midon design 1WSwitch User manual

midon design
1-Wire Application Guide
1-Wire Application Guide v1.04
January 30, 2015
1-Wire Application Guide v1.04
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midon design
Table of Contents
List of Tables ....................................................................................................... 3
List of Figures...................................................................................................... 3
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 5
2 1-Wire Installations ............................................................................................ 6
2.1 1-Wire – What is it? ........................................................................................ 6
2.2 Types of 1-Wire Networks .............................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Bus Network ................................................................................................ 6
2.2.2 Star Network ................................................................................................ 7
2.2.3 Bus and Star Networks ................................................................................ 9
2.3 How to Wire Networks Properly.................................................................... 10
2.3.1 Types of interconnect cabling .................................................................... 10
2.3.2 Connectors or Not?.................................................................................... 13
2.4 Trouble-Shooting Network Problems............................................................ 14
3 Weather Monitoring.......................................................................................... 16
3.1 Types of Weather Sensors ........................................................................... 16
3.2 Temperature Sensors ................................................................................... 16
3.2.1 DS18S20 ................................................................................................... 16
3.2.2 DS18S20-PAR ........................................................................................... 16
3.2.3 DS18B20 ................................................................................................... 17
3.2.4 DS1822...................................................................................................... 17
3.2.5 DS2438...................................................................................................... 17
3.2.6 Summary ................................................................................................... 17
3.3 Rain Gauge .................................................................................................. 18
3.4 Wind Speed .................................................................................................. 19
3.5 Wind Direction .............................................................................................. 20
3.6 Humidity Sensor ........................................................................................... 23
3.7 Barometric Sensor........................................................................................ 23
3.8 Lightning Sensor .......................................................................................... 26
3.9 Solar Sensor................................................................................................. 27
4 Environmental Sensors .................................................................................... 29
4.1 Relay Driver.................................................................................................. 29
4.2 Contact Sensor............................................................................................. 29
4.3 Counter Sensor ............................................................................................ 31
4.4 Indicator Sensor ........................................................................................... 33
4.5 Current Sensor ............................................................................................. 33
4.5.1 HVAC Monitor ............................................................................................ 34
4.6 1-Wire Devices Not Supported by TEMP08 ................................................. 35
4.6.1 Moisture Sensor......................................................................................... 35
4.6.2 LCD Display............................................................................................... 35
4.6.3 1-Wire Hub................................................................................................. 35
4.6.4 Thermocouple Sensor................................................................................ 35
4.7 Sensor Compatibility .................................................................................... 35
4.8 1-Wire Devices and Availability .................................................................... 36
5 Connecting To a PC ......................................................................................... 38
5.1 What software is available............................................................................ 38
5.1.1 HomeSeer.................................................................................................. 38
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5.1.2 DooTemp08 ............................................................................................... 38
5.1.3 Thermd ...................................................................................................... 38
5.1.4 Premise...................................................................................................... 38
5.1.5 Roll your own ............................................................................................. 38
5.2 Physical connections to a PC ....................................................................... 39
5.3 Trouble-shooting PC problems ..................................................................... 39
6 References ...................................................................................................... 42
7 Glossary........................................................................................................... 43
8 Legal Notices ................................................................................................... 44
List of Tables
Table 1 RJ-xx Connector Pin-outs....................................................................... 13
Table 2 ADS Wind Direction Conversion............................................................. 22
Table 3 ADS Wind Direction Conversion (Sorted by Voltage) ............................. 22
Table 4 Sensor Compatibility............................................................................... 36
List of Figures
Figure 1 1-Wire Bus Network ................................................................................ 7
Figure 2 1-Wire Star Network................................................................................ 8
Figure 3 1-Wire Star Network with Resistors ........................................................ 9
Figure 4 1-Wire Bus and Star Network................................................................ 10
Figure 5 Telephone Cable ................................................................................... 11
Figure 6 CAT-1 Cable ......................................................................................... 12
Figure 7 CAT-5 Cable ......................................................................................... 12
Figure 8 RJ-12 and RJ-45 Connectors ............................................................... 14
Figure 9 Sensor Comparisons ............................................................................ 18
Figure 10 Original 1-Wire Rain Gauge................................................................ 18
Figure 11 1-Wire Wind Direction ......................................................................... 20
Figure 12 Wind Direction Voltages...................................................................... 21
Figure 13 1-Wire Humidity Sensor ...................................................................... 23
Figure 14 1-Wire Barometric Sensor................................................................... 24
Figure 15 Bray-Jennings Barometer ................................................................... 25
Figure 16 Tim Bitson 1-Wire Barometer.............................................................. 26
Figure 17 Tim Bitson 1-Wire Lightning Monitor ................................................... 27
Figure 18 Solar Sensor 1 .................................................................................... 28
Figure 19 Solar Sensor 2 .................................................................................... 28
Figure 20 1WIO Input Wiring .............................................................................. 30
Figure 21 Using a 1-Wire Device as a Contact Sensor....................................... 31
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Figure 22 1-Wire Water Meter............................................................................. 32
Figure 23 DLJ75C Water Flow Meter.................................................................. 33
Figure 24 1-Wire Current Sensor........................................................................ 34
Figure 25 HyperTerminal Port Settings ............................................................... 40
Figure 26 Location of HyperTerminal Connect Button......................................... 41
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1
Introduction
Thank you for considering Midon Design's 1-Wire Serial interface: TEMP08. This
application guide has been put together after many, many questions from users
about how to connect, what to connect, and how to use, these interfaces. This
guide is intended to package all of the common questions (and answers) into one
place as a reference for anyone thinking of using 1-Wire®, or even for those that
have already implemented systems and want to expand or change it.
