Fedora 17 System Administrator`s Guide

Fedora 17
System
Administrator's Guide
Deployment, Configuration, and Administration of Fedora 17
Jaromír Hradílek
Douglas Silas
Martin Prpič
Stephen Wadeley
Eliška Slobodová
Tomáš Čapek
Petr Kovář
John Ha
System Administrator's Guide
David O'Brien
Michael Hideo
Don Domingo
Fedora 17 System Administrator's Guide
Deployment, Configuration, and Administration of Fedora 17
Edition 1
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Author
Jaromír Hradílek
Douglas Silas
Martin Prpič
Stephen Wadeley
Eliška Slobodová
Tomáš Čapek
Petr Kovář
John Ha
David O'Brien
Michael Hideo
Don Domingo
jhradilek@redhat.com
silas@redhat.com
mprpic@redhat.com
swadeley@redhat.com
eslobodo@redhat.com
tcapek@redhat.com
pkovar@redhat.com
Copyright © 2012 Red Hat, Inc. and others.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons
Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available
at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. The original authors of this document, and Red Hat,
designate the Fedora Project as the "Attribution Party" for purposes of CC-BY-SA. In accordance with
CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the
original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert,
Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity
Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer to https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/
Legal:Trademark_guidelines.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States
and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other
countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
The System Administrator's Guide documents relevant information regarding the deployment,
configuration, and administration of Fedora 17. It is oriented towards system administrators with a
basic understanding of the system.
Preface
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1. Target Audience .......................................................................................................... xvii
2. How to Read this Book ................................................................................................ xvii
3. Document Conventions .................................................................................................. xx
3.1. Typographic Conventions .................................................................................... xx
3.2. Pull-quote Conventions ....................................................................................... xxi
3.3. Notes and Warnings .......................................................................................... xxii
4. We Need Feedback! .................................................................................................... xxii
5. Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................... xxiii
I. Basic System Configuration
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1. Configuring the Language and Keyboard
1.1. Changing the Language .......................................................................................
1.2. Changing the Date, Time, and Numeric Format ......................................................
1.3. Changing the Keyboard Layout .............................................................................
1.4. Viewing the Current Configuration .........................................................................
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2. Configuring the Date and Time
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2.1. Using the Date and Time Configuration Tool .......................................................... 9
2.2. Using the Command Line Tools .......................................................................... 10
2.2.1. Changing the Date ................................................................................... 10
2.2.2. Changing the Time .................................................................................. 10
2.2.3. Configuring the Network Time Protocol ..................................................... 10
2.3. Additional Resources .......................................................................................... 12
2.3.1. Installed Documentation ........................................................................... 12
3. Managing Users and Groups
3.1. Introduction to Users and Groups ........................................................................
3.1.1. User Private Groups ................................................................................
3.1.2. Shadow Passwords .................................................................................
3.2. Using the User Accounts Tool .............................................................................
3.2.1. Configuring an Account ............................................................................
3.2.2. Adding a New User .................................................................................
3.2.3. Removing a User .....................................................................................
3.3. Using the User Manager Tool .............................................................................
3.3.1. Viewing Users and Groups .......................................................................
3.3.2. Adding a New User .................................................................................
3.3.3. Adding a New Group ...............................................................................
3.3.4. Modifying User Properties ........................................................................
3.3.5. Modifying Group Properties ......................................................................
3.4. Using Command Line Tools ................................................................................
3.4.1. Adding a New User .................................................................................
3.4.2. Adding a New Group ...............................................................................
3.4.3. Enabling Password Aging .........................................................................
3.4.4. Enabling Automatic Logouts .....................................................................
3.4.5. Creating Group Directories .......................................................................
3.5. Additional Resources ..........................................................................................
3.5.1. Installed Documentation ...........................................................................
II. Package Management
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4. Yum
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4.1. Checking For and Updating Packages ................................................................. 31
4.1.1. Checking For Updates ............................................................................. 31
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4.1.2. Updating Packages ..................................................................................
4.1.3. Preserving Configuration File Changes .....................................................
Packages and Package Groups ..........................................................................
