ZyXEL Communications GS-3012 - VERSION 3.80 User`s guide

GS-3012F/3012
Layer 2+ Gigabit Switch
User’s Guide
Version 3.80
7/2007
Edition 1
DEFAULT LOGIN
IP Address http://192.168.1.1
User Name admin
Password
1234
www.zyxel.com
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the Switch using the web
configurator. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP networking concepts and
topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Command Line Interface (CLI) Reference Guide
Line commands offer an alternative to the web configurator and in some cases are
necessary to configure advanced features.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
"
It is recommended you use the web configurator to configure the Switch.
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and product
certifications.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. Send all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to the following address, or use e-mail instead. Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team,
ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II,
Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan.
E-mail: techwriters@zyxel.com.tw
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
3
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
1
"
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The GS-3012 and GS-3012F models may be referred to as the “Switch”, the “device”, the
“system” or the “product” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER]
means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key.
“Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click Maintenance in the navigation
panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For
example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000”
or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The Switch icon is not an
exact representation of your device.
The Switch
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
DSLAM
Firewall
Telephone
Router
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
5
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
1
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• For continued protection against risk of fire replace only with same type and rating of
fuse.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device. Connect it to the right
supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• The length of exposed (bare) power wire should not exceed 7mm.
This product is recyclable. Dispose of it properly.
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
7
Safety Warnings
8
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction and Hardware ................................................................................................... 29
Getting to Know Your Switch ..................................................................................................... 31
Basic Configuration ............................................................................................................... 35
Hardware Installation and Connection ....................................................................................... 37
Hardware Overview ................................................................................................................... 41
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................... 49
Initial Setup Example ................................................................................................................. 59
System Status and Port Statistics .............................................................................................. 63
Basic Setting ............................................................................................................................. 69
Advanced ................................................................................................................................ 81
VLAN ......................................................................................................................................... 83
Static MAC Forward Setup ........................................................................................................ 95
Filtering ...................................................................................................................................... 97
Spanning Tree Protocol ............................................................................................................. 99
Bandwidth Control ....................................................................................................................117
Broadcast Storm Control ..........................................................................................................119
Mirroring .................................................................................................................................. 121
Link Aggregation ...................................................................................................................... 123
Port Authentication .................................................................................................................. 131
Port Security ............................................................................................................................ 137
Classifier .................................................................................................................................. 141
Policy Rule .............................................................................................................................. 147
Queuing Method ...................................................................................................................... 153
Multicast .................................................................................................................................. 155
Authentication & Accounting .................................................................................................... 169
IP Source Guard ...................................................................................................................... 183
Loop Guard .............................................................................................................................. 203
Two Rate Three Color Marker ................................................................................................. 207
IP Application ....................................................................................................................... 213
Static Route ............................................................................................................................. 215
DHCP ...................................................................................................................................... 219
Management ......................................................................................................................... 225
Maintenance ............................................................................................................................ 227
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Contents Overview
Access Control ........................................................................................................................ 233
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................ 251
Syslog ...................................................................................................................................... 253
Cluster Management ............................................................................................................... 257
MAC Table ............................................................................................................................... 263
ARP Table ................................................................................................................................ 265
Configure Clone ....................................................................................................................... 267
Troubleshooting & Product Specifications ....................................................................... 269
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 271
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 275
Appendices and Index ........................................................................................................ 281
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 4
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 6
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 11
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................... 21
List of Tables........................................................................................................................... 25
Part I: Introduction and Hardware ........................................................ 29
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch................................................................................................. 31
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 31
1.1.1 Backbone Application ................................................................................................. 31
1.1.2 Bridging Example ....................................................................................................... 32
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example ....................................................................... 32
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples ................................................................ 33
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch ................................................................................................ 34
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch ................................................................................. 34
Part II: Basic Configuration................................................................... 35
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection ................................................................................. 37
2.1 Installation Scenarios .......................................................................................................... 37
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure ........................................................................................... 37
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .......................................................................................... 38
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements .................................................................. 38
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch .......................................................... 38
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .................................................................................. 39
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Table of Contents
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview................................................................................................................. 41
3.1 Front Panel ......................................................................................................................... 41
3.1.1 Console Port .............................................................................................................. 42
3.1.2 Gigabit Ports ............................................................................................................. 42
3.1.3 Mini-GBIC Slots .......................................................................................................... 43
3.1.4 Management Port ....................................................................................................... 45
3.2 Rear Panel ........................................................................................................................... 45
3.2.1 Power Connector ....................................................................................................... 45
3.3 LEDs ................................................................................................................................... 46
3.4 Configuring the Switch ......................................................................................................... 47
Chapter 4
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................ 49
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 49
4.2 System Login
.................................................................................................................... 49
4.3 The Status Screen
.......................................................................................................... 50
4.3.1 Change Your Password
.......................................................................................... 54
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ................................................................................................... 55
4.5 Switch Lockout
.................................................................................................................. 55
4.6 Resetting the Switch
......................................................................................................... 56
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File ................................................................................... 56
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator ................................................................................. 57
4.8 Help
................................................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example.............................................................................................................. 59
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 59
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN ........................................................................................................ 59
5.1.2 Setting Port VID ......................................................................................................... 60
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address ...................................................................... 61
Chapter 6
System Status and Port Statistics ......................................................................................... 63
6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 63
6.2 Port Status Summary
...................................................................................................... 63
6.2.1 Status: Port Details
................................................................................................ 64
Chapter 7
Basic Setting .......................................................................................................................... 69
7.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 69
7.2 System Information
7.3 General Setup
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........................................................................................................... 69
................................................................................................................. 71
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7.4 Introduction to VLANs ........................................................................................................ 73
7.5 Switch Setup Screen
........................................................................................................ 73
7.6 IP Setup .............................................................................................................................. 75
7.6.1 Management IP Addresses ........................................................................................ 75
7.7 Port Setup .......................................................................................................................... 78
Part III: Advanced................................................................................... 81
Chapter 8
VLAN ........................................................................................................................................ 83
8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
.................................................................. 83
8.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames ................................................................ 83
8.2 Automatic VLAN Registration ............................................................................................ 84
8.2.1 GARP ......................................................................................................................... 84
8.2.2 GVRP ......................................................................................................................... 84
8.3 Port VLAN Trunking ........................................................................................................... 85
8.4 Select the VLAN Type ........................................................................................................ 85
8.5 Static VLAN ......................................................................................................................... 85
8.5.1 Static VLAN Status .................................................................................................... 86
8.5.2 VLAN Details ............................................................................................................. 86
8.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
........................................................................................ 87
8.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
................................................................................ 88
8.6 Subnet Based VLANs ......................................................................................................... 90
8.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN
8.8 Port-based VLAN Setup
...................................................................................... 91
................................................................................................. 92
8.8.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN ................................................................................... 93
Chapter 9
Static MAC Forward Setup ..................................................................................................... 95
9.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 95
9.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
............................................................................... 95
Chapter 10
Filtering.................................................................................................................................... 97
10.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
............................................................................................... 97
Chapter 11
Spanning Tree Protocol.......................................................................................................... 99
11.1 STP/RSTP Overview
....................................................................................................... 99
11.1.1 STP Terminology ..................................................................................................... 99
11.1.2 How STP Works .................................................................................................... 100
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Table of Contents
11.1.3 STP Port States ..................................................................................................... 101
11.1.4 Multiple RSTP
...................................................................................................... 101
11.1.5 Multiple STP ........................................................................................................... 102
11.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen ............................................................................ 104
11.3 Spanning Tree Configuration .......................................................................................... 105
11.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
11.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
..................................................................... 106
........................................................................ 107
11.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
11.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
11.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
11.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
........................................................ 109
............................................................110
...................................................................111
......................................................................114
Chapter 12
Bandwidth Control................................................................................................................ 117
12.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
..........................................................................................117
12.1.1 CIR and PIR ............................................................................................................117
12.2 Bandwidth Control Setup ..................................................................................................117
Chapter 13
Broadcast Storm Control ..................................................................................................... 119
13.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup .......................................................................................119
Chapter 14
Mirroring ................................................................................................................................ 121
14.1 Port Mirroring Setup ....................................................................................................... 121
Chapter 15
Link Aggregation .................................................................................................................. 123
15.1 Link Aggregation Overview ............................................................................................. 123
15.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation ............................................................................................. 123
15.2.1 Link Aggregation ID ............................................................................................... 124
15.3 Link Aggregation Status .................................................................................................. 124
15.4 Link Aggregation Setting
............................................................................................... 125
15.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
................................................................................ 126
15.6 Static Trunking Example .................................................................................................. 128
Chapter 16
Port Authentication............................................................................................................... 131
16.1 Port Authentication Overview
........................................................................................ 131
16.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication ................................................................................... 131
16.1.2 MAC Authentication ............................................................................................... 132
16.2 Port Authentication Configuration .................................................................................... 133
16.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
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........................................................................... 133
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16.2.2 Activate MAC Authentication ................................................................................. 134
Chapter 17
Port Security.......................................................................................................................... 137
17.1 About Port Security ......................................................................................................... 137
17.2 Port Security Setup .......................................................................................................... 137
Chapter 18
Classifier................................................................................................................................ 141
18.1 About the Classifier and QoS .......................................................................................... 141
18.2 Configuring the Classifier ............................................................................................... 141
18.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration ................................................................... 144
18.4 Classifier Example ........................................................................................................... 145
Chapter 19
Policy Rule............................................................................................................................ 147
19.1 Policy Rules Overview .................................................................................................... 147
19.1.1 DiffServ .................................................................................................................. 147
19.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ................................................................................. 147
19.2 Configuring Policy Rules ................................................................................................. 148
19.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration ........................................................................ 150
19.4 Policy Example ................................................................................................................ 151
Chapter 20
Queuing Method.................................................................................................................... 153
20.1 Queuing Method Overview ............................................................................................. 153
20.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing .......................................................................................... 153
20.1.2 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) ........................................................... 153
20.2 Configuring Queuing ........................................................................................................ 154
Chapter 21
Multicast ................................................................................................................................ 155
21.1 Multicast Overview ......................................................................................................... 155
21.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses ........................................................................................... 155
21.1.2 IGMP Filtering ........................................................................................................ 155
21.1.3 IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................... 155
21.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs ................................................................................... 156
21.2 Multicast Status .............................................................................................................. 156
21.3 Multicast Setting ............................................................................................................. 156
21.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN .................................................................................................... 158
21.5 IGMP Filtering Profile ..................................................................................................... 160
21.6 MVR Overview ................................................................................................................ 161
21.6.1 Types of MVR Ports ............................................................................................... 161
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Table of Contents
21.6.2 MVR Modes ........................................................................................................... 162
21.6.3 How MVR Works .................................................................................................... 162
21.7 General MVR Configuration ............................................................................................ 162
21.8 MVR Group Configuration .............................................................................................. 164
21.8.1 MVR Configuration Example .................................................................................. 165
Chapter 22
Authentication & Accounting .............................................................................................. 169
22.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting ............................................................... 169
22.1.1 Local User Accounts .............................................................................................. 169
22.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+ ........................................................................................ 170
22.2 Authentication and Accounting Screens .......................................................................... 170
22.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup
22.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
........................................................................................ 170
..................................................................................... 172
22.2.3 Authentication and Accounting Setup
................................................................ 174
22.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute ........................................................................................ 177
22.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes ......................................................................................... 178
22.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication .......................................................................... 179
22.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting ............................................................................... 179
Chapter 23
IP Source Guard.................................................................................................................... 183
23.1 IP Source Guard Overview .............................................................................................. 183
23.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview ..................................................................................... 183
23.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview ...................................................................................... 185
23.2 IP Source Guard .............................................................................................................. 187
23.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding ....................................................................................... 187
23.4 DHCP Snooping .............................................................................................................. 189
23.5 DHCP Snooping Configure .............................................................................................. 192
23.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ............................................................................. 193
23.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure .......................................................................... 195
23.6 ARP Inspection Status ..................................................................................................... 196
23.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ................................................................................. 196
23.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status .................................................................................... 197
23.7 ARP Inspection Configure ............................................................................................... 199
23.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure .............................................................................. 200
23.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure ........................................................................... 201
Chapter 24
Loop Guard............................................................................................................................ 203
24.1 Loop Guard Overview ..................................................................................................... 203
24.2 Loop Guard Setup ........................................................................................................... 205
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Chapter 25
Two Rate Three Color Marker .............................................................................................. 207
25.1 DiffServ Overview ........................................................................................................... 207
25.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ................................................................................ 207
25.1.2 DiffServ Network Example .................................................................................... 208
25.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing ................................................................ 208
25.2.1 trTCM - Color-blind Mode ....................................................................................... 209
25.2.2 trTCM - Color-aware Mode .................................................................................... 209
25.2.3 Configuring Two Rate Three Color Marker Settings .............................................. 210
Part IV: IP Application.......................................................................... 213
Chapter 26
Static Route ........................................................................................................................... 215
26.1 Static Routing Overview .................................................................................................. 215
26.2 Configuring Static Routing .............................................................................................. 215
Chapter 27
DHCP...................................................................................................................................... 219
27.1 DHCP Overview ............................................................................................................. 219
27.1.1 DHCP Modes ........................................................................................................ 219
27.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options ................................................................................. 219
27.2 DHCP Status ................................................................................................................... 219
27.3 DHCP Relay ................................................................................................................... 220
27.3.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information ............................................................................. 220
27.3.2 Configuring DHCP Global Relay ............................................................................ 221
27.3.3 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example .......................................................... 222
27.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
................................................................................ 222
27.4.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs .................................................................. 224
Part V: Management............................................................................. 225
Chapter 28
Maintenance .......................................................................................................................... 227
28.1 The Maintenance Screen
.............................................................................................. 227
28.2 Load Factory Default ...................................................................................................... 228
28.3 Save Configuration .......................................................................................................... 228
28.4 Reboot System ................................................................................................................ 229
28.5 Firmware Upgrade
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
........................................................................................................ 229
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Table of Contents
28.6 Restore a Configuration File
......................................................................................... 230
28.7 Backup a Configuration File
......................................................................................... 230
28.8 FTP Command Line ........................................................................................................ 231
28.8.1 Filename Conventions .......................................................................................... 231
28.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure ............................................................................ 231
28.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients .......................................................................................... 232
28.8.4 FTP Restrictions .................................................................................................... 232
Chapter 29
Access Control...................................................................................................................... 233
29.1 Access Control Overview
............................................................................................ 233
29.2 The Access Control Main Screen .................................................................................... 233
29.3 About SNMP .................................................................................................................. 234
29.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security ........................................................................................... 235
29.3.2 Supported MIBs
................................................................................................... 235
29.3.3 SNMP Traps .......................................................................................................... 235
29.3.4 Configuring SNMP ................................................................................................ 239
29.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
29.3.6 Setting Up Login Accounts
........................................................................... 241
................................................................................. 242
29.4 SSH Overview ................................................................................................................. 244
29.5 How SSH works ............................................................................................................... 244
29.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch ................................................................................. 245
29.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH ................................................................................. 245
29.7 Introduction to HTTPS ..................................................................................................... 245
29.8 HTTPS Example .............................................................................................................. 246
29.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages ..................................................................... 246
29.8.2 Netscape Navigator Warning Messages ................................................................ 247
29.8.3 The Main Screen .................................................................................................... 247
29.9 Service Port Access Control
29.10 Remote Management
......................................................................................... 248
............................................................................................... 249
Chapter 30
Diagnostic.............................................................................................................................. 251
30.1 Diagnostic ....................................................................................................................... 251
Chapter 31
Syslog .................................................................................................................................... 253
31.1 Syslog Overview .............................................................................................................. 253
31.2 Syslog Setup .................................................................................................................. 253
31.3 Syslog Server Setup ....................................................................................................... 254
Chapter 32
Cluster Management............................................................................................................. 257
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Table of Contents
32.1 Cluster Management Status Overview ........................................................................... 257
32.2 Cluster Management Status ........................................................................................... 258
32.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management ................................................................... 259
32.3 Clustering Management Configuration .......................................................................... 260
Chapter 33
MAC Table.............................................................................................................................. 263
33.1 MAC Table Overview ...................................................................................................... 263
33.2 Viewing the MAC Table ................................................................................................... 264
Chapter 34
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................. 265
34.1 ARP Table Overview ....................................................................................................... 265
34.1.1 How ARP Works .................................................................................................... 265
34.2 Viewing the ARP Table ................................................................................................... 265
Chapter 35
Configure Clone .................................................................................................................... 267
35.1 Configure Clone .............................................................................................................. 267
Part VI: Troubleshooting & Product Specifications.......................... 269
Chapter 36
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 271
36.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 271
36.2 Switch Access and Login ................................................................................................. 272
Chapter 37
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 275
Part VII: Appendices and Index ......................................................... 281
Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 283
Appendix B Common Services............................................................................................. 293
Appendix C Legal Information .............................................................................................. 297
Appendix D Customer Support............................................................................................. 301
Index....................................................................................................................................... 307
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
19
Table of Contents
20
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1 Backbone Application .............................................................................................................. 32
Figure 2 Bridging Application ................................................................................................................ 32
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application ............................................................... 33
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example ...................................................................................... 34
Figure 5 Attaching Rubber Feet ........................................................................................................... 38
Figure 6 Attaching the Mounting Brackets ............................................................................................. 39
Figure 7 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .............................................................................................. 39
Figure 8 Front Panel: GS-3012 ............................................................................................................. 41
Figure 9 Front Panel: GS-3012F ........................................................................................................... 41
Figure 10 Transceiver Installation Example ........................................................................................... 44
Figure 11 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables ........................................................................................ 44
Figure 12 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables ......................................................................................... 44
Figure 13 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example ............................................................................ 44
Figure 14 Transceiver Removal Example .............................................................................................. 45
Figure 15 Rear Panel: GS-3012 AC Power Model ................................................................................ 45
Figure 16 Rear Panel: GS-3012 DC Power Model ................................................................................ 45
Figure 17 Rear Panel: GS-3012F AC Power Model .............................................................................. 45
Figure 18 Rear Panel: GS-3012F DC Power Model .............................................................................. 45
Figure 19 Web Configurator: Login ....................................................................................................... 50
Figure 20 Web Configurator Home Screen (Status) .............................................................................. 50
Figure 21 Change Administrator Login Password ................................................................................. 55
Figure 22 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port ........................................................................... 57
Figure 23 Web Configurator: Logout Screen ......................................................................................... 57
Figure 24 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN ................................................................................... 59
Figure 25 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID ............................................................................... 61
Figure 26 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address ................................................................... 61
Figure 27 Status .................................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 28 Status > Port Details .............................................................................................................. 65
Figure 29 Basic Setting > System Info .................................................................................................. 70
Figure 30 Basic Setting > General Setup .............................................................................................. 71
Figure 31 Basic Setting > Switch Setup ................................................................................................ 74
Figure 32 Basic Setting > IP Setup ......................................................................................................... 76
Figure 33 Basic Setting > Port Setup .................................................................................................... 78
Figure 34 Port VLAN Trunking ............................................................................................................... 85
Figure 35 Switch Setup > Select VLAN Type ........................................................................................ 85
Figure 36 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status ........................................................................ 86
Figure 37 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail ........................................................................ 86
Figure 38 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN ...................................................................... 87
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
21
List of Figures
Figure 39 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting ............................................................. 89
Figure 40 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example ............................................................................ 90
Figure 41 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN ........................ 91
Figure 42 Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected) .............................................................................. 93
Figure 43 Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation) ............................................................................... 94
Figure 44 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding ................................................................... 95
Figure 45 Advanced Application > Filtering ........................................................................................... 97
Figure 46 MRSTP Network Example ................................................................................................... 101
Figure 47 STP/RSTP Network Example .............................................................................................. 102
Figure 48 MSTP Network Example ..................................................................................................... 103
Figure 49 MSTIs in Different Regions ................................................................................................. 104
Figure 50 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example ....................................................................... 104
Figure 51 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol ................................................................ 105
Figure 52 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration ....................................... 105
Figure 53 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP ................................................... 106
Figure 54 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP ....................................... 108
Figure 55 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP ................................................ 109
Figure 56 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP .....................................111
Figure 57 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP ...................................................112
Figure 58 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP .......................................115
Figure 59 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control .........................................................................118
Figure 60 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control ...............................................................119
Figure 61 Advanced Application > Mirroring ........................................................................................ 121
Figure 62 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status ................................................................ 124
Figure 63 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting ............................... 125
Figure 64 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP .................. 127
Figure 65 Trunking Example - Physical Connections ........................................................................... 128
Figure 66 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen ............................................................................ 129
Figure 67 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process .................................................................................. 132
Figure 68 MAC Authentication Process .............................................................................................. 132
Figure 69 Advanced Application > Port Authentication ....................................................................... 133
Figure 70 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x ........................................................ 133
Figure 71 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication ................................... 135
Figure 72 Advanced Application > Port Security ................................................................................. 138
Figure 73 Advanced Application > Classifier ....................................................................................... 142
Figure 74 Advanced Application > Classifier: Summary Table ............................................................ 144
Figure 75 Classifier: Example .............................................................................................................. 146
Figure 76 Advanced Application > Policy Rule ................................................................................... 148
Figure 77 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table ......................................................... 150
Figure 78 Policy Example .................................................................................................................... 151
Figure 79 Advanced Application > Queuing Method ........................................................................... 154
Figure 80 Advanced Application > Multicast ........................................................................................ 156
Figure 81 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting ......................................................... 157
22
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 82 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN ................. 159
Figure 83 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile ................... 160
Figure 84 MVR Network Example ....................................................................................................... 161
Figure 85 MVR Multicast Television Example ..................................................................................... 162
Figure 86 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR ............................................. 163
Figure 87 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration ............ 165
Figure 88 MVR Configuration Example ............................................................................................... 166
Figure 89 MVR Configuration Example ............................................................................................... 166
Figure 90 MVR Group Configuration Example ................................................................................... 166
Figure 91 MVR Group Configuration Example .................................................................................... 167
Figure 92 AAA Server ......................................................................................................................... 169
Figure 93 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct ............................................................................... 170
Figure 94 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup ........................................ 171
Figure 95 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup ..................................... 173
Figure 96 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup .......................................... 175
Figure 97 DHCP Snooping Database File Format ............................................................................... 184
Figure 98 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack ..................................................................................... 185
Figure 99 IP Source Guard ................................................................................................................... 187
Figure 100 IP Source Guard Static Binding .......................................................................................... 188
Figure 101 DHCP Snooping ................................................................................................................. 189
Figure 102 DHCP Snooping Configure ................................................................................................ 192
Figure 103 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ......................................................................................... 194
Figure 104 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure ...................................................................................... 195
Figure 105 ARP Inspection Status ........................................................................................................ 196
Figure 106 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ............................................................................................. 197
Figure 107 ARP Inspection Log Status ................................................................................................. 198
Figure 108 ARP Inspection Configure .................................................................................................. 199
Figure 109 ARP Inspection Port Configure .......................................................................................... 200
Figure 110 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure ........................................................................................ 201
Figure 111 Loop Guard vs STP ............................................................................................................ 203
Figure 112 Switch in Loop State ........................................................................................................... 204
Figure 113 Loop Guard - Probe Packet ................................................................................................ 204
Figure 114 Loop Guard - Network Loop ............................................................................................... 204
Figure 115 Advanced Application > Loop Guard .................................................................................. 205
Figure 116 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field .................................................................................. 207
Figure 117 DiffServ Network ................................................................................................................ 208
Figure 118 trTCM - Color-blind Mode .................................................................................................. 209
Figure 119 trTCM - Color-aware Mode ................................................................................................ 209
Figure 120 Advanced Application > trTCM .......................................................................................... 210
Figure 121 Static Routing Overview .................................................................................................... 215
Figure 122 IP Application > Static Routing .......................................................................................... 216
Figure 123 IP Application > DHCP Status ........................................................................................... 220
Figure 124 IP Application > DHCP > Global ........................................................................................ 221
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
23
List of Figures
Figure 125 Global DHCP Relay Network Example ............................................................................. 222
Figure 126 DHCP Relay Configuration Example ................................................................................. 222
Figure 127 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN
....................................................................................... 223
Figure 128 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs ............................................................................................. 224
Figure 129 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example ........................................................ 224
Figure 130 Management > Maintenance ............................................................................................. 227
Figure 131 Load Factory Default: Start ................................................................................................ 228
Figure 132 Reboot System: Confirmation ........................................................................................... 229
Figure 133 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade .......................................................... 229
Figure 134 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration ...................................................... 230
Figure 135 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration ...................................................... 230
Figure 136 Management > Access Control ......................................................................................... 233
Figure 137 SNMP Management Model
.............................................................................................. 234
Figure 138 Management > Access Control > SNMP ........................................................................... 240
Figure 139 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group .................................................... 242
Figure 140 Management > Access Control > Logins .......................................................................... 243
Figure 141 SSH Communication Example ........................................................................................... 244
Figure 142 How SSH Works ................................................................................................................. 244
Figure 143 HTTPS Implementation ...................................................................................................... 246
Figure 144 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer) ...................................................................... 246
Figure 145 Security Certificate 1 (Netscape) ........................................................................................ 247
Figure 146 Security Certificate 2 (Netscape) ........................................................................................ 247
Figure 147 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection .................................................................. 248
Figure 148 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control ................................................ 248
Figure 149 Management > Access Control > Remote Management .................................................. 249
Figure 150 Management > Diagnostic ................................................................................................. 251
Figure 151 Management > Syslog ....................................................................................................... 254
Figure 152 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup .................................................................. 255
Figure 153 Clustering Application Example ......................................................................................... 258
Figure 154 Management > Cluster Management: Status .................................................................... 258
Figure 155 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen .................................... 259
Figure 156 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch ............................................. 260
Figure 157 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
..................................................... 261
Figure 158 MAC Table Flowchart ........................................................................................................ 263
Figure 159 Management > MAC Table ................................................................................................ 264
Figure 160 Management > ARP Table ................................................................................................ 266
Figure 161 Management > Configure Clone ....................................................................................... 267
Figure 162 Network Number and Host ID ............................................................................................ 284
Figure 163 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting ............................................................................ 286
Figure 164 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting ............................................................................... 287
Figure 165 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 291
Figure 166 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 291
Figure 167 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example .................................................. 292
24
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1 Front Panel Connections .......................................................................................................... 42
Table 2 LED Descriptions ...................................................................................................................... 46
Table 3 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview ....................................................................................... 51
Table 4 Web Configurator Screen Sub-links Details .............................................................................. 52
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links ............................................................................................................. 53
Table 6 Status ........................................................................................................................................ 63
Table 7 Status: Port Details ................................................................................................................... 65
Table 8 Basic Setting > System Info ...................................................................................................... 70
Table 9 Basic Setting > General Setup .................................................................................................. 72
Table 10 Basic Setting > Switch Setup .................................................................................................. 74
Table 11 Basic Setting > IP Setup ......................................................................................................... 76
Table 12 Basic Setting > Port Setup ...................................................................................................... 78
Table 13 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology ............................................................................................ 84
Table 14 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status .......................................................................... 86
Table 15 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail ........................................................................ 87
Table 16 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN ......................................................................... 88
Table 17 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting ............................................................... 89
Table 18 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup ............... 91
Table 19 Port Based VLAN Setup ......................................................................................................... 94
Table 20 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding ..................................................................... 96
Table 21 Advanced Application > FIltering ............................................................................................ 97
Table 22 STP Path Costs .................................................................................................................... 100
Table 23 STP Port States .................................................................................................................... 101
Table 24 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration ........................................ 105
Table 25 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP .................................................... 106
Table 26 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP ........................................ 108
Table 27 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP ................................................. 109
Table 28 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP ......................................111
Table 29 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP .....................................................113
Table 30 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP .........................................115
Table 31 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control ...........................................................................118
Table 32 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control ................................................................ 120
Table 33 Advanced Application > Mirroring ......................................................................................... 122
Table 34 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch ........................................................................................ 124
Table 35 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch ......................................................................................... 124
Table 36 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status ................................................................. 124
Table 37 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting ................................. 126
Table 38 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP .................... 127
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
25
List of Tables
Table 39 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x .......................................................... 134
Table 40 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication ..................................... 135
Table 41 Advanced Application > Port Security ................................................................................... 138
Table 42 Advanced Application > Classifier ......................................................................................... 142
Table 43 Classifier: Summary Table .................................................................................................... 144
Table 44 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Numbers ................................................................. 144
Table 45 Common IP Protocol Types and Protocol Numbers ............................................................. 145
Table 46 Common TCP and UDP Port Numbers ................................................................................ 145
Table 47 Advanced Application > Policy Rule ..................................................................................... 149
Table 48 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table .......................................................... 150
Table 49 Advanced Application > Queuing Method ............................................................................. 154
Table 50 Advanced Application > Multicast Status .............................................................................. 156
Table 51 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting ........................................................... 157
Table 52 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN ................... 159
Table 53 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile .................... 160
Table 54 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR ............................................... 163
Table 55 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration ............ 165
Table 56 RADIUS vs TACACS+ .......................................................................................................... 170
Table 57 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup ......................................... 171
Table 58 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup ...................................... 173
Table 59 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup ............................................ 175
Table 60 Supported VSAs ................................................................................................................... 177
Table 61 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute ..................................................................................... 178
Table 62 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console ..................................................................... 180
Table 63 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Telnet/SSH ................................................................ 180
Table 64 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console ..................................................................... 180
Table 65 IP Source Guard ................................................................................................................... 187
Table 66 IP Source Guard Static Binding ............................................................................................ 188
Table 67 DHCP Snooping .................................................................................................................... 190
Table 68 DHCP Snooping Configure ................................................................................................... 192
Table 69 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ........................................................................................... 194
Table 70 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure ......................................................................................... 195
Table 71 ARP Inspection Status .......................................................................................................... 196
Table 72 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ................................................................................................ 197
Table 73 ARP Inspection Log Status ................................................................................................... 198
Table 74 ARP Inspection Configure ..................................................................................................... 199
Table 75 ARP Inspection Port Configure ............................................................................................. 201
Table 76 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure .......................................................................................... 202
Table 77 Advanced Application > Loop Guard .................................................................................... 205
Table 78 Advanced Application > trTCM ............................................................................................. 210
Table 79 IP Application > Static Routing .............................................................................................. 216
Table 80 IP Application > DHCP .......................................................................................................... 220
Table 81 Relay Agent Information ....................................................................................................... 220
26
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 82 IP Application > DHCP > Global ........................................................................................... 221
Table 83 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN ............................................................................................ 223
Table 84 Management > Maintenance ................................................................................................ 227
Table 85 Filename Conventions .......................................................................................................... 231
Table 86 Access Control Overview ...................................................................................................... 233
Table 87 SNMP Commands ................................................................................................................ 234
Table 88 SNMP System Traps ............................................................................................................. 235
Table 89 SNMP InterfaceTraps ............................................................................................................ 237
Table 90 AAA Traps ............................................................................................................................. 237
Table 91 SNMP IP Traps ..................................................................................................................... 238
Table 92 SNMP Switch Traps .............................................................................................................. 239
Table 93 Management > Access Control > SNMP .............................................................................. 240
Table 94 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group ........................................................ 242
Table 95 Management > Access Control > Logins .............................................................................. 243
Table 96 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control ................................................... 249
Table 97 Management > Access Control > Remote Management ...................................................... 249
Table 98 Management > Diagnostic .................................................................................................... 251
Table 99 Syslog Severity Levels .......................................................................................................... 253
Table 100 Management > Syslog ........................................................................................................ 254
Table 101 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup ................................................................... 255
Table 102 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications ................................................................... 257
Table 103 Management > Cluster Management: Status ...................................................................... 259
Table 104 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example ........................................................................... 260
Table 105 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration ........................................................ 261
Table 106 Management > MAC Table ................................................................................................. 264
Table 107 Management > ARP Table .................................................................................................. 266
Table 108 Management > Configure Clone ......................................................................................... 268
Table 109 Hardware Specifications ..................................................................................................... 275
Table 110 Firmware Specifications ...................................................................................................... 276
Table 111 Feature Specifications ......................................................................................................... 278
Table 112 Standards Supported .......................................................................................................... 278
Table 113 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example ............................................................ 284
Table 114 Subnet Masks ..................................................................................................................... 285
Table 115 Maximum Host Numbers ..................................................................................................... 285
Table 116 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ....................................................................................... 285
Table 117 Subnet 1 .............................................................................................................................. 287
Table 118 Subnet 2 .............................................................................................................................. 288
Table 119 Subnet 3 .............................................................................................................................. 288
Table 120 Subnet 4 .............................................................................................................................. 288
Table 121 Eight Subnets ...................................................................................................................... 288
Table 122 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 289
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 289
Table 124 Commonly Used Services ................................................................................................... 293
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
27
List of Tables
28
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction and
Hardware
Getting to Know Your Switch (31)
Hardware Installation and Connection (37)
Hardware Overview (41)
29
30
CHAPTER
1
Getting to Know Your Switch
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch.
