American Dryer Corp. 20/31 Specifications

Rice Hull Furnaces for Paddy Drying: the Philippine Rice
Research Institute's Experience
E.U. Bautista, R.E. Aldas, and E.C. Gagelonia*
1. Grate-type furnaces
RICE hulls constitute 14-26% of the harvested weight
of paddy. With the current annual Philippin.e paddy
production of around 9 Mt, some 1.8 Mt of rice hulls
are produced each year. Although some of the hul~s
produced by small rice mills are use? as d~mes.ttc
fuel or as a livestock feed (when mIxed with nee
bran), vast quantities of husks are not utilised and are
disposed of in vacant areas or along roadsides.
The energy content of rice hulls ranges from 14 to
16 MJ/kg (6000--6800 BTU/lb); a tonne of hulls is thus
equivalent to about 84 gallons of heating oil having
140,000 BTU/gal (Beagle 1978). In the Philippines,
the best potential use for rice hulls, aside from domestic fuel, is in paddy drying. Paddy drying is commonly
accomplished by a combination of field and di~ect
solar drying on a pavement or open road. MechanIcal
drying is employed when the harvesting occurs during
the monsoon season. Most millers using batch dryers
fire them with kerosene furnaces, but are beginning to
shift to rice-hull-fired furnaces due to cost constraints.
Other sophisticated dryers of several private traders!
millers in the country are equipped with rice-hull-fired
boilers which generate steam for drying.
This paper discusses the rice-hull furnaces adopted
by the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)
in its dryer studies, their performance when fitted to
dryers, and the dissemination work conducted to popularise and commercialise the dryers and furnaces.
The first design utilised in flat-bed dryers is the IRRI
BD-2 flat-grate furnace (Fig. 1) which is an up-draft
type, flat-grate, rice-husk furnace. It consists of a hull
feeding component, a combustion chamber, and an ash
precipitation chamber. It is simple in construction and
operation. The air for combustion, is supplie~ by ~h.e
suction of the dryer fan, while the fuel supply IS faclhtated by the vibration of a feeder connected by a wire
to the fan shaft. At a feed rate of IO kg/hour, furnace
efficiency is 68-70% (IRRI 1979). However, it ~as
incomplete combustion and inefficient ash separatIon
so that ash and sparks are partially sucked by the fan
into the dryer plenum (phan Hieu Hien 1993).
Similar to the flat-grate furnace is the inclined
grate furnace design (Fig. 2) from t~e University of
Agriculture and Forestry (UAF) , VIetnam and was
based on the IRRI design. It has similar performance
to that of the IRRI furnace but has more durable steel
parts than the former. particularly the grate, which is
made of mild stecl. At 34 kg/hour rice hull feed rate,
the drying air temperature at the plenum could ranged
from 40 to 54.3°C, with a 484 to 509°C exhaust temperature; with a higher feed rate, drying air temperature can be pushed up at 80°C. Efficiency ranged
from 48.4 to 86.1 %. Combustion takes 10-20 minutes and is characterised by the production of much
smoke. The hopper needs to be loaded with husks
every 10-15 minutes. Once ignited, combustion is
maintained while there are rice hulls. The ash has to
be manually raked from the furnace.
Technical evaluation of the performance of the Vietnam-adapted 6 tJbatch MaJigaya flat-bed dryer (with
concrete bin) using the inclined-grate furnace was conducted in Nueva Ecija and Davao del Norte, in order to
establish parameters for its optimum operation. Parameters such as grain depth, fan speed, and drying air
temperature werc examined to determine their effects
on drying rate, uniformity of moisture content, milling
and head rice recoveries, and germination rates.
Results (Table 1) indicate that the improved dryer performed best at 26 to 34 cm grain depth, and maximum
air temperatures of 43 and 47°C for seed and milling
Furnace Designs and Drying
Performance
There is already available in the country a widc range
of furnace systems designed for the direct combustion of rice hulls. PhilRice adopted three furnace
designs in its paddy-drying studies and is in the process of refining one design for dissemination of dryers
in the country.
*
Rice Engineering and Mechanisation Division, Philippine
Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Muiloz 3119, Nueva
Ecija, Philippines.
253
Vietnam has recently developed an improved furnace
using an inclined grate with a more efficient cyclonic
ash separation (Fig. 3). This was to be tested during
the 1995 wet season.
purposes, respectively. Fan speed had no significant
effect on headrice yield and gennination.
Other problems fornlerly associated with earlier
flat-bed dryer designs-such as the need to mix the
grain during drying and the excessive moisture gradient between top and bottom grain layers--could be
avoided because of the UAF dryer's efficient fan and
if the recommended grain depth was adhered to. With
systematic management of operations, even unloading problems could be minimised. However, the
operator could be exposed to heat from the furnace,
especially as rice hulls have to be loaded and ash
removed every 10 to 15 minutes.
At present, PhilRice is refining or testing other
designs to go with future installations of flat-bed dryers. The modifications are focusing on better ash separation (which causes the dryer's perforated screen to
be plugged with continuous use), lighter weight (for
mObility), better durability, and lower cost. The UAF,
2. Combustor furnace
Another design tested for batch drying and later
commercialised for flash drying is the gasifier combustor designed by the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) for brick kilns. Its
components include an air delivery and metering system utilising a separate blower, fuel inlet and hopper,
which is actually the topmost section of the reactor,
the reactor, and the grate-ash removal system at the
lowest section (Fig. 4). It operates on the principle of
an open-core, batch-type gasifier. Air from a separate
blower flows downward through the fuel bed. The
gasified products are burned to produce a bluish-tolight orange flame at the lower exhaust port.
Ambient air
- H r - _ Vibrating teed grate
--'18---t--it+--
<l <l <l
To blower
Leaf spring
Refractory brick
Hot air
Vibrating link
Ash port plug
Return spring
Vibrating feed grate
Vibrating link
Connecting cable
Eccentric on fan shaft
Figure 1.
Schematic diagram of the IRRI BD-2 flat grate furnace (IRRI 1979).
254
Table 1.
Results of drying tests at different grain depth. fan speed and drying air temperature for the Maligaya 6-ton flat-bed dryer-cum-inclined grate furnace. Philippine Rice
Research Institute. 1994 wet season.
Test no.
Date
PBD!
26
FRD2
FBD3
FBD4
FBDS
FBD6
FHD7
FBDS
FBD9
FBDIO
70c!.
100c!.
11 Oct.
250ct.
4 Nov.
10 Nov.
23 Nov.
24 Nov.
26 Nov.
IR72
Mix
Mix
Burdagol
Burdagol
Burdagol
Crop conditions
Variety
lR64
Rc14
BPIRilO
BPIRilO
Initial moisture content, %
23.2
22.5
22.5
22.9
22.7
17.5
17.5
22.3
18.6
Finalm.c.• %
15.3
14
14.1
13.4
I3.S
12.3
14.2
13.8
12.7
13.8
. Initial weight, t
4.75
3.50
2.92
4.79
4.80
4.22
4.41
5.09
3.30
3.61
Final weight, t
4.31
3.15
2.63
4.26
4.30
3.97
4.24
4.59
3.08
3.13
Grain depth, cm
27.0
24.3
19.9
29.8
29.6
26.1
27.9
31.3
20.5
22.6
Temperature. QC
31
33.S
32
31
33
31
30
30
30
31
Relative humidity, %
75
64
67
75
60
60
56
80
75
72
25.1
Ambient conditions
N
VI
VI
Drying results
43
43
41
43
51
49
43
49
49
49
Drying time, hours
3h45
3hoo
5h30
5hOO
4hoo
2h30
2h30
4hOO
2h45
3h30
Drying capacity, kglhour
Drying air temp., °C
1149
1053
479
853
1076
1590
1695
1148
1119
895
Top & bot tom m.c. diff, %
2.1
1.8
0.5
2.0
1.8
1.7
0.8
1.4
0.5
0.9
472.8
Moisture removed, kg
443
346.4
285.5
525.5
495.6
250.5
169.5
502.5
223
Drying rate, % m.c.lhour
2.1
2.8
1.5
1.9
2.2
2.1
1.3
2.1
2.1
3.2
% m.c. reduction
7.9
8.5
8.4
9.5
8.9
5.2
3.3
8.5
5.9
1l.3
145
105
137
160
130
65
55
150
100
115
44.5
35.0
27.4
35.6
37.1
32.5
27.5
42.9
40
35.4
1750
1500
1450
1630
1620
1770
1770
1740
1610
1630
19
16
15
17
17
20
20
22
15
15
Airflow I"dte, m 3/s_m2
0.22
0.19
0.195
0.19
0.19
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.22
0.22
Airflow, m 3/s
6.19
5.35
5.49
5.49
5.49
6.19
6.19
5.91
6.19
6.19
Ricehull consumption, kg
Feeding rate, kg/h
Fan operation
Speed, rpm
Static pressure, mm H 2O
·.
.
'. ,
.
A'7"~"","=-"~"",,,,==,.-==~-t.:\;:~X~·;:~:~·;·:
Hopper
To blower
Inclined grat e
Frame
Figure 2.
The UAF-designed inclined grate furnace (Tarn et al. 1995).
Exhaust
Figure 3.
Inclined grate furnace with cyclonic ash sepa rator.
Figure 4.
The gas generated in the reactor has a heating value
of 3000-4000 kJ/m 3 with a conversion efficiency of
70 to 80% . Ash is removed after every batch by tilting the grate and manually scraping the ash out of the
ash port. Phan Hieu Hien (1993) noted several features of this fumace as follow s: simple construction,
easy control of the heating rate, and the production of
a clean-buming flame which is essential in directheat drying.
The ITDI rice-hull gasifier-combustor (Gagelonia 1993).
The ITDI combustor could be coupled with a 2 t
batch dryer for paddy seed drying. Because of the
high heat generated at the exhaust (360-500°C),
however, it is necessary to use an expansion duct
between the fan and the plenum and to install and
regulate a baftle plate at the exhaust to reduce the
drying air temperature to 40 to 50°C. With such an
arrangement, the drying system efficiency ranges
from 20 to 31 .4%, depending on the grain depth at the
256
bin, at an airflow rate of 0.8 m 3tsec and static pressure of 20 to 26 mm water. An average moisture
reduction of 1.3 to 1.5%/hour, equivalent to 20--31 kg
water removed per hour, was obtained during tests.
Because of its capacity to generate high-temperature drying air, the ITDI combustor was also recommended to a manufacturer to be coupled to the
NAPHIRE flash dryer design. Tests indicated a drying air temperature within the plenum chamber from
80 to 90°C; this temperature could be attained within
15 minutes after combustion. Drying rate (from 27.9
to 19.0% m.c. grain) was 9%/hour at a plenum air
velocity of 0.6 mJsecond.
The main problems with this system are its slow
ignition (which can take from 30-60 minutes with
some units) and the excessive smoke produced, which
is directed at the drying bin during ignition. Also,
being a batch-type furnace, it could pose a problem for
unskilled operators in a continuous drying system.
The furnace designed for such a system (Fig. 5) is a
box-type, with an air-sweep floor inclined at 30°,
similar to the inclined-grate system. The air-sweep
floor was a sheet of metal with rectangular shaped
slits where air passes to convey the rice hulls. On the
lower side of the floor is a rectangular opening which
leads to a cyclonic compartment where the ash falls
to the bottom and is separated from the heated air
which is sucked into the dryer by the dryer fan. During operation, the hot air, together with the ash, are
conveyed to the second compartment through the
combined action of air-sweep floor, gravity, and suction from the blower. It uses a feeding system which
is adapted from the Colombian furnacc.
Tests of the furnace with a 5 tlbatch in-store drying
bin indicated that, at a feeding rate of 4 to 10 kg/hour,
the furnace had burning efficiency of 90-95% and
drying air efficiency of 40-80%. Drying tests
resulted in the desired moisture reduction and better
milling recovery and germination capacity compared
with shade-dried samples (Table 2). The dried grain
was observed to be clean, which indicated that the
furnace had been effective in burning the rice hull
and in separating the ash from the heated air. The furnace was also capable of maintaining a nearly uniform fuel bed. No accumulation of a thick layer of
rice hull was observed. Thus, there was uniform distribution of air throughout the rice husk fuel mass
which led to better performance compared with other
existing designs.
Aldas et a). (1995) noted several advantages of the
Zeta furnace, including its compactness, lightweight
design, and continuous automatic feeding of rice hull
with its piston mechanism. However, the furnace is
still in prototype stage and will have to be adapted
together with the in-bin drying storage system in the
country.
3. Zeta furnace
The latest design developed in collaboration with
lRRI and GTZ is the Zeta furnace which is designed
for low-temperature drying systems. Low-temperature drying is a process which utiliscs either natural
air or air heated by only a few degrees (6 to 9 K
above the ambient temperature) for drying, depending upon the ambient relative humidity. Unlike the
other drying methods which use drying air temperature of around 43°C or higher, low temperature drying is a slow process which takes 7-15 days or more
depending on the wcather. It is also referred to as instorage drying since the same bin can be used for
both drying and storing. Its advantages over high
temperature drying include modest investment, minimum energy consumption and labour requirement,
and uniform drying (MuhlbaUer et al. 1992).
rice hull hopper
hot air outlet
Figure 5.
Schematic diagram of the Zeta
furnace for lowtemperature drying (Aldas el al.
perforated floor
ash discharge port
1995).
257
Table 2.
Summary of drying data for 5-ton in-bin dryer and storage system using Zeta fumaee.