4.2.1. Searching Packages ................................................................................
4.2.2. Listing Packages .....................................................................................
4.2.3. Displaying Package Information ................................................................
4.2.4. Installing Packages ..................................................................................
4.2.5. Removing Packages ................................................................................
4.2.6. Working with Transaction History ..............................................................
Configuring Yum and Yum Repositories ...............................................................
4.3.1. Setting [main] Options ..............................................................................
4.3.2. Setting [repository] Options ......................................................................
4.3.3. Using Yum Variables ...............................................................................
4.3.4. Viewing the Current Configuration .............................................................
4.3.5. Adding, Enabling, and Disabling a Yum Repository ....................................
4.3.6. Creating a Yum Repository ......................................................................
Yum Plug-ins .....................................................................................................
4.4.1. Enabling, Configuring, and Disabling Yum Plug-ins ....................................
4.4.2. Installing Additional Yum Plug-ins .............................................................
4.4.3. Plug-in Descriptions .................................................................................
Additional Resources ..........................................................................................
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5. PackageKit
5.1. Updating Packages with Software Update ............................................................
5.1.1. Setting the Update-Checking Interval ........................................................
5.1.2. Setting the Software Sources ...................................................................
5.2. Using Add/Remove Software ..............................................................................
5.2.1. Refreshing Software Sources (Yum Repositories) ......................................
5.2.2. Finding Packages with Filters ...................................................................
5.2.3. Installing and Removing Packages (and Dependencies) .............................
5.2.4. Installing and Removing Package Groups .................................................
5.2.5. Viewing the Transaction Log ....................................................................
5.3. PackageKit Architecture ......................................................................................
5.4. Additional Resources ..........................................................................................
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4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
III. Networking
6. NetworkManager
6.1. The NetworkManager Daemon ............................................................................
6.2. Interacting with NetworkManager .........................................................................
6.2.1. Connecting to a Network ..........................................................................
6.2.2. Configuring New and Editing Existing Connections .....................................
6.2.3. Connecting to a Network Automatically .....................................................
6.2.4. User and System Connections .................................................................
6.3. Establishing Connections ....................................................................................
6.3.1. Establishing a Wired (Ethernet) Connection ...............................................
6.3.2. Establishing a Wireless Connection ..........................................................
6.3.3. Establishing a Mobile Broadband Connection ............................................
6.3.4. Establishing a VPN Connection ................................................................
6.3.5. Establishing a DSL Connection ................................................................
6.3.6. Establishing Routes .................................................................................
6.4. Configuring Connection Settings ..........................................................................
6.4.1. Configuring 802.1x Security ......................................................................
6.4.2. Configuring Wireless Security ...................................................................
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6.4.3. Configuring PPP (Point-to-Point) Settings ..................................................