1.1 Introduction
The GS-3012 and GS-3012F are layer 2 stand-alone Gigabit Ethernet switches.
The GS-3012 has 12 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 ports and four mini-GBIC slots for optical
uplinking. There are two GS-3012 models. The GS-3012 DC model requires DC power supply
input of -48 VDC to -60 VDC, 1.5A Max. The GS-3012 AC model requires 100~240VAC/
1.5A power.
The GS-3012F has 12 mini-GBIC slots and four RJ-45 100/1000 Mbps ports for uplinking.
There are two GS-3012F models. The GS-3012F DC model requires DC power supply input
of -48 VDC to -60 VDC, 1.25A Max. The GS-3012F AC model requires 100~240VAC/1.5A
power.
This section shows a few examples of using the Switch in various network environments.
See Chapter 37 on page 275 for a full list of software features available on the Switch.
1.1.1 Backbone Application
The Switch is an ideal solution for small networks where rapid growth can be expected in the
near future. The Switch can be used standalone for a group of heavy traffic users. You can
connect computers and servers directly to the Switch’s port or connect other switches to the
Switch.
In this example, all computers can share high-speed applications on the server. To expand the
network, simply add more networking devices such as switches, routers, computers, print
servers etc.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
31
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Figure 1 Backbone Application
1.1.2 Bridging Example
In this example application the Switch connects different company departments (RD and
Sales) to the corporate backbone. It can alleviate bandwidth contention and eliminate server
and network bottlenecks. All users that need high bandwidth can connect to high-speed
department servers via the Switch. You can provide a super-fast uplink connection by using a
Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC port on the Switch.
Moreover, the Switch eases supervision and maintenance by allowing network managers to
centralize multiple servers at a single location.
Figure 2 Bridging Application
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example
The Switch is ideal for connecting two networks that need high bandwidth. In the following
example, use trunking to connect these two networks.
32
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Switching to higher-speed LANs such as ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) is not
feasible for most people due to the expense of replacing all existing Ethernet cables and
adapter cards, restructuring your network and complex maintenance. The Switch can provide
the same bandwidth as ATM at much lower cost while still being able to use existing adapters
and switches. Moreover, the current LAN structure can be retained as all ports can freely
communicate with each other.
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Stations on a logical network belong to one group. A station can
belong to more than one group. With VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from
stations that are not in the same group(s) unless such traffic first goes through a router.
For more information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 8 on page 83.
1.1.4.1 Tag-based VLAN Example
Ports in the same VLAN group share the same frame broadcast domain thus increase network
performance through reduced broadcast traffic. VLAN groups can be modified at any time by
adding, moving or changing ports without any re-cabling.
Shared resources such as a server can be used by all ports in the same VLAN as the server. In
the following figure only ports that need access to the server need to be part of VLAN 1. Ports
can belong to other VLAN groups too.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
33
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch
Use any of the following methods to manage the Switch.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Switch using a
(supported) web browser. See Chapter 4 on page 49.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands offer an alternative to the web configurator and
in some cases are necessary to configure advanced features. See the CLI Reference Guide.
• FTP. Use FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore. See Section 28.8
on page 231.
• SNMP. The Switch can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See Section 29.3 on page
234.
• Cluster Management. Cluster Management allows you to manage multiple switches
through one switch, called the cluster manager. See Chapter 32 on page 257.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch
Do the following things regularly to make the Switch more secure and to manage the Switch
more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of
different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an
earlier working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even
crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the Switch to its factory
default settings. If you backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to
totally re-configure the Switch. You could simply restore your last configuration.
34
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
P ART II
Basic Configuration
The Web Configurator (49)
Initial Setup Example (59)
System Status and Port Statistics (63)
Basic Setting (69)
35
36
CHAPTER
2
Hardware Installation and
Connection
This chapter shows you how to install and connect the Switch.
2.1 Installation Scenarios
The Switch can be placed on a desktop or rack-mounted on a standard EIA rack. Use the
rubber feet in a desktop installation and the brackets in a rack-mounted installation.
"
For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front
and 3.4 inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. This is especially important for
enclosed rack installations.
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure
1 Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.
2 Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the
Switch and the connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.
3 Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the
attachment of cables and the power cord.
4 Remove the adhesive backing from the rubber feet.
5 Attach the rubber feet to each corner on the bottom of the Switch. These rubber feet help
protect the Switch from shock or vibration and ensure space between devices when
stacking.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
37
Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 5
"
Attaching Rubber Feet
Do NOT block the ventilation holes. Leave space between devices when
stacking.
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
The Switch can be mounted on an EIA standard size, 19-inch rack or in a wiring closet with
other equipment. Follow the steps below to mount your Switch on a standard EIA rack using a
rack-mounting kit.
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements
• Two mounting brackets.
• Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
• Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
1
Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.
2.3.1.1 Precautions
• Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it
contains.
• Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take
all necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch
1 Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on
the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 6 Attaching the Mounting Brackets
2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting
bracket holes into the Switch.
3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the
Switch.
4 You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
1 Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the
rack, lining up the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the
rack.
Figure 7 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting
bracket holes into the rack.
3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
39
Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
40
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
CHAPTER
3
Hardware Overview
This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to
make the hardware connections.
3.1 Front Panel
The following figure shows the front panel of the GS-3012. The front panel contains the
Switch LEDs, 8 RJ-45 gigabit ports, four dual personality interfaces each consisting of a miniGBIC slot and an RJ-45 gigabit port as well as a console and management port for local
management.
Figure 8 Front Panel: GS-3012
Console Port
LED
Ethernet Ports
Dual Personality Interfaces
Management Port
The following figure shows the front panel of the GS-3012F. The front panel contains the
Switch LEDs, 8 mini-GBIC slots, four dual personality interfaces each consisting of a miniGBIC slot and an RJ-45 gigabit port as well as a console and management port for local
management.
Figure 9 Front Panel: GS-3012F
MIni-GBIC slots
Console Port
Dual Personality Interfaces
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Management Port
41
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
The following table describes the port labels on the front panel.
Table 1 Front Panel Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
8 100/1000
Mbps RJ-45
Ethernet Ports
(GS-3012)
Connect these 1Gbps Electrical Ethernet ports to high-bandwidth backbone network
Ethernet switches or use them to daisy-chain other switches.
8 Mini-GBIC
Slots (GS3012F)
Use mini-GBIC transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic connections to backbone
Ethernet switches.
Four Dual
Personality
Interfaces
Each interface has one 1000 Base-T copper RJ-45 port and one Small Form-Factor
Pluggable (SFP) fiber port, with one port active at a time.
•
4 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 Gigabit Ports:
Connect these Gigabit Ethernet ports to high-bandwidth backbone network
Ethernet switches.
•
4 Mini-GBIC Slots:
Use mini-GBIC transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic connections to backbone
Ethernet switches.
Console Port
The console port is for local configuration of the Switch.
Management
Port
Connect to a computer using an RJ-45 Ethernet cable for local configuration of the
Switch.
3.1.1 Console Port
For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured
to the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
VT100
Terminal emulation
9600 bps
No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
No flow control
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.
3.1.2 Gigabit Ports
The Switch has 1000Base-T auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Ethernet ports. In 10/100/1000
Mbps Fast Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps and the duplex mode
can be half duplex or full duplex.
An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed (10/100/1000
Mbps) and duplex mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or
crossover Ethernet cable.
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GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Four of the 1000Base-T Ethernet ports are paired with a mini-GBIC slot to create a dual
personality interface. The Switch uses up to one connection for each mini-GBIC and
1000Base-T Ethernet pair. The mini-GBIC slots have priority over the Gigabit ports. This
means that if a mini-GBIC slot and the corresponding Gigabit port are connected at the same
time, the Gigabit port will be disabled.
When auto-negotiation is turned on, a Gigabit port negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer Ethernet port does not support
auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by
detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s autonegotiation is turned off, a Gigabit port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when
making a connection, thus requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer Ethernet port
are the same in order to connect.
3.1.2.1 Default Ethernet Negotiation Settings
The factory default negotiation settings for the Gigabit ports on the Switch are:
•
•
•
•
Speed: Auto
Duplex: Auto
Flow control: Off
Link Aggregation: Disabled
3.1.2.2 Auto-crossover
All ports are auto-crossover, that is auto-MDIX ports (Media Dependent Interface Crossover),
so you may use either a straight-through Ethernet cable or crossover Ethernet cable for all
Gigabit port connections. Auto-crossover ports automatically sense whether they need to
function as crossover or straight ports, so crossover cables can connect both computers and
switches/hubs.
3.1.3 Mini-GBIC Slots
These are slots for mini-GBIC (Gigabit Interface Converter) transceivers. A transceiver is a
single unit that houses a transmitter and a receiver. The Switch does not come with
transceivers. You must use transceivers that comply with the Small Form-factor Pluggable
(SFP) Transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the SFF committee’s INF-8074i
specification Rev 1.0 for details.
You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers
to connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic connectors.
1
To avoid possible eye injury, do not look into an operating fiber-optic module’s
connectors.
• Type: SFP connection interface
• Connection speed: 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps)
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
43
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.1.3.1 Transceiver Installation
Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1 Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.
2 Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.
3 The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that
it is functioning properly.
4 Close the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
5 Connect the fiber optic cables to the transceiver.
Figure 10 Transceiver Installation Example
Figure 11 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables
3.1.3.2 Transceiver Removal
Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1 Remove the fiber optic cables from the transceiver.
2 Open the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
3 Pull the transceiver out of the slot.
Figure 12 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables
Figure 13 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example
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Figure 14 Transceiver Removal Example
3.1.4 Management Port
The MGMT (management) port is used for local management. Connect directly to this port
using an Ethernet cable. You can configure the Switch via Telnet or the web configurator.
The default IP address of the management port is 192.168.0.1 with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0.
3.2 Rear Panel
The following figures show the rear panels of the GS-3012 AC and DC power models
followed by the GS-3012F AC and DC power models. The rear panel contains the power
receptacle and a connector for external backup power supply.
Figure 15 Rear Panel: GS-3012 AC Power Model
Figure 16 Rear Panel: GS-3012 DC Power Model
Figure 17 Rear Panel: GS-3012F AC Power Model
Figure 18 Rear Panel: GS-3012F DC Power Model
3.2.1 Power Connector
"
Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
To connect the power to the AC power model, insert the female end of power cord to the
power receptacle on the rear panel. Connect the other end of the supplied power cord to a
100~240VAC/1.5A power outlet. Make sure that no objects obstruct the airflow of the fans
(located on the side of the unit).
The DC power models require DC power supply input of –48 VDC to -60 VDC. The GS-3012
DC power model requires 1.5A Max. The GS-3012F DC power model requires 1.25A Max.
To connect the power to the unit, insert the one end of the supplied power cord to the power
receptacle on the rear panel and the other end to a power outlet.
3.3 LEDs
After you connect the power to the Switch, view the LEDs to ensure proper functioning of the
Switch and as an aid in troubleshooting.
Table 2 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
BPS
Green
Blinking
The system is receiving power from the backup power supply.
On
The backup power supply is connected and active.
Off
The backup power supply is not ready or not active.
Amber
Blinking
The system cannot get power from the backup power supply.
Green
On
The system is turned on.
Off
The system is off.
Blinking
The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.
On
The system is on and functioning properly.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.
On
There is a hardware failure.
Off
The system is functioning normally.
On
The link to this port is up.
Off
The link to this port is not connected.
Blinking
This port is receiving or transmitting data.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
On
The Gigabit port is negotiating in full-duplex mode.
Off
The Gigabit port is negotiating in half-duplex mode.
PWR
SYS
ALM
Green
Red
Mini-GBIC Slots
LNK
ACT
Green
Green
Gigabit Ports
LNK/ACT
(GS3012)
Green
Amber
FDX (GS- Amber
3012)
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Table 2 LED Descriptions (continued)
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
1000
(GS3012F)
Green
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet device.
On
The port is connected at 10Mbps.
Off
The port is not connected at 10Mbps or to an Ethernet device.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from an Ethernet device.
On
The port is connected at 100Mbps.
Off
The port is not connected at 100Mbps or to an Ethernet device.
100 (GS3012F)
Amber
MGMT
10
100
Green
Amber
3.4 Configuring the Switch
You may use the embedded web configurator or command line interface to configure the
Switch. If you’re using the web configurator, you need Internet Explorer 5.5 and later or
Netscape Navigator 6 and later.
You can access the command line interface using a terminal emulation program on a computer
connected to the Switch console port (see Section 3.1.1 on page 42) or access the Switch using
Telnet.
The next part of this guide discusses configuring the Switch using the web configurator.
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CHAPTER
4
The Web Configurator
This section introduces the configuration and functions of the web configurator.
4.1 Introduction
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup
and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Netscape
Navigator 7.0 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by
default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
4.2 System Login
1 Start your web browser.
2 Type “http://” and the IP address of the Switch (for example, the default is 192.168.1.1)
in the Location or Address field. Press [ENTER].
3 The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default
password is 1234. The date and time display as shown if you have not configured a time
server nor manually entered a time and date in the General Setup screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 19 Web Configurator: Login
4 Click OK to view the first web configurator screen.
4.3 The Status Screen
The Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the web configurator.
The following figure shows the navigating components of a web configurator screen.
Figure 20 Web Configurator Home Screen (Status)
B C DE
A
A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the
screen in the main window.
B, C, D, E - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which
screen you are currently working in.
B - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile memory.
Nonvolatile memory is the configuration of your Switch that stays the same even if the
Switch’s power is turned off.
C - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.
D - Click this link to logout of the web configurator.
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E - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.
In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.
Table 3 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview
BASIC SETTING
ADVANCED
APPLICATION
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IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
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The following table lists the various web configurator screens within the sub-links.
Table 4 Web Configurator Screen Sub-links Details
BASIC SETTING ADVANCED
APPLICATION
System Info
General Setup
Switch Setup
IP Setup
Port Setup
52
IP APPLICATION
Static Routing
VLAN
DHCP Status
VLAN Port Setting
Subnet Based VLAN
DHCP Relay
Static VLAN
VLAN Setting
Static MAC Forwarding
Filtering
Spanning Tree Protocol
Configuration
RSTP
MRSTP
MSTP
Bandwidth Control
Broadcast Storm Control
Mirroring
Link Aggregation
Link Aggregation
Setting
Ling Aggregation
Control Protocol
Port Authentication
802.1x
MAC Authentication
Port Security
Classifier
Policy Rule
Queuing Method
Multicast
Multicast Setting
IGMP Snooping VLAN
IGMP Filtering Profile
MVR
Group Configuration
Authentication and
Accounting
RADIUS Server Setup
TACACS+ Server
Setup
Auth and Acct Setup
IP Source Guard
IP Source Guard
Static Binding
DHCP Snooping
ARP Inspection Status
Loop Guard
trTCM
MANAGEMENT
Maintenance
Firmware Upgrade
Restore Configuration
Backup Configuration
Load Factory Default
Save Configuration
Reboot System
Access Control
SNMP
Trap Group
Logins
Service Access Control
Remote Management
Diagnostic
Syslog
Syslog Server Setup
Cluster Management
Clustering Management
Configuration
MAC Table
ARP Table
Configure Clone
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info
This link takes you to a screen that displays general system and hardware
monitoring information.
General Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification
information about the Switch.
Switch Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters
such as VLAN type, MAC address learning, GARP and priority queues.
IP Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the IP address, subnet
mask (necessary for Switch management) and DNS (domain name server) and set
up to 64 IP routing domains.
Port Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure settings for individual
Switch ports.
Advanced Application
VLAN
This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q
VLAN (depending on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu). You can also
configure a subnet based VLAN in these screens.
Static MAC
Forwarding
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static MAC addresses for a
port. These static MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering
This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree
Protocol
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP/MSTP to
prevent network loops.
Bandwidth
Control
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure bandwidth limits on the
Switch.
Broadcast Storm
Control
This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Mirroring
This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to
another port in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without
interference.
Link Aggregation This link takes you to a screen where you can logically aggregate physical links to
form one logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port
Authentication
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IEEE 802.1x port
authentication as well as MAC authentication for clients communicating via the
Switch.
Port Security
This link takes you to a screen where you can activate MAC address learning and
set the maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port.
Classifier
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to group
packets based on the specified criteria.
Policy Rule
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform
special treatment on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated
queue weights for each port.
Multicast
This link takes you to screens where you can configure various multicast features,
IGMP snooping and create multicast VLANs.
Auth and Acct
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure authentication and
accounting services via external servers. The external servers can be either
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) or TACACS+ (Terminal
Access Controller Access-Control System Plus).
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Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
IP Source Guard
This link takes you to screens where you can configure filtering of unauthorized
DHCP and ARP packets in your network.
Loop Guard
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure protection against network
loops that occur on the edge of your network.
trTCM
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure Two Rate Three Color
Marker settings.
IP Application
Static Routing
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static routes. A static route
defines how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters
manually.
DHCP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the DHCP settings.
Management
Maintenance
This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration
file maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control
This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password
and configure SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic
This link takes you to a screen where you can view system logs and test port(s).
Syslog
This link takes you to screens where you can setup system logs and a system log
server.
Cluster
Management
This link takes you to screens where you can configure clustering management and
view its status.
MAC Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses (and types)
of devices attached to what ports and VLAN IDs.
ARP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses – IP
address resolution table.
Configure Clone
This link takes you to a screen where you can copy attributes of one port to other
ports.
4.3.1 Change Your Password
After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password. Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 21 Change Administrator Login Password
4.4 Saving Your Configuration
When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back
to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is
turned off.
Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the web configurator to save your
configuration to nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switch’s storage that
remains even if the Switch’s power is turned off.
"
Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.
4.5 Switch Lockout
You could block yourself (and all others) from using in-band-management (managing through
the data ports) if you do one of the following:
1 Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).
2 Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The “CPU port” is the
management port of the Switch.
3 Filter all traffic to the CPU port.
4 Disable all ports.
5 Misconfigure the text configuration file.
6 Forget the password and/or IP address.
7 Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.
8 Change a service port number but forget it.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
"
Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch. If you do lock
yourself out, try using out-of-band management (via the management port) to
configure the Switch.
4.6 Resetting the Switch
If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you
will need to reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory
defaults.
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File
Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations
and the speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 9600bps with 8 data bit, no
parity, one stop bit and flow control set to none. The password will also be reset to “1234” and
the IP address to 192.168.1.1.
To upload the configuration file, do the following:
1 Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software. See
Section 3.1 on page 45 for details.
2 Disconnect and reconnect the Switch’s power to begin a session. When you reconnect
the Switch’s power, you will see the initial screen.
3 When you see the message “Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 3
seconds ...” press any key to enter debug mode.
4 Type atlc after the “Enter Debug Mode” message.
5 Wait for the “Starting XMODEM upload” message before activating XMODEM
upload on your terminal.
6 After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.
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Figure 22 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port
Bootbase Version: V3.1 | 03/08/2007 18:36:17
RAM:Size = 64 Mbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 65536K OK
DRAM Test SUCCESS !
FLASH: Intel 64M
ZyNOS Version: V3.80(LH.0)b4 | 05/31/2007 20:43:39
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.....................
Enter Debug Mode
GS-3012> atlc
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)....
