D-Link 3312SR - Switch Specifications

D-Link™ DGS-3212SR
12-Port Gigabit Layer 2 Stackable Switch
Release III
Manual
Third Edition (February 2005)
Printed In Taiwan
RECYCLABLE
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
__________________________________________________________________________________
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
© 2005 D-Link Computer Corporation. All rights reserved.
Reproduction in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of D-Link Computer Corporation is strictly forbidden.
Trademarks used in this text: D-Link and the D-LINK logo are trademarks of D-Link Computer Corporation; Microsoft and Windows are registered
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their products. D-Link
Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.
February 2005 P/N 651SR3212035
i
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Table of Contents
About This Manual ............................................................................................................................................................... vii
Intended Readers .............................................................................................................................................................. vii
Typographical Conventions......................................................................................................................................... vii
Notes, Notices, and Cautions........................................................................................................................................... viii
Safety Instructions........................................................................................................................................................... viii
Safety Cautions................................................................................................................................................................ viii
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable Products............................................................................................................ix
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge ........................................................................................................................xi
Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................................1
Switch Description ..............................................................................................................................................................1
Features ...............................................................................................................................................................................1
Front-Panel Components .....................................................................................................................................................3
LED Indicators ...............................................................................................................................................................3
Rear Panel Description ........................................................................................................................................................5
RPS Connector ...............................................................................................................................................................5
Plug-in Modules ..................................................................................................................................................................6
Switch Stacking...................................................................................................................................................................7
Management Options ..........................................................................................................................................................9
Installation..............................................................................................................................................................................10
Package Contents ..............................................................................................................................................................10
Before You Connect to the Network .................................................................................................................................10
Installing the Switch without the Rack .........................................................................................................................11
Installing the Switch in a Rack .....................................................................................................................................11
Mounting the Switch in a Standard 19" Rack...............................................................................................................12
Connecting Stacked Switch Groups .............................................................................................................................13
Configuring a Switch Group for Stacking ....................................................................................................................14
External Redundant Power System...............................................................................................................................16
Connecting the Console Port ........................................................................................................................................17
Password Protection .....................................................................................................................................................17
SNMP Settings .............................................................................................................................................................19
IP Address Assignment.................................................................................................................................................20
Connecting Devices to the Switch ................................................................................................................................21
Basic Switch Management .....................................................................................................................................................22
Before You Start................................................................................................................................................................22
Web-based User Interface .................................................................................................................................................23
ii
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Areas of the User Interface ...........................................................................................................................................23
Login to Web Manager.................................................................................................................................................24
Web Pages and Folders.................................................................................................................................................24
Basic Setup........................................................................................................................................................................25
Switch Information .......................................................................................................................................................25
Switch IP Settings.........................................................................................................................................................25
Security IP Management Stations Configuration..........................................................................................................28
User Account Management ..........................................................................................................................................28
Admin and User Privileges...........................................................................................................................................29
Save Changes................................................................................................................................................................30
Factory Reset ................................................................................................................................................................30
Restart System ..............................................................................................................................................................31
Advanced Settings ........................................................................................................................................................32
Switch Stack Management ................................................................................................................................................34
Configure Stacking .......................................................................................................................................................34
Basic Configuration ...............................................................................................................................................................37
Switch Information............................................................................................................................................................38
IP Address .........................................................................................................................................................................38
Advanced Settings.............................................................................................................................................................41
Port Configuration.............................................................................................................................................................43
Port Description.................................................................................................................................................................45
Port Mirroring ...................................................................................................................................................................46
Traffic Control...................................................................................................................................................................47
Link Aggregation ..............................................................................................................................................................48
LACP Port Settings ......................................................................................................................................................50
Port Access Entity (802.1X)..............................................................................................................................................52
Authentication Server ...................................................................................................................................................52
Authenticator ................................................................................................................................................................53
Client ............................................................................................................................................................................54
Authentication Process .................................................................................................................................................54
802.1X Authenticator Settings......................................................................................................................................57
PAE System Control.....................................................................................................................................................59
Initializing Ports for MAC Based 802.1x .....................................................................................................................61
Reauthenticate Port(s) for Port Based 802.1x...............................................................................................................62
Reauthenticate Port(s) for MAC-based 802.1x.............................................................................................................63
RADIUS Server............................................................................................................................................................64
IGMP Snooping.................................................................................................................................................................65
IGMP Snooping Configuration.....................................................................................................................................65
Static Router Ports Entry ..............................................................................................................................................67
iii
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Spanning Tree ...................................................................................................................................................................69
STP Bridge Global Settings..........................................................................................................................................71
MST Configuration Table.............................................................................................................................................74
MSTI Settings...............................................................................................................................................................77
STP Instance Settings ...................................................................................................................................................78
STP Port Settings..........................................................................................................................................................80
Forwarding & Filtering .....................................................................................................................................................82
Unicast Forwarding ......................................................................................................................................................82
Multicast Forwarding ...................................................................................................................................................83
VLANs ..............................................................................................................................................................................84
802.1Q Static VLANs...................................................................................................................................................88
GVRP Settings..............................................................................................................................................................91
QoS....................................................................................................................................................................................93
Understanding QoS.......................................................................................................................................................94
802.1p Default Priority .................................................................................................................................................95
802.1p User Priority .....................................................................................................................................................95
QoS Output Scheduling Configuration.........................................................................................................................96
Traffic Segmentation ....................................................................................................................................................97
Port Bandwidth .............................................................................................................................................................98
MAC Notification..............................................................................................................................................................99
MAC Notification Global Settings ...............................................................................................................................99
MAC Notification Port Settings .................................................................................................................................100
Port Security Configuration.............................................................................................................................................101
Port Security ...............................................................................................................................................................101
Port Lock Entry Delete ...............................................................................................................................................102
Port Security Clear......................................................................................................................................................102
System Log Server ..........................................................................................................................................................103
SNTP Settings .................................................................................................................................................................105
Time Setting ...............................................................................................................................................................105
Time Zone and DST Settings .....................................................................................................................................106
Access Profile Table........................................................................................................................................................108
Security ................................................................................................................................................................................119
Trusted Host ....................................................................................................................................................................119
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) .............................................................................................................................................120
Download Certificate..................................................................................................................................................120
Configuration..............................................................................................................................................................121
Secure Shell (SSH)..........................................................................................................................................................123
SSH Configuration .....................................................................................................................................................123
SSH Algorithm ...........................................................................................................................................................125
iv
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SSH User Authentication............................................................................................................................................127
Access Authentication Control........................................................................................................................................129
Policy & Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................130
Application Authentication Settings...........................................................................................................................131
Authentication Server Group ......................................................................................................................................132
Authentication Server Host.........................................................................................................................................134
Login Method Lists ....................................................................................................................................................136
Enable Method Lists ...................................................................................................................................................138
Local Enable Password...............................................................................................................................................140
Enable Admin .............................................................................................................................................................141
Management.........................................................................................................................................................................142
User Accounts .................................................................................................................................................................142
SNMP ..............................................................................................................................................................................143
SNMP Settings ...........................................................................................................................................................143
SNMP User Table.......................................................................................................................................................144
SNMP View Table......................................................................................................................................................147
SNMP Group Table ....................................................................................................................................................148
SNMP Community Table ...........................................................................................................................................150
SNMP Host Table.......................................................................................................................................................151
SNMP Engine ID........................................................................................................................................................152
Monitoring ...........................................................................................................................................................................153
Stack Information ............................................................................................................................................................154
Port Utilization ................................................................................................................................................................157
CPU Utilization ...............................................................................................................................................................158
Packets.............................................................................................................................................................................159
Received Packets ........................................................................................................................................................159
Received Unicast/Multicast/Broadcast Packets ..........................................................................................................161
Transmitted Packets....................................................................................................................................................163
Errors...............................................................................................................................................................................165
Received Errors ..........................................................................................................................................................165
Transmitted Errors......................................................................................................................................................167
Size ..................................................................................................................................................................................169
Packet Size..................................................................................................................................................................169
MAC Address..................................................................................................................................................................171
Switch History Log .........................................................................................................................................................173
IGMP Snooping Table.....................................................................................................................................................174
IGMP Snooping Forwarding ...........................................................................................................................................175
VLAN Status ...................................................................................................................................................................176
v
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Router Port ......................................................................................................................................................................177
Session Table...................................................................................................................................................................178
Maintenance .........................................................................................................................................................................179
TFTP Services .................................................................................................................................................................179
Download Firmware ...................................................................................................................................................179
Download Configuration File .....................................................................................................................................180
Upload Configuration .................................................................................................................................................180
Upload Log.................................................................................................................................................................180
Ping Test..........................................................................................................................................................................181
Save Changes ..................................................................................................................................................................181
Factory Reset...................................................................................................................................................................182
Restart System.................................................................................................................................................................183
Logout .............................................................................................................................................................................183
Single IP Management .........................................................................................................................................................184
SIM Settings....................................................................................................................................................................186
Topology .........................................................................................................................................................................187
Tool Tips ....................................................................................................................................................................190
Right-click ..................................................................................................................................................................192
Member Switch Icon ..................................................................................................................................................194
Candidate Switch Icon................................................................................................................................................195
Menu Bar ....................................................................................................................................................................196
Group..........................................................................................................................................................................196
Device.........................................................................................................................................................................196
View ...........................................................................................................................................................................196
Firmware Upgrade...........................................................................................................................................................197
Configuration File Backup/Restore .................................................................................................................................197
Technical Specifications ......................................................................................................................................................198
Cables and Connectors ...............................................................................................................................................200
Cable Lengths .............................................................................................................................................................201
vi
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
About This Manual
This manual is divided into nine general sections:
Section 1, Introduction - Describes the Switch’s hardware and its features.
Section 2, Installation - Helps you get started with the basic installation of the Switch and also describes the front panel,
rear panel, side panels, and LED indicators of the Switch.
Section 3, Basic Management - Tells how you can connect the Switch to your Ethernet network.
Section 4, Configuration - A detailed discussion about configuring some of the basic functions of the Switch, including
accessing the Switch information, using the Switch's utilities and setting up network configurations, such as Quality of
Service, the Access Profile Table, port mirroring and configuring the Spanning Tree.
Section 5, Security - A discussion of the security features of the Switch, including Security IP, User Accounts, Access
Authentication Control, SSH and SSL.
Section 6, Management – A detailed discussion regarding User Accounts and the Simple Network Monitoring Protocol
including description of features and a brief introduction to SNMP.
Section 7, Monitoring - Features graphs and screens used in monitoring features and packets on the Switch.
Section 8, Maintenance - Features information on Switch utility functions, including TFTP Services, Switch History, Ping
Test, Save Changes, and Rebooting Services.
Section 9, Single IP Management - Discussion on the Single IP Management function of the Switch, including functions
and features of the Java based user interface and the utilities of the SIM function.
Intended Readers
The DGS-3212SR Manual contains information useful for setup and management and of the DGS-3212SR Switch. This
manual is intended for network managers familiar with network management concepts and terminology.
Typographical Conventions
Convention
Description
[]
In a command line, square brackets indicate an optional entry. For example: [copy
filename] means that optionally you can type copy followed by the name of the file. Do
not type the brackets.
Bold font
Indicates a button, a toolbar icon, menu, or menu item. For example: Open the File
menu and choose Cancel. Used for emphasis. May also indicate system messages or
prompts appearing on your screen. For example: You have mail. Bold font is also
used to represent filenames, program names and commands. For example: use the
copy command.
Boldface
Typewriter Font
Indicates commands and responses to prompts that must be typed exactly as printed
in the manual.
Initial capital letter
Indicates a window name. Names of keys on the keyboard have initial capitals. For
example: Click Enter.
Italics
Indicates a window name or a field. Also can indicate a variables or parameter that is
replaced with an appropriate word or string. For example: type filename means that
you should type the actual filename instead of the word shown in italic.
Menu
Name
Menu Option
>
Menu Name > Menu Option indicates the menu structure. Device > Port > Port
Properties means the Port Properties menu option under the Port menu option that is
located under the Device menu.
vii
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Notes, Notices, and Cautions
A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of
your device.
A NOTICE indicates either potential damage to hardware or loss of data
and tells you how to avoid the problem.
A CAUTION indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or
death.
Safety Instructions
Use the following safety guidelines to ensure your own personal safety and to help protect your system from potential
damage. Throughout this safety section, the caution icon is (
) used to indicate cautions and precautions that you need
to review and follow.
Safety Cautions
To reduce the risk of bodily injury, electrical shock, fire, and damage to the equipment, observe the following precautions.
•
Observe and follow service markings.
•
Do not service any product except as explained in your system documentation.
•
Opening or removing covers that are marked with the triangular symbol with a lightning bolt may expose you to
electrical shock.
•
•
Only a trained service technician should service components inside these compartments.
If any of the following conditions occur, unplug the product from the electrical outlet and replace the part or contact
your trained service provider:
•
The power cable, extension cable, or plug is damaged.
•
An object has fallen into the product.
•
The product has been exposed to water.
•
The product has been dropped or damaged.
•
The product does not operate correctly when you follow the operating instructions.
•
Keep your system away from radiators and heat sources. Also, do not block cooling vents.
•
Do not spill food or liquids on your system components, and never operate the product in a wet environment. If the
system gets wet, see the appropriate section in your troubleshooting guide or contact your trained service provider.
viii
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
•
Do not push any objects into the openings of your system. Doing so can cause fire or electric shock by shorting out
interior components.
•
Use the product only with approved equipment.
•
Allow the product to cool before removing covers or touching internal components.
•
Operate the product only from the type of external power source indicated on the electrical ratings label. If you are
not sure of the type of power source required, consult your service provider or local power company.
•
To help avoid damaging your system, be sure the voltage selection switch (if provided) on the power supply is set to
match the power available at your location:
•
115 volts (V)/60 hertz (Hz) in most of North and South America and some Far Eastern countries such as South
Korea and Taiwan
•
100 V/50 Hz in eastern Japan and 100 V/60 Hz in western Japan
•
230 V/50 Hz in most of Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East
•
Also, be sure that attached devices are electrically rated to operate with the power available in your location.
•
Use only approved power cable(s). If you have not been provided with a power cable for your system or for any ACpowered option intended for your system, purchase a power cable that is approved for use in your country. The power
cable must be rated for the product and for the voltage and current marked on the product's electrical ratings label.
The voltage and current rating of the cable should be greater than the ratings marked on the product.
•
To help prevent electric shock, plug the system and peripheral power cables into properly grounded electrical outlets.
These cables are equipped with three-prong plugs to help ensure proper grounding. Do not use adapter plugs or
remove the grounding prong from a cable. If you must use an extension cable, use a 3-wire cable with properly
grounded plugs.
•
Observe extension cable and power strip ratings. Make sure that the total ampere rating of all products plugged into
the extension cable or power strip does not exceed 80 percent of the ampere ratings limit for the extension cable or
power strip.
•
To help protect your system from sudden, transient increases and decreases in electrical power, use a surge
suppressor, line conditioner, or uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
•
Position system cables and power cables carefully; route cables so that they cannot be stepped on or tripped over. Be
sure that nothing rests on any cables.
•
Do not modify power cables or plugs. Consult a licensed electrician or your power company for site modifications.
Always follow your local/national wiring rules.
•
When connecting or disconnecting power to hot-pluggable power supplies, if offered with your system, observe the
following guidelines:
•
•
Install the power supply before connecting the power cable to the power supply.
•
Unplug the power cable before removing the power supply.
•
If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all power cables
from the power supplies.
Move products with care; ensure that all casters and/or stabilizers are firmly connected to the system. Avoid sudden
stops and uneven surfaces.
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable
Products
Observe the following precautions for rack stability and safety. Also, refer to the rack installation documentation
accompanying the system and the rack for specific caution statements and procedures.
ix
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
•
Systems are considered to be components in a rack. Thus, "component" refers to any system as well as to various
peripherals or supporting hardware.
CAUTION: Installing systems in a rack without the front and side
stabilizers installed could cause the rack to tip over, potentially resulting in
bodily injury under certain circumstances. Therefore, always install the
stabilizers before installing components in the rack. After installing
system/components in a rack, never pull more than one component out of
the rack on its slide assemblies at one time. The weight of more than one
extended component could cause the rack to tip over and may result in
serious injury.
•
Before working on the rack, make sure that the stabilizers are secured to the rack, extended to the floor, and that the
full weight of the rack rests on the floor. Install front and side stabilizers on a single rack or front stabilizers for joined
multiple racks before working on the rack.
•
Always load the rack from the bottom up, and load the heaviest item in the rack first.
•
Make sure that the rack is level and stable before extending a component from the rack.
•
Use caution when pressing the component rail release latches and sliding a component into or out of a rack; the slide
rails can pinch your fingers.
•
After a component is inserted into the rack, carefully extend the rail into a locking position, and then slide the
component into the rack.
•
Do not overload the AC supply branch circuit that provides power to the rack. The total rack load should not exceed
80 percent of the branch circuit rating.
•
Ensure that proper airflow is provided to components in the rack.
•
Do not step on or stand on any component when servicing other components in a rack.
NOTE: A qualified electrician must perform all connections to DC power
and to safety grounds. All electrical wiring must comply with applicable
local or national codes and practices.
CAUTION: Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the equipment
in the absence of a suitably installed ground conductor. Contact the
appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if you are
uncertain that suitable grounding is available.
CAUTION: The system chassis must be positively grounded to the rack
cabinet frame. Do not attempt to connect power to the system until
grounding cables are connected. Completed power and safety ground
wiring must be inspected by a qualified electrical inspector. An energy
hazard will exist if the safety ground cable is omitted or disconnected.
x
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Static electricity can harm delicate components inside your system. To prevent static damage, discharge static electricity
from your body before you touch any of the electronic components, such as the microprocessor. You can do so by
periodically touching an unpainted metal surface on the chassis.
You can also take the following steps to prevent damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD):
1.
When unpacking a static-sensitive component from its shipping carton, do not remove the component from the
antistatic packing material until you are ready to install the component in your system. Just before unwrapping the
antistatic packaging, be sure to discharge static electricity from your body.
2.
When transporting a sensitive component, first place it in an antistatic container or packaging.
3.
Handle all sensitive components in a static-safe area. If possible, use antistatic floor pads, workbench pads and an
antistatic grounding strap.
xi
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 1
Introduction
Switch Description
Features
Front Panel Components
LED Indicators
Stacking LED Indicators
Rear Panel Description
Plug-in Modules
Switch Stacking
Management Options
Switch Description
The DGS-3212SR is a modular Gigabit Ethernet backbone Switch designed for adaptability and scalability. The Switch
provides a management platform and uplink to backbone for a stacked group of up to twelve DES-3226S switches in a star
topology arrangement. Alternatively, the Switch can utilize up to twelve Gigabit Ethernet ports to function as a central
distribution hub for other Switches or Switch groups, or routers. The four built-in combination Gigabit ports have the
option of being used as either 1000BASE-T or SFP Gigabit connections.
Features
•
Four built-in combination 10/100/1000BASE-T/SFP ports
•
Two additional 4-port modules can be added to stack up to eight additional Switches (IEEE 1394) or up to eight
additional Gigabit Ethernet ports (1000BASE-T or SFP) or use combination of stacking and Gigabit Ethernet
ports.
•
Star topology Switch stacking configuration for up to 12 additional DES-3226S Switches.
•
24 Gbps Switching fabric capacity
•
Supports 802.1D STP, 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree and 802.1s MSTP for redundant back up bridge paths
•
Supports 802.1Q VLAN
•
Supports IGMP snooping
•
Supports 802.1p Priority Queues
•
Supports 802.3ad LACP Link Aggregation
•
Supports port mirroring
•
Access Control Profile (ACL)
•
Quality of Service (QoS) customized control
•
Port Security (MAC address table lock)
•
802.1x (port-based and MAC-based) access control and RADIUS Client support
•
Administrator-definable port security
•
Per-port bandwidth control
1
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
•
Broadcast, Multicast and DLF storm control
•
IEEE 802.3z and IEEE 802.3x compliant Flow Control for all Gigabit ports
•
SNMP v.1, v.2, v.3 network management, RMON support
•
Supports optional external Redundant Power Supply
•
Supports Web-based management.
•
Supports CLI management.
•
Supports BOOTP/DHCP/DNS Relay
•
Supports TFTP upgrade
•
Supports System Log
•
Fully configurable either in-band or out-of-band control via RS-232 console serial connection.
•
Telnet remote control console
•
Traffic Segmentation
•
Simple Network Time Protocol
•
MAC address update notification
•
Web GUI Traffic Monitoring
•
Supports IGMP
•
Supports SSL
•
Supports SSH
•
Supports Single IP Management v.1.0
•
Supports RADIUS Authentication
•
Supports TACACS, TACACS+, and XTACACS
2
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Front-Panel Components
The front panel of the Switch consists of LED indicators, an RS-232 communication port, two slide-in module slots, and
four 1000BASE-T/SFP combo ports.
Figure 1- 1. Front Panel View of the Switch as shipped (no modules are installed)
Comprehensive LED indicators display the status of the Switch and the network.
An RS-232 DCE console port for setting up and managing the Switch via a connection to a console terminal or PC using a
terminal emulation program.
A front-panel slide-in module slot for Gigabit Ethernet ports can accommodate a 4-port 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet
module, a 4-port Gigabit Ethernet SFP module, or a stacking module to connect to four DES-3226S Switches.
LED Indicators
The LED indicators of the Switch include Power, Console, and Link/Act. The following shows the LED indicators for the
Switch along with an explanation of each indicator.
Figure 1- 2. LED Indicators
Power
This indicator on the front panel should be lit during the Power-On Self Test (POST). It will
light green approximately two seconds after the Switch is powered on to indicate the ready
state of the device.
Console
This indicator is lit green when the Switch is being managed via out-of-band/local console
management through the RS-232 console port using a straight-through serial cable.
RPS
This indicator will light steady amber when an external power supply is supplying power. This
indicates the internal power supply has failed.
Link/Act
Each on-board Gigabit Ethernet port has a corresponding indicator. This will light steady green
for a valid link and blink whenever there is reception or transmission (i.e. Activity--Act) of data
occurring at a port.
See below for description of Stack ID LED indicator.
NOTICE: The Stack ID LED on the Switch’s front panel will display an F,
regardless of the Switch’s stacking mode (Master Switch in a Switch stack,
or Standalone mode).
3
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Stacking LED Indicators
Stacking LED indicators include the Stack ID indicator on the front panel and the Link/Act indicators on the front of the
DEM-540 stacking module.
NOTICE: The four build-in combination ports on the front panel of the
DGS-3212SR can be configured as stacking ports using the CLI.
Each IEEE 1394 stacking module has a single Link/Act LED indicator on its front panel for each IEEE 1394 IN/OUT pair.
Figure 1- 3. Front panel of DEM-540 IEEE 1394 stacking module
Link/Act
The Link/Act LEDs have the same function as the corresponding LEDs for the
Switch’s built-in Gigabit Ethernet ports. The Link LED lights to confirm a valid link,
while the Act LED blinks to indicate activity on the link.
Stack ID
The Switch includes a digital indicator to indicate the Switch status in a stacked
Switch group. An “F” indicates the Switch is acting in the capacity of a master Switch
of a stacked group of DGS-3212SR/DES-3226S Switches. The remaining slave
Switches in the group will display a corresponding stack number (1-C) to indicate the
logical position of the slave Switch in the stacked group. See the discussion of Switch
Stacking below for more information on stacking DGS-3212SR/DES-3226S Switches.
NOTICE: Do not connect the stacked Switch group to the network until you have
properly configured all Switches for stacking. An improperly configured Switch
stack can cause a broadcast storm.
4
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Rear Panel Description
The rear panel of the Switch contains an AC power connector.
Figure 1- 4. Rear panel view of the Switch
The AC power connector is a standard three-pronged connector that supports the power cord. Plug-in the female connector
of the provided power cord into this socket, and the male side of the cord into a power outlet. The Switch automatically
adjusts its power setting to any supply voltage in the range from 100 ~ 240 VAC at 50 ~ 60 Hz.
RPS Connector
Connect the optional external redundant power supply to the RPS connector. If the Switch’s internal power unit fails, the
redundant power system automatically supplies power to the Switch for uninterrupted operation.
The Switch supports the D-Link RPS-200 or RPS-500 redundant power supply units.
5
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Plug-in Modules
The DGS-3212SR Switch is able to accommodate optional plug-in modules in order to increase functionality and
performance. Two modules may be installed and used in combination with any of the three available modules. Plug-in
modules must be purchased separately.
DEM-340T 1000BASE-T Module
Figure 1- 5. 1000BASE-T Four-port module
•
Front-panel module
•
Connects to 1000BASE-T devices
•
LED indicators for Link/Activity
DEM-340MG SFP (Mini GBIC) Module
Figure 1- 6. Four-port Gigabit SFP module
•
Front-panel module
•
Connects to Gigabit Ethernet devices
•
LED indicators for Link/Activity and Status
6
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
DEM-540 IEEE 1394 Stacking Module
Figure 1- 7. DEM-540 IEEE 1394 Stacking module
•
Front-panel module
•
Connect to four DES-3226S Switches (up to eight additional slave units may be stacked)
•
Four transmitting ports and Four receiving port
•
Use the connector of IEEE 1394b
•
Data rate up to 1000 Mbps
•
8-segment LED display to indicate Switch ID number within the Switch stack
Switch Stacking
The DGS-3212SR can be stacked with a DES-3226S, functioning as the Master of the stack. There are three connection
options available to for stacking.
1.
Utilizing a gigabit Ethernet port with either the built-in combination mini-GBIC ports or using the DEM-340T
1000BASE-T stacking module.
2.
Using a fiber-optic transceiver cabling with either the built-in combination mini-GBIC ports or using the
DEM-340MG SFP (Mini GBIC) stacking module.
3.
Using IEEE 1394 fire wire cabling with the DEM-540 IEEE 1394 Stacking Module.
Each optional stacking module allows up to four DES-3226S Switches to be interconnected in a stack with the
DGS-3212SR for up to twelve gigabit ports that may be used to stack up to 12 slave units to provide up to 576 10/100
Mbps ports and 12 Gigabit ports in a star architecture. For stacking, the DGS-3212SR will be the master switch of a stack
of DES-3226S switches. The entire Switch stack is managed and monitored through the network or alternatively, through
the serial port on the DGS-3212SR.
The IEEE 1394 fire wire stacking ports are marked IN and OUT. The IEEE 1394 compliant cable must be connected from
an IN port on one Switch to an OUT port on the next Switch in the stack.
Restrictions and Cautions for Stacking
The DGS-3212SR may serve as the Master of up to twelve additional Switches. The slave switch units must meet the
following criteria:
•
All additional slave Switches must be DES-3226S Switches. The slave unit types can be mixed within a single
stacked group.
•
DES-3226S slave Switches must have firmware Release IV or later loaded to operate properly with the
DGS-3212SR Master.
•
The DGS-3212SR is automatically started as the Master Switch in a Switch stack.
•
It is necessary to enable stacking for each slave Switch in a stacked group before interconnecting them and before
connecting the group to the network. Stacking can be enabled by connecting to each slave through the console
7
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
port and using the CLI stacking configuration command. Before stacking has been enabled on the slaves, the
IEEE 1394 port is treated logically as an individual 1000BASE port in full-duplex mode. Since the Spanning Tree
Protocol is disabled by default, a broadcast storm will result if the stacking link is completed between Switches
that have not been properly configured.
NOTICE: The CLI stacking command set for the DGS-3212SR is slightly different
from the CLI stacking command set for the DES-3226S. Please refer to the CLI
Reference Manual for each Switch for details or read the instructions starting with
the next section.
8
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Management Options
The system may be managed out-of-band through the console port on the front panel or in-band using Telnet, a web
browser or SNMP-based management.
Web-based Management Interface
After you have successfully installed the Switch, you can configure the Switch, monitor the LED panel, and display
statistics graphically using a web browser, such as Opera, Netscape Navigator (version 6.2 and higher) or Microsoft®
Internet Explorer (version 5.0).
NOTE: To access the Switch through a web browser, the computer running the
web browser must have IP-based network access to the Switch.
Command Line Console Interface through the Serial Port or Telnet
You can also connect a computer or terminal to the serial console port or use Telnet to access the Switch. The commandline-driven interface provides complete access to all Switch management features. For a full list of commands, see the
Command Line Reference Manual, which is included on the documentation CD.
SNMP-Based Management
You can manage the Switch with an SNMP-compatible console program. The Switch is supports SNMP version 1.0,
version 2.0 and version 3.0. The SNMP agent decodes the incoming SNMP messages and responds to requests with MIB
objects stored in the database. The SNMP agent updates the MIB objects to generate statistics and counters.
The Switch supports a comprehensive set of MIB extensions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RFC 1643 Ether-like MIB
RFC 1724 RIPv2 MIB
RFC 1757 RMON
RFC 1850 OSPF MIB
RFC 1907 SNMPv2 MIB
RFC 2021 RMON II MIB
RFC 2096 IP-FORWARD MIB
RFC 2233 IF-MIB
RFC 2358 Ethernet-Link MIB
RFC 2573 SNMP Notification and Target MIB
RFC 2574 SNMP User-based SM MIB
RFC 2575 SNMP View-based ACM MIB
RFC 2674 802.1p and 802.1q Bridge MIB
RFC 2737 Entity MIB
RFC 2932 IPMROUTE STD MIB
RFC 2933 IGMP MIB
RFC 2934 PIM MIB
IEEE8021-PAE 802.1x PAE MIB
D-Link Enterprise MIB
9
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SECTION 2
Installation
Package Contents
Before You Connect to the Network
Installing the Switch without a Rack
Installing the Switch in a Rack
Connecting Stacked Switch Groups
Configuring a Switch Group for Stacking
External Redundant Power System
Connecting the Console Port
Password Protection
SNMP Settings
IP Address Assignment
Connecting Devices to the Switch
Package Contents
Before you begin installing the Switch, confirm that your package contains the following items:
•
One DGS-3212SR Layer 3 Switch
•
One Mounting kit with two mounting brackets and screws
•
Four rubber feet with adhesive backing
•
One AC power cord
•
CLI Reference Manual
•
This Manual
Before You Connect to the Network
Before you connect to the network, you must install the Switch on a flat surface or in a rack, set up a terminal emulation
program, plug in the power cord, and then set up a password and IP address.
NOTICE: Do not connect the Switch to the network until you have established the
correct IP settings, user accounts and proper stacking configuration (if the Switch
is stacked).
10
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Installing the Switch without the Rack
The Switch is supplied with rubber feet for stationing it on a flat surface and mounting brackets and screws for mounting
the Switch in a rack.
1.
Install the Switch on a level surface that can safely support the weight of the Switch and its attached cables. The
Switch must have adequate space for ventilation and for accessing cable connectors.
2.
Set the Switch on a flat surface and check for proper ventilation. Allow at least 5 cm (2 inches) on each side of the
Switch and 15 cm (6 inches) at the back for the power cable.
3.
Attach the rubber feet on the marked locations on the bottom of the chassis.
The rubber feet, although optional, are recommended to keep the unit from slipping.
Figure 2- 1. Install rubber feet for installations with or without a rack
Installing the Switch in a Rack
You can install the Switch in most standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) racks. Refer to the illustrations below.
1.
Use the supplied screws to attach a mounting bracket to each side of the Switch.