When applicable, references to TEMP08, 1WSwitch or LOG08-II commands and
details are provided. All three products are similar in design but different in
capabilities, so please also refer to the product’s user manual for specific
information.
I would like to thank my colleagues Tim Bitson, Eric Vickery and Aitor Arrieta for
their invaluable help in finalizing this document.
Mitch Matteau
Suwanee, GA USA
mitch@midondesign.com
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2
1-Wire Installations
2.1
1-Wire – What is it?
1-Wire® was a system originally developed by Dallas Semiconductor, now
Maxim, to provide an easy way to communicate between microprocessors and
peripheral devices using a minimum pin count, hence 1-Wire. 1-Wire devices
only require 1 microprocessor pin, and a common ground connection, to achieve
bi-directional communication. The 1-Wire system is sometimes also called
MicroLAN, or iButton®.
The original concept was to provide simplified communications on a single PCB
(Printed Circuit Board). With the release of several Sensors Magazine articles by
Dallas Semiconductor’s Dan Awtrey in the late 1990’s (see References),
however, 1-Wire became a very popular method of providing remote, in other
words, off-PCB, sensor data to a microprocessor. This popularity extended to
weather station monitoring, which is where TEMP08 has its roots.
Without getting too technical, since there are many white papers that get into the
technical details already, 1-Wire provides a way of powering and communicating
bi-directionally to remote sensors using only two wires, DQ and Ground. Sensor
types are discussed later in the guide.
1-Wire powering can be done “parasitically”, that is, at the same time as
communications. This is possible since the sensors store the received logic 1
signals as power whenever they are received.
2.2
Types of 1-Wire Networks
As for any other kind of network, there are different topologies possible. The two
main 1-Wire network types are bus and star.
2.2.1 Bus Network
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Figure 1 1-Wire Bus Network
A bus network is the simplest kind of network. It consists of a length of cable with
sensors tapped into it along the way. Figure 1 shows an example.
An advantage of a bus network is its electrical simplicity and transmission
property performance. Bus networks generally exhibit very little electrical noise,
and thus the communications are more robust than star networks. Bus networks
are easy to electrically implement as well, however, it is not always convenient to
string a cable around to the locations of all sensors required on a bus. Also, bus
networks are like the old Christmas light strings – any break anywhere in the bus
will cause a fault downstream from the break. Any short on the bus will affect all
sensors on the bus.
2.2.2 Star Network
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Figure 2 1-Wire Star Network
A star network is somewhat more complex than a bus network. A typical star
network is shown in Figure 2.
An advantage of a star network is that it can be easier to physically wire. Many
sensor locations can be reached, and added, by stringing a cable from the main
point to the sensor. Also, a break of one sensor’s wiring will not affect other
sensors.
The biggest disadvantage of a star network, however, is the electrical noise that
can be introduced if not properly connected. Electrical noise will result from 1Wire communication pulses traveling down different branches of the star, which
generally have different lengths, and returning at different times. This is called
reflection. Fortunately, adding a series resistor to all the branches of the network
can minimize the reflections. These resistors reduce the reflections, and hence
the electrical noise, and therefore make communications somewhat more robust.
Figure 3 shows where the resistors belong. Generally, a 100-ohm resistor is
recommended for this.
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Figure 3 1-Wire Star Network with Resistors
2.2.3 Bus and Star Networks
Figure 4 1-Wire Bus and Star Network
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Of course, the two main types of network topologies can be combined to achieve
required results. Figure 4 shows an example of a properly connected Bus and
Star network. Note the locations of the 100-Ohm termination resistors, which are
required to minimize noise in the network. Generally, the resistors should be
placed at every branch of the network.
2.3
How to Wire Networks Properly
2.3.1 Types of interconnect cabling
There are several types of cables that can be used for 1-Wire networks. The one
you choose will depend on your application.
2.3.1.1
Telephone (flat) cable
Figure 5 Telephone Cable
This is the kind of cable that is used to plug your telephone into a phone jack. It
normally has 4 wires, but some only have 2 and some have 6 wires. You do not
usually need more than 2 wires for just temperature sensing, but some other
types of sensors will definitely need 3 or more wires, so consider this before
permanently wiring your network.
Telephone cable is not recommended for networks that span more than 50 feet
or so.
The Red and Green wires of telephone cable are recommended for connection to
DQ (red) and Ground (green) on the 1-Wire bus.
Note: if you are using pre-connectorized telephone cable, check that the wires
connecting both connectors are “straight-through”. Most pre-connectorized
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cables have the red and green wires (and the yellow and black wires) reversed
between connectors.
2.3.1.2
CAT-1 Cable
Figure 6 CAT-1 Cable
CAT-1 cable is 4 conductor twisted pair cable that is usually used to wire between
phone jacks inside the walls of a house. It can be used for most 1-Wire networks
and usually exhibits decent noise performance for networks less than around 100
feet. Use the Red/Green wires for DQ and Ground. Use the Yellow and Black
wires for remote power if needed.
2.3.1.3
CAT-5 Cable
Figure 7 CAT-5 Cable
CAT-5 cable is the preferred wiring method for any large 1-Wire network. CAT-5
cable has 4 twisted pairs of wires and is the type of cable used for Ethernet
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wiring. CAT-5 can be used for networks that are up to the maximum
recommended reach for 1-Wire: 300 feet or about 100 meters.
