State
Notification
MS in Initiator and Target service area
If MS and resources available, Successful Call
MS is out of service area
Remains idle
MS enters service area and is on an
active group call area
MS will be brought into the active call
MS leaves service area
MS remains active in call
MS powers up during call
MS becomes active in call through registration
if MS is in selected area
MS ends another service within service
area and is on group call area
MS will be brought into the active call.
MS ends another service within service
area and is not on group call area
MS remains idle. If MS attempts a Group Call,
or other active MS enters cell, it joins the active
call.
MS ends a service out of service area
Remains idle
MS ends another service and enters
active group call area
MS will be brought into the active call
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Dispatch Call Types
Wide Area
Dispatch Group
Call
Wide Area Dispatch Group Calls are a broadcast to every MS member in the callers
selected (active) group. Once a group is selected and a Wide Area Group Call is
initiated, all members of the group within the service area defined by the fleet’s
provisioning will be hailed and activated on the group call (Table 4-6).
Table 4-6 Wide Area Group Call Selection
MS User Selects
Wide Area Group
System Locates and Includes
• Members of the Group in entire coverage area
With SR 8.0 a wide area group call will include members of the group that are
outside the region is the service is supported by both region’s provisioning. Prior to
SR 8.0 cannot wide area group call outside the region.
Example Call Scenarios of Wide Area Group Calls are shown in Table 4-7
Table 4-7 Wide Area Call Scenario
Event/State
Call Alert
Notification
MS in service area
If target MS and resources available,
Successful Call
MS is out of service area
N/A
MS enters service area and is on an active
GC cell
N/A
MS that leave service area
N/A
MS powers up during group call while in
area
MS will be brought into the active call
MS ends another service within service area
and is on group call area
MS will be brought into the active call.
MS ends another service within service area
and is not on group call area
MS remains idle. If MS attempts a Group
Call, or other active MS enters cell, it will be
brought into the active call.
MS ends a service out of service area
N/A
MS ends a service and enters active group
call area
N/A
A Call Alert is a dispatch call request. It used to notify the called party that voice
communication is desired.
The calling party selects call alert on the MS (Call Alert mode) and then enters the
Called MSs Fleet Member ID, or, selects an alias for the pre-programmed list. The
calling MS receives an acknowledgment (ACK) if the request is successfully
delivered.
An audio tone and a visual indicator on the called MS informs the user of Call Alert.
The Call Alert displays and stores the calling MSs Fleet Member ID (or alias) on the
called MS. This can be used to simplify call back. The called MS may then select the
alert on the MS and initiate a callback. The called MS may also delete the alert.
Deleting the call alert does not stop the returned Acknowledgement.
The entire Call Alert procedure takes place on the PCCH or the SCCH so no talk
channel resources (TCH) resources are used.
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Dispatch Call Types
An example of a Call Alert Call Scenarios are shown in Table 4-8.
Table 4-8 Call Alert Scenario
Event/State
Notification
Called MS idle
If MS is available -- Successful Call
Called MS on an Interconnect Call
Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays - TARGET
NOT AVAILABLE along with 1 sec high tone
Called MS is involved in a Group Call
Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays - TARGET
NOT AVAILABLE along with 1 sec high tone
Called MS is involved in a Private Call Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays - TARGET
NOT AVAILABLE along with 1 sec high tone
Emergency Call
Called MS is powered down
Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays - TARGET
NOT AVAILABLE along with 1 sec high tone
MS Call Alerts itself
Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays TARGET
BUSY IN PRIVATE along with 1 sec high tone
MS cannot Call Alert
Caller MS displays SERVICE RESTRICTED along
with a short tone
MS Call Alerts to an MS without Call
Alert
Caller MS displays TARGET NOT
AUTHORIZED along with a short tone
MS Call Alerts an invalid Fleet
Member
Caller MS receives 2 beeps and displays INVALID
ENTRY along with a short high tone
MS gets a Call Alert and does not clear
that call
MS will not function in any other call till cleared
An Emergency Call is an option. This is a special situation of a Wide Area Dispatch
Group Call that is given the highest priority. The priority allocates resources for the
call, as well as preempts existing calls and call requests.
An Emergency Call is used to alert all members of the group of an emergency
initiated by a user. An emergency call is handled before any other call and is
intended to announce and open a line of communication in a dangerous situation.
For users with an Advanced Feature Unit (AFU) MS, a button on the MS generates
an Emergency Call. This option is provisioned in the DAP. The request triggers a
new call, or causes an in-progress call to be elevated to Emergency status. Except for
the priority, the FNE processes an Emergency call like a Dispatch Group Call. An
Emergency Call can also be terminated at any time by the initiator or another user
with an MS provisioned override the status. An optional advanced feature package is
required for the Infrastructure to process Emergency Calls.
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Dispatch Call Types
MS Status
MS Status is another Advanced Feature option. MS Status enables one MS to send a
Status Code (an 8\+bit number) to another MS in the same fleet.
The meaning of the Status Code is user defined. Some MSs can translate the status
code into a character string on the MS display. The Status Code is transparent to the
iDEN system. It is not examined, defined or recorded by the iDEN system.
The MS Status is similar to Call Alert and is controlled by the MSs user interface.
Like Call Alert, the MS Status returns an acknowledgement when the status is
delivered or the MS returns a failure reason. MS Status also saves the calling MS
fleet ID so a call back can be selected on the MS display. The difference between MS
Status and Call Alert is the definition in provisioning:
• A Call Alert may be activated as send, receive, or neither by MS
• MS Status can be activated for just send, just receive, both, or neither
A Status Code of all zeroes is taken to imply a Call Alert. MS Status is also sent over
the PCCH or SCCH and does not use any talk channel resources (TCH).
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Dispatch Call Types
Limitations
The iDEN system has physical and programmable limitations to service and
coverage. The obvious limitations are hardware related. Capacity and traffic
planning is required to assure the system can support the call volume generated by
the users. (refer to Appendix limits)
Region
Urban IDs allow an MS from one region to be uniquely identified in another region
without conflict. The additional of this identifier reduces the potential for registration
and authentication conflicts. There can be approximately 11 million Urban IDs
Domain
If a region contains a DAP-cluster or more than one DAP, all DAPs in the cluster
service the same region. The service provider can configure the D-HLR and D-VLR
databases to permit or restrict mobility across the domains.
Service Area
A Service Area is a logical unit that is used to limit the range of a fleet’s group call.
Normally a group call will only require resources from a small group of EBTSs. By
reducing the amount of MSs in a group call the system resources used is reduced.
Location Area
A Dispatch Location Area can be used to manage and track the mobility of an MS.
An MS is located by this group of cells.
Enhanced Base Transceiver System
An EBTS may be either Omni-directional or 3-sector. For 3-sector EBTSs, each cell
is a sector.
Physical limitations of EBTS relate primarily to the number of Base Radios and
dynamics of the radio link. The more Base Radios, the more control and traffic
channels available in a specific area. With more radios available in the EBTS, the
more span line facilities, DACs, and DAP resources will be required to support the
increase in radio link capacity. Refer to the iDEN RF Planning Guide and the iDEN
RF Subsystem/RF Link Optimization Manual.
Dispatch Application Processor
The DAP may be implemented in two forms. This will depend on the age and the
size of the system. The implementation of the DAP and the software release are a
major determining factor in the capacity and functionality of the iDEN system.
• R4400 N-DAP — to support 90K Dispatch Equipment Subscribers (DES)
• R10000-DAP — to support 180K DES
Fleet
Each fleet is provisioned in a single DAP. Each DAP can support 10,000 unique fleet
IDs. For example, a N-DAP cluster of 6 DAPs can support up to 60,000 fleet IDs.
Group
The maximum number talk groups per fleet is 255.
User
An MS can support up to 3 Number Assignment Modules (NAMs). Each NAM of an
MS can only be in 1 fleet. The feature supports Multiple Simultaneous Talkgroups
and assumes the MS can support and is configured to support multiple NAMs.
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Dispatch Call Types
Provisioning
Provisioning is the logical connection between a fleet member MS and the functions
and services available on the iDEN system. Each MS is provisioned for unique IDs,
areas of service, types of services and fleets, groups. This information not only
controls service, it is often directly related to billing and revenues for the system.
Provisioning is a data entry function that is usually associated with the service
provider’s Administrative Data Center (ADC). Provisioning is discussed in greater
detail in DAP ADC and Billing Interface 68P81130E99, DAP Operator Manual
68P81131E03 and DAP Software Dev Manual 68P81130E44.
Domain
The optional domain may be used control fleet mobility in the region. The fleet and
service areas are defined in the D-HLR. Individual fleets can be included or excluded
from the coverage based on the DAP defined domain. By restricting the available
service areas and DAPs, the services transferred between the D-VLRs can prevent
services in specific areas.
Service Area
Like domains the data entered in the MS’ D-HLR records at the DAP can define the
coverage of a Fleet, Group, Member (MS) within a specific area. Since MSs may
belong to multiple groups in a fleet, this allows greater flexibility to in private and
group calling at the MS level.
Fleet
The Fleet is the major logical unit used to define the range and services. As a
business unit, the fleet is often considered the major subscriber for logical and billing
purposes. Each fleet consists of groups and members. Members may also be
considered subscribers associated with the fleet services and groups. How the fleet
and user members are defined is controlled by the D-HLR and D-VLR of the DAPs.
Group
Fleet groups are specific to fleet.
Member
Services can be further refined on an individual MS basis. How the fleet users
(members) are defined is controlled by the D-HLR and D-VLR of the DAPs.
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Chapter 5
Interconnect Call Processing
Interconnect calls are voice communications that utilized other provider networks.
The other networks may be either land-based or wireless. To use interconnect
calling, the iDEN system must be configured for interface to the telephony network.
This chapter will describes the fundamentals of the Interconnect Call Processing
Interconnect Calling
To support the logical Global and other provider calling, Interconnect
communications organizes the coordinated systems into different levels. These areas
are based on geography. The areas are:
• Global — another provider land-line or wireless system
• Location Area — the set of EBTSs in contact with the mobile
• Cell — the cell of the EBTS hosting the call
Interconnect calls locate the MS to the cell by the Base Radio handling the radio link
and control channels. The location area is a logical group of EBTSs maintained as a
Interconnect Location Identifier (ILA) in the VLR to track the MS.
Functions
Interconnect Only Service
Because Interconnect calls exist outside of the iDEN system, this type of service my
be restricted on a per-MS basis. These types of operation are controlled by service
provisioning.
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Functions
General
Interconnect calling allows an MS to travel freely throughout an iDEN system and
teamed roaming partners. Within this extended network, a user can originate or
receive interconnect calls. The systems track the MS's location and services as well
as route the calls. With networked regions the MS can roam into those interconnected
regions originating and receiving calls as if the MS is in its home system.
Figure 5-1 shows the major elements involved in Interconnect calling. The MS sends
and receives voice data. The EBTS converts the radio link to the land link and
discriminates between Interconnect and Dispatch calls. The BSC routes interconnect
packets between the EBTS and the MSC. The MSC determines services and location
information. The MSC also controls and routes the calls to other providers.
Figure 5-1 iDEN Interconnect Call Elements
HLR
iMU
iSC
Mobile Station
(MS)
VLR
XCDR
RF
ACG
IWF
SMS
Fax/Modem
Bank
External,
online
messaging
T. N. French
EBTS
(radio link)
DAC
(span
connections)
BSC
(routing and
conversion)
MSC
(services &
PSTN routing)
T. N .
French
The control and monitoring steps needed to complete this task are primarily internal
to the iDEN system. Aside from dialing sending and receiving, the steps to complete
an Interconnect call are user transparent. There four major steps in an Interconnect
call:
•
•
•
•
Establish Radio
Link
Establish Radio Link
Route digital voice packets
VSELP/Mobis — PCM/SS7 conversion
Other network routing
The radio link is the on-air connection. This is a coordinated effort between the MS,
EBTS, BSC and the MSC. The RF Subsystem analyzes the MS broadcast and
determines the EBTS to host the call. The BSC routes the call setup information to
the MSC. The MSC queries the HLR and VLR to determine location access,
authentication and service availability. The EBTS establishes and maintains the
radio link. This includes coordination of handoff to another EBTS if the MS’s
location indicates another EBTS has better radio link quality. Setup, control and
monitoring of the radio link uses the Mobis link protocol.
Route Digital Voice Once the radio link is established, the EBTS discriminates between a Dispatch call
Packets
and a Interconnect call. The DAC will cross-connect interconnect voice packets to
the BSC. The BSC coordinates the movement of packets between the DACs and the
MSC. The BSC re-routes calls to another EBTS on handoff. Control of the link
between the BSC and the MS use the Mobis protocol. Control of the BSC/XCDR
complex and the MSC link uses SS7 routing and messaging.
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Functions
VSELP -- PCM
Conversion
The VSLEP compression at the MS is converted to standardized PCM for use on
other networks by the BSC/XCDR The BSC is also the bridge between the Mobis
protocol link and the PCM SS7 link.
Other Network
Routing
Once the radio link is established, the transmitted connect request (NADP, MSISDN
or GSM phone number) is processed by the MSC databases for other provider
network routing. The MSC uses SS7 routing, messaging and trunking to cross
connect the voice data packets to the appropriate other provider network.
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Overdial
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) overdial is the ability to enter digits on the MS
keypad and to transmit the standardized pulse tone across the network to a remote
device. This ability to send tone is used to control automated calling system menus
and provide enhanced functionality to the MS. Once the interconnect call is
established, keypad input from the MS is converted to DTMF by the MSC. The type
and number of digits that can be sent is determined by the dialing plan of the
implementation of the MSC (International or NADP).