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
Total 393216 bytes received.
Erasing..
................................................................
OK
GS-3012> atgo
The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default
password of “1234”.
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator
Click Logout in a screen to exit the web configurator. You have to log in with your password
again after you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for
security reasons.
Figure 23 Web Configurator: Logout Screen
4.8 Help
The web configurator’s online help has descriptions of individual screens and some
supplementary information.
Click the Help link from a web configurator screen to view an online help description of that
screen.
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CHAPTER
5
Initial Setup Example
This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.
5.1 Overview
The following lists the configuration steps for the initial setup:
• Create a VLAN
• Set port VLAN ID
• Configure the Switch IP management address
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN
VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can
do this with port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.
In this example, you want to configure port 1 as a member of VLAN 2.
Figure 24 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
1 Click Advanced Application > VLAN in the navigation panel and click the Static
VLAN link.
2 In the Static VLAN screen,
select ACTIVE, enter a
descriptive name in the Name
field and enter 2 in the VLAN
Group ID field for the VLAN2
network.
Note: The VLAN Group ID field in
this screen and the VID field
in the IP Setup screen refer
to the same VLAN ID.
3 Since the VLAN2 network is
connected to port 1 on the
Switch, select Fixed to
configure port 1 to be a
permanent member of the
VLAN only.
4 To ensure that VLAN-unaware
devices (such as computers and
hubs) can receive frames
properly, clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags
before sending.
5 Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory
are lost when the Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.2 Setting Port VID
Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames
are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames
received on that port get sent to VLAN 2.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
Figure 25 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID
1 Click Advanced Applications
> VLAN in the navigation
panel. Then click the VLAN
Port Setting link.
2 Enter 2 in the PVID field for
port 1 and click Apply to save
your changes back to the runtime memory. Settings in the
run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is
turned off.
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address
The default management IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1. You can configure another
IP address in a different subnet for management purposes. The following figure shows an
example.
Figure 26 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
1 Connect your computer to any Ethernet port on the Switch. Make sure your computer is
in the same subnet as the Switch.
2 Open your web browser and enter 192.168.1.1 (the default IP address) in the address bar
to access the web configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 49 for more information.
3 Click Basic Setting > IP Setup
in the navigation panel.
4 Configure the related fields in
the IP Setup screen.
5 For the VLAN2 network, enter
192.168.2.1 as the IP address
and 255.255.255.0 as the subnet
mask.
6 In the VID field, enter the ID of
the VLAN group to which you
want this management IP
address to belong. This is the
same as the VLAN ID you
configure in the Static VLAN
screen.
7 Click Add to save your changes
back to the run-time memory.
Settings in the run-time memory
are lost when the Switch’s
power is turned off.
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CHAPTER
6
System Status and Port
Statistics
This chapter describes the system status (web configurator home page) and port details
screens.
6.1 Overview
The home screen of the web configurator displays a port statistical summary with links to each
port showing statistical details.
6.2 Port Status Summary
To view the port statistics, click Status in all web configurator screens to display the Status
screen as shown next.
Figure 27 Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. Click a port number to display the Port Details
screen (refer to Figure 28 on page 65).
Name
This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 6 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M
for 1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also shows the cable
type (Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports.
State
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the
port (see Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it
displays STOP.
LACP
This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been
enabled on the port.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has
been up.
Clear Counter
Enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded statistical
information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.
6.2.1 Status: Port Details
Click a number in the Port column in the Status screen to display individual port statistics.
Use this screen to check status and detailed performance data about an individual port on the
Switch.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Figure 28 Status > Port Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Status: Port Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Port NO.
This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Name
This field displays the name of the port.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). It also shows the
cable type (Copper or Fiber).
Status
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port
(see Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it
displays STOP.
LACP
This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 7 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
Up Time
DESCRIPTION
This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.
TX Packet
This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast)
transmitted.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
Tagged
This field shows the number of packets with VLAN tags transmitted.
Rx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received.
RX Packet This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast)
received.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
Control
This field shows the number of control packets received (including those with CRC
error) but it does not include the 802.3x Pause packets.
TX Collision
The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.
Single
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited
by exactly one collision.
Multiple
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was
inhibited by more than one collision.
Excessive
This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions.
Excessive collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the
retransmission count is reset.
Late
This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the
packets have already been transmitted.
Error Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in
error.
RX CRC
This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check)
error(s).
Length
This field shows the number of packets received with a length that was out of range.
Runt
This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64
octets), including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
66
64
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64
octets in length.
65-127
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 65 and 127 octets in length.
128-255
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 128 and 255 octets in length.
256-511
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 256 and 511 octets in length.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 7 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
512-1023
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 512 and 1023 octets in length.
10241518
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant
This field shows the number of packets dropped because they were bigger than the
maximum frame size.
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CHAPTER
7
Basic Setting
This chapter describes how to configure the System Info, General Setup, Switch Setup, IP
Setup and Port Setup screens.
7.1 Overview
The System Info screen displays general Switch information (such as firmware version
number) and hardware polling information (such as fan speeds). The General Setup screen
allows you to configure general Switch identification information. The General Setup screen
also allows you to set the system time manually or get the current time and date from an
external server when you turn on your Switch. The real time is then displayed in the Switch
logs. The Switch Setup screen allows you to set up and configure global Switch features. The
IP Setup screen allows you to configure a Switch IP address in each routing domain, subnet
mask(s) and DNS (domain name server) for management purposes.
7.2 System Information
In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown.
You can check the firmware version number and monitor the Switch temperature, fan speeds
and voltage in this screen.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Figure 29 Basic Setting > System Info
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Basic Setting > System Info
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
ZyNOS F/W
Version
This field displays the version number of the Switch 's current firmware including the
date created.
Ethernet
Address
This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
Hardware Monitor
70
Temperature
Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit
(Centigrade or Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
MAC, CPU and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch
printed circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those
above.
Fan Speed
(RPM)
A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently
ventilated, cool operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the
temperature threshold. Each fan has a sensor that is capable of detecting and
reporting if the fan speed falls below the threshold shown.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Table 8 Basic Setting > System Info (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX
This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute
(RPM).
MIN
This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute
(RPM). "<41" is displayed for speeds too small to measure (under 2000 RPM).
Threshold
This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status
Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error
indicates that this fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage(V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and
reporting if the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still
works.
Status
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this
point; otherwise Error is displayed.
7.3 General Setup
Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic
Setting > General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 30 Basic Setting > General Setup
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 Basic Setting > General Setup
72
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to
64 printable characters; spaces are allowed.
Location
Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's
Name
Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32
printable ASCII characters; spaces are allowed.
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers
support all protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that
works. The main differences between them are the time format.
When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day,
month, year and time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format it is
recommended that you use a Daytime timeserver within your geographical time
zone.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None is the default value. Enter the time manually. Each time you turn on the
Switch, the time and date will be reset to 1970-1-1 0:0.
Time Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of your timeserver. The Switch searches for the timeserver for
up to 60 seconds. If you select a timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen
will appear locked for 60 seconds. Please wait.
Current Time
This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time
(hh:min:ss)
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears
in the Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date
This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in
the Current Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone
Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly
known as GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list
box.
Daylight Saving
Time
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set
their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the
evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected
Daylight Saving Time. The time is displayed in the 24 hour format. Here are a
couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second
Sunday of March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving
Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select Second,
Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All
of the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the
same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select
Last, Sunday, March and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for
instance, you would select 2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead
of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
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Table 9 Basic Setting > General Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected
Daylight Saving Time. The time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple
of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November.
Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select First, Sunday, November and
2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October.
All of the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the
same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select
Last, Sunday, October and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany
for instance, you would select 2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour
ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.4 Introduction to VLANs
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can
belong to more than one group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from
devices that are not in the same group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security
among the subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from
accessing the network resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the
printers and hard disks of another user in the same building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast
packets go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a
specific broadcast domain.
"
VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.
See Chapter 8 on page 83 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.
7.5 Switch Setup Screen
Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
The VLAN setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based
in the VLAN Type field in this screen. Refer to the chapter on VLAN.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Figure 31 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on
whether you choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen.
See Chapter 8 on page 83 for more information.
Bridge Control
Protocol
Transparency
Select Active to allow the Switch to handle bridging control protocols (STP for
example). You also need to define how to treat a BPDU in the Port Setup screen.
MAC Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address
learning to occur on a port, the port must be active.
Aging Time
Enter a time from 10 to 3000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be
relearned).
GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join
message using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All
message terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on
VLAN setup for more background information.
74
Join Timer
Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each
port has a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and
65535 milliseconds; the default is 200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup
for more background information.
Leave Timer
Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds.
Each port has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger
than Join Timer; the default is 600 milliseconds.
Leave All Timer
Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in
milliseconds. Each port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be
larger than Leave Timer.
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Table 10 Basic Setting > Switch Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Priority Queue Assignment
IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that
contains bits to define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default
priority of the ingress port. Use the next fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue mapping.
The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic
assigned to higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if
the network is congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d
standard (which incorporates the 802.1p).
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the
variations in delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems
Network Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include
important business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that
are allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
7.6 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway device, the
default domain name server and the management VLAN ID. The default gateway specifies the
IP address of the default gateway (next hop) for outgoing traffic.
7.6.1 Management IP Addresses
The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default IP
address is 192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP
address. The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
You can configure up to 64 IP addresses which are used to access and manage the Switch from
the ports belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s).
"
You must configure a VLAN first.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Figure 32 Basic Setting > IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Basic Setting > IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain Name
Server
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its
corresponding IP address and vice versa. Enter a domain name server IP
address in order to be able to use a domain name instead of an IP address.
Default
Management
Specify which traffic flow (In-Band or Out-of-band) the Switch is to send
packets originating from itself (such as SNMP traps) or packets with unknown
source.
Select Out-of-band to have the Switch send the packets to the out-of-band
management port. This means that device(s) connected to the other port(s) do
not receive these packets.
Select In-Band to have the Switch send the packets to all ports except the outof-band management port to which connected device(s) do not receive these
packets.
In-Band Management IP Address
76
DHCP Client
Select this option if you have a DHCP server that can assign the Switch an IP
address, subnet mask, a default gateway IP address and a domain name server
IP address automatically.
Static IP Address
Select this option if you don’t have a DHCP server or if you wish to assign static
IP address information to the Switch. You need to fill in the following fields when
you select this option.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Table 11 Basic Setting > IP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation,
for example 192.168.1.254.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number associated with the Switch IP address.
This is the VLAN ID of the CPU and is used for management only. The default is
"1". All ports, by default, are fixed members of this "management VLAN" in order
to manage the device from any port. If a port is not a member of this VLAN, then
users on that port cannot access the device. To access the Switch make sure
the port that you are connected to is a member of Management VLAN.
Out-of-band Management IP Address
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
192.168.0.1.
If you change this IP address, make sure the computer connected to this
management port is in the same subnet before accessing the Switch.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation,
for example 192.168.0.254.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.
In-band IP Addresses
You can create up to 64 IP addresses, which are used to access and manage the Switch from the ports
belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s). You must configure a VLAN first.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for managing the Switch by the members of the VLAN
specified in the VID field below.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry to the summary table below and save your changes
to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned
off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit
the rule.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Default Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the default gateway.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Table 11 Basic Setting > IP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check the management IP addresses that you want to remove in the Delete
column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkboxes in the Delete column.
7.7 Port Setup
Use this screen to configure Switch port settings.Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in the
navigation panel to display the configuration screen.
Figure 33 Basic Setting > Port Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Basic Setting > Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port index number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A
port must be enabled for data transmission to occur.
Name
Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alphanumerical characters.
Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in
some web configurator screens.
Type
78
This field displays 10/100/1000M for Gigabit connections.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Table 12 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Speed/Duplex
Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port.
Choices are Auto, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/
Full Duplex and 1000M/Full Duplex.
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port
automatically to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode that both ends
support. When auto-negotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the
peer automatically to determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer
port does not support auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines
the connection speed by detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex
mode. When the Switch’s auto-negotiation is turned off, a port uses the preconfigured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus requiring you to
make sure that the settings of the peer port are the same in order to connect.
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer
memory causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate
transmission of signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.
The Switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow
control in half duplex mode.
IEEE802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the
sending port, causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port
memory buffers fill.
Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision"
signal to the sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending
port to temporarily stop sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to
enable it.
802.1p Priority
This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag.
See Priority Queue Assignment in Table 10 on page 74 for more information.
BPDU Control
Configure the way to treat BPDUs received on this port. You must activate bridging
control protocol transparency in the Switch Setup screen first.
Select Peer to process any BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) received on this port.
Select Tunnel to forward BPDUs received on this port.
Select Discard to drop any BPDU received on this port.
Select Network to process a BPDU with no VLAN tag and forward a tagged BPDU.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
80
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
P ART III
Advanced
VLAN (83)
Static MAC Forward Setup (95)
Filtering (97)
Spanning Tree Protocol (99)
Bandwidth Control (117)
Broadcast Storm Control (119)
Mirroring (121)
Link Aggregation (123)
Port Authentication (131)
Port Security (137)
Classifier (141)
Policy Rule (147)
Queuing Method (153)
Multicast (155)
Authentication & Accounting (169)
IP Source Guard (183)
Loop Guard (203)
Two Rate Three Color Marker (207)
81
82
CHAPTER
8
VLAN
The type of screen you see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup
screen. This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs.
8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN
membership of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were
created. The VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The
VLAN ID associates a frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches
need to process the frame across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an
untagged frame and contains two bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing within the
type/length field of the Ethernet frame) and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control Information, starts
after the source address field of the Ethernet frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet
switches. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not
be forwarded as it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID,
giving a possible maximum number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID
are independent of each other. A frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a
priority frame, meaning that only the priority level is significant and the default VID of the
ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to
identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN
configurations are 4,094.
TPID
2 Bytes
User Priority
3 Bits
CFI
1 Bit
VLAN ID
12 bits
8.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame
from an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first
decides where to forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from
an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides
where to forward the frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default
VID. The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.
A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is
duplicated only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus
confining the broadcast to a specific domain.
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Chapter 8 VLAN
8.2 Automatic VLAN Registration
GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across
switches.
8.2.1 GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and deregister attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a
protocol that provides a generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific
application, for example, GVRP.
8.2.1.1 GARP Timers
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join
message using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All
message terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
8.2.2 GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this
function to permit VLANs groups beyond the local Switch.
Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.
Table 13 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology
VLAN PARAMETER TERM
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Permanent VLAN
This is a static VLAN created manually.
Dynamic VLAN
This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/
deregistration process.
Registration Fixed
Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Registration
Forbidden
Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the
specified VLAN.
Normal Registration
Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
Tagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing
frames transmitted.
Untagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all
outgoing frames transmitted.
Port VID
This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that
this port received.
Acceptable Frame
Type
You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged
incoming frames, just tagged incoming frames or just
untagged incoming frames on a port.
Ingress filtering
If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs
that do not have this port as a member
VLAN Administrative
Control
VLAN Tag Control
VLAN Port
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Chapter 8 VLAN
8.3 Port VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to
pass through that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices
without having to configure the same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
Refer to the following figure. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2)
on devices A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on
all intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN
group tags. However, with VLAN Trunking enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch
you only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically
allow frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those
switches) to pass through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Figure 34 Port VLAN Trunking
8.4 Select the VLAN Type
Select a VLAN type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
Figure 35 Switch Setup > Select VLAN Type
8.5 Static VLAN
Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be
• sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.
• sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
• blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.
You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the
specified VID.
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Chapter 8 VLAN
8.5.1 Static VLAN Status
See Section 8.1 on page 83 for more information on Static VLAN. Click Advanced
Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown
next.
Figure 36 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
The Number of
VLAN
This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
Index
This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN
details.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN
screen.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a
static VLAN was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch; dynamic - using GVRP,
static - added as a permanent entry or other - added in another way such as via
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR).
Change Pages
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information
cannot be seen in one screen.
8.5.2 VLAN Details
Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. See Section 8.1
on page 83 for more information on static VLAN. Click on an index number in the VLAN
Status screen to display VLAN details.
Figure 37 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status
Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN
screen.
Port Number
This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is
marked as T, an untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN
are marked as “–“.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a
static VLAN was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch; dynamic - using GVRP,
static - added as a permanent entry or other - added in another way such as via
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR).
8.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
Use this screen to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. See Section
8.1 on page 83 for more information on static VLAN. To configure a static VLAN, click Static
VLAN in the VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 38 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
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The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 16 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE
Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes. This name
consists of up to 64 printable characters.
VLAN Group ID
Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Control
Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is
the default selection.
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging
Select TX Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with
this VLAN Group ID.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the
VLAN settings.
Active
This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
8.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
Use the VLAN Port Setting screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a
port. See Section 8.1 on page 83 for more information on static VLAN. Click the VLAN Port
Setting link in the VLAN Status screen.
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Figure 39 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a
way for switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the
network.
Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local Switch.
Port Isolation
Port Isolation allows each port to communicate only with the CPU management
port and the dual personality GbE interfaces but not communicate with each other.
This option is the most limiting but also the most secure.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Ingress Check
If this check box is selected for a port, the Switch discards incoming frames for
VLANs that do not include this port in its member set.
Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.
PVID
Enter a number between 1and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.
GVRP
Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable
Frame Type
Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All and Tag Only.
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on
this port. This is the default setting.
Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will
be dropped.
VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not
ports directly connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN
groups to pass through the Switch.
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Table 17 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.6 Subnet Based VLANs
Subnet based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP
subnet you specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added
already and the IP subnet it came from. The untagged packets from the same IP subnet are then
placed in the same subnet based VLAN. One advantage of using subnet based VLANs is that
priority can be assigned to traffic from the same IP subnet.
For example, an ISP (Internet Services Provider) may divide different types of services it
provides to customers into different IP subnets. Traffic for voice services is designated for IP
subnet 172.16.1.0/24, video for 192.168.1.0/24 and data for 10.1.1.0/24. The Switch can then
be configured to group incoming traffic based on the source IP subnet of incoming frames.
You configure a subnet based VLAN with priority 6 and VID of 100 for traffic received from
IP subnet 172.16.1.0/24 (voice services). You also have a subnet based VLAN with priority 5
and VID of 200 for traffic received from IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 (video services). Lastly,
you configure VLAN with priority 3 and VID of 300 for traffic received from IP subnet
10.1.1.0/24 (data services). All untagged incoming frames will be classified based on their
source IP subnet and prioritized accordingly. That is video services receive the highest priority
and data the lowest.
Figure 40 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example
Tagged Frames
Internet
Untagged
Frames
172.16.1.0/24
VID = 100
90
192.168.1.0/24
VID = 200
10.1.1.0/24
VID = 300
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8.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN
Click Subnet Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration
screen as shown.
"
Subnet based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when
you use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
Figure 41 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this subnet based VLANs on the Switch.
DHCP-Vlan
Override
When DHCP snooping is enabled DHCP clients can renew their IP address through
the DHCP VLAN or via another DHCP server on the subnet based VLAN.
Select this checkbox to force the DHCP clients in this IP subnet to obtain their IP
addresses through the DHCP VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Active
Check this box to activate the IP subnet VLAN you are creating or editing.
Name
Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this subnet based VLAN.
IP
Enter the IP address of the subnet for which you want to configure this subnet based
VLAN.
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Table 18 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mask-Bits
Enter the bit number of the subnet mask. To find the bit number, convert the subnet
mask to binary format and add all the 1’s together. Take “255.255.255.0” for example.
255 converts to eight 1s in binary. There are three 255s, so add three eights together
and you get the bit number (24).
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the IP subnet specified in
this subnet based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you
defined in the Advanced Applications, VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch assigns to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this subnet based VLAN. Click on any of these
numbers to edit an existing subnet based VLAN.
Active
This field shows whether the subnet based VLAN is active or not.
Name
This field shows the name the subnet based VLAN.
IP
This field shows the IP address of the subnet for this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
This field shows the subnet mask in bit number format for this subnet based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this subnet based VLAN.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this subnet
based VLAN.
Delete
Click this to delete the subnet based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.8 Port-based VLAN Setup
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the
destination MAC address and its associated port.
Port-based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if
you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference
rooms in a hotel, you must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port
through which a data packet leaves) for both ports.
Port-based VLANs are specific only to the Switch on which they were created.
"
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When you activate port-based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1.
You cannot change it.
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"
In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter
1 as the VID.
The port-based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN
with all Ethernet ports.
8.8.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN
Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen and then
click Advanced Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the next screen.
Figure 42 Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected)
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Figure 43 Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Port Based VLAN Setup
label
Description
Setting Wizard Choose All connected or Port isolation.
All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no
virtual LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most
flexible but also the least secure.
Port isolation means that each port can only communicate with the CPU
management port and cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are
selected while only the CPU outgoing port is selected. This option is the most limiting
but also the most secure.
After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens
as mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting
incoming or outgoing ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
94
Incoming
These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through
which a data packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each
other, you must define the ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row
denote the incoming port for the corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing
port). CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot
be managed from that port.
Outgoing
These are the egress ports; an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through
which a data packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each
other, you must define the egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch
management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form
a VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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9
Static MAC Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.
9.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices
on your network.
9.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table.
Static MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are
setting static MAC addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.
Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allow only computers in the MAC
address table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 17 on page 137 for more information
on port security.
Click Advanced Applications > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display
the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 44 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address
forwarding rule.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal
character pairs.
Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.
96
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port
Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be
automatically forwarded.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
rule if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active
This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or
not (No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN
identification number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port
This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be
forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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10
Filtering
This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.
10.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
Filtering means sifting traffic going through the Switch based on the source and/or destination
MAC addresses and VLAN group (ID).
Click Advanced Application > Filtering in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown next.
Figure 45 Advanced Application > Filtering
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 21 Advanced Application > FIltering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate
a rule without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for
identification only.
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Table 21 Advanced Application > FIltering (continued)
98
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Action
Select Discard source to drop the frames from the source MAC address (specified in
the MAC field). The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.
Select Discard destination to drop the frames to the destination MAC address
(specified in the MAC address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the
MAC address.
Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC
address specified in the MAC field.
MAC
Type a MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character
pairs.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose
only.
MAC
Address
This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification
number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
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11
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined in the following standards.
• IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be
assigned to the trees.
11.1 STP/RSTP Overview
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches,
bridges or routers. It allows a switch to interact with other (R)STP -compliant switches in your
network to ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster
convergence of the spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STPonly aware bridges). In RSTP, topology change information is directly propagated throughout
the network from the device that generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is
required as the device that causes a topology change first notifies the root bridge that then
notifies the network. Both RSTP and STP flush unwanted learned addresses from the filtering
database. In RSTP, the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
"
In this user’s guide, “STP” refers to both STP and RSTP.
11.1.1 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.
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Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. The recommended
cost is assigned according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the
media, the higher the cost.
Table 22 STP Path Costs
LINK
SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path
Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root.
It is the port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is
no root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree
network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the
root among the bridges connected to the LAN.
11.1.2 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and
the ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that
participate in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports,
eliminating any possible network loops.
STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the
bridged LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs
(Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello
BPDU after a predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root
bridge is down. This bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the
network to re-establish a valid network topology.
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11.1.3 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go
directly from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.
Table 23 STP Port States
PORT STATE DESCRIPTION
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the
learning process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and
forwarded.
11.1.4 Multiple RSTP
MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is ZyXEL’s proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and
STP. With MRSTP, you can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign
port(s) to each tree. Each spanning tree operates independently with its own bridge
information.
In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch
A.
To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which
spanning tree.
"
Each port can belong to one STP tree only.
Figure 46 MRSTP Network Example
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11.1.5 Multiple STP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) is backward compatible with STP/RSTP and
addresses the limitations of existing spanning tree protocols (STP and RSTP) in networks to
include the following features:
• One Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that represents the entire network’s
connectivity.
• Grouping of multiple bridges (or switching devices) into regions that appear as one single
bridge on the network.
• A VLAN can be mapped to a specific Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTI
allows multiple VLANs to use the same spanning tree.
• Load-balancing is possible as traffic from different VLANs can use distinct paths in a
region.
11.1.5.1 MSTP Network Example
The following figure shows a network example where two VLANs are configured on the two
switches. If the switches are using STP or RSTP, the link for VLAN 2 will be blocked as STP
and RSTP allow only one link in the network and block the redundant link.
Figure 47 STP/RSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
With MSTP, VLANs 1 and 2 are mapped to different spanning trees in the network. Thus
traffic from the two VLANs travel on different paths. The following figure shows the network
example using MSTP.
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Figure 48 MSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
11.1.5.2 MST Region
An MST region is a logical grouping of multiple network devices that appears as a single
device to the rest of the network. Each MSTP-enabled device can only belong to one MST
region. When BPDUs enter an MST region, external path cost (of paths outside this region) is
increased by one. Internal path cost (of paths within this region) is increased by one when
BPDUs traverse the region.
Devices that belong to the same MST region are configured to have the same MSTP
configuration identification settings. These include the following parameters:
• Name of the MST region
• Revision level as the unique number for the MST region
• VLAN-to-MST Instance mapping
11.1.5.3 MST Instance
An MST Instance (MSTI) is a spanning tree instance. VLANs can be configured to run on a
specific MSTI. Each created MSTI is identified by a unique number (known as an MST ID)
known internally to a region. Thus an MSTI does not span across MST regions.
The following figure shows an example where there are two MST regions. Regions 1 and 2
have 2 spanning tree instances.
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Figure 49 MSTIs in Different Regions
11.1.5.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST)
A CIST represents the connectivity of the entire network and it is equivalent to a spanning tree
in an STP/RSTP. The CIST is the default MST instance (MSTID 0). Any VLANs that are not
members of an MST instance are members of the CIST. In an MSTP-enabled network, there is
only one CIST that runs between MST regions and single spanning tree devices. A network
may contain multiple MST regions and other network segments running RSTP.
Figure 50 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example
11.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen
The Spanning Tree Protocol status screen changes depending on what standard you choose to
implement on your network. Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol to see
the screen as shown.
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Figure 51 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
This screen differs depending on which STP mode (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you configure
on the Switch. This screen is described in detail in the section that follows the configuration
section for each STP mode. Click Configuration to activate one of the STP standards on the
Switch.