Use the Blue-White wire for DQ, and the White-Blue wire for Ground. Powering
can be done over any of the other pairs. Pick a pair and then stick to it for all of
your wiring to avoid mistakes in wiring later.
2.3.2 Connectors or Not?
Most 1-Wire sensors sold by all the vendors today come equipped with modular
connectors, either RJ-11, RJ-12 or RJ-45. Most sensors also come equipped
with some kind of screw-in connector as well, for terminating wires. The choice
of using a connectorized scheme for your network is yours and will be based on
several factors.
If you plan to relocate sensors a lot, then connectors are the way to go. If not,
then connectors may not make much sense. Using connectors implies that all
wiring is terminated with mating connectors. This may work for simple networks,
but may be too much trouble for larger, more complex networks.
If you do choose to use connectors, keep in mind that, while there is now a
standard for connector pin-outs, all vendors use slightly different variations for
pin-outs, simply due to the lack of standard when the sensors were first
developed, so be very careful when mixing different vendor’s sensors on a
network.
Here is a cross-reference table for some popular connector schemes.
Table 1 RJ-xx Connector Pin-outs
Device
Original Dallas
Weather Station
AAG RJ-11
Sensors/Interfaces
Dallas/Maxim RJ12 wiring standard
(published Oct
2001)
Midon Design
MD2104
TEMP08/LOG08II/1WSwitch
Midon Design
Sensors
AAG RJ-12
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 1
Pin 3
Pin 2
Pin 1
N/C
Pin 4
Pin 3
Pin 2
DQ
Pin 5
Pin 4
Pin 3
GND
Pin 6
Pin 5
Pin 4
N/C
GND
DQ
GND
+5VDC
+5VDC GND
DQ
GND
N/C
DC
Supply
RJ-12
DC +5VDC
Supply
DQ
GND
N/C
N/C
RJ-12
DC +5VDC
Supply
+5VDC GND
DQ
GND
N/C
N/C
RJ-12
DQ
GND
N/C
N/C
RJ-12
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Pin 7
Pin 6
Pin 8
RJ-45
RJ-12
RJ-11
RJ-11
RJ-11
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Sensors
Texas Weather
N/C
GND
DQ
GND
Instruments
sensors
Simon Atkins’ Hub +5VDC +5VDC DC
DQ
GND
Supply
AAG RJ-45
DQ
GND +5VDC +12VDC +12VDC
Sensors
Hobby-Boards
GND +5VDC GND
DQ
GND
Sensors
1Wire.org draft
GND +5VDC GND
DQ
GND
standard for RJ45
RJ-12
N/C
DC
Supply
DC
Supply
+5VDC
GND
GND
RJ-45
GND
GND
RJ-45
+12VDC GND
RJ-45
Analog +12VDC GND
Signal
RJ-45
N/C
RJ-11 refers to the common 4-pin telephone plug.
RJ-12 is the less common equivalent plug that has 6 pins equipped.
RJ-45 is the common 8-pin Ethernet plug.
Pin numbers in the table above presume that Pin 1 of the female connector is on
the left when facing it and the spring latch is on the bottom as in Figure 8.
Figure 8 RJ-12 and RJ-45 Connectors
2.4
Trouble-Shooting Network Problems
There are many components to a 1-Wire network, including the PC, the PC Serial
Port, PC software, the 1-Wire interface, the sensors, and the wiring. As a result,
trouble-shooting needs to be done in a methodical way, starting at basics and
then building up to the point where trouble begins.
In a TEMP08 system, start by making sure that TEMP08 is alive and well. If the
green light is flashing, and goes red from time to time, then TEMP08 is
functioning. Disconnect all your sensors from TEMP08 now.
Connect TEMP08 now to a PC running a terminal emulation program, such as
HyperTerminal, which comes with every Windows PC. Make sure that you can
communicate to TEMP08 by trying a few commands and then verifying that the
responses come back. If this isn’t working, check the settings on your serial port
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and the connections between the serial port and TEMP08. See the Troubleshooting PC Problems section later in this manual for other considerations.
Issue a TMP command now and make sure that the on-board 1-Wire sensor is
reporting back correctly. If it is, proceed to the next steps. If it is not, then
something may have damaged the 1-Wire interface to TEMP08 and it may have
become defective. Return to Midon Design for repair, if necessary.
Now, connect one branch of your star network at a time to TEMP08. If you are
using a simple bus network, go ahead and re-connect it. Were there any
problems? If so, physically disconnect, one at a time, any sensors that indicate
error readings. Have the problems gone away when any one sensor is
disconnected? If so, disconnect all sensors again and then reconnect that one
sensor directly to TEMP08 with a short piece of cable. Does the sensor still give
a problem? If so, you have a defective sensor. If not, there is a wiring problem
to the original location of that sensor: fix it before proceeding. Don’t forget to
check for power wiring problems!
TEMP08 will report a short on the 1-Wire bus by issuing a “OW Bus Error”
message. If you see that at any time in this process, then consider the possibility
that a sensor is installed “backwards”; in other words, DQ and Ground are
reversed for that sensor. Also, consider the possibility that a short does exist in
your wiring, OR, although highly unlikely, a sensor has become completely
defective and is shorting out the bus.
Follow the above steps for all branches of your network.
If the steps above did not resolve the problem, and you are running a star
network, the problem might be a result of reflections. If you do not have 100Ohm resistors in the branch feeds, now would be a good time to insert them and
re-test your set-up.
If everything is now working, close HyperTerminal and restart your PC software.
If there are no problems, wonderful! If you are still having problems, report them
to the author of your PC software.