Call Restrictions
Call Restrictions are provisioning attributes that allow the provider to configure an
individual MS. These configuration settings include but are not limited to:
• No Interconnect Service
• Answer-only
• No-long distance
Emergency Call
The iDEN system provides facilities to locally defined Emergency Call processing.
The U.S.A. Domestic 911 and similar connections to the municipal emergency
services is available. The system provides the ability to establish a municipal 911
call by service location area. Local requirements to locate the MS within the
municipal area are provided but are limited to the potential serving cells area.
Call Detail Records
The Interconnect call activity will always be collected for capacity and billing
purposes. The MSC call record data collection conforms with U.S.A. domestic and
international standards. This call record information may be available to the ADC
through a direct network link or may be reduced to tape for loading onto the ADC.
Channel Efficiency
The way the internal iDEN network handles interconnect calls is determined by how
often a digital voice packet is applied (interleaved) on the radio link. The iDEN
system uses two methods
• 6:1 interleaved
• 3:1 interleaved
The method of interleaving used affects the voice quality, throughput and network
optimization and the amount of equipment required. Capacity planning and RF
optimization are affected by the type of interleaving used. Both types of interleaving
may be used on the iDEN system. The type of interleaving is selected by market
area during the capacity planning/system engineering phase of the implementation.
The impact of interleaving is discussed in the iDEN RF Planning Guide.
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Functions
6:1 Interleaved
The primary method of transmitting digital voice packet is to apply one voice packet
slot to a single TDMA frame (1 voice slot per 6 frame packets). The 6:1 interleaving
method is the lower-cost, greater-throughput method. Disadvantages are changes to
the coverage and optimization to assure audio quality. Refer to the iDEN RF
Planning Guide for more information.
3:1 Interleaved
The 3:1 interleaving method uses two slots on a single TDMA frame. By effectively
doubling the amount of data being sent, the system can use an enhanced vococder
that samples voice more and provides better voice quality. Since the load on the
radio link is increased the throughput is reduced. This increases the amount of radio
equipment required when compared to the 6:1 method. The affects of interleaving on
coverage and RF optimization are discussed in the iDEN RF Planning Guide.
System Identifiers
Individual users of the iDEN system are uniquely identified on the system. The type
of identification will depend on the region. The iDEN system can be configured to
support the international and/or North American Dial Plan.
In both cases each MS on the system is assigned a Mobile Station International
Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN). This is the unique identifier the allows
global accessibility of the MS. The ability to access the MS depends on the RF subsystem frequency and roaming agreements between service providers.
In the iDEN system the MSISDN aliasing, service access and authorized services are
maintained and stored in the HLR. The MS location is in the VLR of the MSC.
Interconnect Call Processing
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Functions
Interconnect Call Procedure
The basic steps involved in a telephone interconnect can be summarized in Table 5-1
an the step diagram of Figure 5-2
Table 5-1 Call Procedures
Make a Call (origination)
a) Send Random Access Protocol (RAP) on PCCH
b) Mobile gets a dedicated control channel assigned
c) Authentication (optional)
d) Call setup transaction
e) Get assigned to a traffic channel
f) Call termination request on associated control channel
g) Channel released
Get a Call (receive)
a) Locate MS by last known Interconnect Location Area (ILA)
b) Page MS on primary control channel of all sites in ILA
c) RAP on primary control channel
d) Get dedicated control channel assigned
e) Authentication (optional)
f) Call setup transaction
g) Get assigned to a traffic channel
h) Call termination request on associated control channel
i) Channel released
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Functions
Figure 5-2 Mobile Originated Interconnect Call Setup Step Diagram
EBTS
MS
1) CHANNEL
REQUEST
2) CHANNEL
ASSIGNED
BSC
MSC
3) CALL SERVICE
REQUEST
4) CALL SERVICE
REQUEST
VLR
5) SET MOBILE
BUSY
6) ACCESS
REQUEST
HLR
7) AUTHENTICATION
PARAMETERS
REQUEST
8) AUTHENTICATION
PARAMETERS
RESPONSE
9) AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
10) AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
11) CIPHER MODE COMMAND
12) CIPHER MODE COMPLETE
13) CALL SETUP INFO
PSTN
14) CALL PROCEEDING
15) SEND OUTGOING CALL INFO
16) CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT
17) ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
18) TERMINATION SUCCESSFUL
19) ALERTING
20) ANSWER
21) CONNECT
22) CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE
23) CONVERSATION
Interconnect Call Processing
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Functions
Interconnect Call Types
Mobile Stations on the iDEN system can complete Interconnect Call with other
providers networks in three basic ways:
• Mobile to other network (PSTN)
• Other Network (PSTN) to Mobile
• Mobile to Mobile
Mobile to Other
Network
On MS power-up, number entry, and call initiation, the MS sends a service request to
the EBTS. The EBTS/BSC/HLR identifies an Interconnect call and routes the
request to the MSC through the BSC.
When the MSC receives the service request, it queries the HLR and VLR for service
access, service availability and MS authentication.
When authentication of the MS is complete, the BSC cross connects the RF channel
to the land-based circuit as soon as it is assigned by the MSC. The MSC assigns the
trunk according to the provisioning of the networks. The MSC then connects the
BSC land circuit to the PSTN trunk.
When the connect to the PSTN is complete, the remote PSTN will request that the
local MSC transmit the dialed digits for the call. The remote PSTN will verify
service and the called party and send a cut through supervision (the called party
answering or a supervisory tone like a busy signal). The MSC will send a connect
message to the MS that allows the MS to receive and transmit voice frames completing the call connection.
Other Network To
Mobile
When an incoming call is received at the MSC in SS7 protocol, a channel to the
remote PSTN is allocated and the DTMF digits (dialed number) is received by the
MSC. The MSC will query the HLR and VLR databases to verify the dialed number
exists and to alias the dialed number to the MS (IMSI or TMSI).
The MSC will locate the MS using the Interconnect Location Area (ILA) in the VLR
to page the MS. The ILA is used by the BSC to route the call to the most likely set of
EBTSs using Radio Link Protocol (RLP).
The MSC will wait for the MS to respond to the page. If the MS or resources are
unavailable, the MSC will generate the appropriate status return to the remote PSTN
(busy or out-of-service). If the MS and resources are available, the MSC will
connect the external trunk to the controlling BSC. The BSC will connect the PCM/
SS7 link with the appropriate EBTS span line (T1). The EBTS will establish the
radio link, allocate a radio channel and transmit a hail (ring the phone).
When the user responds, the BSC/XCDR converts the PCM voice packets to the
VSLEP packets used by the radio link. The DAC and BSC completes the cross
connect between the radio link and the other provider land-line to complete
connection of the call.
The MSC may also route the call to the Voice Mail system or to Call Forwarding if
the service is provisioned for the MS and the MS is eligible for the re-route.
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Functions
Mobile To Mobile
If an MS calls another mobile using the MSISDN, an Interconnect call is used
(Mobile to other network process). Mobile to mobile calls are set up in the same
manner as a mobile to land calls.The MSC call routing and translation tables
recognize that the call can be completed within the iDEN system and a BSC to BSC
connection via the MSC switching matrix is established. This arrangement allows
Transcoder by-pass to operate and thus reduce audio delay between the MS involved
in the call.
A Mobile to Mobile call that uses a fleet member ID is a dispatch call and is
discussed in Dispatch Call Processing.
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Chapter 6
Packet Data Networking
Packet Data Networking is non-voice communications interfaces directly with
Intranet, Virtual Private Network (VPN), Extranet and Internet. Packet Data
Networking allows the service provider to become a point-of-presence for mobile
users on the Internet. This chapter will describe the fundamentals of Packet Data.
General
Non-Packet Data Network Service
Because Packet Data Networking uses equipment outside the iDEN® system, this
type of service may be restricted on a per-MS basis by provisioning and by
restricting radios at the EBTS with iHLR provisioning and OMC-R configurations.
Overview
Packet Data Networking uses the iDEN system dispatch calling functions and
infrastructure. An MS may travel freely throughout an iDEN system and teamed
roaming partners. If it is supported and provisioned, a user can originate or receive
Packet Data. Interconnect facsimile and Dial-up services are not supported.
• The MS sends and receives data directly.
• The EBTS determines the call as Packet Data and converts the radio link to
data packets.
• The MPS routes data packets.
• The DAP determines services and location.
• The MDG routes the data to and from the Internet.
• The Billing Accumulator (BA) collects time and bit-transfer information for
billing as desired by the service provider.
Packet Data Networking elements are shown in Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-1 iDEN Packet Data Networking Elements
Router
Fixed End Host
Interface
Router
T.
N.
F.
VPN, Extranet,
Internet
iMU
Emerging
ISP
Home
Agent
iSC
T. N .
French
MDG
ACG
Foreign
Agent
(Mobile IP
registration)
T. N. French
ETBS
D-VLR
D-HLR
DAC
(span
connections)
iHLR
MPS
(packet
routing )
DAP
(Services &
authentication)
circuit
breakers
APD
(multi-packet)
BA
(Billing)
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General
Administration
The equipment used to control and monitoring and administer the system are
primarily internal to the iDEN system. The Packet Data process follows the same
procedures as Dispatch Call Processing. The exception to this procedure is the
billing information collection and external routing of the MDG or any servers that
may be part of the service provider hosting network.
The MDG uses proprietary billing protocols to gather usage data and forwards this
information to the Billing Accumulator (BA). The BA stores and compiles usage and
traffic data. Similar to call data records from the MSC this information is used by the
service provider to gather usage (time and/or data transferred) and similar account
information. This data is available to the ADC for billing and decision support.
Intranet
The Packet Data may be used to extend an internal data processing network to the
Fleets, Groups, and Members. A private LAN or WAN outside the iDEN system
may use an MDG as a router to connect the a fleet and its member nodes to the
private network. The MDG references the fleet and group based subnet and routes
data packets to the MSs. This allows mobile users to interact with the central
network and the functionality it provides (e-mail, remote sessions, web-browsing and
file transfers). This functionality is specific to the rights and permissions of the
private network’s fixed end host and the capabilities of the mobile stations.
Virtual Private Network
The iDEN system does not explicitly support broad networks. The users’ private
network may be extended to include MSs and other networks using the fixed end
host’s secured network, hosts and routes. This allows iDEN to support private VPNs
that are part of, and associated with, the fleet’s network.
Extranet
An MS can become openly associated with a network. If the user has login rights on
a web-addressable, secure server, the MS use can interact with extranet servers or
another entity’s private network if it is allowed. This is controlled by the fixed end
host and the extranet secured hosts.
Internet
Packet Data Network provides access to Internet addressable servers based on the
restrictions, rights and permissions of the fixed end host (proxy) and the browsed
site.
Internet Service Provider
If Packet Data Networking is used, the end-user cannot directly access online
services. However, opportunities exist to allow iDEN service providers to create and
support the infrastructure to proxy and host some services. This type of functionality
is not provided and is exclusively a consideration of the service provider.
Packet Data Networking
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Mobile Computing
Mobile Computing
An MS may be a phone-type device, an emerging PDA, or Data Terminal Equipment
(DTE) that is directly compatible with the iDEN system. Any MS, PDA or RF
computing device that provides digital data networking (web browsing) and, that is
compatible with iDEN equipment may be used to create truly mobile computing.
When a mobile is engaged in Packet Data it exists as a mobile node on the Internet.
The mobile computing devices use Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP). All devices on the system must be configured for these parameters. Table
6-1 summarizes the parameters.
Table 6-1 Packet Data FNE Parameters
Device
Parameters
Mobile
Provider assigned static IP address (over the air programming)
DAP
Valid IMSI for mobile (D-HLR)
IP address for mobile (iHLR)
Permission for Packet Data (iHLR)
Home Agent (serving MDG) Address (iHLR)
MPS
Mobile location (serving EBTS address) (from DAP VLR)
Local MDG (Home Agent) Addresses (from DAP VLR)
MDG
Valid mobile IP address (mobile)
Internet Presence (Home agent) IP address and clients database
Valid remote host IP address (browsed system)
Dynamic Foreign Agent and clients database
Intra-System Mobility
Each MS is configured for packet data in its home DAP. The identification (IP
address) and permissions for Packet Data are contained in the iHLR. The iHLR
operates in the same manner as the D-HLR except it identifies and verifies packet
data services instead of dispatch calling services.
When an MS requests packet data service, the MS registers and authenticates for
dispatch in the D-HLR. The mobile will then register and authenticate for Packet
Data in the iHLR (send an IP address). On approval, the DAP will authorized
service to the mobile and notify the MDG of an MS packet data request (activate the
MS in the MDG).
As the MS moves within the system the location is maintained by Dispatch Location
Area (DLA) in the D-VLR. Paging, selection, connection, re-selection and reconnection all follow the dispatch procedures. The difference is; when a link is
established a radio link Packet Channel is used instead of a radio link traffic channel.
A packet channel is more dynamically allocated to the TDMA timeslots (See
‘Packet Data Flow’).
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6-3
Mobile Computing
The iDEN system’s interface to the Internet is the MDG. The MDG is an enterprise
level switching router that allows for truly mobile device addressing. The MDG acts
as a conduit between the MS and the Internet. Messages across the Internet are
addressed to the MDG. The MDG re-addresses the data to the specific MS. Data for
MSs that the MDG serves is accepted and the Internet Routing Information Protocol
(RIP) is removed and the data is re-assigned to the mobile IP address used by the
iDEN system. The D-VLR locates the mobile and transfers the data packet across
the MPS to the EBTS and then to the MS.