11.3 Spanning Tree Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen to activate one of the STP modes on the
Switch. Click Configuration in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol.
Figure 52 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Spanning Tree
Mode
You can activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Select Rapid Spanning Tree, Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree or Multiple
Spanning Tree. See Section 11.1 on page 99 for background information on STP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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11.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information
on RSTP. Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
Figure 53 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 54 on page 108).
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.
Note: You must also activate Rapid Spanning Tree in the
Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol >
Configuration screen to enable RSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
106
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port.
The switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root
switch. If all switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list
box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time,
Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
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Table 25 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to
10 seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
BPDU before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated
ports) should receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP
information (provided in the last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the
attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the Switch
ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states.
This delay is required because every switch must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30
seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a
loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The
allowed range is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The
slower the media, the higher the cost - see Table 22 on page 100 for more
information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
11.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information on RSTP.
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"
This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.
Figure 54 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click RSTP
to edit RSTP settings on the Switch.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a
configuration message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that
is, listening to learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
108
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
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11.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MRSTP, click MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree
Protocol screen. See Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information on MRSTP.
Figure 55 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 54 on page 108).
Tree
This is a read only index number of the STP trees.
Active
Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an
STP tree.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree in the
Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol >
Configuration screen to enable MRSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port.
The switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root
switch. If all switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list
box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time,
Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to
10 seconds.
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Table 27 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
BPDU before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated
ports) should receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP
information (provided in the last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the
attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the Switch
ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states.
This delay is required because every switch must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30
seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a
loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The
allowed range is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The
slower the media, the higher the cost - see Table 22 on page 100 for more
information.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
11.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Section 11.1 on page 99 for more information on MRSTP.
"
110
This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.
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Figure 56 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click
MRSTP to edit MRSTP settings on the Switch.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a
configuration message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that
is, listening to learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
11.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MSTP, click MSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
screen. See Section 11.1.5 on page 102 for more information on MSTP.
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Figure 57 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MSTP Status screen (see Figure 58 on page 115).
Active
Select this check box to activate MSTP on the Switch. Clear this checkbox to
disable MSTP on the Switch.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Spanning Tree in the
Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol >
Configuration screen to enable MSTP on the Switch.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to
10 seconds.
MaxAge
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
BPDU before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated
ports) should receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP
information (provided in the last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the
attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the Switch
ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states.
This delay is required because every switch must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30
seconds. As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Maximum hops
Enter the number of hops (between 1 and 255) in an MSTP region before the
BPDU is discarded and the port information is aged.
Configuration
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters) of an MST region.
Revision Number
Enter a number to identify a region’s configuration. Devices must have the same
revision number to belong to the same region.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
Use this section to configure MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) settings.
Instance
Enter the number you want to use to identify this MST instance on the Switch. The
Switch supports instance numbers 0-16.
Bridge Priority
Set the priority of the Switch for the specific spanning tree instance. The lower the
number, the more likely the Switch will be chosen as the root bridge within the
spanning tree instance.
Enter priority values between 0 and 61440 in increments of 4096 (thus valid values
are 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960,
45056, 49152, 53248, 57344 and 61440).
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Table 29 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Range
Enter the start of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove from the
VLAN range edit area in the Start field. Enter the end of the VLAN ID range that
you want to add or remove from the VLAN range edit area in the End field.
Next click:
• Add - to add this range of VLAN(s) to be mapped to the MST instance.
• Remove - to remove this range of VLAN(s) from being mapped to the MST
instance.
• Clear - to remove all VLAN(s) from being mapped to this MST instance.
Enabled VLAN(s)
This field displays which VLAN(s) are mapped to this MST instance.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to add this port to the MST instance.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a
loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The
allowed range is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The
slower the media, the higher the cost - see Table 22 on page 100 for more
information.
Add
Click Add to save this MST instance to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses this change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
This field displays the ID of an MST instance.
VLAN
This field displays the VID (or VID ranges) to which the MST instance is mapped.
Active Port
This field display the ports configured to participate in the MST instance.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
11.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Section 11.1.5 on page 102 for more information on
MSTP.
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"
This screen is only available after you activate MSTP on the Switch.
Figure 58 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MSTP
to edit MSTP settings on the Switch.
CST
This section describes the Common Spanning Tree settings.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a
configuration message.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
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Table 30 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (continued)
116
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that
is, listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Configuration
Name
This field displays the configuration name for this MST region.
Revision Number
This field displays the revision number for this MST region.
Configuration
Digest
A configuration digest is generated from the VLAN-MSTI mapping information.
This field displays the 16-octet signature that is included in an MSTP BPDU. This
field displays the digest when MSTP is activated on the system.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Instance:
These fields display the MSTI to VLAN mapping. In other words, which VLANs run
on each spanning tree instance.
Instance
This field displays the MSTI ID.
VLAN
This field displays which VLANs are mapped to an MSTI.
MSTI
Select the MST instance settings you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the MST instance. Our Bridge is this switch. This
Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Internal Cost
This is the path cost from the root port in this MST instance to the regional root
switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the MST instance.
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CHAPTER
12
Bandwidth Control
This chapter shows you how you can cap the maximum bandwidth using the Bandwidth
Control screen.
12.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for incoming and/or outgoing traffic flows on a port.
12.1.1 CIR and PIR
The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is the guaranteed bandwidth for the incoming traffic
flow on a port. The Peak Information Rate (PIR) is the maximum bandwidth allowed for the
incoming traffic flow on a port when there is no network congestion.
The CIR and PIR should be set for all ports that use the same uplink bandwidth. If the CIR is
reached, packets are sent at the rate up to the PIR. When network congestion occurs, packets
through the ingress port exceeding the CIR will be marked for drop.
"
The CIR should be less than the PIR. The sum of CIRs cannot be greater than
or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
12.2 Bandwidth Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control in the navigation panel to bring up the
screen as shown next.
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Chapter 12 Bandwidth Control
Figure 59 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 31 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable bandwidth control on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Ingress Rate
118
Active
Select this check box to activate commit rate limits on this port.
Commit
Rate
Specify the guaranteed bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the
incoming traffic flow on a port. The commit rate should be less than the peak rate. The
sum of commit rates cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
Active
Select this check box to activate peak rate limits on this port.
Peak
Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming
traffic flow on a port.
Active
Select this check box to activate egress rate limits on this port.
Egress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the outgoing traffic flow on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
13
Broadcast Storm Control
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.
13.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup
failure (DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum
number of allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the
subsequent packets are discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or
DLF packets in your network. You can specify limits for each packet type on each port.
Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display
the screen as shown next.
Figure 60 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
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Chapter 13 Broadcast Storm Control
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check
box to disable this feature.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Broadcast (pkt/s) Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per
second.
120
Multicast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per
second.
DLF (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets
the port receives per second.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
14
Mirroring
This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.
14.1 Port Mirroring Setup
Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic
to) in order that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.
Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring
screen. Use this screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the
monitor port.
Figure 61 Advanced Application > Mirroring
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Chapter 14 Mirroring
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Advanced Application > Mirroring
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable the feature.
Monitor
Port
The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail
without interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Enter the port number of the
monitor port.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
122
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box.
Choices are Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
15
Link Aggregation
This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higherbandwidth link.
15.1 Link Aggregation Overview
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity
link. You may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed
links than to under-utilize a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link.
However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer available ports you have. A trunk group
is one logical link containing multiple ports.
The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.
The Switch supports both static and dynamic link aggregation.
"
In a properly planned network, it is recommended to implement static link
aggregation only. This ensures increased network stability and control over the
trunk groups on your Switch.
See Section 15.6 on page 128 for a static port trunking example.
15.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation
The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port
trunking.
The Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE802.3ad standard. This standard describes the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), which is a protocol that dynamically creates and
manages trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with
the ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port
redundancy, that is, if an operational port fails, then one of the “standby” ports become
operational without user intervention. Please note that:
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Chapter 15 Link Aggregation
• You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the
ports for LACP trunking.
• LACP only works on full-duplex links.
• All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and
flow control settings.
Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing
network topology loops.
15.2.1 Link Aggregation ID
LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information1:
Table 34 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
0000
00
0000
SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
0000
00
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
Table 35 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch
00-00-00-00-00-00
15.3 Link Aggregation Status
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link
Aggregation Status screen displays by default. See Section 15.1 on page 123 for more
information.
Figure 62 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the trunk ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link
containing multiple ports.
Enabled Port
These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the
trunk group.
1.
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Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.
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Table 36 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Synchronized
Ports
These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk
group.
Aggregator ID
Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port
priority and port number. Refer to Section 15.2.1 on page 124 for more information on
this field.
Status
This field displays how these ports were added to the trunk group. It displays:
• Static - if the ports are configured as static members of a trunk group.
• LACP - if the ports are configured to join a trunk group via LACP.
15.4 Link Aggregation Setting
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting to display
the screen shown next. See Section 15.1 on page 123 for more information on link
aggregation.
Figure 63 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
Aggregation
Setting
This is the only screen you need to configure to enable static link aggregation.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
Active
Select this option to activate a trunk group.
Port
This field displays the port number.
Group
Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP to
display the screen shown next. See Section 15.2 on page 123 for more information on dynamic
link aggregation.
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Figure 64 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
LABEL
Link
Aggregation
Control
Protocol
DESCRIPTION
Note: Do not configure this screen unless you want to enable
dynamic link aggregation.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System
Priority
LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest
system priority (and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the
LACP “server”. The LACP “server” controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a
number to set the priority of an active port using Link Aggregation Control Protocol
(LACP). The smaller the number, the higher the priority level.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
LACP Active
Select this option to enable LACP for a trunk.
Port
This field displays the port number.
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Table 38 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
LACP Timeout Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in
order to check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond
after three tries, then it is deemed to be “down” and is removed from the trunk. Set a
short timeout (one second) for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are
removed from the trunk group as soon as possible.
Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.6 Static Trunking Example
This example shows you how to create a static port trunk group for ports 2-5.
1 Make your physical connections - make sure that the ports that you want to belong to
the trunk group are connected to the same destination. The following figure shows ports
2-5 on switch A connected to switch B.
Figure 65 Trunking Example - Physical Connections
B
A
2 Configure static trunking - Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link
Aggregation Setting. In this screen activate trunking group T1 and select the ports that
should belong to this group as shown in the figure below. Click Apply when you are
done.
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Figure 66 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen
Your trunk group 1 (T1) configuration is now complete; you do not need to go to any
additional screens.
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CHAPTER
16
Port Authentication
This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1x and MAC authentication methods.
16.1 Port Authentication Overview
Port authentication is a way to validate access to ports on the Switch to clients based on an
external server (authentication server). The Switch supports the following methods for port
authentication:
• IEEE 802.1x2 - An authentication server validates access to a port based on a username
and password provided by the user.
• MAC - An authentication server validates access to a port based on the MAC address and
password of the client.
Both types of authentication use the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service,
RFC 2138, 2139) protocol to validate users. See Section 22.1.2 on page 170 for more
information on configuring your RADIUS server settings.
"
If you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication and MAC authentication on the same
port, the Switch performs IEEE 802.1x authentication first. If a user fails to
authenticate via the IEEE 802.1x method, then access to the port is denied.
16.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication
The following figure illustrates how a client connecting to a IEEE 802.1x authentication
enabled port goes through a validation process. The Switch prompts the client for login
information in the form of a user name and password. When the client provides the login
credentials, the Switch sends an authentication request to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server validates whether this client is allowed access to the port.
2.
At the time of writing, IEEE 802.1x is not supported by all operating systems. See your operating system
documentation. If your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client
software.
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Chapter 16 Port Authentication
Figure 67 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Login Info Request
3
Login Credentials
4
Authentication Request
5
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
16.1.2 MAC Authentication
MAC authentication works in a very similar way to IEEE 802.1x authentication. The main
difference is that the Switch does not prompt the client for login credentials. The login
credentials are based on the source MAC address of the client connecting to a port on the
Switch along with a password configured specifically for MAC authentication on the Switch.
Figure 68 MAC Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Authentication Request
3
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
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Chapter 16 Port Authentication
16.2 Port Authentication Configuration
To enable port authentication, first activate the port authentication method(s) you want to use
(both on the Switch and the port(s)) then configure the RADIUS server settings in the Auth
and Acct > Radius Server Setup screen.
Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 69 Advanced Application > Port Authentication
16.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. In the Port Authentication screen click
802.1x to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 70 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch
before configuring it on each port.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first
allow 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Reauthentication
Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and
password to stay connected to the port.
Reauthentication
Timer
Specify how often a client has to re-enter his or her username and password to stay
connected to the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
16.2.2 Activate MAC Authentication
Use this screen to activate MAC authentication. In the Port Authentication screen click
MAC Authentication to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 71 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable MAC authentication on the Switch
before configuring it on each port.
Name Prefix
Type the prefix that is appended to all MAC addresses sent to the RADIUS server
for authentication. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
If you leave this field blank, then only the MAC address of the client is forwarded to
the RADIUS server.
Password
Type the password the Switch sends along with the MAC address of a client for
authentication with the RADIUS server. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII
characters.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time before the Switch allows a client MAC address that fails
authentication to try and authenticate again. Maximum time is 3000 seconds.
When a client fails MAC authentication, its MAC address is learned by the MAC
address table with a status of denied. The timeout period you specify here is the
time the MAC address entry stays in the MAC address table until it is cleared. If you
specify 0 for the timeout value, then this entry will not be deleted from the MAC
address table.
Note: If the Aging Time in the Switch Setup screen is set to a
lower value, then it supersedes this setting. See Section 7.5
on page 73.
Port
This field displays the port number.
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Table 40 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then
make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
136
Active
Select this checkbox to permit MAC authentication on this port. You must first allow
MAC authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
17
Port Security
This chapter shows you how to set up port security.
17.1 About Port Security
Port security allows only packets with dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured
static MAC addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. The Switch can learn up to 16K
MAC addresses in total with no limit on individual ports other than the sum cannot exceed
16K.
For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and configure
static MAC address(es) for a port. It is not recommended you disable port security together
with MAC address learning as this will result in many broadcasts. By default, MAC address
learning is still enabled even though the port security is not activated.
17.2 Port Security Setup
Click Advanced Application > Port Security in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Chapter 17 Port Security
Figure 72 Advanced Application > Port Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Advanced Application > Port Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable port security on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
138
Active
Select this check box to enable the port security feature on this port. The Switch
forwards packets whose MAC address(es) is in the MAC address table on this port.
Packets with no matching MAC address(es) are dropped.
Clear this check box to disable the port security feature. The Switch forwards all
packets on this port.
Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. For MAC address
learning to occur on a port, the port itself must be active with address learning
enabled.
Limited Number
of Learned
MAC Address
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned
on a port. For example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with
these five learned MAC addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device
would have to wait until one of the five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC
address aging out time can be set in the Switch Setup screen. The valid range is
from “0” to “16384”. “0” means this feature is disabled.
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Table 41 Advanced Application > Port Security (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
18
Classifier
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch.
18.1 About the Classifier and QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay,
and the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data
is equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in
network performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as
video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source
address, destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port
number. For example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol
port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:
1 Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2 Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed on a classified traffic flow (refer
to Chapter 19 on page 147 to configure policy rules).
18.2 Configuring the Classifier
Use the Classifier screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can
specify actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy
rules, refer to Chapter 19 on page 147.
Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration
screen as shown.
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Figure 73 Advanced Application > Classifier
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Advanced Application > Classifier
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Packet
Format
Specify the format of the packet. Choices are All, 802.3 tagged, 802.3 untagged,
Ethernet II tagged and Ethernet II untagged.
A value of 802.3 indicates that the packets are formatted according to the IEEE 802.3
standards.
A value of Ethernet II indicates that the packets are formatted according to RFC 894,
Ethernet II encapsulation.
Layer 2
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 2 classifier.
142
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN or select the second option and specify the
source VLAN ID in the field provided.
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify
a priority level in the field provided.
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Table 42 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ethernet
Type
Select an Ethernet type or select Other and enter the Ethernet type number in
hexadecimal value. Refer to Table 44 on page 144 for information.
Source
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a source, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC
address format (six hexadecimal character pairs).
Port
Type the port number to which the rule should be applied. You may choose one port only
or all ports (Any).
Destination
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a destination, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC
address format (six hexadecimal character pairs).
Layer 3
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 3 classifier.
DSCP
Select Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select the second option and specify a
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
IP
Protocol
Select an IP protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value.
Refer to Table 45 on page 145 for more information.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick
out the packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.
Source
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Socket
Number
Enter a source IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
A subnet mask can be represented in a 32-bit notation. For example, the subnet mask
“255.255.255.0” can be represented as “11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000”, and
counting up the number of ones in this case results in 24.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before
you configure the socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second
option and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 46 on page 145 for
more information.
Destination
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Socket
Number
Enter a destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before
you configure the socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second
option and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 46 on page 145 for
more information.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
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Table 42 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
18.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the
bottom of the Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index
field.
"
When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over
lower layer rule.
Figure 74 Advanced Application > Classifier: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Classifier: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol
number.
Table 44 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Numbers
144
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
IP ETHII
0800
X.75 Internet
0801
NBS Internet
0802
ECMA Internet
0803
Chaosnet
0804
X.25 Level 3
0805
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Table 44 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Numbers
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
XNS Compat
0807
Banyan Systems
0BAD
BBN Simnet
5208
IBM SNA
80D5
AppleTalk AARP
80F3
In the Internet Protocol there is a field, called “Protocol”, to identify the next level protocol.
The following table shows some common protocol types and the corresponding protocol
number. Refer to http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers for a complete list.
Table 45 Common IP Protocol Types and Protocol Numbers
PROTOCOL TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
ICMP
1
TCP
6
UDP
17
EGP
8
L2TP
115
Some of the most common TCP and UDP port numbers are:
Table 46 Common TCP and UDP Port Numbers
PROTOCOL NAME
TCP/UDP PORT NUMBER
FTP
21
Telnet
23
SMTP
25
DNS
53
HTTP
80
POP3
110
See Appendix B on page 293 for information on commonly used port numbers.
18.4 Classifier Example
The following screen shows an example where you configure a classifier that identifies all
traffic from MAC address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.
After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy (in the Policy screen) to
define action(s) on the classified traffic flow.
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Figure 75 Classifier: Example
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CHAPTER
19
Policy Rule
This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.
19.1 Policy Rules Overview
A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter
18 on page 141 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the
requested treatment in the network.
19.1.1 DiffServ
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that
they receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route
based on the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points
(DSCPs) indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServcompliant network devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points
without the need to negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition,
applications do not have to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the
traffic is going.
19.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS)
field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which
can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to
the DSCP values and the configured policies.
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19.2 Configuring Policy Rules
You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 18.2 on page 141
for more information.
Click Advanced Applications > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Figure 76 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the policy.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.
Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one
classifier, press [SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
Parameters
Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you
configure in the Action field.
General
VLAN ID
Specify a VLAN ID number.
Egress Port
Type the number of an outgoing port.
Outgoing
packet
format for
Egress port
Select Tag to add the specified VID to packets on the specified outgoing port.
Otherwise, select Untag.
Priority
Specify a priority level.
DSCP
Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS
Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Metering
You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow. Traffic that
exceeds the maximum bandwidth allocated (in cases where the network is
congested) is called out-of-profile traffic.
Bandwidth
Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and
1000000.
Out-ofProfile
DSCP
Specify a new DSCP number (between 0 and 63) if you want to replace or remark the
DSCP number for out-of-profile traffic.
Action
Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
Forwarding
Select No change to forward the packets.
Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain
the frames that were marked to be dropped before.
Priority
Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.
Select Set the packet’s 802.1 priority to replace the packet’s 802.1 priority field with
the value you set in the Priority field.
Select Send the packet to priority queue to put the packets in the designated
queue.
Select Replace the 802.1 priority field with the IP TOS value to replace the
packet’s 802.1 priority field with the value you set in the TOS field.
Diffserv
Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Set the packet’s TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in
the TOS field.
Select Replace the IP TOS with the 802.1 priority value to replace the TOS field
with the value you configure in the Priority field.
Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the
value you configure in the DSCP field.
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Table 47 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Outgoing
Select Send the packet to the mirror port to send the packet to the mirror port.
Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.
Select Send the matching frames (broadcast or DLF, multicast, marked for
dropping or to be sent to the CPU) to the egress port to send the broadcast,
multicast, DLF, marked-to-drop or CPU frames to the egress port.
Select Set the packet’s VLAN ID to set the VLAN ID of the packet with the value you
configure in the VLAN ID field.
Metering
Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s) then set the
actions to be taken on out-of-profile packets.
Out-of-profile
action
Select the action(s) to be performed for out-of-profile traffic.
Select Drop the packet to discard the out-of-profile traffic.
Select Change the DSCP value to replace the DSCP field with the value specified in
the Out of profile DSCP field.
Select Set Out-Drop Precedence to mark out-of-profile traffic and drop it when
network is congested.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to
queue the frames that are marked to be dropped.
Add
Click Add to inset the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to
the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or
loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
19.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the
bottom of the Policy screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Figure 77 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table
150
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active
This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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19.4 Policy Example
The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit
bandwidth and discard out-of-profile traffic on a traffic flow classified using the Example
classifier (refer to Section 18.4 on page 145).
Figure 78 Policy Example
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CHAPTER
20
Queuing Method
This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.
20.1 Queuing Method Overview
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use
the Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also
Priority Queue Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related
information.
Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each
individual source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
20.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing
Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into
the Switch, traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue
empties, traffic on the next highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and
then traffic is transmitted on Q5 and so on. If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic
on lower priority queues never gets sent. SP does not automatically adapt to changing network
requirements.
20.1.2 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)
Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port
has more traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of
the incoming traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue
is given an equal amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on,
depending on the number of queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue
is empty.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin
scheduling, but services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you
configure in the queue Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is
activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in
that it divides any available bandwidth across the different traffic queues and returns to queues
that have not yet emptied.
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20.2 Configuring Queuing
Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.
Figure 79 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
154
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This label shows the port you are configuring.
Method
Select SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round Robin).
Strict Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. When the
highest priority queue empties, traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q7
has the highest priority and Q0 the lowest.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) services queues on a rotating basis
based on their queue weight (the number you configure in the queue Weight field).
Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with smaller weights.
Q0~Q7 Weight
When you select WRR, enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across
the different traffic queues according to their weights. Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
21
Multicast
This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.
21.1 Multicast Overview
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender to 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets
to just a group of hosts on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112, RFC
2236 and RFC 3376 for information on IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
21.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts
(multicast group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic
receiving group, not individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0
to 239.255.255.255) are used for IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by
IANA for special purposes (see the IANA web site for more information).
21.1.2 IGMP Filtering
With the IGMP filtering feature, you can control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port
can join. This allows you to control the distribution of multicast services (such as content
information distribution) based on service plans and types of subscription.
You can set the Switch to filter the multicast group join reports on a per-port basis by
configuring an IGMP filtering profile and associating the profile to a port.
21.1.3 IGMP Snooping
A Switch can passively snoop on IGMP packets transferred between IP multicast routers/
switches and IP multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures
multicasting accordingly. IGMP snooping allows the Switch to learn multicast groups without
you having to manually configure them.
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The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from
IGMP snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that
group. IGMP snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly
reduce multicast traffic passing through your Switch.
21.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs
The Switch can perform IGMP snooping on up to 16 VLANs. You can configure the Switch to
automatically learn multicast group membership of any VLANs. The Switch then performs
IGMP snooping on the first 16 VLANs that send IGMP packets. This is referred to as auto
mode. Alternatively, you can specify the VLANs that IGMP snooping should be performed
on. This is referred to as fixed mode. In fixed mode the Switch does not learn multicast group
membership of any VLANs other than those explicitly added as an IGMP snooping VLAN.
21.2 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen shows
the multicast group information. See Section 21.1 on page 155 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 80 Advanced Application > Multicast
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Advanced Application > Multicast Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
21.3 Multicast Setting
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting link to display the screen as
shown. See Section 21.1 on page 155 for more information on multicasting.
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Figure 81 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP Snooping
Use these settings to configure IGMP Snooping.
Active
Select Active to enable IGMP Snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to
ports that are members of that group.
Host Timeout
Specify the time (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch
removes an IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages
from the port.
Leave Timeout
Enter an IGMP leave timeout value (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds. This
defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing
an IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received
from a host.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing
IGMP control packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.
IGMP Filtering
Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber
on a port can join.
Note: If you enable IGMP filtering, you must create and assign
IGMP filtering profiles for the ports that you want to allow to
join multicast groups.
Unknown
Multicast Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast
frame. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s)
to all ports.
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Table 51 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Multicast Group
Multicast addresses (224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255) are reserved for the local scope.
For examples, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts in this subnet, 224.0.0.2 is for all multicast
routers in this subnet, etc. A router will not forward a packet with the destination IP
address within this range. See the IANA web site for more information.
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved
multicast address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send
the frame(s) to all ports.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use
this row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-byport basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as
you make them.
Immed. Leave
Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree
when an IGMP version 2 leave message is received on this port.
Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
Group Limited
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is
registered in the specified number of multicast groups, any new IGMP join report
frame(s) is dropped on this port.
IGMP Filtering
Profile
Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select
Default to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create IGMP filtering profiles in the Multicast > Multicast Setting >
IGMP Filtering Profile screen.
IGMP Querier
Mode
The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast
router (or server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP
query port.
Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port
receives IGMP query packets.
Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port.
Select this when you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.
Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The
Switch will not keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port.
The Switch does not forward IGMP join or leave packets to this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
21.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the Multicast
Setting link and then the IGMP Snooping VLAN link to display the screen as shown. See
Section 21.1.4 on page 156 for more information on IGMP Snooping VLAN.
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Figure 82 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select auto to have the Switch learn multicast group membership information of
any VLANs automatically.
Select fixed to have the Switch only learn multicast group membership
information of the VLAN(s) that you specify below.
In either auto or fixed mode, the Switch can learn up to 16 VLANs (including up to
three VLANs you configured in the MVR screen). For example, if you have
configured one multicast VLAN in the MVR screen, you can only specify up to 15
VLANs in this screen.