6.4.4. Configuring IPv4 Settings .........................................................................
6.4.5. Configuring IPv6 Settings .........................................................................
6.5. NetworkManager Architecture .............................................................................
7. Network Interfaces
7.1. Network Configuration Files ..............................................................................
7.2. Interface Configuration Files ..............................................................................
7.2.1. Ethernet Interfaces .................................................................................
7.2.2. Channel Bonding Interfaces ....................................................................
7.2.3. Network Bridge ......................................................................................
7.2.4. Setting Up 802.1q VLAN Tagging ...........................................................
7.2.5. Alias and Clone Files .............................................................................
7.2.6. Dialup Interfaces ....................................................................................
7.2.7. Other Interfaces .....................................................................................
7.3. Interface Control Scripts ....................................................................................
7.4. Static Routes and the Default Gateway ..............................................................
7.5. Network Function Files .....................................................................................
7.6. Additional Resources ........................................................................................
7.6.1. Installed Documentation .........................................................................
7.6.2. Useful Websites .....................................................................................
IV. Infrastructure Services
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8. Services and Daemons
8.1. Configuring Services .........................................................................................
8.1.1. Enabling the Service ..............................................................................
8.1.2. Disabling the Service .............................................................................
8.2. Running Services .............................................................................................
8.2.1. Checking the Service Status ...................................................................
8.2.2. Running the Service ...............................................................................
8.2.3. Stopping the Service ..............................................................................
8.2.4. Restarting the Service ............................................................................
8.3. Additional Resources ........................................................................................
8.3.1. Installed Documentation .........................................................................
8.3.2. Related Books .......................................................................................
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9. Configuring Authentication
9.1. The Authentication Configuration Tool ................................................................
9.1.1. Identity & Authentication .........................................................................
9.1.2. Advanced Options ..................................................................................
9.1.3. Command Line Version ..........................................................................
9.2. The System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) .................................................
9.2.1. What is SSSD? .....................................................................................
9.2.2. SSSD Features ......................................................................................
9.2.3. Setting Up SSSD ...................................................................................
9.2.4. Configuring Services ..............................................................................
9.2.5. Configuring Domains ..............................................................................
9.2.6. Setting Up Kerberos Authentication .........................................................
9.2.7. Configuring a Proxy Domain ...................................................................
9.2.8. Troubleshooting .....................................................................................
9.2.9. SSSD Configuration File Format .............................................................
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10. OpenSSH
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10.1. The SSH Protocol ........................................................................................... 169
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10.1.1. Why Use SSH? ...................................................................................
10.1.2. Main Features ......................................................................................
10.1.3. Protocol Versions .................................................................................
10.1.4. Event Sequence of an SSH Connection ................................................
10.2. An OpenSSH Configuration .............................................................................
10.2.1. Configuration Files ...............................................................................
10.2.2. Starting an OpenSSH Server ................................................................
10.2.3. Requiring SSH for Remote Connections ................................................
10.2.4. Using a Key-Based Authentication ........................................................
10.3. OpenSSH Clients ............................................................................................
10.3.1. Using the ssh Utility .............................................................................
10.3.2. Using the scp Utility ............................................................................
10.3.3. Using the sftp Utility ..........................................................................
10.4. More Than a Secure Shell ..............................................................................
10.4.1. X11 Forwarding ...................................................................................
10.4.2. Port Forwarding ...................................................................................
10.5. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
10.5.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
10.5.2. Useful Websites ...................................................................................
V. Servers
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11. DHCP Servers
11.1. Why Use DHCP? ............................................................................................
11.2. Configuring a DHCP Server ............................................................................
11.2.1. Configuration File .................................................................................
11.2.2. Lease Database ...................................................................................
11.2.3. Starting and Stopping the Server ..........................................................
11.2.4. DHCP Relay Agent ..............................................................................
11.3. Configuring a DHCP Client ..............................................................................
11.4. Configuring a Multihomed DHCP Server ..........................................................
11.4.1. Host Configuration ...............................................................................
11.5. DHCP for IPv6 (DHCPv6) ...............................................................................
11.6. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
11.6.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
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12. DNS Servers
12.1. Introduction to DNS ........................................................................................
12.1.1. Nameserver Zones ...............................................................................
12.1.2. Nameserver Types ...............................................................................
12.1.3. BIND as a Nameserver ........................................................................
12.2. BIND ..............................................................................................................
12.2.1. Configuring the named Service .............................................................
12.2.2. Editing Zone Files ................................................................................
12.2.3. Using the rndc Utility ............................................................................
12.2.4. Using the dig Utility ..............................................................................
12.2.5. Advanced Features of BIND .................................................................
12.2.6. Common Mistakes to Avoid ..................................................................
12.2.7. Additional Resources ............................................................................
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13. Web Servers
13.1. The Apache HTTP Server ...............................................................................
13.1.1. New Features ......................................................................................
13.1.2. Notable Changes .................................................................................
13.1.3. Updating the Configuration ...................................................................
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13.1.5.
13.1.6.
13.1.7.
13.1.8.
13.1.9.
Running the httpd Service ....................................................................
Editing the Configuration Files ..............................................................
Working with Modules ..........................................................................
Setting Up Virtual Hosts .......................................................................
Setting Up an SSL Server ....................................................................
Additional Resources ............................................................................
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14. Mail Servers
14.1. Email Protocols ..............................................................................................
14.1.1. Mail Transport Protocols .......................................................................
14.1.2. Mail Access Protocols ..........................................................................
14.2. Email Program Classifications .........................................................................
14.2.1. Mail Transport Agent ............................................................................
14.2.2. Mail Delivery Agent ..............................................................................
14.2.3. Mail User Agent ...................................................................................
14.3. Mail Transport Agents .....................................................................................
14.3.1. Postfix .................................................................................................
14.3.2. Sendmail .............................................................................................
14.3.3. Fetchmail .............................................................................................
14.3.4. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration .............................................