Inter-System Mobility
For truly mobile computing the iDEN system provides Packet Data remote system
usage and roaming. Roaming uses the Home Agent and a Foreign Agent. Each of
these is an MDG sub-system that serves an iDEN network. Each agent (MDG)
contains a table of the addresses of all the roaming partner/remote MDGs (a virtual
network).
Each MDG has a Home Agent that lists the packet data services and remote location
of the MS. The remote location is the care-of-address that is also the address of the
remote MDG. The local MDG (home agent) forwards data to the remote MDG
Foreign Agent) while the MS is away from home. This MS mobility binding has
contains the IP address, the foreign agent’s address (care-of-address) and time
variable. As long as the mobile does not register in another system, the data will be
forwarded to the Foreign Agent (remote MDG).
A Foreign Agent is an MDG on the visited network that coordinates the routing of
data when an MS roams. The remote system will contact the home system to verify
registration, authentication and services. If allowed, the home system will transfer
this information to the remote system. The Foreign Agent (MDG) will add the
traveling MS to a visitor list and accepts data packets for the local (home) system.
Like home system routing, the visited system will locate and route the data packet to
the roaming MS.
The home MDG will send all data to the visited MDG that in-turn, will route the
packet to the remote iDEN system. All roaming system partners are part of a virtual
network defined in both system’s MDGs.
Packet Data Networking
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Mobile Computing
Packet Data Flow
The Packet Data network link is dynamic. The actual data rate and flow will depend
on the traffic on the system. As the traffic on the system and the integrity of the
radio link changes the radio link can adapt to the optimum date flow rate. To
optimize performance and resources the iDEN system uses three principles to control
the On-Air interface.
• Dynamic Channel Allocation
• Adaptive Rate Modulation
• Queued Continuous Reservation ALOHA
Dynamic Channel Allocation Procedure
Dynamic Channel Allocation Procedure (DCAP) uses the Broadcast Control
Channel (BCCH) to control the amount of the TDMA timeslots to be used as a
Packet Channel (PCH) for data transmission. In cases of no or low traffic all of the
radio link maybe used to carry data only (1:1 interleaving). If 1:1 interleaving is
used, DCAP uses all the channels and dynamic changes are not allowed. Packet
Data will still require some control and monitoring overhead so not all frames will be
data (the link is not truely peer-to-peer).
Allocation of radio link frame slots places highest priority on voice packets. When
traffic increases the number of slots is altered to reflect the change in traffic. High
voice traffic conditions may pause data transfer (0:1 interleaving) How data packets
are allocated is a provider selected channel sizing option. The options are:
• 1:1 interleave - only transmit packet data (except 1 PCH per cell)
• 3:1 interleave - two data packets per frame minimum
• 6:1 interleave - one data packet per frame minimum
• 12:1 interleave - one data packet every other frame minimum
• 0:1 interleave - transmit no data during high voice traffic
Any number of slots from the maximum to the selected minimum can be used. in
response to the voice traffic.
Adaptive Rate Modulation
The iDEN system continuously monitors the radio link and will alter the method of
modulation of data packets on the RF carrier. As the signal degrades, the amount of
data on the carrier is reduced to improve data recognition and reduce the error rates.
Three modulation methods are used. The methods and the full (1:1 interleaving)
data rates are:
• 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (64-QAM) at 44 kbs with C/N+I
greater than 22dB
• 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM) at 22 kbs with C/N+I
greater than 18dB
• Quadrature phase shift keying-compatible (QPSK) at 11 kps with C/N+I
between 18dB toward link failure
The Base Radio must not have a Primary Control Channel allocated and the MS
must be high speed compatible to support the 44 kbs data rate. If a Base Radio
supports the Primary Control Channel, the data rate is limited to 22 kbs.
As the signal degrades the amount of data on the carrier is reduced to improve data
recognition and reduce the error rates.
Packet Data Networking
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6-5
Call Processing
Queued Continuous Reservation ALOHA
Queued Continuous Reservation ALOHA (QCRA) is a standard protocol used to
optimize the buffering and transmission of data across the radio link. If more than
one MS on a cell is using Packet Data, the data from each MS is received and radio
link timeslots are allocated according to the QCRA protocol. This queuing
establishes a method of allocating packet channel resources in response to user and
system load.
Call Processing
The manner of dealing with other communication activities when the MS is currently
involved in Packet Data Networking is summarized in Table 6-2.
Table 6-2 Packet Data Processing
Event State
MS in Packet Data Session
Data sent to mobile
No conflict
SMS message delivery
SMS retries
Incoming Interconnect or Circuit Data
No Response to page
Dispatch Group Call
Involved mobile is bypassed
Dispatch Private Call
Target Not Available sent
Call Alert
Target Not Available sent
Packet Data Networking
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Chapter 7
Circuit Switched Data Networking
Circuit Data Networking is non-voice communications that utilize other provider
networks. The other networks may be either land-based (PSTN) or wireless
(PLMN). This world-wide interconnected data network provides Fax, modem,
Intranet, Virtual Private Network, Extranet and Internet access. To use Circuit Data
Networking, the iDEN system must be configured for interface to the worldwide
network. This chapter will describe the fundamentals of Circuit Switched
Networking.
General Circuit Switched Networking
To support the logical global dial-up data networking, the iDEN system uses the
interconnect calling infrastructure and general operation to identify and locate the
MS in the iDEN network.
Non-Circuit Switch Network Service
Because Circuit Switched Networking uses equipment outside the iDEN system, this
type of service may be restricted to users on a per-MS basis. This is controlled by
service provisioning.
General
Circuit Switched Networking uses the Interconnect calling functions and
infrastructure with the exception of the Interworking Function (IWF) and the Short
Message Service (SMS) of the MSC. An MS may travel freely throughout an iDEN
system and teamed roaming partners. If Circuit Switched networking is supported
and provisioned, within a extended network, a MS can originate or receive Circuit
Switched Data calls. The systems track the MS's location and services as well as
route the data appropriately.
The major system elements involved in Circuit Switched Networking are shown in
Figure 7-1. The MS sends and receives data directly or to a computing device. The
EBTS converts the radio link to the land network link and determines the call is a
circuit switched interconnect calls. The BSC controls the signaling, and routing of
data packets between the MSC and the EBTS. The MSC determines service
availability and location information with the HLR and VLR. The MSC also controls
and routes the data to and from other provider networks. The IWF is a modem/FAX
bank for PCM compatible data transfers.
Figure 7-1 iDEN Circuit Switched Networking Elements
HLR
iMU
iSC
Mobile Station
(MS)
VLR
XCDR
RF
ACG
IWF
SMS
Fax/Modem
Bank
External,
online
messaging
T. N. French
EBTS
(radio link)
DAC
(span
connections)
BSC
(routing and
conversion)
MSC
(services &
PSTN routing)
T. N .
French
Circuit Switched Data Networking
August 08, 2000
7-1
Mobile Computing
The control and monitoring steps needed to complete this task are primarily internal
to the iDEN system. This process follows the same procedures as an Interconnect
call (Refer to Interconnect Call Processing).
Specifications
During Circuit Switch (dial-up) data networking, the iDEN system uses:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Radio Link Protocol (RLP)
Full-Duplex
Single rate: 4,800 bits-per-second (4.8 kbs) with 6 users per RF carrier
9900 bits-per-second (9600 baud) with 3 users per RF carrier
Flow Control: X-ON / X-OFF or DTS / CTS
Error Control:
Forward Error Correction Coding (FEC)
Selective Retransmission of uncorrectable blocks (selective ARQ)
Mobile Computing
Circuit Switched Data is a dial-up networking function of the iDEN system. An MS
acts as a transport carrier with a compatible modem and a laptop computer or
compatible Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). Any mobile connected computing
device that is compatible with iDEN equipment may be used to create mobile
computing. When a mobile/laptop is engaged in Circuit Switched networking it
exists as a dial-up networked device.
The mobile computing devices use Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP), Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP).
The devices on the system must be configured for these parameters. With the
introduction of Software Release 8.0, the routing information (IP Header) is
compressed to reduce traffic overhead. The computing devices must be configured
to de-compress the header for proper processing.
An MS may establish a dial-up network connection between itself and fixed end
hosts using Interconnect Call Processing procedures.
InterWorking Function
The InterWorking Function (IWF) is a MSC-based optional processor that converts
data between PCM standards to the radio link standards used by the iDEN system.
The Radio link is converted to PCM and applied to the IWF links (trunks) on
outbound links. The IWF also has a modem pool that allows other networks to
access the iDEN system for inbound circuit switch data like:
• Dial-up access to the iDEN system
• Facsimile (FAX) service (Class 2, Group 3)
• Teletype (TTY) using Bell 103 compatible modems
• Non-transparent data services at 9600 bits-per-second (baud).
On the inbound link, the IWF translates PCM to the radio link.
Circuit Switched Data Networking
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Mobile Computing
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Overdial
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) overdial may be used in scripting and remote
login procedures. Once the circuit switch network is established DTMF overdial
tones may be used to control functions on the host system. The type and number of
digits that can be sent is determined by the dialing plan of the implementation of the
MSC (International or NADP).
Circuit Switched Data Networking
August 08, 2000
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7-3
Mobile Computing
NOTES
Circuit Switched Data Networking
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August 08, 2000
Appendix A
Network Planning
Nominal limitations for iDEN systems are based on the available hardware and the
localized traffic. Motorola iDEN provides documentation and tools to assist in the
planning of a network. The logical planning of network traffic is discussed in greater
detail in iDEN S.E.T.S Group Formulas for Traffic Analysis, MSO Timing System
(sysiu020 r12) and the MSC Subsystem General Planning and Expansion manual.
These documents are available on-line at the iDEN support website, AccessSecure.
The website also contains the DAP Tools capacity planning spreadsheet macros to
assist in the planning of dispatch calling.
Timing
The distributed nature of the iDEN system requires precise timing to assure the
proper processing of voice and data across the network. Two time models are
possible. (Please refer to MSO Timing System - sysiu020 r12).
Isochronous Timing
The synchronization of telecommunications systems is based on digital PCM
transport. In North America the standard is based on the T1s, operating at
1.544 Mbs, while most of the rest of world uses the ITU E1 format operating at
2.048 Mbs.
Since voice and data information could use different paths to travel across the
networks the data would have to be adjusted for time-delay based on the route the
data traveled. If control information takes a longer path than the data or voice
information, there would be a mismatch of information at the destination. This
requires adjusting the time for distance traveled. Historilcally, each network had a
single (isochronous) timing source with hardware and software to manage the time
differences. This requires a hierarchical, distributed method (Figure A-1).
Figure A-1 Isochronous Hierarchical Timing Distribution
Isochronous Timing Adjustment
PSTN
Repeater
Isochronous
Timing Source
PSTN
Repeater
PSTN
Repeater
PSTN
Repeater
PSTN
Repeater
Time A ≠ Time B
Timing links
PSTN
Repeater
Switch A
(source)
A
Traffic
Timing Delay (link B) =
(link A time - link B time)
PSTN
Repeater
PSTN
Repeater
B
Switch B
(destination)
Multiple networks require multiple link hardare and links software offsets
The difficulty with isochronous hierarchical timing is that each element in the path
introduces a delay. There is also a delay introduced by the propagation time between
the elements. With digital switches, this creates a timing problem that requires more
hardware and software.
The different delay times causes the payload synchronization to be out of step
between source and destination elements. The result is that the payload (T1 or E1
frames) become unusable.
Network Planning
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55
A-1
Timing
Pleisiochronous Timing
To reduce the cost and complexity network timing the iDEN system uses locally
recovered timing. Locally recovered timing uses clock signals from the Global
Positioning System (GPS). GPS receivers (Stratum 1 clocks) at major network
elements receive a highly accurate clock pulse from the GPS system. This single
source (plesiochronous) timing is used for bit-rate and frame synchronization
throughout the network. The Building Integrated Timing System (BITS) performs
the recovery and distribution timing across the network. This provides highly
accurate timing to each network element and highly accurate synchronization. The
synchronized payloads improve throughput (Figure A-2).
Figure A-2 GPS Derived Plesiochronous Clock
GPS
(or Loran-C)
Switch A
Frame 1
T. N. French
Single Source
Time signal
Frame 2
Frame 3
Frame 4
Frame 5
Frame 4
Frame 5
Time A = Time B
Frame 1
Frame 2
Frame 3
Switch B
The accuracy of these sources is not less than 1x10-11 and is defined as Stratum 1, a
highly accurate clock. Figure A-3 shows the recommended configuration and
implementation of BITS for an installation.
Figure A-3 Typical BITS Configuration
STP
Pair
iMU
Channel
Bank
CC1
CC2
iSC
T1/E1
ACG
T. N. French
OR
ETBS
PSTN
(if used)
DAC
RS-422
RS-422
RS-422
GPS
GPS
APD
BITS
Bridging Monitoring Ports
CEPT
or
DS1
Input
circuit
breakers
MPS
T1/E1
CP
T1/E1
T. N .
French
XCDR
DAP
DSX
BSC
HLR
2048
Square
2048
Square
BSC
ADC
T1/E1
SMS
Voice
Mail
IWF
MSC
Network Planning
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68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Dispatch Call Model
Dispatch Call Model
Dispatch calls are half-duplex and tend to be brief. Some sample information used to
determine a dispatch call capacity on a iDEN system is summarized in Table A-1 .