2.
Align the holes in the mounting bracket with the holes in the rack.
3.
Insert and tighten two screws through each of the mounting brackets.
Figure 2- 2. Attach mounting brackets to Switch
Fasten the mounting brackets to the Switch using the screws provided. With the brackets attached securely, you can mount
the Switch in a standard rack as shown in Figure 2-3 on the following page.
11
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Mounting the Switch in a Standard 19" Rack
Figure 2-3. Install Switch in equipment rack
12
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Connecting Stacked Switch Groups
The DGS-3212SR has the capability to hold twelve gigabit ports that may be used in standalone mode or can be used in a
stacking configuration to provide up to 576 10/100 Mbps ports and 12 Gigabit ports in a star architecture. For stacking, the
DGS-3212SR will be the master switch of a stack of DES-3226S switches. The instructions below, Configuring a Switch
Group for Stacking, tell you how to configure the DGS-3212SR to function as a Master, as well as how to configure the
DES-3226S to function as slave Switch units using the CLI interface.
Stacking Connections with IEEE 1394, Ethernet Cabling, and Fiber-Optic Transceiver Cabling
Figure 2-4. Star Topology Stacked Switch Group
The IEEE 1394 fire wire stacking ports are marked IN and OUT. The IEEE 1394 compliant cable must be connected from
an IN port on one Switch to an OUT port on the next Switch in the stack.
NOTICE: Do not connect the stacked Switch group to the network until you have
properly configured all Switches for stacking. An improperly configured Switch
stack can cause a broadcast storm.
13
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Configuring a Switch Group for Stacking
Follow the instructions below to first configure the slave units, and then to configure the DGS-3212SR as the designated
Master.
NOTICE: The DGS-3212SR can be used to manage a Switch stack consisting of
only DES-3226S Switches.
For the DES-3226S, the stacking configuration as a Master or Slave Switch is no longer necessary. The DGS-3212SR can
communicate with these slave switches regardless of its stacking configuration. It is recommended that you configure all
slave Switches in a Switch stack in the auto stacking mode to reduce the potential for problems. The default stacking mode
configuration for the DES-3226S is auto.
To configure the DES-3226S to function in a stacked group as a slave, do the following:
1.
At the CLI login prompt, enter config stacking mode enable auto and press the Enter key.
2.
You will be prompted to save the stacking mode configuration. Press the Y key (yes) to save the stacking mode
configuration.
3.
Successful configuration will be verified by a Success message. It takes a few seconds for the change to take
effect and be saved. See the example below for the DES-3226S.
DES-3226S:4#config stacking mode enable auto
Command: config stacking mode enable auto
Do you want to save the new system configuration to NV-RAM now?(y/n)
Saving all configurations to NV-RAM... Done.
Success.
DES-3226S:4#............
The default settings for the DGS-3212SR has the stacking mode enabled. However if the stacking mode has been disabled
it will be necessary to enable it. Follow the instructions below to change the stacking mode to enable. If you do not know
what the stacking mode setting currently is, use the command show stacking mode.
To enable stacking in the DGS-3212SR, do the following:
1.
At the CLI login prompt, enter config stacking mode enable and press the Enter key.
2.
You will be prompted to save the stacking mode configuration. If you save the new stacking mode by
pressing the Y key, the settings will be saved and the Switch will restart.
3.
Press the Y key (yes) to save the stacking mode configuration and restart the Switch.
14
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
DGS-3212SR:4#config stacking mode enable
Command: config stacking mode enable
The new stacking mode configuration must be saved and the system restarted
to put the new settings into effect.
If you do not save the changes now, they will be lost.
Saving all configurations to NV-RAM... 15%
Changing the stacking mode in the DGS-3212SR will automatically save the settings and restart the system. It will take a
few minutes to complete the process.
Unit ID Display for Switches in a Switch Stack
The Stack ID 7-segment LED (as shown below) on the front panel of the DGS-3212SR will always display F (15 in hex).
An F will also be displayed in the Stack ID LED even if the DGS-3212SR is in standalone mode.
Figure 2-5. DGS-3212SR Front Panel
The Unit ID of individual DES-3226S Switches in a Switch stack is determined by the port number of the port on the
DGS-3212SR to which the Switch is connected. The ports on the DGS-3212SR are numbered starting with port 1 from left
to right along the front panel of the Switch. For example, the four combination ports next to the Stack NO. LED are
numbered 1 through 4, so if a four port stacking module is installed in the first module slot, the stacking ports will be
numbered 5 through 8. If two stacking modules are installed in the DGS-3212SR, then the stacking ports on the second
module will be numbered 9 through 12.
Figure 2-6. DEM-540 Stacking Module Front Panel
If the a stacking module is installed in the DGS-3212SR’s first module slot, then the first IN/OUT pair in the figure above
will be port 5. If a DES-3226S in a Switch stack is connected to the first stacking port (port number 5 on the
DGS-3212SR), then the Unit ID of the DES-3226S will be 5.
The Unit ID of the DES-3226S will be displayed in the STACK NO. LED on the front panel of the DES-3226S’s stacking
module, as shown below.
15
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 2-7. DES-3226S Stacking Module Front Panel
External Redundant Power System
The Switch supports an external redundant power system.
Figure 2-8. DPS-200 with DGS-3212SR
NOTE: See the DPS-200 documentation for more information.
CAUTION: Do not use the Switch with any redundant power system other
than the DPS-200 or DPS-500.
16
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Connecting the Console Port
The Switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a computer or terminal for monitoring and
configuring the Switch. This port is a male DB-9 connector, implemented as a data terminal equipment (DTE) connection.
To use the console port, you need the following equipment:
•
A terminal or a computer with both a serial port and the ability to emulate a terminal
•
A null modem or crossover RS-232 cable with a female DB-9 connector for the console port on the Switch
To connect a terminal to the console port:
1.
Connect the female connector of the RS-232 cable directly to the console port on the Switch, and tighten the
captive retaining screws.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to a terminal or to the serial connector of a computer running terminal
emulation software. Set the terminal emulation software as follows:
a.
Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
b.
Set the data rate to 9600 baud.
c.
Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
d.
Set flow control to none.
e.
Under Properties, select VT100 for Emulation mode.
f.
Select Terminal keys for Function, Arrow, and Ctrl keys. Ensure that you select Terminal keys (not Windows
keys).
NOTICE: When you use HyperTerminal with the Microsoft®
Windows® 2000 operating system, ensure that you have Windows
2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000 Service Pack 2
allows you to use arrow keys in HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation.
See www.microsoft.com for information on Windows 2000 service
packs.
g.
After you have correctly set up the terminal, plug the power cable into the power receptacle on the back of the
Switch. The boot sequence appears in the terminal.
h.
After the boot sequence completes, the console login screen displays.
i.
If you have not logged into the command line interface (CLI) program, press the Enter key at the User name and
password prompts. There is no default user name and password for the Switch, user names and passwords must
first be created by the administrator. If you have previously set up user accounts, log in and continue to configure
the Switch.
j.
Enter the commands to complete your desired tasks. Many commands require administrator-level access
privileges. Read the next section for more information on setting up user accounts. See the Command Line
Reference Manual on the documentation CD for a list of all commands and additional information on using the
CLI.
k.
When you have completed your tasks, exit the session with the logout command or close the emulator program.
Password Protection
The DGS-3212SR does not have a default user name and password. One of the first tasks when settings up the Switch is to
create user accounts. If you log in using a predefined administrator-level user name, you have privileged access to the
Switch’s management software.
After your initial login, define new passwords for both default user names to prevent unauthorized access to the Switch,
and record the passwords for future reference.
To create an administrator-level account for the Switch, do the following:
17
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
1.
At the CLI login prompt, enter create account admin followed by the <user name> and press the Enter
key.
2.
You will be asked to provide a password. Type the <password> used for the administrator account being
created and press the Enter key.
3.
You will be prompted to enter the same password again to verify it. Type the same password and press
the Enter key.
4.
Successful creation of the new administrator account will be verified by a Success message.
User names and passwords can be up to 15 characters in length.
NOTE: Passwords
are case sensitive.
The sample below illustrates a successful creation of a new administrator-level
account with the user name “newmanager”.
DGS-3212SR:4#create account admin newmanager
Command: create account admin newmanager
Enter a case-sensitive new password:********
Enter the new password again for confirmation:********
Success.
DGS-3212SR:4#
NOTICE: CLI configuration commands only modify the running
configuration file and are not saved when the Switch is rebooted.
To save all your configuration changes in nonvolatile storage,
you must use the save command to copy the running
configuration file to the startup configuration.
18
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed specifically for managing
and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management stations to read and modify the settings of
gateways, routers, Switches, and other network devices. Use SNMP to configure system features for proper operation,
monitor performance and detect potential problems in the Switch, Switch group or network.
Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on the device. A
defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These objects
are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides a standard presentation of the information
controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to
access this information over the network.
The DGS-3212SR supports the SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. You can specify which version of the SNMP you want to use
to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of security provided between the
management station and the network device.
In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using ‘community strings’, which function like passwords. The
remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same community string. SNMP packets from any
station that has not been authenticated are ignored (dropped).
The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
public - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects.
private - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
SNMP v.3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part is to maintain a
list of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second part describes what each user on
that list can do as an SNMP manager.
The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The SNMP version may also
be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of SNMP managers that are allowed to view
read-only information or receive traps using SNMP v.1 while assigning a higher level of security to another group,
granting read/write privileges using SNMP v.3.
Using SNMP v.3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be restricted from
performing specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted are defined using the Object
Identifier (OID) associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of security is available for SNMP v.3 in that SNMP
messages may be encrypted. To read more about how to configure SNMP v.3 settings for the Switch read the next section,
Management.
Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as a
reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status change. The Switch generates traps
and sends them to the trap recipient (or network manager). Typical traps include trap messages for Authentication Failure,
Topology Change and Broadcast\Multicast Storm.
MIBs
Management and counter information are stored by the Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB). The Switch
uses the standard MIB-II Management Information Base module. Consequently, values for MIB objects can be retrieved
from any SNMP-based network management software. In addition to the standard MIB-II, the Switch also supports its own
proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended Management Information Base. The proprietary MIB may also be retrieved by
specifying the MIB Object Identifier. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write.
19
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
IP Address Assignment
Each Switch must be assigned its own IP Address, which is used for communication with an SNMP network manager or
other TCP/IP application (for example BOOTP, TFTP). The Switch’s default IP address is 10.90.90.90. You can change
the default Switch IP address to meet the specification of your networking address scheme.
The Switch is also assigned a unique MAC address by the factory. This MAC address cannot be changed, and can be found
from the initial boot console screen – shown below.
Figure 2-9. Boot screen
The Switch’s MAC address can also be found from the Web management program on the Switch Information (Basic
Settings) window on the Configuration menu.
The IP address for the Switch must be set before it can be managed with the Web-based manager. The Switch IP address
can be automatically set using BOOTP or DHCP protocols, in which case the actual address assigned to the Switch must be
known.
The IP address may be set using the Command Line Interface (CLI) over the console serial port as follows:
1.
Starting at the command line prompt, enter the commands config ipif System ipaddress
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy. Where the x’s represent the IP address to be assigned to the IP interface
named System and the y’s represent the corresponding subnet mask.
2.
Alternatively, you can enter config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/z. Where the x’s represent the IP
address to be assigned to the IP interface named System and the z represents the corresponding number of subnets
in CIDR notation.
The IP interface named System on the Switch can be assigned an IP address and subnet mask that can then be used to
connect a management station to the Switch’s Telnet or Web-based management agent.
20
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 2-10. Assigning the Switch an IP Address
In the above example, the Switch was assigned an IP address of 10.24.22.9 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. The system
message Success indicates that the command was executed successfully. The Switch can now be configured and managed
via Telnet and the CLI or via the Web-based management.
Connecting Devices to the Switch
After you assign IP addresses to the Switch, you can connect devices to the Switch.
To connect a device to an SFP transceiver port:
1.
Use your cabling requirements to select an appropriate SFP transceiver type.
2.
Insert the SFP transceiver (sold separately) into the SFP transceiver slot.
3.
Use the appropriate network cabling to connect a device to the connectors on the SFP transceiver.
NOTICE: When the SFP transceiver acquires a link, the associated integrated
10/100/1000BASE-T port is disabled.
21
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 3
Basic Switch Management
Before You Start
Web-based User Interface
Basic Setup
Switch Information
Switch IP Settings
Security IP Management Stations
User Accounts Management
Saving Changes
Factory Reset
Restart System
Advanced Settings
Switch Stack Management
All software function of the DGS-3212SR can managed, configured and monitored via the embedded web-based (HTML)
interface. The Switch can be managed from remote stations anywhere on the network through a standard browser such as
Opera, Netscape Navigator/Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. The browser acts as a universal access tool and
can communicate directly with the Switch using the HTTP protocol.
The web-based management module and the Console program (and Telnet) are different ways to access the same internal
Switching software and configure it. Thus, all settings encountered in web-based management are the same as those found
in the console program.
Before You Start
The DGS-3212SR Layer 2 Switch supports a wide array of functions and gives great flexibility and increased network
performance.
This flexibility and rich feature set requires a bit of thought to arrive at a deployment strategy that will maximize the
potential of the DGS-3212SR Layer 2 Switch. Please read the portions of this manual pertaining to the functions you wish
to perform with the Switch.
22
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Web-based User Interface
The user interface provides access to various Switch configuration and management screens, allows you to view
performance statistics, and permits you to graphically monitor the system status.
Areas of the User Interface
The figure below shows the user interface. The user interface is divided into three distinct areas as described in the table
below.
Area 1
Area 3
Area 2
Figure 3-1. Main Web-Manager window
Area
1
Function
Presents a graphical near real-time image of the front panel of the Switch. This area displays
the Switch’s ports and expansion modules. When the Switch is stacked a virtual
representation of the Switch stack appears in the right hand portion.
Click on the ports in the front panel to manage the port’s configuration or view data for the
port.
2
Select the window to be displayed. The folder icons can be opened to display the hyperlinked
window buttons and sub-folders contained within them.
3
Presents the information selected for configuration or display.
23
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Login to Web Manager
To begin managing the Switch simply run the browser you have installed on your computer and point it to the IP address
you have defined for the device. The URL in the address bar should read something like: http://123.123.123.123, where the
numbers 123 represent the IP address of the Switch.
NOTE: The Factory default IP address for the Switch is 10.90.90.90.
In the Welcome page, click on the Login hyperlink; this opens a login dialog box. Enter a user name and password to
access the Switch’s management main page (pictured above). There is no user name or password configured for the Switch
in the default settings, so if this is the first time logging in it is not necessary to enter these.
NOTICE: Any changes made to the Switch configuration during the current
session must be saved in the Save Configuration window (explained below) or
use the command line interface (CLI) command save.
Web Pages and Folders
Below is a list and description of the main folders and windows available in the web interface:
Configuration: This folder includes all the sub-folders and windows used to configure various performance functions
of the Switch including Layer 3 functions.
Security: This folder contains SSL, SSH, and Access Authentication Control sub-folders are also located here. The
Trusted Host window link is located here as well.
Management: The windows used to configure SNMP settings, management IP stations, and user accounts are located
here.
Monitoring: This folder includes stack information and data tables for performance statistics, application, and protocol
status, including Layer 3 functions.
Maintenance: Contains windows for upgrading firmware and saving configuration files (TFTP Services), saving
configuration changes, resetting and rebooting the Switch, PING test, and logging out of the web manager.
Single IP Management: SIM settings, Topology, Firmware Update, and Configuration Backup/Restore windows are
located here.
NOTE: Be sure to configure the user name and password in the User Accounts
window before connecting the Switch to the greater network.
24
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Basic Setup
The subsections below describe how to change some of the basic settings for the Switch such as changing IP settings and
assigning user names and passwords for management access privileges, as well as how to save the changes and restart the
Switch.
Switch Information
The first page displayed upon logging in is the System Information (Basic Settings) window. This window can be
accessed at any time by clicking the Switch Information button in the Configuration folder.
Figure 3-2. Switch Information (Basic Settings) window
This window displays general information about the Switch including its MAC Address, Hardware Boot PROM and
Firmware versions, and installed module information.
Switch IP Settings
Switch IP settings may initially be set using the console interface prior to connecting to it through the Ethernet. If the
Switch IP address has not yet been changed, read the Introduction of the CLI Reference or skip ahead to the end of this
section for a quick description of how to use the console port and CLI IP settings commands to establish IP settings for the
Switch.
To change IP settings using the web manager you must access the Switch IP Settings window located in the
Configuration folder.
To configure the Switch’s IP address:
Open the Configuration folder and click the IP Address button. The web manager will display the Switch IP Settings
window below.
25
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 3-3. Switch IP Settings window
NOTE: The Switch’s factory default IP address is 10.90.90.90 with a subnet mask
of 255.0.0.0 and a default gateway of 0.0.0.0.
To manually assign the Switch’s IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address:
•
Select Manual from the Get IP From drop-down menu.
•
Enter the appropriate IP address and subnet mask.
If you want to access the Switch from a different subnet from the one it is installed on, enter the IP address of the gateway.
If you will manage the Switch from the subnet on which it is installed, you can leave the default address (0.0.0.0) in this
field.
If no VLANs have been previously configured on the Switch, you can use the default VLAN ID (VID) 1. The default
VLAN contains all of the Switch ports as members. If VLANs have been previously configured on the Switch, you will
need to enter the VLAN ID of the VLAN that contains the port connected to the management station that will access the
Switch. The Switch will allow management access from stations with the same VID listed here.
To use the BOOTP or DHCP protocols to assign the Switch an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address:
Use the Get IP From pull-down menu to choose from BOOTP or DHCP. This selects how the Switch will be assigned an
IP address on the next reboot.
The Switch IP Settings options are:
Parameter
Description
BOOTP
The Switch will send out a BOOTP broadcast request when it is powered up. The
BOOTP protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be
assigned by a central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a
BOOTP server to provide it with this information before using the default or previously
entered settings.
DHCP
The Switch will send out a DHCP broadcast request when it is powered up. The DHCP
protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be assigned by a
DHCP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a DHCP server to provide
it with this information before using the default or previously entered settings.
Manual
Allows the entry of an IP address, Subnet Mask, and a Default Gateway for the Switch.
These fields should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number
(represented in decimal form) between 0 and 255. This address should be a unique
address on the network assigned for use by the network administrator. The fields which
require entries under this option are as follows:
26
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Subnet Mask
A Bitmask that determines the extent of the subnet that the Switch is on. Should be of
the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number (represented in decimal) between
0 and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0 for a Class A network, 255.255.0.0 for a
Class B network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network, but custom subnet masks
are allowed.
Default Gateway
IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside the
current subnet should be sent. This is usually the address of a router or a host acting as
an IP gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet, or you do not want the Switch
to be accessible outside your local network, you can leave this field unchanged.
VID
This allows the entry of a VLAN ID from which a management station will be allowed to
manage the Switch using TCP/IP (in-band via web manager or Telnet). Management
stations that are on VLANs other than the one entered in the VID field will not be able to
manage the Switch in-band unless their IP addresses are entered in the Security IP
Management menu. If VLANs have not yet been configured for the Switch, the default
VID (1) contains all of the Switch’s ports. There are no entries in the Security IP
Management table, by default − so any management station that can connect to the
Switch can access the Switch until either Management Station IP Addresses (see page
28) are assigned or SNMP settings are configured to control management.
Setting the Switch’s IP Address using the Console Interface
Each Switch must be assigned its own IP Address, which is used for communication with an SNMP network
manager or other TCP/IP application (for example BOOTP, TFTP). The Switch’s default IP address is
10.90.90.90. You can change the default Switch IP address to meet the specification of your networking address
scheme.
The IP address for the Switch must be set before it can be managed with the Web-based manager. The Switch IP
address can be automatically set using BOOTP or DHCP protocols, in which case the actual address assigned to
the Switch must be known.
The IP address may be set using the Command Line Interface (CLI) over the console serial port as follows:
Starting at the command line prompt, enter the commands config ipif System ipaddress
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy. Where the x’s represent the IP address to be assigned to the IP interface
named System and the y’s represent the corresponding subnet mask.
Alternatively, you can enter config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/z. Where the x’s represent the IP
address to be assigned to the IP interface named System and the z represents the corresponding number of
subnets in CIDR notation.
The IP interface named System on the Switch can be assigned an IP address and subnet mask that can then be
used to connect a management station to the Switch’s Telnet or Web-based management agent.
The system message Success indicates that the command was executed successfully. The Switch can now be
configured and managed via Telnet and the CLI or via the Web-based management agent using the above IP
address to connect to the Switch.
27
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Security IP Management Stations Configuration
Use the Security IP Management window to define up to four community strings. Community strings are used to verify
who can receive SNMP information from the Switch.
To access the Security IP Management window, click Trusted Host in the Security folder.
Figure 3-4. Security IP Management window
Use the Security IP Management window to select up to three management stations used to manage the Switch. If you
choose to define one or more designated management stations, only the chosen stations, as defined by IP address, will be
allowed management privilege through the web manager or Telnet session. To define a management station IP setting, type
an IP address in the area provided and then click the Apply button.
User Account Management
Use the User Account Management to control user privileges. To view existing User Accounts, open the Management
folder and click on the User Accounts link. This will open the User Account Management window, as shown below.
Figure 3- 5. User Account Management window
To add a user account, click the Add button revealing the following window to configure.
Figure 3-6. User Account Management window
Add a new user by typing in a User Name, New Password and retype the same password in the Confirm New Password.
Choose the level of privilege (Admin or User) from the Access Right drop-down menu.
28
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
To modify or delete an existing user, click on the Modify button for that user.
Figure 3- 7. User Account Modify Table window
Modify or delete an existing user account in the User Account Modify Table window. To delete the user account, click on
the Delete button. To change the password, type in the Old Password, then enter the New Password and retype it in the
Confirm New Password entry field. Click Apply to implement changes made. To delete the selected user account, click the
Delete button.
Admin and User Privileges
There are two levels of user privileges: Admin and User. Some menu selections available to users with Admin privileges
may not be available to those with User privileges.
The following table summarizes the Admin and User privileges:
Management
Admin
User
Configuration
Yes
Read Only
Network Monitoring
Yes
Read Only
Community Strings and Trap Stations
Yes
Read Only
Update Firmware and Configuration Files
Yes
No
System Utilities
Yes
No
Factory Reset
Yes
No
Add/Update/Delete User Accounts
Yes
No
View User Accounts
Yes
No
User Account Management
Table 3- 1. Admin and User Privileges
After establishing a User Account with Admin-level privileges, be sure to save the changes (see below).
29
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Save Changes
Changes made to the Switch’s configuration must be saved in order to retain them. Access the Save Configuration
window by clicking the Save Changes button located in the Maintenance folder.
Figure 3- 8. Save Configuration window
The Switch has two levels of memory, normal RAM and non-volatile or NV-RAM. To save all the changes made in the
current session to the Switch’s flash memory, click the Save Configuration button. Click the OK button in the new dialog
box that appears to continue. When this is done, the settings will be immediately applied to the Switching software in
RAM, and will immediately take effect. Once the Switch configuration settings have been saved to NV-RAM, they
become the default settings for the Switch. These settings will be used every time the Switch is rebooted.
Some settings, though, require you to restart the Switch before they will take effect. Restarting the Switch erases all
settings in RAM and reloads the stored settings from the NV-RAM. Thus, it is necessary to save all setting changes to NVRAM before rebooting the Switch.
Factory Reset
Click the Factory Reset link in the Maintenance folder to bring up the following window.
Figure 3- 9. Factory Reset to Default Value window
The following options are available to perform a factory reset:
•
Reset − Returns all configuration settings to the factory default settings except the Switch’s stacking
mode, user account, IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway settings.
30
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
•
Reset Config − Returns all configuration settings to the factory default settings except the stacking
mode configuration, but does not save the settings or reboot the Switch. If you select this option the
Switch configuration will be returned to the factory default settings for the current session only. When
the Switch is rebooted, it will return to the last configuration saved to the Switch’s NV-RAM using the
Save Changes option.
•
Reset System − Returns all configuration settings to the factory default settings. If you select this
option the Switch configuration will be returned to the factory default settings and then saves the factory
default configuration to the Switch’s NV-RAM. The Switch will then reboot. When the Switch has
rebooted, it will have the same configuration as when it was delivered from the factory.
Select the reset option you want to perform and click on the Apply button.
Restart System
The following window is used to restart the Switch. Access this window by clicking on the Restart System link in the
Maintenance folder.
Click Yes after “Do you want to save the settings?” to instruct the Switch to save the current configuration to non-volatile
RAM before restarting the Switch.
Clicking the No option instructs the Switch not to save the current configuration before restarting the Switch. All of the
configuration information entered from the last time Save Changes was executed will be lost.
Click the Restart button to restart the Switch.
Figure 3- 10. Restart System window
NOTE: Clicking Yes is equivalent to executing Save Changes and then restarting
the Switch.
31
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Advanced Settings
To view the following window, click Configuration > Advanced Settings:
Figure 3- 11. Switch Information (Advanced Settings) window
The Advanced Settings options are summarized in the table below:
Parameter
Description
Serial Port Auto
Logout
Select the logout time used for the console interface. This automatically logs the
user out after an idle period of time as defined. Choose from the following options: 2
Minutes, 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes or Never.
Serial Port Baud Rate
Select the baud rate used for the console interface. This automatically logs the user
out after an idle period of time as defined. Choose from the following options: 9600,
19200, 38400 or 115200.
MAC Address Aging
Time (10-1000000)
This field specifies the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the
forwarding table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC Address
is allowed to remain idle). The default age-out time for the Switch is 300 seconds.
To change this, type in a different value representing the MAC address age-out time
in seconds. The Aging Time can be set to any value between 10 and 1,000,000
seconds.
IGMP Snooping
To enable system-wide IGMP Snooping capability select Enabled. IGMP snooping
is Disabled by default. Enabling IGMP snooping allows you to specify use of a
multicast router only (see below). To configure IGMP Snooping for individual
VLANs, use the IGMP Snooping window in the IGMP folder.
32
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Multicast Router Only
If this option is enabled and IGMP Snooping is also enabled, the Switch forwards all
multicast traffic to a multicast-enabled router only. Otherwise, the Switch will
forward all multicast traffic to any IP router.
Telnet Status
Telnet configuration is Enabled by default. If you do not want to allow configuration
of the system through Telnet choose Disabled.
Telnet TCP Port
Number (1-65535)
The Telnet TCP port number. TCP ports are numbered between 1 and 65535. The
"well-known" TCP port for the Telnet protocol is 23.
Web Status
Web-based management is Enabled by default. If you choose to disable this by
selecting Disabled, you will lose the ability to configure the system through the web
interface as soon as these settings are applied.
Web TCP Port
Number (1-65535)
The TCP port number currently being utilized by the Switch to connect to the web
interface. The "well-known" TCP port for the Web interface is 80.
RMON Status
Remote monitoring (RMON) of the Switch is Enabled or Disabled here.
GVRP
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable GVRP on the Switch.
Link Aggregation
Algorithm
The algorithm that the Switch uses to balance the load across the ports that make
up the port trunk group is defined by this definition. Choose MAC Source, MAC
Destination, MAC Src & Dest, IP Source, IP Destination, and IP Src & Dest. (See
Link Aggregation)
Switch 802.1x
The Switch’s 802.1x function may be enabled by port or by MAC Address; the
default is Disabled. This field must be enabled to view and configure certain
windows for 802.1x. More information regarding 802.1x, its functions and
implementation can be found later in this section, under the Port Access Entity
folder.
Port-Based 802.1x specifies that ports configured for 802.1x are initialized based
on the port number only and are subject to any authorization parameters
configured.
MAC-based 802.1x specifies that ports configured for 802.1x are initialized based
on the port number and the MAC address of the computer being authorized and are
then subject to any authorization parameters configured.
Syslog State
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable Syslog.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
33
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Switch Stack Management
The DGS-3212SR has a possible twelve gigabit ports that may be used in standalone mode or can be used in a stacking
configuration to provide up to 576 10/100 Mbps ports and 12 Gigabit ports in a star architecture. For stacking, the
DGS-3212SR will be the master switch of a stack of DES-3226S switches. For more information on stacking see Sections
1 and 2 of this manual regarding stacking and the DGS-3212SR.
Configure Stacking
The web manager can be used to enable or disable the stacking mode and to enable stacking for any of the built-in
combination ports.
The Switch stack displayed in the upper right-hand corner of your web-browser is a virtual representation of the actual
stack (see example below). The icons appear in the same order as their respective Switches.
When the Switches are properly interconnected, information about the resulting Switch stack is displayed in the Stack
Mode Setup window. To view stacking information or to enable/disable the stacking mode, click the Stack Information
link in the Monitoring folder.
Figure 3- 12. Stack Mode Setup (stacking disabled) window
To enable the stacking mode, follow the steps listed below.
1.
Select Enabled from the Stack Mode State drop-down menu.
2.
Click on the Apply button.
To enable stacking for one or more built-in combination ports, do the following:
1.
Select Enabled from the Stack Mode State drop-down menu.
2.
Select the Stack Port by clicking to check a corresponding selection box.
The Stack Information Table displays the read-only information listed in the table on the next page.
The current order in the Switch stack is also displayed on the front panel of each slave Switch, under the STACK NO.
heading. The Stack ID LED display on the front panel of the DGS-3212SR will always display an F (15 in hex), regardless
of whether the DGS-3212SR is the master Switch in a Switch stack or in standalone mode.
Below is an example of the Stack Mode Setup window with stacking mode enabled.
34
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 3- 13. Stack Mode Setup (stacking enabled) window
Variables in this window are described below:
Parameter
Description
ID
Displays the Switch’s order in the stack. The Switch with a unit ID of 15 is the master
Switch.
MAC Address
Displays the unique address of the Switch assigned by the factory.
Port Range
Displays the total number of ports on the Switch. Note that the stacking port is
included in the total count.
Mode
Displays the method used to determine the stacking order of the Switches in the
Switch stack.
Version
Displays the version number of the stacking firmware.
RPS Status
Displays the status of an optional Redundant Power Supply.
Model Name
Displays the model name of the corresponding Switch in a stack.
When the stacked group is connected and properly configured, the virtual stack appears in the upper right-hand corner of
the web page.
35
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 3- 14. Stack Information web page with updated stack configuration
36
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 4
Basic Configuration
Switch Information
IP Address
Advanced Settings
Port Configuration
Port Description
Port Mirroring
Traffic Control
Link Aggregation
Port Access Entity
IGMP Snooping
Spanning Tree
Forwarding & Filtering
VLANs
QoS
MAC Notification
Port Security Configuration
System Log Server
SNTP Settings
Access Profile Table
The DGS-3212SR’s Web interface is divided into six main folders: Configuration, Security, Management, Monitoring,
Maintenance, and Single IP Management. This chapter describes all of the Configuration sub-folders and windows
37
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Switch Information
The first page displayed upon logging in is the System Information (Basic Settings) window. This window can be
accessed at any time by clicking the Switch Information link in the Configuration folder.
Figure 4- 1. Switch Information (Basic Settings) window
This window displays general information about the Switch including its MAC Address, Hardware Boot PROM and
Firmware versions, and installed module information.