2
3
Date and time begun
16 Mar., 1135
20 Apr" 1545
28 Apr., 1545
Date and time ended
28 Mar., 1100
26 Apr" 1100
4 May., 1520
287.4
142.3
143.6
2.2
2.0
1.7
841
Sinandomeng
PSBRC 10
6135.6
5923.0
5615.0
28.8
19
22
Test no.
Duration, h
Bulk depth, m
Crop data
Variety
Initial weight. kg
Initial moisture content, %
Operation
Motor power, hp
Blower operating time, h
Air velocity, mls
3
3
3
136.2
88.6
84.2
0.09
0.11
0.13
Static pressure, Pa
600-700
450-550
400-500
327.6
Airflow power, W
327.6
308.0
Energy delivered. kWh
44.6
27.3
27.6
Energy used, kWh
410.9
209.0
255.1
Furnace operating time, h
40.97
17.25
17.88
Increase in temperature, K
10
13
1I
127.9
61.5
59.0
Fuel consumed, kg
Fuel consumption rate. kglh
3.12
3.57
3.30
44.038
50.305
46.560
Average relative humidity, %
80
75
80
Drying air temperature, °C
35
40
38
Heat available, MJIh
During furnace operation
Air density, kg/m 3
Heat supplied, MJ/h
1.119
1.101
1.107
20.466
31.994
32.169
5034.4
5297.2
4787
Results
Final weight, kg
Final moisture content, %
Water removed, kg
13.1
11.8
12
1101.2
625.8
828
Drying rale, kgH 20/h
3.83
4.40
5.77
Motor and blower efficiency. %
10.86
13.06
10.82
Drying air efficiency. %
46.47
63.60
69.09
Spec. energy requirement, kWhlkgH20
0.828
0.719
0.587
Source: Aldas et al. (1995).
Furnace and Dryer Dissemination at
PhilRice
Since total investment cost is also one of the constraints in the wide adoption of dryers in the country, another strategy PhilRice has adopted is to
encourage farmers and traders adopters to construct
some of the parts of the dryers to further reduce the
cost (following PhilRice specifications). This is one
major reason for the adoption in the design of a concrete bin (utilising hollow blocks and cement)
which ordinary farmers can construct or which oth-
PhilRice, in its dryer research and dissemination
activities, focused only on tapping dryer designs and
models which could be fitted with rice-hull furnaces
rather than kerosene burners for economy purposes
and which local adopters seem to prefer.
258
4. Temperature control. Because of varying paddy
condition and desired operating requirements for
the paddy output, e.g. seed drying, it is essential
that furnaces should have some degree of control
of temperature output. It is important that every
dryer installed be fitted with a temperature gauge.
ers may already have (Le. pig pens that could be
converted during periods when drying is needed).
The use of existing prime movers, normally diesel
engines from hand tractors, is also being encouraged to further reduce farmer investment. Thus,
only parts such as fan assembly, furnace, and the
perforated screen are purchased at the recommended PhilRice cooperators.
In the dissemination of the MaJigaya flat-bed dryer
design, the following are important aspects being
considered:
J. Training operators is an important component of
dissemination that must always accompany
installation of new dryer set-ups. At PhilRice,
this training includes familiarisation with drying
procedures and furnace operation, adjustment
procedure for drying temperature, briefing on
critical factors such as effect of temperature, and
moisture content determination.
2. Technical assistance in the construction and manufacture of dryer components and in the initial
operation. With the 6 t flat-bed dryer, assistance
is needed in the construction of the furnace and in
provision of jigs for the construction of the fan
assembly. Testing of every set-up is also part of
the dissemination strategy in order to monitor the
performance of newly-installed set-ups in the
sites, as well as assuring adopters of the presence
of technical assistance.
3. Monitoring of the performance of the dryer is an
important component of dissemination in order to
determine if adjustments are needed, to meet
problems. and to assure users of its good performance.
Factors to be considered in the introduction of furnaces include:
I. Time taken for ignition/combustion. Normally,
operators and dryer users are particularly interested in the time for ignition for such rice-hull
furnaces, especially if this time is characterised
by exposure of the operator to heat and excessive
smoke. To shorten ignition time, training for
operators should be included in the dissemination
of the system.
2. Smoke generation. Smoke during ignition cannot
be avoided, but it is important that it be minimised and not directed to the grain in the bin to
prevent any undesired odour in the product which
may, in turn, reflect poorly on the whole system.
3. Continuity of feeding. Farmers normally prefer
rice-hull furnaces (and dryers) which can be operated continuously for maximum efficiency and to
minimise ignition. This is one constraint of the
gasifier4:ombustor which has to be fed and
cleared of ash in batches (although ignition is a
lot faster with succeeding batches).
Strategy of promotion
With the flat-bed dryer cum inclined grate furnace.
During the initial promotion activities, the target
group was the seed growers and cooperatives who
could afford the dryer and who have an incentive for
drying. Initial information dissemination activities
included the following:
• print material development and dissemination (bulletin, leaflet);
• video development (with an NGO and Philippine
Channel 5) and a feature shown on TV;
• promotional briefings and actual demonstration
(whenever practical) during seed grower trainings
and farmer visits which are regularly done at
PhilRice; and
• custom drying at PhiIRice to make seed growers
in the adjacent community aware of its advantages.
The focus of PhilRice at present is to set up demonstration units for each of the 14 regions of the country. It is expected that with actual units operating in
the sites, farmers will become more aware of the
improved flat-bed dryer.
In addition, PhilRice has chosen the Maligaya flatbed dryer design for equipment loan (without interest, 5 years to amortise on seasonal payments) to
farmer cooperatives and paddy seed growers. The
loan program has already started with the promotion
of the technology to regional and local extension
engineers in the country.
With the combustor coupled with the flash dryer.
Another agency. N APHIRE, does the dissemination
of the flash dryer-cum-combustor (in addition with
other commercial furnaces) which was linked by
PhiIRice to one cooperating manufacturer who has
mass produced the system. NAPHIRE has included
the flash dryer with combustor in the Department of
Agriculture's Grain Production Enhancement Program which selects farmer cooperatives for grants or
loans in the fonn of postharvest equipment such as
the dryer.
In commercialising the dryer-cum-gasifier, one
concern being attended to by the manufacturer is the
need to closely monitor the quality of mass-produced
combustors (and dryers), which is perceived to be a
constraint to wide acceptance, and the follow up
training of cooperative operators. Another concern is
the reduction of its ignition time, which with earlier
prototypes took at most 15 minutes only but now
takes up to I hour.
259
Local adoption
The Zeta furnace jointly developed with IRRI for
low-temperature drying operates on the principle of
thin layer of combustion. Its feed rate of 3-10 kg!
hour resulted in a burning efficiency of 90-95% and
drying air efficiency of 40 -80% when coupled with a
5 t in-bin drying and storage system.
Adaptation and commercialisation of the first two
furnaces for paddy drying have already been implemented and their increasing acceptance is encouraging. Numerous units have already been installed in
various localities. Promotion of these technologies
included information, demonstration in pilot areas,
and training and technical assistance to prospective
farmer owners.
The dryer is being promoted to adopters who
finance the whole dryer but with technical assistance
from PhilRice.
The adoption of the dryer has peaked this season,
with new installations in Northern and Central
Luzon. Southern Tagalog, and Mindanao. There are
several units that were installed last year by two seed
growers, one local government unit (for demonstration). and one university (for commercial seed production). The university unit is also being used for
seed maize drying while another local government
unit, located in the middle of large banana plantations, was used on one occasion for drying banana
chips (one farnler entrepreneur is planning to set up
the same dryer solely for such purpose).
New installations are being made this season for
private paddy traders (three units with one for both
paddy and maize), two farmer cooperatives (one
plans to explore its use for copra drying also), three
progressive farmers, and two other seed growers.
Inquiries are still pouring in this season. Because it is
still the cheapest available dryer (in terms of investment costJunit of paddy) and the simplest to operate
and maintain, it is expected that the design will continue to become popular in the coming years with
careful introduction from PhilRice.
References
Aldas. R.E.• Gummert. M.• Lantin, R.M., and Herrera, A.
1995. Rice hull furnaces for low temperature drying.
Paper presented at the 17th ASEAN Technical Seminar
on Grain Postharvest Technology. 25-27 July 1995,
Lumut. Perak, Malaysia.
Beagle, E.C. 1978. Rice husk conversion to energy. Rome,
FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No 31.
Gagelonia, E.C. 1993. Adaptive and optimization tests of
the Industrial Technology Development Institute (lTDI)
rice hull combustor for palay drying. Unpublished MS
thesis. Central Luzon State University, Munoz, Nueva
Ecija.
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) 1979. Rice hull
furnace development and testing. In: Annual Report for
1978. IRRI. Los Banos, Laguna. Philippines, 429-430.
Muhlbaiier, W., Maier, G., Bergotz, T., Esper, A.. Quiek,
G.R., and Mazaredo, A.M. 1992. Low-temperature drying of paddy under humid tropical conditions. In: Proceedings of the International Agricultural Engineering
Conference. Asian Institllle of Technology. Bangkok,
Thailand, 7-10 November 1992.
Phan Hieu Hien 1993. Rice husk combustion systems for
crop drying. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of
the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City.
Tarn. N.H., Gagelonia. E.C., Regal ado, MJ,C., and
Bautisla, E.U. 1995. Optimizing the performanee of the
Maligaya flat bed dryer. Paper presented at the 8th
National R&D Planning Workshop, Philippine Rice
Research Institute, Munoz, Nueva Ecija, 1-3 March
1995.
Summary and Conclusions
Rice hulls offer the best fuel potential for paddy drying during the wet season harvesting in the Philippines. Several rice-hull furnaces were adapted and
modified at PhilRice for this purpose. The inclined
grate furnaee, a modification of the IRRI BO-2 furnace, coupled to a 6 t capacity flat-bed dryer, has a
feeding capacity of about 35 kg!hour and furnace
efficiency of 50 to 80%.
The ITDI gasifier combustor, adapted for flat-bed
drying and flash drying, operates on the principle of
downdraft gasifier and, with a feed rate of 40 kg of
rice hulls per batch, can generate heat output of
200,000 kJ/hour. Coupling with a 2 t flat-bed dryer
resulted in a drying air temperature of 40 -45°C and
drying air efficiency of 20-31 %.
260
Drying Maize and Maize Seed in Vietnam
Bui Huy Thanh and Le Doan Dien*
The airflow rale was 660 m 3/t.hour with a drying
air temperature of 38-42°C. The fan was driven by a
20 kW electric motor. It took 62-70 hours to dry cobs
from 32-35% moisture content (wet basis) to 18%,
and 50 hours 10 dry grain from 18 to 10.5% m.c. The
drying cost was about US$3.30/t of seed. Total
investment for this dryer was about US$ I 700.
A flat-bed dryer for maize grain with an airflow
rate of 1250 m3/t.hour took 4 hours to dry maize
from 19 to 14% m.c. at a drying air temperature of
7S·80°C. Specific energy consumption was about
7.29 MJ/kg water evaporated. Drying cost was
US$I.80/t. Total investment was about US$ll 00.
These dryers, with their low operating cost and low
initial investment have been accepted by farmers for
drying maize and maize seed, especially by the smallscale private sector and seed-processing plants in
Vietnam.
IN recent years, maize production in Vietnam has
expanded, especially hybrid maize. Drying maize
and maize seed are urgent problems in Vietnam
because the crop is harvested in the rainy season,
and dryers have not yet been accepted by farmers.
Our research has sought to determine the most
suitable practical designs of facilities for farmers
drying maize and maize seed. In this paper, we
present some designs of Hat-bed dryers for maize
and maize seed. These dryers are locally manufactured and were installed at 15 locations in the north
of Vietnam in 1995.
The capacity of flat-bed dryers for maize on the
cob is 45 t per batch and for grain is 25 t per batch.
The drying bin is made of brick, timber, and bamboo.
The perforated floor is made from timber and bamboo. Coal was used as fuel for the burner.
*
Post Harvest Technology Institute. Hanoi, Vietnam.
261
Commercialisation of a Mobile Flash Dryer
for Farmer Cooperatives
Manolito C. Bulaong, Renita Srn. Dela Cruz, and Silvestre C. Andales*
of wet grains has been a problem besetting
the Philippines' postharvest industry. Farmers and
other sectors in the industry often suffer because of
failure to immediately dry wet season crops. This is
because the peak of the harvest season coincides with
the rainy months when sun drying cannot be
depended on.
Mechanical drying offers an alternative for drying
grains, especially during uncertain weather conditions. However, the practice did not gain ready
acceptance, for reasons such as the high cost of fuel
and other operating expenses, incompatibility of
dryer operation to the volume of paddy to be dried,
and the lack of knowledge on dryer operation and
maintenance (Cardino et al. 1989). To address this
problem, the National Postharvest Institute for
Research and Extension (NAPHIRE) and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
(AClAR) collaborated to develop a drying technology-the mobile flash dryer (MFD)-that will be
accessible and compatible with the level of operations on farms.
In 1990, a prototype batch-type model of a mobile
flash dryer (MFD) was developed and, after preliminary field tests and using feedback from farmers, an
improved model was built in 1991. The enhanced
model is a continuous-flow type with cooling and
heat recycling systems and an elevator to facilitate
loading of grains. After a satisfactory result from the
pilot testing, the technology was promoted and commercialised in 1992 (Bulaong et al. 1992).