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3
Weather Monitoring
3.1
Types of Weather Sensors
1-Wire weather sensors are available from a variety of vendors, including, of
course, Midon Design. All the standard weather parameters can be monitored
with the sensors.
The following sections will describe the available sensors, and the theory of
operation of the sensors.
It should be noted that most, of these sensors might be mounted outdoors, so be
careful with how you mount them and most importantly about the wiring. An
ever-present danger about wiring outdoors is exposure to the elements and
increased exposure to potential lightning strikes. As a general rule you should
disconnect all the sensors whenever lightning is nearby. If you are mounting your
sensors outdoors, also be very aware of any nearby power wires and avoid them.
3.2
Temperature Sensors
There are different types of temperature sensors available for 1-Wire
applications. These include:
3.2.1 DS18S20
This is the ubiquitous sensor and available in many mounting options, ranging
from the bare device to sealed enclosures with connectors.
The DS18S20 offers 9-bit resolution, or a ± 0.5°C precision. Temperatures can
be measured from –55°C to +125°C (-67°F to +257°F). Accuracy is ± 0.5°C (±
0.9°F) from –10°C to +85°C.
3.2.2 DS18S20-PAR
The DS18S20-PAR is identical in performance to the DS18S20, except that it will
only operate in parasitic powering mode. The Vdd pin is not connected on this
device and is internally connected to the GND pin. This device is not normally
seen in enclosures or connectorized modules and is best suited for on-board
temperature sensing.
3.2.3 DS18B20
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The DS18B20 offers 9, 10, 11 or 12 bit resolution, or ± 0.5°C, ± 0.25°C, ±
0.125°C or ± 0.0625°C precision respectively. Temperatures can be measured
from –55°C to +125°C (-67°F to +257°F). Accuracy is ± 0.5°C (± 0.9°F) from –
10°C to +85°C. TEMP08 uses this device in 12-bit resolution mode.
Note: Waterproof DS18B20 sensors are available from RFXCOM Products at
http://www.rfxcom.com/sensors.htm#Additional or from other vendors on eBay.
These sensors can be used for pool, hot tub, or aquarium temperature
monitoring.
3.2.4 DS1822
The DS1822 offers 9, 10, 11 or 12 bit resolution, or ± 0.5°C, ± 0.25°C, ± 0.125°C
or ± 0.0625°C precision respectively. Temperatures can be measured from –
55°C to +125°C (-67°F to +257°F). Accuracy is ± 2.0°C (± 3.6°F) from –10°C to
+85°C. TEMP08 uses this device in 12-bit resolution mode.
3.2.5 DS2438
Even the DS2438 has temperature-sensing capability. It offers 13-bit resolution,
or a ± 0.03125°C precision. Temperatures can be measured from –55°C to
+125°C (-67°F to +257°F). Accuracy is ± 2.0°C (± 3.6°F) from –40°C to +85°C.
To use the DS2438 for temperature only, set the DS2438 type to “T”
(temperature).
3.2.6 Summary
0.6
Precision
0.5
Accurary
2.5
2
0.4
1.5
0.3
1
0.2
0.5
0.1
DS2438
DS1822
DS18B20
0
DS18S20
0
Figure 9 Sensor Comparisons
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There are lots of choices for temperature sensors available and all have slightly
different characteristics. Your choice might depend on accuracy or precision, or a
combination of both (see Figure 9). Be careful not to confuse the two. Precision
is the resolution of the measurement, but accuracy is the variance between the
actual temperature and the returned result. Many users have confused this and
have been puzzled why two devices placed side by side would produce a
variance in temperature. Look at the worst case: two devices, each with a
precision of ±0.5°C and an accuracy of ±2.0°C, could lead to a worse case
difference of 5°C (9°F) between the two sensors.
3.3
Rain Gauge
All rain gauges developed for the 1-Wire measurement scheme are based on the
original Dan Awtrey design shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10 Original 1-Wire Rain Gauge
The rain gauge counts rainfall via a tipping bucket, which is magnetically coupled
to the reed switch SW1. The original design called for a tipping bucket design,
which caused a tip to occur for every 0.01 inch of rainfall. The DS2423 inputs A
and B are connected to an internal counter, which will then increment for every
0.01 inch of rain.
Rain gauges are still available from some vendors in this original configuration.
Also, some vendors have developed a retrofit kit for non-1-Wire rain gauges to
allow them to be read from a 1-Wire interface. There are many wireless or wired
rain gauges that can be retrofitted in this manner.
When used with TEMP08, set the DS2423 type to “R” (rain).
3.4
Wind Speed
Some Wind Speed sensors available are based on the same 1-Wire circuit as the
rain gauge. The reed switch is coupled to an anemometer vane, which rotates
with a speed proportional to the speed of the wind flowing through the cups. The
original wind speed sensor from Dallas Semiconductor used only 1 reed switch,
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however, later versions, such as those formerly available from AAG, and
previously from Hobby Boards, used 2 reed switches, which meant that the
counters were incremented twice as often as the original design. TEMP08 is
designed to work with the later versions only. If you are not sure which are
supported, contact Midon Design.
When used with TEMP08, set the DS2423 type to “W” (wind). Only one wind
speed counter is supported on TEMP08.
Hobby Boards now sells the Inspeed and ADS Anemometers. Wind speed is
provided with DS2423 counters, however, in a different format than previous 1Wire Anemometers. To use these sensors, set TEMP08 to “L” (Lightning) and
calculate the wind speed via the formulae below.