IP Address
Switch IP settings may initially be set using the console interface prior to connecting to it through the Ethernet. If the
Switch IP address has not yet been changed, read the Introduction of the CLI Reference or skip ahead to the end of this
section for a quick description of how to use the console port and CLI IP settings commands to establish IP settings for the
Switch.
To change IP settings using the web manager you must access the Switch IP Settings window located in the
Configuration folder.
To configure the Switch’s IP address:
Open the Configuration folder and click the IP Address link. The web manager will display the Switch IP Settings
window below:
38
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 2. Switch IP Settings window
NOTE: The Switch’s factory default IP address is 10.90.90.90 with a
subnet mask of 255.0.0.0 and a default gateway of 0.0.0.0.
To manually assign the Switch’s IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address:
•
Select Manual from the Get IP From drop-down menu.
•
Enter the appropriate IP address and subnet mask.
If you want to access the Switch from a different subnet from the one it is installed on, enter the IP address of the gateway.
If you will manage the Switch from the subnet on which it is installed, you can leave the default address (0.0.0.0) in this
field.
If no VLANs have been previously configured on the Switch, you can use the default VLAN ID (VID) 1. The default
VLAN contains all of the Switch ports as members. If VLANs have been previously configured on the Switch, you will
need to enter the VLAN ID of the VLAN that contains the port connected to the management station that will access the
Switch. The Switch will allow management access from stations with the same VID listed here.
To use the BOOTP or DHCP protocols to assign the Switch an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address:
Use the Get IP From pull-down menu to choose from BOOTP or DHCP. This selects how the Switch will be assigned an
IP address on the next reboot.
The Switch IP Settings options are:
Parameter
Description
BOOTP
The Switch will send out a BOOTP broadcast request when it is powered up. The
BOOTP protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be
assigned by a central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for
a BOOTP server to provide it with this information before using the default or
previously entered settings.
DHCP
The Switch will send out a DHCP broadcast request when it is powered up. The
DHCP protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be
assigned by a DHCP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a DHCP
server to provide it with this information before using the default or previously
entered settings.
Manual
Allows the entry of an IP address, Subnet Mask, and a Default Gateway for the
Switch. These fields should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a
number (represented in decimal form) between 0 and 255. This address should be
a unique address on the network assigned for use by the network administrator.
39
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The fields which require entries under this option are as follows:
Subnet Mask
A Bitmask that determines the extent of the subnet that the Switch is on. Should be
of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number (represented in decimal)
between 0 and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0 for a Class A network,
255.255.0.0 for a Class B network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network, but
custom subnet masks are allowed.
Default Gateway
IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside the
current subnet should be sent. This is usually the address of a router or a host
acting as an IP gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet, or you do not
want the Switch to be accessible outside your local network, you can leave this field
unchanged.
VID
This allows the entry of a VLAN ID from which a management station will be
allowed to manage the Switch using TCP/IP (in-band via web manager or Telnet).
Management stations that are on VLANs other than the one entered in the VID field
will not be able to manage the Switch in-band unless their IP addresses are entered
in the Security IP Management window. If VLANs have not yet been configured for
the Switch, The default VID (1) contains all of the Switch’s ports. There are no
entries in the Security IP Management table, by default − so any management
station that can connect to the Switch can access the Switch until either
Management Station IP Addresses are assigned or SNMP settings are configured
to control management access.
Setting the Switch’s IP Address using the Console Interface
Each Switch must be assigned its own IP Address, which is used for communication with an SNMP network
manager or other TCP/IP application (for example BOOTP, TFTP). The Switch’s default IP address is
10.90.90.90. You can change the default Switch IP address to meet the specification of your networking address
scheme.
The IP address for the Switch must be set before it can be managed with the Web-based manager. The Switch IP
address can be automatically set using BOOTP or DHCP protocols, in which case the actual address assigned to
the Switch must be known.
The IP address may be set using the Command Line Interface (CLI) over the console serial port as follows:
Starting at the command line prompt, enter the commands config ipif System ipaddress
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy. Where the x’s represent the IP address to be assigned to the IP interface
named System and the y’s represent the corresponding subnet mask.
Alternatively, you can enter config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/z. Where the x’s represent the IP
address to be assigned to the IP interface named System and the z represents the corresponding number of
subnets in CIDR notation.
The IP interface named System on the Switch can be assigned an IP address and subnet mask that can then be
used to connect a management station to the Switch’s Telnet or Web-based management agent.
The system message Success indicates that the command was executed successfully. The Switch can now be
configured and managed via Telnet and the CLI or via the Web-based management agent using the above IP
address to connect to the Switch.
40
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Advanced Settings
To view the following window, click Configuration > Advanced Settings:
Figure 4- 3. Switch Information (Advanced Settings) window
The Advanced Settings options are summarized in the table below:
Parameter
Description
Serial Port Auto
Logout
Select the logout time used for the console interface. This automatically logs the
user out after an idle period of time as defined. Choose from the following options:
2 Minutes, 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes or Never.
Serial Port Baud Rate
Select the baud rate used for the console interface. This automatically logs the
user out after an idle period of time as defined. Choose from the following options:
9600, 19200, 38400 or 115200.
MAC Address Aging
Time (10-1000000)
This field specifies the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the
forwarding table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC Address
is allowed to remain idle). The default age-out time for the Switch is 300 seconds.
To change this, type in a different value representing the MAC address age-out
time in seconds. The Aging Time can be set to any value between 10 and
1,000,000 seconds.
IGMP Snooping
To enable system-wide IGMP Snooping capability select Enabled. IGMP snooping
is Disabled by default. Enabling IGMP snooping allows you to specify use of a
multicast router only (see below). To configure IGMP Snooping for individual
VLANs, use the IGMP Snooping window in the IGMP folder.
41
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Multicast Router Only
If this option is enabled and IGMP Snooping is also enabled, the Switch forwards
all multicast traffic to a multicast-enabled router only. Otherwise, the Switch will
forward all multicast traffic to any IP router.
Telnet Status
Telnet configuration is Enabled by default. If you do not want to allow configuration
of the system through Telnet choose Disabled.
Telnet TCP Port
Number (1-65535)
The Telnet TCP port number. TCP ports are numbered between 1 and 65535. The
"well-known" TCP port for the Telnet protocol is 23.
Web Status
Web-based management is Enabled by default. If you choose to disable this by
selecting Disabled, you will lose the ability to configure the system through the web
interface as soon as these settings are applied.
Web TCP Port
Number (1-65535)
The TCP port number currently being utilized by the Switch to connect to the web
interface. The "well-known" TCP port for the Web interface is 80.
RMON Status
Remote monitoring (RMON) of the Switch is Enabled or Disabled here.
GVRP
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable GVRP on the Switch.
Link Aggregation
Algorithm
The algorithm that the Switch uses to balance the load across the ports that make
up the port trunk group is defined by this definition. Choose MAC Source, MAC
Destination, MAC Src & Dest, IP Source, IP Destination, and IP Src & Dest. (See
Link Aggregation)
Switch 802.1x
The Switch’s 802.1x function may be enabled by port or by MAC Address; the
default is Disabled. This field must be enabled to view and configure certain
windows for 802.1x. More information regarding 802.1x, its functions and
implementation can be found later in this section, under the Port Access Entity
folder.
Port-Based 802.1x specifies that ports configured for 802.1x are initialized based
on the port number only and are subject to any authorization parameters
configured.
MAC-based 802.1x specifies that ports configured for 802.1x are initialized based
on the port number and the MAC address of the computer being authorized and
are then subject to any authorization parameters configured.
Syslog State
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable Syslog functions on the Switch.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
42
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Configuration
To configure basic port settings such as port speed, duplex, and learning state, use the Port Configuration window.
Click the Port Configuration link in the Configuration folder:
Figure 4- 4. Port Configuration window
To configure Switch ports:
•
Choose the Unit from the pull-down menu.
•
Choose the port or sequential range of ports using the From…To… port pull-down menus.
•
Use the remaining pull-down menus to configure the parameters described in the table below.
The configurable parameters for ports include the following:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Select the Switch in the Switch stack to be configured using the pull-down menu. 15
a switch in standalone mode.
From and To
Select a port or range of ports to be configured
State <Enabled>
Toggle the State field to either enable or disable a given port.
Speed/Duplex <Auto>
Toggle the Speed/Duplex field to either select the speed and duplex/half-duplex
state of the port. Auto denotes auto-negotiation between 10 and 100 Mbps devices,
in full- or half-duplex. The Auto setting allows the port to automatically determine the
fastest settings the device the port is connected to can handle, and then to use
those settings. The other options are Auto, 10M/Half, 10M/Full, 100M/Half and
100M/Full, 1000M/Full_M and 1000M/Full_S. There is no automatic adjustment of
43
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
port settings with any option other than Auto.
The Switch allows the user to configure two types of gigabit connections;
1000M/Full_M and 1000M/Full_S. Gigabit connections are only supported in full
duplex connections and take on certain characteristics that are different from the
other choices listed.
The 1000M/Full_M (master) and 1000M/Full_S (slave) parameters refer to
connections running a 1000BASE-T cable for connection between the Switch port
and other device capable of a gigabit connection. The master setting
(1000M/Full_M) will allow the port to advertise capabilities related to duplex, speed
and physical layer type. The master setting will also determine the master and slave
relationship between the two connected physical layers. This relationship is
necessary for establishing the timing control between the two physical layers. The
timing control is set on a master physical layer by a local source. The slave setting
(1000M/Full_S) uses loop timing, where the timing comes form a data stream
received from the master. If one connection is set for 1000M/Full_M, the other side
of the connection must be set for 1000M/Full_S. Any other configuration will result
in a link down status for both ports.
Flow Control
Displays the flow control scheme used for the various port configurations. Ports
configured for full-duplex use 802.3x flow control, half-duplex ports use
backpressure flow control, and Auto ports use an automatic selection of the two.
The default is Disabled.
Learning
Enable or disable MAC address learning for the selected ports. When Enabled,
destination and source MAC addresses are automatically listed in the forwarding
table. When learning is Disabled, MAC addresses must be manually entered into
the forwarding table. This is sometimes done for reasons of security or efficiency.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
44
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Description
The Switch supports a port description feature where the user may name various ports on the Switch. To assign names or
descriptions to various ports, click Port Description on the Configuration folder:
Figure 4- 5. Port Description Setting window
The user may set the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
Unit
This is the Unit ID of a Switch in a Switch stack. The number 15 indicates a
DGS-3212SR Switch in standalone mode.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
Description
Enter a description of the port or ports.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
45
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Mirroring
The Switch allows you to copy frames transmitted and received on a port and redirect the copies to another port. You can
attach a monitoring device to the mirrored port, such as a sniffer or an RMON probe, to view details about the packets
passing through the first port. Follow the steps below to set up port mirroring. To view this window, click Configuration >
Port Mirroring.
Figure 4- 6. Setup Port Mirroring window
To configure a mirror port:
•
Select the Source Unit containing the port that is being mirrored.
•
Configure how the port is to be mirrored by selecting the direction that will be mirrored. Choose Ingress,
Egress, or Both for the mirrored port by clicking the appropriate radio button for the port.
•
Select the Target Port using the Unit and Port drop-down menus.
•
Change the Status drop-down menu to Enabled.
•
Click Apply to let the changes take effect.
NOTE: You cannot mirror a fast port onto a slower port. For example, if you try to
mirror the traffic from a 100 Mbps port onto a 10 Mbps port, this can cause
throughput problems. The port you are copying frames from should always support
an equal or lower speed than the port to which you are sending the copies. In
addition, the target port for the mirroring cannot be a member of a trunk group.
Please note a target port and a source port cannot be the same port.
46
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Traffic Control
Use the Traffic Control Setting window to enable or disable storm control and adjust the threshold for multicast and
broadcast storms, as well as DLF (Destination Look Up Failure). Traffic control settings are applied to individual Switch
modules. To view this window, click Configuration > Traffic Control.
Figure 4- 7. Traffic Control Setting window
Traffic or storm control is used to stop broadcast, multicast or ARP request storms that may result when a loop is created.
The Destination Lookup Failure control is a method of shutting down a loop when a storm is formed because a MAC
address cannot be located in the Switch’s forwarding database and it must send a packet to all ports or all ports on a
VLAN.
To configure Traffic Control, select the Unit (Unit ID of a Switch in a Switch stack − 15 for a Switch in standalone mode)
you want to configure. Broadcast Storm, Multicast Storm and Destination Lookup Failure may be Enabled or Disabled.
The Threshold value is the upper threshold at which the specified traffic control is switched on. This is the number of
Broadcast, Multicast or DLF packets, in Kbps, received by the Switch that will trigger the storm traffic control measures.
The Threshold value can be set from 0 to 255 packets. The default setting is 128.
47
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Link Aggregation
Understanding Port Trunk Groups
Port trunk groups are used to combine a number of ports together to make a single high-bandwidth data pipeline.
The DGS-3212SR supports up to six port trunk groups with two to eight ports in each group. A potential bit rate of 8000
Mbps can be achieved.
Figure 4- 8. Example of Port Trunk Group
The Switch treats all ports in a trunk group as a single port. Data transmitted to a specific host (destination address) will
always be transmitted over the same port in a trunk group. This allows packets in a data stream to arrive in the same order
they were sent.
NOTE: If any ports within the trunk group become disconnected, packets intended
for the disconnected port will be load shared among the other uplinked ports of the
link aggregation group.
Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped together and to act as a single link. This gives a bandwidth that is a
multiple of a single link's bandwidth.
Link aggregation is most commonly used to link a bandwidth intensive network device or devices, such as a server, to the
backbone of a network.
The Switch allows the creation of up to six link aggregation groups, each group consisting of 2 to 8 links (ports). All of the
ports in the group must be members of the same VLAN, and their STP status, static multicast, traffic control, traffic
segmentation and 802.1p default priority configurations must be identical. Port locking, port mirroring and 802.1X must
not be enabled on the trunk group. Further, the aggregated links must all be of the same speed and should be configured as
full duplex.
The Master Port of the group is to be configured by the user, and all configuration options, including the VLAN
configuration that can be applied to the Master Port, are applied to the entire link aggregation group.
Load balancing is automatically applied to the ports in the aggregated group, and a link failure within the group causes the
network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the group.
48
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The Spanning Tree Protocol will treat a link aggregation group as a single link, on the Switch level. On the port level, the
STP will use the port parameters of the Master Port in the calculation of port cost and in determining the state of the link
aggregation group. If two redundant link aggregation groups are configured on the Switch, STP will block one entire
group, in the same way STP will block a single port that has a redundant link.
To configure port trunking, click on the Link Aggregation hyperlink in the Configuration folder and then click Link
Aggregation:
Figure 4- 9. Port Trunking Group window
To configure port trunk groups, click the Add button to add a new trunk group and then use the Port Trunking
Configuration window below to set up trunk groups. To change or delete a port trunk group, click the Modify or Delete
option in the Current Trunking Group Entries table pictured above.
Figure 4- 10. Port Trunking Configuration window
The user-changeable parameters are as follows:
Parameter
Description
Group ID
Select an ID number for the group.
State
Trunk groups can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled. This is used to turn a
port trunking group on or off. This is useful for diagnostics, to quickly isolate a
bandwidth intensive network device or to have an absolute backup aggregation group
that is not under automatic control.
Type
This pull-down menu allows you to select between Static and LACP (Link Aggregation
Control Protocol.) LACP allows for the automatic detection of links in a Port Trunking
Group.
49
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Master Port
Choose the Master port for the trunk group.
Member Unit
Choose the Switch unit on which to set up a trunk group. Trunk groups must be
confined to ports on a single Switch.
Port Map
Choose the members of the trunked group. Up to eight ports per group can be
assigned to a group.
Flooding Port
A trunking group must designate one port to allow transmission of broadcasts and
unknown unicasts.
Active Port
Shows the port that is currently forwarding packets.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
LACP Port Settings
The LACP Port Mode Setup window is used in conjunction with the Link Aggregation windows to create port trunking
groups on the Switch. Using the following window, the user may set which ports will be active and passive in processing
and sending LACP control frames. To view the following window, click Configuration > Link Aggregation > LACP
Port Setting.
Figure 4- 11. LACP Port Mode Setup window
The user may set the following parameters:
50
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
Unit
This is the Unit ID of a Switch in a Switch stack. The number 15 indicates a
DGS-3212SR Switch in standalone mode.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
Mode
Active – Active LACP ports are capable of processing and sending LACP control
frames. This allows LACP compliant devices to negotiate the aggregated link so the
group may be changed dynamically as needs require. In order to utilize the ability to
change an aggregated port group, that is, to add or subtract ports from the group, at
least one of the participating devices must designate LACP ports as active. Both
devices must support LACP.
Passive – LACP ports that are designated as passive cannot initially send LACP
control frames. In order to allow the linked port group to negotiate adjustments and
make changes dynamically, at one end of the connection must have “active” LACP
ports (see above).
After setting the previous parameters, click Apply to allow your changes to be implemented. The LACP Port Mode Table
shows which ports are active and/or passive.
51
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Access Entity (802.1X)
802.1x Port-Based and MAC-Based Access Control
The IEEE 802.1x standard is a security measure for authorizing and authenticating users to gain access to various wired or
wireless devices on a specified Local Area Network by using a Client and Server based access control model. This is
accomplished by using a RADIUS server to authenticate users trying to access a network by relaying Extensible
Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) packets between the Client and the Server. The following figure represents a
basic EAPOL packet:
Figure 4- 12. The EAPOL Packet
Utilizing this method, unauthorized devices are restricted from connecting to a LAN through a port to which the user is
connected. EAPOL packets are the only traffic that can be transmitted through the specific port until authorization is
granted. The 802.1x Access Control method holds three roles, each of which are vital to creating and upkeeping a stable
and working Access Control security method.
Figure 4- 13. The three roles of 802.1x
The following section will explain the three roles of Client, Authenticator and Authentication Server in greater detail.
Authentication Server
The Authentication Server is a remote device that must be running a RADIUS Server program and must be configured
properly on the Authenticator (Switch). Clients connected to a port on the Switch must be authenticated by the
Authentication Server (RADIUS) before attaining any services offered by the Switch on the LAN. The role of the
Authentication Server is to certify the identity of the Client attempting to access the network by exchanging secure
information between the RADIUS server and the Client through EAPOL packets and, in turn, informs the Switch whether
or not the Client is granted access to the LAN and/or switches services.
52
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 14. The Authentication Server
Authenticator
The Authenticator (the Switch) is an intermediary between the Authentication Server and the Client. The Authenticator
serves two purposes when utilizing 802.1x. The first purpose is to request certification information from the Client through
EAPOL packets, which is the only information allowed to pass through the Authenticator before access is granted to the
Client. The second purpose of the Authenticator is to verify the information gathered from the Client with the
Authentication Server, and to then relay that information back to the Client.
Three steps must be implemented on the Switch to properly configure the Authenticator.
1.
The 802.1x State must be Enabled. (Configuration / Advanced Settings)
2.
The 802.1x settings must be implemented by port (Configuration / Port Access Entity / Configure
Authenticator)
A RADIUS server must be configured on the Switch. (Configuration / Port Access Entity / RADIUS Server)
3.
Figure 4- 15. The Authenticator
53
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Client
The Client is simply the end station that wishes to gain access to the LAN or switch services. All end stations must be
running software that is compliant with the 802.1x protocol. For users running Windows XP, that software is included
within the operating system. All other users are required to attain 802.1x client software from an outside source. The Client
will request access to the LAN and or Switch through EAPOL packets and, in turn will respond to requests from the
Switch.
Figure 4- 16. The Client
Authentication Process
Utilizing the three roles stated above, the 802.1x protocol provides a stable and secure way of authorizing and
authenticating users attempting to access the network. Only EAPOL traffic is allowed to pass through the specified port
before a successful authentication is made. This port is “locked” until the point when a Client with the correct username
and password (and MAC address if 802.1x is enabled by MAC address) is granted access and therefore successfully
“unlocks” the port. Once unlocked, normal traffic is allowed to pass through the port. The following figure displays a more
detailed explanation of how the authentication process is completed between the three roles stated above.
Figure 4- 17. The 802.1x Authentication Process
54
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The D-Link implementation of 802.1x allows network administrators to choose between two types of Access Control used
on the Switch, which are:
1.
Port-Based Access Control – This method requires only one user to be authenticated per port by a remote RADIUS
server to allow the remaining users on the same port access to the network.
2.
MAC-Based Access Control – Using this method, the Switch will automatically learn up to three MAC addresses
by port and set them in a list. Each MAC address must be authenticated by the Switch using a remote RADIUS
server before being allowed access to the Network.
Understanding 802.1x Port-based and MAC-based Network Access Control
The original intent behind the development of 802.1X was to leverage the characteristics of point-to-point in LANs. As any
single LAN segment in such infrastructures has no more than two devices attached to it, one of which is a Bridge Port.
The Bridge Port detects events that indicate the attachment of an active device at the remote end of the link, or an active
device becoming inactive. These events can be used to control the authorization state of the Port and initiate the process of
authenticating the attached device if the Port is unauthorized. This is the Port-Based Network Access Control.
Port-Based Network Access Control
RADIUS
Server
Ethernet Switch
…
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
Network access controlled port
Network access uncontrolled port
Figure 4- 18. Example of Typical Port-Based Configuration
Once the connected device has successfully been authenticated, the Port then becomes Authorized, and all subsequent
traffic on the Port is not subject to access control restriction until an event occurs that causes the Port to become
Unauthorized. Hence, if the Port is actually connected to a shared media LAN segment with more than one attached
device, successfully authenticating one of the attached devices effectively provides access to the LAN for all devices on the
shared segment. Clearly, the security offered in this situation is open to attack.
55
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MAC-Based Network Access Control
RADIUS
Server
Ethernet Switch
…
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
Network access controlled port
Network access uncontrolled port
Figure 4- 19. Example of Typical MAC-Based Configuration
In order to successfully make use of 802.1X in a shared media LAN segment, it would be necessary to create “logical”
Ports, one for each attached device that required access to the LAN. The Switch would regard the single physical Port
connecting it to the shared media segment as consisting of a number of distinct logical Ports, each logical Port being
independently controlled from the point of view of EAPOL exchanges and authorization state. The Switch learns each
attached devices’ individual MAC addresses, and effectively creates a logical Port that the attached device can then use to
communicate with the LAN via the Switch.
56
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
802.1X Authenticator Settings
To display the current 802.1X Authenticator Settings on the Switch, click Configuration > Port Access Entity > 802.1x
Authenticator Settings, which will display the following window.
Figure 4- 20. 1st 802.1X Authenticator Settings window
To configure the 802.1X Authenticator settings for a given port, click on the blue port number link under the Port heading.
This will open the second 802.1X Authenticator Settings window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 21. 2nd 802.1X Authenticator Settings window
57
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The following Authenticator Settings parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Allows you to specify a Switch in a Switch stack using that Switch’s Unit ID. The
number 15 indicates a Switch in standalone mode.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
AdmDir
From the pull-down menu, select whether a controlled Port that is unauthorized will
exert control over communication in both receiving and transmitting directions, or just
the receiving direction.
This allows you to control the port authorization state.
Select Force_authorized to disable 802.1X and cause the port to transition to the
authorized state without any authentication exchange required. This means the port
transmits and receives normal traffic without 802.1X-based authentication of the
client.
PortControl
If Force_unauthorized is selected, the port will remain in the unauthorized state,
ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate. The Switch cannot provide
authentication services to the client through the interface.
If Auto is selected, it will enable 802.1X and cause the port to begin in the
unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be sent and received through the
port. The authentication process begins when the link state of the port transitions from
down to up, or when an EAPOL-start frame is received. The Switch then requests the
identity of the client and begins relaying authentication messages between the client
and the authentication server.
The default setting is Auto.
TxPeriod
Select the time to wait for a response from a supplicant (user) to send EAP
Request/Identity packets.
QuietPeriod
Select the time interval between authentication failure and the start of a new
authentication attempt.
SuppTimeout
Select the time to wait for a response from a supplicant (user) for all EAP packets,
except for the Request/Identity packets.
ServerTimeout
Select the length of time to wait for a response from a RADIUS server.
MaxReq
Select the maximum number of times to retry sending packets to the supplicant.
ReAuthPeriod
Select the time interval between successive re-authentications.
ReAuth
Enable or disable reauthentication.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
58
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
PAE System Control
To set the port authenticating settings, open the Port Access Entity folder, and then the PAE System Control folder.
Finally, click on the 802.1X Capability Settings link.
802.1X Capability Settings
The following window will allow the user to set the Capability settings for the Switch on a per port basis. This window can
be viewed by clicking Configuration > Port Access Entity > PAE System Control > 802.1x Capability Settings.
Figure 4- 22. 802.1X Capability Settings window
To set up the Switch’s 802.1X port-based authentication, select which ports are to be configured in the From and To fields.
Next, enable the ports by selecting Authenticator from the drop-down menu under Capability.
Click Apply to make your changes take effect.
59
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Initializing Ports for Port-Based 802.1x
Existing 802.1x port and MAC settings are displayed and can be configured using the window below.
Click Configuration > Port Access Entity > PAE System Control > Initialize Port(s) to open the following window:
Figure 4- 23. Initalize Port window for Port-Based 802.1x
This window allows you to initialize a port or group of ports. The Initialize Port Table in the bottom half of the window
displays the current status of the port(s).
This window displays the following information:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Choose the Switch ID number of the Switch in the Switch stack to be modified.
From and To
Select ports to be initialized.
Port
A read only field indicating a port on the Switch.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the Switch connected to the corresponding port, if any.
Auth PAE State
The Authenticator PAE State will display one of the following: Initialize, Disconnected, Connecting, Authenticating, Authenticated, Aborting, Held, ForceAuth,
ForceUnauth, and N/A.
Backend State
The Backend Authentication State will display one of the following: Request,
Response, Success, Fail, Timeout, Idle, Initialize, and N/A.
Port Status
The status of the controlled port can be Authorized, Unauthorized, or N/A.
60
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Initializing Ports for MAC Based 802.1x
To initialize ports for the MAC side of 802.1x, the user must first enable 802.1x by MAC address in the Advanced
Settings window. Click Configuration > Port Access Entity > PAE System Control > Initialize Port(s) to open the
following window:
Figure 4- 24. Initialize Ports (MAC based 802.1x)
To initialize ports, first choose the Switch in the Switch stack by using the Unit pull-down menu, then the range of ports in
the From and To field. Then the user must specify the MAC address to be initialized by entering it into the MAC Address
field and checking the corresponding check box. To begin the initialization, click Apply.
NOTE: The user must first globally enable 802.1X in the Switch
Information (Advanced Settings) window in the Configuration folder
before initializing ports. Information in the Initialize Ports Table cannot be
viewed before enabling 802.1X.
61
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Reauthenticate Port(s) for Port Based 802.1x
This window allows you to reauthenticate a port or group of ports by choosing a port or group of ports by using the pull
down menus From and To and clicking Apply. The Reauthenticate Port Table displays the current status of the
reauthenticated port(s) once you have clicked Apply.
Click Configuration > Port Access Entity > PAE System Control > Reauthenticate Port(s) to open the
Reauthenticate Port(s) window:
Figure 4- 25. Reauthenticate Port window
This window displays the following information:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Choose the Switch ID number of the Switch in the Switch stack to be modified.
Port
The port number of the reauthenticated port.
MAC Address
Displays the physical address of the Switch where the port resides.
Auth PAE State
The Authenticator State will display one of the following: Initialize, Disconnected,
Connecting, Authenticating, Authenticated, Aborting, Held, ForceAuth, ForceUnauth,
and N/A.
BackendState
The Backend State will display one of the following: Request, Response, Success, Fail,
Timeout, Idle, Initialize, and N/A.
PortStatus
The status of the controlled port can be Authorized, Unauthorized, or N/A.
62
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
NOTE: The user must first globally enable 802.1X in the Switch
Information (Advanced Settings) window in the Configuration folder
before reauthenticating ports. Information in the Reauthenticate Ports
Table cannot be viewed before enabling 802.1X.
Reauthenticate Port(s) for MAC-based 802.1x
To reauthenticate ports for the MAC side of 802.1x, the user must first enable 802.1x by MAC address in the Advanced
Settings window. Click Configuration > Port Access Entity > PAE System Control > Reauthenticate Port(s) to open
the following window:
Figure 4- 26. Reauthenticate Ports – MAC based 802.1x
To reauthenticate ports, first choose the Switch in the Switch stack by using the Unit pull-down menu, then the range of
ports in the From and To field. Then the user must specify the MAC address to be reauthenticated by entering it into the
MAC Address field and checking the corresponding check box. To begin the reauthentication, click Apply.
63
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
RADIUS Server
The RADIUS feature of the Switch allows you to facilitate centralized user administration as well as providing protection
against a sniffing, active hacker.
RADIUS Server
Click the RADIUS Server link in the RADIUS Server folder under Port Access Entity.
Figure 4- 27. Authentic RADIUS Server Setting window
Once the following parameters have been set, click Apply to set the RADIUS server settings:
Parameter
Description
Succession
RADIUS server settings index.
RADIUS Server
Type in the IP address of the RADIUS server.
Authentic Port
This is the UDP port on the RADIUS server that will be used to authenticate users.
The default is 1812.
Accounting Port
This is the UDP port on the RADIUS server that will be used to store the account
information. The default is 1813.
Key
Type the shared-secret key used by the RADIUS server and the Switch. Up to 32
characters can be used.
Confirm Key
Retype the Key information from the Key field above.
Status
This drop-down menu allows you to select Valid or Invalid.
64
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
IGMP Snooping
In order to use IGMP Snooping it must first be enabled for the entire Switch (see Advanced Settings). You may then finetune the settings for each VLAN using the IGMP Snooping Settings window. When enabled for IGMP snooping, the
Switch can open or close a port to a specific Multicast group member based on IGMP messages sent from the device to the
IGMP host or vice versa. The Switch monitors IGMP messages and discontinues forwarding multicast packets when there
are no longer hosts requesting that they continue.
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Use this window, which can be viewed by clicking Configuration > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping, to view the
IGMP Snooping status. To modify settings, click the Modify button for the VLAN ID to change.
Figure 4- 28. Current IGMP Snooping Group Entries window
Click the Modify button to bring up the IGMP Snooping Settings window pictured below.
Figure 4- 29. IGMP Snooping Settings window
The IGMP Snooping Settings are described below:
65
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID number.
VLAN Name
The VLAN name.
Query Interval (165535 sec)
The Query Interval field is used to set the time (in seconds) between transmitting
IGMP queries. Entries between 1 and 65535 seconds are allowed. The default value
is 125.
Max Response Time
(1-25 sec)
This determines the maximum amount of time in seconds allowed before sending an
IGMP response report. The Max Response Time field allows an entry between 1 and
25 (seconds). The default value is 10.
Robustness Variable
(1-255)
Adjust this variable according to expected packet loss. If packet loss on the VLAN is
expected to be high, the Robustness Variable should be increased to accommodate
increased packet loss. This entry field allows an entry of 2 to 255. The default value is
2.
Last Member Query
Interval (1-25 sec)
Specifies the maximum amount of time between group-specific query messages,
including those sent in response to leave group messages. The default value is 1.
Host Timeout (116711450 sec)
This is the maximum amount of time in seconds allowed for a host to continue
membership in a multicast group without the Switch receiving a host membership
report. The default value is 260.