Note
Call Models vary. Call Models depend on markets and marketing strategies.
The information provided is for example only.
Table A-1 Sample Dispatch Call Model
Characteristic
Value
Percent Dispatch Traffic (Erlang)
Call Arrival Rate (per Subscriber or Dispatcher per Busy Hour)
Mean Call Hold Time
Mean Transmission per Call
Channel Hang Time
Server Usage per Subscriber (per Busy Hour)
Mean Number of Servers Illuminated per Dispatch Call
Traffic Intensity per Subscriber (Busy Hour) (3 servers x 0.007)
Group Size
Voice Activity Factor
Traffic Model Erlang
GOS (Grade of Service) RF Blocking
50%
1.2
21 sec.
4
6 sec.
0.009E
3
0.027 E
5 Users
0.35
C
5%
Interconnect Call Model
In most cases an interconnect call will place a greater load on the system. Exchanges
tend to be longer and require more resources. A typical Interconnect call models is
summarized in Table A-2 .
Table A-2 Sample Interconnect Call Model
Characteristic
Value
Percent Interconnect Traffic (Erlang)
Call Arrival Rate (per Subscriber or Dispatcher per Busy Hour)
Mean Call Hold Time
Mean Call Handover Rate
Traffic Intensity per Subscriber (Busy Hour)
Mean Number of Servers Illuminated per Interconnect Call
Voice Activity Factor
Traffic Model Erlang
GOS (Grade of Service) RF Blocking
50%
0.6
132 sec.
4/minute
0.022E
1
0.35
B
1%
Note
Call Models vary. Call Models depend on markets and marketing strategies.
The information provided is for example only.
Network Planning
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August 08, 2000
Network Planning
Capacity Tables
These tables are provided as a guideline for network element capacities. Hardware and software revisions may alter
these capacities. Current published capacities are available from system engineering.
Note
Always review the latest capcities and engineering tools available on the iDEN Core Engineering website.
Table A-3 Mobile Switching Center Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem
Users
MSC (U10)
(XA Core) SR 7.0
220K
MSC (10) SR 7.0
160K
Sites Limiters
80% CPU
usage
N/A
HLR (10) SR 7.0
940K
HLR (09) SR 7.0
BRs
N/A
86% CPU
usage
86% CPU
usage
85% CPU
usage
Comment
N/A
CPU Utilization varies with call profile. SNSE - Max of 120
LIU7s and 27 DTCs CPU is based on Traffic Profile. 106K is at
0.88 BCHA and at 10% CPU due to mobility 1 in 20
authentications at 0.12ms CA Core is 40% gain over SR7.0
Engineering Limit
N/A
Signalling capacity should not exceed maximum capacity on the
trunks (40% @ 64kbs). Subscriber limitations are based on 1 in
20 authentication a traffic profile of: 0.12 sms
Table A-4 Short Message Service Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem Users
SMS
N/A
Sites
Limiters
N/A
16 linksets
70% CPU
Usage
BR
N/A
Comment
40 messages/second with a 200 Mhz processor @ 0.2 Busy
Hour Short Messages (BHSM)
16Mb of RAM for each 60K provisioned subscribers
1 SS7 trunk /40K BHSM attempts
Maximum of 38.4K short messages per hour
Capacity Tables
A-4
Subsystem Users
BSC-CP
BSC-ECP
N/A
N/A
Sites
33
80
Limiters
BRs
Comment
N/A
792
(Typically < 400)
Max Erlangs - 1200 (Typically < 400)
Max. No. of BRs = Maxsites*MaxBRs/site (33*24)
Max of 7 loads per LCF GPROC
1 MTL = 7 Loads
1 Site = 1 load consisting of 2 RSLs (Mobis and SNMP)
1 XBL = 1 load
N/A
1600
(Typically <
1100)
Max of 1240 Erlangs / BSC-ECP (Typically < 800)
Max of 12 loads per LCF GPROC
1 MTL = 12 Loads
1 Site = 1 load consisting of 2 RSLs (Mobis and SNMP)
1 XBL = 1 load
Table A-6 Base Site Controller - Transcoder Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem Users
Sites
BSC-XCDR
N/A
N/A
Limiters
BRs
Comment
Max. No. of Base Radios per XCDR is not applicable
Max. Erlangs - 1240 (Typically < 300)
Max of 1 active KSW
1008 TDMA Timeslots
Number of cirucits
N/A
EXCDR
N/A
N/A
Max of 4 active KSW (Max of 4032 TDM timeslots)
Max of 1320 CICS (Typically < 900)
Max of 1240 Erlangs (Typically < 800)
4032 TDMA Timeslots
Number of Circuits
Table A-7 Dispatch Application Processor Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem
Users
Sites
T-DAP - 90
90,000
1,000
T-DAP - 180
180,000
1,000
Limiters
65% CPU Usage*
Network Planning
*CPU Limits based on profile and growth rate
BRs
N/A
Comment
125 Sites/SBE. Maximum No. of SBEs = 12
83 Sites/SBE Maximum No. of SBEs = 16
50 Sites/SBE Maximum No. of SBEs = 24
SBE limits are based on 4 SM configuration
Capacity Tables
A-5
Table A-5 Base Site Controller - Control Processor Limitation Guidelines
Network Planning
Table A-8 Packet Duplicator Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem
APD
Users
Sites
N/A
Limiters
1000 (250/port)
BRs
2000 simultaneous calls
Comment
500 call/port
*Erlangs/subscriber (user) can not exceed Calls/Port limitation
Table A-9 Metro Packet Switch Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem
MPS (lgx 32)
Users
Sites
45
75
Limiters
BRs
N/A
6 /EBTS site
MPS (bpx)
N/A
200/SM
PD Port capacity
Comment
75 sites @ 4DS0s/site (up to 6BRs)
Icons=1000
Max./PVCs=16000 w npm64B cards
SwitchModules = PD port
Max No. of Cards - 32
Max. of 256mbps bandwidth
250 sites @ 6DS0s/site
16 MSX per BPX shelf
Max. BPX b/w = 9.6Gb
Table A-10 Mobile Data Gateway Limitation Guidelines
Subsystem Users
MDG
(SR 8.0)
MDG
(SR 9.1)
15,000
65,000
Sites
Limiters
BRs
500
10 call /PCH
N/A
500
411 kbps I/B
N/A
311 kbps O/B
Comment
10 Packet Data calls
Maximum of 4 Frame Relay V.34 connections
1 Ethernet 10BaseT
Minimum of 2 Frame Relay V.35 connections
Maximum of 4 Frame Relay V.35 connections
1 Ethernet 10BaseT
I/B and O/B Call Model is based on 5 sessions/user in Busy Hr.
Table A-11 EBTS Access Control Gateway Limitation Guidelines
ACG (sr7.0)
ACG (sr 9.1)
N/A
Sites
1
Limiters
Logical
12:1
DCCH
holdbacks
BRs
20 - omni
24 - 3-sector
12 with VME EBTS
Comment
12 × BRs – ( PCCH + SCCH ) ≤ 127
(sr7.0)
( ( BRs × 6 ) – 3 ) + BusyQueue = 176
(sr 9.1)
A-6
Busy Queue = 35
Capacity Tables
Subsystem Users
Appendix B
Radio Frequency Channel Types
This chapter describes the communications model the iDEN® system uses on the
Radio Frequency portion of the system. The individual carrier uses several logical
channels in relation to established international standards. The constituent parts of
the model are also discussed in general terms.
Radio Link Communications Model
Various RF channel interface types are required to connect the Fixed Network
Equipment o the MSs. Each channel type is utilized to perform a specific task in a
specific manner of operation. This architecture is more readily visualized if it is
presented as it appears in an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) 7-layer model.
Implementation of the OSI model is shown in Figure B-1.
Figure B-1 Implementation of OSI model on the iDEN Radio Link
Application (7)
Speech
Presentation (6)
VSELP
Session (5)
User Data Stack
T. N. French
Transport (4)
Network (3)
L3 Control
Data Link (2)
SIP
Logical Link Control (LLC)
Data Link (2)
Media Access Control (MAC)
Data Link (2)
RAP
ACP
VCP
DCCH ACCH
TCH
DCP
DPP
PCCH/SCCH
SICH
BCCH RACH
CCCH TCCH
Random Access
Reserved Access
PCH
Packet Access
RF frame strucuture (Radio Link timeslots)
Physical (1)
M16-QAM
Physical Layer
The physical layer of OSI refers to hardware-based encoding. The physical layer is
concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. The design
considerations are:
• to assure the data sent is the data received
• the amplitude frequency, time and modulation
• whether transmission is half-duplex or full-duplex
• how the initial connection is established
• how the link is torn down
The design issues here deal largely with electrical characteristics and procedures.
The over-the-air link is a combination of amplitude and phase modulation and digital
encoding on a 4-sideband analog suppressed carrier wave.
Radio Frequency Channel Types
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
B-1
Radio Link Communications Model
The RF signal consists of four independent side bands. The center frequencies of
these side bands are 4.5 KHz apart from each other (Figure B-2), and they are spaced
symmetrically about a suppressed RF carrier frequency.
Figure B-2 Logical RF Channel Sidebands
Frequency Center
16 kilo-bit-per-second
16 kilo-bit-per-second
16 kilo-bit-per-second
+ 16 kilo-bit-per-second
4.5KHz
3.2Mhz
4.5KHz
T. N. French
64 kilo-bit-per-second - Total
4.5KHz
(4x4.5Mhz) + 0.6 ramp (actual carrier)
3.2Mhz
Guard Bands and Doppler shift
25KHz (FCC carrier size)
The iDEN system uses a combination of amplitude and phase modulation to identify
16 points in the radiated energy field. The Motorola 16-Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (M16-QAM) method used is a standard that:
• reduces dependency on received signal strength
• increases the number of data bits transmitted in a given time
A digitally encoded signal is applied to each sideband sub-carriers. When the signal
is synchronously demodulated, a 16-point data symbol constellation is produced.
Each point in the constellation represents a 4 data-bits-per-symbol. These points
represent logical states (bit patterns) as shown in Figure B-3.
Figure B-3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Logic Points
+2a, +2t
offset
+2a, -2t
offset
Frequency
Center
3.2Mhz
4.5KHz
4.5KHz
(4x4.5Mhz) + 0.6 ramp (actual carrier)
T. N. French
4.5KHz
1100
0100
0000
1001
1101
0101
0001
Logical point in
time on carrier
Phase and Amplitude
modulation of each signal
produces 16 possible offset
points
4.5KHz
1000
-2a, -2t
offset
1011
1111
0111
0011
1010
1110
0110
0010
Each offset point represents a
4-bit pattern
-2a, +2t
offset
One pattern every 1/4000th of a second is 16kbs (4X4)
3.2Mhz
Guard Bands and Doppler shift
25KHz (FCC carrier size)
One pattern each sideband is 64kbs (4X16)
The result is a digital signal that has a 64 kilo-bit-per-second (64 kps) gross radio
channel bit rate. This effectively forms a 64 kbs baseband signal that is the bitstream.
Radio Frequency Channel Types
B-2
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Radio Link Communications Model
Data Link Layer
The data link layer is used to create and recognize frame boundaries. The sender
breaks the input data up into data frames, transmit the frames sequentially, and
process the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver.
This layer incorporates a subset of the Motorola Implementation of A-bis (Mobis).
Mobis provides the control and interactive capabilities to support the GSM A-bis
radio link standards. To accomplish this, the layer is subdivided into
• Logical Link Control
• Media Access Control
Logical Link
Control
Logical Link Control procedures are algorithms that operate on logical channels in
the Radio Link. The procedures are summarized in Table B-1
Table B-1 Logical Link Control Contents
Logical Link Control
Function
Slot Information Procedure (SIP)
Runs on the Slot Information Channel (SICH) and
allocates outbound point-to-multipoint timeslots
without regard to confirmation or connection
Random Access Procedure (RAP)
Operates on the Primary Control Channels (PCH)
and Temporary Control Channels (TCCH).
Transfers short fixed-length control message units
on multiple-access channels to the L3 Control of the
network layer. This is used to control initial access
to the Cell’s Traffic Channels and Dedicated
Control Channels. RAP is a multiple-access,
unconfirmed, connectionless packet data protocol.
Associated Control Procedure (ACP) Operates in the Dedicated Control Channels
(DCCH) and Associated Control Channels
(ACCH). It provides the point-to-point data
protocol with connection-oriented and unconfirmed,
connectionless radio link controls to the L3 Control
of the network layer
Media Access
Control
Voice Channel Procedure (VCP)
An unconfirmed data protocol used to transport
fixed-size voice VSELP-coded frames on the
Traffic Channels (TCHs).
Data Channel Procedure (DCP)
Operates on the TCHs and is used to provide pointto-point, circuit-switched, unconfirmed
transmission of data frames.
Data Packet Procedure (DPP)
The DPP is a packet data protocol that provides
reliable connection-oriented and unconfirmed
connectionless service on a multiple-access channel
to the User Data stack.
Media Access Control entities are logical paths in the radio link that support
the control and transmission of voice and data from the 16-QAM carrier to
Radio Link Protocol. These pathways are applied to one or more of the
sidebands in the on-air carrier frequency. The major channel paths are
described in Table B-2.