Inspeed Anemometer:
Wind Speed = (2.5 x Count) / Time
ADS Anemometer:
Wind Speed = (1.5 x Count) / Time
Where: Wind Speed = speed in miles per hour
Count = the current counter reading less the previous counter
reading
Time = the time since the last reading
3.5
Wind Direction
There are two main variations of the original 1-Wire wind direction sensors. The
original design used reed switches connected via DS2401 1-Wire serial numbers
to denote the position of the wind. The other 1-Wire version supported by
TEMP08, used reed switches connected via voltage dividers to a DS2450 Quad
ADC device, as per Figure 11.
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Figure 11 1-Wire Wind Direction
Wind direction then becomes defined by the voltages reported from the DS2450
as per the table in Figure 12.
Figure 12 Wind Direction Voltages
Of course, knowing which position is not enough. You need to know which
position is North, East, West, etc. TEMP08 has the NOR command available to
be able to set the North position. Once that has been done, the other positions
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are known and wind direction is now absolute. There are two conditions when
West might become East, and vice versa; if you install the PCB upside down
(easy to do!) and when you would rather know where the wind is blowing from
rather than blowing to. TEMP08 offers the REV command to flip East and West,
and all the other cardinal points, to do this.
There are now new wind direction sensors on the market that use DS2438’s to
determine direction. These are not directly compatible with TEMP08 wind
conversions, however, can still be used if the DS2438 type is set to “V” (voltage).
Translation of the voltage to wind direction will need to be done by the PC
connected to TEMP08. Hobby Board sells both the Inspeed and ADS wind
direction sensors based on DS2438’s.
To calculate the wind direction for the Inspeed sensor use the following formula:
D = 400 x (VAD – 0.05 x VDD)
VDD
Where:
D=wind direction in degrees
VAD=wind vane output voltage
VDD=supply voltage
To calculate the wind direction for the ADS sensor use the following Table(s):
Table 2 ADS Wind Direction Conversion
Direction
N
NNE
NE
ENE
E
ESE
SE
SSE
S
SSW
SW
WSW
W
WNW
NW
NNW
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Voltage
2.66-2.72
6.49-6.55
5.96-6.02
9.35-9.41
9.27-9.33
9.50-9.56
8.48-8.54
8.98-9.04
7.57-7.63
7.95-8.01
4.28-4.34
4.59-4.65
0.89-0.95
2.20-2.26
1.54-1.60
3.54-3.60
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Table 3 ADS Wind Direction Conversion (Sorted by Voltage)
Direction
W
NW
WNW
N
NNW
SW
WSW
NE
NNE
S
SSW
SE
SSE
E
ENE
ESE
3.6
Voltage
0.89-0.95
1.54-1.60
2.20-2.26
2.66-2.72
3.54-3.60
4.28-4.34
4.59-4.65
5.96-6.02
6.49-6.55
7.57-7.63
7.95-8.01
8.48-8.54
8.98-9.04
9.27-9.33
9.35-9.41
9.50-9.56
Humidity Sensor
Figure 13 1-Wire Humidity Sensor
All 1-Wire humidity sensors are based on the original design shown in Figure 13.
Variations over time have occurred since Honeywell has discontinued the original
HIH3610 humidity sensor and replaced it with the HIH4000 and later with the
HIH402x variations.
The humidity sensor produces a voltage proportional to the Relative Humidity,
which is then read by the DS2438 ADC and converted to digital format.
Care needs to be taken with placing these sensors outdoors since the Honeywell
HIH3610 and HIH4000 sensors will fail over time if exposed to condensing
humidity environments. Honeywell produced the HIH4021 sensor, which is
sealed, to avoid these failures.
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Indoor placement is also critical – don’t install non-HIH4021 sensors in a wet
environment, for example a bathroom shower, since the humidity sensor will
eventually fail.
Most of the sensor connectors will eventually corrode if exposed to high humidity
or corrosive environments, which will lead to false or missing readings.
When used with a TEMP08, set the DS2438 type to “H” (humidity).
3.7
Barometric Sensor
An important weather parameter is air pressure. The absolute reading is not
nearly as significant as the change in the reading, since rising or falling air
pressure will indicate a change in weather.
Figure 14 1-Wire Barometric Sensor
Figure 14 shows the original concept design of a barometric sensor. This design
was not overly practical since the working range of the Motorola pressure sensor
used was very narrow, so David Bray and Jim Jennings modified the design to be
the one shown in Figure 15.
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Figure 15 Bray-Jennings Barometer
This design was modified slightly over time, and the currently available
production unit is shown in Figure 16. The operating principle remained the same
over all versions of the design.
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Figure 16 Tim Bitson 1-Wire Barometer
The Motorola MPX4115 device outputs a voltage proportional to the air pressure.
This voltage is scaled up by the amplifier(s) to be within a useable range for the
DS2438 ADC and then converted to digital on the 1-Wire bus.
These devices do not need to be placed outdoors. Unless you have an
extremely airtight building, the air pressure indoors will always be the same as
the air pressure outdoors.
When used with a TEMP08, set the DS2438 type to “B” (Barometer).
3.8
Lightning Sensor
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Figure 17 Tim Bitson 1-Wire Lightning Monitor
Tim Bitson (see References) designed the original 1-Wire Lightning Monitor
shown in Figure 17. The 1-Wire side of the design is the same as the rain gauge
and wind speed sensor, in other words a DS2423 counter. The input to the
counter is not a reed switch, but rather an amplified antenna pickup. Any
lightning strikes occurring within range of the antenna will be amplified by Q1 and
Q2 and then presented to the DS2423 counter input, which will register the strike
as a count. These counts are then reported over the 1-Wire bus when the
DS2423 is interrogated.