Router Timeout (116711450 sec)
This is the maximum amount of time in seconds a route is kept in the forwarding table
without receiving a membership report. The default value is 260.
Leave Timer (016711450 sec)
This specifies the maximum amount of time in seconds between the Switch receiving
a leave group message from a host, and the Switch issuing a group membership
query. If no response to the membership query is received before the Leave Timer
expires, the (multicast) forwarding entry for that host is deleted.
Querier State
Choose Enabled to enable transmitting IGMP Query packets. The default value is
Disabled.
Querier Router
Behavior
This read-only field describes the behavior of the router for sending query packets.
Querier will denote that the router is sending out IGMP query packets. Non-Querier
will denote that the router is not sending out IGMP query packets. This field will only
read Querier when the Querier State and the State fields have been Enabled.
State
Select Enabled to implement IGMP Snooping. This is Disabled by default.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
66
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Static Router Ports Entry
A static router port is a port that has a multicast router attached to it. Generally, this router would have a connection to a
WAN or to the Internet. Establishing a router port will allow multicast packets coming from the router to be propagated
through the network, as well as allowing multicast messages (IGMP) coming from the network to be propagated to the
router.
A router port has the following behavior:
•
All IGMP Report packets will be forwarded to the router port.
•
IGMP queries (from the router port) will be flooded to all ports.
•
All UDP multicast packets will be forwarded to the router port. Because routers do not send IGMP reports or
implement IGMP snooping, a multicast router connected to the router port of the Layer 3 Switch would not be
able to receive UDP data streams unless the UDP multicast packets were all forwarded to the router port.
A router port will be dynamically configured when IGMP query packets, RIPv2 multicast, DVMRP multicast, and PIMDM multicast packets are detected flowing into a port.
Open the IGMP Snooping folder and then click on the Static Router Ports Entry link to open the Current Static
Router Ports Entries window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 30. Current Static Router Port Entries window
The window displays all of the current entries to the Switch’s static router port table. To modify an entry, click the Modify
button. This will open the Static Router Ports Settings window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 31. Static Router Ports Settings window
To configure a static router port(s):
1.
Select the Unit containing the static router port.
2.
Select the Port or Ports that will become static router ports.
3.
Click Apply to let the changes take effect.
The following parameters are listed in the Static Router Port windows.
67
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
VLAN ID (VID)
This is the VLAN ID that, along with the VLAN name, identifies the VLAN where the
multicast router is attached.
VLAN Name
This is the name of the VLAN where the multicast router is attached.
Unit
This is the Unit ID of the Switch in a Switch stack for which you are creating an entry
into the Switch’s static router port table.
Member Ports
There are the ports on the Switch that will have a multicast router attached to them.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
68
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Spanning Tree
This Switch supports three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol; 802.1d STP, 802.1w Rapid STP and 802.1s MSTP.
802.1d STP will be familiar to most networking professionals. However, since 802.1w RSTP and 802.1s MSTP has been
recently introduced to D-Link managed Ethernet switches, a brief introduction to the technology is provided below
followed by a description of how to set up 802.1d STP, 802.1w RSTP and 802.1s MSTP.
802.1s MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, or MSTP, is a standard defined by the IEEE community that allows multiple VLANs to
be mapped to a single spanning tree instance, which will provide multiple pathways across the network. Therefore, these
MSTP configurations will balance the traffic load, preventing wide scale disruptions when a single spanning tree instance
fails. This will allow for faster convergences of new topologies for the failed instance. Frames designated for these VLANs
will be processed quickly and completely throughout interconnected bridges utilizing either of the three spanning tree
protocols (STP, RSTP or MSTP).
This protocol will also tag BDPU packets so receiving devices can distinguish spanning tree instances, spanning tree
regions and the VLANs associated with them. These instances will be classified by an MSTI ID. MSTP will connect
multiple spanning trees with a Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST will automatically determine each
MSTP region, its maximum possible extent and will appear as one virtual bridge that runs a single spanning tree.
Consequentially, frames assigned to different VLANs will follow different data routes within administratively established
regions on the network, continuing to allow simple and full processing of frames, regardless of administrative errors in
defining VLANs and their respective spanning trees.
Each switch utilizing the MSTP on a network will have a single MSTP configuration that will have the following three
attributes:
1.
A configuration name defined by an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters (defined in the MST
Configuration Table window in the Configuration Name field).
2.
A configuration revision number (named here as a Revision Level and found in the MST Configuration Table
window) and;
3.
A 4094-element table (defined here as a VID List in the MST Configuration Table window) that will ssociate
each of the possible 4094 VLANs supported by the Switch for a given instance.
To utilize the MSTP function on the Switch, three steps need to be taken:
1.
The Switch must be set to the MSTP setting (found in the STP Bridge Global Settings window in the STP
Version field)
2.
The correct spanning tree priority for the MSTP instance must be entered (defined here as a Priority in the MST
Configuration Table window when configuring MSTI ID settings).
3.
VLANs that will be shared must be added to the MSTP Instance ID (defined here as a VID List in the MST
Configuration Table window when configuring an MSTI ID settings).
802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
The Switch implements three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol, the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as
defined by the IEEE 802.1s, the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) as defined by the IEEE 802.1w specification and a
version compatible with the IEEE 802.1d STP. RSTP can operate with legacy equipment implementing IEEE 802.1d,
however the advantages of using RSTP will be lost.
The IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) evolved from the 802.1d STP standard. RSTP was developed in
order to overcome some limitations of STP that impede the function of some recent switching innovations, in particular,
certain Layer 3 functions that are increasingly handled by Ethernet switches. The basic function and much of the
terminology is the same as STP. Most of the settings configured for STP are also used for RSTP. This section introduces
some new Spanning Tree concepts and illustrates the main differences between the two protocols.
Port Transition States
An essential difference between the three protocols is in the way ports transition to a forwarding state and in the way this
transition relates to the role of the port (forwarding or not forwarding) in the topology. MSTP and RSTP combine the
69
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
transition states disabled, blocking and listening used in 802.1d and creates a single state Discarding. In either case, ports
do not forward packets. In the STP port transition states disabled, blocking or listening or in the RSTP/MSTP port state
discarding, there is no functional difference, the port is not active in the network topology. Table 6-1 below compares how
the three protocols differ regarding the port state transition.
All three protocols calculate a stable topology in the same way. Every segment will have a single path to the root bridge.
All bridges listen for BPDU packets. However, BPDU packets are sent more frequently - with every Hello packet. BPDU
packets are sent even if a BPDU packet was not received. Therefore, each link between bridges is sensitive to the status of
the link. Ultimately this difference results in faster detection of failed links, and thus faster topology adjustment. A drawback of 802.1d is this absence of immediate feedback from adjacent bridges.
802.1d MSTP
802.1w RSTP
802.1d STP
Forwarding
Learning
Discarding
Discarding
Disabled
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Blocking
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Listening
No
No
Learning
Learning
Learning
No
Yes
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Yes
Yes
Table 4- 1. Comparing Port States
RSTP is capable of a more rapid transition to a forwarding state - it no longer relies on timer configurations - RSTP
compliant bridges are sensitive to feedback from other RSTP compliant bridge links. Ports do not need to wait for the
topology to stabilize before transitioning to a forwarding state. In order to allow this rapid transition, the protocol
introduces two new variables: the edge port and the point-to-point (P2P) port.
Edge Port
The edge port is a configurable designation used for a port that is directly connected to a segment where a loop cannot be
created. An example would be a port connected directly to a single workstation. Ports that are designated as edge ports
transition to a forwarding state immediately without going through the listening and learning states. An edge port loses its
status if it receives a BPDU packet, immediately becoming a normal spanning tree port.
P2P Port
A P2P port is also capable of rapid transition. P2P ports may be used to connect to other bridges. Under RSTP/MSTP, all
ports operating in full-duplex mode are considered to be P2P ports, unless manually overridden through configuration.
802.1d / 802.1w / 802.1s Compatibility
MSTP or RSTP can interoperate with legacy equipment and is capable of automatically adjusting BPDU packets to 802.1d
format when necessary. However, any segment using 802.1d STP will not benefit from the rapid transition and rapid
topology change detection of MSTP or RSTP. The protocol also provides for a variable used for migration in the event that
legacy equipment on a segment is updated to use RSTP or MSTP.
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) operates on two levels:
1.
On the Switch level, the settings are globally implemented.
2.
On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per user-defined group of ports basis.
70
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
STP Bridge Global Settings
To open the following window, open the Spanning Tree folder in the Configuration menu and click the STP Bridge
Global Settings link.
Figure 4- 32. STP Bridge Global Settings – STP compatible
Figure 4- 33. STP Bridge Global Settings - RSTP (default)
71
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 34. STP Bridge Global Settings - MSTP
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
STP Status
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable STP globally on the Switch. The
default is Disabled.
STP Version
Use the pull-down menu to choose the desired version of STP to be implemented
on the Switch. There are three choices:
STP - Select this parameter to set the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) globally on
the Switch.
RSTP - Select this parameter to set the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
globally on the Switch.
MSTP - Select this parameter to set the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
globally on the Switch.
Hello Time (1 - 10 Sec)
The Hello Time can be set from 1 to 10 seconds. This is the interval between two
transmissions of BPDU packets sent by the Root Bridge to tell all other switches
that it is indeed the Root Bridge. This field will only appear here when STP or
RSTP is selected for the STP Version. For MSTP, the Hello Time must be set on
a port per port basis. See the MSTP Port Information section for further details.
Max Age (6 - 40 Sec)
The Max Age may be set to ensure that old information does not endlessly
circulate through redundant paths in the network, preventing the effective
propagation of the new information. Set by the Root Bridge, this value will aid in
determining that the Switch has spanning tree configuration values consistent with
other devices on the bridged LAN. If the value ages out and a BPDU has still not
been received from the Root Bridge, the Switch will start sending its own BPDU to
all other switches for permission to become the Root Bridge. If it turns out that
your switch has the lowest Bridge Identifier, it will become the Root Bridge. The
user may choose a time between 6 and 40 seconds. The default value is 20.
Forward Delay (4 - 30
Sec)
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30 seconds. Any port on the Switch spends
this time in the listening state while moving from the blocking state to the forwarding state.
72
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Max Hops (1-20)
Used to set the number of hops between devices in a spanning tree region before
the BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) packet sent by the Switch will be discarded.
Each switch on the hop count will reduce the hop count by one until the value
reaches zero. The Switch will then discard the BDPU packet and the information
held for the port will age out. The user may set a hop count from 1 to 20. The
default is 20.
TX Hold Count (1-10)
Used to set the maximum number of Hello packets transmitted per interval. The
count can be specified from 1 to 10. The default is 3.
Forwarding BPDU
This field can be Enabled or Disabled. When Enabled, it allows the forwarding of
STP BPDU packets from other network devices. The default is Enabled.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
NOTE: The Hello Time cannot be longer than the Max. Age. Otherwise, a
configuration error will occur. Observe the following formulas when setting
the above parameters:
Max. Age ≤ 2 x (Forward Delay - 1 second)
Max. Age ≥ 2 x (Hello Time + 1 second)
73
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MST Configuration Table
The MST Configuration Table window allow the user to configure a MSTI instance on the Switch. These settings will
uniquely identify a multiple spanning tree instance set on the Switch. The Switch initially possesses one CIST or Common
Internal Spanning Tree of which the user may modify the parameters for but cannot change the MSTI ID for, and cannot be
deleted. To view the MST Configuration Identification window, click Configuration > Spanning Tree > MST
Configuration Identification:
Figure 4- 35. MST Configuration Identification window
The window above contains the following information:
Parameter
Description
Configuration Name
A previously configured name set on the Switch to uniquely identify the MSTI (Multiple
Spanning Tree Instance). If a configuration name is not set, this field will show the
MAC address to the device running MSTP.
Revision Level
This value, along with the Configuration Name will identify the MSTP region configured on the Switch.
MSTI ID
This field shows the MSTI IDs currently set on the Switch. This field will always have
the CIST MSTI, which may be configured but not deleted. Clicking the hyperlinked
name will open a new window for configuring parameters associated with that
particular MSTI.
VID List
This field displays the VLAN IDs associated with the specific MSTI.
To delete a previously set MSTI Instance ID, click the corresponding
under the Delete heading in the MST
Configuration Identification window. Note that the CIST cannot be deleted. Clicking the Add button will reveal the
following window to configure:
74
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 36. Instance ID Settings window- Add
The user may configure the following parameters to create a MSTI in the Switch.
Parameter
Description
MSTI ID
Enter a number between 1 and 15 to set a new MSTI on the Switch.
Type
Create is selected to create a new MSTI. No other choices are available for this field
when creating a new MSTI.
VID List (1-4094)
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch.
Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
To configure the settings for the CIST, click on its hyperlinked MSTI ID number in the MST Configuration
Identification window, which will reveal the following window to configure:
Figure 4- 37. Instance ID Settings window - CIST modify
The user may configure the following parameters to configure the CIST on the Switch.
Parameter
Description
MSTI ID
The MSTI ID of the CIST is 0 and cannot be altered.
Type
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI settings.
The user has 2 choices.
VID List (1-4094)
•
Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in
conjunction with the VID List parameter.
•
Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in
conjunction with the VID List parameter.
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch.
Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
75
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Click Apply to implement changes made.
To configure the parameters for a previously set MSTI, click on its hyperlinked MSTI ID number, which will reveal the
following screen for configuration.
Figure 4- 38. Instance ID Settings window - Modify
The user may configure the following parameters for a MSTI on the Switch.
Parameter
Description
MSTI ID
Displays the MSTI ID previously set by the user.
Type
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI settings.
The user has 2 choices.
VID List (1-4094)
•
Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in conjunction
with the VID List parameter.
•
Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in
conjunction with the VID List parameter.
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch
that the user wishes to add to this MSTI ID. Supported VIDs on the Switch range from
ID number 1 to 4094. This parameter can only be utilized if the Type chosen is Add
VID or Remove VID.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
76
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MSTI Settings
This window displays the current MSTI configuration settings and can be used to update the port configuration for an
MSTI ID. If a loop occurs, the MSTP function will use the port priority to select an interface to put into the forwarding
state. Set a higher priority value for interfaces to be selected for forwarding first. In instances where the priority value is
identical, the MSTP function will implement the lowest port number into the forwarding state and other interfaces will be
blocked. Remember that lower priority values mean higher priorities for forwarding packets.
To view the following window, click Configuration > Spanning Tree > MSTI Settings:
Figure 4- 39. MSTP Port Information window
To view the MSTI settings for a particular port, select the Port number, located in the top left hand corner of the screen and
click Apply. To modify the settings for a particular MSTI Instance, click on its hyperlinked MSTI ID, which will reveal
the following window.
Figure 4- 40. MSTI Settings window
Parameter
Description
Instance ID
Displays the MSTI ID of the instance being configured. An entry of 0 in this field denotes
the CIST (default MSTI).
Internal Cost
This parameter is set to represent the relative cost of forwarding packets to specified
ports when an interface is selected within a STP instance. The default setting is 0
(auto). There are two options:
Priority
•
0 (auto) - Selecting this parameter for the internalCost will set quickest route
automatically and optimally for an interface. The default value is derived from
the media speed of the interface.
•
value 1-200000000 - Selecting this parameter with a value in the range of 1 to
200000000 will set the quickest route when a loop occurs. A lower Internal
cost represents a quicker transmission.
Enter a value between 0 and 240 to set the priority for the port interface. A higher
priority will designate the interface to forward packets first. A lower number denotes a
higher priority. This entry must be divisible by 16. The default priority setting is 128.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
77
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
STP Instance Settings
The following window displays MSTIs currently set on the Switch. To view the following table, click Configuration >
Spanning Tree > STP Instance Settings:
Figure 4- 41. STP Instance Table window
The following information is displayed:
Parameter
Description
Instance Type
Displays the instance type(s) currently configured on the Switch. Each instance type
is classified by an MSTI ID. CIST refers to the default MSTI configuration set on the
Switch.
Instance Status
Displays the current status of the corresponding MSTI ID
Instance Priority
Displays the priority of the corresponding MSTI Instance Type. The lowest priority will
be the root bridge.
Priority
Click the Modify button to change the priority of the MSTI. This will open the Instance
ID Settings window to configure. The Type field in this window will be permanently set
to Set Priority Only. Enter the new priority in the Priority field and click Apply to
implement the new priority setting.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
Clicking the hyperlinked name will allow the user to view the current parameters set for the MSTI Instance.
Figure 4- 42. STP Instance Operational Status – CIST
78
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 43. STP Instance Operational Status – Previously Configured MSTI
The following parameters may be viewed in the STP Instance Operational Status windows:
Parameter
Description
Designated Root
Bridge
This field will show the priority and MAC address of the Root Bridge.
External Root Cost
This defines a metric that indicates the relative cost of forwarding packets to the
specified port list. Port cost can be set automatically or as a metric value. The
default value is 0 (auto).
•
0 (auto) - Setting 0 for the external cost will automatically set the speed for
forwarding packets to the specified port(s) in the list for optimal efficiency.
Default port cost: 100Mbps port = 200000. Gigabit port = 20000.
•
value 1-200000000 - Define a value between 1 and 200000000 to
determine the external cost. The lower the number, the greater the
probability the port will be chosen to forward packets.
Regional Root Bridge
This field will show the priority and MAC address of the Regional (Internal) Root
Bridge. This MAC address should be the MAC address of the Switch.
Internal Root Cost
This parameter is set to represent the relative cost of forwarding packets to
specified ports when an interface is selected within a STP instance. The default
setting is 0 (auto). There are two options:
•
0 (auto) - Selecting this parameter for the internal cost will set quickest
route automatically and optimally for an interface. The default value is
derived from the media speed of the interface.
•
value 1-2000000 - Selecting this parameter with a value in the range of 12000000 will set the quickest route when a loop occurs. A lower Internal
cost represents a quicker transmission.
Designated Bridge
This field will show the priority and MAC address of the Designated Bridge. The
information shown in this table comes from a BPDU packet originating from this
bridge.
Root Port
This is the port on the Switch that is physically connected to the Root Bridge.
79
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Max Age
The Max Age may be set to ensure that old information does not endlessly circulate
through redundant paths in the network, preventing the effective propagation of the
new information. Set by the Root Bridge, this value will aid in determining that the
Switch has spanning tree configuration values consistent with other devices on the
bridged LAN. If the value ages out and a BPDU has still not been received from the
Root Bridge, the Switch will start sending its own BPDU to all other switches for
permission to become the Root Bridge. If it turns out that your switch has the lowest
Bridge Identifier, it will become the Root Bridge. The user may choose a time
between 6 and 40 seconds. The default value is 20.
Forward Delay
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30 seconds. Any port on the Switch spends
this time in the listening state while moving from the blocking state to the forwarding
state.
Last Topology Change
This field shows the time, in seconds, since the last spanning tree topology change.
Topology Changes
Count
This field displays the number of times that the spanning tree topology has changed
since the original initial boot up of the Switch.
STP Port Settings
STP can be set up on a port per port basis. To view the following window click Configuration > Spanning Tree > STP
Port Settings:
Figure 4- 44. STP Port Settings window
In addition to setting Spanning Tree parameters for use on the Switch level, the Switch allows for the configuration of
groups of ports, each port-group of which will have its own spanning tree, and will require some of its own configuration
settings. An STP Group will use the Switch-level parameters entered above, with the addition of Port Priority and Port
Cost.
An STP Group spanning tree works in the same way as the Switch-level spanning tree, but the root bridge concept is
replaced with a root port concept. A root port is a port of the group that is elected based on port priority and port cost, to be
80
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
the connection to the network for the group. Redundant links will be blocked, just as redundant links are blocked on the
Switch level.
The STP on the Switch level blocks redundant links between switches (and similar network devices). The port level STP
will block redundant links within an STP Group.
It is advisable to define an STP Group to correspond to a VLAN group of ports.
The following fields can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Choose the Switch ID number of the Switch in the Switch stack to be modified.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
External Cost (0 =
Auto)
This defines a metric that indicates the relative cost of forwarding packets to the
specified port list. Port cost can be set automatically or as a metric value. The default
value is 0 (auto).
•
0 (auto) - Setting 0 for the external cost will automatically set the speed for
forwarding packets to the specified port(s) in the list for optimal efficiency.
Default port cost: 100Mbps port = 200000. Gigabit port = 20000.
•
value 1-200000000 - Define a value between 1 and 200000000 to determine
the external cost. The lower the number, the greater the probability the port
will be chosen to forward packets.
Hello Time
The time interval between the transmission of configuration messages by the designated port, to other devices on the bridged LAN, thus stating that the Switch is still
functioning. The user may choose a time between 1 and 10 seconds. The default is 2
seconds. This field is only operable when the Switch is enabled for MSTP.
Migrate
Setting this parameter as yes will set the ports to send out BDPU packets to other
bridges, requesting information on their STP setting If the Switch is configured for
RSTP, the port will be capable to migrate from 802.1d STP to 802.1w RSTP. If the
Switch is configured for MSTP, the port is capable of migrating from 802.1d STP to
802.1s MSTP. RSTP and MSTP can coexist with standard STP, however the benefits
of RSTP and MSTP are not realized on a port where an 802.1d network connects to
an 802.1w or 802.1s enabled network. Migration should be set as yes on ports
connected to network stations or segments that are capable of being upgraded to
802.1w RSTP or 802.1s MSTP on all or some portion of the segment.
Edge
Choosing the true parameter designates the port as an edge port. Edge ports cannot
create loops, however an edge port can lose edge port status if a topology change
creates a potential for a loop. An edge port normally should not receive BPDU
packets. If a BPDU packet is received, it automatically loses edge port status.
Choosing the false parameter indicates that the port does not have edge port status.
P2P
Choosing the True parameter indicates a point-to-point (P2P) shared link. P2P ports
are similar to edge ports, however they are restricted in that a P2P port must operate
in full duplex. Like edge ports, P2P ports transition to a forwarding state rapidly thus
benefiting from RSTP. A p2p value of false indicates that the port cannot have p2p
status. Auto allows the port to have p2p status whenever possible and operate as if
the p2p status were true. If the port cannot maintain this status, (for example if the
port is forced to half-duplex operation) the p2p status changes to operate as if the p2p
value were False. The default setting for this parameter is True.
State
This drop-down menu allows you to enable or disable STP for the selected group of
ports. The default is Enabled.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
81
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Forwarding & Filtering
The Switch allows permanent or static entries into the forwarding database (FDB). These FDB entries are MAC addresses
that will not age out. In addition, multicast forwarding may be customized to conform to rules for the different ports by
setting up multicast filter modes for each port.
Unicast Forwarding
Open the Forwarding & Filtering folder and click on the Unicast Forwarding link. This will open the Setup Static
Unicast Forwarding Table window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 45. Setup Static Unicast Forwarding Table window
To add an entry, define the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID number of the VLAN on which the above Unicast MAC address resides.
MAC Address
The MAC address to which packets will be statically forwarded. This must be a
unicast MAC address.
Allowed to Go Unit
Allows the designation of the module on which the above MAC address resides.
Port
Choose the port on which the MAC address resides.
Click on the Add/Modify button to add a unicast MAC address to the Switch’s forwarding table, or to modify a previous
entry.
82
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Multicast Forwarding
The following figure and table describe how to set up Multicast forwarding on the Switch. Open the Forwarding &
Filtering folder and click on the Multicast Forwarding link to see the entry window below:
Figure 4- 46. Static Multicast Forwarding Settings window
The Static Multicast Forwarding Settings window displays all of the entries made into the Switch’s static multicast
forwarding table. Click the Add button to open the Setup Static Multicast Forwarding Table window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 47. Setup Static Multicast Forwarding Table window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Select the Switch in the Switch stack to configure. 15 represents the Switch in
standalone mode.
VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN to which the MAC address below belongs.
Multicast MAC
Address
The MAC address of the static source of multicast packets. This must be a multicast
MAC address.
Port Settings
Allows the selection of ports that will be members of the static multicast group and
ports that are either forbidden from joining dynamically, or that can join the multicast
group dynamically, using GMRP. The options are None and Egress. None means
there are no restrictions on the port dynamically joining the multicast group. If None is
chosen, then an end station attached to the port can join the multicast group using
GMRP. Egress means the port is a static member of the multicast group.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
83
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
VLANs
The Switch Web Manager’s VLANs sub-folder is divided into two main windows, 802.1Q Static VLANs and 802.1Q
Port Settings. Each is described after a short overview of VLANs.
Understanding 802.1Q VLANs
This review of 802.1Q VLANs presents some basic background about how VLANs work according to the IEEE 802.1Q
standard. VLANs operate according to the same rules regardless of whether the Switching environment is Layer 2 or Layer
3. The difference is primarily that in a Layer 3 Switch there is an added capability of unique association between a VLAN
and an IP interface or subnet group.
A VLAN is a collection of end nodes grouped by logic rather than physical location. End nodes that frequently
communicate with each other are assigned to the same VLAN, regardless of where they are located physically on the
network. Logically, a VLAN can be equated to a broadcast domain, because broadcast packets are forwarded only to
members of the VLAN on which the broadcast was initiated
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Some relevant terms:
•
Tagging - The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into the header of a packet.
•
Untagging - The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information out of the packet header.
•
Ingress port - A port on a Switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made.
•
Egress port - A port on a Switch where packets are flowing out of the Switch, either to another Switch or to an
end station, and tagging decisions must be made.
IEEE 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs are implemented on the DGS-3212SR Switch. 802.1Q VLANs require tagging, which
enables the VLANs to span an entire network (assuming all Switches on the network are IEEE 802.1Q-compliant).
Any port can be configured as either tagging or untagging. The untagging feature of IEEE 802.1Q VLANs allow VLANs
to work with legacy Switches that don’t recognize VLAN tags in packet headers. The tagging feature allows VLANs to
span multiple 802.1Q VLAN compliant Switches through a single physical connection and allows Spanning Tree to be
enabled on all ports and work normally.
802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding
Packet forwarding decisions are made based upon the following three types of rules:
•
Ingress rules – rules relevant to the classification of received frames belonging to a VLAN.
•
Forwarding rules between ports – decides filter or forward the packet
•
Egress rules – determines if the packet must be sent tagged or untagged.
84
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 48. 802.1Q Packet Forwarding
802.1Q VLAN Tags
The figure below shows the 802.1Q VLAN tag. There are four additional octets inserted after the source MAC address.
Their presence is indicated by a value of 0x8100 in the EtherType field. When a packet’s EtherType field is equal to
0x8100, the packet carries the IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p tag. The tag is contained in the following two octets and consists of
three bits or user priority, one bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI – used for encapsulating Token Ring packets so they
can be carried across Ethernet backbones) and twelve bits of VLAN ID (VID). The three bits of user priority are used by
802.1p. The VID is the VLAN identifier and is used by the 802.1Q standard. Because the VID is twelve bits long, 4094
unique VLANs can be identified.
The tag is inserted into the packet header making the entire packet longer by four octets. All of the information contained
in the packet originally is retained.
Figure 4- 49. IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The EtherType and VLAN ID are inserted after the MAC source address, but before the original EtherType/Length or
Logical Link Control. Because the packet is now a bit longer than it was originally, the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
must be recalculated.
85
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 50. Adding an IEEE 802.1Q Tag
Port VLAN ID
Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q compliant network
device to another with the VLAN information intact. This allows 802.1Q VLANs to span network devices (and indeed, the
entire network – if all network devices are 802.1Q compliant).
Unfortunately, not all network devices are 802.1Q compliant. These devices are referred to as tag-unaware. 802.1Q
devices are referred to as tag-aware.
Prior to the adoption 802.1Q VLANs, port-based and MAC-based VLANs were in common use. These VLANs relied
upon a Port VLAN ID (PVID) to forward packets. A packet received on a given port would be assigned that port’s PVID
and then be forwarded to the port that corresponded to the packet’s destination address (found in the Switch’s forwarding
table). If the PVID of the port that received the packet is different from the PVID of the port that is to transmit the packet,
the Switch will drop the packet.
Within the Switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs. (remember that two VLANs cannot communicate without an
external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the PVIDs cannot create VLANs that extend outside a given Switch
(or Switch stack).
Every physical port on a Switch has a PVID. 802.1Q ports are also assigned a PVID, for use within the Switch. If no
VLANs are defined on the Switch, all ports are then assigned to a default VLAN with a PVID equal to 1. Untagged packets
are assigned the PVID of the port on which they were received. Forwarding decisions are based upon this PVID, in so far
as VLANs are concerned. Tagged packets are forwarded according to the VID contained within the tag. Tagged packets
are also assigned a PVID, but the PVID is not used to make packet forwarding decisions, the VID is.
Tag-aware Switches must keep a table to relate PVIDs within the Switch to VIDs on the network. The Switch will compare
the VID of a packet to be transmitted to the VID of the port that is to transmit the packet. If the two VIDs are different, the
Switch will drop the packet. Because of the existence of the PVID for untagged packets and the VID for tagged packets,
tag-aware and tag-unaware network devices can coexist on the same network.
A Switch port can have only one PVID, but can have as many VIDs as the Switch has memory in its VLAN table to store
them.
Because some devices on a network may be tag-unaware, a decision must be made at each port on a tag-aware device
before packets are transmitted – should the packet to be transmitted have a tag or not? If the transmitting port is connected
to a tag-unaware device, the packet should be untagged. If the transmitting port is connected to a tag-aware device, the
packet should be tagged.
Tagging and Untagging
Every port on an 802.1Q compliant Switch can be configured as tagging or untagging.
Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority and other VLAN information into the header of all packets
that flow into and out of it. If a packet has previously been tagged, the port will not alter the packet, thus keeping the
VLAN information intact. The VLAN information in the tag can then be used by other 802.1Q compliant devices on the
network to make packet forwarding decisions.
Ports with untagging enabled will strip the 802.1Q tag from all packets that flow into and out of those ports. If the packet
doesn’t have an 802.1Q VLAN tag, the port will not alter the packet. Thus, all packets received by and forwarded by an
untagging port will have no 802.1Q VLAN information. (Remember that the PVID is only used internally within the
Switch). Untagging is used to send packets from an 802.1Q-compliant network device to a non-compliant network device.
86
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Ingress Filtering
A port on a Switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made is referred to as an
ingress port. If ingress filtering is enabled for a port, the Switch will examine the VLAN information in the packet header
(if present) and decide whether or not to forward the packet.
If the packet is tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will first determine if the ingress port itself is a member of
the tagged VLAN. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. If the ingress port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the Switch
then determines if the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN. If it is not, the packet is dropped. If the
destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it to its
attached network segment.
If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will tag the packet with its own PVID as a VID (if the
port is a tagging port). The Switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the same VLAN (has the same
VID) as the ingress port. If it does not, the packet is dropped. If it has the same VID, the packet is forwarded and the
destination port transmits it on its attached network segment.
This process is referred to as ingress filtering and is used to conserve bandwidth within the Switch by dropping packets
that are not on the same VLAN as the ingress port at the point of reception. This eliminates the subsequent processing of
packets that will just be dropped by the destination port.
87
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
802.1Q Static VLANs
To create or modify an 802.1Q VLAN:
In the Configuration folder, open the VLANs folder and click the Static VLAN Entry link to open the following
window:
Figure 4- 51. 802.1Q Static VLANs window
The first 802.1Q Static VLANs window lists all previously configured VLANs by VLAN ID and name. To delete an
existing 802.1Q VLAN, click the corresponding Delete button.