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B-3
Radio Link Communications Model
Table B-2 Medial Access Control Contents
Media Access Control
Description
Secondary Control Channel (SCCH) The SCCH is an extended control path. This path is
similar to the PCCH except it does not contain a
BCCH. There may be up to 4 SCCHs per cell.
Primary Control Channel (PCCH)
The logical grouping of radio link channels used to
control and monitor the integrity of the radio link.
There is one PCCH per cell. (Assigned to radio one
frequency one for each cell/sector in the system).
The frequencies are provider specific and are loaded
in a table on the mobile. The mobile scans this table
when not in active communication to determine
signal quality and receive control and short
messages (SMS).
Primary Control Channel Components
Slot Information Channel (SICH)
The SICH sends outbound Slot Descriptor Blocks
(SDBs) to the SIP for allocation to Radio Link
timeslots.
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) The BCCH is an outbound-only path used to send
MS system parameters.
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
The CCCH is an outbound-only broadcast channel
used for transmission of pages, channel
assignments, and similar controls.
Random Access Channel (RACH)
The RACH is the inbound-only multiple-access
channel used to gain system access.
Non-Primary Control Channel components
Temporary Control Channel
(TCCH)
The TCCH provides temporary random access
signaling on a channel which is normally used for
reserved access.
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) The DCCH is allocated to an individual MS for
extended network layer control signaling
procedures.
Associated Control Channel
(ACCH)
The ACCH provides for supervision and control of
the associated traffic channel. The added bandwidth
dynamically uses the TCH.
Traffic Channel (TCH)
Provides for circuit-mode transmission of user
speech and data. TCHs are reserved by individual
MSs or groups of MSs.
Packet Channel (PCH)
The PCH provides for multiple-access packet-mode
transmission of user data. PCHs are accessed via a
Reservation-ALOHA protocol.
Radio Frequency Channel Types
B-4
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Radio Link Communications Model
Network Layer
The network layer is controls how packets are routed from source to destination.
Routing functions are controlled by the DAC, BSC and the DAP within the network
and are not part of the Radio Link. The L3 Control portion of the link is a subset of
the GSM A-bis complaint Mobis protocol. These aspects are responsible for tasks
like Call Control and Mobility Management. Call Control Functions are controlled
by the interaction of the MS and the EBTS.
Transport Layer
The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from the session layer and
split it up into smaller units if needed. This function is controlled by the DAC, BSC
and the DAP within the network and is not part of the Radio Link.
Session Layer
The session layer allows users on different machines to login and initiate multiple
applications. Since the radio link is peer-to-peer, The ability to multiplex on-air is
not a requirement so the session layer does not apply to the radio link.
Presentation Layer
In the Radio Link environment, the application layer is the voice compression and
decompression algorithm on the MS and the XCDR that creates the required data
packets for on-air transmission. The compression algorithm used is VSELP.
Application Layer
In the iDEN system model the application layer is the Mobile transducers (speaker
and microphone) and the resultant sounds that are produced or encoded.
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B-5
Radio Link Communications Model
Control Channels
Primary Control Channel
The Primary Control Channel (PCCH) is used to transfer most important call control
and mobility management information between the MS and the EBTS. Each provider
specifies a set of leased frequencies as primary control channels. These channels are
assigned to radio-one, frequency-one of each sector. These frequencies are loaded
into a table on each MS for the subscriber and are used to locate and contact the MS
while it is active in the system. The MS scans the PCCH frequencies to measure
signal quality and maintain contact with the system. Both Dispatch and Interconnect
call processing use the PCCH to contact the MS. The MS uses the PCCH to contact
the network. Registration, Mobility Management, Hails, Requests-for-Service, and
Service Permissions are conducted on the PCCH. The information handled by the
PCCH is summarized in Table B-3.
Table B-3 Primary Control Channel Contents
Channel
Contents
Inbound to MS (downlink)
Random Access Control Channel (RACH)
Service requests from MSs
Outbound to EBTS (uplink)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Cell information
Cell parameters
Neighbor cell list and parameters
Location area information
Common Control Channel
Paging sub-channel
Service grants
Secondary Control Channel
Limiting factors to the capacity in a large sector or cell is control channel traffic and
the ability of the Primary Control Channel (PCCH) to handle system messages.
During Dispatch calling only, when the capacity of a site is increased, the number of
messages per control channel may become high enough to require additional control
channels. The Secondary Control Channel (SCCH) is allocated one or more timeslots
on any Base Radio. Secondary Control Channels are configured on a per cell basis.
There may be 0-4 SCCHs per cell. A SCCH is similar to the PCCH, but it does not
contain the mobility management information of the BCCH (Table B-4).
Table B-4 Secondary Control Channel Contents
Channel
Contents
Inbound to MS (downlink)
Random Access Control Channel (RACH)
Service requests from MSs
Outbound to EBTS (uplink)
Common Control Channel
Paging sub-channel
Service grants
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Traffic Channels
Temporary Control Channel
The Temporary Control Channel is used in mobility management and the
interconnect handover process. This channel is used as required to transfer
information concerning dynamic frequency allocation and EBTS service parameters.
This information is summarized in Table B-5.
Table B-5 Temporary Control Channel Contents
Channel
Inbound (downlink)
Contents
Channel reassignment requests
handover and assignment confirmation
Outbound (uplink)
Handover identification
Handover confirmation
Dedicated Control Channel
The Dedicated Control Channel is used to maintain constant control contact with the
mobile. Parameters passed on this channel are summarized in Table B-6.
Table B-6 Dedicated Control Channel Contents
Channel
Inbound (downlink)
Contents
Extended call control
Location updates
Authentication
MS acknowledge
Outbound (uplink)
Extended call control
Authentication
SMS data
Traffic Channels
Traffic Channel
The Traffic Channel is used to transfer voice and data between the MS and the
EBTS. The Traffic Channel (TCH) is used in both dispatch and interconnect call
processing. Voice is carried on the TCH in VSELP compressed. VSELP data and
error correction do not require the entire timeslot (Figure B-4). This allows control
data to be sent on the TCH as required (Associated Control Channel). The contents
of the TCH are summarized in Table B-7.
Table B-7 Traffic Channel Contents
Channel
Inbound (downlink)
Contents
Compressed voice packets
Data packets
Outbound (uplink)
Compressed voice packets
Data packets
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B-7
Unassigned Channel
Associated Control Channel
The Associated Control Channel is for Interconnect Calls only and is sub-set of the
Traffic Channel and is used to pass radio link status, handover, and control
information. Short Message Service Data is also sent on the ACH when an MS is
busy (DCCH when idle). Since the TCH does not require the full data stream of the
TDMA timeslots, a small portion of the timeslot may contain bits of data that are
used to manage the communications during a call (Figure B-4). The passed
parameters are summarized in Table B-8.
Table B-8 Associated Control Channel Contents
Channel
Inbound (downlink)
Contents
Handover requests
metrics (measurement reports)
call control (handover commands)
SMS acknowledge
Outbound (uplink)
Handover target cell
call control (handover commands)
SMS data
Figure B-4 Elements of the Traffic Channel
Traffic Channel
0.266 kbs (Associated Control Channel - ACCH)
3.175 kbs - Forward Error Correction
(provides 99.98% accuracy)
4.26 kbs VSELP
(Voice and data)
6:1 Interleave
(Dispatch,
Non-Enhanced Interconnect)
Traffic Channel
0.532 kbs (Associated Control Channel - ACCH)
6.35 kbs - Forward Error Correction
(provides 99.98% accuracy)
3:1 Interleave
(Enhanced Interconnect)
8.0 kbs VSELP
(Voice and data)
Unassigned Channel
When a timeslot on a carrier becomes available, or is reassigned as unused by the
system, it is designated as an Unassigned Channel (UCH). The UCH is a data stream
from the system that the MS recognizes as something to avoid. When the UCH data
stream is detected, the MS will re-synchronize or re-tune to reestablish contact. By
avoiding the UCH, the MS can more easily attach to the correct carrier and timeslot
and does not attempt to communicate on channels that may be re-assigned.
Radio Frequency Channel Types
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Appendix C
Services and Features
Calling Features
Operational Controls
Item
Description
North American
Dial Plan
The North American Dialing Plan is a 10-digit number format that
consists of three elements, The NPA element (Area Code), the
NXX element (prefix) and the XXXX element. It is often written
as NPA-NXX+XXXX.
• The NPA, defines a geographic area within a operating
company’s service area.
• The NXX defines a CO or MSO.
• The last four digits (XXXX) defines a specific user.
Within an Area Code only seven digits (NXX+XXXX) are needed
to complete the call. If the first digit in the sequence is not a 1, the
local Area Code is assumed.
Though not mandated by law conflicts are avoided by not
assigning the local NPA as an NXX to an exchange or service
within that NPA.
International Dialing Arrangements
The MSC and HLR support all dialing plans currently in use
throughout the world. A system routing table is used to translate
between the different dialing arrangements.
Maximum Outpulsing Digits on MF Trunk
The iDEN system supports both the ANSI Multi-Frequency and
ISUP outpulse standards to support international calling. For an
ANSI MF trunk the maximum outpulsed digits is 24. In ISUP and
ESTI MF trunks the maximum number is 15.
Alternate Routing
Alternate Routing allows the system to sequentially scan multiple
trunk groups for an idle trunk to be used to complete the call.
Alternate routing allows dialed digits to be modified to comply
with the requirements imposed by the point-of-penetration into the
PSTN networks. When no idle trunk is found, the system
terminates the call as determined by the MSCs Call Treatment.
Roaming
Restrictions
Roaming restrictions enable the service provider to impose
roaming constraints. Three classes of roaming restrictions can be
implemented.
• No restrictions — permits roaming to all linked iDEN®
networks.
• National roaming — prevents the subscriber from roaming
outside the home PLMN country.
• Local roaming — prevents the subscriber from roaming
outside the home PLMN.
All these functions assume that unique PLMNs exist.
Services and Features
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C-1
Calling Features
Item
Description
MF Support for
PSTN
Provides MF trunk interworking with PSTNs for MS originated
and MS terminated calls.
SS7 Signalling
The iDEN system supports Standard ANSI SS7 ISUP signaling, as
described in the TR-NWT-000317 specification.
ANSI SS7 ISUP signalling to the PSTN can only be provided if the
PSTN switch can support SS7. Separate integration of SS7
connectivity to PSTN may be required.
Overdial (DTMF)
The iDEN system supports Dual-Tone-Multi-Frequency (DTMF)
to allow dialed digits to be sent between Customer Provided (CP)
equipment and Central Office (CO) equipment. DTMF is an
unidirectional two-of-seven, in-band, tone-signaling transport
protocol.
Intra-System
Mobility
The MSC tracks the location of all active MSs and uses this
information to locate and deliver calls. The MS is located by an
Interconnect Location Area (ILA). A Location Area is a logical a
group of cells that may interact with the MS. ILA updates occur
when an MS moves from one ILA to another. This triggers an LAI
request (Location Area Identity) update. The location update is
stored in the MSC-VLR.
Intra-System
Roaming
(Between Two
MSCs on the
Same Network)
The ability to travel freely throughout the single service area and
originate or receive calls without regard to its current location can
be extended to allow MSs to travel from one service area to
another.
The MS identifies itself to the network on power up. When the MS
roams, the power up sequence causes the visited MSC to accesses
the MS’ home HLR. Authentication and service information is
sent to the VLR of the visited MSC. Once the MS is authenticated
the MS can originate calls on the visited MSC.
When a landline call is received at the home MSC, the home HLR
identifies the visited VLR as the last known location of the MS.
The home MSC routes the call to the visited MSC to complete the
call.
If the MS de-registers in the visited MSC the call will not be
deliverable and terminates.
For the first call to, or from, a visiting MS, the visited VLR assigns
a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identification (TMSI) to the MS
and assigns the TMSI to ILA changes. The MS uses a TMSI for
subsequent calls.
The home HLR assumes the MS to be in the visited area until
another VLR updates the HLR.
Inter-MSC
Handover
Inter-MSC Handover occurs when a user moves from one MSC
service area to the service area of another MSC. A land-line
connection is established between the MSCs and the radio resource
is switched to the BSC on the visited MSC. The original MSC
maintains the PSTN to MSC connection and only the RF is handed
to the visited MSC. The anchor MSCs will always stay in the call,
even if the MS both handover to other MSCs or the same MSC.
Service Screening Subscriber services information can be blocked from another
service provider's VLR. Service Screening prevents an MS from
using selected services when roaming. Service screening prevents
forwarding incompatible services or restricts services
Services and Features
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Calling Features
System Services
Item
Description
Short Message
Service (SMS)
SMS delivers short messages of up to 140 characters to an MS.
This requires the Short Message Service Center (SMS-SC) and
software to the MSC to interface and interwork with the SMS-SC.
The SMS stores and forwards messages to MSs. If the messages
cannot be delivered, the SMS-SC stores them for future delivery.
Voice Mail
Interface
Voice Mail allows otherwise interminable calls to be routed to a
Voice Mail system. Voice Mail Messages are recoverable from
either an MS or a Landline telephone. Two interfaces provide
connectivity between the MSC and the Voice Mail system.
Regular voice trunks provide the audio connection.
Selection and setup of the voice trunk route that the redirected call
will use is performed by the SS7.
This interface conforms with ANSI SS7 ISUP in accordance with
the Bellcore TR-NWT-000317 specification.
Data Services
System Data Services uses IWF to support:
• Group 3 FAX
• asynchronous data
The MSC contains call control and routing functions for data and
FAX services
Non-Transparent Async Data and Non-Transparent FAX are not
supported
IWF requires the purchase of IWF hardware and software. The
MSC software to support IWF functionality must be purchased as
part of the IWF Hardware package.