The Switch drops any IGMP control messages which do not belong to these 16
VLANs.
Note: You must also enable IGMP snooping in the Multicast
Setting screen first.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
Use this section of the screen to add VLANs upon which the Switch is to perform
IGMP snooping.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of the VLAN for identification purposes.
VID
Enter the ID of a static VLAN; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Note: You cannot configure the same VLAN ID as in the MVR
screen.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to
the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or
loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields.
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Table 52 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the number of the IGMP snooping VLAN entry in the table.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
21.5 IGMP Filtering Profile
An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the
Switch are able to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses which you want
clients to be able to join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the Multicast Setting screen).
Clients connected to those ports are then able to join the multicast groups specified in the
profile. Each port can be assigned a single profile. A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 83 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
160
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the
profile name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP addresses that
you want to belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IP address for a range of IP addresses that you want to
belong to the IGMP filter profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address
and End Address fields.
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Table 53 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click Add to save the profile to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that
you want to remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the
Delete Rule column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.
21.6 MVR Overview
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand
(MoD)) that use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on
the network. While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe
to and unsubscribe from the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves
bandwidth utilization with reduced multicast traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies
multicast group management.
MVR only responds to IGMP join and leave control messages from multicast groups that are
configured under MVR. Join and leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by
IGMP snooping.
The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3)
information is hidden from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN
information is only visible to the Switch and S.
Figure 84 MVR Network Example
21.6.1 Types of MVR Ports
In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the
Switch maintains a forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated
multicast group.
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21.6.2 MVR Modes
You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.
In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices
(such as multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices
to update the multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the
receiver ports.
In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must
manually configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.
21.6.3 How MVR Works
The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as
a computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the
Switch. Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on
the Switch.
When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the
Switch to join the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the
configured MVR multicast group addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the
forwarding table on the Switch. This maps the subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding
destinations for the specified multicast traffic.
When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is
sent to the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the
receiver port (in this case, a DSL port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device
connected to this port in the same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list
of forwarding destination for the multicast traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver
port from the forwarding table.
Figure 85 MVR Multicast Television Example
21.7 General MVR Configuration
Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source
port for each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast
Setting > MVR link to display the screen as shown next.
"
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You can create up to three multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on
the Switch.
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"
Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you
create a multicast VLAN in this screen.
Figure 86 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 54 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be
shared among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification
purposes.
Multicast VLAN
ID
Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing
IGMP control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).
Mode
Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.
Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports to all MVR source ports in the multicast
VLAN.
Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports.
Port
This field displays the port number on the Switch.
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Table 54 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Source Port
Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives
multicast traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port
Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast
traffic.
None
Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic
is sent or received on this port.
Tagging
Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Active
This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode
This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port
This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port
This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p
This field displays the priority level.
Delete
To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the
Delete column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
21.8 MVR Group Configuration
All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data
sent to this multicast group.
Configure MVR IP multicast group address(es) in the Group Configuration screen. Click
Group Configuration in the MVR screen.
"
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A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast
group addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.
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Figure 87 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast
VLAN ID
Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the dropdown list box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address
Enter the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal
notation.
Refer to Section 21.1.1 on page 155 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address
Enter the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one
IP address for a multicast group.
Refer to Section 21.1.1 on page 155 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MVLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address
This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address
This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
Delete
Select Delete Group and click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.
21.8.1 MVR Configuration Example
The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to
VLAN 1. In addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast
traffic (the News and Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers
A, B and C in VLAN are able to receive the traffic.
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Figure 88 MVR Configuration Example
To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast group in the MVR screen and
set the receiver and source ports.
Figure 89 MVR Configuration Example
To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast
group settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example
where two multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.
Figure 90 MVR Group Configuration Example
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Figure 91 MVR Group Configuration Example
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CHAPTER
22
Authentication & Accounting
This chapter describes how to configure authentication and accounting settings on the Switch.
22.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch.
The Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the
Switch itself. The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large
number of users
Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user
accounts may have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A
may have the right to create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch
can authorize users based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an
external server to authorize a large number of users.
Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external
server to track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also
record system related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.
The external servers that perform authentication, authorization and accounting functions are
known as AAA servers. The Switch supports RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service, see Section 22.1.2 on page 170) and TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller AccessControl System Plus, see Section 22.1.2 on page 170) as external authentication, authorization
and accounting servers.
Figure 92 AAA Server
Client
AAA Server
22.1.1 Local User Accounts
By storing user profiles locally on the Switch, your Switch is able to authenticate and
authorize users without interacting with a network AAA server. However, there is a limit on
the number of users you may authenticate in this way (See Chapter 28 on page 227).
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22.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+
RADIUS and TACACS+ are security protocols used to authenticate users by means of an
external server instead of (or in addition to) an internal device user database that is limited to
the memory capacity of the device. In essence, RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication both
allow you to validate an unlimited number of users from a central location.
The following table describes some key differences between RADIUS and TACACS+.
Table 56 RADIUS vs TACACS+
RADIUS
TACACS+
Transport
Protocol
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Encryption
Encrypts the password sent for
authentication.
All communication between the client (the
Switch) and the TACACS server is
encrypted.
22.2 Authentication and Accounting Screens
To enable authentication, accounting or both on the Switch. First, configure your
authentication server settings (RADIUS, TACACS+ or both) and then set up the
authentication priority and accounting settings.
Click Advanced Application > Auth and Acct in the navigation panel to display the screen
as shown.
Figure 93 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct
22.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See Section 22.1.2 on page 170 for
more information on RADIUS servers and Section 22.3 on page 178 for RADIUS attributes
utilized by the authentication and accounting features on the Switch. Click on the RADIUS
Server Setup link in the Authentication and Accounting screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 94 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple RADIUS servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured
RADIUS server, if the RADIUS server does not respond then the Switch tries to
authenticate with the second RADIUS server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the RADIUS servers that it sends
authentication requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication
request response from the RADIUS server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two
RADIUS servers then the timeout value is divided between the two RADIUS
servers. For example, if you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch
waits for a response from the first RADIUS server for 15 seconds and then tries the
second RADIUS server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not
change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the
network. This key must be the same on the external RADIUS server and the
Switch.
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Table 57 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > RADIUS Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS accounting server settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting
request response from the RADIUS accounting server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS server for accounting is 1813. You need not change
this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch. This key is not
sent over the network. This key must be the same on the external RADIUS
accounting server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS accounting server entry
from the Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your TACACS+ server settings. See Section 22.1.2 on page 170
for more information on TACACS+ servers. Click on the TACACS+ Server Setup link in the
Authentication and Accounting screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 95 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple TACACS+ servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured
TACACS+ server, if the TACACS+ server does not respond then the Switch tries to
authenticate with the second TACACS+ server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the TACACS+ servers that it sends
authentication requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication
request response from the TACACS+ server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two
TACACS+ servers then the timeout value is divided between the two TACACS+
servers. For example, if you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch
waits for a response from the first TACACS+ server for 15 seconds and then tries
the second TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ server for authentication is 49. You need not
change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
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Table 58 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > TACACS+ Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external TACACS+ server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the
network. This key must be the same on the external TACACS+ server and the
Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ accounting settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting
request response from the TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ server for accounting is 49. You need not change
this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch. This key is not
sent over the network. This key must be the same on the external TACACS+
accounting server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ accounting server entry
from the Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.2.3 Authentication and Accounting Setup
Use this screen to configure authentication and accounting settings on the Switch. Click on the
Auth and Acct Setup link in the Authentication and Accounting screen to view the screen
as shown.
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Figure 96 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Use this section to specify the methods used to authenticate users accessing the
Switch.
Privilege Enable
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third)
to authenticate access privilege level for administrator accounts (users for Switch
management).
Configure the access privilege of accounts via commands (See the CLI Reference
Guide) for local authentication. The TACACS+ and RADIUS are external servers.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate the access
privilege level of administrators. The Switch checks the methods in the order you
configure them (first Method 1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must
configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If you want the Switch to check other
sources for access privilege level specify them in Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the access privilege configured for local
authentication.
Select radius or tacacs+ to have the Switch check the access privilege via the
external servers.
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Table 59 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup (continued)
176
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Login
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third)
to authenticate administrator accounts (users for Switch management).
Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control > Logins screen. The
TACACS+ and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the priority, make
sure you have set up the corresponding database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate administrator
accounts. The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first
Method 1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in
the Method 1 field. If you want the Switch to check other sources for administrator
accounts, specify them in Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured in the
Access Control > Logins screen.
Select radius to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via
your RADIUS server.
Select tacacs+ to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via
your TACACS+ server.
Accounting
Use this section to configure accounting settings on the Switch.
Update Period
This is the amount of time in minutes before the Switch sends an update to the
accounting server. This is only valid if you select the start-stop option for the Exec
or Dot1x entries.
Type
The Switch supports the following types of events to be sent to the accounting
server(s):
• System - Configure the Switch to send information when the following system
events occur: system boots up, system shuts down, system accounting is
enabled, system accounting is disabled
• Exec - Configure the Switch to send information when an administrator logs in
and logs out via the console port, telnet or SSH.
• Dot1x - Configure the Switch to send information when an IEEE 802.1x client
begins a session (authenticates via the Switch), ends a session as well as
interim updates of a session.
• Commands - Configure the Switch to send information when commands of
specified privilege level and higher are executed on the Switch.
Active
Select this to activate accounting for a specified event types.
Broadcast
Select this to have the Switch send accounting information to all configured
accounting servers at the same time.
If you don’t select this and you have two accounting servers set up, then the Switch
sends information to the first accounting server and if it doesn’t get a response from
the accounting server then it tries the second accounting server.
Mode
The Switch supports two modes of recording login events. Select:
• start-stop - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server when
a user begins a session, during a user’s session (if it lasts past the Update
Period), and when a user ends a session.
• stop-only - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server only
when a user ends a session.
Method
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for accounting of specific
types of events.
TACACS+ is the only method for recording Commands type of event.
Privilege
This field is only configurable for Commands type of event. Select the threshold
command privilege level for which the Switch should send accounting information.
The Switch will send accounting information when commands at the level you
specify and higher are executed on the Switch.
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Table 59 Advanced Application > Auth and Acct > Auth and Acct Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
22.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute
RFC 2865 standard specifies a method for sending vendor-specific information between a
RADIUS server and a network access device (for example, the Switch). A company can create
Vendor Specific Attributes (VSAs) to expand the functionality of a RADIUS server.
The Switch supports VSAs that allow you to perform the following actions based on user
authentication:
• Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic for the port the user connects to.
• Assign account privilege levels (See Section 36.7 on page 280 for more information on
account privilege levels) for the authenticated user.
The VSAs are composed of the following:
• Vendor-ID: An identification number assigned to the company by the IANA (Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority). ZyXEL’s vendor ID is 890.
• Vendor-Type: A vendor specified attribute, identifying the setting you want to modify.
• Vendor-data: A value you want to assign to the setting.
"
Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to
configure VSAs for users authenticating via the RADIUS server.
The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch.
Table 60 Supported VSAs
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
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Table 60 Supported VSAs
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Egress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Privilege Assignment
Vendor-ID = 890
Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or
Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).
Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently
on the RADIUS server(s) and the Switch, the user is
assigned a privilege level from the database (RADIUS or
local) the Switch uses first for user authentication.
22.2.4.1 Tunnel Protocol Attribute
You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server (refer to your RADIUS
server documentation) to assign a port on the Switch to a VLAN based on IEEE 802.1x
authentication. The port VLAN settings are fixed and untagged. This will also set the port’s
VID. The following table describes the values you need to configure. Note that the bolded
values in the table are fixed values as defined in RFC 3580.
Table 61 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment
Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID
Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on
the Switch.
22.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) attributes are data used to define
specific authentication, and accounting elements in a user profile, which is stored on the
RADIUS server. This appendix lists the RADIUS attributes supported by the Switch.
Refer to RFC 2865 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for authentication.
Refer to RFC 2866 and RFC 2869 for RADIUS attributes used for accounting.
This section lists the attributes used by authentication and accounting functions on the Switch.
In cases where the attribute has a specific format associated with it, the format is specified.
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22.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
22.3.1.1 Attributes Used for Authenticating Privilege Access
User-Name
- the format of the User-Name attribute is $enab#$, where # is the privilege level (114)
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
22.3.1.2 Attributes Used to Login Users
User-Name
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
22.3.1.3 Attributes Used by the IEEE 802.1x Authentication
User-Name
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Port
NAS-Port-Type
- This value is set to Ethernet(15) on the Switch.
Calling-Station-Id
Frame-MTU
EAP-Message
State
Message-Authenticator
22.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
22.3.2.1 Attributes Used for Accounting System Events
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Identifier
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Session-ID
- The format of Acct-Session-Id is date+time+8-digit sequential number, for
example, 2007041917210300000001. (date: 2007/04/19, time: 17:21:03, serial
number: 00000001)
Acct-Delay-Time
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22.3.2.2 Attributes Used for Accounting Exec Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time that they are sent (the
difference between Console and Telnet/SSH Exec events is that the Telnet/SSH events utilize
the Calling-Station-Id attribute):
Table 62 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name
Y
Y
Y
NAS-Identifier
Y
Y
Y
NAS-IP-Address
Y
Y
Y
Service-Type
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Status-Type
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Delay-Time
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Id
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Authentic
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Y
Table 63 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Telnet/SSH
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name
Y
Y
Y
NAS-Identifier
Y
Y
Y
NAS-IP-Address
Y
Y
Y
Service-Type
Y
Y
Y
Calling-Station-Id
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Status-Type
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Delay-Time
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Id
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Authentic
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Y
22.3.2.3 Attributes Used for Accounting IEEE 802.1x Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time of the session they are sent:
Table 64 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
180
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name
Y
Y
Y
NAS-IP-Address
Y
Y
Y
NAS-Port
Y
Y
Y
Class
Y
Y
Y
Called-Station-Id
Y
Y
Y
Calling-Station-Id
Y
Y
Y
NAS-Identifier
Y
Y
Y
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Table 64 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
NAS-Port-Type
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Status-Type
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Delay-Time
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Id
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Authentic
Y
Y
Y
Acct-Input-Octets
Y
Y
Acct-Output-Octets
Y
Y
Acct-Session-Time
Y
Y
Acct-Input-Packets
Y
Y
Acct-Output-Packets
Y
Y
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Y
Acct-Input-Gigawords
Y
Y
Acct-Output-Gigawords
Y
Y
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CHAPTER
23
IP Source Guard
Use IP source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in your network.
23.1 IP Source Guard Overview
IP source guard uses a binding table to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized
DHCP and ARP packets in your network. A binding contains these key attributes:
•
•
•
•
MAC address
VLAN ID
IP address
Port number
When the Switch receives a DHCP or ARP packet, it looks up the appropriate MAC address,
VLAN ID, IP address, and port number in the binding table. If there is a binding, the Switch
forwards the packet. If there is not a binding, the Switch discards the packet.
The Switch builds the binding table by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from
information provided manually by administrators (static bindings).
IP source guard consists of the following features:
• Static bindings. Use this to create static bindings in the binding table.
• DHCP snooping. Use this to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to
build the binding table dynamically.
• ARP inspection. Use this to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network.
If you want to use dynamic bindings to filter unauthorized ARP packets (typical
implementation), you have to enable DHCP snooping before you enable ARP inspection.
23.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview
Use DHCP snooping to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the
binding table dynamically. This can prevent clients from getting IP addresses from
unauthorized DHCP servers.
23.1.1.1 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for DHCP snooping. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for ARP inspection. You can also specify the
maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can receive each
second.
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Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches. The Switch discards DHCP
packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high. The
Switch learns dynamic bindings from trusted ports.
"
The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and
there are no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers. The Switch discards DHCP packets from
untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
• The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the
current bindings.
• The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source
port do not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
23.1.1.2 DHCP Snooping Database
The Switch stores the binding table in volatile memory. If the Switch restarts, it loads static
bindings from permanent memory but loses the dynamic bindings, in which case the devices in
the network have to send DHCP requests again. As a result, it is recommended you configure
the DHCP snooping database.
The DHCP snooping database maintains the dynamic bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP
inspection in a file on an external TFTP server. If you set up the DHCP snooping database, the
Switch can reload the dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database after the Switch
restarts.
You can configure the name and location of the file on the external TFTP server. The file has
the following format:
Figure 97 DHCP Snooping Database File Format
<initial-checksum>
TYPE DHCP-SNOOPING
VERSION 1
BEGIN
<binding-1> <checksum-1>
<binding-2> <checksum-1-2>
...
...
<binding-n> <checksum-1-2-..-n>
END
The <initial-checksum> helps distinguish between the bindings in the latest update and the
bindings from previous updates. Each binding consists of 72 bytes, a space, and another
checksum that is used to validate the binding when it is read. If the calculated checksum is not
equal to the checksum in the file, that binding and all others after it are ignored.
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23.1.1.3 DHCP Relay Option 82 Information
The Switch can add information to DHCP requests that it does not discard. This provides the
DHCP server more information about the source of the requests. The Switch can add the
following information:
• Slot ID (1 byte), port ID (1 byte), and source VLAN ID (2 bytes)
• System name (up to 32 bytes)
This information is stored in an Agent Information field in the option 82 field of the DHCP
headers of client DHCP request frames. See Chapter 27 on page 219 for more information
about DHCP relay option 82.
When the DHCP server responds, the Switch removes the information in the Agent
Information field before forwarding the response to the original source.
You can configure this setting for each source VLAN. This setting is independent of the
DHCP relay settings (Chapter 27 on page 219).
23.1.1.4 Configuring DHCP Snooping
Follow these steps to configure DHCP snooping on the Switch.
1 Enable DHCP snooping on the Switch.
2 Enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN, and configure DHCP relay option 82.
3 Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of DHCP
packets that each port can receive per second.
4 Configure static bindings.
23.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview
Use ARP inspection to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network. This can prevent
many kinds of man-in-the-middle attacks, such as the one in the following example.
Figure 98 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack
A
X
B
In this example, computer B tries to establish a connection with computer A. Computer X is in
the same broadcast domain as computer A and intercepts the ARP request for computer A.
Then, computer X does the following things:
• It pretends to be computer A and responds to computer B.
• It pretends to be computer B and sends a message to computer A.
As a result, all the communication between computer A and computer B passes through
computer X. Computer X can read and alter the information passed between them.
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23.1.2.1 ARP Inspection and MAC Address Filters
When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC
address filter to block traffic from the source MAC address and source VLAN ID of the
unauthorized ARP packet. You can configure how long the MAC address filter remains in the
Switch.
These MAC address filters are different than regular MAC address filters (Chapter 10 on page
97).
• They are stored only in volatile memory.
• They do not use the same space in memory that regular MAC address filters use.
• They appear only in the ARP Inspection screens and commands, not in the MAC
Address Filter screens and commands.
23.1.2.2 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for ARP inspection. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping. You can also specify the
maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on untrusted ports.
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high.
23.1.2.3 Syslog
The Switch can send syslog messages to the specified syslog server (Chapter 31 on page 253)
when it forwards or discards ARP packets. The Switch can consolidate log messages and send
log messages in batches to make this mechanism more efficient.
23.1.2.4 Configuring ARP Inspection
Follow these steps to configure ARP inspection on the Switch.
1 Configure DHCP snooping. See Section 23.1.1.4 on page 185.
"
It is recommended you enable DHCP snooping at least one day before you
enable ARP inspection so that the Switch has enough time to build the binding
table.
2 Enable ARP inspection on each VLAN.
3 Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of ARP packets
that each port can receive per second.
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23.2 IP Source Guard
Use this screen to look at the current bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection.
Bindings are used by DHCP snooping and ARP inspection to distinguish between authorized
and unauthorized packets in the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP
packets (dynamic bindings) and from information provided manually by administrators (static
bindings). To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard.
Figure 99 IP Source Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 IP Source Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
Mac Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the
binding.
Lease
This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the
binding is valid; for example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for
2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes, and 5 seconds. This field displays infinity if the
binding is always valid (for example, a static binding).
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an
administrator.
dhcp-snooping: This binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the
binding applies to all ports.
23.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding
Use this screen to manage static bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Static
bindings are uniquely identified by the MAC address and VLAN ID. Each MAC address and
VLAN ID can only be in one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same
MAC address and VLAN ID as an existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the
original one. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static
Binding.
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Figure 100 IP Source Guard Static Binding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 IP Source Guard Static Binding
188
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
Enter the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
VLAN
Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the
first radio button and enter the port number in the field to the right. If this
binding applies to all ports, select Any.
Add
Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected static
binding or, if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the
binding.
Lease
This field displays how long the binding is valid.
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an
administrator.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the
binding applies to all ports.
Delete
Select this, and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
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23.4 DHCP Snooping
Use this screen to look at various statistics about the DHCP snooping database. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping.
Figure 101 DHCP Snooping
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Database Status
This section displays the current settings for the DHCP snooping
database. You can configure them in the DHCP Snooping Configure
screen. See Section 23.5 on page 192.
Agent URL
This field displays the location of the DHCP snooping database.
Write delay timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete a
specific update in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Abort timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch waits to update the
DHCP snooping database after the current bindings change.
This section displays information about the current update and the next
update of the DHCP snooping database.
Agent running
This field displays the status of the current update or access of the DHCP
snooping database.
none: The Switch is not accessing the DHCP snooping database.
read: The Switch is loading dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping
database.
write: The Switch is updating the DHCP snooping database.
Delay timer expiry
This field displays how much longer (in seconds) the Switch tries to
complete the current update before it gives up. It displays Not Running if
the Switch is not updating the DHCP snooping database right now.
Abort timer expiry
This field displays when (in seconds) the Switch is going to update the
DHCP snooping database again. It displays Not Running if the current
bindings have not changed since the last update.
This section displays information about the last time the Switch updated
the DHCP snooping database.
Last succeeded time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping
database successfully.
Last failed time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping
database unsuccessfully.
Last failed reason
This field displays the reason the Switch updated the DHCP snooping
database unsuccessfully.
This section displays historical information about the number of times the
Switch successfully or unsuccessfully read or updated the DHCP snooping
database.
190
Total attempts
This field displays the number of times the Switch has tried to access the
DHCP snooping database for any reason.
Startup failures
This field displays the number of times the Switch could not create or read
the DHCP snooping database when the Switch started up or a new URL is
configured for the DHCP snooping database.
Successful transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from or
updated the bindings in the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read
bindings from or update the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Successful reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from the
DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read
bindings from the DHCP snooping database.
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Table 67 DHCP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Successful writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch updated the bindings in
the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to update
the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Database detail
First successful access
This field displays the first time the Switch accessed the DHCP snooping
database for any reason.
Last ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the number of times and the reasons the Switch
ignored bindings the last time it read bindings from the DHCP binding
database. You can clear these counters by restarting the Switch or using
CLI commands. See the CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the
Switch already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the
port number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the
Switch was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding
database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the
lease time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the
VLAN ID does not exist anymore.
Last ignored time
This field displays the last time the Switch ignored any bindings for any
reason from the DHCP binding database.
Total ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the reasons the Switch has ignored bindings any time
it read bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these
counters by restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the CLI
Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because
the Switch already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN
ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because
the port number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because
the Switch was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding
database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because
the lease time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because
the VLAN ID does not exist anymore.
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23.5 DHCP Snooping Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the
VLAN where the default DHCP server is located, and configure the DHCP snooping database.
The DHCP snooping database stores the current bindings on a secure, external TFTP server so
that they are still available after a restart. To open this screen, click Advanced Application >
IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure.
Figure 102 DHCP Snooping Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 DHCP Snooping Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch. You still have to
enable DHCP snooping on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable
DHCP snooping and there are no trusted ports.
DHCP Vlan
Select a VLAN ID if you want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to
DHCP servers on a specific VLAN.
Note: You have to enable DHCP snooping on the DHCP
VLAN too.
You can enable Option82 in the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
screen (Section 23.5.2 on page 195) to help the DHCP servers distinguish
between DHCP requests from different VLAN.
Select Disable if you do not want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to a
specific VLAN.
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Table 68 DHCP Snooping Configure (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Database
If Timeout interval is greater than Write delay interval, it is possible that
the next update is scheduled to occur before the current update has
finished successfully or timed out. In this case, the Switch waits to start the
next update until it completes the current one.
Agent URL
Enter the location of the DHCP snooping database. The location should be
expressed like this: tftp://{domain name or IP address}/directory, if
applicable/file name; for example, tftp://192.168.10.1/database.txt.
Timeout interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific
update in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Write delay interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP
snooping database the first time the current bindings change after an
update. Once the next update is scheduled, additional changes in current
bindings are automatically included in the next update.
Renew DHCP
Snooping URL
Enter the location of a DHCP snooping database, and click Renew if you
want the Switch to load it. You can use this to load dynamic bindings from a
different DHCP snooping database than the one specified in Agent URL.
When the Switch loads dynamic bindings from a DHCP snooping
database, it does not discard the current dynamic bindings first. If there is a
conflict, the Switch keeps the dynamic binding in volatile memory and
updates the Binding collisions counter in the DHCP Snooping screen
(Section 23.4 on page 189).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
23.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.
"
The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and
there are no trusted ports.
You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or
untrusted) can receive each second. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP
Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > Port.
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Figure 103 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
194
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings
are applied to all of the ports.
Server Trusted state
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port
(Untrusted).
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches, and the
Switch discards DHCP packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which
DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards
DHCP packets from untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or
NACK).
• The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not
match any of the current bindings.
• The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC
address and source port do not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum number for DHCP packets (1-2048) that the Switch
receives from each port each second. The Switch discards any additional
DHCP packets. Enter 0 to disable this limit, which is recommended for
trusted ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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23.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the
Switch adds DHCP relay agent option 82 information (Chapter 27 on page 219) to DHCP
requests that the Switch relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN. To open this screen, click
Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 104 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section
below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
If you configure the * VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable DHCP snooping on the VLAN. You still have to
enable DHCP snooping on the Switch and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable
DHCP snooping and there are no trusted ports.