To create a new 802.1Q VLAN, click the Add button. A new window appears, use this to configure the port settings and to
assign a unique name and number to the new VLAN. See the table below for a description of the parameters in the new
window.
Figure 4- 52. 802.1Q Static VLANs window - Add
To configure the newly created VLAN, select the Switch being configured from the Unit drop-down menu and provide a
unique VLAN identifier and name. Configure the port settings for VLAN membership by selecting the appropriate options
for each port. Click the Apply button to configure the VLAN port membership settings. A success or fail message appears
to confirm whether the settings have been applied. To view the VLANs that have been thus far configured, click the Show
All Static VLAN Entries hyperlink (see example below). To add another new VLAN entry, click the Add button again in
the first 802.1Q Static VLANs window.
See the table below for a description of the port VLAN membership settings.
The following fields can then be set in either the Add or Modify 802.1Q Static VLANs windows:
88
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
Unit
Choose the Switch on which the VLAN will be created.
VID (VLAN ID)
For a new VLAN entry, type in a unique identifier. This number is used to configure
other settings such as GVRP status for ports in the VLAN.
Auto Assign – Checking this box will automatically assign a VID to the new VLAN
entry.
VLAN Name
For a new VLAN entry type in a unique name. This name can be used to identify the
VLAN for IP interface assignment. Remember that VLAN names are case-sensitive
when referring to them for other applications (such as setting up IP interfaces).
Advertisement
Enabling this function will allow the Switch to send out GVRP packets to outside
sources, notifying that they may join the existing VLAN.
Port
Configure each individual port to be specified as member or nonmember of the VLAN.
Tag
Specifies the port as either 802.1Q tagging or 802.1Q untagged. Checking the box will
designate the port as Tagged.
None
Specifies the port as not being a static member of the VLAN, but with no restrictions
for joining the VLAN dynamically through GVRP.
Egress
Select this to specify the port as a static member of the VLAN. Egress member ports
are ports that will be transmitting traffic for the VLAN. These ports can be either
tagged or untagged.
Forbidden
Select this to specify the port as not being a member of the VLAN and that the port is
forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically.
The illustration below displays the port settings for a new VLAN (engineering) with a VID of 11.
Figure 4- 53. Add New Static VLAN Example window
Click the Show All Static VLAN Entries link to return to the first 802.1Q Static VLANs window, the new VLAN entry
appears listed in the current entries table.
89
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 4- 54. 802.1Q Static VLANs With Added VLAN window
To change the port settings of any listed VLAN, click the Modify button.
Now click the Modify button in the first 802.1Q Static VLANs window for the newly created VLAN (engineering). A
new window appears, use this to configure the port settings to the existing VLAN, exactly as in the Add New VLAN
window. Notice that the VID and name cannot be changed. If you want to change the VID or VLAN Name it will be
necessary to delete the existing entry and create a new one.
Figure 4- 55. 802.1Q Static VLANs – Modify window
90
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
GVRP Settings
Open the GVRP Settings window and select the Unit and range of ports to configure. For the selected port or group of
ports, choose to enable or disable Ingress checking and establish an acceptable packet rule. Ingress Checking is used to
limit traffic by filtering incoming packets that have a PVID does not match the PVID of the port. 802.1Q port settings are
also used to determine whether the Switch will share its VLAN configuration information with GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP) enabled Switches.
The window and table below describe how to configure the 802.1Q VLAN port settings for the Switch.
Figure 4- 56. GVRP Settings window
Configure the 802.1p Port Settings by implementing the parameters listed below:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Select the relevant Switch in the Switch stack for configuration.
From and To
Use these drop-down menus to specify the range of ports that will be included in the
VLAN.
Ingress Check
This field can be toggled using the space bar between Enabled and Disabled.
Enabled enables the port to compare the VID tag of an incoming packet with the PVID
number assigned to the port. If the two are different, the port filters (drops) the packet.
Disabled disables Ingress filtering. Ingress Checking is disabled by default.
Acceptable Frame
(Frame Type)
Allows you to specify the action the Switch will take when a packet is received. If you
specify Admit_all the Switch will receive and forward all packets to this VLAN
regardless of whether or not the packet has an 802.1Q VLAN tag or not. If you specify
Tagged_only the Switch will drop and untagged packets it receives for this VLAN.
91
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
PVID
A Port VLAN Identifier is a classification mechanism that associates a port with a
specific VLAN and is used to make forwarding decisions for untagged packets
received by the port. For example, if port 2 is assigned a PVID of 3, then all untagged
packets received on port 2 will be assigned to VLAN 3. This number is generally the
same as the VID number assigned to the port in the Edit 802.1Q VLANs window
above.
GVRP
The Group VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enables the port to dynamically
become a member of a VLAN. GVRP is disabled by default.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
92
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
QoS
The DGS-3212SR supports 802.1p priority queuing Quality of Service. The following section discusses the
implementation of QoS (Quality of Service) and benefits of using 802.1p priority queuing.
The Advantages of QoS
QoS is an implementation of the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows network administrators a method of reserving
bandwidth for important functions that require a large bandwidth or have a high priority, such as VoIP (voice-over Internet
Protocol), web browsing applications, file server applications or video conferencing. Not only can a larger bandwidth be
created, but other less critical traffic can be limited, so excessive bandwidth can be saved. The Switch has separate
hardware queues on every physical port to which packets from various applications can be mapped to, and, in turn
prioritized. View the following map to see how the DGS-3212SR family of switches implements basic 802.1P priority
queuing.
Figure 4- 57. An Example of the Default QoS Mapping on the Switch
The picture above shows the default priority setting for the Switch. Class-7 has the highest priority of the seven priority
classes of service on the Switch. In order to implement QoS, the user is required to instruct the Switch to examine the
header of a packet to see if it has the proper identifying tag. Then the user may forward these tagged packets to designated
classes of service on the Switch where they will be emptied, based on priority.
For example, lets say a user wishes to have a video conference between two remotely set computers. The administrator can
add priority tags to the video packets being sent out, utilizing the Access Profile commands. Then, on the receiving end,
the administrator instructs the Switch to examine packets for this tag, acquires the tagged packets and maps them to a class
queue on the Switch. Then in turn, the administrator will set a priority for this queue so that will be emptied before any
other packet is forwarded. This results in the end user receiving all packets sent as quickly as possible, thus prioritizing the
queue and allowing for an uninterrupted stream of packets, which optimizes the use of bandwidth available for the video
conference.
93
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Understanding QoS
The Switch has nine priority classes of service, one of which is internal and not configurable. These priority classes of
service are labeled as 7, the high class to 0, the lowest class. The eight priority tags, specified in IEEE 802.1p are mapped
to the Switch's priority classes of service as follows:
•
Priority 0 is assigned to the Switch's Q2 class.
•
Priority 1 is assigned to the Switch's Q0 class.
•
Priority 2 is assigned to the Switch's Q1 class.
•
Priority 3 is assigned to the Switch's Q3 class.
•
Priority 4 is assigned to the Switch's Q4 class.
•
Priority 5 is assigned to the Switch's Q5 class.
•
Priority 6 is assigned to the Switch's Q6 class.
•
Priority 7 is assigned to the Switch's Q7 class.
For strict priority-based scheduling, any packets residing in the higher priority classes of service are transmitted first.
Multiple strict priority classes of service are emptied based on their priority tags. Only when these classes are empty, are
packets of lower priority transmitted.
For weighted round-robin queuing, the number of packets sent from each priority queue depends upon the assigned weight.
For a configuration of 8 CoS queues, A~H with their respective weight value: 8~1, the packets are sent in the following
sequence: A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1, A2, B2, C2, D2, E2, F2, G2, A3, B3, C3, D3, E3, F3, A4, B4, C4, D4, E4, A5,
B5, C5, D5, A6, B6, C6, A7, B7, A8, A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if each CoS queue has the same weight value, then each CoS queue has an equal
opportunity to send packets just like round-robin queuing.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if the weight for a CoS is set to 0, then it will continue processing the packets from this
CoS until there are no more packets for this CoS. The other CoS queues that have been given a nonzero value, and
depending upon the weight, will follow a common weighted round-robin scheme.
Remember that the DGS-3212SR has eight configurable priority queues (and eight Classes of Service) for each port on the
Switch.
NOTICE: The Switch contains nine classes of service for
each port on the Switch. One of these classes is reserved
for internal use on the Switch and is therefore not
configurable. All references in the following section
regarding classes of service will refer to only the seven
classes of service that may be used and configured by the
Switch’s Administrator.
94
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
802.1p Default Priority
The Switch allows the assignment of a default 802.1p priority to each port on the Switch.
Click on the 802.1p Default Priority link in the QoS sub-folder:
Figure 4- 58. Port Default Priority assignment and The Port Priority Table window
This page allows you to assign a default 802.1p priority to any given port on the Switch. The priority queues are numbered
from 0 − the lowest priority − to 7 − the highest priority.
802.1p User Priority
The DGS-3212SR allows the assignment of a User Priority to each of the 802.1p priorities.
Figure 4- 59. User Priority Configuration window
Once you have assigned a priority to the port groups on the Switch, you can then assign this Class to each of the eight
levels of 802.1p priorities.
95
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
QoS Output Scheduling Configuration
QoS can be customized by changing the output scheduling used for the hardware queues in the Switch. As with any
changes to QoS implementation, careful consideration should be given to how network traffic in lower priority queues are
affected. Changes in scheduling may result in unacceptable levels of packet loss or significant transmission delay. If you
choose to customize this setting, it is important to monitor network performance, especially during peak demand as
bottlenecks can quickly develop if the QoS settings are not suitable.
Figure 4- 60. QoS Output Scheduling Configuration window
Use the Scheduling Mechanism drop-down menu to select between a RoundRobin and a Strict mechanism for emptying the
priority queues.
Click Apply to let your changes take effect.
96
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Traffic Segmentation
Traffic segmentation is used to limit traffic flow from a single port to a group of ports on either a single Switch (in
standalone mode) or a group of ports on another Switch in a Switch stack. This method of segmenting the flow of traffic is
similar to using VLANs to limit traffic, but is more restrictive. It provides a method of directing traffic that does not
increase the overhead of the Master Switch CPU.
This page allows you to determine which port on the master switch in a switch stack will be allowed to forward packets to
other ports on that switch.
Configuring traffic segmentation on the DGS-33121SR is accomplished in two parts. First, you specify a switch from a
switch stack by using the Unit pull-down menu, and then a port from that switch, using the Port pull-down menu. Then
specify which ports on the Switch that you want to be able to receive packets from the Switch and port you specified in the
first part.
Clicking the Apply button will enter the combination of transmitting port and allowed receiving ports into the Switch’s
Traffic Segmentation table.
The Unit drop-down menu at the top of the page allows you to select a switch from a switch stack using that switch’s Unit
ID. The Port drop-down menu allows you to select a port from that switch. This is the port that will be transmitting
packets. The Portlist field will allow the user to set a port or series of ports to which traffic will be forwarded, on the same
switch. These ports will be configured for the same switch in the Switch stack that has been selected. For the master switch
of a switch stack, the traffic segmentation can be done per stacking port so the Switch can forward traffic to all the ports on
a specific switch in the Switch stack. Clicking the null click box will instruct the Switch not to forward traffic to any ports
on the selected switch.
Clicking the Apply button will enter the combination of transmitting port and allowed receiving ports into the Switch's
Traffic Segmentation Table.
Figure 4- 61. Traffic Segmentation Setting window
97
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Bandwidth
The bandwidth control settings are used to place a ceiling on the transmitting and receiving data rates for any selected port.
Figure 4- 62. Bandwidth Settings window
The following parameters can be set or are displayed:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Allows you to specify a Switch in a Switch stack using that Switch’s Unit ID. 15
indicates a Switch in standalone mode.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
Type
This drop-down menu allows you to select between RX (receive,) TX (transmit,) and
Both. This setting will determine whether the bandwidth ceiling is applied to receiving,
transmitting, or both receiving and transmitting packets.
no_limit
This drop-down menu allows you to specify that the selected port will have no
bandwidth limit. Enabled disables the limit.
Rate
This field allows you to enter the data rate, in Mb/s, that will be the limit for the
selected port.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
98
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MAC Notification
MAC address notification is used to monitor MAC addresses as they are learned and entered into the Switch’s MAC
forwarding database.
MAC Notification Global Settings
The following window will allow the user to globally enable MAC Notification on the Switch. To view this window, click
Configuration > MAC Notification > MAC Notification Global Settings.
Figure 4- 63. MAC Notification Global Settings window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
State
This drop-down menu is used to enable or disable MAC notification on the selected
Switch.
Interval (sec)
The time in seconds between notifications.
History size
The maximum number of entries that will be listed in the History log. Up to 500 entries
can be specified.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
99
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MAC Notification Port Settings
Enable or disable MAC notification for ports with the window below.
Figure 4- 64. MAC Notification Port Settings window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Allows you to specify a Switch in a Switch stack using that Switch’s Unit ID. 15
indicates the DGS-3212SR.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
State
This pull-down menu allows you to enable or disable MAC notification for the specified
Switch and group of ports.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
100
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Security Configuration
The following three windows will allow the user to implement security functions on a per port basis on the Switch or a
switch in a switch stack. To access the following windows, open the Port Security Configuration folder in the
Configuration folder.
Port Security
A given port’s (or a range of port’s) dynamic MAC address learning can be locked such that the current source MAC
addresses entered into the MAC address forwarding table can not be changed once the port lock is enabled. The port can be
locked by using the Admin State pull-down menu to Enabled, and clicking Apply.
This is a security feature that prevents unauthorized computers (with source MAC addresses unknown to the Switch prior
to locking the port (or ports) from connecting to the Switch’s locked ports and gaining access to the network.
Figure 4- 65. Port Security Settings window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Allows you to specify a Switch in a Switch stack using that Switch’s Unit ID. The
number 15 indicates a Switch in standalone mode.
From/To
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
Admin State
This pull-down menu allows you to enable or disable Port Security (locked MAC address
table for the selected ports.)
Max.Addr (0-10)
The number of MAC addresses that will be in the MAC address forwarding table for the
selected Switch and group of ports.
Lock Address
Mode
This pull-down menu allows you to select how the MAC address table locking will be
implemented on the Switch, for the selected group of ports. The options are:
•
Permanent – The locked addresses will not age out after the aging timer
expires.
•
DeleteOnTimeout – The locked addresses will age out after the aging timer
expires.
•
DeleteOnReset – The locked addresses will not age out until the Switch has
101
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
been reset.
Port Lock Entry Delete
The Port Lock Entry Delete window is used to remove an entry from the port security entries learned by the Switch and
entered into the forwarding database. To view the following window, click Configuration > Port Security Configuration
> Port Lock Entry Delete:
Figure 4- 66. Port Lock Entry window
This function is only operable if the Mode in the Port Security window is selected as Permanent or DeleteOnReset, or in
other words, only addresses that are permanently learned by the Switch can be deleted. Once the entry has been defined by
entering the correct information into the window above, click Delete.
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been permanently
learned by the Switch.
Unit
The ID number of the Switch in the Switch stack that has permanently learned the MAC
address.
Port
Enter the port on which the MAC address resides.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been
permanently learned by the Switch.
Port Security Clear
This window is used to clear the security settings implemented on the Switch on a per port basis. To view this window,
click Configuration > Port Security Configuration > Port Security Clear:
Figure 4- 67. Port Security Clear window
To clear the security configurations on a port, use the pull-down menus to select a switch within the Switch stack and then
a port on that switch and click the clear button. A Success! message will appear in a pop-up window when the port has
been cleared of security restrictions.
102
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
System Log Server
Use the System Log to keep a record of warning and other pertinent system information.
The Switch can send system log (SysLog) messages to up to four designated servers, which can be set on the Switch
utilizing the System Log Servers window. To view the following window, click Configuration > System Log Server:
Figure 4- 68. System Log Servers window
Click the Add or the hyperlinked number under the Index heading will bring up the window pictured below. The
parameters configured for adding System Log are described in the table below. To eliminate a System Log Server
configuration, click the X in the Delete column for the configuration being removed.
Figure 4- 69. System Log Server − Add window
Configure these parameters for the system log:
Parameter
Description
Index
Syslog server settings index (1-4).
Server IP
The IP address of the Syslog server.
Severity
This drop-down menu allows you to select the level of messages that will be sent. The
options are Warning, Informational, and ALL.
103
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Some of the operating system daemons and processes have been assigned Facility
values. Processes and daemons that have not been explicitly assigned a Facility may
use any of the "local use" facilities or they may use the "user-level" Facility. Those
Facilities that have been designated are shown in the following: Bold font means the
facility values that the Switch currently supports.
Numerical
Code
Facility
0
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Facility
kernel messages
user-level messages
mail system
system daemons
security/authorization messages
messages generated internally by syslog line printer subsystem
network news subsystem
UUCP subsystem
clock daemon
security/authorization messages
FTP daemon
NTP subsystem
log audit
log alert
clock daemon
local use 0 (local0)
local use 1 (local1)
local use 2 (local2)
local use 3 (local3)
local use 4 (local4)
local use 5 (local5)
local use 6 (local6)
local use 7 (local7)
UDP Port
Type the UDP port number used for sending Syslog messages. The default is 514.
Status
Choose Enabled or Disabled to activate or deactivate this
Click Apply to implement changes made.
104
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNTP Settings
The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) (an adaptation of the Network Time Protocol (NTP)) is configured on the
Switch using the following windows.
Time Setting
The following window will allow the user to configure the time settings for the Switch and can be accessed by clicking
Configuration > SNTP Settings > Time Setting. Click Apply to implement changes made.
Figure 4- 70. Current Time: Status window
The following parameters can be set or are displayed:
Parameter
Description
Current Time
Displays the current system time.
Time Source
Displays the time source for the system.
SNTP State
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable SNTP.
SNTP Primary Server
This is the primary server from which SNTP information will be taken.
SNTP Secondary
Server
This is the secondary server from which the SNTP information will be taken, if the
primary server fails.
SNTP Poll Interval in
Seconds
This is the interval between requests for updated SNTP information.
Year
Enter the current year, to update the system clock.
Month
Enter the current month, to update the system clock.
Day
Enter the current day, to update the system clock.
Time in HH MM SS
Enter the current time in hours, minutes, and seconds, to update the system clock.
105
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Time Zone and DST Settings
The following window is used to set up Time Zone and Daylight Savings configurations for the Switch and can be
accessed by clicking Configuration > SNTP Settings > Time Zone and DST.
Figure 4- 71. Time Zone and DST Settings window
The following parameters can set:
Parameter
Description
Daylight Saving Time
State
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable the DST Settings.
Daylight Saving Time
Offset in Minutes
Use this pull-down menu to specify the amount of time that will constitute your local
DST offset − 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes.
Time Zone Offset
from GMT in +/HH:MM
Use these pull-down menus to specify your local time zone’s offset from Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT.)
106
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
DST Repeating
Settings
Repeating - Using repeating mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment.
Repeating mode requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified using
a formula. For example, specify to begin DST on Saturday during the second week of
April and end DST on Sunday during the last week of October.
From: Which Week of
the month
Enter the week of the month that DST will start.
From: Which Day of
Week
Enter the day of the week that DST will start on.
From: Which Month
Enter the month DST will start on.
From: What Time
HH:MM
Enter the time of day that DST will start on.
To: Which Week
Enter the week of the month the DST will end.
To: Which Day
Enter the day of the week that DST will end.
To: Which Month
Enter the month that DST will end.
To: What Time
HH:MM
Enter the time DST will end.
DST Annual Settings
Annual - Using annual mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Annual mode
requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified concisely. For example,
specify to begin DST on April 3 and end DST on October 14.
From: What Month
Enter the month DST will start on, each year.
From: What Date
Enter the day of the week DST will start on, each year.
From: What Time
Enter the time of day DST will start on, each year.
To: What Month
Enter the month DST will end on, each year.
To: What Date
Enter the day of the week DST will end on, each year.
To: What Time
Enter the time of day that DST will end on, each year.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
107
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Access Profile Table
Access profiles allow you to establish criteria to determine whether or not the Switch will forward packets based on the
information contained in each packet’s header. These criteria can be specified on a basis of VLAN, MAC address or IP
address.
Creating an access profile is divided into two basic parts. The first is to specify which part or parts of a frame the Switch
will examine, such as the MAC source address or the IP destination address. The second part is entering the criteria the
Switch will use to determine what to do with the frame. The entire process is described below in two parts.
To display the currently configured Access Profiles on the Switch, open the Configuration folder and click on the Access
Profile Table link. This will open the Access Profile Table window, as shown below.
Figure 4- 72. Access Profile Table window
To add an entry to the Access Profile Table window, click the Add button. This will open the Access Profile
Configuration window, as shown below. There are three Access Profile Configuration windows − one for Ethernet (or
MAC address-based) profile configuration, one for IP address-based profile configuration, and one for Packet Content
Mask-based profile configuration. You can Switch among the three Access Profile Configuration windows by using the
Type drop-down menu, and clicking on the Apply button. The Access Profile Configuration window for Ethernet is
shown below.
Figure 4- 73. Access Profile Configuration (Ethernet) window
The following parameters can be set:
108
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
Profile ID (1-255)
Type in a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from 1 to
255.
Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address or packet content mask.
This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
•
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
•
Select IP to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's
header.
•
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the
packet header.
VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the VLAN part of each packet
header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Source MAC
Source MAC Mask - Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC
Destination MAC Mask - Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC
address.
802.1p
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1p priority value of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Ethernet type
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Port
The user may set the Access Profile Table window on a per-port basis by entering a
port number in this field. Entering “all” will denote all ports on the Switch.
Click Apply to set the parameters for Ethernet.
109
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The page shown below is the Access Profile Configuration window for IP:
Figure 4- 74. Access Profile Configuration (IP) window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID (1-255)
Type in a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from 1 to
255.
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address, packet content mask or
IPv6. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
Type
VLAN
•
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
•
Select IP to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's
header.
•
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the
packet header.
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the VLAN part of each packet
header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
110
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Source IP Mask
Source IP Mask - Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address.
Destination IP Mask
Destination IP Mask - Enter an IP address mask for the destination MAC address.
DSCP
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in each
frame’s header. You must then specify what protocol(s) to include according to the
following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) field in each frame’s header.
•
Select type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type
value, or specify code to further specify that the access profile will apply an
ICMP code value.
Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group Management
Protocol (ICMP) field in each frame’s header.
•
Protocol
Select type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type
value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires that you specify a source port mask, a
destination port mask or a flag bite.
•
src port mask − Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
•
dest port mask − Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex
form (hex 0x0-0xffff).
•
flag bit – Specify a flag bite in the TCP header.
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port mask
and/or a destination port mask.
•
src port mask − Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
•
dest port mask − Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex
form (hex 0x0-0xffff).
protocol id − Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet header to mask.
Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffffffff).
Port
The user may set the Access Profile Table window on a per-port basis by entering a
port number in this field. Entering “all” will denote all ports on the Switch.
Click Apply to set the parameters for IP.
111
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The window shown below is the Access Profile Configuration window for Packet Content Mask.
Figure 4- 75. Access Profile Configuration (Packet Content Mask) window
This window will aid the user in configuring the Switch to mask packet headers beginning with the offset value specified.
The following fields are used to configure the Packet Content Mask window:
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID (1-255)
Type in a unique identifier number for this profile set or allow an ID to be automatically
assigned by checking the Auto Assign option. This value can be set from 1 to 255.
112
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address or packet content mask. This
will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
Type
•
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
•
Select IP to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame’s
header.
•
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the packet
header.
This field will instruct the Switch to mask the packet header beginning with the offset value
specified:
Offset
Port
•
value (0-15) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from the beginning
of the packet to the 15th byte.
•
value (16-31) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 16 to
byte 31.
•
value (32-47) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 32 to
byte 47.
•
value (48-63) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 48 to
byte 63.
•
value (64-79) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 64 to
byte 79.
The user may set the Access Profile Table window on a per-port basis by entering a port
number in this field. Entering “all” will denote all ports on the Switch.
To establish the rule for a previously created Access Profile, select the Access Profile entry from the Access Profile Table
window and then click the Modify button for that individual entry.
Figure 4- 76. Access Rule Table window
To create a new rule set for the access profile, click the Add button. A new window is displayed. To remove a previously
created rule, select it and click the Delete button.
113
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Configure the Access Rule Configuration settings for Ethernet on the window below.
Figure 4- 77. Access Rule Configuration (Ethernet) window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
This is the identifier number for this profile set.
Mode
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded
by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that do not match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to
255.
Type
Selected profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address or packet content
mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
•
Ethernet instructs the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
•
IP instructs the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame’s header.
•
Packet Content Mask specifies a mask to hide the content of the packet
header.
Priority (0-7)
Specify the priority tag, located in the packet header that will be identified by the
Switch.
Replace Priority (07)
This parameter is specified if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority previously
set in the Switch, which is used to determine the CoS queue to which packets are
forwarded to. Once this field is specified, packets accepted by the Switch that match
this priority are forwarded to the CoS queue specified previously by the user.
114
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Replace priority − Click the corresponding box if you want to re-write the 802.1p
default priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written
to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see
the QoS section of this manual.
VLAN Name
Allows the entry of a name for a previously configured VLAN.
Source MAC
Source MAC Address - Enter a MAC Address for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC
Destination MAC Address - Enter a MAC Address mask for the destination MAC
address.
802.1p (0-7)
Enter a value from 0 to 7 to specify that the access profile will apply only to packets
with this 802.1p priority value.
Ethernet Type
Specifies that the access profile will apply only to packets with this hexadecimal
802.1Q Ethernet type value (hex 0x0-0xffff) in the packet header. The Ethernet type
value may be set in the form: hex 0x0-0xffff, which means the user may choose any
combination of letters and numbers ranging from a-f and from 0-9999.
Configure the Access Rule Configuration settings for IP on the window below.
Figure 4- 78. Access Rule Configuration (IP) window
The following parameters can be set:
115
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
This is the identifier number for this profile set.
Mode
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded
by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that do not match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to
255.
Type
Selected profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address or packet content
mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
•
Ethernet instructs the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
•
IP instructs the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame’s header.
•
Packet Content Mask specifies a mask to hide the content of the packet
header.
This parameter is specified if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority previously
set in the Switch, which is used to determine the CoS queue to which packets are
forwarded to. Once this field is specified, packets accepted by the Switch that match
this priority are forwarded to the CoS queue specified previously by the user.
Priority (0-7)
Replace priority − Click the corresponding box if you want to re-write the 802.1p
default priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written
to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see
the QoS section of this manual.
Replace DSCP (063)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that
meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field.
VLAN Name
Allows the entry of a name for a previously configured VLAN.
Source IP
Source IP Address - Enter an IP Address mask for the source IP address.
Destination IP
Destination IP Address - Enter an IP Address mask for the destination IP address.
DSCP (0-63)
This field allows the user to enter a DSCP value in the space provided, which will
instruct the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of each packet header and use
this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding. The user may choose a value
between 0 and 63.
Protocol
This field allows the user to modify the protocol ID used in configuring the Access
Rule Table window; depending on which protocol the user has chosen in the Access
Profile Table window.
116
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Configure the Access Rule Configuration settings for the Packet Content Mask on the window below.
Figure 4- 79. Access Rule Configuration (Package Content Mask) window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
This is the identifier number for this profile set.
Mode
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded
by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that do not match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
117
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to
255.
Type
Selected profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IP address or packet content
mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of profile.
•
Ethernet instructs the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
•
IP instructs the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame’s header.
•
Packet Content Mask specifies a mask to hide the content of the packet
header.
This parameter is specified if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority previously
set in the Switch, which is used to determine the CoS queue to which packets are
forwarded to. Once this field is specified, packets accepted by the Switch that match
this priority are forwarded to the CoS queue specified previously by the user.
Priority (0-7)
Replace priority − Click the corresponding box if you want to re-write the 802.1p
default priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written
to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see
the QoS section of this manual.
This field will instruct the Switch to match the packet header beginning with the offset
value specified:
Offset
•
value (0-15) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from the
beginning of the packet to the 15th byte.
•
value (16-31) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 16 to
byte 31.
•
value (32-47) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 32 to
byte 47.
•
value (48-63) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 48 to
byte 63.
•
value (64-79) - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 64 to
byte 79.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
118
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 5
Security
Trusted Host
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Secure Shell (SSH)
Access Authentication Control
Trusted Host
The Security IP Management window allows you to specify the IP addresses of management stations (PCs) on your
network that will be allowed to access the Switch’s Web-based management agent.
You can enter up to three IP addresses of local hosts (on the same subnet as the Switch) that will be allowed to manage the
Switch. It is recommended that the IP address of the local host that will be used to manage the Switch be entered here to
avoid possible frequent disconnection from the Switch’s Web-based management agent.
Figure 5- 1. Security IP Management window
Use the Security IP Management to permit remote stations to manage the Switch. If you choose to define one or more
designated management stations, only the chosen stations, as defined by IP address, will be allowed management privilege
through the web manager or Telnet session. This IP address must be on the same subnet as the Switch. To define a
management station IP setting, type in the IP address and click the Apply button.
119
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Secure Sockets Layer or SSL is a security feature that will provide a secure communication path between a host and client
through the use of authentication, digital signatures and encryption. These security functions are implemented through the
use of a ciphersuite, which is a security string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption
algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session and consists of three levels:
Key Exchange: The first part of the ciphersuite string specifies the public key algorithm to be used. This switch
utilizes the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) public key algorithm and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), specified
here as the DHE DSS Diffie-Hellman (DHE) public key algorithm. This is the first authentication process between
client and host as they “exchange keys” in looking for a match and therefore authentication to be accepted to negotiate
encryptions on the following level.
Encryption: The second part of the ciphersuite that includes the encryption used for encrypting the messages sent
between client and host. The Switch supports two types of cryptology algorithms:
Stream Ciphers – There are two types of stream ciphers on the Switch, RC4 with 40-bit keys and RC4 with
128-bit keys. These keys are used to encrypt messages and need to be consistent between client and host for
optimal use.
CBC Block Ciphers – CBC refers to Cipher Block Chaining, which means that a portion of the previously
encrypted block of encrypted text is used in the encryption of the current block. The Switch supports the
3DES EDE encryption code defined by the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to create the encrypted text.
Hash Algorithm: This part of the ciphersuite allows the user to choose a message digest function that will determine
a Message Authentication Code. This Message Authentication Code will be encrypted with a sent message to provide
integrity and prevent against replay attacks. The Switch supports two hash algorithms, MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm).
These three parameters are uniquely assembled in four choices on the Switch to create a three-layered encryption code for
secure communication between the server and the host. The user may implement any one or combination of the
ciphersuites available, yet different ciphersuites will affect the security level and the performance of the secured
connection. The information included in the ciphersuites is not included with the Switch and requires downloading from a
third source in a file form called a certificate. This function of the Switch cannot be executed without the presence and
implementation of the certificate file and can be downloaded to the Switch by utilizing a TFTP server. The Switch supports
SSLv3 and TLSv1. Other versions of SSL may not be compatible with this switch and may cause problems upon
authentication and transfer of messages from client to host.