Information
Services
Mobile originated, 10-digit, 900 number calls (900+NXX+XXXX)
will be translated and routed to the PSTN like any other 10-digit
number. No special translation handling is needed. Also, no special
treatment is needed. Air time and 900 Service Charges are applied
like any other call.
Routing to PSTN
Operator
The iDEN system will route various type calls to a trunk
terminating to a PSTN operator (0+ and 0- calls) through standard
translations. The MSC does not support operators (Does not have
Mobile Operator Position System (MOPS) capability.)
Emergency Call
Enhancements
The iDEN system assures that the Location Area Code (LAC) and
cell identification are used to properly route an emergency call to
the nearest service center
MSID for
Emergency Calls
Allows the operator to trace prank Emergency Callers by providing
the capability for the GCDR records to identify the caller using the
mobile station ID. This applies to an MS making Type I
Emergency calls. It allows billing records generated by Emergency
Calls may be routed to the HOT Billing Stream (if available) or the
GSM Call Detail Record (GCDR) stream.
E-911 Phase One
Enhancements
The iDEN system provides compliance with Phase I of the FCC’s
requirement for E911 calls by introducing support for transmission
of an emergency callers callback number and location (by cell site)
to a Public Safety Assistance Provider (PSAP).
Services and Features
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Calling Features
User Control Services
Item
Description
Class-of-Service
The MSC/HLR allows users to be grouped based on the
Class-of-Service (COS) groups. Network Class-ofService (NCOS) allows additional differentiation within
each customer group. There are a maximum of 256
NCOS per subscriber group that can define the
originating and terminating restrictions on a MS. The
combination of COS and NCOS allows the service
provider to manage the type of customer services such as
barring of 900 calls and abbreviated dialing.
Closed User Group
This feature allows service providers to customize calling
privileges among user groups. If a business owner desires
to restrict telephone usage the providers can customize
calling privileges by:
• Call Origination/Termination
• to/from the PSTN
• to/from other CUG members
• to/from the PSTN / PLMN
Call Restrictions
The most common call restrictions requested by service
provider are Barring Incoming Calls, Barring Outgoing
Calls, Barring Of Outgoing International Calls, Local
Calls Only and Class Of Service.
Incoming Calls Only
Local Calls Only
Call Barring Outgoing
International Calls
Barring All Outgoing Calls (BAOC) denies outgoing
calls by subscriber. Emergency calls (911) are not barred.
A user may be restricted to calls within a defined local
area using allowed and or denied NXXs tables. This
feature does not interact with Call Forwarding.
Barring All Outgoing International Calls (BAOIC)
denies outgoing calls to international numbers.
Source Directed Routing
Source Directed Routing will direct mobile originated
calls from one or more cells to predetermined
destinations based on Translation Table in the MSC.
Least Cost (Time of Day)
Routing
Time of Day (TOD) Routing enables or disables trunks,
trunk groups, and trunk routes based on a time of day
scheduling. Schedules may be day of week, day of year,
weekends and statuary holiday requirements.
This provides 16 time rages for changeovers. Results can
be defined for any day, or set of days on a weekly basis,
or for any specific day of the year.
Connecting Comfort Tone
and Call Forwarding
Announcement
A comfort tone is sent to the calling party while the MS
is being paged. The tone is a recorded announcement.
Typically a pip tone is used.
Comfort Tone on Hold
Comfort Tone on Hold allows service providers to record
a custom announcement that is sent when the calling
party is on hold. When an MS places a call on hold, the
announcement is played, reassuring the calling party that
their call is still in process.
Services and Features
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Calling Features
User Services
Item
Description
Account Codes
An Account Codes is dialed after a phone number by the
end user. The code associates that particular call with an
activity or account. For example, a user could dial a
number followed by a 1111 to code a business call.
Account Codes create a new field in the Call Detail
Record and must be coordinated with any downstream
billing processor.
This allows the subscribers to use the phones for business
and personal reasons.
Forwarding Number COS
Validation
The PNP (Private Number Plan) enables an MS to use a
form of abbreviated or extended dialing when making
calls to another MS in the same PNP. This allows an MS
to input forwarded-to-numbers in the same format as
their PNP. The forwarded-to-numbers received by the
HLR are translated to a common format and stored.
Call Waiting
Call Waiting transmits an interrupt tone to a MS involved
in a active call to notify the user of another incoming call.
Call Forwarding
(Unconditional)
Call Forwarding - Unconditional, overrides other
versions of call forwarding without regard for other
termination activated for the MS. This allows the
subscriber to have the network divert all incoming calls
to another number.
Call Forwarding can be activated by the service provider
or the subscriber from the MS.
No Answer Transfer (Not
Available)
Call forwarding - Not Available, also called “No Reach”,
will forward calls when the MS does not answer the
page. The call is forwarded to the specified number.
All incoming calls that meet the Call Forwarding
condition are forwarded. The user can still originate calls
No Answer Transfer (no
Reply)
Call Forwarding - No Reply occurs when the MS is
available but the user chooses not to answer the call. All
incoming calls that meet the Call Forwarding condition
are forwarded. The user can still originate calls
Busy Transfer
Busy transfer forwards an incoming call to another
directory number when the user is engaged in an active
call. The user call still originate calls.
Call Hold
Call Hold allows the user to place an active call on hold
and originate another call, retrieve a currently holding
call or answer a call being held in the Call Waiting mode.
Three Party Calling
Three Party Calling provides an MS the ability to have
simultaneous communication with two parties. The user
can create a three way conference or alternate between
the two connections. However, once a conference
connection is established it cannot revert to a split
connection. A precondition is that the MS must remain
in the call. If the MS attempts to drop out of the
conference connection, all connections drop.
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C-5
Calling Features
Switch-based Data Collection
Item
Description
Traffic Data (Operational
Measurements)
The MSC provides the ability to collect and maintain
metrics on the traffic on the system. These metrics are
defined in the appropriate software release
documentation. The appropriate documentation is
provided by the MSC manufacturer.
GSM Call Detail Records
(GCDR)
The MSC collects a full set of call record information.
Call Detail Records (CDRs) can be handled in two ways:
• 9-track tape with all Call Detail Records for a given
period to the customer provided Billing Vendor.
• File Transfer Access Method (FTAM) protocol
directly to the Billing System in a real time format.
Direct transfer requires activation of the Near Real Time
Billing software on the MSC and the inclusion of the
optional Billing Server platform.
Call Handling
Measurements
This feature introduces the following operational
enhancements to assist network operations: Average Call
Setup time for voice and data calls, Average Holding
time for voice and data calls, attempted and successful
Authentication Procedures in the MSC-VLR, and
attempted and successful Mobile Terminated Short
Messages.
Handover Operational
Measurements (OMs)
This feature introduces several new operational
measurements to better track MS handover statistics,
including:
Handoff Causes
Uplink / Downlink strength
Uplink / Downlink Quality
Distance
OMC intervention
Better Cell
MSC Invocation
Unsuccessful Handovers (dropped call or old cell
reconnect)
Services and Features
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Calling Features
Network Administrative Features
Item
Description
Near Real Time Billing
Near Real Time data transfer allows billing records to be
sent to the billing center as soon as the records are format
and written to disk. Take care when setting the download
interval. If the interval is too short the MSC call
processing is adversely impacted. This allows quicker
billing generation than batch processing of tapes.
Optional Billing Server Platform equipment and software
is required.
Trunk Information in MO
and MT Records
The incoming and outgoing trunks to the PSTN are
provided in the main structure of the billing record.
Gateway Billing Records
Two records are produced by this feature. The incoming
Gateway call attempt record is generated for each
incoming call received by a gateway MSC based on route
group number. These records, produced in the gateway
MSC, are used to settle accounts with other networks.
The outgoing Gateway call attempt record is generated
for each outgoing call from a Gateway MSC to another
network. These records, also produced in the Gateway
MSC, are used to settle accounts with other networks.
Intra PLMN Billing
Records
Two records are produced. An incoming intra-PLMN
record is produced when an MSC receives an incoming
trunk call request within the PLMN. This record lets a
service provider know when the MSC was involved in a
mobile terminated call regardless of how it was involved.
Since it is intra-PLMN, all calls within the network will
produce this record.
An outgoing intra-PLMN billing record is produced
when an MSC routes a trunk call within the same
network. This record lets service provider know trunk
usage information when a call is routed to an MSC
within the same PLMN.
Transit Billing Record
Roaming Billing Record
This record is produced when an outgoing call attempt
received by an MSC is to be routed to a service center
such as voice mail system or service provider services.
This record is produced when a mobile terminated call is
going to a subscriber that is not in its home MSC. The
record is generated in the Gateway MSC associated with
the subscriber. Records for mobile originations under this
scenario are not supported
Services and Features
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
C-7
NOTES
NOTES
Services and Features
C-8
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Appendix D
Handover
With a mobile system the ability to locate track and re-route voice and data packets
between host cell sites is essential. This section describes the geographic terms and
the logistics when an MS unit moves from one area to another. Specifics of the
nature of the radio link are discussed in greater detail in iDEN® RF Planning Guide.
General
To support voice and data communications the iDEN system is organized into
different geographical areas:
• Region
• Domain
• Service Area
• Location Area
• Cell
Movement between regions is determined by the provider and roaming agreements.
Software Release 8.0 allows dispatch calling between regions. The ability to call
outside the region is in the HLR of the MSC and the DAP for transmission to the
remote VLR. The ability to place calls is contained in the HLR and VLR databases.
Roaming agreements allow exchange of this information between service providers.
Movement between domains and service areas is also set in the HLR and VLR
databases. The ability to make calls is restricted by the data in the HLR database.
The process of determining a handover between regions. domains, and service areas
is the same for that of a location area.
Mobility Management
Mobility Management is a set of coordinated, automatic procedures between MS and
the FNE equipment that allows the MS to move between sites and to roam from one
iDEN system to another or to another provider’s system. Each Mobile Station, the
home service area and the subscriber services are assigned in and on a Home
Location Register (HLR).
Dispatch call takes place within and between linked iDEN systems. Linked systems
require Software Release 8.0 to fully coordinate dispatch calling between linked
iDEN systems. The mobility management allows a service provider to be identified
on multiple iDEN systems. If provided as a subscription service it allows the user’s
MS to automatically identify and obtain service with a roaming partner.
To provide automatic roaming with validation across multiple service providers’
networks, one iDEN system may be connected to other iDEN systems using CCITT
SS7 MAP interfaces. These connected systems can be owned and operated by the
same or different service providers. When connected, the HLR will also co-ordinate
the tracking of the MS when it roams to another connected system.
Handover
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
D-1
Mobility Management
Mobility Management Procedures
To control and manage the movement and communication there are five basic
principles. The principles are:
•
•
•
•
•
MS Tracking
MS Tracking
MS Trolling
MS Authentication
Location Request Control
Home Neighbor Network Search
To contact a mobile (MS) the system must know the general location of the mobile.
MS tracking relates to the location and following of a mobile (MS) within the
system. The iDEN system MSs report any significant change in their location to the
FNE. As the mobile moves within the system the FNE broadcasts:
• Location Area information from each site
• The identifying number of the iDEN System
• The identifying number of the service provider
• The neighbor cell site list
The Location Areas define the geographical area that is considered a significant
change in location. By monitoring the broadcast information, the MS can determine:
•
•
•
•
When it needs to report its location
The frequencies (radio channels) used in the neighboring sites
If the mobile is in the Home system or roaming
The service provider
MS Trolling
Trolling refers to the ability of the MS to determine the correct control channel to
monitor and maintain contact with the system. When the mobile is powered-ON, it
scans a pre-programmed list of potential control frequencies. The best signal is
determined, then the mobile registers on the system using that control channel of the
hosting cell. Once registered, the mobile receives the neighbor cell list and neighbor
cell control channel frequencies on the hosting cell’s broadcast control channel.
When operating on its Home system, the mobile monitors only the control channels
assigned by the current neighbor cell list.
MS Authentication
At any time while active, the MS may be authenticated (challenged to provide proof
of identity). This is done in association with other activities for convenience and the
process is designed so that monitoring the transaction over the air does not allow
another mobile to subsequently mimic the authenticated MS. This is discussed in
greater detail in call processing.
Handover
D-2
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Location Handover
Location Request
Control
The Location Request Control procedure is used to avoid the unnecessary use of
channel resources and unnecessary control messages. reporting location changes is
primarily the responsibility of the MS. While in range and active, the MS will
update the location area in the FNE VLRs.
If the MS exists on the system and is not found in the last know location it may be in
partnered systems, the FNE monitors activity of the MS to detect when this has
likely to have occurred. When the FNE has determined that the MS may no longer be
in its last reported location, the FNE precedes further calls with a Location Request.
A channel is only allocated when at least one target MS present on the site.
The FNE will stop sending Location Requests (control message traffic) after a long
period of inactivity. This timer is matched to an MS timer which requires the MS to
report its location periodically (i.e. at least once a day).
Home Neighbor
Network Search
In cases where a user’s operating area(s) are covered by more than one iDEN
networks or roaming partner network, the preferred system is the home system.
Home Neighbor Network Search (HNNS) is used to define and prioritized the home
system as the primary serving system
Currently, an iDEN system will only support dispatch services while outside their
own network when both networks are using Software Release 8.0 and roaming
agreements exists.