Option82
Select this to have the Switch add the slot number, port number and VLAN
ID to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if specified, or
VLAN. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping
Configure screen. See Section 23.5 on page 192.
Information
Select this to have the Switch add the system name to DHCP requests that
it broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can configure
the system name in the General Setup screen. See Chapter 7 on page 69.
You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping Configure
screen. See Section 23.5 on page 192.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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23.6 ARP Inspection Status
Use this screen to look at the current list of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified an unauthorized ARP packet. When the Switch identifies an unauthorized
ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC address filter to block traffic from the source
MAC address and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection.
Figure 105 ARP Inspection Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 ARP Inspection Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Total number of filters
This field displays the current number of MAC address filters that were
created because the Switch identified unauthorized ARP packets.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each MAC address filter.
Mac Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the MAC address filter.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the MAC address filter.
Port
This field displays the source port of the discarded ARP packet.
Expiry (sec)
This field displays how long (in seconds) the MAC address filter remains in
the Switch. You can also delete the record manually (Delete).
Reason
This field displays the reason the ARP packet was discarded.
MAC+VLAN: The MAC address and VLAN ID were not in the binding
table.
IP: The MAC address and VLAN ID were in the binding table, but the IP
address was not valid.
Port: The MAC address, VLAN ID, and IP address were in the binding
table, but the port number was not valid.
Delete
Select this, and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
23.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
Use this screen to look at various statistics about ARP packets in each VLAN. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > VLAN Status.
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Figure 106 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN range
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to look at in the section
below.
Enabled VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs on which ARP inspection is enabled in
the section below.
Selected VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs in a specific range in the section below.
Then, enter the lowest VLAN ID (Start VID) and the highest VLAN ID (End
VID) you want to look at.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
Received
This field displays the total number of ARP packets received from the
VLAN since the Switch last restarted.
Request
This field displays the total number of ARP Request packets received from
the VLAN since the Switch last restarted.
Reply
This field displays the total number of ARP Reply packets received from
the VLAN since the Switch last restarted.
Forwarded
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch forwarded
for the VLAN since the Switch last restarted.
Dropped
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch discarded
for the VLAN since the Switch last restarted.
23.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status
Use this screen to look at log messages that were generated by ARP packets and that have not
been sent to the syslog server yet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP
Source Guard > ARP Inspection > Log Status.
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Figure 107 ARP Inspection Log Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 ARP Inspection Log Status
198
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clearing log status table
Click Apply to remove all the log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
Total number of logs
This field displays the number of log messages that were generated by
ARP packets and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet. If one or
more log messages are dropped due to unavailable buffer, there is an
entry called overflow with the current number of dropped log messages.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each log message.
Port
This field displays the source port of the ARP packet.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID of the ARP packet.
Sender Mac
This field displays the source MAC address of the ARP packet.
Sender IP
This field displays the source IP address of the ARP packet.
Num Pkts
This field displays the number of ARP packets that were consolidated into
this log message. The Switch consolidates identical log messages
generated by ARP packets in the log consolidation interval into one log
message. You can configure this interval in the ARP Inspection
Configure screen. See Section 23.7 on page 199.
Reason
This field displays the reason the log message was generated.
dhcp deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a dynamic
binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
static deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a static
binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
deny: An ARP packet was discarded because there were no bindings with
the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
dhcp permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a
dynamic binding.
static permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a static
binding.
In the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen, you can configure the
Switch to generate log messages when ARP packets are discarded or
forwarded based on the VLAN ID of the ARP packet. See Section 23.7.2
on page 201.
Time
This field displays when the log message was generated.
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23.7 ARP Inspection Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You can also configure the length of
time the Switch stores records of discarded ARP packets and global settings for the ARP
inspection log. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP
Inspection > Configure.
Figure 108 ARP Inspection Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 ARP Inspection Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You still have to enable
ARP inspection on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Filter Aging Time
Filter aging time
This setting has no effect on existing MAC address filters.
Enter how long (1-2147483647 seconds) the MAC address filter remains in
the Switch after the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet. The
Switch automatically deletes the MAC address filter afterwards. Enter 0 if
you want the MAC address filter to be permanent.
Log Profile
Log buffer size
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Enter the maximum number (1-1024) of log messages that were generated
by ARP packets and have not been sent to the syslog server yet. Make
sure this number is appropriate for the specified Syslog rate and Log
interval.
If the number of log messages in the Switch exceeds this number, the
Switch stops recording log messages and simply starts counting the
number of entries that were dropped due to unavailable buffer. Click
Clearing log status table in the ARP Inspection Log Status screen to
clear the log and reset this counter. See Section 23.6.2 on page 197.
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Table 74 ARP Inspection Configure (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog rate
Enter the maximum number of syslog messages the Switch can send to
the syslog server in one batch. This number is expressed as a rate
because the batch frequency is determined by the Log Interval. You must
configure the syslog server (Chapter 31 on page 253) to use this. Enter 0 if
you do not want the Switch to send log messages generated by ARP
packets to the syslog server.
The relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval is illustrated in the
following examples:
• 4 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 1:
the Switch sends 4 syslog messages every second.
• 6 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 2:
the Switch sends 10 syslog messages every 2 seconds.
Log interval
Enter how often (1-86400 seconds) the Switch sends a batch of syslog
messages to the syslog server. Enter 0 if you want the Switch to send
syslog messages immediately. See Syslog rate for an example of the
relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
23.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection. You
can also specify the maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on each
untrusted port. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP
Inspection > Configure > Port.
Figure 109 ARP Inspection Port Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 ARP Inspection Port Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings
are applied to all of the ports.
Trusted State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port
(Untrusted).
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following
situations:
• The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the
current bindings.
• The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high. You can specify the
maximum rate at which ARP packets can arrive on untrusted ports.
Limit
These settings have no effect on trusted ports.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum rate (1-2048 packets per second) at which the
Switch receives ARP packets from each port. The Switch discards any
additional ARP packets. Enter 0 to disable this limit.
Burst interval
(seconds)
The burst interval is the length of time over which the rate of ARP packets
is monitored for each port. For example, if the Rate is 15 pps and the burst
interval is 1 second, then the Switch accepts a maximum of 15 ARP
packets in every one-second interval. If the burst interval is 5 seconds,
then the Switch accepts a maximum of 75 ARP packets in every fivesecond interval.
Enter the length (1-15 seconds) of the burst interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
23.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch
generates log messages for receiving ARP packets from each VLAN. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 110 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
202
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section
below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
If you configure the * VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable ARP inspection on the VLAN. Select No to disable
ARP inspection on the VLAN.
Log
Specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP
packets from the VLAN.
None: The Switch does not generate any log messages when it receives
an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Deny: The Switch generates log messages when it discards an ARP
packet from the VLAN.
Permit: The Switch generates log messages when it forwards an ARP
packet from the VLAN.
All: The Switch generates log messages every time it receives an ARP
packet from the VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The
Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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CHAPTER
24
Loop Guard
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to guard against loops on the edge of
your network.
24.1 Loop Guard Overview
Loop guard allows you to configure the Switch to shut down a port if it detects that packets
sent out on that port loop back to the Switch. While you can use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
to prevent loops in the core of your network. STP cannot prevent loops that occur on the edge
of your network.
Figure 111 Loop Guard vs STP
STP
Loop Guard
Loop guard is designed to handle loop problems on the edge of your network. This can occur
when a port is connected to a Switch that is in a loop state. Loop state occurs as a result of
human error. It happens when two ports on a switch are connected with the same cable. When
a switch in loop state sends out broadcast messages the messages loop back to the switch and
are re-broadcast again and again causing a broadcast storm.
If a switch (not in loop state) connects to a switch in loop state, then it will be affected by the
switch in loop state in the following way:
• It will receive broadcast messages sent out from the switch in loop state.
• It will receive its own broadcast messages that it sends out as they loop back. It will then
re-broadcast those messages again.
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The following figure shows port N on switch A connected to switch B. Switch B is in loop
state. When broadcast or multicast packets leave port N and reach switch B, they are sent back
to port N on A as they are rebroadcast from B.
Figure 112 Switch in Loop State
B
A
N
The loop guard feature checks to see if a loop guard enabled port is connected to a switch in
loop state. This is accomplished by periodically sending a probe packet and seeing if the
packet returns on the same port. If this is the case, the Switch will shut down the port
connected to the switch in loop state.
The following figure shows a loop guard enabled port N on switch A sending a probe packet P
to switch B. Since switch B is in loop state, the probe packet P returns to port N on A. The
Switch then shuts down port N to ensure that the rest of the network is not affected by the
switch in loop state.
Figure 113 Loop Guard - Probe Packet
B
A
P
P
N
The Switch also shuts down port N if the probe packet returns to switch A on any other port. In
other words loop guard also protects against standard network loops. The following figure
illustrates three switches forming a loop. A sample path of the loop guard probe packet is also
shown. In this example, the probe packet is sent from port N and returns on another port. As
long as loop guard is enabled on port N. The Switch will shut down port N if it detects that the
probe packet has returned to the Switch.
Figure 114 Loop Guard - Network Loop
204
N
P
P
P
A
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"
After resolving the loop problem on your network you can re-activate the
disabled port via the web configurator (see Section 7.7 on page 78) or via
commands (See the CLI Reference Guide).
24.2 Loop Guard Setup
Click Advanced Application > Loop Guard in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
"
The loop guard feature can not be enabled on the ports that have Spanning
Tree Protocol (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) enabled.
Figure 115 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable loop guard on the Switch.
The Switch generates syslog, internal log messages as well as SNMP traps when it
shuts down a port via the loop guard feature.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then
make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
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Table 77 Advanced Application > Loop Guard (continued)
206
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the loop guard feature on this port. The Switch sends
probe packets from this port to check if the switch it is connected to is in loop state. If
the switch that this port is connected is in loop state the Switch will shut down this
port.
Clear this check box to disable the loop guard feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
25
Two Rate Three Color Marker
This chapter describes how Differentiated Services (DiffServ) fits into a quality of service
strategy and shows you how to configure Two Rate Three Color Marker traffic policing on the
Switch.
25.1 DiffServ Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in
the flow are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different
priorities to different packet types.
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths
or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request
a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
25.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS)
field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64
service levels and the remaining 2 bits are defined as currently unused (CU). The following
figure illustrates the DS field.
Figure 116 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP (6 bits)
CU (2 bits)
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet gets as it is
forwarded across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
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25.1.2 DiffServ Network Example
The following figure depicts a DiffServ network consisting of a group of directly connected
DiffServ-compliant network devices. The boundary node (A in Figure 117) in a DiffServ
network classifies (marks with a DSCP value) the incoming packets into different traffic flows
(Platinum, Gold, Silver, Bronze) based on the configured marking rules. A network
administrator can then apply various traffic policies to the traffic flows. An example traffic
policy, is to give higher drop precedence to one traffic flow over others. In our example,
packets in the Bronze traffic flow are more likely to be dropped when congestion occurs than
the packets in the Platinum traffic flow as they move across the DiffServ network.
Figure 117 DiffServ Network
A
P G S B
P - Platinum
G - Gold
S - Silver
B - Bronze
S G P P
S G P P
S
B
B
25.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing
Traffic policing is the limiting of the input or output transmission rate of a class of traffic on
the basis of user-defined criteria. Traffic policing methods measure traffic flows against userdefined criteria and identify it as either conforming, exceeding or violating the criteria.
Two Rate Three Color Marker trTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of traffic policing that
identifies packets by comparing them to two user-defined rates: the Committed Information
Rate (CIR) and the Peak Information Rate (PIR). The CIR specifies the average rate at which
packets are admitted to the network. The PIR is greater than or equal to the CIR. CIR and PIR
values are based on the guaranteed and maximum bandwidth respectively as negotiated
between a service provider and client.
Two Rate Three Color Marker evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three
colors which refer to packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred to as
red, medium is referred to as yellow and low is referred to as green. After trTCM is
configured, the DiffServ compliant devices on your network can perform the following actions
on the colored packets:
• Red (high loss priority level) packets are dropped.
• Yellow (medium loss priority level) packets are dropped if there is congestion on the
network.
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• Green (low loss priority level) packets are forwarded.
trTCM operates in one of two modes: color-blind or color-aware. In color-blind mode, packets
are marked based on evaluating against the PIR and CIR regardless of if they have previously
been marked or not. In the color-aware mode, packets are marked based on both existing color
and evaluation against the PIR and CIR. If the packets do not match any of colors, then the
packets proceed unchanged.
25.2.1 trTCM - Color-blind Mode
All packets are evaluated against the PIR. If a packet exceeds the PIR it is marked red.
Otherwise it is evaluated against the CIR. If it exceeds the CIR then it is marked yellow.
Finally, if it is below the CIR then it is marked green.
Figure 118 trTCM - Color-blind Mode
Exceed NO
CIR?
Exceed NO
PIR?
Low Packet
Loss
YES
YES
High Packet
Loss
Medium Packet
Loss
25.2.2 trTCM - Color-aware Mode
In color-aware mode the evaluation of the packets uses the existing packet loss priority. trTCM
can increase a packet loss priority of a packet but it cannot decrease it. Packets that have been
previously marked red or yellow can only be marked with an equal or higher packet loss
priority.
Packets marked red (high packet loss priority) continue to be red without evaluation against
the PIR or CIR. Packets marked yellow can only be marked red or remain yellow so they are
only evaluated against the PIR. Only the packets marked green are first evaluated against the
PIR and then if they don’t exceed the PIR level are they evaluated against the CIR.
Figure 119 trTCM - Color-aware Mode
Red?
NO
YES
High Packet
Loss
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Exceed NO
PIR?
YES
High Packet
Loss
Yellow?
NO
YES
Medium Packet
Loss
Exceed NO Low Packet
Loss
CIR?
YES
Medium Packet
Loss
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25.2.3 Configuring Two Rate Three Color Marker Settings
Use this screen to configure trTCM settings. Click the Advanced Application > trTCM to
display the screen as shown next.
"
You cannot enable both trTCM and Bandwidth Control at the same time.
Figure 120 Advanced Application > trTCM
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Advanced Application > trTCM
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to activate trTCM (Two Rate Three Color Marker) on the Switch. The Switch
evaluates and marks the packets based on the trTCM settings.
Mode
Select color-blind to have the Switch treat all incoming packets as uncolored. All incoming
packets are evaluated against the CIR and PIR.
Select color-aware to treat the packets as marked by some preceding entity. Incoming
packets are evaluated based on their existing color. Incoming packets that are not marked
proceed through the Switch.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make
them.
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Table 78 Advanced Application > trTCM (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to activate trTCM on the port.
Commit
Rate
Specify the Commit Information Rate (CIR) for this port.
Peak
Rate
Specify the Peak Information Rate (PIR) for this port.
DSCP
Use this section to specify the DSCP values that you want to assign to packets based on
the color they are marked via trTCM.
green
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with low packet loss priority.
yellow
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with medium packet loss priority.
red
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with high packet loss priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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P ART IV
IP Application
Static Route (215)
DHCP (219)
213
214
CHAPTER
26
Static Route
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.
26.1 Static Routing Overview
The Switch uses IP for communication with management computers, for example using
HTTP, telnet, SSH, or SNMP. Use IP static routes to have the Switch respond to remote
management stations that are not reachable through the default gateway. The Switch can also
use static routes to send data to a server or device that is not reachable through the default
gateway, for example when sending SNMP traps or using ping to test IP connectivity.
This figure shows a Telnet session coming in from network N1. The Switch sends reply traffic
to default gateway R1 which routes it back to the manager’s computer. The Switch needs a
static route to tell it to use router R2 to send traffic to an SNMP trap server on network N2.
Figure 121 Static Routing Overview
N1
N2
SNMP
Telnet
R1
R2
26.2 Configuring Static Routing
Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Chapter 26 Static Route
Figure 122 IP Application > Static Routing
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 79 IP Application > Static Routing
216
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 10 printable ASCII characters) for identification
purposes.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask for this destination. Routing is always based on network
number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of
255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical
to the host ID.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
Switch that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router
on the same segment as your Switch.
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses
hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected
networks. Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need
not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static
route entry.
Active
This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and NO when it is
deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification
purposes only.
Destination
Address
This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.
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Table 79 IP Application > Static Routing (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate
neighbor of your Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric
This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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CHAPTER
27
DHCP
This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.
27.1 DHCP Overview
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
computers to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the
Switch as a DHCP server or a DHCP relay agent. When configured as a server, the Switch
provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If you configure the Switch as a relay agent,
then the Switch forwards DHCP requests to DHCP server on your network. If you don’t
configure the Switch as a DHCP server or relay agent then you must have a DHCP server in
the broadcast domain of the client computers or else the client computers must be configured
manually.
27.1.1 DHCP Modes
If there is already a DHCP server on your network, then you can configure the Switch as a
DHCP relay agent. When the Switch receives a request from a computer on your network, it
contacts the DHCP server for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned
information back to the computer.
27.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options
The DHCP configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen
you should use for configuration depends on the DHCP services you want to offer the DHCP
clients on your network. Choose the configuration screen based on the following criteria:
• Global - The Switch forwards all DHCP requests to the same DHCP server.
• VLAN - The Switch is configured on a VLAN by VLAN basis. The Switch can be
configured to relay DHCP requests to different DHCP servers for clients in different
VLAN.
27.2 DHCP Status
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel. The DHCP Status screen displays.
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Chapter 27 DHCP
Figure 123 IP Application > DHCP Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 IP Application > DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Relay Mode
This field displays:
• None - if the Switch is not configured as a DHCP relay agent.
• Global - if the Switch is configured as a DHCP relay agent only.
• VLAN - followed by a VLAN ID if it is configured as a relay agent for specific
VLAN(s).
27.3 DHCP Relay
Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the
same broadcast domain. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay
network information (such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a
DHCP server. Once the DHCP client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network,
network information renewal is done between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without
the help of the Switch.
The Switch can be configured as a global DHCP relay. This means that the Switch forwards all
DHCP requests from all domains to the same DHCP server. You can also configure the Switch
to relay DHCP information based on the VLAN membership of the DHCP clients.
27.3.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information
The Switch can add information about the source of client DHCP requests that it relays to a
DHCP server by adding Relay Agent Information. This helps provide authentication about
the source of the requests. The DHCP server can then provide an IP address based on this
information. Please refer to RFC 3046 for more details.
The DHCP Relay Agent Information feature adds an Agent Information field to the Option
82 field. The Option 82 field is in the DHCP headers of client DHCP request frames that the
Switch relays to a DHCP server.
Relay Agent Information can include the System Name of the Switch if you select this
option. You can change the System Name in Basic Settings > General Setup.
The following describes the DHCP relay information that the Switch sends to the DHCP
server:
Table 81 Relay Agent Information
220
FIELD LABELS
DESCRIPTION
Slot ID
(1 byte) This value is always 0 for stand-alone switches.
Port ID
(1 byte) This is the port that the DHCP client is connected to.
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Table 81 Relay Agent Information
FIELD LABELS
DESCRIPTION
VLAN ID
(2 bytes) This is the VLAN that the port belongs to.
Information
(up to 64 bytes) This optional, read-only field is set according
to system name set in Basic Settings > General Setup.
27.3.2 Configuring DHCP Global Relay
Configure global DHCP relay in the DHCP Relay screen. Click IP Application > DHCP in
the navigation panel and click the Global link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 124 IP Application > DHCP > Global
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 IP Application > DHCP > Global
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable DHCP relay.
Remote
DHCP Server
1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Relay Agent
Information
Select the Option 82 check box to have the Switch add information (slot number, port
number and VLAN ID) to client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Information
This read-only field displays the system name you configure in the General Setup
screen.
Select the check box for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 27 DHCP
27.3.3 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests
for the VLAN1 and VLAN2 domains. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP
clients in both domains.
Figure 125 Global DHCP Relay Network Example
DHCP Server:
192.168.1.100
VLAN1
VLAN2
Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select the Option 82 check box
to set the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID) together with the
DHCP requests to the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the appropriate IP
address according to the VLAN ID.
Figure 126 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
27.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
Use this screen to configure your DHCP settings based on the VLAN domain of the DHCP
clients. Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel, then click the VLAN link In
the DHCP Status screen that displays.
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"
You must set up a management IP address for each VLAN that you want to
configure DHCP settings for on the Switch.
See Section 7.6 on page 75 for information on how to set up management IP addresses for
VLANs.
Figure 127 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which these DHCP settings apply.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Relay Agent
Information
Select the Option 82 check box to have the Switch add information (slot number,
port number and VLAN ID) to client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Information
This read-only field displays the system name you configure in the General Setup
screen.
Select the check box for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings
apply.
Type
This field displays the DHCP mode (Relay).
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Chapter 27 DHCP
Table 83 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Status
For DHCP relay configuration, this field displays the first remote DHCP server IP
address.
Delete
Select the configuration entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
27.4.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
The following example displays two VLANs (VIDs 1 and 2) for a campus network. Two
DHCP servers are installed to serve each VLAN. The system is set up to forward DHCP
requests from the dormitory rooms (VLAN 1) to the DHCP server with an IP address of
192.168.1.100. Requests from the academic buildings (VLAN 2) are sent to the other DHCP
server with an IP address of 172.23.10.100.
Figure 128 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
DHCP:192.168.1.100
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
DHCP:172.23.10.100
For the example network, configure the VLAN Setting screen as shown.
Figure 129 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example
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P ART V
Management
Maintenance (227)
Access Control (233)
Diagnostic (251)
Syslog (253)
Cluster Management (257)
MAC Table (263)
ARP Table (265)
Configure Clone (267)
225
226
CHAPTER
28
Maintenance
This chapter explains how to configure the screens that let you maintain the firmware and
configuration files.
28.1 The Maintenance Screen
Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management >
Maintenance in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 130 Management > Maintenance
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Management > Maintenance
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is
currently operating on the Switch.
Firmware
Upgrade
Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Restore
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Backup
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Load Factory
Default
Click Click Here to reset the configuration to the factory default settings.
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Chapter 28 Maintenance
Table 84 Management > Maintenance (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Save
Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the
Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the
Switch.
Reboot
System
Click Config 1 to reboot the system and load Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to reboot the system and load Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Note: Make sure to click the Save button in any screen to save your
settings to the current configuration on the Switch.
28.2 Load Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Load Factory Default
to clear all Switch configuration information you configured and return to the factory
defaults.
2 Click OK to reset all Switch configurations to the factory defaults.
Figure 131 Load Factory Default: Start
3 In the web configurator, click the Save button to make the changes take effect. If you
want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP
address (192.168.1.1).
28.3 Save Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 1 on
the Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration
changes to the current configuration.
"
228
Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently.
All unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.
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28.4 Reboot System
Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It
also allows you to load configuration one (Config 1) or configuration two (Config 2) when
you reboot. Follow the steps below to reboot the Switch.
1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Config 1 button next to Reboot System to reboot
and load configuration one. The following screen displays.
Figure 132 Reboot System: Confirmation
2 Click OK again and then wait for the Switch to restart. This takes up to two minutes.
This does not affect the Switch’s configuration.
Click Config 2 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration two on the Switch.
28.5 Firmware Upgrade
Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to
your computer before uploading to the device.
1
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong model
firmware may damage your device.
Click Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 133
Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File
Path text box or click Browse to locate it. Select the Rebooting checkbox if you want to
reboot the Switch and apply the new firmware immediately. (Firmware upgrades are only
applied after a reboot). Click Upgrade to load the new firmware.
After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your
current firmware version number.
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28.6 Restore a Configuration File
Restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch using the Restore
Configuration screen.
Figure 134 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration
Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text
box or click Browse to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is
the name of the configuration file on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is
automatically renamed when you restore using this screen.
28.7 Backup a Configuration File
Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various “snap shots” of your
device from which you may restore at a later date.
Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration
screen.
Figure 135 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration
Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this
screen.
1 Click Backup.
2 Click Save to display the Save As screen.
3 Choose a location to save the file on your computer from the Save in drop-down list box
and type a descriptive name for it in the File name list box. Click Save to save the
configuration file to your computer.
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28.8 FTP Command Line
This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using
FTP commands. First, understand the filename conventions.
28.8.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default
settings in the screens such as password, Switch setup, IP Setup, and so on. Once you have
customized the Switch’s settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of
your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension.
Table 85 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
Configuration File
config
Firmware
ras
EXTERNAL
NAME
DESCRIPTION
This is the configuration filename on the Switch.
Uploading the config file replaces the specified
configuration file system, including your Switch
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on
the Switch.
28.8.1.1 Example FTP Commands
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the
Switch.
ftp> get config config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called “config.cfg” on
your computer.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes “config” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
1
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong model
firmware may damage your device.
28.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure
1
2
3
4
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
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5 Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put
firmware.bin ras transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the
Switch and renames it to “ras”. Similarly, put config.cfg config transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to the Switch and renames it to
“config”. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration file on the
Switch to your computer and renames it to “config.cfg”. See Table 85 on page 231 for
more information on filename conventions.
7 Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.
28.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP
clients.
General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server
for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or
service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Configuration and firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
28.8.4 FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
• FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.
• The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the Switch will disconnect the FTP session immediately.
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29
Access Control
This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.
29.1 Access Control Overview
A console port and FTP are allowed one session each, Telnet and SSH share nine sessions, up
to five Web sessions (five different usernames and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access
control sessions are allowed.
Table 86 Access Control Overview
Console Port
SSH
Telnet
One session
Share up to nine
sessions
FTP
Web
SNMP
One session
Up to five accounts
No limit
A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when
multi-login is disabled. See Section 36.12.2 on page 286 for more information on disabling
multi-login.
29.2 The Access Control Main Screen
Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as
shown.
Figure 136 Management > Access Control
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29.3 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to
manage and monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management
information between the network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A
manager station can manage and monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version
one (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2c or SNMP version 3. The next figure illustrates an SNMP
management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 137 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed switch (the Switch). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed switch into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a switch. Examples of variables include number of packets
received, node port status and so on. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
Table 87 SNMP Commands
234
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Get
Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext
Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an
agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an
agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set
Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap
Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
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29.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security
SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to
authenticate with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.
Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP
messages are encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.
29.3.2 Supported MIBs
MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.