Improvements were further identified in the continuous-flow type model at its early commercialisation
stage. All possible design improvements were introduced to some of the cooperating manufacturers who
have the capability to do machinery design and development. As a result, the continuous-flow flash dryer
underwent further improvements from the cooperating manufacturers. Thus, a model with enhanced
overall performance and versatility is now available.
The latest model can be used as a flash dryer or as a
recirculating batch dryer heated by either a pot-type
kerosene burner or a rice-hull furnace.
DRYING
Technology Package
Technology Generation
Features and components
The MFD allows on-farm and off-farm drying of
paddy. Its main components are (see also Fig. I):
• rice-hull furnace-used for stationary drying operations;
• kerosene burner-used as an auxiliary burner for
mobile drying operations;
• centrifugal blower-powered by a 5 h.p. gasoline
or diesel engine;
• drying section--composed of an upper and lower
drying section with heat recycling mode;
• cooling system--cools the grain before discharge,
and recycles heat into the drying section;
• loading system--composed of a loading hopper
and a bucket-type elevator;
• unloading system--oscillating hopper;
• recirculating chute-recycles undried grain back to
the drying section.
A -project funded by ACIAR and conducted by
NAPHlRE resulted in the development of a two-stage
drying strategy using the 'flash drying' technique in
the first-stage, and in-store drying in the second-stage
(Tumambing and Bulaong 1988). This technique
dries the paddy to a more manageable moisture content (m.c.) of 18% using high drying air temperature,
enabling fast drying rates and more efficient heat
energy utilisation. At this moisture level, paddy can
be stored for about three weeks, allowing enough
time to wait for either the availability of sunlight for
sun drying or for the second-stage of mechanical drying to completely dry the grains to 14% m.c.
*
National Postharvest Institute for Research and Extension,
CLSU Compound. Muiioz. Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
262
Figure 1.
Schematic diagram of the Mobile Flash Dryer showing the principal components. (I) kerosene burner; (I a) ricehull furnace; (2) engine; (3) centrifugal blower; (4) upper drying section; (5) lower drying section; (6) cooling
section; (7) loading hopper; (8) elevator; (9) unloading hopper, and; (10) pneumatic tyre,
The dryer is simple in construction and uses locally
available materials. This makes its cost relatively low
and it can be fabricated by local manufacturers, Table
I presents the design features and specifications of
the dryer.
system, resulting in greater heat efficiency in the drying operation.
Dryer operation
The dryer is powered by a 5 h.p. gasoline or diesel
engine or a 2 kW electric motor which drives the
blower, bucket elevator, and the unloading hopper. In
operation, the grain is fed into the unloading hopper
where it is picked up by the bucket elevator and
poured into the drying column at a rate of at least I tJ
hour. Once the drying column is full, the engine is
temporarily shut off to allow firing of the kerosene
burner or rice-hull furnace for 5 or 15 minutes, respectively. Wilh a steady flame from the burner or furnace,
the engine is again started and the blower is engaged.
The blower is set to operate at 2500 rpm.
The fuel feed rate is increased until the desired drying air temperature is reached, as indicated by a dial
thermometer placed along the hot air duct. The
required drying temperature depends on the initial
moisture content of the paddy 10 be dried. When used
as a 'flash dryer' (drying wet paddy to 18% m.c,) the
air temperatures used for paddy with various ranges
of moisture content are as follows: 80--90°C for 2530% m,c. (very wet); and 70--80°C for 23--24% m.c.
(wet). Drying 18-20% (skin dry) paddy to 14% m.c.
will require 4O--60°C. When drying paddy for seed,
the temperature should not exceed 43°C for all moisture content levels.
Principles of operation
Flash dryer. The wet paddy is continuously fed
from the loading hopper and is subjected to temperatures of 80-90°C for 15-20 minutes. As the grain
passes through the drying column, heated air crosses
both sides of the grain column, outwards in the upper
section, and inwards in the lower section (Fig. 2).
This minimises the moisture content gradient common to high temperature drying, The grain is cooled
in'a cooling section before being discharged at the
unloading hopper. Heat retrieved in the cooling section is recycled to the drying section, resulting in
more efficient heat utilisation. Grain is fed into the
dryer continuously, at the same time as semi-dried
grain is being discharged.
Recirculating batch dryer. Wet grains are continuously recirculated into the drying bin until semi-dry
or dry. Flash drying using drying temperatures of 8090°C is applied to grains with an initial moisture content above 18 %, When drying grains of 18-19% m .c.,
the drying temperature is reduced to 4O-60"C. When
drying from 18 to 14% m.c., exhaust air from the
lower drying section can be optionally recycled to the
263
Table 1.
Design features and specifications of the mobile flash dryer.
Type
Continuous flow or recireulating batch
Height
2.5 m (without elevator)
3.5 m (with elevator)
Width
1.0 m grain bin only
Length
1.5 m including wheels
3.0 m overall length
1.25 m bin only
Drying bin
Capacity
Power requirement
Vertical, columnar mixing type with heat recycling system
10-12 cavans (I cav = 50 kg) of palayfhr at 70-80°C at 6% moisture extractionfhr
Minimum 5 h.p. engine
Heating system
Blower
Temperature indicator
Evaporating pot-type kerosene burner or rice-hull furnace
Centrifugal backward inclined, 3000 CFM at I" stat. pressure
Dial thermometer
I tlhr, bucket-type
1.2 to 1.5 litres regular gasoline/hr
3-4 litres kerosene/hr at 70-80Q C
18-20 kg/hr rice hulls at 80-90°C
At least 3 persons
a) Exhaust air recycling system
Elevator
Engine (fuel) consumption
Burner (fuel) consumption
Labour requirement
Other features
b) Cooling section
c) Grain recycling system
The grain can be automatically recycled to the drying column if the required final moisture content has
not been reached. This is done by closing the unloading hopper and diverting the grain back to the elevator by means of an oscillating sliding chute. For
recirculating or multi pass operation, the drying air
temperature is correspondingly decreased as the grain
moisture content decreases.
Once the desired moisture level is reached, the
unloading hopper is opened slowly to start discharging the grain. The retention time of the grain inside
the drying column can be controlled by the discharge
rate. Discharge rate can be varied by means of a
crank which adjusts the opening of the discharge
hopper.
grain
buffer
upper
drying
section
elevator
lower
drying
sectioo
Viable drying scheme
The technology is cost-effective to operate as a
two-stage drying scheme (MID + sun drying, or
MFD + in-store drying). Using MID as the sole
means of drying cuts its capacity by half and results
in higher operating costs due to lower output.
loading
cooling
section
hopper
Economic returns
grain recycling
chute
Figure 2.
The MID with a convertible kerosene burner and
rice-hull furnace (because of its bulk, use of the latter
necessitates operation of the dryer as a stationary unit)
costs approximately PHPllO,OOO (during October
Schematic diagram of the Mobile Flash Dryer
drying column.
264
The data imply that the operation of the technology will be more profitable in areas with relatively
long wet seasons which will require a longer dryer
utilisation.
Table 3 illustrates the various options of a farmer
in selling his paddy. He can either sell it wet, sell it
dry using the MFD, or wait for the sunshine and risk
deterioration. Using the MFD and sun drying combination gives the farnler greater profit than selling wet
or selling dry but damaged grain.
1995, ca 25 Philippine pesos (pHP) = US$I), including
a 5 h.p. gasoline engine. Table 2 gives a cost and return
analysis for the MFD considering two utilisation rates
and based on a custom-drying scheme at a drying fee of
PIW 12.00/cavan (1 cavan = 50 kg). The data indicate a
reduced unit cost of drying and a correspondingly
higher return on investment with an increase in annual
utilisation rate. Using a rice-hull furnace, although it
has a higher investment cost, results in the lowest drying cost ofPHP5.51/cavan for 120 days use each year.
Table 2.
Cost-and-retum analysis of the mobile flash dryer at varying utilisation rates in drying paddy grain from 23-24%
initial moisture content to 18-20% m.c.
Rice hull furnace
Annual capacity, cavansb
Total investment cost, pesos
Kerosene burner
Rice hull furnace
Kerosene burner
60
60
120
120
10,560
10,560
21,120
21,120
110,000
85,000
110,000
85,000
Dryer unit
65,000
65,000
65,000
65,000
Engine,S h.p. gasoline
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
Dryer shed
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
Rice hull furnace
25,000
25,000
27,280
21,080
27,280
21,080
Depreciation"
9,900
7,650
9,900
7,650
Interest on average capital investedd
Repair and maintenancee
9,680
7,480
9.680
7,480
5,500
4,250
5,500
4,250
Taxes and insurancc f
2,200
1,700
2,200
1,700
44.576
83,016
89,153
166,032
52.800
Total fixed cost, pesos/year
Total variable cost, pesos/year
Labourg
26,400
26,400
52,800
Rice huUh
1,080
38,400
2,160
76.800
Gasoline'
14,400
14,400
28.800
28,800
Miscellaneousi
1,256
2.376
2.512
4,752
Oil and greasek
1,440
1,440
2,880
2.880
71.856
104,096
116,433
187,112
Total drying cost, pesos/year
Drying cost, pesos/cavan ($l/cavan)
Drying fee, pesos/cavan ($/cavan)
Total net income, pesos
Return on investment. %
6.80 (0.26)
9.86 (0.38)
5.51 (0.21)
8.86 (0.34)
12.00 (0.46)
12.00 (0.46)
12.00 (0.46)
12.00 (0.46)
54.863.60
22,598.40
137,007.20
66,316.80
49.88
26.59
124.55
78.02
2.00
3.76
0.80
1.28
a Based on 16 hours/day operation
b 50 kglcav at 11 cavanlhourcapacity from 23-24% initial m.c. to 18-20% final m.c.
C Straightline method, 10% salvage value, 10 years life span
d 16% interest rate per year
e 5% of investment cost
f 2% of investment cost
g 3 persons at 2.50 pesos/cavan input
h 20 kg/hour at 0.025 pesos/kg
i I.5 litres at JO pesos/litre at 16 hours/day
j 3% of labour and fuel cost~ (for towing and other incidental expenses due to variation of days of utilisation
k 10% of gasoline cost
I The conversion rate used was 25 pesos to US$I.
265
Table 3.
Comparison of costs of various drying options during wet season harvest.
Drying option
Final
m.c." %
Selling cost
pesos/kg ($/kg)
Weight when
soldb kg
Gross income
pesos/cavanc
($/cavan)
Drying cost
pesos/cavan
($/cavan)
Net income
pesos/cavan
($/cavan)
I.
Sell wet
24
4.0 (0.15)
50.0
200.0 (7.69)
0
200.0 (7.69)
2.
Sell dry but damaged
14
5.0 (0.19)
44.2
221.0 (8.50)
10 (0.38)
211.0 (8.12)
3.
Flash dry and sun dry
14
6.0 (0.23)
44.2
265.2 (\ 0.20)
16 (0.62)
249.2 (9.58)
4.
Flash dry to 18%
18
5.5 (0.21)
46.3
254.9 (9.80)
12 (0.46)
242.9 (9.34)
14
6.0 (0.23)
44.2
265.2 (\ 0.20)
25 (0.96)
240.2 (9.24)
5.
Flash dry to 14% m.c.
a From initial moisture content of 24%.
initial weight of 50 kg.
C One cavan - 50 kg.
b From
Commercialisation
among the 35 manufacturers who have signified
their intention to build MFDs, NAPHIRE has
selected and accredited 12 manufacturers (Table 4).
Accreditation of manufacturers is a continuing activity of the Training and Extension Department of
NAPHIRE.
Credit assistance
The Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP) forged an
agreement with NAPHIRE in 1991 for a credit assistance program to farmer cooperatives that wish to purchase NAPHIRE-designed improved postharvest
technologies. LBP provides the financial resources
while NAPHIRE gives the technical assistance to
these cooperatives.
Commercialized units
As of December 1994, 385 units of flash dryers
have been sold. The units marketed have been
adopted by cooperatives throughout the Philippines
as beneficiaries of the Grains Production Enhancement Program (GPEP) of the government.
Aside from GPEP, the mobile flash dryer has been
selected by cooperating government agencies of the
GPEP Postharvest Component including local government units to be the type of dryer disseminated to
eligible cooperatives.
Accredited manufacturers
Recognising that cooperative development of
machinery by both the research institution and the
manufacturers is a highly effective method for successful technology development and transfer,
NAPHIRE enlisted the participation of eligible
machinery manufacturers in building the dryer. From
Table 4.
List of fully accredited manufacturers of flash dryers in the Philippines.
I.
CMC Metal Craft
Bayugan, Agusan del Sur, Philippines.
2.
Emerald Machinery Sales, Inc.
3.
Gregorio Danganan Welding & Repair Shop
Diamond Motor Service Bldg., 41-B Serrano Ave. Quezon
City.
3438 Liboro St., Pag-asa, San Jose, Occidental Mindoro.
4.
Josian International Machines
Maahas, Los BanDs, Laguna.
5.
KA TO Machineries
Manila.
6.
Los Banos Agricultural Machineries
Maahas, Los BanDs, Laguna.
Mateo Tayag Metal Craft
Juan Luna St., San Jose, Occidental, Mindoro.
8.
Morallo Iron Works
661 Highway I, San Miguel, lriga City.
9.
MTP Metal Craft
Turayong, Cauayan, Isabela.
7.
10. Prime Index Philippines
1651 Oroquieta St., Sta. Cruz, Manila.
11. R & B Metal Craft cI- Equity Enterprises
Cauayan, Isabela.