Download Certificate
This window is used to download a certificate file for the SSL function on the Switch from a TFTP server. The certificate
file is a data record used for authenticating devices on the network. It contains information on the owner, keys for
authentication and digital signatures. Both the server and the client must have consistent certificate files for optimal use of
the SSL function. The Switch only supports certificate files with .der file extensions and comes with one RSA certificate
already set in the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Secure Socket Layer (SSL) > Download Certificate:
Figure 5- 2. Download Certificate window
120
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
To download certificates, set the following parameters and click Apply.
Parameter
Description
Server IP
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server where the certificate files are located.
Certificate File Name
Enter the path and the filename of the certificate file to download. This file must have
a .der extension. (Ex. c:/cert.der)
Key File Name
Enter the path and the filename of the key file you wish to download. This file must
have a .der extension (Ex. c:/pkey.der)
Configuration
This window will allow the user to enable SSL on the Switch and implement any one or combination of listed ciphersuites
on the Switch. A ciphersuite is a security string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption
algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session. The Switch possesses four possible ciphersuites for the
SSL function, which are all enabled by default. To utilize a particular ciphersuite, disable the unwanted ciphersuites,
leaving the desired one for authentication. When the SSL function has been enabled, the web will become disabled. To
manage the Switch through the web based management while utilizing the SSL function, the web browser must support
SSL encryption and the header of the URL must begin with https://. (Ex. https://10.90.90.90) Any other method will result
in an error and no access can be authorized for the web-based management.
To view the following window, click Security > Secure Socket Layer (SSL) > Configuration:
Figure 5- 3. SSL Configuration window
To set up the SSL function on the Switch, configure the following parameters and click Apply.
Parameter
Description
RSA with RC4 128
MD5
This ciphersuite combines the RSA key exchange, stream cipher RC4 encryption with
128-bit keys and the MD5 Hash Algorithm. Use the pull-down menu to enable or
disable this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default.
RSA with 3DES EDE
CBC SHA
This ciphersuite combines the RSA key exchange, CBC Block Cipher 3DES_EDE
encryption and the SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable
this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default.
DHE DSS with 3DES
EDE CBC SHA
This ciphersuite combines the DSA Diffie Hellman key exchange, CBC Block Cipher
3DES_EDE encryption and SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the pull-down menu to enable
or disable this ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default.
121
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
RSA EXPORT with
RC4 40 MD5
This ciphersuite combines the RSA Export key exchange and stream cipher RC4
encryption with 40-bit keys. Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this
ciphersuite. This field is Enabled by default.
Status
You can individually enable or disable these four ciphersuites above or use this Status
drop-down menu to globally turn encryption on or off without changing the ciphersuite
settings you have already made. The default is Disabled.
NOTE: Certain implementations concerning the function and
configuration of SSL are not available on the web-based
management of this Switch and need to be configured using the
command line interface. For more information on SSL and its
functions, see the DGS-3212SR Command Line Reference
Manual, located on the documentation CD of this product.
NOTE: Enabling the SSL command will disable the web-based
switch management. To log on to the Switch again, the header of
the URL must begin with https://. Entering anything else into the
address field of the web browser will result in an error and no
authentication will be granted.
122
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Secure Shell (SSH)
SSH is the abbreviation of Secure Shell, which is a program allowing secure remote login and secure network services over
an insecure network. It allows you to securely login to remote host computers, to execute commands safely in a remote
computer and so forth, and to provide secure encrypted and authenticated communications between two non-trusted hosts.
SSH with its array of unmatched security features is an essential tool in today’s network environment. It is a powerful
guardian against the numerous security hazards that nowadays threaten network communications.
The steps required to use the SSH protocol for secure communication between a remote PC (the SSH Client) and the
Switch (the SSH Server), are as follows:
1. Create a user account with admin-level access using the User Accounts window in the Management
folder. This is identical to creating any other admin-lever User account on the Switch, including specifying a
password. This password is used to login to the Switch, once secure communication has been established
using the SSH protocol.
2. Configure the user account to use a specified authorization method to identify users that are allowed to
establish SSH connections with the Switch using the SSH User Authentication window. There are three
choices as to the method SSH will use to authorize the user, and they are Host Based, Password, Public Key,
and None.
3. Configure the encryption algorithm that SSH will use to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between the
SSH Client and the SSH Server, using the SSH Algorithm window.
4. Finally, enable SSH on the Switch using the SSH User Authentication window.
After following the above steps, you can configure an SSH Client on the remote PC and manage the Switch using secure,
in-band communication.
SSH Configuration
The following window is used to configure and view settings on the SSH server and can be opened by clicking Security >
Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH Configuration:
Figure 5- 4. Current SSH Configuration Settings window
123
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
To set up the SSH server on the Switch, configure the following parameters and click Apply.
Parameter
Description
SSH Server Status
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable SSH on the Switch. The default is
Disabled.
Max Session (1-8)
Enter a value between 1 and 8 to set the number of users that may simultaneously
access the Switch. The default is 8.
Time Out (120-600)
Allows the user to set the connection timeout. The user may set a time between 120
and 600 seconds. The default is 300 seconds.
Auth. Fail (2-20)
Allows the administrator to set the maximum number of attempts that a user may try
to log on to the SSH Server utilizing SSH authentication. After the maximum number
of attempts is exceeded, the Switch will be disconnected and the user must reconnect
to the Switch to attempt another login. The number of maximum attempts may be set
between 2 and 20. The default is 2.
Session Rekeying
The user may set the time period that the Switch will change the security shell
encryptions by using the pull-down menu. The options are Never, 10 min, 30 min, and
60 min. The default setting is Never.
Port (1-65535)
Enter the TCP port number associated with this function. The default TCP port
number for SSH is 22.
124
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SSH Algorithm
The Encryption Algorithm window allows the configuration of the desired types of SSH algorithm used for
authentication encryption. There are four categories of algorithms listed and specific algorithms in each may be enabled or
disabled by using their corresponding pull-own menu. All algorithms are enabled by default. To view the following
window, click Security > Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH Algorithm.
Figure 5- 5. Encryption Algorithm window
The user may set the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
Encryption Algorithm
3DES-CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Triple_Data Encryption Standard
encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
Blow-fish CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Blowfish encryption algorithm with
Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
125
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
AES128-CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES128 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
AES192-CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES192 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
AES256-CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES256 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
ARC4
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Arcfour encryption algorithm. The
default is Enabled.
Cast128-CBC
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Cast128 encryption algorithm with
Cipher Block Chaining. The default is Enabled.
Twofish128
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the twofish128 encryption algorithm. The
default is Enabled.
Twofish192
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the twofish192 encryption algorithm. The
default is Enabled.
Twofish256
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the twofish256 encryption algorithm. The
default is Enabled.
Data Integrity Algorithm
HMAC-SHA1
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Secure Hash Algorithm encryption. The
default is Enabled.
HMAC-MD5
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the MD5 Message Digest encryption
algorithm. The default is Enabled.
Public Key Algorithm
HMAC-RSA
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the RSA encryption algorithm. The default is
Enabled.
HMAC-DSA
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Digital Signature Algorithm encryption.
The default is Enabled.
Authentication Algorithm
Password
This parameter may be enabled if the administrator wishes to use a locally configured
password for authentication on the Switch. The default is Enabled.
Public Key
This parameter may be enabled if the administrator wishes to use a publickey
configuration set on a SSH server, for authentication. The default is Enabled.
Host-based
This parameter may be enabled if the administrator wishes to use a host computer for
authentication. This parameter is intended for Linux users requiring SSH
authentication techniques and the host computer is running the Linux operating
system with a SSH program previously installed. The default is Enabled.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
126
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SSH User Authentication
The following windows are user to configure parameters for users attempting to access the Switch through SSH. To access
the following window, click Security > Secure Shell (SSH) > SSH User Authentication.
Figure 5- 6. Current Accounts window
In the example window above, the user account “TheTrinity” has been previously set using the User Accounts window in
the Management folder. A user account MUST be set in order to set the parameters for the SSH user. To configure the
parameters for the SSH user, click on the hyperlinked user name in the window above, which will reveal the following
window.
Figure 5- 7. SSH User window
The user may set the following parameters:
Parameter
Description
User Name
Enter a username of no more than 15 characters to identify the SSH user. This User
Name must be a previously configured user account on the Switch.
Auth. Mode
The administrator may choose one of the following to set the authorization for users
attempting to access the Switch:
Host Based – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to use a
remote SSH server for authentication purposes. Choosing this parameter requires the
user to input the following information to identify the SSH user.
Host Name – Enter an alphanumeric string of up to 31 characters identifying
the remote SSH user.
Host IP – Enter the corresponding IP address of the SSH user.
Password – This parameter should be chosen if the user wishes to use an
administrator-defined password for authentication. Upon entry of this command, the
Switch will prompt the user for a password, and then to retype the password for
confirmation.
Public Key – This parameter should be chosen if the user wishes to use the public
key on a SSH server for authentication.
None – Choose this parameter if no authentication is desired.
127
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Host Name
Enter an alphanumeric string of up to 31 characters identifying the remote SSH user.
This parameter is only used in conjunction with the Host Based choice in the Auth.
Mode.
Host IP
Enter the corresponding IP address of the SSH user. This parameter is only used in
conjunction with the Host Based choice in the Auth. Mode.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
NOTE: To set the SSH User Authentication parameters on the Switch, a
user account must be previously configured. For more information on
configuring local user accounts on the Switch, see the Security IP section
of this document.
128
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Access Authentication Control
The TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS commands let you secure access to the Switch using the TACACS /
XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS protocols. When a user logs in to the Switch or tries to access the administrator level
privilege, he or she is prompted for a password. If TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS authentication is
enabled on the Switch, it will contact a TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify the user. If the user
is verified, he or she is granted access to the Switch.
There are currently three versions of the TACACS security protocol, each a separate entity. The Switch's software supports
the following versions of TACACS:
•
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) - Provides password checking and
authentication, and notification of user actions for security purposes utilizing via one or more centralized
TACACS servers, utilizing the UDP protocol for packet transmission.
•
Extended TACACS (XTACACS) - An extension of the TACACS protocol with the ability to provide more
types of authentication requests and more types of response codes than TACACS. This protocol also uses UDP
to transmit packets.
•
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System plus) - Provides detailed access control for
authentication for network devices. TACACS+ is facilitated through Authentication commands via one or more
centralized servers. The TACACS+ protocol encrypts all traffic between the Switch and the TACACS+ daemon,
using the TCP protocol to ensure reliable delivery
In order for the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS security function to work properly, a TACACS /
XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server must be configured on a device other than the Switch, called an Authentication
Server Host and it must include usernames and passwords for authentication. When the user is prompted by the Switch to
enter usernames and passwords for authentication, the Switch contacts the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS
server to verify, and the server will respond with one of three messages:
•
The server verifies the username and password, and the user is granted normal user privileges on the Switch.
•
The server will not accept the username and password and the user is denied access to the Switch.
•
The server doesn't respond to the verification query. At this point, the Switch receives the timeout from the
server and then moves to the next method of verification configured in the method list.
The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups, one for each of the TACACS, XTACACS, TACACS+ and
RADIUS protocols. These built-in Authentication Server Groups are used to authenticate users trying to access the Switch.
The users will set Authentication Server Hosts in a preferable order in the built-in Authentication Server Groups and when
a user tries to gain access to the Switch, the Switch will ask the first Authentication Server Hosts for authentication. If no
authentication is made, the second server host in the list will be queried, and so on. The built-in Authentication Server
Groups can only have hosts that are running the specified protocol. For example, the TACACS Authentication Server
Groups can only have TACACS Authentication Server Hosts.
The administrator for the Switch may set up six different authentication techniques per user-defined method list (TACACS
/ XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS / local / none) for authentication. These techniques will be listed in an order
preferable, and defined by the user for normal user authentication on the Switch, and may contain up to eight
authentication techniques. When a user attempts to access the Switch, the Switch will select the first technique listed for
authentication. If the first technique goes through its Authentication Server Hosts and no authentication is returned, the
Switch will then go to the next technique listed in the server group for authentication, until the authentication has been
verified or denied, or the list is exhausted.
Please note that users granted access to the Switch will be granted normal user privileges on the Switch. To gain access to
administrator level privileges, the user must access the Enable Admin window and then enter a password, which was
previously configured by the administrator of the Switch.
NOTE: TACACS, XTACACS, and TACACS+ are separate entities and are
not compatible. The Switch and the server must be configured exactly the
same, using the same protocol. (For example, if the Switch is set up for
TACACS authentication, so must be the host server.)
129
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Policy & Parameters
This command will enable an administrator-defined authentication policy for users trying to access the Switch. When
enabled, the device will check the Login Method List and choose a technique for user authentication upon login.
To access the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Policy & Parameters:
Figure 5- 8. Policy & Parameters Settings window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameters
Description
Authentication Policy
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Authentication Policy on the
Switch.
Response timeout (1-255)
This field will set the time the Switch will wait for a response of authentication
from the user. The user may set a time between 1 and 255 seconds. The
default setting is 30 seconds.
User attempts (1-255)
This command will configure the maximum number of times the Switch will
accept authentication attempts. Users failing to be authenticated after the set
amount of attempts will be denied access to the Switch and will be locked out
of further authentication attempts. Command line interface users will have to
wait 60 seconds before another authentication attempt. Telnet and web users
will be disconnected from the Switch. The user may set the number of
attempts from 1 to 255. The default setting is 3.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
130
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Application Authentication Settings
This window is used to configure switch configuration applications (console, Telnet, SSH, and web) for login at the user
level and at the administration level (Enable Admin) utilizing a previously configured method list.
Figure 5- 9. Application’s authentication settings window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Application
Lists the configuration applications on the Switch. The user may configure the Login
Method List and Enable Method List for authentication for users utilizing the Console
(Command Line Interface) application, the Telnet application, the Secure Shell (SSH)
application, and the Web (HTTP) application.
Login Method List
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application for normal login on the user level,
utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method List
or other Method List configured by the user. See the Login Method List Settings
window, in this section, for more information
Enable Method List
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application for normal login on the user level,
utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method List
or other Method List configured by the user. See the Enable Method List Settings
window, in this section, for more information
Click Apply to implement changes made.
131
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Authentication Server Group
This window will allow users to set up Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. A server group is a technique used
to group RADIUS, TACACS, TACACS+, and XTACACS server hosts into user-defined categories for authentication
using method lists. The user may define the type of server group by protocol or by previously defined server group. The
Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups that cannot be removed but can be modified. Up to eight
authentication server hosts may be added to any particular group.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Group:
Figure 5- 10. Authentication Server Group Settings window
This window displays the Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server
Groups that cannot be removed but can be modified. To modify a particular group, click its hyperlinked Group Name,
which will then display the following window.
Figure 5- 11. Add a Server Host to Server Group (radius) window
To add an Authentication Server Host to the list, enter its IP address in the IP Address field, choose the protocol associated
with the IP address of the Authentication Server Host (RADIUS, TACACS, TACACS+, or XTACACS) and click Add to add
this Authentication Server Host to the group.
To add a server group other than the ones listed, click the add button, revealing the following window to configure.
132
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 5- 12. Authentication Server Group Table Add Settings window
Enter a group name of up to 16 characters into the Group Name field and click Apply. The entry should appear in the
Authentication Server Group Settings window.
NOTE: The user must configure Authentication Server Hosts using the
Authentication Server Host Settings window before adding hosts to the
list. Authentication Server Hosts must be configured for their specific
protocol on a remote centralized server before this function can work
properly.
NOTE: The four built in server groups can only have server hosts running
the same TACACS / RADIUS daemon. RADIUS, TACACS, TACACS+,
and XTACACS protocols are separate entities and are not compatible
with each other.
133
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Authentication Server Host
This window will set user-defined Authentication Server Hosts for the RADIUS, TACACS, TACACS+, and XTACACS
security protocols on the Switch. When a user attempts to access the Switch with Authentication Policy enabled, the
Switch will send authentication packets to a remote RADIUS/TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ server host on a remote
host. The RADIUS/TACACS/TACACS+/XTACACS server host will then verify or deny the request and return the
appropriate message to the Switch. More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server host but,
remember that RADIUS/TACACS/TACACS+/XTACACS are separate entities and are not compatible with each other.
The maximum supported number of server hosts is 16.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Host:
Figure 5- 13. Authentication Server Host Settings window
To add an Authentication Server Host, click the Add button, revealing the following window:
Figure 5- 14. Authentication Server Host Setting – Add window
The user may also modify an existing Authentication Server Host by clicking the Hyperlinked IP Address in the
Authentication Server Host Settings window, which will display a similar window, as shown below.
134
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 5- 15. Authentication Server Host Setting – Edit window
Configure the following parameters to add or edit an Authentication Server Host:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
The IP address of the remote server host to add.
Protocol
The protocol used by the server host. The user may choose one of the following:
TACACS – Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS protocol.
XTACACS – Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the XTACACS protocol.
TACACS+ – Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS+ protocol.
RADIUS – Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the RADIUS protocol.
Port (1-65535)
Enter a number between 1 and 65535 to define the virtual port number of the
authentication protocol on a server host. The default port number is 49 for
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ and 1812 for RADIUS servers, but the user may set a
unique port number for higher security.
Timeout (1-255)
Enter the time in seconds the Switch will wait for the server host to reply to an
authentication request. The default value is 5 seconds.
Retransmit (1-255)
Enter the value in the retransmit field to change how many times the device will
resend an authentication request when the TACACS/RADIUS server does not
respond.
Key
Authentication key to be shared with a configured TACACS+ server only. Specify an
alphanumeric string up to 254 characters.
Click Apply to add the server host.
NOTE: More than one authentication protocol can be run on the
same physical server host but, remember that RADIUS, TACACS,
TACACS+, and XTACACS are separate entities and are not
compatible with each other
135
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Login Method Lists
This command will configure a user-defined or default Login Method List of authentication techniques for users logging
on to the Switch. The sequence of techniques implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For
example, if a user enters a sequence of techniques, for example TACACS – XTACACS – local, the Switch will send an
authentication request to the first TACACS host in the server group. If no response comes from the server host, the Switch
will send an authentication request to the second TACACS host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At
that point, the Switch will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no authentication
takes place using the XTACACS list, the local account database set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user. When the
local method is used, the privilege level will be dependant on the local account privilege configured on the Switch.
Successful login using any of these techniques will give the user a “user” privilege only. If the user wishes to upgrade his
or her status to the administrator level, the user must use the Enable Admin window, in which the user must enter a
previously configured password, set by the administrator. (See the Enable Admin part of this section for more detailed
information concerning the Enable Admin command.)
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Login Method Lists:
Figure 5- 16. Login Method Lists Settings window
The Switch contains one Method List that is set and cannot be removed, yet can be modified. To delete a Login Method
List defined by the user, click the
under the Delete heading corresponding to the entry desired to be deleted. To modify
a Login Method List, click on its hyperlinked Method List Name. To configure a Method List, click the Add button.
Both actions will result in the same window to configure:
Figure 5- 17. Login Method List – Add window
136
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 5- 18. Login Method List – Edit window
To define a Login Method List, set the following parameters and click Apply:
Parameter
Description
Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
Method 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication
methods to this method list:
local - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the local
user account database on the Switch.
none – Adding this parameter will require no authentication to access the Switch.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
tacacs – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
tacacs+ – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS+ protocol from a remote TACACS+ server.
xtacacs – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
137
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Enable Method Lists
This window is used to set up Method Lists to promote users with normal level privileges to Administrator level privileges
using authentication methods on the Switch. Once a user acquires normal user level privileges on the Switch, he or she
must be authenticated by a method on the Switch to gain administrator privileges on the Switch, which is defined by the
Administrator. A maximum of eight Enable Method Lists can be implemented on the Switch, one of which is a default
Enable Method List. This default Enable Method List cannot be deleted but can be configured.
The sequence of methods implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For example, if a user enters a
sequence of methods like TACACS – XTACACS – Local Enable, the Switch will send an authentication request to the
first TACACS host in the server group. If no verification is found, the Switch will send an authentication request to the
second TACACS host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch will restart the
same sequence with the following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no authentication takes place using the XTACACS list,
the Local Enable password set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user.
Successful authentication using any of these methods will give the user an “Admin” privilege.
NOTE: To set the Local Enable Password, see the next section, entitled
Local Enable Password.
To view the following table, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Method Lists:
Figure 5- 19. Enable Method List Settings window
To delete an Enable Method List defined by the user, click the
under the Delete heading corresponding to the entry
desired to be deleted. To modify an Enable Method List, click on its hyperlinked Enable Method List Name. To configure
a Method List, click the Add button.
Both actions will result in the same window to configure:
Figure 5- 20. Enable Method List – Add window
138
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 5- 21. Enable Method List – Edit window
To define an Enable Login Method List, set the following parameters and click Apply:
Parameter
Description
Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
Method 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication
methods to this method list:
local_enable - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the local enable password database on the Switch. The local enable password must
be set by the user in the next section, entitled Local Enable Password.
none – Adding this parameter will require no authentication to access the Switch.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
tacacs – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
tacacs+ – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS+ protocol from a remote TACACS+ server.
xtacacs – Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
139
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Local Enable Password
This window will configure the locally enabled password for Enable Admin. When a user chooses the Local_Enable
method to promote user level privileges to administrator privileges, he or she will be prompted to enter the password
configured here that is locally set on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Local Enable Password:
Figure 5- 22. Configure Local Enable Password window
To set the Local Enable Password, set the following parameters and click Apply.
Parameter
Description
Old Local Enable
If a password was previously configured for this entry, enter it here in order to change
it to a new password.
New Local Enable
Enter the new password that you wish to set on the Switch to authenticate users
attempting to access Administrator Level privileges on the Switch. The user may set a
password of up to 16 characters.
Confirm Local
Enable
Confirm the new password entered above. Entering a different password here from
the one set in the New Local Enabled field will result in a fail message.
140
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Enable Admin
This window is for users who have logged on to the Switch on the normal user level, and wish to be promoted to the
administrator level. After logging on to the Switch, users will have only user level privileges. To gain access to
administrator level privileges, the user will open this window and will have to enter an authentication password. Possible
authentication methods for this function include RADIUS, TACACS, TACACS+, and XTACACS, local enable (local
account on the Switch), or no authentication (none). Because XTACACS and TACACS do not support the enable function,
the user must create a special account on the server host, which has the username “enable”, and a password configured by
the administrator that will support the enable function. This function becomes inoperable when the authentication policy is
disabled.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Admin:
Figure 5- 23. Enable Admin window
When this window appears, click the Enable Admin button revealing a dialog box for the user to enter authentication
(password, username), as seen below. A successful entry will promote the user to Administrator level privileges on the
Switch.
Figure 5- 24. Enter Network Password dialog box
141
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 6
Management
User Accounts
SNMP Manager
User Accounts
Use the User Account Management window to control user privileges. To view existing User Accounts, open the
Management folder and click on the User Accounts link. This will open the User Account Management window, as
shown below.
Figure 6- 1. User Account Management window
To add a new user, click on the Add button. To modify or delete an existing user, click on the Modify button for that user.
Figure 6- 2. User Account Modify Table window
Add a new user by typing in a User Name, and New Password and retype the same password in the Confirm New
Password. Choose the level of privilege (Admin or User) from the Access Right drop-down menu.
Figure 6- 3. User Account Modify Table window
142
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Modify or delete an existing user account in the User Account Modify Table window. To delete the user account, click on
the Delete button. To change the password, type in the New Password and retype it in the Confirm New Password entry
field. Choose the level of privilege (Admin or User) from the Access Right drop-down menu.
Admin and User Privileges
There are two levels of user privileges: Admin and User. Some menu selections available to users with Admin privileges
may not be available to those with User privileges.
The following table summarizes the Admin and User privileges:
Management
Admin
User
Configuration
Yes
Read Only
Network Monitoring
Yes
Read Only
Community Strings and Trap Stations
Yes
Read Only
Update Firmware and Configuration Files
Yes
No
System Utilities
Yes
No
Factory Reset
Yes
No
Add/Update/Delete User Accounts
Yes
No
View User Accounts
Yes
No
User Account Management
Table 6- 1. Admin and User Privileges
After establishing a User Account with Admin-level privileges, be sure to save the changes (see below).
SNMP
SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed specifically for managing
and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management stations to read and modify the settings of
gateways, routers, switches, and other network devices. Use SNMP to configure system features for proper operation,
monitor performance and detect potential problems in the Switch, switch group or network.
Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on the device. A
defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These objects
are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides a standard presentation of the information
controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to
access this information over the network.
The DGS-3212SR supports the SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. You can specify which version of the SNMP you want to use
to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of security provided between the
management station and the network device.
In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using 'community strings', which function like passwords. The
remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same community string. SNMP packets from any
station that has not been authenticated are ignored (dropped).
The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
public - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects.
private - Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
143
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMPv3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part is to maintain a list
of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second part describes what each user on that
list can do as an SNMP manager.
The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The SNMP version may also
be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of SNMP managers that are allowed to view
read-only information or receive traps using SNMPv1 while assigning a higher level of security to another group, granting
read/write privileges using SNMPv3.
Using SNMPv3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be restricted from performing
specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted are defined using the Object Identifier (OID)
associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of security is available for SNMPv3 in that SNMP messages may be
encrypted. To read more about how to configure SNMPv3 settings for the Switch read the next section.
Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as a
reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status change. The Switch generates traps
and sends them to the trap recipient (or network manager). Typical traps include trap messages for Authentication Failure,
Topology Change and Broadcast\Multicast Storm.
MIBs
Management and counter information are stored by the Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB). The Switch
uses the standard MIB-II Management Information Base module. Consequently, values for MIB objects can be retrieved
from any SNMP-based network management software. In addition to the standard MIB-II, the Switch also supports its own
proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended Management Information Base. The proprietary MIB may also be retrieved by
specifying the MIB Object Identifier. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write.
The DGS-3212SR incorporates a flexible SNMP management for the switching environment. SNMP management can be
customized to suit the needs of the networks and the preferences of the network administrator. Use the SNMP V3 menus to
select the SNMP version used for specific tasks.
The DGS-3212SR supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) versions 1, 2c, and 3. The administrator
can specify the SNMP version used to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of
security provided between the management station and the network device.
SNMP settings are configured using the menus located on the SNMP V3 folder of the web manager. Workstations on the
network that are allowed SNMP privileged access to the Switch can be restricted with the Management Station IP Address
menu.
SNMP User Table
The SNMP User Table displays all of the SNMP User’s currently configured on the Switch.
Open the Management folder and then the SNMP Manager folder. Finally, click on the SNMP User Table link. This
will open the SNMP User Table window, as shown below.
Figure 6- 4. SNMP User Table window
To delete an existing SNMP User Table entry, click on the X icon below the Delete heading corresponding to the entry you
want to delete.
144
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP User Table Display
To display the detailed entry for a given user, click on the blue hyperlinked User Name. This will open the SNMP User
Table Display window, as shown below.
Figure 6- 5. SNMP User Table Display window
The following parameters are displayed:
Parameter
Description
User Name
An alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the SNMP
users.
Group Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages.
SNMP Version
V1 - Indicates that SNMP version 1 is in use.
V2 - Indicates that SNMP version 2 is in use.
V3 - Indicates that SNMP version 3 is in use.
Auth-Protocol
None - Indicates that no authorization protocol is in use.
MD5 - Indicates that the HMAC-MD5-96 authentication level will be used.
SHA - Indicates that the HMAC-SHA authentication protocol will be used.
Priv-Protocol
None - Indicates that no authorization protocol is in use.
DES - Indicates that DES 56-bit encryption is in use based on the CBC-DES (DES56) standard.
To add a new entry to the SNMP User Table, click on the Add button on the SNMP User Table window. This will open
the SNMP User Table Configuration window, as shown below.
145
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 6- 6. SNMP User Table Configuration window
The following parameters can set:
Parameter
Description
User Name
Enter an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the SNMP
user.
Group Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages.
SNMP Version
V1 - Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
V2 - Specifies that SNMP version 2 will be used.
V3 - Specifies that SNMP version 3 will be used.
Auth-Protocol
MD5 - Specifies that the HMAC-MD5-96 authentication level will be used. This field is
only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the Encryption field
has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
SHA - Specifies that the HMAC-SHA authentication protocol will be used. This field is
only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the Encryption field
has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
Priv-Protocol
None - Specifies that no authorization protocol is in use.
DES - Specifies that DES 56-bit encryption is in use, based on the CBC-DES (DES56) standard. This field is only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version
field and the Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to
enter a password between 8 and 16 alphanumeric characters.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
146
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP View Table
The SNMP View Table is used to assign views to community strings that define which MIB objects can be accessed by a
remote SNMP manager. To view the SNMP View Table window, open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the
Management folder, and click the SNMP View Table entry. The following window should appear:
Figure 6- 7. SNMP View Table window
To delete an existing SNMP View Table entry, click the X button listed under Delete on the far left that corresponds to
View Name. To create a new entry, click the Add button, a separate window will appear.
Figure 6- 8. SNMP View Table Configuration window
The SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table window) to the views
created in the previous window.
The following parameters can set:
Parameter
Description
View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new
SNMP view being created.
Subtree OID
Type the Object Identifier (OID) Subtree for the view. The OID identifies an object tree
(MIB tree) that will be included or excluded from access by an SNMP manager.
View Type
Select Included to include this object in the list of objects that an SNMP manager can
access. Select Excluded to exclude this object from the list of objects that an SNMP
manager can access.
147
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP Group Table
An SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the views created in the
previous menu. To view the SNMP Group Table, open the SNMP Manager folder in the Management folder and click
the SNMP Group Table entry. The following window should appear:
Figure 6- 9. SNMP Group Table window
To delete an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the corresponding X icon under the Delete heading.
To display the current settings for an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the blue hyperlink for the entry under the
Group Name heading, revealing the following window.
Figure 6- 10. SNMP Group Table Display window
To add a new entry to the Switch’s SNMP Group Table, click the Add button in the upper left-hand corner of the SNMP
Group Table window. This will open the SNMP Group Table Configuration window, as shown below.
148
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 6- 11. SNMP Group Table Configuration window
The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
Description
Group Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new
SNMP group of SNMP users.
Read View Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages.
Write View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that are allowed SNMP write privileges to
the Switch's SNMP agent.
Notify View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that can receive SNMP trap messages
generated by the Switch's SNMP agent.
Security Model
SNMPv1 - Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 - Specifies that SNMP version 2c will be used. The SNMPv2 supports both
centralized and distributed network management strategies. It includes
improvements in the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and adds some
security features.
SNMPv3 - Specifies that the SNMP version 3 will be used. SNMPv3 provides
secure access to devices through a combination of authentication and encrypting
packets over the network.
Security Level
The Security Level settings only apply to SNMPv3.
•
NoAuthNoPriv - Specifies that there will be no authorization and no
encryption of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP
manager.
•
AuthNoPriv - Specifies that authorization will be required, but there will be
no encryption of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP
manager.
•
AuthPriv - Specifies that authorization will be required, and that packets
sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manger will be encrypted.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
149
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP Community Table
Use this table to create an SNMP community string to define the relationship between the SNMP manager and an agent.
The community string acts like a password to permit access to the agent on the Switch. One or more of the following
characteristics can be associated with the community string:
•
An Access List of IP addresses of SNMP managers that are permitted to use the community string to gain access
to the Switch's SNMP agent.
•
Any MIB view that defines the subset of all MIB objects will be accessible to the SNMP community.