Great care should be taken with this sensor to 1. Properly ground it, and 2.
Disconnect it whenever lightning is too close. Lightning is very unpredictable and
the last thing you want is to have high voltage surge through your sensor back to
your PC or elsewhere in your house.
When used with the TEMP08, set the DS2423 type to “L” (lightning).
3.9
Solar Sensor
Figure 18 Solar Sensor 1
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Figure 19 Solar Sensor 2
As can be seen from the figures above, there are two types of solar sensor
designs. The Solar Sensor 1 design in Figure 18 is the more common one. Both
designs work on the same principle however. Light falling on the sensor, either a
solar cell or a photodiode, causes a small voltage to appear at the Vs inputs of
the DS2438. These inputs are normally used in DS2438 battery monitoring
applications to measure current flow, however, they work equally well in this
application. The amount of light will be proportional to the voltage at the inputs;
so reading the DS2438 Vs voltage will determine how much light is present.
Obviously, these sensors need to be mounted outdoors to be able to determine
solar radiation. Place them in a position where sunlight is present and rain will
not fall directly on the sensor.
When used with a TEMP08, set the DS2438 type to “V” (voltage).
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4
Environmental Sensors
4.1
Relay Driver
Midon Design offers 2 types of 1-Wire relay drivers.
1.
1WIO, which has 4 SPDT relays, and
2.
MD3020G, which has one SPDT relay.
The 1WIO is DS2408 based and up to 40 of these devices are supported on
TEMP08. When using the 1WIO in relay mode (it is also available as an input
device), make sure to turn off input sensing by the EIN OFF command to avoid
false readings from the DS2408. 1WIO is supported by both TEMP08 and
1WSwitch.
The MD3020G is DS2406 based. It is no longer supported by TEMP08, but was
supported by TEMP08’s sister product, the 1WSwitch.
Relay drivers are useful to interface with non-1-Wire devices that need simple
on/off functionality, such as sprinkler systems, alarm systems, low voltage
lighting, X10 Powerflash interfaces, etc. The relays used on both of these
sensors should not normally be directly connected to mains power for safety
reasons, but can easily be connected to other relays to operate mains powered
devices.
The SPDT contacts provide for Normally Open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC)
contacts. A NO contact is open when power is not applied to the relay, and a NC
contact is closed when power is not applied. Both contacts are referenced to the
Common (C) connection of the relay.
4.2
Contact Sensor
Contact sensors are used to determine the state of a contact. Midon Design
offers the 1WIO as a 4 contact input device. Wiring of the contacts can be done
as shown in Figure 20.
When using the 1WIO as in input device, make sure that you enable the input
functionality by the EIN ON command.
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Figure 20 1WIO Input Wiring
Up to 40 1WIO’s can be connected to TEMP08 in this manner. Mixing input and
LED versions of 1WIO on TEMP08 can be tricky since connecting at least 1
1WIO input device will require the use of the EIN ON command, which will cause
issues with 1WIO LED devices in some early versions of TEMP08 software. The
top 4 LED’s on a 1WIO LED device would blink out when EIN ON is set on
TEMP08. If this occurs, consider upgrading your TEMP08 software.
Another way to determine the status of a contact is to use the trick that Dallas
Semiconductor originally used for the 1-Wire Wind Direction Sensor; place the
contact switch between the DQ line and any sensor’s DQ input per Figure 21.
Whenever the contact, SW1, is open, TEMP08 will report the corresponding
sensor U1 as “missing”. When the contact closes, TEMP08 will report the sensor
as “present”.
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Figure 21 Using a 1-Wire Device as a Contact Sensor
4.3
Counter Sensor
Counter sensors are useful for measuring any changing parameter that is
provided via contact closure, such as water flow meters, some electrical meters,
etc.
Counter sensors are generally DS2423 based, and if so are directly compatible
with TEMP08. Set the DS2423 type to “C” (counter) when used in this mode.
A Water Meter counter example is shown in Figure 22.
Figure 22 1-Wire Water Meter
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In Figure 22, the Flow counter could be as shown in Figure 23, a DLJ75C pulse
counting water meter from www.watermeters.com , which registers one pulse per
gallon of water flowing through the meter.
Figure 23 DLJ75C Water Flow Meter
4.4
Indicator Sensor
Midon Design offered two LED indicator devices, which might be useful for
displaying the state of something remotely via the 1-Wire network.
One sensor, the MD3020H, was DS2406 based and is supported by the
1WSwitch and earlier versions of TEMP08. It had one LED on board which can
be set on or off. This sensor is now discontinued.
The other sensor is the 1WIO LED driver, which has 8 LED’s on board,
individually controlled by the LEDxx command. Up to 20 1WIO LED devices can
be supported on TEMP08, or 1WSwitch. As for the 1WIO relay device, you must
set EIN OFF when using this device with TEMP08 or 1WSwitch.
4.5
Current Sensor
Current sensors can be used to measure mains current flow, which is useful to
determine how energy is being used for a device or a residence.
A current sensor can be fabricated by connecting the parts shown in the
schematic of Figure 24 to a DS2438 or DS2450 ADC (Analog to Digital
Converter). TEMP08 can then read the voltage of the circuit, which will be
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directly proportional to the current flowing through whatever wire the CT3110
current probe is clamped on to.
The CT3110 current probe is available from Midon Design.
Resistor R1 in Figure 24 can be chosen by the formula
R1 = V x 3100 / I
Where
V = 10 Volts (the maximum input to a DS2438) x 1.414 (scaled to DC) =
14.14 Volts
And
I = the maximum expected current on the circuit being measured.