When networks overlap, users prefer to re-attach to their home network for dispatch
services as quickly as possible. HNNS allows movement between networks with a
return to the home network for dispatch services as soon as coverage is available.
This is only available on i600 Galaxy (or newer) Mobile Stations with HNNS
compatible subscriber code(s). This is accomplished by a reselect in Radio Link
control.
Each cell in an overlap area may contain one or more cells of another dispatch
network in the neighbor cell list (home network neighbors). If the candidate cell’s
Regional Network Code (RNC) matches the home RNC on the user’s mobile, the
mobile will reselect to the cell in the “home system” and dispatch service will be
restored.
Location Handover
All functional operations of the iDEN system locate the mobile station (MS) by
analyzing the radio link integrity. When a mobile is powered-ON it receives signals
from all EBTSs in range. It also transmits a Request for Service. The MS and the
EBTSs in range monitor and analyze the radio link. All EBTSs in range form a
location identifier that is sent to VLRs in the MSC and the DAP.
Handover
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D-3
Location Handover
Hosting Cell
During the request for service, the radio link is analyzed using the Received Signal
Strength Indication (RSSI) and a Signal Quality Estimate (SQE) The SQE is a ratio
of the energy of the carrier to the energy level of both the interference and the noise.
SQE = C ÷ ( I + N )
These factors are used define the EBTS with the best radio link is designated as the
host and is used to handle all control and traffic.data between FNE and the MS. The
signal strength relationship is diagrammed in Figure D-1
Figure D-1 Simplified Radio Link Characteristics
T. N. French
a hosts
b hosts
Radio
Link a
Quality
Radio
Link b
Quality
EBTS a
EBTS b
General Guidelines for SQE and signal strength are summarized in Table
Table D-1 Signal Quality Guidelines
6:1 interleave dispatch and 3:1 interleave interconnect
C/(I+N)
Dispatch
Interconnect
18dB
Good
Fair
20dB
Good
Good
22dB
Very Good
Very Good
Minimum recommendation: 18dB over 90% of cell coverage area
20dB preferred
6:1 interleave dispatch and 6:1 interleave interconnect
C/(I+N)
Dispatch
Interconnect
18dB
Good
Marginal
21dB
Good
Fair
25dB
Very Good
Good
Minimum 20db in cell coverage area
Handover
D-4
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August 08, 2000
Location Handover
Reliability
The reliability of the radio link in the iDEN system considers three broad categories.
• Contour
• Area
• System
Contour Reliability Contour reliability relates to the ability to maintain and control the radio link within
the propagation pattern of a cell. Anywhere in the pattern if 100 calls are made with
10 failures the contour has a 90% reliability. Within limits, the radio link quality is
to be better closer to the cell site.
Area Reliably
An Area reliability uses the location concept. Since more than one cell may have a
sound link, the ability to maintain a call is improved when more that one radio path is
available. Generally, area reliabilities are higher than contour reliabilities. If the
average of reliabilities in a total coverage are 90% (contour reliablities). The area
reliability will typically be about 97%.
System
The system reliability can be calculated by finding the average or the mean of all the
area and/or contour reliabilities
Handover
August 08, 2000
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D-5
Location Handover
Fading
Fading is the reduction of radio link quality based on distance for the source
(antenna). This may involve multiple sources, bounced signals, and normal
dissipation over distance. The types are:
• Small Scale
• Medium Scale
• Large Scale
Small Scale
Small Scale fading and interference relates to the distribution of the radio link by
other signals carrying similar information. The units of measure used in small scale
are in orders of magnitude of the wavelength in the signal envelope. The arrival of a
multipath signal that is exactly ½ a wavelength out of sync cancel the reception of
that signal data bit. This typically involves bounced signals or multipath interference
(Rayleigh distribution). This is diagrammed in Figure D-2
Figure D-2 Multipath Interference
Radio waves "bounce" (reflect)
off structures and are picked up
by the mobile
T. N. French
Minor changes in arrival time
create multipath (Rayleigh)
interference
Software selects best host cell.
Packet timing determines best signal
path (rejects out of sync packets)
Typically an signal must be 2dB stronger than normal analog RF.
For a non-moving mobile this requires 10dB difference (9db for enhanced systems)
at 10% Bit Error Ratio (BER) (Error bits/total bits.)
With a moving mobile the difference is to 19db (18db enhanced) at 4% BER.
The difference in the arrival time of received packets determine the MSs ability to
use the packet. The packets are synchronized with the GPS timing reference and
requires the packets arrive within a 10-12 microseconds (10-12 µs) time window.
Other packets are rejected. There is a maximum round trip delay of 0.75
microseconds (one-way about 69.75 miles) if other parameters can be maintained
Medium Scale
Medium scale fading relates to cross-frequency rejection. Signals of other
frequencies (noise) may have arrival times the increase or cancel the amplitude of the
signal. The unit of measure of this type is generally on the order of tens of
wavelengths. This type of interference is typically 8 dB (nominal for GSM). The
average power typically follows lognormal distribution.
Large Scale
Large scale fading relates to general energy dissipation of distance. The units of
measure or in the order of miles. The median average power typically varies in
Power-law fashion with path length (the further away the less powerful the signal).
Handover
D-6
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August 08, 2000
Neighbor Cell List
Neighbor Cell List
The Neighbor Cell List is specific to each cell (sector or omni). The neighbor list is
a set of logical numbers assigned to other cells that indicate potential handover
candidates. The list identifies cells that are adjacent or close enough to take over
control of the voice and data communication between the MS and the EBTS as the
mobile moves around the network (Figure D-3). The MS uses the broadcast channel
to scan the Neighbor Cell List and uses the radio link quality to select a “new” host
cell. This is based on radio link quality (SQE and RSSI), and operator (software) set
parameters. This assures the best possible radio link quality on a real-time basis.
Figure D-3 Logical Neighbor Cell Listings
3
Neighbor List
2
Active (host) cell = 0
5
0
T. N. French
Good Candidates are:
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cell 6
Cell 7
Possible Candidates are:
Cell 3
Cell 4
Cell 5
Cell 8
Cell 9
4
1
6
9
7
8
Handover Measurements
The measurements use to determine radio link quality are listed in Table D-2 and
Figure D-4
Table D-2 Handover Measurements
Host Cells
Mobile Station Signal Quality Estimate
(SQE)
[C/(I + N)]
Color Code
Received Signal Strength
Indication (RSSI)
Base
Transceiver
SQE [C/(I + N)]
Color Code
RSSI
Neighbor Cells
Idle Servers
SQE [C/(I + N)]
Color Code
RSSI
Interference + Noise
(I + N)
Handover
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
D-7
Handover Measurements
Measurement inquiries may be either mobile or FNE initiated. When the Bit-ErrorRate approaches or exceeds preset limits, the radio link is re-evaluated to assure
optimum performance. These inquiries are very fast and are transparent to the user.
Figure D-4 Serving and Neighbor Cell Measurements
C/(I+N)
RSSI
C/(I+N)
RSSI
EBTS
SERVING
CELL
C/(I+N)
RSSI
C(I+N)
RSSI
EBTS
NEIGHBOR
CELL
C/(I+N)
RSSI
EBTS
EBTS
NEIGHBOR
CELL
NEIGHBOR
CELL
Handover
D-8
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August 08, 2000
Handover Operation
Handover Operation
Dispatch Calls
During dispatch calling, the reconnect and hosting cell procedures are used to
determine the EBTS the should host (serve) the call. The Host (serving) cell
selection process is used to re-select and re-connect between serving cell. The short
authentication setup time allows the FNE to redirect calls between cells dynamically.
The FNE involved in dispatch is the MPS and the DAP. The basic procedure is:
1) MS determines need and identifies potential neighbors
2) MS sends signal measurements to the FNE
3) DAP/D-VLR finds new host (EBTS) and re-assigns traffic to the EBTS
4) MS re-tunes to the new host (EBTS) channel
5) Channel changed to Traffic channel (TCH) and talk continues
Because Dispatch Calling does not have a lot of signalling and call setup
communication needs, dispatch does not technically handover. The process is a
constant process of selection, authentication, and re-selection.
Interconnect Calls
The Interconnect handover process from Host to candidate is based on an exchange
of information about the radio link quality across the radio link control channel(s).
The FNE involved are the MSC/BSC. The basic procedure (Figure D-5) is:
1) MS determines need and identifies potential neighbors
1) MS signals on associated control channel with measurements
2) FNE - EBTS finds new host and allocates it as Temporary Control Channel
3) FNE - EBTS sends handover and power setting on associated control channel
4) MS changes to assigned channel
5) MS uses the Random Access Procedure (RAP) to get timing information
6) Channel changed to Traffic channel (TCH) and talk continues
Figure D-5 Handover
a hosts
b hosts
T. N. French
Radio
Link a
Quality
EBTS a
EBTS b
Mobile or FNE
initiated
Measurement
Report (ACCH)
(Associated Control
ACCH
TrafficChannel
(Active voice)
EBTS b
Frequency
Radio
Link b
Quality
Direction of
travel
a
Handover Cmd
(ACCH)
Channel)
New frequency
(TCCH)
Unassigned (UCH)
a
EBTS a
Frequency
Handover ACK (ACCH)
Unassigned (UCH)
b
R
A
P
(TCCH)
timing
(TCCH)
Handover ID
(TCCH)
ID ACK
(TCCH)
Trafic(TCH)
b
Cell Info
(BCCH)
Traffic(TCH)
b
Handover
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
D-9
Handover Operation
Handover System
Defaults
Handover is a coordinated effort between the FNE and the mobile. System and
mobile software continuously monitors Cell-information on Broadcast Control
Channel (BCCH). This process is driven by over-the-air (radio link) parameters.
The MS continuously measures parameters during call. The parameters are:
- SQE = C/(I+N)
- RSSI
- Primary host channel (every 90 ms)
- One non-host channel (every 90 ms)
The process samples neighbor list candidates (Ideally, 7 samples on 3 channels).
Less ideal could use 3 samples on 5 channels. When MS detects trouble on the host,
or a better neighbor cell:
-
The MS sends signal measurement samples to the FNE
The FNE evaluates potential servers
The FNE assigns new host
The MS switches to new host
Note
Interference in handover activity is not part of normal handover calculations. If
interference affects another mobile after handover, the affected mobile will in
turn, undergo handover. Load Balancing is not part of the handover algorithm.
High Site / Low Site The iDEN system selects hosts according to the type of call being made.
Interconnect calls require more system resources and must maintain a better RF link
(operates better on low sites). Dispatch call do not require as many system resources
and can operate in less restrictive RF environments (operates on high sites).
Each cell broadcasts a neighbor cell list that specifies the host candidates the MS
should measure for cell re-selection, handover and re-connection. Each entry in the
neighbor cell list contains three class values:
• Reselection class
• Handover class
• Reconnection class
Each of these classes has a hierarchy (preference) of each neighbor cell. Each of
these class values is software configurable at the OMC. By properly setting up these
parameters, MS will operate on either a high site or a low site to provide best
performance and optimize system resources (RF channels), for example:
1) The MS tends to stay with (camp-on) and conduct calls with the high site cells
(for more efficient operation of dispatch calls).
2) The MS tends to use the low site cells on interconnect calls (for better utilization
of RF hosts). (The MS will use a high site cell if that was the only way to keep the
call alive.)
Handover
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68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Coverage
Note
An important limitation of this approach is the size of the high site cells. A high
site cell must list all low site cells in its neighbor cell list. If the high site cell's
coverage area includes many low site cells, the neighbor cell list might become
too lengthy. A long neighbor cell list will increase the time required to read the
BCCH information and increase the chance of a dropped or lost call.
Coverage
The prediction of coverage and comparison of coverage to other RF systems is
beyond the scope of this document. However, the current offering of Base and
Subscriber equipment is designed to allow for operations similar to that provided by
common digital cellular systems. The iDEN system utilizes:
• Base receive antenna diversity (multiple /branched antennas)
• Low noise receiver multi-couplers to merge base radio output to the antennas
• Optional state-of-the-art tower mounted pre-amplifiers
This helps maximize the base receive performance and balance the radio link power.
Base transmitters are available providing an average power output of:
• 5-70 Watts (800 MHz)
• 2-40 Watts (800 MHz and 1.5 GHz)
• 5-60 Watts (900 MHz)
Either cavity or hybrid transmitter combiners are then used appropriately to combine
multiple transmit signals on common antennas. The Mobile Stations also use low
noise receiver components and state-of-the-art linear amplifiers.
Dropped Calls
There are many factors and reasons why a call my be lost (dropped) prematurely.