12. ROPALI Trading Corporation
Cauayan, Isabela.
13. Tropics Agro-Industries, Inc.
25 Panganiban St., Naga City, Camarines Sur.
266
References
Tumambing, I.A. and Bulaong, M.C. 1988. Drying in bulk
storage of high moisture grains in tropical climate.
Muiioz, Nueva Ecija 3120, Philippines, NAPHlRE,
Project Terminal Report.
Bulaong, M.C., Paz, RR, Anchiboy, T.P., and Rodriguez,
A.C. 1992. Development and pilot testing of the
NAPHlRE mobile flash dryer. Muiioz, Nueva Ecija 3120,
Philippines, NAPHIRE, Technical Bulletin No. 14.
267
Grain Condition Monitoring and
Aeration Control Systems
Cao Guanzbi*
THE Grain Condition Detection, Analysis, and Ventilation Control System (GCDA VCS) can monitor
remotely the temperature and humidity of a grain
mass. The computer controls detection of grain conditions and determines the requirements for aeration,
temperature change, and moisture adjustment.
Depending on the conditions provided by the host
computer (control unit), the substations then provide
dynamic real time and closed-loop control through
the software of the aeration model.
Grain condition dynamic intelligent analysis
Compared with the use, collection and analysis of
temperature information by hand, GCDA VCS has
been an important breakthrough. With its analysis
based on artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic,
GeDA VCS can analyse the grain temperature range
present and detect signs of heating using the special
mathematical model for changing patterns of conditions in grain. The model induces automatically the
local temperature change patterns and modifies the
temperature curves to forecast the limit of the temperature trend and its pattern of change. Three dimensional pictures are used to provide easily seen
illustrations of the temperature change.
Operational Procedure
The GCDA VCS transmits the field signals to the host
computer, through the sensors, substations (data collectors), and double twist wires in a predetermined
sequence. The host computer then computes the aeration necessary based on the information provided. To
improve the calculation, the analysis of the grain
mass is done by a mathematically-based model. Figure 1 shows the components and arrangement of the
GCDAVCS.
Main Functions
Timing ofthe data collection
If the time for reading of the sensors in the detection circuit is set, the GCDA yeS units will operate
automatically at that time every day. The host computer will store data for three days and it can be saved
and printed.
Figure 1.
Diagram of the Grain Condition Detection,
Analysis, and Ventilation Control System
(GCDAVCS).
Intellgent automatic aeration control
Real time data recovery
Because of the equations and data provided by the
'Mechanical Ventilation of Provision Reserve Technical Rules: the GeDA VCS docs not require operators to calculate the equilibrium humidity and
temperature difference for aeration air to establish the
required temperature and humidity differences in the
grain mass. Thus, mechanical vcntilation (aeration)
can be controlled automatically by the GCDA VCS if
the storage identification number, grain present, its
Operators can read the sensors at any time when
the detection circuit is not operating (including grain
and air temperatures and humidities).
• Chifeng Grain Microelectronic Applied Technique
Research Institute, 4 Section Red Star East Road, Hongshan District, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia. China.
268
average grain temperature T 2 > air dew-point temperature
T I I' that is, T 2 > T 'I' After aeration, the upper grain mass
temperature should not exceed the safe storage temperature after the moisture content of the grain mass has
increased. The allowable humidity conditions for adjusting moisture content with aeration are: the grain moisture
increasing 2.5% and the grain temperature air temperature T 1; the equilibrium absolute humidity PSz2 < the
interstitial absolute air humidity PSI' that is, PS 22 < PS\.
When the moisture content of the grain mass reaches the
required level, it should be below the safe reserve moisture level, with the grain mass moisture gradient ~ O.5!m
grain layer thickness; and the grain mass temperature gradient ~ I °C/m grain layer thickness. At this point the aeration should be stopped.
Using the above-mentioned principles, the intelligent automatic aeration control system can operate on
many automatic aerated storages at the same time.
When the storage identification number, grain
present, its moisture content, and the purpose of the
aeration are put into the computer, the GCDA VCS
uses this information to provide dynamic real time
control for monitoring of conditions and automatic
operation of the aeration. The working diagram (see
below) is a control circle.
moisture content and the purpose of the aeration
(lowering temperature, reducing moisture contact, or
adjusting) are put into the computer. In this way, condensation is prevented during aeration.
Practical Application
The field signals by the collector substations of temperature, humidity, AID converter and data can be
computed into the control substations independently.
Each substation may cut short the reading of the circuit
of sensors. They also send out on/off signals to the aeration controllers according to the aeration conditions
required by the central host computer. Store keepers
can thus program sensor monitoring and aeration control off line from the network. When grain temperature
is being reduced and aeration is carried out according
to the 'Mechanical Ventilation of Provision Reserve
Technical Rules', the allowable temperature conditions are: at the beginning, T2 - T, ;,c 8°C (subtropical
zone T2 1\;,c 6°C); during the course T2 T,;,c 4°C
(subtropical zone T2 - T, ;,c 3°C); where T 2 is the average temperature in the grain mass (0C); and T, is the
air temperature (0C) outside the granary.
The allowable humidity conditions for temperature
reduction with aeration are: below the interstitial grain
temperature, the equilibrium absolute grain humidity,
PS 2 , is higher than the interstitial absolute air humidity
PS 1> that is, PS2 > PS ,. To end the temperature reduction with aeration, the condition is T2 TI ~ 4°C (subtropical zone, Tz - Tt ~ 3°C); the temperature gradient
of the grain mass ~ 1°C/m grain layer thickness: the
grain mass moisture gradient ~ O.3%/m grain layer
thickness. The conditions for moisture reduction and
aeration vary among grains. During moisture reduction
with aeration of wheat of moisture content below 16%,
late rice below \8%, maize below 20%, beans below
18%, and rapeseed below 12%, the allowable humidity
conditions for moisture reduction and aeration are:
grain moisture reduces 1%; grain temperature = grain
average temperature T2 > air dew-point temperature
T ll , that is, T 2 > T II .
The allowable temperature conditions for moisture
reduction with aeration are: grain moisture reduces 1%
and grain temperature air temperature T,; equilibrium absolute grain humidity PS 21 > interstitial absolute air humidity PS I' that is PS 2 , > PS,. When the
aemtion air is introduced to the bottom layer of the
grain the drying front moves through to the top grain
layers. When the aeration air is sucked from the bottom
layer, the drying front moves to the bottom of the mass
and when the grain temperature gradient ~ 1°C/m grain
layer thickness, the aeration should be stopped.
Temperature and moisture adjustment with aeration
must be done before grain processing. The allowable conditions for adjusting temperature with aeration are: the
Data collection is done once every two minutes
monitoring the temperature changes. After the control
information is programmed into the computer, the substations collect temperature and humidity of the ambient air and the temperature of the grain to enable
calculation of the relative equilibrium humidity, the
absolute humidity and the grain mass dew point. Aeration is then done according to the following:
Aeration Purpose
Allowable conditions for aeration
Temperature
reduction
The first temperature difference
and the operating tempering
difference PSI < PS 2
Moisture reduction
and adjustment
PSI < PS 3
PS] > PSs
Tl Air temperature; T2 Grain mass temperature; PS] Air absolute
temperature: PS 2 Below the interstitial grain temperature, the
equilibrium absolute grain humidity; PS 3 When the grain temperature is dose to the air temperature, the grain moisture w%-l % to
the equilibrium absolute humidity; T4 Air dew-point; PS s When
the grain temperature is close to the air temperature, the grain
moisture w% + 2.5% to the eqUilibrium humidity.
269
moisture and the purpose of the aeration, the substations work independently. If the central host computer is out of order, the substations can still operate.
The system is now widely distributed, being
installed in about 100 state grain reserve depots.
The results have all been good.
Summary
Advanced mathematical models are used to manage
grain conditions and provide dynamic real time control of aeration. This automatic control replaces the
experienced technicians in analysis, collection of
data, and decision making. Because of the large
quantities of data involved, the mathematieal model
for grain monitoring and analysis of grain conditions is installed in the computer. The model for aeration control can be installed in the substations.
Because of the differences in grains involved, their
Bibliography
Department of Provision Management. State Grain Provision Reserve Bureau n.d. The Chinese Grain Reserve
Encyclopedia.
270
Use of Rice Husk Gasification in Grain Drying
Chen Zhishun*
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
is one of the important agricultural provinces
of China producing on average 32 Mt of grain. Some
8 Mt of this is held in storage. Jiangsu is located on
the east coast of Asia and is seasonally very hot and
humid.
A recent estimate located nearly 750 grain dryers
of diverse type in the province. This accounts for
about 30% of the total number of dryers in China. Of
these, there are 580 fluidised-bed dryers with the balance being rotary dryers, steel tower dryers, flat dryers, vibrating fluidised-bed dryers, and infrared
dryers. These units handle on average, 1 Mt of wet
grain annually. Performance data for the three main
types of dryer are given in Table I.
Jiangsu has a large amount of storage with varied
facilities using appropriate methodology for handling
the wet grain in an area which, as indicated above, is
seasonally very hot and humid. It is typical of China.
JIANGSU
The following is a brief introduction to the operation of these types of furnace.
Manually operated furnaces
This type is commonly installed in primary grain
depots. The facilities have low construction costs, are
convenient in operation, and have a higher calorific
efficiency. They have a brick or metal casing with the
furnace body comprising a burning chamber and a
mixing chamber
Rice husk gasification units
A unit consists of a rice-husk gas producer, a conditioning drum, and a burning chamber. The unit supplies
steady heat to the grain dryer and its main advantage is
that it does not pollute the dried grain. In a random
sampling test, the BaP content of the grain is nearly
constant at 0.72 ppb before and after drying whereas
with hard coal and rice husk tunnel gas the BaP content
increases to 1.28 ppb and 2.05 ppb respectively.
Rice Husk Gasification
for Grain Drying
The yearly average of I Mt of wet grain being dried
by the 750 dryers consumes 24000 t of fuel. It is thus
very important and urgent to exploit renewable
resources to replace the fuel oil and coal which are in
short supply and expensive. Grain dryers are commonly located near rice mills which produce large
quantities of husk residues. This rice husk may be
regarded as an appropriate and cheap source of heat
energy for drying grain.
Jiangsu province consumes approximately 18 500 t
of rice husk each year for drying grain. This accounts
for 77% of the total fuel consumption in the province
for grain drying and 90% of national use of rice husk
for this purpose.
Four types of rice husk furnace were designed to
match the growth of the grain drying in the rice
industry:
*
Manually operated furnace constructed of brick
Manually operated furnace fabricated from metal
Down-draft rice husk gas producer
Up-draft rice husk gas producer.
The gasification process
Rice husk is fed from the top of the furnace into the
reaction chamber and the producer gas led to the conditioning drum for storage and thence to the burning
chamber. The producer gas is mixed with air and
burnt in the 'heat exchanger' to produce high temperature flue gas which is then mixed with twice th'e volume of air and then used as the heat source for drying
the grain.
The reaction in the gas producing furnace is divided
from top to bottom according to temperature into a
drying layer, a distillation layer, and an active gasification layer. The reaction formulae are as follows:
C + 02
C + 11202
C + CO2
C + H20
CO + H 20
Jiangsu Grains, Oils and Foods International Corporation,
53 Shanxi Rd, Nanjing, China.
271
=
-
CO2 + 97,650 kcal
CO + 29,430 kcal
2CO 38,790 kcal
CO + H2 - 28,800 kcal
CO2 + H2 + 9,849 kcal
Tablet.
Test data of the three main types of dryer
HY125xlO
HH32x320
Fluidised-bed dryer
Types
Capacity (t1h)
Moisture removal (%)
HLZ-30
Netted Column
7.80
15.08
11.64
2.07 (15.92-13.85)
3.33 (18.03-14.70)
2.20 (16.2-14.00)
Coal
Rice husks
Coal
Fuel consumption (kg/h)
85.2
122
58.8
Energy consumption in water
removal (kcal/kg water)
1321
1079
1023
+1
+2.5
+0.5
Fuel
Breakage rate (%)
Table 2.
Analysis of rice husk
Components
There are two types of gas producer: the downdraft and the up-draft system.
Content (%)
Water
11.66
The down-draft rice husk gas producer
VoJatiles
55.62
Fixed carbon
16.33
The body of the producer is the gasification chamber. The top is open for feeding in the rice husk and
air. There is a gas outlet in the jacket of the furnace
to remove the producer gas and the bottom of the
chamber is sealed with water to prevent explosions.
Ash
18.32
Calorific value
2960 kcal/kg
funnel
air tunnel
husk
heat air
/ ' out
~
0
0
ro
valve
!
!
..............
400
400
8<D
heat air-in
fire-gard
sediment
chamber
Figure 1.
Manually operated furnaces for rice husk.
272
ash-out
heat air
- in
~
rice
/
husk
gas store drum
cyclone
heat exchanger
fan
burner
\
I
Figure 2.
conditioning
tower
elevator
dryer
/
Integration of rice-husk gasification into grain drying
Ash falls into the water through the grate at the bottom of the chamber and is removed by a screen conveyor. The body of the furnace is filled with a waterjacket for heat insulation . A fan assists starting the
combustion process and moving the gas when the
unit is operating.
draft process. the gas is drawn off from the empty
space in the top of the reaction chamber and passed to
the conditioning drum and then burnt to dry the grain.