As an example, if you expect to see no more than 20 Amps on a circuit, then
R = 14.14 x 3100 / 20 = 2192Ω
2192 is not a standard value resistor, so you can use a variable resistor to
achieve this value, or simply use the next closest value. In this case, that would
be a 2200 Ω resistor.
Figure 24 1-Wire Current Sensor
4.5.1 HVAC Monitor
Eric Vickery at Hobby Boards has designed a general-purpose voltage monitor,
based on the DS2450 Quad ADC, which can be used, amongst other things to
monitor your HVAC system. This sensor is compatible with TEMP08. If you are
using this device without having a wind direction sensor installed on the same
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bus, make sure to disable wind direction reporting (which will allow the voltages
from the DS2450 to be visible) by using the EWN OFF command.
4.6
1-Wire Devices Not Supported by TEMP08
4.6.1 Moisture Sensor
Moisture sensors are available from some vendors as a DS2760-based device.
These devices are not compatible with TEMP08, however. Similar sensors can
be built using a DS2438 current sensor input, which would be supported by
TEMP08.
A Leaf Wetness Sensor is also available. It is not directly 1-Wire compatible, but
is connected through a Moisture Sensor, which means that it is not compatible
with TEMP08.
4.6.2 LCD Display
LCD display devices are available from some vendors with a DS2408-based 1Wire interface. There is no multi-vendor standard for this interface however and
TEMP08 does not support it.
4.6.3 1-Wire Hub
The 1-Wire Hub is a DS2409-based design and was originally conceived by
Simon Atkins (see References). This hub is typically used for very complex
networks of star and bus design, however is not always required. TEMP08 does
not support this device.
4.6.4 Thermocouple Sensor
AAG has a thermocouple sensor, which might be used to measure temperatures
much above the normal 1-Wire temperature sensor capability. Since this sensor
is based on the DS2760, it is not compatible with TEMP08.
4.7
Sensor Compatibility
Table 2 shows which sensors are compatible with our various products. NOTE:
the sensor compatibility does not imply that the connector pin-outs are
equivalent, only that the sensor is capable of being read and parameters
displayed.
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Table 4 Sensor Compatibility
Sensor
DS18S20 Temperature
DS18S20-PAR Temperature
DS18B20 Temperature
DS1822 Temperature
DS2438 Voltage & Current
DS2423 Rain Gauge
DS2423 Wind Speed
DS2450 Wind Direction
DS2450 Voltage
DS2438/DS2423 Wind
Speed/Direction
Compatibility
TEMP08 1WSwitch LOG08-II Midon Design
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y (Note 1)
N
N
N
Y
N
N
N
N
N
Y
TAI8520
Y
Y
Y
Y
MES1276
Y (Note 1)
N
N
Y
Y (Note 1)
Y
Y (Note 1)
Y
DS2438 Humidity Sensor
Y
Y (Note 1) Y (Note 1)
DS2438 Barometric Sensor
Y
N
Y
DS2423 Lightning Sensor
Y
Y
Y
DS2438 Solar Sensor
Y
Y
N
DS2408 4 Relay Driver
Y
Y
N
DS2406 1 Relay Driver
Y
Y
N
DS2408 4 Contact Sensor
Y
N
Y
DS2423 Counter Sensor
Y
Y
N
DS2408 8 LED Indicator
Y
Y
N
DS2406 1 LED Indicator
Y (Note 1) Y (Note 1) Y (Note 1)
DS2438 Current Sensor
N
N
N
DS2760 Moisture Sensor
N
N
N
DS2760 Leaf Wetness Sensor
DS2408 LCD Display
DS2409 1-Wire Hub
DS2450 HVAC Monitor
DS2760 Thermocouple Sensor
MD3003,
MD3020B,
MD3020C
Sources
AAG
Hobby Boards
N
N
N
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
MD3020E
MD2083
MD3020G
MD2084
T3-R1-A
DS18S20-P
DS2438Z-P
RG1-R1-A
WIND-ADS-A
or WIND-IN-A
TAI8540D H3-R1-A
B1-R1-A
LD4-R1-A
S3-R1-A
TAI8558
8CIO4-R1-A
TAI8558
8CIO4-R1-A
DC2.5-R1-A
MD2088
MD3020H
MM2-R1-A
LWS1-R2-B
AND MM2-R1A
TAI8590
TAI8595
LCD2-R1-A
6CMH1-R3-A
HVAC2-R1-A
N
N
N
TAI8560
DS2406 Barometric Sensor
TAI8570
N
N
N
Note 1: Compatibility is limited to being able to read the raw data. Conversion to specific weather data
is left to the user.
4.8
1-Wire Devices and Availability
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Unfortunately, Dallas Semiconductor, now known as Maxim, has begun to phase
out some of the semiconductors used in 1-Wire sensor devices. Most production
houses have a fairly large supply of these critical components, however, check
first before designing in any specific sensor.
As of the writing of this manual, the following devices are no longer available
directly from Dallas/Maxim:
•
DS2423 Counter (no replacement available)
•
DS2405 Switch (editorial note: good! This was a very finicky device!)
Similar functionality is available from the DS2406 or DS2413.
•
DS2760 Battery monitor (replaced by the DS2762)
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5
Connecting To a PC
5.1
What software is available
5.1.1 HomeSeer
HomeSeer is perhaps the most popular method of interfacing to TEMP08.