The Switch supports the following MIBs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)
RFC 1157 SNMP v1
RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
RFC 1643 Ethernet MIBs
RFC 1155 SMI
RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
RFC 1757 RMON
SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP,
RFC 2012 SNMPv2 MIB for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
29.3.3 SNMP Traps
The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. The following tables
outline the SNMP traps by category.
An OID (Object ID) that begins with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8” is defined in private MIBs.
Otherwise, it is a standard MIB OID.
Table 88 SNMP System Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
coldstart
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent when the Switch is
turned on.
warmstart
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
This trap is sent when the Switch
restarts.
fanspeed
FanSpeedEventOn
This trap is sent when the fan speed
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 goes above or below the normal
operating range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
FanSpeedEventClear
This trap is sent when the fan speed
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 returns to the normal operating
range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
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Table 88 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
temperature TemperatureEventOn
voltage
reset
timesync
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 temperature goes above or below the
normal operating range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
TemperatureEventClear
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 temperature returns to the normal
operating range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
VoltageEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the voltage
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 goes above or below the normal
operating range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
VoltageEventClear
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the voltage
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 returns to the normal operating
range.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
UncontrolledResetEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the Switch
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 automatically resets.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
ControlledResetEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the Switch
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 resets by an administrator through a
management interface.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
RebootEvent
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.0.1
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.0.1
RTCNotUpdatedEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the Switch
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 fails to get the time and date from a
time server.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
RTCNotUpdatedEventClear
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the Switch
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 gets the time and date from a time
server.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
This trap is sent when the Switch
reboots by an administrator through
a management interface.
intrusionlock IntrusionLockEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when intrusion lock
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 occurs on a port.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
loopguard
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when loopguard
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 shuts down a port.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
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LoopguardEventOn
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Table 89 SNMP InterfaceTraps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
linkup
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the
Ethernet link is up.
LinkDownEventClear
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
This trap is sent when the
Ethernet link is up.
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the
Ethernet link is down.
LinkDownEventOn
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
This trap is sent when the
Ethernet link is down.
AutonegotiationFailedEvent
On
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
This trap is sent when an
Ethernet interface fails to autonegotiate with the peer Ethernet
interafce.
AutonegotiationFailedEvent
Clear
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
This trap is sent when an
Ethernet interface autonegotiates with the peer
Ethernet interafce.
linkdown
autonegotiation
Table 90 AAA Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
authentication
authenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
This trap is sent when
authentication fails due to incorrect
user name and/or password.
This trap is sent when
AuthenticationFailureEventOn GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 authentication fails due to incorrect
user name and/or password.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
RADIUSNotReachableEvent
On
This trap is sent when there is no
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 response message from the
RADIUS server.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
RADIUSNotReachableEvent
Clear
This trap is sent when the RADIUS
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 server can be reached.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
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Table 90 AAA Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
accounting
RADIUSAccountingNotReach GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when there is no
ableEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 response message from the
RADIUS accounting server.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
RADIUSAccountingNotReach GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the RADIUS
ableEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 accounting server can be reached.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
Table 91 SNMP IP Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
ping
pingProbeFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.1
This trap is sent when a single ping probe
fails.
pingTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.2
This trap is sent when a ping test
(consisting of a series of ping probes) fails.
pingTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.3
This trap is sent when a ping test is
completed.
traceRoutePathChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.1
This trap is sent when path to target has
changed from a previously determined
path.
traceRouteTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.2
This trap is sent when a traceroute test
fails.
traceRouteTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.3
This trap is sent when a traceroute test is
completed.
traceroute
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Table 92 SNMP Switch Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
stp
STPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
This trap is sent when the STP root
switch changes.
MRSTPNewRoot
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when the MRSTP
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.32.2.1 root switch changes.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.32.2.1
MSTPNewRoot
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.107.7
0.1
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.107.7
0.1
This trap is sent when the MSTP root
switch changes.
STPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
This trap is sent when the STP
topology changes.
MRSTPTopologyChange
This trap is sent when the MRSTP
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.32.2.2 topology changes.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.32.2.2
MSTPTopologyChange
GS-3012F:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.107.7
0.2
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.107.7
0.2
MacTableFullEventOn
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when more than
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.1 99% of the MAC table is used.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.1
MacTableFullEventClear
GS-3012F:
This trap is sent when less than 95%
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.11.25.2.2 of the MAC table is used.
GS-3012:
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.10.25.2.2
RmonRisingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
This trap is sent when a variable
goes over the RMON "rising"
threshold.
RmonFallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
This trap is sent when the variable
falls below the RMON "falling"
threshold.
mactable
rmon
This trap is sent when the MSTP root
switch changes.
29.3.4 Configuring SNMP
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP to view the screen as shown. Use this screen
to configure your SNMP settings.
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Figure 138 Management > Access Control > SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 93 Management > Access Control > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setting
Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version
Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must
match the version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP
version 3 (v3) or both (v3v2c).
Note: SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP
version 1.
240
Get Community
Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext- requests from the management station.
The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version
2c or lower.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from
the management station.
The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version
2c or lower.
Trap Community
Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to
the SNMP manager.
The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP
version 2c or lower.
Trap Destination
Use this section to configure where to send SNMP traps from the Switch.
Version
Specify the version of the SNMP trap messages.
IP
Enter the IP addresses of up to four managers to send your SNMP traps to.
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Table 93 Management > Access Control > SNMP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the port number upon which the manager listens for SNMP traps.
Username
Enter the username to be sent to the SNMP manager along with the SNMP v3
trap.
Note: This username must match an existing account on the Switch
(configured in Management > Access Control > Logins
screen).
User Information
Use this section to configure users for authentication with managers using SNMP
v3.
Note: Use the username and password of the login accounts you
specify in this section to create accounts on the SNMP v3
manager.
Index
This is a read-only number identifying a login account on the Switch.
Username
This field displays the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security Level
Select whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication from this user. Choose:
• noauth -to use the username as the password string to send to the SNMP
manager. This is equivalent to the Get, Set and Trap Community in SNMP v2c.
This is the lowest security level.
• auth - to implement an authentication algorithm for SNMP messages sent by
this user.
• priv - to implement authentication and encryption for SNMP messages sent by
this user. This is the highest security level.
Note: The settings on the SNMP manager must be set at the same
security level or higher than the security level settings on the
Switch.
Authentication
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure
Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA
authentication is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Privacy
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication from this user. You can
choose one of the following:
• DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of
data encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
• AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption
that also uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
29.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group to view the screen as shown.
Use the Trap Group screen to specify the types of SNMP traps that should be sent to each
SNMP manager.
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Chapter 29 Access Control
Figure 139 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 94 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trap Destination
IP
Select one of your configured trap destination IP addresses. These are the IP
addresses of the SNMP managers. You must first configure a trap destination IP
address in the SNMP Setting screen.
Use the rest of the screen to select which traps the Switch sends to that SNMP
manager.
Type
Select the categories of SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP
manager.
Options
Select the individual SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP station.
See Section 29.3.3 on page 235 for individual trap descriptions.
The traps are grouped by category. Selecting a category automatically selects all of
the category’s traps. Clear the check boxes for individual traps that you do not want
the Switch to send to the SNMP station. Clearing a category’s check box
automatically clears all of the category’s trap check boxes (the Switch only sends
traps from selected categories).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
29.3.6 Setting Up Login Accounts
Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via
web configurator at any one time.
• An administrator is someone who can both view and configure Switch changes. The
username for the Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is
1234.
"
242
It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password
(1234).
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• A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view
but not configure Switch settings.
Click Management > Access Control > Logins to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 140 Management > Access Control > Logins
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 95 Management > Access Control > Logins
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when
shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to confirm Retype your new system password for confirmation
Edit Logins
You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give
users higher privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see Chapter 36 on
page 277.
User Name
Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to confirm Retype your new system password for confirmation
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on
the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when
you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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29.4 SSH Overview
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.
Figure 141 SSH Communication Example
29.5 How SSH works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote
hosts.
Figure 142 How SSH Works
1 Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself
with a host key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key
and server key and sends the result back to the server.
The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections,
the server public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
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2 Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of
encryption method to use.
3 Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is
established between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication
information (user name and password) to the server to log in to the server.
29.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch
Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods
(DES, 3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote
management and file transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.
29.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating
system) that is used to connect to the Switch over SSH.
29.7 Introduction to HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web
protocol that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an applicationlevel protocol that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an
unauthorized party cannot read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the
other party) and data integrity (you know if data has been changed).
It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.
HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the web
configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always
authenticate itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with
the Switch), whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server
requires it to do so. Authenticating client certificates is optional and if selected means the SSLclient must send the Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser from
a CA that is a trusted CA on the Switch.
Please refer to the following figure.
1 HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default)
on the Switch’s WS (web server).
2 HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switch’s
WS (web server).
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Figure 143 HTTPS Implementation
"
If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch
blocks all HTTP connection attempts.
29.8 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter
“https://Switch IP Address/” as the web site address where “Switch IP Address” is the IP
address or domain name of the Switch you wish to access.
29.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up asking
if you trust the server certificate. Click View Certificate if you want to verify that the
certificate is from the Switch.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the
web configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Figure 144 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer)
EXAMPLE
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29.8.2 Netscape Navigator Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Website Certified by an Unknown
Authority screen pops up asking if you trust the server certificate. Click Examine Certificate
if you want to verify that the certificate is from the Switch.
If Accept this certificate temporarily for this session is selected, then click OK to continue
in Netscape.
Select Accept this certificate permanently to import the Switch’s certificate into the SSL
client.
Figure 145 Security Certificate 1 (Netscape)
EXAMPLE
Figure 146 Security Certificate 2 (Netscape)
EXAMPLE
29.8.3 The Main Screen
After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main
screen appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar denotes a
secure connection.
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Figure 147 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
EXAMPLE
29.9 Service Port Access Control
Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch.
You may also change the default service port and configure “trusted computer(s)” for each
service in the Remote Management screen (discussed later). Click Management > Access
Control > Service Access Control to view the screen as shown.
Figure 148 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 96 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Services
Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active
Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the
Switch.
Service Port
For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service
port by typing the new port number in the Server Port field. If you change the default
port number then you will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the
new port number for that service.
Timeout
Type how many minutes a management session (via the web configurator) can be left
idle before the session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your
password again. Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
29.10 Remote Management
Click Management > Access Control > Remote Management to view the screen as shown
next.
You can specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may
use a service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control
screen.
Figure 149 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 97 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Entry
This is the client set index number. A “client set” is a group of one or more “trusted
computers” from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active
Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you
wish to temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
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Table 97 Management > Access Control > Remote Management (continued)
250
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Address
End Address
Configure the IP address range of trusted computers from which you can manage this
Switch.
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or
protocol matches the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the
session if it does not match.
Telnet/FTP/
HTTP/ICMP/
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted
computers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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30
Diagnostic
This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen.
30.1 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen
to check system logs, ping IP addresses or perform port tests.
Figure 150 Management > Diagnostic
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 98 Management > Diagnostic
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Log
Click Display to display a log of events in the multi-line text box.
Click Clear to empty the text box and reset the syslog entry.
IP Ping
Type the IP address of a device that you want to ping in order to test a
connection.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address (in the field to the left).
Ethernet Port Test
Enter a port number and click Port Test to perform an internal loopback test.
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31
Syslog
This chapter explains the syslog screens.
31.1 Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network
to syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a
syslog message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log
related information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level.
The syslog facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your
syslog program for details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 99 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
31.2 Syslog Setup
Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen. The syslog feature
sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the device’s system
logging settings.
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Figure 151 Management > Syslog
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 100 Management > Syslog
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog
setting
Logging Type
This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can
generate.
Active
Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding
category.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server.
Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
31.3 Syslog Server Setup
Click Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup to view the screen as shown next. Use
this screen to configure a list of external syslog servers.
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Figure 152 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 101 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the
check box if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send
logs to it (you can edit the entry later).
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this
syslog server. The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the
entry.
Active
This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No
displays if the device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this
syslog server.
Delete
Select an entry’s Delete check box and click Delete to remove the entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
32
Cluster Management
This chapter introduces cluster management.
32.1 Cluster Management Status Overview
Cluster Management allows you to manage switches through one Switch, called the cluster
manager. The switches must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be
able to communicate with one another.
Table 102 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications
Maximum number of cluster
members
24
Cluster Member Models
Must be compatible with ZyXEL cluster management
implementation.
Cluster Manager
The switch through which you manage the cluster member
switches.
Cluster Members
The switches being managed by the cluster manager switch.
In the following example, switch A in the basement is the cluster manager and the other
switches on the upper floors of the building are cluster members.
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Figure 153 Clustering Application Example
32.2 Cluster Management Status
Click Management > Cluster Management in the navigation panel to display the following
screen.
"
A cluster can only have one manager.
Figure 154 Management > Cluster Management: Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 Management > Cluster Management: Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays the role of this Switch within the cluster.
Manager
Member (you see this if you access this screen in the cluster member switch directly
and not via the cluster manager)
None (neither a manager nor a member of a cluster)
Manager
This field displays the cluster manager switch’s hardware MAC address.
The Number of
Member
This field displays the number of switches that make up this cluster. The following
fields describe the cluster member switches.
Index
You can manage cluster member switches via the cluster manager switch. Each
number in the Index column is a hyperlink leading to the cluster member switch’s web
configurator (see Figure 155 on page 259).
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This field displays the model name.
Status
This field displays:
Online (the cluster member switch is accessible)
Error (for example the cluster member switch password was changed or the switch
was set as the manager and so left the member list, etc.)
Offline (the switch is disconnected - Offline shows approximately 1.5 minutes after
the link between cluster member and manager goes down)
32.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management
Go to the Clustering Management Status screen of the cluster manager switch and then
select an Index hyperlink from the list of members to go to that cluster member switch's web
configurator home page. This cluster member web configurator home page and the home page
that you'd see if you accessed it directly are different.
Figure 155 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen
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32.2.1.1 Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
You can use FTP to upload firmware to a cluster member switch through the cluster manager
switch as shown in the following example.
Figure 156 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
C:\>ftp 192.168.1.1
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
220 Switch FTP version 1.0 ready at Thu Jan 1 00:58:46 1970
User (192.168.0.1:(none)): admin
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> ls
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for LIST
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3042210 Jul 01 12:00 ras
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
393216 Jul 01 12:00 config
--w--w--w1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File sent OK
ftp: 297 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 297000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put 370lt0.bin fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File received OK
ftp: 262144 bytes sent in 0.63Seconds 415.44Kbytes/sec.
ftp>
The following table explains some of the FTP parameters.
Table 104 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example
FTP PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
User
Enter “admin”.
Password
The web configurator password default is 1234.
ls
Enter this command to list the name of cluster member switch’s
firmware and configuration file.
360lt0.bin
This is the name of the firmware file you want to upload to the
cluster member switch.
fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
This is the cluster member switch’s firmware name as seen in the
cluster manager switch.
config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46 This is the cluster member switch’s configuration file name as seen
in the cluster manager switch.
32.3 Clustering Management Configuration
Use this screen to configure clustering management. Click Management > Cluster
Management > Configuration to display the next screen.
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Figure 157 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 105 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clustering Manager
Active
Select Active to have this Switch become the cluster manager switch. A cluster
can only have one manager. Other (directly connected) switches that are set to
be cluster managers will not be visible in the Clustering Candidates list. If a
switch that was previously a cluster member is later set to become a cluster
manager, then its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster Management
Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list
below.
Name
Type a name to identify the Clustering Manager. You may use up to 32
printable characters (spaces are allowed).
VID
This is the VLAN ID and is only applicable if the Switch is set to 802.1Q VLAN.
All switches must be directly connected and in the same VLAN group to belong
to the same cluster. Switches that are not in the same VLAN group are not
visible in the Clustering Candidates list. This field is ignored if the Clustering
Manager is using Port-based VLAN.
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Table 105 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clustering
Candidate
The following fields relate to the switches that are potential cluster members.
List
A list of suitable candidates found by auto-discovery is shown here. The
switches must be directly connected. Directly connected switches that are set to
be cluster managers will not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list.
Switches that are not in the same management VLAN group will not be visible in
the Clustering Candidate list.
Password
Each cluster member’s password is its web configurator password. Select a
member in the Clustering Candidate list and then enter its web configurator
password. If that switch administrator changes the web configurator password
afterwards, then it cannot be managed from the Cluster Manager. Its Status is
displayed as Error in the Cluster Management Status screen and a warning
icon ( ) appears in the member summary list below.
If multiple devices have the same password then hold [SHIFT] and click those
switches to select them. Then enter their common web configurator password.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Refresh
Click Refresh to perform auto-discovery again to list potential cluster members.
The next summary table shows the information for the clustering members configured.
262
Index
This is the index number of a cluster member switch.
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This is the cluster member switch’s model name.
Remove
Select this checkbox and then click the Remove button to remove a cluster
member switch from the cluster.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
33
MAC Table
This chapter introduces the MAC Table screen.
33.1 MAC Table Overview
The MAC Table screen (a MAC table is also known as a filtering database) shows how
frames are forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It shows what device MAC address,
belonging to what VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which port(s) and whether the MAC
address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually entered in the Static MAC
Forwarding screen).
The Switch uses the MAC table to determine how to forward frames. See the following figure.
1 The Switch examines a received frame and learns the port on which this source MAC
address came.
2 The Switch checks to see if the frame's destination MAC address matches a source MAC
address already learned in the MAC table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, then it forwards the frame
to that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this MAC address, then the frame is
flooded to all ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, but the destination port is
the same as the port it came in on, then it filters the frame.
Figure 158 MAC Table Flowchart
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Chapter 33 MAC Table
33.2 Viewing the MAC Table
Click Management > MAC Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 159 Management > MAC Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 106 Management > MAC Table
264
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sort by
Click one of the following buttons to display and arrange the data according to that
button type. The information is then displayed in the summary table below.
MAC
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to MAC address.
VID
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Port
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to port number.
Index
This is the incoming frame index number.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device from which this incoming frame came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which this frame belongs.
Port
This is the port from which the above MAC address was learned.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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CHAPTER
34
ARP Table
This chapter introduces ARP Table.
34.1 ARP Table Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC
address, on the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits
long. The ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its
corresponding IP address.
34.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the
Switch, the Switch's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it finds the address, sends it
to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the
LAN. The Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts
the known IP address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all
ones in the target MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The
replying device (which is either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that
knows the way) replaces the broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the
sender and target pairs, and unicasts the answer directly back to the requesting machine. ARP
updates the ARP Table for future reference and then sends the packet to the MAC address that
replied.
34.2 Viewing the ARP Table
Click Management > ARP Table in the navigation panel to open the following screen. Use
the ARP table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s).
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Figure 160 Management > ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 107 Management > ARP Table
266
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the ARP Table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with
corresponding MAC address below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with corresponding IP address above.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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CHAPTER
35
Configure Clone
This chapter shows you how you can copy the settings of one port onto other ports.
35.1 Configure Clone
Cloning allows you to copy the basic and advanced settings from a source port to a destination
port or ports. Click Management > Configure Clone to open the following screen.
Figure 161 Management > Configure Clone
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Chapter 35 Configure Clone
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 108 Management > Configure Clone
268
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source/
Destination
Port
Enter the source port under the Source label. This port’s attributes are copied.
Enter the destination port or ports under the Destination label. These are the ports
which are going to have the same attributes as the source port. You can enter
individual ports separated by a comma or a range of ports by using a dash.
Example:
• 2, 4, 6 indicates that ports 2, 4 and 6 are the destination ports.
• 2-6 indicates that ports 2 through 6 are the destination ports.
Basic Setting
Select which port settings (you configured in the Basic Setting menus) should be
copied to the destination port(s).
Advanced
Application
Select which port settings (you configured in the Advanced Application menus)
should be copied to the destination ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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P ART VI
Troubleshooting &
Product
Specifications
Troubleshooting (271)
Product Specifications (275)
269
270
CHAPTER
36
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Switch Access and Login
36.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
V
The Switch does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1 Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Switch.
2 Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Switch and plugged in to an
appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
3 Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch.
4 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
V
The ALM LED is on.
1 Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor to the Switch.
2 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
V
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1 Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 3.3 on page 46.
2 Check the hardware connections. See the Quick Start Guide and Section 36.1 on page
271.
3 Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4 Disconnect and re-connect the power cord to the Switch.
5 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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36.2 Switch Access and Login
V
I forgot the IP address for the Switch.
1 The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2 Use the console port to log in to the Switch.
3 Use the MGMT port to log in to the Switch, the default IP address of the MGMT port is
192.168.0.1.
4 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6
on page 56.
V
I forgot the username and/or password.
1 The default username is admin and the default password is 1234.
2 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6
on page 56.
V
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1 Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
• If you changed the IP address, use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the IP address for the Switch.
2 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 3.3 on page 46.
3 Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts
and Java enabled.
4 Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the Switch. (If you know that there are
routers between your computer and the Switch, skip this step.)
5 Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Switch with the default IP
address. See Section 4.6 on page 56.
6 If the problem continues, contact the vendor, or try one of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the Switch using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the
Switch, check the remote management settings to find out why the Switch does not
respond to HTTP.
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Chapter 36 Troubleshooting
V
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Switch.
1 Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user
name is admin, and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so
make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2 You may have exceeded the maximum number of concurrent Telnet sessions. Close
other Telnet session(s) or try connecting again later.
Check that you have enabled logins for HTTP or telnet. If you have configured a secured
client IP address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on
access control for details.
3 Turn the Switch off and on.
4 Disconnect and re-connect the cord to the Switch.
5 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6
on page 56.
V
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
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CHAPTER
37
Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the Switch’s hardware and firmware features.
Table 109 Hardware Specifications
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Dimensions
Standard 19” rack mountable
GS-3012F: 438 mm (W) x 225 mm (D) x 45 mm (H)
GS-3012: 438 mm (W) x 300 mm (D) x 45 mm (H)
Weight
GS-3012F: 3.1 Kg
GS-3012: 4 Kg
Power Specification
One Backup Power Supply (BPS) connector
GS-3012F
AC: 100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz, 1.5 A Max.
DC: -48 VDC ~ -60 VDC, 1.25 A Max.
GS-3012
AC: 100-240 VAC 50/60 Hzx 1.5 A Max.
DC: -48 VDC ~ -60 VDC, 1.5 A Max.
Note: There is no tolerance for the DC input voltage
Power Consumption
GS-3012 AC unit: 50W maximum
GS-3012 DC unit: 48W maximum
GS-3012F AC unit: 36W maximum
GS-3012F DC unit: 38W maximum
Interfaces
GS-3012F: 8 mini-GBIC (SFP) slots
GS-3012: 8 10/100/1000 Base-Tx ports
All Models: 4 GbE Dual Personality interfaces (Each interface has one
1000BASE-T RJ-45 port and one Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) slot,
with one port active at a time.)
One local management RJ-45 port
Auto-negotiation
Auto-MDIX
One console port
Compliant with IEEE 802.3ad/u/x
Back pressure flow control for half duplex
Flow control for full duplex (IEEE 802.3x)
LEDs
Per switch: BPS, PWR, SYS, ALM
Per Gigabit RJ-45 port/Mini-GBIC slot: 100, 1000, LNK, ACT
Per mini-GBIC slot: LNK, ACT
Per Management port: 10, 100
Operating Environment
Temperature: 0º C ~ 45º C (32º F ~ 113º F)
Humidity: 10 ~ 90% (non-condensing)
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Table 109 Hardware Specifications
Storage Environment
Temperature: -25º C ~ 70º C (-13º F ~ 158º F)
Humidity: 10 ~ 90% (non-condensing)
Ground Wire Gauge
18 AWG or larger
Power Wire Gauge
18 AWG or larger
Fuse Specification
250 VAC, T2A
Table 110 Firmware Specifications
276
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Default IP Address
In band: 192.168.1.1
Out of band (Management port): 192.168.0.1
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Administrator User Name
admin
Default Password
1234
Number of Login Accounts
Configurable on the Switch
4 management accounts configured on the Switch.
Authentication via RADIUS and TACACS+ also available.
VLAN
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be
partitioned into multiple logical networks. Devices on a logical network
belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one group. With
VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not
in the same group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
MAC Address Filter
Filter traffic based on the source and/or destination MAC address and
VLAN group (ID).
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)
Relay
Use this feature to have the Switch forward DHCP requests to DHCP
servers on your network.
IGMP Snooping
The Switch supports IGMP snooping, enabling group multicast traffic to
be only forwarded to ports that are members of that group; thus allowing
you to significantly reduce multicast traffic passing through your Switch.
Classifier and Policy
You can create a policy to define actions to be performed on a traffic flow
grouped by a classifier according to specific criteria such as the IP
address, port number or protocol type, etc.
Queuing
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is
network congestion. The following scheduling services are supported:
Strict Priority Queuing (SPQ) and Weighted Round Robin (WRR). This
allows the Switch to maintain separate queues for packets from each
individual source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the
bandwidth.
Bandwidth Control
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for
incoming and/or out-going traffic flows on a port.
Broadcast Storm Control
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and
destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the Switch receives per second
on the ports.
Two Rate Three Color
Marker
Two Rate Three Color Marker (trTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of
traffic policing that identifies packets by comparing them to two userdefined rates: the Committed Information Rate (CIR) and the Peak
Information Rate (PIR).
Port Mirroring
Port mirroring allows you to copy traffic going from one or all ports to
another or all ports in order that you can examine the traffic from the
mirror port (the port you copy the traffic to) without interference.
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Table 110 Firmware Specifications
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Static Route
Static routes allow the Switch to communicate with management
stations not reachable via the default gateway.
Multicast VLAN Registration
(MVR)
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as
Media-on-Demand (MoD)) using multicast traffic across a network. MVR
allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different
subscriber VLANs on the network.
This improves bandwidth utilization by reducing multicast traffic in the
subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
IP Multicast
With IP multicast, the Switch delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on
the network - not everybody. In addition, the Switch can send packets to
Ethernet devices that are not VLAN-aware by untagging (removing the
VLAN tags) IP multicast packets.
STP (Spanning Tree
Protocol) / RSTP (Rapid
STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links
between switches, bridges or routers. It allows a Switch to interact with
other (R)STP -compliant switches in your network to ensure that only
one path exists between any two stations on the network.