A comparison between the down-draft and updraft gas producers
(a) Gasification strengths are respectively 132 kg/
m 2h for the down-draft type and 149 kg/ m2h for
the up-draft type . This indicates that the dimensions of the second type may be reduced by 10%
to reduce costs. In such modification of design,
however, attention should be paid to the attenuation of calorific efficiency in that type of gas
producer.
The up-draft rice husk gas producer
This is another application of the gasification system for indirectly drying grain . The air-now is in the
reverse directi on to that of the previous gas producer
and construction is different. The furnace cover is
sealed and is blown by a fan from the bottom of the
chamber. After the several reactions as in the downhusk
air
1. cover
o
o
I
wet grain
/ ' gas producer
02000
o
1.
husk chute
2.
gas-out
3.
husk
distributor
4. body
/
02000
/
2. gas out
5. door
3. body
6. grate
02250
4. grate
5. gear
7. air-in
6. water
seal
8. grate
handle
9. waterseal
7. waste
water
pump
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
A down-draft rice husk gas producer
273
The up-draft rice husk gas producer
Table 3.
(b) Since the gas in the up-draft type is of more
combustible CO and CH 4 (but less H 2) than the
gas in the down-draft type, the up-draft type
produces gas of a higher calorific value than the
latter.
(c) In the up-draft type light explosions may occur.
These are caused by the blocking of the gas
spray nozzle and pipe by tar and impurities, as
well as by leaking of air into the top chamber.
These accidents are averted in the down-draft
type, because its gas is more clear, and the gas is
separated by fuel layers from air.
(d) The down-draft drying system may be operated
in parallel with the gas generating system. Thus
the combined system can supply a rice mill
with heat for drying and electric power for mill
operation.
Analysis of rice husk gas (%).
Gas
component
Down-draft type
Up-draft type
CO
15.45
17.21
CH 4
0.40
4.92
CO2
7.25
4.91
H2
9.48
4.70
O2
2.50
2.98
N2
64.92
64.96
0.32
CnHm
Table 4.
Technical data on gas producers.
Down-draft type Up-draft type
Item
Diffusion of Rice Husk Gasification
Technology
Diameter of container
2m
Im
Gasification strength
132 kg/m 2h
149kg/m2h
4.5 m 3/kg
2.3 m 3/kg
Gasification effect
On behalf of the Jiangsu Provincial Grain Bureau, the
Jiangsu Grains Oils and Foods International Corporation has promoted rice husk gasification technology,
and accomplished programs as follows.
(I) Research on ricc husk gasification and successful design of Models 6250 and 6160 rice husk
gasification units.
(2) Introduction, with government loan support, of
rice husk gasification technology in over 50 rice
mills and stores.
(3) Organisation of gasification training courses and
meetings to exchange information and experience. Arranging field trips by specialists to help
operators solve production troubles.
(4) Conduct of international rice husk gasification,
storage and processing technology seminars in
Jiangsu and completing 9 rice husk gasitlcation
and drying projects in Asian, African and LatinAmerican countries.
Calorific efficiency
Calorific value
Husk consumption
73%
63.7%
750 kcal/m 3
I 100 kcal/m 3
400 kg/h
138 kg/h
Conclusion
Based on fluidised-bed drying, grain drying in
Jiangsu is appropriate for the local situation at
present. It would be a wise strategy, however, to
develop rice husk gasification as this technology,
although suitable for power generation, still leaves
much to be desired for grain drying. Research on
improving calorific efficiency, simplifying construction of equipment, and reducing costs should be
emphasised as follow-up assignments.
274
The Effects of Drying and Shelling on Fusarium spp.
Infection and Fusarium Toxins Production in Maize
O.S. Dharmaputra*, H.K. Purwadariat , H. Susilo§, and S. Ambarwati§
TOXIGENIC Fusarium species can grow on some of
the staple foods of both humans and animals, among
them maize. According to Miller (1994) deoxynivalenol was produced by both F. graminearum and F.
culmorum, while nivalenoJ was produced only by F.
graminearum. Deoxynivalenol could cause some diseases, among others necrosis of the skin (Ueno 1977),
while nivaJenol caused vomiting in ducks and dermal
toxicity in rabbits (Betina J989).
According to Dharmaputra et al. (J 994), a survey
conducted by a BIOTROP team in 1992 revcaled that:
• the highest percentage of maize kernels infected by
F. moniliforme and F. semitectum was in freshly
harvested maize cobs (77.4%), while the lowest
was on dry shelled maize stored at trader level
(30.8%);
• the highest nivalenol content was on shelled maize
(12.5 ppm), while the lowest was on dry maize
cobs (5.8 ppm);
• during the dry season the highest deoxynivalenol
content was on dry maize cobs (2.8 ppm), while
the lowest was on dry shelled maize (1.2 ppm);
• during the wet season the highest content was on
freshly harvested maize cobs (3.8 ppm), while the
lowest was on dry shelled maize stored at trader
level (1.9 ppm).
Postharvest handling (including drying and shelling)
can affect fungal infection. In general, the moisture
content of freshly harvested maize is still high, and it is
therefore a good substrate for fungal growth. Shelling
can cause mechanical damage, and fungal spores can
infect the kernel through the damage. Consequently,
the kernels should be shelled using a proper tool and at
an appropriate moisture content to reduce the damage.
The objective of this study was to obtain information
on the effects of some methods of drying and shelling
on Fusarium spp. infection and Fusarium toxins production in maize stored under laboratory conditions.
Also sought was information on the effect of drying
and shelling on the integrity of kernels, and the effect
of storage duration on changes in moisture content.
Materials and Methods
Maize variety
Two maize varieties (Arjuna and CPI-2) were used
in this study. They were grown at the experimental plot
of the Research Institute for Food Crop Biotechnology,
Bogor, harvested at 90 and 97 days after planting,
respectively, and husked immediately after harvest.
Drying and shelling
Cobs of maize were divided into four lots. The 1st
and the 2nd lots were sun dried to 20% moisture content (m.c.), then shelled and further dried after shelling to 17 and 14% m.C., respectively. The 3rd lot was
sun dried to 17% m.c. then shelled but was not dried
further. The 4th lot was sun dried to 17% m.c., then
shelled and further dried after shelling to 14% m.c,
All maize samples were sun dried by spreading the
cobs or kernels on a paved floor.
Nail-down wood and a mechanical shelJer type
Yanmar 1F 55-di with a cylinder rotation of 500-700
rpm were used for shelling the maize.
Storing of maize and method of sampling
*
SEAMEO BTOTROP, P.O. Box J 16, Bogor, Indonesia,
and Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and
Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, JI. Raya
Pajajaran, Bogor, Indonesia.
t Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Campus IPB, Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia.
§ SEAMEO BIOTROP, P.O. Box 116, BOgOT, Indonesia.
After drying and shelling, 500 g of maize from
each treatment was placed in a 3.3 L jar covered with
muslin cloth, and stored for 1, 2, and 3 months under
laboratory conditions. Two replicates were used for
each treatment. The ambient temperature and relative
humidity of the storage were recorded using a Wilh.
Lambrecht thermohygrograph type 252.
275
ative humidity of the storage were 21.75-29.25°C
and 47.88-88.25%, respectively (Table 3).
Maize variety, drying, and shelling each had a significant effect on occurrence of damaged kernels, but
their interaction was not significant (Table 4).
The percentage of damaged kernels of maize var.
CPI-2 (5.0%) was higher than that of var. Arjuna
(3.6%) (Table 5). It was presumed that the kernels of
var. CPI-2 were larger and less solid than var. Arjuna,
and therefore could be more easily cracked or broken
during shelling.
An initial sample was obtained from each replicate
Gar) at the beginning of storage, and further samples
at I, 2, and 3 months of storage. Each sample was
divided twice using a sample divider to obtain working samples for moisture content. damaged kernels,
population of Fusarium spp., and Fusarium toxins
content analyses.
Moisture content, damaged kernels, population of
Fusarium spp., and Fusarium toxins content
analyses
Moisture content (wet basis) was determined using
the oven method at 130°C for 2 hours (BSI 1980).
The damaged kernels analyses were carried out at the
beginning of storage to obtain the percentage of damaged kernels caused by shclling.
Fusarium spp. was isolated using dilution method
on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA)
(Piu and Hocking \985). Fusarium toxins contcnt was
determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods (Blaney et al. \986).
Table I.
Source of
variance
The data were analysed using a completely randomised factorial design with 4 factors. The 1st, 2nd,
3rd, and 4th factors were maize variety, method of
drying, method of shelling, and duration of storage,
respectively.
Results and Discussion
df
SS
MS
F Value
A
1
0.0200000
0.0200000
0.22
B
3
3
22.2191000
7.4063667
81.58**
0.58
0.1580750
0.0526917
C
0.1682000
0.1682000
1.85
AxC
0,0288000
0.0288000
0.32
AxB
Experimental design
Analysis of variance on the effects of variety,
drying, shelling, duration of storage and their
interaction on moisture content of maize.
BxC
3
0.7585250
0.2528417
2.78*
AxBxC
3
0.2064250
0.0688083
0.76
45.8788271
505.32**
D
3 137.6364812
AxD
3
0.2039063
0.0679688
0.75
BxD
9
40.7079438
4.5231049
49.82**
AxBxD
9
0.6937437
0.0770826
0,85
The eITect of maize variety, methods of drying and
shelling, and storage duration on moisture content
and incidence of damaged kernels
CxD
3
3
0.2252688
0.07508%
0.83
0.1070437
0.0356812
0.39
BxCxD
9
1.3455312
0.1495035
1.65
Based on statistical analysis, the effects of drying,
duration of storage, and their interaction caused significant differences to moisture content, while variation in variety and method of shelling was not
significant (Table I).
At the beginning of storage, the moisture contents
of the grain subjected to drying methods I, n, III, and
IV were 16.84, 14.10, 17.11, and 14.35%, respectively. Following 1 month of storage moisture contents had fallen (13.98, 13.51, 14.05 and 13.75%,
respectively), and then remained almost constant for
2 and 3 months of storage (Table 2). It was assumed
that the moisture content of maize at 2 and 3 months
of storage would approach an equilibrium with the
relative humidity of the storage. According to Hall
(I 957) and Henderson and Perry (1976), this equilibrium moisture content is reached when the grains
cease to either absorb or release vapour. Brooker et
al. (1974) reported that the equilibrium moisture content is affected by temperature, humidity, variety, and
maturity of grains. The ranges of temperature and rei-
AxBxCxD
9
0.4364063
0.0484896
0.53
63
5.7198875
0.0907919
AxCxD
Error
Variety
Drying
Intemetion between variety and drying
Shelling
C
AxC
Intemetion between variety and shelling
BxC
Interaction between drying and shelling
AxBxC
Interaction among variety, drying and shelling
D
Duration of storage
AxD
Interaction between variety and duration of storage
BxD
Interaction between drying and dunltion of storage
AxBxD
Interaction among variety, drying and duration of
storage
Interaction between shelling and duration of storage
CxD
AxCxD
Intemetion among variety, shelling and duration of
storage
BxCxD
Intemetion among drying, shelling and duration of
stomge
AxBxCXD Interaction among variety, drying, shelling and
duration of storage
Significantly different at 95% confidence level
*
Significantly different at 99% confidence level
**
A
B
AxB
276
Table 2.
Moisture content of maize treated with different
methods of drying during storage.
The percentage of damaged kernels of maize
shelled at 20% m.c. (drying methods] and II) (4.7 and
5.4%, respectively) was higher than for maize shelled
at 17% m.c. (drying methods III and IV) (3.7 and
3.2%, respectively). According to SFCDP (1990),
low quality maize generally contains more than 3%
damaged kernels, and the percentage increases if the
grain is shelled at greater than 18% m.c ..
The percentage of damaged kernels (5.7%) in
maize shelled by mechanical sheller was higher for
maize shelled by nail-down wood (2.9%). It was
assumed that shelling of each cob of maize using a
nail-down wood did not result in friction between
cobs, in contrast to shelling using a mechanical sheller. Moreover, manual shelling using a nail-down
wood can be controlled to reduce friction between the
sheller and the maize. According to Suprayitno
(1980) the percentage of damaged kernels of maize
shelled using a mechanical sheller is higher because
of friction between intact kernels and between intact
kernels and the cylinder of the mechanical sheller.
Moisture content (%)
Drying
method"
Duration of storage (months)
0
I
2
3
16.84a
13.98 cd
13.18 g
13.08 g
13.02g
n
14.10 be
13.51 eC
13.04g
1II
17.11 a
14.05 bed
12.95 g
IV
14.35 b
13.75 de
12.99
Numbers followed by the same letter do not differ significantly
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 95% confidence
level
aI
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content. then
shelled and re·dried after shelling to 17% moisture content
11 Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content, then
shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture content.
III Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content, then
shelled and were not re-dried.
IV Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content, then
shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture content.
Table 3.
Table 5.
Range of temperature and relative humidity in
the storage room.
Duration of
Temperature
Relative humidity
(%)
Effect
61.0-88.3
1
2
21.8-28.4
61.0-88.3
3
21.8-29.3
47.9-88.3
The effeet of maize variety, methods of drying
and shelling on damaged kernels at the
beginning of storage. a
Damaged kernels (%)
Maize variety
Arjuna
3.6a
CPI-2
5.0b
Method of dryingb
Table 4.