•
Read/write or read-only level permission for the MIB objects accessible to the SNMP community.
To configure SNMP Community entries, open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the Management folder, and click
the SNMP Community Table link, which will open the following screen:
Figure 6- 12. SNMP Community Table Configuration window
The following parameters can set:
Parameter
Description
Community Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify members of
an SNMP community. This string is used like a password to give remote SNMP
managers access to MIB objects in the Switch's SNMP agent.
View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify the group
of MIB objects that a remote SNMP manager is allowed to access on the Switch. The
view name must exist in the SNMP View Table.
Access Right
Read Only - Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string
created can only read the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
Read Write - Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string
created can read from, and write to the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
150
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP Host Table
Use the SNMP Host Table to set up SNMP trap recipients.
Open the SNMP Manager folder, located in the Management folder, and click on the SNMP Host Table link. This will
open the SNMP Host Table page, as shown below.
To delete an existing SNMP Host Table entry, click the corresponding
under the Delete heading.
To display the current settings for an existing SNMP Group Table entry, click the blue link for the entry under the Host
IP Address heading.
Figure 6- 13. SNMP Host Table window
To add a new entry to the Switch’s SNMP Group Table, click the Add button in the upper left-hand corner of the SNMP
Host Table window. This will open the SNMP Host Table Configuration window, as shown below.
Figure 6- 14. SNMP Host Table Configuration window
The following parameters can set:
Parameter
Description
Host IP Address
Type the IP address of the remote management station that will serve as the SNMP
host for the Switch.
SNMP Version
V1 - To specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
V2 - To specify that SNMP version 2 will be used.
V3-NoAuth-NoPriv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a
NoAuth-NoPriv security level.
V3-Auth-NoPriv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an AuthNoPriv security level.
V3-Auth-Priv - To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-Priv
security level.
Community String or
SNMP V3 User Name
Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
151
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SNMP Engine ID
The Engine ID is a unique identifier used for SNMP V3 implementations. This is an alphanumeric string used to identify
the SNMP engine on the Switch.
To display the Switch's SNMP Engine ID, open the SNMP Manger folder, located in the Management folder and click
on the SNMP Engine ID link. This will open the SNMP Engine ID Configuration window, as shown below.
Figure 6- 15. SNMP Engine ID Configuration window
To change the Engine ID, type the new Engine ID in the space provided and click the Apply button.
152
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 7
Monitoring
Stack Information
Port Utilization
CPU Utilization
Packets
Errors
Size
MAC Address
Switch History Log
IGMP Snooping Group
IGMP Snooping Forwarding
VLAN Status
Router Port
Session Table
The DGS-3212SR provides extensive network monitoring capabilities that can be viewed from the Monitoring folder.
153
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Stack Information
The DGS-3212SR Switch can be used as a standalone high-capacity Switch or be used in a stacked arrangement. There are
two hardware requirements to use the Switch in a stacked group:
1.
The proper module(s) must be installed to use the DES-3226S. One or two DEM-540, DEM-340T or the
DEM-340MG Stacking modules must be installed in order to use the Switch in a stacked configuration.
2.
Slave Switch units in a stacked Switch group must be one of the Switch models intended for use with the
DGS-3212SR, namely DES-3226S Switches. The user may employ any combination of these two switches in a star
topology.
One stacking module can be installed to stack up to four additional slave Switch units or two modules can be installed to
stack up to eight additional slave Switch units.
The DES-3226S will stack with the DGS-3212SR with a gigabit Ethernet connection or over IEEE 1394 fire wire cabling.
One of these ports MUST be connected to module port number 26 to the far right of the DES-3226S for the proper stacking
implementation to function correctly.
The web manager can be used to enable or disable the stacking mode and to enable stacking for any of the built-in
combination ports.
The Switch stack displayed in the upper right-hand corner of your web-browser is a virtual representation of the actual
stack. The icons appear in the same order as their respective Switches.
When the Switches are properly interconnected, information about the resulting Switch stack is displayed in the Stack
Mode Setup window. To view stacking information or to enable/disable the stacking mode, click the Stack Information
link in the Monitoring folder.
Figure 7- 1. Stack Mode Setup (stacking disabled) window
To enable the stacking mode, follow the steps listed below.
1. Select Enable from the Stack Mode State drop-down menu.
2. Click on the Apply button.
To enable stacking for one or more built-in combination ports, do the following:
1. Select Enable from the Stack Mode State drop-down menu.
2. Select the Stack Port by clicking to check a corresponding selection box.
154
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
The Stack Information Table displays the read-only information listed in the table on the next page.
The current order in the Switch stack is also displayed on the front panel of each slave Switch, under the STACK NO.
heading. The Stack ID LED display on the front panel of the DGS-3212SR will always display an F (15 in hex), regardless
of whether the DGS-3212SR is the master Switch in a Switch stack or in standalone mode.
Below is an example of the Stack Mode Setup window with stacking mode enabled on Port 2.
Figure 7- 2. Stack Mode Setup (stacking enabled) window
Variables in this window are described below:
Parameter
Description
ID
Displays the Switch’s order in the stack. The Switch with a unit id of 1 is the master
Switch.
MAC Address
Displays the unique address of the Switch assigned by the factory.
Port Range
Displays the total number of ports on the Switch. Note that the stacking port is
included in the total count.
Mode
Displays the method used to determine the stacking order of the Switches in the
Switch stack.
Version
Displays the version number of the stacking firmware.
RPS Status
Displays the status of an optional Redundant Power Supply.
Model Name
Displays the model name of the corresponding Switch in a stack.
When the stacked group is connected and properly configured, the virtual stack appears in the upper right-hand corner of
the web page.
155
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 3. Stack Information web page
156
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Port Utilization
The Port Utilization window displays the percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port.
To view the port utilization, click on the Monitoring folder and then the Port Utilization link:
Figure 7- 4. Utilization window
The following field can be set:
Parameter
Description
Unit
Allows you to specify a Switch in a Switch stack using that Switch’s Unit ID. The
number 15 indicates a Switch in standalone mode.
Port
Allows you to specify a port to monitor from the Switch selected above.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where “s” stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Show/Hide
Check to display Utilization.
157
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
CPU Utilization
This CPU Utilization window displays the moving average of the CPU.
To view the CPU utilization, click on the Monitoring folder and then the CPU Utilization link:
Figure 7- 5. CPU Utilization window
The following field can be set:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where “s” stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Show/Hide
Check to display Utilization.
158
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Packets
Various statistics can be viewed as either a line graph or a table:
•
Received Packets
•
Received Unicast/Multicast/Broadcast Packets
•
Transmitted Packet
Received Packets
Click the Received (RX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of packets
received on the Switch. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch in the Switch stack by using the
Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use the real-time
graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
Figure 7- 6. Rx Packets Analysis (line graph for Bytes & Packets) window
159
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 7. Rx Packets Analysis (table for Bytes & Packets) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following field can be set:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Bytes
Counts the number of bytes received on the port.
Packets
Counts the number of packets received on the port.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast address.
Show/Hide
Check whether to display Bytes and Packets.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
160
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Received Unicast/Multicast/Broadcast Packets
Click the UMB Cast (RX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of UMB cast
packets received on the Switch. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch in the Switch stack by
using the Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use the realtime graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
Figure 7- 8. Rx Packets Analysis (line graph for Unicast, Multicast, & Broadcast) window
161
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 9. Rx Packets Analysis (table for Unicast, Multicast, & Broadcast) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following fields can be set:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast address.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Multicast, Broadcast, and Unicast Packets.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
162
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Transmitted Packets
Click the Transmitted (TX) link in the Packets folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of packets
transmitted from the Switch. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch in the Switch stack by using
the Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull down menu. The user may also use the real-time
graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
Figure 7- 10. Tx Packets Analysis (line graph for Bytes & Packets) window
163
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 11. Tx Packets Analysis (table for Bytes & Packets) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following fields can be set or are displayed:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Bytes
Counts the number of bytes successfully sent from the port.
Packets
Counts the number of packets successfully sent on the port.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a unicast address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a multicast
address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a broadcast
address.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Bytes and Packets.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
164
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Errors
Various statistics can be viewed as either a line graph or a table:
•
Received Errors
•
Transmitted Errors
Received Errors
Click the Received (RX) link in the Error folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of error packets
received on the Switch. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch in the Switch stack by using the
Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use the real-time
graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
Figure 7- 12. Rx Error Analysis (line graph) window
165
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 13. Rx Error Analysis (table) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following fields can be set or are displayed:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
Crc Error
Counts otherwise valid packets that did not end on a byte (octet) boundary.
UnderSize
The number of packets detected that are less than the minimum permitted packets
size of 64 bytes and have a good CRC. Undersize packets usually indicate collision
fragments, a normal network occurrence.
OverSize
Counts packets received that were longer than 1518 octets, or if a VLAN frame is
1522 octets, and less than the MAX_PKT_LEN. Internally, MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to
1522.
Fragment
The number of packets less than 64 bytes with either bad framing or an invalid CRC.
These are normally the result of collisions.
Jabber
The number of packets with lengths more than the MAX_PKT_LEN bytes. Internally,
MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to 1522.
Drop
The number of packets that are dropped by this port since the last Switch reboot.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Crc Error, Under Size, Over Size, Fragment, Jabber,
and Drop errors.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
166
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Transmitted Errors
Click the Transmitted (TX) link in the Error folder of the Monitoring menu to view the following graph of error packets
received on the Switch. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch in the switch stack by using the
Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use the real-time
graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
Figure 7- 14. Tx Error Analysis (line graph) window
167
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 15. Tx Error Analysis (table) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following fields can be set:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number
<200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
ExDefer
Counts the number of packets for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface was delayed because the medium was busy.
CRC Error
Counts otherwise valid packets that did not end on a byte (octet) boundary.
LateColl
Counts the number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into the
transmission of a packet.
ExColl
Excessive Collisions. The number of packets for which transmission failed due to
excessive collisions.
SingColl
Single Collision Frames. The number of successfully transmitted packets for which
transmission is inhibited by more than one collision.
Coll
An estimate of the total number of collisions on this network segment.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display ExDefer, LateColl, ExColl, SingColl, and Coll errors.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
168
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Size
Various statistics can be viewed as either a line graph or a table:
•
Packet Size
Packet Size
The Web Manager allows packets received by the Switch, arranged in six groups and classed by size, to be viewed as
either a line graph or a table. Two windows are offered. To select a port to view these statistics for, first select the Switch
in the Switch stack by using the Unit pull-down menu and then select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user
may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a
port.
Figure 7- 16. Packet Size Analysis (line graph) window
169
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 7- 17. Packet Size Analysis (table) window
Select the desired Switch using the Unit drop-down menu and the desired port using the Port drop-down menu. The Time
Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated.
The following field can be set:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval <1s>
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The
default value is one second.
Record Number <200>
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default
value is 200.
64
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets in
length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 65
and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
128-255
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
256-511
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
512-1023
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
1024-1518
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display 64, 65-127, 128-255, 256-511, 512-1023, and
1024-1518 packets received.
Clear
Clicking this button clears all statistics counters on this window.
View Table
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a table rather than a line graph.
View Line Chart
Clicking this button instructs the Switch to display a line graph rather than a table.
170
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MAC Address
This allows the Switch’s dynamic MAC address forwarding table to be viewed. When the Switch learns an association
between a MAC address and a port number, it makes an entry into its forwarding table. These entries are then used to
forward packets through the Switch.
Figure 7- 18. MAC Address Table window
The following fields can be set:
171
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Enter a VLAN Name for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
MAC Address
Enter a MAC address for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
Unit – Port
Select the Switch Unit ID of the Switch in the Switch stack and then the port by using
the corresponding pull-down menus.
Find
Allows the user to move to a sector of the database corresponding to a user defined
port, VLAN, or MAC address.
VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN of which the port is a member.
MAC Address
The MAC address entered into the address table.
Unit
Refers to the Unit of the Switch stack from which the MAC address was learned.
Port
The port to which the MAC address above corresponds.
Type
Describes the method which the Switch discovered the MAC address. The possible
entries are Dynamic, Self, and Static.
Next
Click this button to view the next page of the address table.
Clear Dynamic
Entry
Clicking this button will clear Dynamic entries learned by the Switch. This may be
accomplished by VLAN Name or by Port.
View All Entry
Clicking this button will allow the user to view all entries of the address table.
Delete All Entry
Clicking this button will allow the user to delete all entries of the address table.
172
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Switch History Log
The Switch History window displays the Switch’s history log, as compiled by the Switch’s management agent.
Figure 7- 19. Switch History window
The Switch can record event information in its own logs, to designated SNMP trap receiving stations, and to the PC
connected to the console manager. Clicking Next at the bottom of the window will allow you to display all the Switch Trap
Logs.
The information is described as follows:
Parameter
Description
Sequence
A counter incremented whenever an entry to the Switch’s history log is made. The table
displays the last entry (highest sequence number) first.
Time
Displays the time in days, hours, and minutes since the Switch was last restarted.
Log Text
Displays text describing the event that triggered the history log entry.
173
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
IGMP Snooping Table
This window allows the Switch’s IGMP Snooping Group Table to be viewed. IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read
the Multicast Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass through the Switch. The
number of IGMP reports that were snooped is displayed in the Reports field.
To view the IGMP Snooping Group Table window, click IGMP Snooping Group on the Monitoring menu:
Figure 7- 20. IGMP Snooping Table window
The user may search the IGMP Snooping Group Table by VLAN Name by entering it in the top left hand corner and
clicking Search.
The following field can be set:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
Multicast Group
The IP address of the multicast group.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the multicast group.
Reports
The total number of reports received for this group.
Port Member
These are the ports where the IGMP packets were snooped are displayed.
174
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
NOTE: To configure IGMP snooping for the xStack family of switches, go
to the Configuration folder and select IGMP Snooping. Configuration
and other information concerning IGMP snooping may be found in Section
6 of this manual under IGMP Snooping.
IGMP Snooping Forwarding
This window will display the current IGMP snooping forwarding table entries currently configured on the Switch. To view
the following screen, open the Monitoring folder and click the IGMP Snooping Forwarding link.
Figure 7- 21. IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table
The user may search the IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table by VLAN Name using the top left hand corner Search.
The following field can be viewed:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
Source IP
The Source IP address of the multicast group.
Multicast Group
The IP address of the multicast group.
Port Map
These are the ports where the IP multicast packets are being forwarded to.
175
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
VLAN Status
This window displays the status of VLANs on any Switch in a Switch stack managed by a DGS-3212SR.
Figure 7- 22. VLAN Status window
176
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Router Port
This displays which of the Switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports. A router port configured by a user (using
the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by S. A router port that is
dynamically configured by the Switch is designated by D.
Figure 7- 23. Browse Router Port window
177
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Session Table
This window displays the management sessions since the Switch was last rebooted.
Figure 7- 24. Current Session Table window
178
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 8
Maintenance
TFTP Services
PING Test
Save Changes
Factory Reset
Restart System
Logout
TFTP Services
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) services allow the Switch firmware to be upgraded by transferring a new firmware
file from a TFTP server to the Switch. A configuration file can also be loaded into the Switch from a TFTP server, Switch
settings can be saved to the TFTP server, and a history log can be uploaded from the Switch to the TFTP server.
Download Firmware
To update the Switch’s firmware, click on the Maintenance folder and then the TFTP Services folder and then the
Download Firmware link:
Figure 8- 1. Download Firmware window
Use the Unit Number drop-down menu to select which Switch of a Switch stack on which you want to update the
firmware. This allows the selection of a particular Switch from a Switch stack if you have installed the optional stacking
module and have properly interconnected the Switches. The number 15 indicates a Switch in standalone mode.
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server in the Server IP Address field.
The TFTP server must be on the same IP subnet as the Switch.
Enter the path and the filename to the firmware file on the TFTP server. The TFTP server must be running TFTP server
software to perform the file transfer. TFTP server software is a part of many network management software packages –
such as NetSight, or can be obtained as a separate program.
Click Start to record the IP address of the TFTP server.
179
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Download Configuration File
To download a configuration file from a TFTP server, click on the Maintenance folder and then the TFTP Service folder
and then the Download Configuration File link:
Figure 8- 2. Use Configuration File on Server window
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and specify the location of the Switch configuration file on the TFTP server.
Click Apply to record the IP address of the TFTP server.
Click Start to initiate the file transfer.
Upload Configuration
To upload the Switch settings to a TFTP server, click on the Maintenance folder and then the TFTP Service folder and
then the Save Settings link:
Figure 8- 3. Save Settings to TFTP Server window
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and the path and filename for the history log on the TFTP server. Click Apply to
make the changes current.
Click Start to initiate the file transfer.
Upload Log
To upload the Switch history log file to a TFTP server, click on the Maintenance folder and then the TFTP Service folder
and then the Save History Log link:
Figure 8- 4. Save Switch History To TFTP Server window
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and the path and filename for the history log on the TFTP server. Click Apply to
make the changes current.
Click Start to initiate the file transfer
180
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Ping Test
PING is a small program that sends data packets to the IP address you specify. The destination node then returns the
packets to the Switch. This is very useful to verify connectivity between the Switch and other nodes on the network.
Figure 8- 5. Ping Test window
The Infinite times checkbox, in the Repeat Pinging for field, tells PING to keep sending data packets to the specified IP
address until the program is stopped.
Save Changes
The DGS-3212SR has two levels of memory; normal RAM and non-volatile or NV-RAM. Configuration changes are made
effective clicking the Apply button. When this is done, the settings will be immediately applied to the Switching software
in RAM, and will immediately take effect.
Some settings, though, require you to restart the Switch before they will take effect. Restarting the Switch erases all
settings in RAM and reloads the stored settings from the NV-RAM. Thus, it is necessary to save all setting changes to NVRAM before rebooting the Switch.
To retain any configuration changes permanently, click the Save Configuration button in window below.
Figure 8- 6. Save Configuration window
Once the Switch configuration settings have been saved to NV-RAM, they become the default settings for the Switch.
These settings will be used every time the Switch is rebooted.
181
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Factory Reset
The Factory Reset function has several options when resetting the Switch. Some of the current configuration parameters
can be retained while resetting all other configuration parameters to their factory defaults.
Please note that the Reset System option will enter the factory default parameters into the Switch’s non-volatile RAM, and
then restart the Switch. All other options enter the factory defaults into the current configuration, but do not save this
configuration. Reset System will return the Switch’s configuration to the state it was when it left the factory.
Reset gives the option of retaining the Switch’s User Accounts and History Log while resetting all other configuration
parameters to their factory defaults. If the Switch is reset with this option enabled, and Save Changes is not executed, the
Switch will return to the last saved configuration when rebooted.
The Reset Config option will reset all of the Switch’s configuration parameters to their factory defaults, without saving
these default values to the Switch’s non-volatile RAM. If the Switch is reset with this option enabled, and Save Changes is
not executed, the Switch will return to the last saved configuration when rebooted.
In addition, the Reset System option is added to reset all configuration parameters to their factory defaults, save these
parameters to the Switch’s non-volatile RAM, and then restart the Switch. This option is equivalent to Reset Config
(above) followed by Save Changes.
Figure 8- 7. Factory Reset to Default Value window
182
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Restart System
The following window is used to restart the Switch.
Clicking the Yes click-box will instruct the Switch to save the current configuration to non-volatile RAM before restarting
the Switch.
Clicking the No click-box instructs the Switch not to save the current configuration before restarting the Switch. All of the
configuration information entered from the last time Save Changes was executed will be lost.
Click the Restart button to restart the Switch.
Figure 8- 8. Restart System window
Logout
Use this window to logout of the Switch’s Web-based management agent by clicking on the Log Out button.
Figure 8- 9. Logout Web Setups window
183
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Section 9
Single IP Management
SIM Settings
Topology
Firmware Upgrade
Configuration Backup/Restore
Simply put, Single IP Management is a concept that will stack switches together over Ethernet instead of using stacking
ports or modules. There are some advantages to implement “Single IP Management” feature:
1. SIM can simplify management of small workgroups or wiring closets while scaling the network to handle
increased bandwidth demand.
2. SIM can reduce the number of IP address needed in your network.
3. SIM can eliminate any specialized cables for stacking connectivity and remove the distance barriers that
typically limit your topology options when using other stacking technology.
Switches using Single IP Management (labeled here as SIM) must conform to the following rules:
→
SIM is an optional feature on the Switch and can easily be enabled or disabled through the Command
Line Interface. SIM grouping has no effect on the normal operation of the Switch in the user’s network.
→
There are three classifications for switches using SIM. The Commander Switch (CS), which is the master
switch of the group, Member Switch (MS), which is a switch that is recognized by the CS a member of a SIM
group, and a Candidate Switch (CaS), which is a Switch that has a physical link to the SIM group but has not been
recognized by the CS as a member of the SIM group.
→
A SIM group can only have one Commander Switch (CS).
→
All switches in a particular SIM group must be in the same IP subnet (broadcast domain). Members of a
SIM group cannot cross a router.
→
0).
A SIM group accepts up to 32 switches (numbered 0-31), including the Commander Switch (numbered
→
There is no limit to the number of SIM groups in the same IP subnet (broadcast domain), however a
single switch can only belong to one group.
→
If multiple VLANs are configured, the SIM group will only utilize the default VLAN on any switch.
→
SIM allows intermediate devices that do not support SIM. This enables the user to manage a switch that
is more than one hop away from the CS.
The SIM group is a group of switches that are managed as a single entity. The DGS-3212SR may take on three different
roles:
→
Commander Switch (CS) – This is a switch that has been manually configured as the controlling device for a
group, and takes on the following characteristics:
It has an IP Address.
It is not a command switch or member switch of another Single IP group.
It is connected to the member switches through its management VLAN.
→
Member Switch (MS) – This is a switch that has joined a single IP group and is accessible from the CS, and it
takes on the following characteristics:
184
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
It is not a CS or MS of another IP group.
It is connected to the CS through the CS management VLAN.
→
Candidate Switch (CaS) – This is a switch that is ready to join a SIM group but is not yet a member of the SIM
group. The Candidate Switch may join the SIM group through an automatic function of the DGS-3212SR, or by manually
configuring it to be a MS of a SIM group. A switch configured as a CaS is not a member of a SIM group and will take on
the following characteristics:
It is not a CS or MS of another Single IP group.
It is connected to the CS through the CS management VLAN
The following rules also apply to the above roles:
→
Each device begins in a Commander state.
→
CS’s must change their role to CaS and then to MS, to become a MS of a SIM group. Thus the CS cannot
directly be converted to a MS.
→
The user can manually configure a CS to become a CaS.
A MS can become a CaS by:
→ Being configured as a CaS through the CS.
→ If report packets from the CS to the MS time-out.
→ The user can manually configure a CaS to become a CS
→ The CaS can be configured through the CS to become a MS.
After configuring one switch to operate as the CS of a SIM group, additional DGS-3212SR switches may join the group
either by an automatic method or by manually configuring the Switch to be a MS. The CS will then serve as the in band
entry point for access to the MS. The CS’s IP address will become the path to all MS’s of the group and the CS’s
Administrator’s password, and/or authentication will control access to all MS’s of the SIM group.
With SIM enabled, the applications in the CS will redirect the packet instead of executing the packets. The applications
will decode the packet from the administrator, modify some data, and then send it to the MS. After execution, the CS may
receive a response packet from the MS, which it will encode and send it back to the administrator.
When a CaS becomes a MS, it automatically becomes a member of the first SNMP community (include read/write and
read only) to which the CS belongs. However, if a MS has its own IP address, it can belong to SNMP communities to
which other switches in the group, including the CS, do not belong.
All DGS-3212SR switches are set as Candidate (CaS) switches, as their factory default configuration and the Single IP
Management feature will be disabled. To enable SIM for the Switch using the Web interface, go to the Single IP
Management folder and click the SIM Settings link, revealing the following window.
185
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
SIM Settings
The DGS-3212SR is set as a Candidate (CaS) switch as its factory default configuration and Single IP Management will be
disabled. To enable SIM for the Switch using the Web interface, go to the Single IP Management folder and click the
SIM Settings link, revealing the following window.
Figure 9- 1. SIM Settings window (disabled)
Change the SIM State to Enabled using the pull down menu and click Apply. The window will then refresh and the SIM
Settings window will look like this:
Figure 9- 2. SIM Settings window (enabled)
The following parameters can be set:
Parameters
Description
SIM State
Use the pull down menu to either enable or disable the SIM state on the Switch. Disabled
will render all SIM functions on the Switch inoperable.
Role State
Use the pull down menu to change the SIM role of the Switch. The two choices are:
Candidate - A Candidate Switch (CaS) is not the member of a SIM group but is connected
to a Commander Switch. This is the default setting for the SIM role of the DGS-3212SR.
Commander - Choosing this parameter will make the Switch a Commander Switch (CS).
The user may join other switches to this Switch, over Ethernet, to be part of its SIM group.
Choosing this option will also enable the Switch to be configured for SIM.
Discovery
Interval
The user may set the discovery protocol interval, in seconds, that the Switch will send out
discovery packets. Returning information to a Commander Switch will include information
about other switches connected to it. (Ex. MS, CaS). The user may set the Discovery
Interval from 30 to 90 seconds.
Holdtime
This parameter may be set for the time, in seconds, the Switch will hold information sent to it
from other switches, utilizing the Discovery Interval. The user may set the hold time from
100 to 255 seconds.
Click Apply to implement the settings changed.
After enabling the Switch to be a Commander Switch (CS), the Single IP Management folder will then contain three
added links to aid the user in configuring SIM through the web, including Topology, Firmware Upgrade and
Configuration Backup/Restore.
186
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Topology
The Topology window will be used to configure and manage the Switch within the SIM group and requires Java script to
function properly on your computer. The following message should appear the first time the user clicks the Topology link
in the Single IP Management folder.
Figure 9- 3. Java window
Clicking the here link will setup the Java Runtime Environment on your server and lead you to the topology window, as
seen below.
Figure 9- 4. Single IP Management window-Tree View
The Tree View window holds the following information under the Data tab:
Parameter
Description
Device Name
This field will display the Device Name of the Switches in the SIM group configured by
the user. If no Device Name is configured by the name, it will be given the name
default and tagged with the last six digits of the MAC Address to identify it.
Local Port
Displays the number of the physical port on the CS that the MS or CaS is connected
to. The CS will have no entry in this field.
187
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Speed
Displays the connection speed between the CS and the MS or CaS.
Remote Port
Displays the number of the physical port on the MS or CaS that the CS is connected
to. The CS will have no entry in this field.
MAC Address
Displays the MAC Address of the corresponding Switch.
Model Name
Displays the full Model Name of the corresponding Switch.
To view the Topology Map, click the View menu in the toolbar and then Topology, which will produce the following
screen. The Topology View will refresh itself periodically (20 seconds by default).
Figure 9- 5. Topology view
This screen will display how the devices within the Single IP Management Group are connected to other groups and
devices. Possible icons in this screen are as follows:
Icon
Description
Group
Layer 2 commander switch
Layer 3 commander switch
188
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Commander switch of other group
Layer 2 member switch
Layer 3 member switch
Member switch of other group
Layer 2 candidate switch
Layer 3 candidate switch
Unknown device
Non-SIM devices
189
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Tool Tips
In the Topology view window, the mouse plays an important role in configuration and in viewing device information.
Setting the mouse cursor over a specific device in the topology window (tool tip) will display the same information about a
specific device as the Tree view does. See the window below for an example.
Figure 9- 6. Device Information Utilizing the Tool Tip
Setting the mouse cursor over a line between two devices will display the connection speed between the two devices, as
shown below.
190
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 9- 7. Port Speed Utilizing the Tool Tip
191
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Right-click
Right-clicking on a device will allow the user to perform various functions, depending on the role of the Switch in the SIM
group and the icon associated with it.
Group Icon
Figure 9- 8. Right-clicking a Group Icon
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse - To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand - To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Property - To pop up a window to display the group information.
Figure 9- 9. Property dialog box
This window holds the following information:
Parameter
Description
Device Name
This field will display the Device Name of the Switches in the SIM group configured by
the user. If no Device Name is configured by the name, it will be given the name
default and tagged with the last six digits of the MAC Address to identify it.
Module Name
Displays the full module name of the Switch that was right-clicked.
MAC Address
Displays the MAC Address of the corresponding Switch.
192
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Remote Port No.
Displays the number of the physical port on the MS or CaS that the CS is connected
to. The CS will have no entry in this field.
Local Port No.
Displays the number of the physical port on the CS that the MS or CaS is connected
to. The CS will have no entry in this field.
Port Speed
Displays the connection speed between the CS and the MS or CaS
Commander Switch Icon
Figure 9- 10. Right-clicking a Commander Icon
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse - To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand - To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Property - To pop up a window to display the group information.
Figure 9- 11. Property dialog box
193
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Member Switch Icon
Figure 9- 12. Right-clicking a Member icon
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse - To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand - To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Remove from group - Remove a member from a group.
•
Configure - Launch the web management to configure the Switch.
•
Property - To pop up a window to display the device information.
194
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Candidate Switch Icon
Figure 9- 13. Right-clicking a Candidate icon
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse - To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand - To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Add to group - Add a candidate to a group. Clicking this option will reveal the following screen for the user to
enter a password for authentication from the Candidate Switch before being added to the SIM group. Click OK
to enter the password or Cancel to exit the window.
Figure 9- 14. Input Password dialog box
•
Property - To pop up a window to display the device information, as shown below.
195
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Menu Bar
The Single IP Management window contains a menu bar for device configurations, as seen below.
Figure 9- 15. Menu Bar of the Topology View
The five menus on the menu bar are as follows.
File
•
Print Setup - Will view the image to be printed.
•
Print Topology - Will print the topology map.
•
Preference - Will set display properties, such as polling interval, and the views to open at SIM startup.
Group
•
Add to group - add a candidate to a group. Clicking this option will reveal the following screen for the user to
enter a password for authentication from the Candidate Switch before being added to the SIM group. Click OK
to enter the password or Cancel to exit the window.
Figure 9- 16. Input Password window
•
Remove from Group - Rremove an MS from the group.
Device
•
Configure - Will open the web manager for the specific device.
View
•
Refresh - Update the views with the latest status.
•
Topology - Display the Topology view.
Help
•
About - Will display the SIM information, including the current SIM version.
196
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Figure 9- 17. About window
NOTE: Upon this firmware release, some functions of the SIM can only be
configured through the Command Line Interface. See the DGS-3212SR
Command Line Interface Reference Manual for more information on SIM and its
configurations.
Firmware Upgrade
This screen is used to upgrade firmware from the Commander Switch to the Member Switch. Member Switches will be
listed in the table and will be specified by Port (port on the CS where the MS resides), MAC Address, Model Name and
Version. To specify a certain Switch for firmware download, click its corresponding check box under the Port heading. To
update the firmware, enter the Server IP Address where the firmware resides and enter the Path/Filename of the firmware.
Click Download to initiate the file transfer.
Figure 9- 18. Firmware Upgrade window
Configuration File Backup/Restore
This screen is used to upgrade configuration files from the Commander Switch to the Member Switch. Member Switches
will be listed in the table and will be specified by Port (port on the CS where the MS resides), MAC Address, Model Name
and Version. To specify a certain Switch for upgrading configuration files, click its corresponding radio button under the
Port heading. To update the configuration file, enter the Server IP Address where the firmware resides and enter the
Path/Filename of the firmware. Click Download to initiate the file transfer.