Loop Guard
Use the loop guard feature to protect against network loops on the edge
of your network.
IP Source Guard
Use IP source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in
your network.
Link Aggregation
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one
logical higher-capacity link. You may want to trunk ports if for example, it
is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to under-utilize a highspeed, but more costly, single-port link.
Port Authentication and
Security
For security, the Switch allows authentication using IEEE 802.1x with an
external RADIUS server and port security that allows only packets with
dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured static MAC
addresses to pass through a port on the Switch.
Authentication and
Accounting
The Switch supports authentication and accounting services via
RADIUS and TACACS+ AAA servers.
Device Management
Use the web configurator or commands to easily configure the rich range
of features on the Switch.
Port Cloning
Use the port cloning feature to copy the settings you configure on one
port to another port or ports.
Syslog
The Switch can generate syslog messages and send it to a syslog
server.
Firmware Upgrade
Download new firmware (when available) from the ZyXEL web site and
use the web configurator, CLI or an FTP/TFTP tool to put it on the
Switch.
Note: Only upload firmware for your specific model!
Configuration Backup &
Restoration
Make a copy of the Switch’s configuration and put it back on the Switch
later if you decide you want to revert back to an earlier configuration.
Cluster Management
Cluster management (also known as iStacking) allows you to manage
switches through one switch, called the cluster manager. The switches
must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be
able to communicate with one another.
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Table 111 Feature Specifications
Layer 2
Features
Layer 3
Features
Bridging
16K MAC addresses
Static MAC address filtering by source/destination
Broadcast storm control
Static MAC address forwarding
Switching
Switching fabric: 24 Gbps, non-blocking
Max. Frame size: 9 K bytes
Forwarding frame: IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.1q, Ethernet II, PPPoE
Prevent the forwarding of corrupted packets
STP
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree capability (2 configurable trees)
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
QoS
IEEE 802.1p
Eight priority queues per port
Port-based egress traffic shaping
Rule-based traffic mirroring
Supports IGMP snooping
VLAN
Port-based VLAN setting
Tag-based (IEEE 802.1Q) VLAN
Number of VLAN: 4K, 1000 static maximum
Supports GVRP
Subnet Based VLAN
Port
Aggregation
Supports IEEE 802.3ad; static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking
Six groups (up to 8 ports each)
Port mirroring
All ports support port mirroring
Support port mirroring per IP/TCP/UDP
Bandwidth
control
Supports rate limiting at 1 Mb increment
IP Capability
IPV4 support
64 Management IPs
Wire speed IP forwarding
Routing
protocols
Static Routing
IP services
DHCP relay; VLAN based DHCP server/relay
DHCP Snooping
Security
IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
Static MAC address filtering
Limiting number of dynamic addresses per port
The following list, which is not exhaustive, illustrates the standards supported in the Switch.
Table 112 Standards Supported
278
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 826
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
RFC 867
Daytime Protocol
RFC 868
Time Protocol
RFC 894
Ethernet II Encapsulation
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Table 112 Standards Supported (continued)
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 1112
IGMP v1
RFC 1155
SMI
RFC 1157
SNMPv1: Simple Network Management Protocol version 1
RFC 1213
SNMP MIB II
RFC 1305
Network Time Protocol (NTP version 3)
RFC 1441
SNMPv2 Simple Network Management Protocol version 2
RFC 1493
Bridge MIBs
RFC 1643
Ethernet MIBs
RFC 1757
RMON
RFC 1901
SNMPv2c Simple Network Management Protocol version 2c
RFC 2138
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
RFC 2139
RADIUS Accounting
RFC 2236
Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2.
RFC 2698
Two Rate Three Color Marker (trTCM)
RFC 2865
RADIUS - Vendor Specific Attribute
RFC 2674
P-BRIDGE-MIB, Q-BRIDGE-MIB
RFC 3046
DHCP Relay
RFC 3164
Syslog
RFC 3376
Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3
RFC 3414
User-based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP v3)
RFC 3580
RADIUS - Tunnel Protocol Attribute
IEEE 802.1x
Port Based Network Access Control
IEEE 802.1D
MAC Bridges
IEEE 802.1p
Traffic Types - Packet Priority
IEEE 802.1Q
Tagged VLAN
IEEE 802.1w
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
IEEE 802.1s
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
IEEE 802.3
Packet Format
IEEE 802.3ad
Link Aggregation
IEEE 802.3ah
Ethernet OAM (Operations, Administration and Maintanence)
IEEE 802.3x
Flow Control
Safety
UL 60950-1
CSA 60950-1
EN 60950-1
IEC 60950-1
EMC
FCC Part 15 (Class A)
CE EMC (Class A)
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280
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
P ART VII
Appendices and
Index
IP Addresses and Subnetting (283)
Common Services (293)
Legal Information (297)
Customer Support (301)
Index (307)
281
282
APPENDIX
A
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also
use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a
common network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on
the network has its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network
number to send packets to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on
the network the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1)
are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 162 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies
according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “subnetwork”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the
IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text)
and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 113 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example
1ST
OCTET:
(192)
2ND
OCTET:
(168)
3RD
OCTET:
(1)
4TH OCTET
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of
32 bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1”
value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the
remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
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Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet
masks.
Table 114 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can
have on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number
of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast
address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number
of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 115 Maximum Host Numbers
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOSTS
8 bits
255.0.0.0
24 bits
224
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
216 – 2
65534
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
28 – 2
254
3 bits
23
6
29 bits
255.255.255.248
–2
16777214
–2
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 116 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 116 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation (continued)
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following
example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from
the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the
address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a
maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 163 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate
sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets;
192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 164 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 27 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host
ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
Table 117 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 118 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 119 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 120 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and
111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 121 Eight Subnets
288
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 121 Eight Subnets (continued)
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network
number.
Table 122 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network
number.
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
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Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning (continued)
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this
block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you
are told otherwise. You must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the Switch.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your Switch that is easy
to remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that no other device on your network is
using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Switch will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the Switch unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597,
Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP
Address Space.
290
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
IP Address Conflicts
Each device on a network must have a unique IP address. Devices with duplicate IP addresses
on the same network will not be able to access the Internet or other resources. The devices may
also be unreachable through the network.
Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example computer A
has a static (or fixed) IP address that is the same as the IP address that a DHCP server assigns
to computer B which is a DHCP client. Neither can access the Internet. This problem can be
solved by assigning a different static IP address to computer A or setting computer A to obtain
an IP address automatically.
Figure 165 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
Conflicting Router IP Addresses Example
Since a router connects different networks, it must have interfaces using different network
numbers. For example, if a router is set between a LAN and the Internet (WAN), the router’s
LAN and WAN addresses must be on different subnets. In the following example, the LAN
and WAN are on the same subnet. The LAN computers cannot access the Internet because the
router cannot route between networks.
Figure 166 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
291
Appendix A IP Addresses and Subnetting
Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example, the computer
and the router’s LAN port both use 192.168.1.1 as the IP address. The computer cannot access
the Internet. This problem can be solved by assigning a different IP address to the computer or
the router’s LAN port.
Figure 167 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
292
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
APPENDIX
B
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services,
visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the
service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is User-Defined, the Port(s)
is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further
information about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the
situations in which this service is used.
Table 124 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also
used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
UDP
7648
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for example
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out if a
user is logged on.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
293
Appendix B Common Services
Table 124 Commonly Used Services (continued)
294
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
FTP
TCP
TCP
20
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable
fast transfer of files, including large files that
may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used
in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST) User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used
when sending packets to a specific group of
hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is
used for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service
uses this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that
sends out ICMP echo requests to test
whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Appendix B Common Services
Table 124 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface
to access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and
network servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in
UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/
IP networks. Its primary function is to allow
users to log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet
file transfer protocol similar to FTP, but
uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
rather than TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
295
Appendix B Common Services
296
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
APPENDIX
C
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
297
Appendix C Legal Information
FCC Warning
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital switch,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This device generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of
this device in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user
will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
CE Mark Warning:
This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference
in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
Taiwanese BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) A Warning:
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
APPAREIL A LASER DE CLASS 1
PRODUCT COMPLIES WITH 21 CFR 1040.10 AND 1040.11.
PRODUIT CONFORME SELON 21 CFR 1040.10 ET 1040.11.
Viewing Certifications
1 Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2 Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
298
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Appendix C Legal Information
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act
of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information
at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
299
Appendix C Legal Information
300
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
APPENDIX
D
W E B : Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
Required Information
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
“+” is the (prefix) number you dial to make an international telephone call.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-3-578-3942
Fax: +886-3-578-2439
Web: www.zyxel.com, www.europe.zyxel.com
FTP: ftp.zyxel.com, ftp.europe.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science Park,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
Costa Rica
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: soporte@zyxel.co.cr
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.cr
Telephone: +506-2017878
Fax: +506-2015098
Web: www.zyxel.co.cr
FTP: ftp.zyxel.co.cr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Costa Rica, Plaza Roble Escazú, Etapa El Patio, Tercer Piso, San
José, Costa Rica
Czech Republic
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@cz.zyxel.com
Telephone: +420-241-091-350
Fax: +420-241-091-359
Web: www.zyxel.cz
[Document Title]
301
Appendix D Customer Support
• Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Czech s.r.o., Modranská 621, 143 01 Praha 4 Modrany, Ceská Republika
Denmark
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.dk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.dk
Telephone: +45-39-55-07-00
Fax: +45-39-55-07-07
Web: www.zyxel.dk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Columbusvej, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark
Finland
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.fi
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.fi
Telephone: +358-9-4780-8411
Fax: +358-9-4780-8448
Web: www.zyxel.fi
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Oy, Malminkaari 10, 00700 Helsinki, Finland
France
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@zyxel.fr
Telephone: +33-4-72-52-97-97
Fax: +33-4-72-52-19-20
Web: www.zyxel.fr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL France, 1 rue des Vergers, Bat. 1 / C, 69760 Limonest, France
Germany
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.de
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.de
Telephone: +49-2405-6909-69
Fax: +49-2405-6909-99
Web: www.zyxel.de
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH., Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146, Wuerselen,
Germany
Hungary
•
•
•
•
•
•
302
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.hu
Sales E-mail: info@zyxel.hu
Telephone: +36-1-3361649
Fax: +36-1-3259100
Web: www.zyxel.hu
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Hungary, 48, Zoldlomb Str., H-1025, Budapest, Hungary
[Document Title]
Appendix D Customer Support
India
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.in
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.in
Telephone: +91-11-30888144 to +91-11-30888153
Fax: +91-11-30888149, +91-11-26810715
Web: http://www.zyxel.in
Regular Mail: India - ZyXEL Technology India Pvt Ltd., II-Floor, F2/9 Okhla Phase -1,
New Delhi 110020, India
Japan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.jp
Sales E-mail: zyp@zyxel.co.jp
Telephone: +81-3-6847-3700
Fax: +81-3-6847-3705
Web: www.zyxel.co.jp
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Japan, 3F, Office T&U, 1-10-10 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku,
Tokyo 141-0022, Japan
Kazakhstan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support: http://zyxel.kz/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.kz
Telephone: +7-3272-590-698
Fax: +7-3272-590-689
Web: www.zyxel.kz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Kazakhstan, 43 Dostyk Ave., Office 414, Dostyk Business Centre,
050010 Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
Malaysia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.my
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.my
Telephone: +603-8076-9933
Fax: +603-8076-9833
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.my
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Malaysia Sdn Bhd., 1-02 & 1-03, Jalan Kenari 17F, Bandar
Puchong Jaya, 47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
North America
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com
Telephone: +1-800-255-4101, +1-714-632-0882
Fax: +1-714-632-0858
Web: www.us.zyxel.com
FTP: ftp.us.zyxel.com
[Document Title]
303
Appendix D Customer Support
• Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Inc., 1130 N. Miller St., Anaheim, CA 928062001, U.S.A.
Norway
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.no
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.no
Telephone: +47-22-80-61-80
Fax: +47-22-80-61-81
Web: www.zyxel.no
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Nils Hansens vei 13, 0667 Oslo, Norway
Poland
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@pl.zyxel.com
Telephone: +48-22-333 8250
Fax: +48-22-333 8251
Web: www.pl.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, ul. Okrzei 1A, 03-715 Warszawa, Poland
Russia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support: http://zyxel.ru/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.ru
Telephone: +7-095-542-89-29
Fax: +7-095-542-89-25
Web: www.zyxel.ru
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Russia, Ostrovityanova 37a Str., Moscow 117279, Russia
Singapore
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.sg
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.sg
Telephone: +65-6899-6678
Fax: +65-6899-8887
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.sg
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Singapore Pte Ltd., No. 2 International Business Park, The
Strategy #03-28, Singapore 609930
Spain
•
•
•
•
•
•
304
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.es
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.es
Telephone: +34-902-195-420
Fax: +34-913-005-345
Web: www.zyxel.es
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Arte, 21 5ª planta, 28033 Madrid, Spain
[Document Title]
Appendix D Customer Support
Sweden
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.se
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.se
Telephone: +46-31-744-7700
Fax: +46-31-744-7701
Web: www.zyxel.se
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg, Sweden
Thailand
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.th
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.th
Telephone: +662-831-5315
Fax: +662-831-5395
Web: http://www.zyxel.co.th
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Thailand Co., Ltd., 1/1 Moo 2, Ratchaphruk Road, Bangrak-Noi,
Muang, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
Ukraine
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@ua.zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@ua.zyxel.com
Telephone: +380-44-247-69-78
Fax: +380-44-494-49-32
Web: www.ua.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Ukraine, 13, Pimonenko Str., Kiev 04050, Ukraine
United Kingdom
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.uk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.uk
Telephone: +44-1344-303044, 08707-555779 (UK only)
Fax: +44-1344-303034
Web: www.zyxel.co.uk
FTP: ftp.zyxel.co.uk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications UK Ltd., 11 The Courtyard, Eastern Road,
Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2XB, United Kingdom (UK)
[Document Title]
305
Appendix D Customer Support
306
[Document Title]
Index
Index
Numerics
802.1P priority 79
A
AAA 169
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
169
access control
limitations 233
login account 242
remote management 249
service port 248
SNMP 234
accounting 169
setup 174
address learning, MAC 91
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 265, 267, 268
administrator password 243
age 113
aggregator ID 125, 126
aging time 74
airflow 46
ALM LED 46
alternative subnet mask notation 285
applications
backbone 31
bridging 32
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 33
switched workgroup 32
ARP
how it works 265
viewing 265
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 265
ARP inspection 183, 185
and MAC filter 186
configuring 186
syslog messages 186
trusted ports 186
authentication 169
setup 174
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting, see
AAA 169
authorization 169
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
privilege levels 175
auto-crossover 43
automatic VLAN registration 84
B
back up, configuration file 230
Backup Power Supply (BPS) 45
bandwidth control 117, 278
egress rate 118
ingress rate 118
setup 117
bandwidth control and TRTCM 210
basic settings 69
binding 183
binding table 183
building 183
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 100
BPS LED 46
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 100
bridging 278
broadcast storm control 119
C
certifications 297
notices 298
viewing 298
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) 83
changing the password 54
CIR (Committed Information Rate) 117
CIST 104
Class of Service (CoS) 207
classifier 141, 143
and QoS 141
editing 144
example 145
overview 141
setup 141, 143, 144
viewing 144
cloning a port See port cloning
cluster management 257
307
Index
and switch passwords 262
cluster manager 257, 261
cluster member 257, 262
cluster member firmware upgrade 260
network example 257
setup 260
specification 257
status 258
switch models 257
VID 261
web configurator 259
cluster manager 257
cluster member 257
Committed Information Rate (CIR) 117
Common and Internal Spanning Tree, See CIST 104
configuration 217
change running config 229
configuration file 56
backup 230
restore 56, 230
saving 228
configuration, saving 55
console port 42
contact information 301
copying port settings, See port cloning
copyright 297
CPU management port 93
current date 72
current time 72
customer support 301
ping 251
system log 251
Differentiated Service (DiffServ) 207
DiffServ
and TRTCM 210
DS field 207
DSCP 207
network example 208
PHB 207
dimensions 275
disclaimer 297
DS (Differentiated Services) 207
DSCP
service level 207
what it does 207
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) 207
dynamic link aggregation 123
E
egress port 94
egress rate, and bandwidth control 118
Ethernet broadcast address 265
Ethernet port test 251
external authentication server 170
F
D
daylight saving time 72
default Ethernet settings 43
default IP address 45
DHCP 219
configuration options 219
modes 219
relay agent 219
relay example 224
setup 222
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) 219
DHCP relay option 82 185
DHCP snooping 183
configuring 185
DHCP relay option 82 185
trusted ports 184
untrusted ports 184
DHCP snooping database 184
diagnostics 251
Ethernet port test 251
308
fan speed 70
FCC interference statement 297
feature summary 52
file transfer using FTP
command example 231
filename convention, configuration
configuration
file names 231
filtering 97
rules 97
filtering database, MAC table 263
firmware 70
upgrade 229, 260
flow control 79
back pressure 79
IEEE802.3x 79
forwarding
delay 113
frames
tagged 89
untagged 89
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Index
front panel 41
FTP 231
file transfer procedure 231
restrictions over WAN 232
G
GARP 84
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) 84
GARP terminology 84
GARP timer 74, 84
general features 278
general setup 71
getting help 57
Gigabit ports 42
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 72
GS-3012 models 31
GS-3012F models 31
GVRP 84, 89
and port assignment 89
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) 84
H
hardware installation 37
hardware monitor 70
hardware overview 41
hello time 113
hops 113
HTTPS 245
certificates 245
implementation 245
public keys, private keys 245
HTTPS example 246
humidity 275
I
IANA 290
IEEE 802.1p, priority 75
IEEE 802.1x
activate 133, 134, 172, 174
reauthentication 134
IEEE 802.1x, port authentication 131
IGMP
version 155
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 155
IGMP filtering 155
profile 160
profiles 157
IGMP snooping 155
and VLANs 156
MVR 161
setup 158
ingress port 94
ingress rate, and bandwidth control 118
installation
desktop 37
precautions 38
rack-mounting 38
transceivers 44
installation scenarios 37
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
See IANA 290
introduction 31
IP
capability 278
services 278
IP address 77
IP interface 75
IP setup 75
IP source guard 183
ARP inspection 183, 185
DHCP snooping 183
static bindings 183
IP subnet mask 77
L
LACP 123
system priority 127
timeout 128
layer 2 features 278
layer 3 features 278
LEDs 46
ALM 46
BPS 46
PWR 46
SYS 46
limit MAC address learning 138
Link Aggregate Control Protocol (LACP) 123
link aggregation 123
dynamic 123
ID information 124
setup 125, 126
status 124
lockout 55
log 251
309
Index
login 49
password 54
login account
Administrator 242
non-administrator 243
login accounts 242
configuring via web configurator 242
multiple 242
number of 242
login password 243
loop guard 203
examples 204
port shut down 205
setup 205
vs STP 203
M
MAC (Media Access Control) 70
MAC address 70, 265
maximum number per port 138
MAC address learning 74, 91, 95, 138
specify limit 138
MAC authentication 131
aging time 135
example 132
setup 134
MAC filter
and ARP inspection 186
MAC table 263
how it works 263
viewing 264
maintanence
configuration backup 230
firmware 229
restoring configuration 230
maintenance 227
current configuration 227
main screen 227
Management Information Base (MIB) 234
management port 45, 94
default IP address 45
managing the device
good habits 34
using FTP. See FTP. 34
using Telnet. See command interface. 34
using the command interface. See command
interface. 34
man-in-the-middle attacks 185
max
age 113
hops 113
MDIX (Media Dependent Interface Crossover) 43
310
MGMT port 45
MIB
and SNMP 234
supported MIBs 235
MIB (Management Information Base) 234
mirroring ports 121
model types 31
monitor port 121, 122
mounting brackets 38
MRSTP
status 110
MST ID 103
MST Instance, See MSTI 103
MST region 103
MSTI 103
MSTP 99, 102
bridge ID 115, 116
configuration 111
configuration digest 116
forwarding delay 113
Hello Time 115
hello time 113
Max Age 115
max age 113
max hops 113
path cost 114
port priority 114
revision level 113
status 114
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 73
multicast 155
802.1 priority 157
and IGMP 155
IP addresses 155
overview 155
setup 156, 157
multicast group 160
multicast VLAN 164
Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 101
Multiple RSTP 101
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, See MSTP 99, 102
Multiple STP 102
MVR 161
configuration 162
group configuration 164
network example 161
MVR (Multicast VLAN Registration) 161
N
NAT 290
network applications 31
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Index
network management system (NMS) 234
NTP (RFC-1305) 72
P
password 54
administrator 243
Peak Information Rate (PIR) 117
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 207
ping, test connection 251
PIR (Peak Information Rate) 117
policy 149, 150
and classifier 149
and DiffServ 147
configuration 149
example 151
overview 147
rules 147, 148
viewing 150
policy configuration 150
port authentication 131
and RADIUS 170
IEEE802.1x 133, 172, 174
MAC authentication 131
port based VLAN type 74
port cloning 267, 268
advanced settings 267, 268
basic settings 267, 268
port details 64
port isolation 89, 94
port mirroring 121, 122, 278
direction 122
egress 122
ingress 122
port redundancy 123
port security 137
limit MAC address learning 138
MAC address learning 137
overview 137
setup 137, 205
port setup 78
port status 63
port VLAN trunking 85
port-based VLAN 92
all connected 94
port isolation 94
settings wizard 94
ports
“standby” 123
diagnostics 251
mirroring 121
speed/duplex 79
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
power
voltage 71
power connector 45
power consumption 275
power specification 275
power status 71
priority level 75
priority, queue assignment 75
product registration 299
PVID 83, 89
PVID (Priority Frame) 83
PWR LED 46
Q
QoS 278
and classifier 141
Queue priority 154
Queue weight 154
queue weight 153
queuing 153
SPQ 153
WRR 153
Queuing algorithm 154
Queuing method 154
queuing method 153
R
rack-mounting 38
RADIUS 169, 170
advantages 170
and port authentication 170
and tunnel protocol attribute 178
Network example 169
server 170
settings 170
setup 170
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, See RSTP. 99
rear panel 45
rear panel connections 45
reboot
load configuration 229
reboot system 229
registration
product 299
related documentation 3
remote management 249
311
Index
service 250
trusted computers 250
resetting 56, 228
to factory default settings 228
restoring configuration 56, 230
RFC 3164 253
Round Robin Scheduling 153
routing protocols 278
RSTP 99
rubber feet 37
S
safety certifications 279
safety warnings 6
save configuration 55, 228
screen summary 52
Secure Shell See SSH
security 278
service access control 248
service port 249
Simple Network Management Protocol, see SNMP
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) 43
SNMP 234
agent 234
and MIB 234
and security 235
authentication 241
communities 240
management model 234
manager 234
MIB 235
network components 234
object variables 234
protocol operations 234
security 241
setup 239, 241
version 3 235
versions supported 234
SNMP traps 235, 236, 237, 238, 239
setup 241
Spanning Tree Protocol, See STP. 99
SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) 153
SSH
encryption methods 245
how it works 244
implementation 245
SSH (Secure Shell) 244
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) 245
standby ports 123
static bindings 183
312
static link aggregation example 128
static MAC address 95
static MAC forwarding 91, 95
static routes 217
static trunking example 128
Static VLAN 87
static VLAN
control 88
tagging 88
status 50, 63
link aggregation 124
MSTP 114
port 63
port details 64
power 71
STP 107, 110
VLAN 86
STP 99, 278
bridge ID 108, 111
bridge priority 106, 109
configuration 106, 109
designated bridge 100
forwarding delay 107, 110
Hello BPDU 100
Hello Time 107, 108, 109, 111
how it works 100
Max Age 107, 108, 110, 111
path cost 100, 107, 110
port priority 107, 110
port state 101
root port 100
status 107, 110
terminology 99
vs loop guard 203
subnet 283
subnet based VLAN 91
and DHCP VLAN 91
priority 91
setup 91
subnet based VLANs 90
subnet mask 284
subnetting 286
switch lockout 55
switch reset 56
switch setup 73
switching 278
syntax conventions 4
SYS LED 46
syslog 186, 253
protocol 253
server setup 254
settings 253
setup 253
severity levels 253
system information 69
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
Index
system log 251
system reboot 229
T
TACACS+ 169, 170
setup 172
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller AccessControl System Plus) 169
tagged VLAN 83
temperature 275
temperature indicator 70
terminal emulation 42
time
current 72
time zone 72
Time (RFC-868) 72
time server 72
time service protocol 72
format 72
trademarks 297
transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA) 43
transceivers 43
installation 44
removal 44
traps
destination 240
TRTCM
and bandwidth control 210
and DiffServ 210
color-aware mode 209
color-blind mode 209
setup 210
TRTCM (Two Rate Three Color Marker) 208
trunk group 123
trunking 123, 278
example 128
trusted ports
ARP inspection 186
DHCP snooping 184
tunnel protocol attribute, and RADIUS 178
Two Rate Three Color Marker (TRTCM) 208
Type of Service (ToS) 207
U
untrusted ports
ARP inspection 186
DHCP snooping 184
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide
user profiles 169
V
Vendor Specific Attribute See VSA
ventilation 37
ventilation holes 38
VID 83, 86, 87
number of possible VIDs 83
priority frame 83
VID (VLAN Identifier) 83
VLAN 73, 83, 278
acceptable frame type 89
automatic registration 84
ID 83
IGMP snooping 156
ingress filtering 89
introduction 73
number of VLANs 86
port isolation 89
port number 87
port settings 88
port-based VLAN 92
port-based, all connected 94
port-based, isolation 94
port-based, wizard 94
static VLAN 87
status 86, 87
subnet based 90
tagged 83
trunking 85, 89
type 74, 85
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 73
VLAN ID 77
VSA 177
VT100 42
W
warranty 298
note 299
web configurator 49
getting help 57
home 50
login 49
logout 57
navigation panel 51
screen summary 52
weight, queuing 153
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) 153
313
Index
WRR (Weighted Round Robin Scheduling) 153
Z
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 231
314
GS-3012/GS-3012F User’s Guide