HomeSeer is available at www.homeseer.com and interface scripts and plug-ins
are available on the HomeSeer Forum. Midon Design also provides a simple
script interface on our website.
Jim Doolittle, Ken Mitchell and Michael McSharry have written HomeSeer plugins for TEMP08. These are available from the Forum or direct from the authors.
5.1.2 DooTemp08
DooTemp08 was a stand-alone software program that was also useable as a
HomeSeer plug-in. It is no longer supported following the loss of the author.
5.1.3 Thermd
Thermd is a free software program developed by David Klein that can also
interface to TEMP08. It is available at http://www.klein.com/thermd. This
software is written in Perl and the source code is provided on David’s website.
5.1.4 Roll your own
You can, of course, always write your own software to interface to TEMP08.
What you need is software to read and write to a serial port on your PC and to
interpret the returned results. All TEMP08 commands are documented in the
User Manual. Output examples are also provided there.
5.2
Physical connections to a PC
A straight-through, not null modem, serial cable connects between the TEMP08
and your PC's serial port. Straight-through simply means that all pins of the
connectors on each end are the same, pin 1 of one connector is cabled to pin 1
of the second connector, pin2 to pin 2, etc. One connectors needs to be a DB-9
Male connector to fit the TEMP08, and the other connector needs to be a DB-9
Female connector to fit the PC. In case you want to make your own cable,
TEMP08 only uses the TX (pin 2), RX (pin 3) and Ground (pin 5) pins of an
RS232 cable to communicate.
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The RS232 settings should be 9600 bps, no parity, eight bits, with no flow control.
RS232 cables should not be longer than 50 feet (about 15 meters) for proper
communication at the 9600 bps rate used.
Of course, if your PC does not have a serial port, use a USB to serial port
adapter to make the connection. Many types are available and they should all
work fine.
5.3
Trouble-shooting PC problems
As a first step to trouble-shooting PC or software problems, you want to make
sure that your PC can properly communicate with TEMP08. HyperTerminal,
which comes with every Windows based PC, can be used to monitor
communications with TEMP08. HyperTerminal is usually located in the Windows
Start folder under Accessories/Communications. Figure 25 shows what the
settings should look like (COM3 shown in this example – choose your COM port
to match the RS232 connection to TEMP08):
Once you have made the connection to a PC, and set up HyperTerminal to
properly communicate with TEMP08, make sure you can communicate with
TEMP08 by entering HLP, or any other command. You should see a response
from TEMP08 similar to what is shown in the current user manual for the
command you entered.
If you can communicate in this way to TEMP08, then shut down HyperTerminal
(to free the RS232 port for other use) and try running your software again.
If you are unable to communicate with TEMP08 with HyperTerminal, then check
the following:
1.
Is the cable connecting TEMP08 to the PC a straight-through cable?
Check the wiring to make sure.
2.
Is the cable plugged in properly at both ends?
3.
Are the RS232 port settings properly configured (see Figure 25)?
4.
Is HyperTerminal “connected”? See Figure 26 for the location of the
Connect button – click on that button to enable the connection between your PC
and TEMP08.
5.
Is TEMP08 properly powered? The Green LED next to the RS232
connector should be flashing once per second. Note: it might flash red from time
to time, but that is OK.
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Figure 25 HyperTerminal Port Settings
If your software is still unable to work properly with TEMP08, please contact the
author of the software and make sure that you include any HyperTerminal
session logs to illustrate your problems. It is possible that TEMP08 command or
response syntax is different than the version the author originally coded from.
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Figure 26 Location of HyperTerminal Connect Button
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6
References
1.
“Transmitting Data and Power over a One-Wire Bus”, Dan Awtrey, Sensors
Magazine, February 1997 http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0297/onewire/index.htm
2.
“The 1-Wire Weather Station”, Dan Awtrey, Sensors Magazine, June 1998
http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0698/wir0698/index.htm
3.
“A 1-Wire Rain Gauge”, Dan Awtrey, Sensors Magazine, December 1999
http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/1299/56_1299/index.htm
4.
"A 1-Wire Humidity Sensor", Dan Awtrey, Sensors Magazine, August 2000
http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0800/62/index.htm
5.
"1-Wire Addressable Digital Instruments for Environmental Monitoring",
Dan Awtrey, Sensors Magazine, May 2001
http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0501/34/index.htm
6.
“An Experiment’s 1-Wire Barometer”, David Bray
http://davidbray.org/onewire/barometer.html
7.
“1-Wire Lighting Monitor”, Tim Bitson, December 2001
http://www.timbitson.com/Weather_Projects_files/owlm.pdf
8.
“iButton 1-Wire Hub”, Simon Atkins http://www.simat.org.uk/1wirehub.html
9.
Hobby Boards Website: www.hobby-boards.com
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7
Glossary
Term
ADC
DQ
GND
LCD
LED
NC
NO
PC
PCB
Plug-In
RX
SPDT
TX
VAC
VDC
1-Wire Application Guide v1.04
Description
Analog to Digital Converter
The input/output connection on a 1Wire bus
Ground
Liquid Crystal Display
Light Emitting Diode
Normally Closed
Normally Open
Personal Computer
Printed Circuit Board
An program added into to a master
software program to add functionality
Receive
Single Pole Double Throw – a type of
relay or switch contact
Transmit
Volts Alternating Current
Volts Direct Current
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8
Legal Notices
© Copyright 2015 Midon Design. All rights reserved. No part of this document
may be reproduced, recorded, transmitted or distributed in any form or by any
means without the written consent of Midon Design.
1-Wire is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
MicroLAN is a trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
iButton is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
End of Document
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