Source of
variance
Analysis of variance on the effects of variety,
drying, shelling and their intef'dction on
damaged kernels of maize at the beginning of
storage.
df
A
B
3
AxB
3
C
SS
MS
F Value
15.52637813
15.52637813
16.33**
22.82528438
7.60842813
8.00**
1.11002812
63.59100313
66.89**
0.05695312
0.05695312
0.06
BxC
3
1.97750938
0.65916979
0.69
AxBxC
3
2.94960937
0.98320312
1.03
15
14.2605719
0.9507048
AxC
Error
4.7 cd
5.4 c
III
3.7 de
IV
3.2 e
Method of shelling
1.17
3.33008437
63.59100313
I
Il
Nail-down wood
2.9f
Mechanical sheller
5.7
Numbers followed by the same letter do not differ significantly
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 95% confidence
level
a Damaged kernels analysis was carried out only at the beginb
Variety
Drying
Interaction between variety and drying
AxB
Shelling
C
Interaction between variety and shelling
AxC
Interaction hetween drying and shelling
BxC
AxBxC Interaction among variety, drying and shelling
Significantly different at 99% confidence level
**
A
B
277
ning of storage
I Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 17% moisture
content.
n Cobs of maize were sun drIed to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
III Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content,
then shelled and were not re-dried.
IV Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
The etTect of maize variety, methods of drying and
shelling, and storage duration on population of
Fusarium spp.
differences to NIV content, while drying did not give
significant differences (Table 8).
The effects of maize variety, drying, and duration
of storage resulted in very significant differences to
DON content, shelling gave signif1cant differences,
while interaction among maize varieties, drying,
shelling, and duration of storage did not give significant differences (Table 8).
Two species of Fusarium were isolated: F. moniliforme and F. nygamai. F. moniliforme can produce
moniliformin (Martin 1976) and fumonisin (Gelderblom et at. 1988). According to Dharmaputra et al.
(1993), F. moniliforme and F. nygamai can produce
deoxynivalenol.
Based on statistical analysis, maize variety had a
very significant effect on the population of Fusarium
spp. duration of storage gave significant differences,
while drying. shelling, and interaction among maize
varieties, and drying, shelling and duration of storage
did not give significant differences (Table 6).
The population of Fusarium spp. on maize var.
Arjuna (8892 colonies/g) was higher than that on var.
CPI-2 (3282 colonies/g) (Table 7). It was assumed
that maize var. Arjuna was more susceptible to
Fusarium spp. than var. CPI-2.
Fusarium spp. population on maize shelled at 20%
m.c. (drying methods I and 11) (9715 and 8846 colonies/g) was higher than that on maize shelled at 17%
m.C. (drying methods III and IV) (2283 and 2953 colonies/g), but the difference was not signifieant (Table
7). It was assumed that Fusarium grew well on substrate with a high moisture. Aecording to Christensen
and Kaufmann (1974), Fusarium needs substrate with
high moisture eontent (22-23%) for its growth.
The population of Fusarium spp. on maize shelled
by meehanieal sheller (7129 colonies! g) was higher
than on that shelled by nail-down wood (5044 colonies/g), but the difference was not significant (Table
7). It was assumed that the proportion of damaged
kernels in maize shelled by mechanical sheller was
higher than in maize shelled by nail-down wood, and
consequently that maize shelled by mechanical sheller could be more easily infected by Fusarium.
Fusarium spp. population increased at I and 3
months of storage, from 2537 colonies/g to 9385 and
9096 colonies/g, respectively, but it decreased at 2
months of storage. It was assumed that there were
fungi antagonistic to Fusarium spp., because one
kernel could be infected by more than one fungal
species.
Table 6.
Analysis of variance on the effects of variety,
drying, shelling. duration of storage and their
interaction on population of Fusarium spp.
(transfonned into log. population of Fusarium
spp. + I) of maize.
Source of
df
ss
MS
FValue
variance
A
1 34.48470925
B
3
1.76225659
0.58741886
0.12
AxB
3
9.53619213
3.1783071
0.67
1.07
5.05448890
5.05448890
I
8.04765365
8.04765365
1.71
3
15.37478516
5.12492839
1.09
3
10.55589127
3.51863042
0.75
D
3 40.04969385
13.34989795
2.83 *
AxD
BxD
AxBxD
CxD
AxCxD
BxCxD
AxBxCxD
3
Error
0.95362842
0.20
6.06558910
1.29
9 60.03023921
6.67002658
1.49
3
5.31038397
1.77012799
0.38
3
10.02239775
3.34079925
0.71
9 32.61029761
3.62336640
0.77
9 29.27228927
3.25247659
0.69
63
296.6930382
4.7094133
A
Variety
Drying
Interaction between variety and drying
Shelling
Interaction between variety and shelling
Interaction between drying and shelling
Interaction among variety, drying and shelling
Duration of storage
Interaction between variety and duration of storage
Interaction between drying and duration of storage
Interaction among variety, drying and duration of
storage
Interaction between shelling and duration of storage
Interdction among variety. shelling and duration of
storage
Interaction among drying, shelling and duration of
storage
Interaction among variety, drying, shelling and
duration of storage
Significantly different at 95% confidence level
Significantly different at 99% confidence level
AxB
AxC
BxC
AxBxC
D
AxD
BxD
AxBxD
CxD
AxCxD
BxCxD
AxBxCxD
*
**
278
2.86088526
9 54.59030187
B
C
Two Fusarium toxins were obtained: nivalenol
(NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Tamm and Tori
(1984) and Dharmaputra et al. (1993) reported that F.
moniliforme and F. nygamai produced DON.
The effects of maize variety, shelling, duration of
storage, and interaction among varieties, drying,
shelling, and duration of storage gave very significant
7.32**
AxC
BxC
AxBxC
C
The etTect of maize variety, methods of drying and
shelling, and storage duration on Fusarium toxin
content
34.48470925
NIV and DON contents of maize var. CPJ-2 (1.86
and 0.28 ppm) were higher than those of var. Arjuna
(1.80 and 0.25 ppm) (Table 9).
NIV contents of maize dried using the four methods were not significantly different from each other
(1.81-1.85 ppm). The DON content of maize dried
using the 1st and 3rd methods (0.24 ppm) was lower
than in the 2nd and 4th methods (0.31 and 0.26 ppm,
respectively) (Table 9).
Table 7.
NIV and DON contents increased with increasing
storage duration, but they were still lower than the
lethal doses for mice. Their contents at the beginning
of storage, and at I, 2, and 3 months of storage, were
1.22 and 0.08 ppm, 1.99 and 0.30 ppm, 2.02 and 0.32
ppm, and 2.08 and 0.34 ppm, respectively (Table 9).
According to Betina (1989) the lethal dose of NIV for
mice is 4.1 ppm, while Miller (1994) reported that
animal feed should contain not more than 1 ppm of
DON in the diet. According to Betina (1989), the
Wso of DON for male and female mice are 70.0 and
76.7 ppm, respectively.
The effect of maize variety, methods of drying
and shelling, and duration of storage on
population of Fusarium spp.
Effect
Population of Fusarium spp.
(colonies/g)
Conclusions
Transfonned into log
Not
Fusarium spp.+ 1
transformed
1. Moisture contents of maize decreased at I month
of storage, and remained almost constant at 2 and
3 months of storage.
Maize variety
Arjuna
8892
6.739 a
CPI-2
3282
5.701 b
I
9715
6.351c
JI
8846
6.321c
III
2833
6.132 c
IV
2953
6.078 c
Nail-down wood
5044
6.022d
Mechanical sheller
7129
6.419 d
2. Maize var. CPI-2 was more resistant than var.
Arjuna to F. moniliforme and F. nygamai infections, although the percentage of damaged kernels of maize var. CPI~2 was higher than in var.
Arjuna.
Method of dryingB
Table 8.
Method of shelling
a. Nivalenol
Source of
variance
Duration of storage (months)
0
2537
5.522 e
I
9385
6.784f
Analysis of variance on the effects of variety,
drying, shelling, duration of storage and their
interaction on Fusarium toxins contents of maize.
df
SS
MS
0.10927812
0.10927812
24.12**
3
0.03221094
0.01073698
2.37
3
0.03534581
0.01178194
2.60
0.22411513
0.22411513
49.47**
A
2
3329
5.820 ef
B
3
9096
6.755 f
AxB
C
Numbers followed by the same letter do not differ significantly
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 95% confidence
level
aI
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 17% moisture
content.
II Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
III Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content.
then shelled and were not re-dried.
IV Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
NIV content of maize shelled by mechanical sheller
(1.87 ppm) was higher than that shelled by nail-down
wood (1.78 ppm), while for DON content it was the
opposite (0.25 and 0.27 ppm, respectively).
AxC
BxC
AxBxC
0.02880000
0.02880000
6.36**
3
0.01106856
0.00368952
0.81
3
0.20265469
0.06755156
14.91 **
D
3 15.74015056
5.24671685
1158.17**
AxD
3
0.01365519
0.00455173
1.00
BxD
AxBxD
9
0.05657450
0.00628606
1.39
9
0.09951387
0.01105710
2.44*
CxD
AxCxD
3
0.03161769
0.01053923
2.33
3
0.08266656
0.02755552
6.08**
BxCxD
AxBxCxD
9
0.11851963
0.01316885
2.91**
9
0.11831575
0.01314619
2.90**
63
0.28540047
0.00453017
Error
279
FValue
Table 8.
5. Popuiations of Fusarium spp. increascd at 1 and 3
months of storage, but decreased at 2 months of
storage.
Cont'd.
b. Deoxynivalenol
Source of
variance
df
A
ss
MS
0.03455163
0.03455163
16.74**
B
3
0.10848777
0.03616259
17.53**
AxB
3
0.03191734
0.01063911
5.16**
C
0.01254132
0.01254132
6.08*
AxC
0.04832163
0.04832163
23.42**
0.03306677
0.01102226
5.34**
BxC
3
6. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol contents increased
with increasing length of storage.
F Value
Table 9.
The effect of maize variety, methods of drying
and shelling. and duration of storage on
Fusarium toxins contents.
Effect
Fusarium toxins contents (rpm)
NIV
AxBxC
3
0.00005109
0,00001703
0,0]
D
3
1.38876634
0.46292211
224.34**
AxD
3
0.01499727
0.00499909
2.42
BxD
9
0.03933220
0.00437024
2,12*
AxBxD
9
0.01657438
0.00184160
0.89
CxD
3
0.01547184
0.00515728
2.50
AxCxD
3
0.02377527
0.00792509
3.84*
BxCxD
9
0.02272820
0.00252536
1.22
Method of shelling
AxBxCxD
9
0.00119113
0.00013235
0.06
Error
63
0.12999862
DON
Maize variety
Arjuna
1.80a
O.25j
CPI-2
1.86b
0.28 k
I
1.84c
0.241
II
1.85 c
0.31 m
1II
1.81 c
0.241
IV
1.81c
0.26\
l\'ail-down wood
1.78d
0.27n
Mechanical sheller
1.87 e
0.250
0
1.22 f
0,08 p
1
1.99 g
0.30q
2
2.02 h
0.32 r
3
2.08 i
0.34r
Method of drying
0.00206347
Duration of storage (months)
Variety
Drying
AxB
Interaction between variety and drying
C
Shelling
AxC
Interaction between variety and shelling
BxC
Interaction between drying and shelling
Ax8xC
Interaction among variety, drying and shelling
Duration of storage
D
Interaction between variety and duration of storage
AxD
Interaction between drying and duration of storage
BxD
Interaction among variety. drying and duration of
AxBxD
storage
Interaction between shelling and duration of stor·
CxD
age
AxCxD
Interaction among variety, shelling and duration of
storage
BxCxD
Interaction among drying, shelling and duration of
storage
AxBxCxD Interaction among variety. drying, shelling and
duration of storage
Significantly different at 95% confidence level
*
Significantly different at 99% confidence level
**
A
B
Numbers followed by the same letter do not differ significantly
according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 95% confidence
level
11
III
IV
3. In general, the best drying method was to sun dry
maize cobs to 17% m.c., then shell them and further dry to 14% m.c.
4. Fusarium spp. population of maize shelled by
mechanical shell er was not significantly different
from that in maize shelled by nail-down wood,
though the percentage of damaged kernels in
maize shelled by mechanical sheller was higher.
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 17% moisture
content.
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 20% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content,
then shelled and were not re-dried.
Cobs of maize were sun dried to 17% moisture content,
then shelled and re-dried after shelling to 14% moisture
content.
Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Community
Service and Research Development Project, Directorate General for Higher Education, Department of
Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia for
financial support. The authors also thank Dr M. Sidik,
Assistant to the Minister for Food Safety, Ministry of
280
traders. Grant Competition Research Report II11.
SEAMED BIOTRDP. 50 p.
Gelderblom. W.C.A .• laskiewicz, K., Marasas , W.FO.,
Thiei, P.G., Horak. R.M., Vleggaar, R., and Kriek. N.P.1.
1988. Fumonisins--novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme.
Applied Environmental Microbiology, 54, 1806-1811.
Hall, C.W. 1957. Processing equipment for agricultural
products. Michigan, Edward Brothers, Inc ..
Henderson, S.M. and Perry, R.L. 1976. Agricultural process
engineering. New York, John WiJey and Sons Inc.
Mar!.in, P.M.D. 1976. A consideration of the mycotoxin
hypothesis with special references to the mycoflora of
maize. sorghum, wheat and groundnuts. Tropical Products Institute, London. III p.