The principle reasons for dropped calls are: inadequate and/or inaccurate handover
parameter measurement
•
•
•
•
Inadequate coverage and/or uncontrolled interference
No adequate server available in time (blocking)
Signalling failure
Processing failure
Handover
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68P81095E55-E
D-11
Dropped Calls
NOTES
Handover
D-12
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
INDEX
B
Numerics
BA
10base2
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
10baseT
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
911
Dispatch Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Interconnect call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
A
Access Control Gateway, See ACG
ACG
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
ADC
BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Billing and Administration . . . . . . . . 2-29
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
D-HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
D-VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Administration
ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Packet Data 6-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrative Data Center, See ADC
Air Interface
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
ANSI SS7-ISUP
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
APD
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Dispatch Group Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Base Monitor Radio
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Base Radio
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Base Site Controller, See BSC
Billing
ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Billing Accumulator, See BA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Billing Number, See IMSI
BITS
Network Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Network Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
BSC
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Enhanced MSC co-located . . . . . . . . 2-19
Enhanced Remote Located . . . . . . . . 2-19
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Implementation Types . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
LAP-D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
MSC Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
MTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Multi-Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Network Paths 3-27
Physical components . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Radio Link Conversion Description . . 2-17
Release 8.0 Enhancements . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
BSC - Control Processor, See BSC-CP
BSC - Transcoder, See XCDR
Authentication
MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
1
Index
BSC-CP
Control Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Data Collection Description . . . . . . . . 2-18
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Building Integrated Timing System, See BITS
C
Call Alert
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Call Model
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Call Restrictions
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Call Route
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Capacities
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Capacity
APD Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-6
BSC Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-5
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
DAP Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-5
EBTS Base Radios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
EBTS Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . A-6
MDG Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-6
MPS Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-6
MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
MSC Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-4
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
SMS Limitation Guidelines . . . . . . . . A-4
SNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect,
See CSMA/CD
CCITT
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Cell dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Circuit Switched
Mobile Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
MSC-IWF Description . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
2
Network Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Coaxial
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Combiners
EBTS RF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Configuration Management
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Conversion
BSC Radio Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
ETBS LAN to T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
PCM to TDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
SS7 to Mobis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Transport Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
VSELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
CSMA/CD
EBTS Interface Description. . . . . . . . . 2-5
D
DACS
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
DAP
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Dispatch ID’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Fleet ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Fleet Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Frame Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Group Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Member ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Physical components . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
T-DAP Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Urban ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Versions and Capacities . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Index
Group Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4, D-9
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Local Area Group Call Description . . 4-10
Location Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Location Area Limitations. . . . . . . . . 4-15
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Member ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
MS group limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
MS Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Multiple Talk-groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Optimum Radio Link Quality . . . . . . 3-12
Private Call Description . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Route path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Selected Area Service Description . . . 4-11
Service Area Limitations. . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Service Area Provisioning . . . . . . . . . 4-16
SMS Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Typical Signaling Path . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Urban ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Urban Identifier Description . . . . . . . . 4-5
User Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
User Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Wide Area Dispatch Group Call . . . . 4-12
DAP Home Location Register, See D-HLR
DAP Visiting Location Register, See D-VLR
Data Collection
BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Data Communication Improvements
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Defaults
Handovers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
D-HLR
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fleet ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Member ID 3-23
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Urban ID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-18
3-22
3-20
3-23
1-10
3-22
Digital Access Crossconnect Switch, See DACS
Dispatch
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Call Alert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Call Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
DAP Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
D-HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Domain Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Domain Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Downloading Operating Parameters . . 3-19
D-VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
EBTS Frame Relay T1 Allocation . . . . 2-6
EBTS Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Emergency Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Establish Radio Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Fleet ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Fleet Identifier Description. . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Fleet Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Fleet Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Group Call Description . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Group Call Packet Duplication . . . . . . . 4-4
Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Group Identifier Description. . . . . . . . . 4-5
Group Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
August 08, 2000
Dispatch Application Processor, See DAP
Dispatch Communications
Software Release 8.0 Enhancements . 1-10
Dispatch Location Area, See DLA
DLA
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Domain
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Dispatch Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Organizational View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Dropped Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-11
DS3
As a Transport Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
68P81095E55-E
3
Index
DS4
As a Transport Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
DTMF
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Interconnect Functionality . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency, See DTMF
D-VLR
Fleet ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Member ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Urban ID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-22
3-20
3-23
3-23
3-22
E
E1, See T1
EBTS
3-Sector Frequency Re-Use Pattern . . 3-13
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Control Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Dispatch Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
GPS Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
hosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
LAP-D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Maximum Cell Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
MTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Neightbor Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Omni RF Re-use Pattern . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Omni-Directional Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Optimum Radio Link Quality . . . . . . . 3-12
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Radio Link
Radio Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Radio Link Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Sectored Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Site Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Typical Cell Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
4
Emergency Call
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Enhanced Base Transceiver System, See EBTS
Ethernet
10base2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Event Reporting
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Event/Alarm Management
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Expansion
Scaling Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
External Alarm System
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Extranet
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
F
Facsimile
IWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Fading
RF Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Fault Management
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Fiber Optics
As a Transport Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Fleet
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Dispatch Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Fleet Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Foreign Agent
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Frame Relay
EBTS allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Index
Frequency Re-use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3-sector cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Omni cells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
G
Gateway
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Global
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Organizational View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
GPS
EBTS Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Group
Dispatch Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Dispatch Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Group Call
Dispatch Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Group Identifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
H
Handover
Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Neighbor List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
SQE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
High Site / Low Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10
HLR
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
General Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Initial Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
MSC General Description . . . . . . . . . 2-22
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Ongoing Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Home Agent
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Home Location Register, See HLR
August 08, 2000
Home Neighbor Network Search
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3
Horizontal Dispatch
Required Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Hosting Cell
Radion LInk Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
I
iDEN Monitor Unit, See iMU
iHLR
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
IMEI
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
IMSI
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
iMU
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Interconnect
911 call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Call Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Call Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Downloading Operating Parameters . . 3-19
DTMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Establish Radio Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9
HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
HLR Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Interleaving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Mobile to Mobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Mobile to Other Network . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
MS identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Network path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Optimum Radio Link Quality . . . . . . 3-12
Other Network To Mobile . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Route Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
SMS Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
System Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
System Indentifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
68P81095E55-E
5
Index
Typical Signaling Path . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
VLR Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Voice Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
LAP-B
BSC Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Interconnections
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
LAP-D
Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Interface Conversion
EBTS Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Transport Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Link Access Protocol - Data, See LAP-D
Link Access Protocol B-Channel, See LAP-B
Interface Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Link Concentration
BSC Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Interference
Multipath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Link Peripheral Processor
MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Interleaving
3 to 1 Interleave Advantages . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Channel Allocation . . . . . . . .
Interconnect Channel Efficiency . . . . . .
TDMA timelslot allocation. . . . . . . . . .
Local Area Network, See LAN
3-9
6-5
5-3
3-9
Location Area
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Mobility Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Organizational View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
International Mobile Equipment Identifier, See IMESI
Location Area Group Call
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
International Subscriber Directory Number, See
MSISDN
M
Internet
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
M16-QAM
iDEN Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Internet Protocol (IP) address, Default Para Font>
IP
MDG
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Foreign Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Home Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Internet interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Inter-System Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Intra-System Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
InterWorking Function
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Inter-Working Function, See IWF
Intranet
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
IP
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
iSC
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
IWF
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
L
LAN
EBTS Interface Description . . . . . . . . . 2-5
6
Measurements
RF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Member
Dispatch Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Message Transport Protocol, See MTP
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Index
Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Group limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Home Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Initial Service Registration . . . . . . . . 3-16
Interconnect Identifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Member ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Ongoing Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Over the Air Parameters . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Over-The-Air Programming . . . . . . . 3-15
Pre-installed programming . . . . . . . . 3-15
Primary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Secondary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-6
Temporary Control Channel . . . . . . . . B-7
Traffic Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Trolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Typical Signaling Path . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Unassigned Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
Urban ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Voice Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Metro Packet Switch, See MPS
Microwave
As a Transport Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Mobile Computing
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Mobile Data Gateway, See MDG
Mobile Station, See MS
Mobile Switching Center, See MSC
Mobile to Mobile
Group Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Private Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Mobile to Other Network
Interconnect Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
Mobis
BSC Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Modified A-bis Interface, See Mobis
Motorola 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation,
See M16-QAM
MS Tracking
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
MPS
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Tiered Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
MS Trolling
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
MS
Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Associated Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-8
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Camping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2, D-10
Dedicated Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-7
Dispatch ID’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Dispatch Location Area . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Dispatch Status Call. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Dispatch Status Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Downloading Operating Parameters . . 3-19
Fleet ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Frequency Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
August 08, 2000
MSC
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
co-located BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-21
HLR Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
IWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
LAP-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
MTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
SMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
SNSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
VLR Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
MSC Visiting Location Register, See VLR
68P81095E55-E
7
Index
EBTS Functions Description . . . . . . . . 2-6
EBTS Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Functional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Interconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
LAP-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Multiband Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Networking Description . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Packet Duplicator Functions . . . . . . . 2-14
Performance Management . . . . . . . . . 2-28
SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . 1-12, 1-13
Software Release 9.1 support . . . . . . 2-24
Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24, 2-25
MSISDN
Interconnect MS Identifier . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
MTL
As a Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
MTP
Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Multiband Operation
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Multi-frequency (MF) Inband Signaling, See Signaling
Multiple Simultaneous Talkgroups
NAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Mult-threading
XCDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
N
NAMS
Dispatch User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
OML
Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Neighbor Cell List
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Omni-Directional Cell, See EBTS
Network
Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Operation and Maintenance Link, See OML
Network Management
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Network Path
Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Open Systems Interconnection, See OSI
Operation, Maintenance, and Administration, See
OMC
Operations, Administrative & Maintenance
OA&M
OSI
Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-5
Data Link Layer Description . . . . . . . . B-3
Logical Link Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-3
Media Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Network Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Physical Layer Description . . . . . . . . . B-1
Presentation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Radio Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Session Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Network Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Networking
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Number Assignment Modules, See NAMS
O
OA&M
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
OMC
Base Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
BSC Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
EBTS Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
8
See
OSI Layer 1
Air Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As a Transport Facility . . . . . . . . . . . .
Associated Control Channel . . . . . . . .
Coaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68P81095E55-E
3-1
2-7
B-8
3-1
August 08, 2000
Index
Dedicated Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-7
EIA-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Modulation Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Primary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
RF Channel Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Secondary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-6
T1/E1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Temporary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-7
Traffic Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Twisted Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Unassigned Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
V.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Other Network To Mobile
Interconnect Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Outgrowth
Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
P
Packet Data
Billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Downloading Operating Parameters . . 3-19
Network Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
System Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Packet Duplicator, See APD
PCM
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
XCDR Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Performance Management
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
EBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
OMC Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Performance Statistics
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Physical Interface, See OSI Layer 1
Private Call
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Dispatch Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Provisioning
D-HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21
Q
Queuing
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
R
Radio Frequency, See RF
Radio Link
Carrier Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Carrier Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
EBTS Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
EBTS Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Effective Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Multipath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
SQE guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
Radio Link Protocol
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Rate Modulation
Packet Data 6-5
Region
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Organizational View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Radio Lnk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5
Remote BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Remote Location
BSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Point-to-Point Protocol
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
August 08, 2000
68P81095E55-E
9
Index
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Temporary Control Channel . . . . . . . . B-7
Traffic Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
Unassigned Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
VSELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
VSELP Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7
RF
3-Sector Frequency Re-Use Pattern . . 3-13
Adaptive Rate Modulation . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Associated Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-8
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Bands Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Carrier Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Carrier Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Carrier Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Cell Site Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Control Channel Band Map . . . . . . . . 3-15
Data Link Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Dedicated Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-7
Digital Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Downloading Operating Parameters . . 3-19
EBTS Combiners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
EBTS conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
EBTS Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Frequency Re-use Considerations . . . . 3-12
Handover Measurements . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Logic Link Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
M16QAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Media Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Modulation Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Multiband Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Multipath Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Network Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Omni Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Omni Re-use Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Optimum Radio Link Quality . . . . . . . 3-12
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Over the Air Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Over-The-Air Programming . . . . . . . . 3-15
Presentation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5
Primary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Protocol Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Secondary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . B-6
Sectored Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
10
RF Distribution System, See RFDS
RFDS
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Route Path
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
RS-232
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
S
Scaling
Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Sectored Cell, See EBTS
Security Management
OMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Selected Area Group Call
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Serial Line Interface Protocol
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Service Area
Dispatch Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Dispatch Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Organizational View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Service Provider
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Home Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Initial MS Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Ongoing Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Primary Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . B-6
Short Message Service, See SMS
Signal Quality Guidelines
Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000
Index
Signaling
BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
MSC Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
MTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Multi-frequency Inband . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Paths and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Radio Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
SMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Signalling System Seven, See SS7 . . . . . . . 3-2
Simple Network Management Protocol, See SNMP
Site-to-Site Frame Synchronization
EBTS Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
SLIP
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
SMS
Capacity Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
MTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
SMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Status Code
MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Sub-Rating
XCDR Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
SuperNode Size Enhanced, See SNSE
Switching
EBTS Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Synchronization
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
System Identifiers
Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
T
T1
As a Physical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
As a Transport Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
BSC Sub-Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
EBTS Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
EBTS utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Fractional T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Framing and Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
MSC Interface Description . . . . . . . . 2-21
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
SNMP
OML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
SNSE
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Software Release 8.0
BSC Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Data Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Dispatch Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
New Dispatch Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
TCP/IP Header Compression . . . . . . . . 7-2
Time-of-Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Y2K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Software Release 9.1
OMC Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
SS7
Talk Groups
Multiple Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
TCP/IP
Header Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
On Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
TDD
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
TDMA
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Frame Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Temporary Mobile System Indentifier, See TMSI
Time Division Duplex, See TDD
BSC Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
August 08, 2000
Time Division Multiple Access, See TDMA
68P81095E55-E
11
Index
Time-Of-Day Processing
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Timing
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Single Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Visiting Location Register, See VLR
VLR
General Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
MSC Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Voice Conversion
VSELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
TMSI
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Voice Mail System
MSC General Description . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol,
See TCP/IP
VSELP
Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Presentation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Transport Facilities, See T1
Trolling
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Home Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Twisted Pair
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
U
W
Wide Area Call
Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
X
Urban Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
User
Dispatch Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Users
Logical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
V
V.35
OSI Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Virtual Private Network
Circuit Switched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Packet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
12
3-7
3-7
B-5
B-7
3-3
X.25
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
XCDR
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Components . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protocol Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Release 9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-17
2-18
2-16
2-18
1-13
Y
Y2K Compliance
Software Release 8.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
68P81095E55-E
August 08, 2000