A Comparison of Amateur Radio Digital Voice Systems

A Comparison of Amateur Radio
Digital Voice Systems
presented by
Charlotte Digital Radio Group
March 14, 2015
Topics
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Digital voice description
Technical comparison
Operational features
Programmability
Radio choices
Charlotte DV repeaters
Information sources
Q&A
See p30 April 2015 QST
What is Digital Voice?
• Digital data modulating an RF carrier
• The data is digitized audio from an A/D converter
• It is processed through a vocoder to compress the
data and add forward error correction
• The data is sent serially in uniform length packets
• Header data is pre-pended to provide sync bits,
routing instructions and user identity
• Other data is often interleaved or substituted for the
voice to send text, pictures or other files
Pictorial view
Tech Spec Comparison
D-STAR
DMR
Fusion
Vocoder (see note)
AMBE+
AMBE+2
AMBE+2
Forward Error Corr.
Voice Only
Voice Only
Voice Only
Modulation
GMSK
4FSK
C4FM
Multiplex Method
FDMA
TDMA
FDMA
Transmission Rate
4.8 kbps
4.8 kbps x 2
9.6 kbps
Bandwidth
6.25 kHz
12.5 kHz
12.5 kHz
Channels supported
1
2
1
Standard Developer
JARL
ETSI
Yaesu
GMSK = Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
4FSK = 4-level Frequency Shift Keying
C4FM = Continuous 4-level Frequency Modulation
FDMA = Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA = Time Division Multiple Access
Note: Newer radios implement the vocoder in the DSP chip
Bandwidth Comparison
User Identification
D-STAR
DMR
Fusion
Yes
Yes
No
User identity
Call sign
Subscriber ID
Call sign
ID displayed on radio’s display
Call sign
Subscriber ID*
Call sign
4 characters
20 characters
No
No
Yes†
No
Yes†
Registration required?
Other text display options
Adequate for FCC ID?
* Call sign displayed if the receiving station’s subscriber ID is in the
radio’s contact list; otherwise subscriber ID appears.
† IDing by voice is still a good idea for the benefit of everyone listening.
Repeater Connectability
D-STAR
DMR
Fusion
Talk locally
Yes
Yes
Yes
Link to another repeater
Yes
No
No
Reflectors
Talk Groups
Rooms
UR entry
Channel Dial
DTMF
Route to another ham
Yes
No
No
Echo test
Yes
Yes
No
Request link status
Yes
No
No
Multi-repeater connection
Selection method
Radio Operating Features
D-STAR
DMR
Fusion
Repeater channel selection
Dial
Dial
Dial
Repeater connection selection
Dial
Dial
DTMF code
Key press
Program
Key press *
Difficult/Easy ◊
Difficult
Easy
Steep
Fairly easy
Easy
Mode selection method
Radio programming complexity
Newbie learning curve
User manual pages - older HT
131
(IC-91)
User manual pages - newer HT
425
(ID-51)
65
(CS-700)
* Fusion radios have AMS (automatic mode select)
◊ Older D-STAR radios are more difficult to program. Newer
ones are pre-programmed, but must be updated occasionally
as repeaters change.
247
(FT-1D)
Signal Readability
FM
D-STAR
DMR
Fusion
Voice naturalness
Good
Fair
Good
Best
Signal noise
Varies
None
None
None
Sync robustness
N/A
Fair
Good
Good
Sync recoverability
N/A
Poor
Best
Best
Sync robustness is the tendency to fall out of sync
Sync recoverability is the ability to recover sync quickly
The opinions shown here are highly subjective. Your
opinion may be different.