Miller. 1.0. 1994. Epidemiology of Fusarium ear diseases
of cereals. In: Miller, J.D., and Trenholm, H.L., cd.,
Mycotoxins in grain; compounds other than aflatoxin. SI.
Paul, Minnesota, USA. Eagan Press. 19-36.
Pill, J.1. and Hocking, A.D. 1985. Fungi and food spoilage.
Sydney. Academic Press. 413 p.
SFCDP 1990. Studies on postharvest handling on corn. soybean and cassava in Lampung, East Java and South
Sulawesi. Indonesia, MOA-AID.
Suprayitno 1980. Mcmpelajari Beberapa Ala! Pemipil Jagung (Study on some mechanical sheller of maize). Faculty of Agriculture Mechanization and Technology,
Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. Internal
Report (In Indonesian).
Tamm, Ch. and Tori. M. 1984. Trichothecenes. In: Betina
V., ed., Mycotoxins; production. isolation, separation.
and purification. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers
B.V .• 131-182.
Ueno, Y. 1977. Trichothecenes: overview address. 1n:
Rodricks, J., Hesseltine C.W .. and Mehlman. M.A., ed.,
Mycotoxins in human and animal health. Illinois, USA,
Pathotox Publishers, Inc., 189-207.
Food Affairs; and Mr Sunjaya and Mrs I. Retnowati,
scientists of Tropical Pest Biology Programme,
SEAMEO BIOTROP, for their valuable assistance,
References
Betina, V. 1989. Mycotoxins: chemical, biological and environmental aspects. Bioactive Molecules Volume 9.
Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publisher B.V., 438 p.
Blaney, B.1., Ramsey. M.D., and Tyler, A.L. 1986. Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi in insect-damaged maize harvested during 1983 in far north Queensland. Australian
Journal of Agricultural Research, 37, 235-244.
Brooker. D.B., Bakker-Arkema, F.W., and Hall, CW. 1974.
Drying cereal grains. Westport, Connecticut, USA, Avi
Publishing Company, 265 p.
BSI (British Standards Institution) 1980. Methods of test for
cereals and pulses. Part 3. Determination of moisture content of cereals and cereal products (routine method). London, British Standards Institution.
Christensen. CM. and Kaufmann, H.H. 1974. Microflora.
In: Christcnsen, CM., ed., Storage of cereal grains and
their products. St Paul, Minnesota, USA, American Association of Cereal Chemists. 158-191.
Dharmaputra, O.S., Susilo. H" and Ambarwati, S. 1993.
Fusarium associated with some economical crops in
some locations of West Java, Indonesia. and their mycotoxin productions on maize kernels. In: Proceedings of
the XII National Congress and Scientific Seminar, Indonesian Phytopathology Society. Yogyakarta. Indonesia,
6-8 September 1993. 550-559. (In Indonesian)
Dharmaputra, 005 .• Retnowati I., Purwadaria. H.K .• Susilo,
K, Sidik, M., and Sunjaya. 1994. The effect of postharvest handling on grain intactness. fungal infection and
mycotoxin production of maize. I. Surveys on postharvest
handling, damaged kernels, fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination on maize collected from farmers and
281
Drying Simulation: a PC-based, User-orientated Decision
Support System for In-store Drying and
Aeration of Grains
V.K. Jindal, R.e. Martinez, and Le Van Diep*
SIMULATION of grain drying in deep beds, also known
as in-store drying, has been extensively used in agricultural engineering research to acquire a better
understanding of the drying processes and related systems. The old mainframe versions of the simulation
models developed for predicting the changes in the air
and grain conditions are not easily accessible or userinteractive for direct applications. Also, many users
arc discouraged from utilising the computer simulation techniques because of their complexity.
Drying Simulation is an easy-to-use, PC-based
decision support system which offers a user-interactive environment for computer simulation of in-store
drying of paddy, maize. and soybeans. The software
package developed can be used for designing and performance evaluation of in-store drying and aeration
of selected grains. It has a menu-driven user-interface
and can display results graphically for quick interpretation and analysis. Drying Simulation should prove
to be a practieal and useful means to find out what
would happen under different available options for
in-store drying and aeration of grains, and for subsequent decision making.
•
•
•
•
Drying Simulation Features
•
The program relies on the modified Thompson et al.
(1968) and the Thompson (1972) near-equilibrium
models to simulate grain drying and rewetting in deep
beds. Drying Simulation, developed and compiled in
Microsoft BASIC 7.0 (also known as BASIC PDS),
provides a user-interactive environment which allows
users to easily perform drying simulations based on
these models and their combined form.
Drying Simulation offers the following features:
• Drying Simulation is a stand-alone software package with menu-driven user-interface and graphics
*
•
•
Agricultural and Food Engineering Program, School of
Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2754, Bangkok 10501,
Thailand.
282
capability. There is on-line HELP available for the
explanation of various items in each menu. In
addition. general information on important aspects
of in-store grain drying/aeration simulation and
the software package itself is included in a
README file.
Built-in choices for different grain selection
include paddy. maize, and soybeans. The program
supports the Plot, View, Print, and Save options for
both simulation and plot data when pausing intermittently during a simulation run and at the end.
Selection of three different simulation approaches
along with related model equations can be made for
general comparison.
An easy-to-use interface facilitates input of the
simulation conditions. A data window showing the
input data and selected models can be displayed
and closed instantly before and after a particular
simulation run.
Uniform and non-uniform initial grain and inlet
air conditions can be handled. Users can select a
stopping criterion (e.g. average final moisture
content, drying duration, etc.) to end a simulation
run. Several fan and heater control strategies can
be examined.
In simulation runs with non-uniform input air conditions and/or initial grain bed conditions, the corresponding air and grain data files can be created
and/or edited directly in the program.
When the simulation program is running. the
changes in condition of the grain bed as drying
progresses are continuously displayed and updated
on screen. Current drying time, and fan and heater
operating times, are also displayed. The heater and
fan energy requirements, moisture removal, and
dry matter loss are computed and displayed continuously on the screen during a simulation run based
on I m 2 cross-sectional area of the grain bed.
Simulation results can be plotted on screen. Users
can plot various simulation protiles of the moisture
content, temperature, relative humidity, and dry matter loss against drying time or depth of grain bed.
Drying Simulation would run under DOS 3.3 or
higher. A spreadsheet package like LOTUS \-2-3 is
required for printing the simulation plots. Alternatively, the graphics screen capture utilities, such as
GRAB available from WordPerfect Corporation, may
be used. Further details on the printing of simulation
plots are provided in a README file.
• Simulation results can be saved on a file and
imported into other software packages for further
analysis. Drying Simulation does not offer direct
support for printing of the simulation plots. However, the simulation data and other graphics information can be saved on a file and imported into a
spreadsheet package (e.g. Lotus 1-2-3) for plotting
and printing.
Availability
System Requirements
Copies of Drying Simulation are available for US$50
from Dr V.K. Jindal, AIT, GPO Box 2754, Bangkok,
Thailand; fax: 66 2 524 6200 or 66 2 516 2126; email:
< jindal@ait.ac.th >.
Drying Simulation will run on an IBM® PC or compatible machine with at least 640 kb of available
memory. The software requires a CGA, EGA, or
VGA display for the graphics routines. When using a
monochrome monitor with Hercules driver, the file
MSHERC.COM available from MS DOS 5.0 must be
loaded to support the plotting of graphs by Drying
Simulation.
The software can be run from a floppy disk system with a minimum of 720 kb disk drive capacity
(e.g. two 360 kb drives, or one 1.2 Mb or higher
capacity drive). A hard disk is recommended for
best performance.
References
Thompson, T.T. 1972. Temporary storage of high-moisture
shelled corn using continuous aeration. Transactions of
the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 15,333337.
Thompson, T.L.. Pearl. R.M .• and Foster, O.H. 1968. Mathematical simulation of corn drying-a new model. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, 11. 582-586.
283
The Current Situation and Prospects for
Grain Drying in Northeastern China
Ju JinFeng, Liu Fangjiu, Du ShuXiao, and Xu ZengTao*
THE Songliao Plain of northeastern China is a rnajor
grain-producing region. In the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning, the total output of grains
is 60 Mt. In the north of Heilongjiang, wheat and soybean are the principal crops, in Jilin, Liaoning and the
south of Heilongjiang maize predominates, whilst in
the east of the three provinces close to the mountains,
rice is produced. All the area is influenced by the climate of Siberia, that is cold in winter and warm in summer. In spring and early summer, from March to June
and in autumn from September to October, the climate
is dry with little rain. The frost-free period is about
140-160 days each year, and the grain moistures are
high. The meteorological conditions and moisture contents of grains are shown in Tables I and 2.
An average of 50% of grain produced in the three
provinces passes through commercial channels. Local
government agencies in three provinces purchase a
total of 26-28 Mt of which 21.25 Mt need drying. This
is equal to 70% of grain dried throughout the whole
country. The amount of high moisture grain that needs
drying is shown in Table 3 for the three provinces.
a steam drying unit, the Berico cross flow grain drying
unit, was obtained from the Behlein Co., USA (Fig. I),
Further developments were the concurrent drying unit
from the Weslaken company, Canada and the crossflow drying technique (Figs 2-3). Large amounts of
capital and manpower were thrown into the development of grain dryers and the scries connection mixed
flow grain drying unit was developed in Canada (Fig.
4). Various mixed flow units were developed in China
including one based on cyclic high temperature water
and other equipment generally suited to drying high
moisture grain (Fig. 5).
Table 2.
Province
Maize
Jilin
22-30 15-17
24-30 15-17
25 33 15-17
Table 3.
Current Grain-drying Technology in
Northeastern China
In north-east China, grain drying machines appeared
flfst in the 19408. From the 19505, the Kuaibas grain
drying unit was introduced from the former USSR and
*
Heilongjiang Grain and Oil Science, and Technology
Institute. No. 137 Nanma Road. Daowai District, Harbin
150020, China.
Rice
Soybean
13-15
14-15
14-17
Wheat
Other
Grains
16-19
15-17
14.5 15.5 15 17
Amount of high moisture grain that needs drying
in three provinces of North East China ('OOOt).
Grain drying is a key measure for long-term safe storage of grain. Because of different grain varieties,
grain moisture contents, and meteorological conditions, drying methods and equipment are ditIerent.
The major methods are high temperature drying, sun
drying, and aeration (Table 4).
The technique of grain drying
Moisture content of grain in three provinces of
North East China (%).
Liaoning
Jilin
Heilongjiang
Total
6050
9350
4850
20250
4000 1250
7500 500
3000 750
14500 2500
50
500
550
500
500
750
550
100
1400
To meet the needs for drying paddy and rapeseed
on a small scale in central and southern China, the
vibration dryers, fluidised-bed dryers, and rotating
dryers were developed rapidly.
After 50 years of development of techniques for
grain drying, there are now about 1200 drying units of
various types in use in northeastern China. Most of the
large units which can process 150 t of wet grain per
284
day are kept by state granaries, grain processing factories, state fanns, and feed-processing plants, totalling about 858 units. Most small, tower type drying
units are kept by rural stores or collectives. Units
developed after the introduction in 1992 of the policy
of reducing state purchases are, in major part, concurrent drying units. Such units make up about 15% of
the total drying capacity.
The grain drying equipment which is now in use
and has been so for the past 6 years, consists of series
connected mixed flow tower type drying units and
steam drying units. The number, processing capacity,
regional distribution, and main technical functions
are given in Table 5.
The mixed-flow, multiple series drying units of
brick construction (Fig. 6) have advantages such as
even drying, use of local materials, ease of construction, and long service life. The disadvantages are the
high capital cost, lengthy construction times, and
high breakage rate of grain during drying. The
strong points of the steam drying units are the high
quality of dried grain and the low consumption of
energy. Most are series connected and a high breakage rate of grain is very common. Their cost of manufacture is 25% higher than that of the mixed-flow
brick drying units.
The emergence and development of drying units constructed of steel
Since the early 1980s, and because of the disadvantages listed above, steel grain drying units have been
introduced and manufactured. A sample unit of the
Bekley type of dryer was introduced by Hongqi State
Fann in 1981. A multiple-ring mixed flow drying
unit manufactured in 1987 in China was put into use
in the Mudanjiang granary (Fig. 5).
Work in this period proved that steel construction
for drying units had the advantages of low cost, suitability for large-scale production. and ease of introduction of advanced technology and process control.
Currently, there are three types of steel tower drying units in China-mixed flow, crossflow, and concurrent. In winter and spring, the target for energy use
(kcal/kg H20) differs between northern and southern
areas. Mixed flow direct grain drying units target
2000-2300, indirect units 2200-2500, crossflow
units 2000-2300, and concurrent units 1900-2200
kcaVkg H20.
Equipment for supplying heat for grain drying
Grain dryers consist of the drying unit and the heat
supply equipment. The heat supply technique is vital to
the function of drying machines. It affects the investment costs, the choice of fuel, the quality of the dried
grain, pollution, and the service life of the equipment.
285
Table 4.
Amount of grain dried by different methods in three provinces of North East China (x 1000t).
Province
Total
Maize
Rice
Soybean
Wheat
Others
Sun
Heat Aeration Wind
Sun Heat Aeration Wind
Sun
Heat Aeration Wind Sun Heat Aeration Wind
Sun Aeration Sun
drying drying
drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying drying
Jilin
2450
5000
Liaoning
1615
2300
80
Heilongjiang
1500
2250
400
Total
5565
9550
480
2000
5000
450
600
2300
600
350
650
2000
50
150
250
300
50
150
100
250
500
100
380
3250
9300
50
1200
250
380
80
420
100
250
500
245
30
30
80
145
270
~
TableS.