Figure 9- 19. Configuration File Backup/Restore window
197
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Appendix A
Technical Specifications
General
Standard:
IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T Ethernet
IEEE 802.3u 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ab 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.1 P/Q VLAN
IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex Flow Control
IEEE 802.3 Nway auto-negotiation
Protocols:
CSMA/CD
Data Transfer Rates:
Half-duplex
Full-duplex
Ethernet
10 Mbps
20Mbps
Fast Ethernet
100Mbps
200Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet
N/A
2000Mbps
Fiber Optic
IEC 793-2:1992
Type A1a - 50/125um multimode
Type A1b - 62.5/125um multimode
Both types use LC optical connector
Topology:
Star
Network Cables:
UTP Cat. 5 for 100Mbps
UTP Cat. 3, 4, 5 for 10Mbps
EIA/TIA-568 100-ohm screened twisted-pair (STP)(100m)
Performance
Transmission Method:
Store-and-forward
RAM Buffer:
1 MB per device
Filtering Address
Table:
16 K MAC address per device
Packet Filtering/
Forwarding Rate:
Full-wire speed for all connections.
148,800 pps per port (for 100Mbps)
1,488,000 pps per port (for 1000Mbps)
198
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
MAC Address
Learning:
Automatic update.
Forwarding Table Age
Time:
Max age: 10 - 1000000 seconds.
Default = 300.
Physical & Environmental
AC Inputs:
100 - 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz (internal universal power supply)
Power Consumption:
30 watts maximum
DC Fan:
1 built-in 75 x 75 x30 mm fan
Operating
Temperature:
0 to 40 degrees Celsius (32 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit)
Storage Temperature:
-25 to 55 degrees Celsius (-13 to 131 degrees Fahrenheit)
Humidity:
Operating: 5% to 95% RH, non-condensing
Storage: 0% to 95% RH, non-condensing
Dimensions:
441 mm x 309 mm x 44 mm (17.36 x 12.16 x 1.73 inches), 1UHeight, 19 inch rackmount width
Weight:
4.4 kg (9.7 lbs.)
EMI:
FCC Class A, CE Mark, C-Tick
Safety:
CSA International
199
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Appendix B
Cables and Connectors
When connecting the Switch to another switch, a bridge or hub, a normal cable is necessary. Please review these products
for matching cable pin assignment.
The following diagrams and tables show the standard RJ-45 receptacle/connector and their pin assignments.
Figure B- 1. The standard RJ-45 port and connector
RJ-45 Pin Assignments
Contact
MDI-X Port
MDI-II Port
1
RD+ (receive)
TD+ (transmit)
2
RD- (receive)
TD- (transmit)
3
TD+ (transmit)
RD+ (receive)
4
Not used
Not used
5
Not used
Not used
6
TD- (transmit)
RD- (receive)
7
Not used
Not used
8
Not used
Not used
Figure B- 2. The standard RJ-45 pin assignments
200
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Appendix C
Cable Lengths
Use the following table to as a guide for the maximum cable lengths.
Standard
Media Type
Maximum Distance
Mini-GBIC
1000BASE-LX, Single-mode fiber module
10km
1000BASE-SX, Multi-mode fiber module
550m
1000BASE-LHX, Single-mode fiber module
40km
1000BASE-ZX, Single-mode fiber module
80km
Category 5e UTP Cable
100m
1000BASE-T
Category 5 UTP Cable (1000 Mbps)
100BASE-TX
Category 5 UTP Cable (100 Mbps)
100m
10BASE-T
Category 3 UTP Cable (10 Mbps)
100m
201
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
Glossary
1000BASE-LX: A short laser wavelength on multimode fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 550 meters
1000BASE-SX: A long wavelength for a "long haul" fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 10 kilometers
100BASE-FX: 100Mbps Ethernet implementation over fiber.
100BASE-TX: 100Mbps Ethernet implementation over Category 5 and Type 1 Twisted Pair cabling.
10BASE-T: The IEEE 802.3 specification for Ethernet over Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling.
aging: The automatic removal of dynamic entries from the Switch Database which have timed-out and are no longer valid.
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A connection oriented transmission protocol based on fixed length cells (packets).
ATM is designed to carry a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data and video signals.
auto-negotiation: A feature on a port which allows it to advertise its capabilities for speed, duplex and flow control. When
connected to an end station that also supports auto-negotiation, the link can self-detect its optimum operating setup.
backbone port: A port which does not learn device addresses, and which receives all frames with an unknown address.
Backbone ports are normally used to connect the Switch to the backbone of your network. Note that backbone ports were
formerly known as designated downlink ports.
backbone: The part of a network used as the primary path for transporting traffic between network segments.
bandwidth: Information capacity, measured in bits per second, that a channel can transmit. The bandwidth of Ethernet is
10Mbps, the bandwidth of Fast Ethernet is 100Mbps.
baud rate: The switching speed of a line. Also known as line speed between network segments.
BOOTP: The BOOTP protocol allows you to automatically map an IP address to a given MAC address each time a device
is started. In addition, the protocol can assign the subnet mask and default gateway to a device.
bridge: A device that interconnects local or remote networks no matter what higher level protocols are involved. Bridges
form a single logical network, centralizing network administration.
broadcast: A message sent to all destination devices on the network.
broadcast storm: Multiple simultaneous broadcasts that typically absorb available network bandwidth and can cause
network failure.
console port: The port on the Switch accepting a terminal or modem connector. It changes the parallel arrangement of data
within computers to the serial form used on data transmission links. This port is most often used for dedicated local
management.
CSMA/CD: Channel access method used by Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards in which devices transmit only after
finding the data channel clear for some period of time. When two devices transmit simultaneously, a collision occurs and
the colliding devices delay their retransmissions for a random amount of time.
data center switching: The point of aggregation within a corporate network where a switch provides high-performance
access to server farms, a high-speed backbone connection and a control point for network management and security.
Ethernet: A LAN specification developed jointly by Xerox, Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet networks
operate at 10Mbps using CSMA/CD to run over cabling.
Fast Ethernet: 100Mbps technology based on the Ethernet/CD network access method.
Flow Control: (IEEE 802.3z) A means of holding packets back at the transmit port of the connected end station. Prevents
packet loss at a congested switch port.
forwarding: The process of sending a packet toward its destination by an internetworking device.
full duplex: A system that allows packets to be transmitted and received at the same time and, in effect, doubles the
potential throughput of a link.
half duplex: A system that allows packets to be transmitted and received, but not at the same time. Contrast with full
duplex.
202
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
IP address: Internet Protocol address. A unique identifier for a device attached to a network using TCP/IP. The address is
written as four octets separated with full-stops (periods), and is made up of a network section, an optional subnet section
and a host section.
IPX: Internetwork Packet Exchange. A protocol allowing communication in a NetWare network.
LAN - Local Area Network: A network of connected computing resources (such as PCs, printers, servers) covering a
relatively small geographic area (usually not larger than a floor or building). Characterized by high data rates and low error
rates.
latency: The delay between the time a device receives a packet and the time the packet is forwarded out of the destination
port.
line speed: See baud rate.
main port: The port in a resilient link that carries data traffic in normal operating conditions.
MDI - Medium Dependent Interface: An Ethernet port connection where the transmitter of one device is connected to
the receiver of another device.
MDI-X - Medium Dependent Interface Cross-over: An Ethernet port connection where the internal transmit and receive
lines are crossed.
MIB - Management Information Base: Stores a device's management characteristics and parameters. MIBs are used by
the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to contain attributes of their managed systems. The Switch contains its
own internal MIB.
multicast: Single packets copied to a specific subset of network addresses. These addresses are specified in the
destination-address field of the packet.
protocol: A set of rules for communication between devices on a network. The rules dictate format, timing, sequencing
and error control.
resilient link: A pair of ports that can be configured so that one will take over data transmission should the other fail. See
also main port and standby port.
RJ-45: Standard 8-wire connectors for IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T networks.
RMON: Remote Monitoring. A subset of SNMP MIB II that allows monitoring and management capabilities by
addressing up to ten different groups of information.
RPS - Redundant Power System: A device that provides a backup source of power when connected to the Switch.
server farm: A cluster of servers in a centralized location serving a large user population.
SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol: A protocol which allows IP to run over a serial line connection.
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol: A protocol originally designed to be used in managing TCP/IP
internets. SNMP is presently implemented on a wide range of computers and networking equipment and may be used to
manage many aspects of network and end station operation.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): A bridge-based system for providing fault tolerance on networks. STP works by allowing
you to implement parallel paths for network traffic, and ensure that redundant paths are disabled when the main paths are
operational and enabled if the main paths fail.
stack: A group of network devices that are integrated to form a single logical device.
standby port: The port in a resilient link that will take over data transmission if the main port in the link fails.
switch: A device which filters, forwards and floods packets based on the packet's destination address. The switch learns
the addresses associated with each switch port and builds tables based on this information to be used for the Switching
decision.
TCP/IP: A layered set of communications protocols providing Telnet terminal emulation, FTP file transfer, and other
services for communication among a wide range of computer equipment.
telnet: A TCP/IP application protocol that provides virtual terminal service, letting a user log in to another computer
system and access a host as if the user were connected directly to the host.
TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol: Allows you to transfer files (such as software upgrades) from a remote device
using your switch's local management capabilities.
203
DGS-3212SR Stackable Gigabit Layer 2 Switch
UDP - User Datagram Protocol: An Internet standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a
datagram to an application program on another device.
VLAN - Virtual LAN: A group of location- and topology-independent devices that communicate as if they are on a
common physical LAN.
VLT - Virtual LAN Trunk: A Switch-to-Switch link which carries traffic for all the VLANs on each Switch.
VT100: A type of terminal that uses ASCII characters. VT100 screens have a text-based appearance.
204
International Offices
U.S.A
17595 Mt. Herrmann Street
Fountain Valley, CA. 92708
TEL: 714-885-6000
Fax 866-743-4905
URL: www.dlink.com
Canada
2180 Winston Park Drive
Oakville, Ontario, L6H 5W1
Canada
TEL: 1-905-8295033
FAX: 1-905-8295223
URL: www.dlink.ca
Europe (U. K.)
4th Floor, Merit House
Edgware Road, Colindale
London NW9 5AB
U.K.
TEL: 44-20-8731-5555
FAX: 44-20-8731-5511
URL: www.dlink.co.uk
Germany
Schwalbacher Strasse 74
D-65760 Eschborn
Germany
TEL: 49-6196-77990
FAX: 49-6196-7799300
URL: www.dlink.de
France
Le Florilege #.2, Allee de la Fresnerie
78330 Fontenay le Fleury
France
TEL: 33-1-30238688
FAX: 33-1-30238689
URL: www.dlink-france.fr
Netherlands
Weena 290
3012 NJ Rotterdam
Netherlands
Tel: +31-10-282-1445
Fax: +31-10-282-1331
URL: www.dlink-benelux.com
Belgium
Rue des Colonies 11
B-1000 Brussels
Belgium
Tel: +32(0)2 517 7111
Fax: +32(0)2 517 6500
URL: www.dlink-benelux.com
Italy
Via Nino Bonnet n. 6/b
20154 – Milano,
Italy
TEL: 39-02-2900-0676
FAX: 39-02-2900-1723
URL: www.dlink.it
Sweden
P.O. Box 15036, S-167 15 Bromma
Sweden
TEL: 46-(0)8564-61900
FAX: 46-(0)8564-61901
URL: www.dlink.se
Denmark
Naverland 2, DK-2600
Glostrup, Copenhagen,
TEL: 45-43-969040
FAX: 45-43-424347
URL:www.dlink.dk
Norway
Karihaugveien 89
1086 Oslo
Norway
TEL: 47-23-897189
FAX: 47-22-309085
URL: www.dlink.no
Finland
Pakkalankuja 7A
01510 Vantaa,
Finland
TEL : +358-9-2707 5080
FAX: + 358-9-2707 5081
URL: www.dlink.fi
Iberia
C/Sabino De Arana,
56 Bajos
08028 Barcelona
TEL: 34 93 4090770
FAX: 34 93 4910795
URL: www.dlinkiberia.es
Singapore
1 International Business Park
#03-12 The Synergy
Singapore 609917
TEL: 65-6774-6233
FAX: 65-6774-6322
URL: www.dlink-intl.com
Australia
1 Giffnock Avenue,
North Ryde, NSW 2113
Australia
TEL: 61-2-8899-1800
FAX: 61-2-8899-1868
URL: www.dlink.com.au
India
D-Link House, Kurla Bandra Complex Road,
Off CST Road, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400098.
India
TEL: 91-022-26526696/56902210
FAX: 91-022-26528914
URL: www.dlink.co.in
Middle East (Dubai)
P.O.Box: 500376
Office No.:103, Building:3
Dubai Internet City
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Tel:+971-4-3916480
Fax:+971-4-3908881
URL: www.dlink-me.com
Turkey
Regus Offices
Beybi Giz Plaza, Ayazaga Mah. Meydan Sok. No:28
Maslak 34396, Istanbul-Turkiye
TEL: +90 212 335 2553
FAX: +90 212 335 2500
URL: www.dlink.com.tr
Egypt
19 El-Shahed Helmy, El Masri
Al-Maza, Heliopolis
Cairo,Egypt.
TEL:+202 414 4295
FAX:+202 415 6704
URL: www.dlink-me.com
Israel
11 Hamanofim Street
Ackerstein Towers, Regus Business Center
P.O.B 2148, Hertzelia-Pituach 46120.
Israel
TEL: +972-9-9715700
FAX: +972-9-9715601
URL: www.dlink.co.il
LatinAmerica
Isidora Goyeechea 2934 of 702,
Las Condes
Santiago – Chile S.A.
TEL: 56-2-232-3185
FAX: 56-2-232-0923
URL: www.dlink.cl
Brasil
Av das Nacoes Unidas,
11857 - 14 - andar - cj 141/142
Brooklin Novo
Sao Paulo - SP - Brazil
CEP 04578-000
TEL: +55 11 55039320
FAX: +55 11 55039322
URL: www.dlinkbrasil.com.br
South Africa
Einstein Park II
Block B
102-106 Witch-Hazel Avenue
Highveld Technopark
Centurion
Gauteng
Republic of South Africa
TEL: 27-12-665-2165
FAX: 27-12-665-2186
URL: www..d-link.co.za
Russia
Grafsky per., 14, floor 6
Moscow
129626 Russia
TEL: 7-095-744-0099
FAX: 7-095-744-0099 #350
URL: www.dlink.ru
China
No.202,C1 Building, Huitong Office Park,
No.71, Jianguo Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing,
100025, China.
TEL +86-10-58635800
FAX: +86-10-58635799
URL: www.dlink.com.cn
Taiwan
2F, No. 119, Pao-Chung Rd.
Hsin-Tien, Taipei
Taiwan
TEL: 886-2-2910-2626
FAX: 886-2-2910-1515
URL: www.dlinktw.com.tw
Headquarters
2F, No. 233-2, Pao-Chiao Rd.
Hsin-Tien, Taipei
Taiwan
TEL: 886-2-2916-1600
FAX: 886-2-2914-6299
URL:www.dlink.com
WARRANTIES EXCLUSIVE
IF THE D-LINK PRODUCT DOES NOT OPERATE AS WARRANTED ABOVE, THE CUSTOMER'S SOLE REMEDY SHALL BE, AT
D-LINK'S OPTION, REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT. THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND
ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW,
STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. D-LINK NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER
LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE OR USE OF D-LINK'S PRODUCTS
D-LINK SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING AND EXAMINATION DISCLOSE THAT THE
ALLEGED DEFECT IN THE PRODUCT DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY THE CUSTOMER'S OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S
MISUSE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR TESTING, UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO REPAIR, OR ANY OTHER
CAUSE BEYOND THE RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE, LIGHTNING OR OTHER HAZARD.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
IN NO EVENT WILL D-LINK BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOSS OF DATA, LOSS OF PROFITS, COST OF
COVER OR OTHER INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES ARISING OUT THE INSTALLATION,
MAINTENANCE, USE, PERFORMANCE, FAILURE OR INTERRUPTION OF A D- LINK PRODUCT, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. THIS LIMITATION WILL APPLY EVEN IF D-LINK HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.
IF YOU PURCHASED A D-LINK PRODUCT IN THE UNITED STATES, SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR
EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT
APPLY TO YOU.
Limited Warranty
Hardware:
D-Link warrants each of its hardware products to be free from defects in workmanship and materials under normal use and
service for a period commencing on the date of purchase from D-Link or its Authorized Reseller and extending for the length
of time stipulated by the Authorized Reseller or D-Link Branch Office nearest to the place of purchase.
This Warranty applies on the condition that the product Registration Card is filled out and returned to a D-Link office within
ninety (90) days of purchase. A list of D-Link offices is provided at the back of this manual, together with a copy of the
Registration Card.
If the product proves defective within the applicable warranty period, D-Link will provide repair or replacement of the product.
D-Link shall have the sole discretion whether to repair or replace, and replacement product may be new or reconditioned.
Replacement product shall be of equivalent or better specifications, relative to the defective product, but need not be identical.
Any product or part repaired by D-Link pursuant to this warranty shall have a warranty period of not less than 90 days, from
date of such repair, irrespective of any earlier expiration of original warranty period. When D-Link provides replacement, then
the defective product becomes the property of D-Link.
Warranty service may be obtained by contacting a D-Link office within the applicable warranty period, and requesting a
Return Material Authorization (RMA) number. If a Registration Card for the product in question has not been returned to
D-Link, then a proof of purchase (such as a copy of the dated purchase invoice) must be provided. If Purchaser's
circumstances require special handling of warranty correction, then at the time of requesting RMA number, Purchaser may
also propose special procedure as may be suitable to the case.
After an RMA number is issued, the defective product must be packaged securely in the original or other suitable shipping
package to ensure that it will not be damaged in transit, and the RMA number must be prominently marked on the outside
of the package. The package must be mailed or otherwise shipped to D-Link with all costs of mailing/shipping/insurance
prepaid. D-Link shall never be responsible for any software, firmware, information, or memory data of Purchaser
contained in, stored on, or integrated with any product returned to D-Link pursuant to this warranty.
Any package returned to D-Link without an RMA number will be rejected and shipped back to Purchaser at Purchaser's
expense, and D-Link reserves the right in such a case to levy a reasonable handling charge in addition mailing or shipping
costs.
Software:
Warranty service for software products may be obtained by contacting a D-Link office within the applicable warranty period.
A list of D-Link offices is provided at the back of this manual, together with a copy of the Registration Card. If a Registration
Card for the product in question has not been returned to a D-Link office, then a proof of purchase (such as a copy of the
dated purchase invoice) must be provided when requesting warranty service. The term "purchase" in this software warranty
refers to the purchase transaction and resulting license to use such software.
D-Link warrants that its software products will perform in substantial conformance with the applicable product
documentation provided by D-Link with such software product, for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase
from D-Link or its Authorized Reseller. D-Link warrants the magnetic media, on which D-Link provides its software product,
against failure during the same warranty period. This warranty applies to purchased software, and to replacement software
provided by D-Link pursuant to this warranty, but shall not apply to any update or replacement which may be provided for
download via the Internet, or to any update which may otherwise be provided free of charge.
D-Link's sole obligation under this software warranty shall be to replace any defective software product with product which
substantially conforms to D-Link's applicable product documentation. Purchaser assumes responsibility for the selection of
appropriate application and system/platform software and associated reference materials. D-Link makes no warranty that its
software products will work in combination with any hardware, or any application or system/platform software product
provided by any third party, excepting only such products as are expressly represented, in D-Link's applicable product
documentation as being compatible. D-Link's obligation under this warranty shall be a reasonable effort to provide
compatibility, but D-Link shall have no obligation to provide compatibility when there is fault in the third-party hardware or
software. D-Link makes no warranty that operation of its software products will be uninterrupted or absolutely error-free,
and no warranty that all defects in the software product, within or without the scope of D-Link's applicable product
documentation, will be corrected.
D-Link Offices for Registration and Warranty Service
The product's Registration Card, provided at the back of this manual, must be sent to a D-Link office. To obtain an RMA
number for warranty service as to a hardware product, or to obtain warranty service as to a software product, contact the
D-Link office nearest you. An address/telephone/fax/e-mail/Web site list of D-Link offices is provided in the back of this
manual.
Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, D-Link Systems, Inc. (“D-Link”) provides this Limited warranty for its product only to the
person or entity that originally purchased the product from:
•
D-Link or its authorized reseller or distributor and
•
Products purchased and delivered within the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, U.S. Possessions or
Protectorates, U.S. Military Installations, addresses with an APO or FPO.
Limited Warranty: D-Link warrants that the hardware portion of the D-Link products described below will be free from material defects in
workmanship and materials from the date of original retail purchase of the product, for the period set forth below applicable to the product
type (“Warranty Period”), except as otherwise stated herein.
Limited Lifetime Warranty for the Product(s) is defined as follows:
•
Hardware for as long as the original customer/end user owns the product, or five years after product discontinuance, whichever
occurs first (excluding power supplies and fans)
•
Power Supplies and Fans Three (3) Year
•
Spare parts and spare kits Ninety (90) days
D-Link’s sole obligation shall be to repair or replace the defective Hardware during the Warranty Period at no charge to the original owner or
to refund at D-Link’s sole discretion. Such repair or replacement will be rendered by D-Link at an Authorized D-Link Service Office. The
replacement Hardware need not be new or have an identical make, model or part. D-Link may in its sole discretion replace the defective
Hardware (or any part thereof) with any reconditioned product that D-Link reasonably determines is substantially equivalent (or superior) in
all material respects to the defective Hardware. Repaired or replacement Hardware will be warranted for the remainder of the original
Warranty Period from the date of original retail purchase. If a material defect is incapable of correction, or if D-Link determines in its sole
discretion that it is not practical to repair or replace the defective Hardware, the price paid by the original purchaser for the defective
Hardware will be refunded by D-Link upon return to D-Link of the defective Hardware. All Hardware (or part thereof) that is replaced by DLink, or for which the purchase price is refunded, shall become the property of D-Link upon replacement or refund.
Limited Software Warranty: D-Link warrants that the software portion of the product (“Software”) will substantially conform to D-Link’s
then current functional specifications for the Software, as set forth in the applicable documentation, from the date of original retail purchase
of the Software for a period of ninety (90) days (“Warranty Period”), provided that the Software is properly installed on approved hardware
and operated as contemplated in its documentation. D-Link further warrants that, during the Warranty Period, the magnetic media on which
D-Link delivers the Software will be free of physical defects. D-Link’s sole obligation shall be to replace the non-conforming Software (or
defective media) with software that substantially conforms to D-Link’s functional specifications for the Software or to refund at D-Link’s sole
discretion. Except as otherwise agreed by D-Link in writing, the replacement Software is provided only to the original licensee, and is
subject to the terms and conditions of the license granted by D-Link for the Software. Software will be warranted for the remainder of the
original Warranty Period from the date or original retail purchase. If a material non-conformance is incapable of correction, or if D-Link
determines in its sole discretion that it is not practical to replace the non-conforming Software, the price paid by the original licensee for the
non-conforming Software will be refunded by D-Link; provided that the non-conforming Software (and all copies thereof) is first returned to
D-Link. The license granted respecting any Software for which a refund is given automatically terminates.
Non-Applicability of Warranty: The Limited Warranty provided hereunder for hardware and software of D-Link's products will not be
applied to and does not cover any refurbished product and any product purchased through the inventory clearance or liquidation sale or
other sales in which D-Link, the sellers, or the liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product and in that
case, the product is being sold "As-Is" without any warranty whatsoever including, without limitation, the Limited Warranty as described
herein, notwithstanding anything stated herein to the contrary.
Submitting A Claim: The customer shall return the product to the original purchase point based on its return policy. In case the return
policy period has expired and the product is within warranty, the customer shall submit a claim to D-Link as outlined below:
•
The customer must submit with the product as part of the claim a written description of the Hardware defect or Software
nonconformance in sufficient detail to allow D-Link to confirm the same.
The original product owner must obtain a Return Material Authorization (“RMA”) number from the Authorized D-Link Service Office and, if
requested, provide written proof of purchase of the product (such as a copy of the dated purchase invoice for the product) before the
warranty service is provided.
After an RMA number is issued, the defective product must be packaged securely in the original or other suitable shipping package to
ensure that it will not be damaged in transit, and the RMA number must be prominently marked on the outside of the package. Do not
include any manuals or accessories in the shipping package. D-Link will only replace the defective portion of the Product and will not
ship back any accessories.
The customer is responsible for all in-bound shipping charges to D-Link. No Cash on Delivery (“COD”) is allowed. Products sent COD will
either be rejected by D-Link or become the property of D-Link. Products shall be fully insured by the customer and shipped to D-Link
Systems, Inc., 17595 Mt. Herrman Street, Fountain Valley, CA 92708. D-Link will not be held responsible for any packages that are
lost in transit to D-Link. The repaired or replaced packages will be shipped to the customer via UPS Ground or any common carrier
selected by D-Link, with shipping charges prepaid. Expedited shipping is available if shipping charges are prepaid by the customer and
upon request.
D-Link may reject or return any product that is not packaged and shipped in strict compliance with the foregoing requirements, or for which
an RMA number is not visible from the outside of the package. The product owner agrees to pay D-Link’s reasonable handling and return
shipping charges for any product that is not packaged and shipped in accordance with the foregoing requirements, or that is determined by
D-Link not to be defective or non-conforming.
What Is Not Covered: This limited warranty provided by D-Link does not cover: Products, if in D-Link’s judgment, have been subjected to
abuse, accident, alteration, modification, tampering, negligence, misuse, faulty installation, lack of reasonable care, repair or service in any
way that is not contemplated in the documentation for the product, or if the model or serial number has been altered, tampered with,
defaced or removed; Initial installation, installation and removal of the product for repair, and shipping costs; Operational adjustments
covered in the operating manual for the product, and normal maintenance; Damage that occurs in shipment, due to act of God, failures due
to power surge, and cosmetic damage; Any hardware, software, firmware or other products or services provided by anyone other than DLink; Products that have been purchased from inventory clearance or liquidation sales or other sales in which D-Link, the sellers, or the
liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product. Repair by anyone other than D-Link or an Authorized DLink Service Office will void this Warranty.
Disclaimer of Other Warranties: EXCEPT FOR THE LIMITED WARRANTY SPECIFIED HEREIN, THE PRODUCT IS PROVIDED “ASIS” WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IF ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY CANNOT
BE DISCLAIMED IN ANY TERRITORY WHERE A PRODUCT IS SOLD, THE DURATION OF SUCH IMPLIED WARRANTY SHALL BE
LIMITED TO NINETY (90) DAYS. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY COVERED UNDER THE LIMITED WARRANTY PROVIDED HEREIN, THE
ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY, SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT IS WITH THE PURCHASER OF THE
PRODUCT.
Limitation of Liability: TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, D-LINK IS NOT LIABLE UNDER ANY CONTRACT,
NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE THEORY FOR ANY LOSS OF USE OF THE PRODUCT,
INCONVENIENCE OR DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER, WHETHER DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF REVENUE OR PROFIT, WORK STOPPAGE,
COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, FAILURE OF OTHER EQUIPMENT OR COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO WHICH D-LINK’S
PRODUCT IS CONNECTED WITH, LOSS OF INFORMATION OR DATA CONTAINED IN, STORED ON, OR INTEGRATED WITH ANY
PRODUCT RETURNED TO D-LINK FOR WARRANTY SERVICE) RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THE PRODUCT, RELATING TO
WARRANTY SERVICE, OR ARISING OUT OF ANY BREACH OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, EVEN IF D-LINK HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE SOLE REMEDY FOR A BREACH OF THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY IS
REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF THE DEFECTIVE OR NON-CONFORMING PRODUCT. THE MAXIMUM LIABILITY OF DLINK UNDER THIS WARRANTY IS LIMITED TO THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT COVERED BY THE WARRANTY. THE
FOREGOING EXPRESS WRITTEN WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER
WARRANTIES OR REMEDIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY
Governing Law: This Limited Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the State of California. Some states do not allow exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, or limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the foregoing limitations and
exclusions may not apply. This limited warranty provides specific legal rights and the product owner may also have other rights which vary
from state to state.
Trademarks: D-Link is a registered trademark of D-Link Systems, Inc. Other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their
respective manufacturers or owners.
Copyright Statement: No part of this publication or documentation accompanying this Product may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used
to make any derivative such as translation, transformation, or adaptation without permission from D-Link Corporation/D-Link Systems, Inc., as stipulated
by the United States Copyright Act of 1976. Contents are subject to change without prior notice. Copyright© 2002 by D-Link Corporation/D-Link
Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CE Mark Warning: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the
user may be required to take adequate measures.
FCC Statement: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may
cause harmful interference to radio communication. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
For detailed warranty outside the United States, please contact corresponding local D-Link office.
Register online your D-Link product at
http://support.dlink.com/register/
Registration Card
Print, type or use block letters.
Your name: Mr./Ms _____________________________________________________________________________
Organization: ________________________________________________ Dept. ____________________________
Your title at organization: ________________________________________________________________________
Telephone: _______________________________________ Fax:________________________________________
Organization's full address: ______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Country: _____________________________________________________________________________________
Date of purchase (Month/Day/Year): _______________________________________________________________
Product Model
Product
No.
Serial
* Product installed in type of
* Product installed in
computer (e.g., Compaq 486)
computer serial No.
(* Applies to adapters only)
Product was purchased from:
Reseller's name: ______________________________________________________________________________
Telephone: _______________________________________ Fax:________________________________________
Reseller's full address: _________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Answers to the following questions help us to support your product:
1. Where and how will the product primarily be used?
†Home †Office †Travel †Company Business †Home Business †Personal Use
2. How many employees work at installation site?
†1 employee †2-9 †10-49 †50-99 †100-499 †500-999 †1000 or more
3. What network protocol(s) does your organization use ?
†XNS/IPX †TCP/IP †DECnet †Others_____________________________
4. What network operating system(s) does your organization use ?
†D-Link LANsmart †Novell NetWare †NetWare Lite †SCO Unix/Xenix †PC NFS †3Com 3+Open
†Banyan Vines †DECnet Pathwork †Windows NT †Windows NTAS †Windows '95
†Others__________________________________________
5. What network management program does your organization use ?
†D-View †HP OpenView/Windows †HP OpenView/Unix †SunNet Manager †Novell NMS
†NetView 6000 †Others________________________________________
6. What network medium/media does your organization use ?
†Fiber-optics †Thick coax Ethernet †Thin coax Ethernet †10BASE-T UTP/STP
†100BASE-TX †100BASE-T4 †100VGAnyLAN †Others_________________
7. What applications are used on your network?
†Desktop publishing †Spreadsheet †Word processing †CAD/CAM
†Database management †Accounting †Others_____________________
8. What category best describes your company?
†Aerospace †Engineering †Education †Finance †Hospital †Legal †Insurance/Real Estate †Manufacturing
†Retail/Chainstore/Wholesale †Government †Transportation/Utilities/Communication †VAR
†System house/company †Other________________________________
9. Would you recommend your D-Link product to a friend?
†Yes †No †Don't know yet
10.Your comments on this product?
_______________________________________________________________________________________