Networking Characteristics
• D-STAR
− User control capability – excellent
− Networking options – G2, D-Plus, ircDDB
− Innovation ability – many efforts and accomplishments
• DMR
− Centrally controlled structure – inflexible
− Networking options – c-bridge, hytera
− Innovation ability – limited
• Fusion
− Yaesu controlled servers – inflexible
− Networking options – WIRES-X
− Innovation ability –limited
D-STAR HT’s
ID-31A
ID-51A Plus
• Single band (70cm)
• Dual band
• 5W
• 5W
• uSD card record
• uSD card record
• 500 memories
• 1300 memories
• Internal GPS
• Internal GPS
• Repeater geo search
• Repeater geo search
• $295 new
• $450 new
D-STAR Mobile’s
Older – ID-880H
Newer – ID-5100A
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Dual band
50W
1050 memories
$420 new
Dual band Touch Screen
50W
1000 + 1200 DR memories
Internal GPS & DPRS
uSD card recording
Repeater geo search
$600 new
DMR HT’s
MotoTrbo – XPR-7550
Hytera PD782G-U1
• 440 MHz band
• 440 MHz band
• 4W
• 4W
• 1000 channels
• 1024 channels
• $ 700 new
• $ 545 new
DMR HT’s (cont.)
Connect Systems – CS700
• 440 MHz band
• 4W
• 1000 memories
• $ 200 new
DMR Mobile’s
MotoTrbo - XPR-5550
Hytera – MD782G-U1
• 440 MHz band
• 440 MHz band
• 40W
• 1000 channels
• $ 600 new
• 45W
• 1024 channels
• $ 530 new
System Fusion HT’s
Yaesu – FT-1DR
Yaesu FT-2DR (new)
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Dual band
5W
Automatic Mode Select
900 memories
GPS & APRS
$300 new
Dual band
5W
Automatic Mode Select
1245 channels
GPS & APRS
Touch screen
$600 new
System Fusion Mobile
Yaesu – FT-400DR
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Dual band
50W
Automatic Mode Select
900 memories
GPS & APRS
Color Touch screen
$400 new
Other Digital Voice Suppliers
DV Dongle
• Internet Labs
• D-STAR on your PC
• $200 new
Thumb DV
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Northwest Digital Radio
D-STAR on your PC
Uses AMBE 3000
Other modes?
$120 new
Other Digital Voice Devices
DV Access Point
DV Mega
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Internet Labs
Hotspot repeater
Single band
2M $240 new
70 cm $260 new
Guus van Dooren PE1PLM
Hotspot repeater
Dual band
$180 new
Not near a D-STAR Repeater?
Make your own – with this…
Or this…
Raspberry Pi G4KLX GUI
D-RATS
For More Information
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www.charlottedstar.org - This is our web site. Register for D-STAR.
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groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/clt-dstar/info
This is our Yahoo group, but search for other Yahoo groups of interest
such as D-STAR, Fusion, DMR, Connect Systems, etc. There’s many.
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www.dstar101.com
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www.dstarinfo.com
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www.dstarusers.org
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www.maryland-dstar.org - for Raspberry Pi enthusiasts
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www.ncprn.net - Web site for our area DMR repeaters & code plugs.
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www.dmr-marc.net
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www.trbo.org
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www.trinityos.com/HAM/Yaesu-System-Fusion/Yaesu-fusion-and-c4fmv7.pdf - Talk given by David Ranch KI6ZHD at 2015 Bay-Net meeting.
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www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1ClH3R17m0 – Unscientific simplex field
comparison.
Charlotte Area Digital Voice Repeater Locations
A – Spencer Mt. – D-STAR (70cm & 23cm), DMR (70cm Hytera), Fusion (70cm)
B – Hood Rd. – D-STAR (2M & 70cm & 23cm)
C – Wingate – D-STAR (70cm), DMR (70cm)
D – Crowder’s Mt. – D-STAR (23cm), DMR (70cm), NexEdge (70cm)
E – Charlotte – DMR (70cm)
F – Shelby – D-STAR (2m & 70cm)
G – Charlotte (Dallas) DMR (33cm)
Questions?
Be sure to visit us at Booth 22