Types of drying equipment in North East China.
Province
ofmaehine
Mixed flow
No of
units
Cross-flow
Capacity
(xIOOOt)
No of
units
Capacity
(x I OOOt)
82
4000
20
400
Jilin
348
5400
40
600
Heilongjiang
205
2610
IQ
300
635
12010
Liaoning
Total
70
1300
Concurrent
No of
units
Capacity
(xIOOOt)
150
2000
3
90
153
2090
Anthracite direct
Soft coal indirect
Steam & high
temperature water
No of
units
No of
units
No of
units
Capacity
(x 1000t)
Capacity
(x I 000t)
Capacity
(xl000t)
Mechanical
No of
units
Capacity
(x 1000t)
Manual
No of
units
Capacity
(xlOOOt)
170
2400
82
4000
102
4400
150
2000
260
3000
128
4000
180
4920
208
2080
5
150
38
1000
180
200
215
8150
320
10320
538
6080
135
1650
78
1200
135
1650
508
6600
and thus high evaporation and so is suitable for drying.
The larger grains give grain masses that are more
porous and so easier to ventilate. As long as the most
suitable aeration method is chosen, the shape of the
grain mass is adequate, the correct times for ventilation
are ehosen, and management is good, the desired
results will be achieved. This method is suitable for
drying soybean, rice, and wheat where the moisture is a
little high, or maize when sun dried or dried by heated
air and the moisture again is a little high.
An advantage of the method is that it uses the latent
heat of evaporation using little or no fuel and so saving
energy. The amount of grain that can be dried is large
and the grain is not subject to cracking or pollution
from decomposition products of the fuel. Aeration is
simple and convenient in operation with low costs that
ean be spread across normal operational costs. The cost
of drying is one third of the cost of drying with heat and
30% of the cost of sun drying. As a result the method is
accepted in the rice-producing areas such as Wa Chang,
Yan Shou, and Tailai county of Heilongjiang. In this
area aeration drying has almost replaced drying with
heat and sun drying. Wuchang county dries 50000 t of
rice each year and the technology has been in use since
1990. Currently 500000 t are dried by aeration of which
400000 t are in Heilongjiang.
The major types of aeration are as follows:
Because gas, oil, and electricity are prohibited for heat
generation in China, the heat supply for most early
stage grain drying is from anthracite and steam stoves.
During the last 20 years, because of the high costs and
pollution, studies on new equipment and technology for
soft coal, indirect heating, and hot-air drying which
began in 1978 were examined and approved in ) 982,
thus making such technical equipment available in the
1980s.
Research work in the past 10 years has led to a new
stage in the development of grain-drying technology.
The features of the main unit and the indirect heating
supply are low costs, suitability for use with a range of
fuels, high quality, large-scale production, and short
construction period. These are the solid foundations
for the rapid development of steel dryers using soft
coal in heated air stoves in China in the ) 990s. It is
also a basis for the formulation of policy and development plans for grain drying technology throughout
China.
Sun drying
Sun drying involves spreading the grain on a flat
surface to a depth of 6-9 cm when there is abundant
sunshine and little rain. The grain is turned with a
wooden spade until the moisture content has fallen to
the level for safe storage-windy conditions assist drying. In the three provinces a total 5-6 Mt is sun dried,
approximately 35% of the total quantity involved
(Tables 3 and 4). To prevent cracking and heating of
high moisture grain, soybean is normally dried in the
sun first and then the wheat and other grains. In the
province of Heilongjiang, soy bean is sun dried as it
cannot be stored at high moisture content after 10 April
when ambient temperatures are rising. The advantages
of sun drying are the larger quantities that can be done
compared with high-temperature drying, and the drying cost is one third to one half that of heated drying.
The disadvantages are that it is dependent on weather
conditions, only small drying pavements are often
available, more labourers are used and the work is
heavier, and minerals may contaminate the grain
requiring that the site be prepared by consolidation and
sweeping as well as spreading mats and using cover.
Radial flow ventilation
Studies on this type of aeration drying began in
1980 and were finalised in 1983. Originally bambooclappers were used but were replaced by perforated
steel. A unit had four or more grain houses with a
central bucket elevator and the complex later was
enclosed in a weatherproof shed. This type of equipment found application in Heilongjiang in the middle
of the 19805 and following preparation of model
specification, there are now 30 such units in this
province and in Jilin (Fig. 9).
The radial-flow dryer is a low-temperature aeration
type dryer which strips moisture from the grain by
using the dynamic equilibrium between grain moisture and ambient air when dry air is forced through
the grain by a fan. The dryer has a central porous air
cell from which the air passes radially through the
grain and out through porous walls. The air passing
through the grain may be heated to assist drying. The
heated air has two functions: to provide the energy
for drying and to remove the evaporated water from
the grain mass. Thus safe moisture levels which prevent mould growth can be achieved gradually.
The specifications for drying units are given in
Table 6. The temperatures of different grains during
the drying process are given in Table 7 and the least
input air ratios of various wet grains in Table 8.
According to the data for the 130/60 Model drying
barn, a 4-72-116A pneumatic conveyer was used.
Use of natural air and heated air for drying
Grain may be dried by ventilation with natural air
when conditions are warm and dry, or by air which has
been heated using medium- or low-pressure blowers.
The storehouse must be appropriately constructed for
such aeration. Various materials may be used, e.g. iron
sheet-storehouses, bamboo grain bams, and so on.
Such storehouses ean reduce grain moisture to safe
levels and so enable grain to be stored for years without mould growth. The three provinces of northeastern
China have a continental climate as can be seen from
Table 1. From March to June the temperature is high
during the day. with little rain, a low relative humidity
287
The dryer was operated at temperatures of 15-30°C
and relative humidities of 30-50%. Table 9 gives the
drying time per barn, and Table 10 throughput rates.
The energy dissipation index data are as follows.
under 60% r.h., 40-200 hours of ventilation are
required to reduce the moisture content of rice from
below 18% and maize from below 20% to maximum
safe moisture contents.
Host machine power wasting:
maize
0.06 kg water
rice, soy bean 0.09 kg water
Radial ventilation drying in a bamboo screen grain bin
In the bamboo screen grain bin, the bamboo screen
forms a circle of 6 m diameter. There is a central air
cell duct of 500-700 mm diameter and the unit may
load 60-70 t of rice. The air blower is 4-72-11 6 A
type, made in China. The unit ventilation quantity is
70-80 m 3/h.t. Above 15°C and under 60% r.h.
between 20-120 hours of mechanical ventilation will
reduce the moisture content of paddy and soybean to
a safe level of 15-17%.
The merits of this method are the fixed investment
costs and the ease with which it can be popularised.
This method has been generally adopted for grain
drying in part of the counties of Heilongjiang province, replacing sun-drying and stoving.
Unit heat consumption (heating with bituminous coal
hot-blast stove, temperature rises 15°C:
maize
200-700 kcal/kg H20
rice, soy bean 1000 kcallkg H20.
At 15°C and a suitable relative humidity, it is possible to use ambient air and not need supplementary
heating, so there is no heat waste.
Aeration and drying with ducting for air distribution
Currently, there are 276 silos which use belowfloor ventilation, and 514 silos which use aboveground ducting. With horizontal storages, 78 stores
use below-floor ventilation and 252 use aboveground ducting. The design of all these storages conforms to the regulations issued by the Ministry of
Agriculture. In the arrangement, consideration is
given to lower temperatures, rain and ventilation, and
the processing quantity is less than 1.4.
According to Ministry of Agriculture regulations,
unit ventilation quantities are as follows:
• the moisture content of grain 14, 16, 18,20%
• the lowest unit ventilation quantity is 25, 30, 60, 80
m 3/h.t.
The height of the grain in silos in Heilongjiang
province is 12 m, and in horizontal storages and squat
round storages is 3-7 m. The unit ventilation quantity
is usually lower than 5-16 m 3/h.t. Above 15°C and
Table 6.
The warm, dry, and windy weather of early summer (February-June) may be used to dry soybean,
rice, and maize in open stacks if the moisture content
is less than 18%. The bags are stacked in single or
double layers in a copper coin hole form. The moisture content will reach safe levels in 15-40 days. This
method may be used where there is insufficient
power and will lower the drying expenses as there is
no need for further investment and equipment. In
Xhaozhou county of Heilongjiang province, there are
30000-40000 t of maize and soybean dried with this
method. The method may be used when the moisture
content is below 18%. Attention must be paid to the
orientation of the stack, to guarding against moisture
and rain, and to generally maintaining the site.
The specification and capacity of the drying granary.
Specification
125/60
Natural air-drying in stacks
Diameter of
(m)
Height of granary
(m)
Area
(m2 )
Diameter of air
cell (m)
Capacity
(m 3)
Weight of grain per batch
2.5
6.0
4.9
1.0
25.0
maize 20.0
37.9
maize 31.3
rice 13.6
J30/60
3.0
6.0
1.0
7.1
rice 20.0
Table 7.
Grain
The temperature of various grains in the aeration--drying process.
Lowest temperature (0C)
Grain in air
Maize
air
Wind temperature
COC)
Relative humidity
Air
air
Rice
15
15-30
<60
<60
Soybean
10
-5
10-30
<60
Not considered
Wheat
15
o
15-40
<60
Not considered
15
15--40
288
Not considered
Not considered
Table 8.
1be least input air ratio of various wet grains in
aeration drying.
Moisture content of wet
are low. It is thus appropriate to develop the mixed
flow, cross flow, and concurrent drying machines.
The silo type cross flow dryers will be used and
developed in the south part of Harbin and Mudanjiang-the 45° latitude area.
Least input air ratio (m3 airl
m3
16-20
20-24
Above 24
140
Table 10. The processing quantity (t) per storage in radial
aeration drying.
200
260
Type of store
J 25/60
Prospects for Grain Drying in the
Northeastern Provinces
J30/60
Maize
Rice, wheat
Soybean
0.6
0.8
0.7-1.4
1.0-2.0
1.0-2.0
Importance of grain drying technology
Large-scale dryers
Grain drying is one of the most important measures
in storage of grain. The variety, moisture content, and
temperature features of grain must be taken into
account in grain drying to preserve the quality and
conserve energy, lowering the costs of drying and
preventing pollution. Rice, soybean, and wheat at low
moisture contents should be dried with ambient or
heated air. With maize, with its high moisture content. larger quantities to be handled, and limited drying period, it is necessary to adopt high-temperature
drying (staving) or combine the staving, aeration, and
natural air drying methods. We may divide the drying
process into steps by first making most use of drying
pavements for sun drying and, in the western plains
area, making most use of the natural conditions
which are dry and windy and suitable for aeration and
natural air-drying in stacks.
The development of dryers designed in series and
produced on a large scale mostly from steel.
Computer control
The inclusion of computer-based monitoring and
controlling systems including for measurement of
moisture content.
Alternative energy sources
Soft coal and rice husks should be used as the
sources of heat energy, combined with indirect drying
methods using heated air from heat exchangers. These
should replace all anthracite direct drying machines
lowering energy consumption to 20-30% of the originallevel.
Technical improvements
Low-temperature drying
Improvement of the furnace and drying machine, to
extend their service life to more than 5 years and 15
years, respectively.
The various methods of low-temperature drying
should be studied to develop the equipment, facilities,
and ventilation systems necessary to raise the efficiency of the drying and lower the moisture contents
achievable.
Matching dryer capacities to drying needs
The state granaries should adopt mainly the large
and medium type drying machine, supplementing
them with the small types. In smaller enterprises,
lower capacity units would be appropriate.
High-temperature drying equipment
This method involves advanced technology, relatively simple structures, and ease of operation. The
cost also is low. With this method, we may lower the
moisture content to a safe level for long term storage.
Grain quality is good, energy is conserved, and costs
Table 9.
Grain
Maize
Rice
Wheat
Soybean
Improving grain quality
Improve the grain handling to reduce breakage of
grain.
Drying lime per barn.
Moisture content
(% )
Ventilation quantity
(m 31h)
Ventilation quantity ratio
26
16.5
10500
9876
7740
277
261
204
280
15.5
16.0
(m 3/m 3
11000
289
Time to safe moisture level
in
35-60
15-30
20-20
10-20
...L- I--+-+-l-+-+-J
Figure 1.
Crossflow grain drying machine.
290
Figure 3.
Counter-c urrent grain dryin g machine.
1i
En try channe l for hot air
Evac uation channels for spe nt air
.!.•
HOT AIR CAISSON
Figure 2.
Figure 4.
Mi xed fl ow grain drying machine.
291
Multi-pass mixed flow gra in drying machine.
Figure S.
Mixed flow grain drying machine.
Figure 8.
A new type of coal-fired hot-air stove.
Figure 6.
Cylindrical crossflow grain drying machine.
I I I
1
~:~
I':~
r-- -.::, -1
11
1
I
L L
Figure 7.
-
-J
-
:
LI~-----_~"""1:
1
1
1
1
L _________ ..J1
~
11
=
1 1
11
A1 I1
- - - - - L ~ ~~--D
Process diagram for grain drying machine.
292
Figure 9.
Radial type mechanical ventilation drying granary.
4-n-lI!JA
(0)
Figure 11. Plan view of ventilation ducting for cylindrical
grain stores.
(b)
Figure 10. Plan view of ventilation ducting for (a) arch
grain house, and (b) storehouse.
293