14.4. Mail Delivery Agents .......................................................................................
14.4.1. Procmail Configuration .........................................................................
14.4.2. Procmail Recipes .................................................................................
14.5. Mail User Agents ............................................................................................
14.5.1. Securing Communication ......................................................................
14.6. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
14.6.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
14.6.2. Useful Websites ...................................................................................
14.6.3. Related Books .....................................................................................
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15. Directory Servers
15.1. OpenLDAP .....................................................................................................
15.1.1. Introduction to LDAP ............................................................................
15.1.2. Installing the OpenLDAP Suite ..............................................................
15.1.3. Configuring an OpenLDAP Server .........................................................
15.1.4. Running an OpenLDAP Server .............................................................
15.1.5. Configuring a System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP .........................
15.1.6. Additional Resources ............................................................................
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16. File and Print Servers
16.1. Samba ...........................................................................................................
16.1.1. Introduction to Samba ..........................................................................
16.1.2. Samba Daemons and Related Services .................................................
16.1.3. Connecting to a Samba Share ..............................................................
16.1.4. Configuring a Samba Server .................................................................
16.1.5. Starting and Stopping Samba ...............................................................
16.1.6. Samba Server Types and the smb.conf File ........................................
16.1.7. Samba Security Modes ........................................................................
16.1.8. Samba Account Information Databases .................................................
16.1.9. Samba Network Browsing .....................................................................
16.1.10. Samba with CUPS Printing Support .....................................................
16.1.11. Samba Distribution Programs ..............................................................
16.1.12. Additional Resources ..........................................................................
16.2. FTP ...............................................................................................................
16.2.1. The File Transfer Protocol ....................................................................
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16.2.2. FTP Servers ........................................................................................
16.2.3. Files Installed with vsftpd ...................................................................
16.2.4. Starting and Stopping vsftpd ..............................................................
16.2.5. vsftpd Configuration Options ..............................................................
16.2.6. Additional Resources ............................................................................
16.3. Printer Configuration .......................................................................................
16.3.1. Starting the Printer Configuration Tool ...................................................
16.3.2. Starting Printer Setup ...........................................................................
16.3.3. Adding a Local Printer ..........................................................................
16.3.4. Adding an AppSocket/HP JetDirect printer .............................................
16.3.5. Adding an IPP Printer ..........................................................................
16.3.6. Adding an LPD/LPR Host or Printer ......................................................
16.3.7. Adding a Samba (SMB) printer .............................................................
16.3.8. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing ..............................................
16.3.9. Printing a test page ..............................................................................
16.3.10. Modifying Existing Printers ..................................................................
16.3.11. Additional Resources ..........................................................................
VI. Monitoring and Automation
17. System Monitoring Tools
17.1. Viewing System Processes .............................................................................
17.1.1. Using the ps Command ........................................................................
17.1.2. Using the top Command .......................................................................
17.1.3. Using the System Monitor Tool .............................................................
17.2. Viewing Memory Usage ..................................................................................
17.2.1. Using the free Command ......................................................................
17.2.2. Using the System Monitor Tool .............................................................
17.3. Viewing CPU Usage .......................................................................................
17.3.1. Using the System Monitor Tool .............................................................
17.4. Viewing Block Devices and File Systems .........................................................
17.4.1. Using the lsblk Command .....................................................................
17.4.2. Using the blkid Command ....................................................................
17.4.3. Using the partx Command ....................................................................
17.4.4. Using the findmnt Command ................................................................
17.4.5. Using the df Command ........................................................................
17.4.6. Using the du Command ........................................................................
17.4.7. Using the System Monitor Tool .............................................................
17.5. Viewing Hardware Information .........................................................................
17.5.1. Using the lspci Command .....................................................................
17.5.2. Using the lsusb Command ....................................................................
17.5.3. Using the lspcmcia Command ..............................................................
17.5.4. Using the lscpu Command ....................................................................
17.6. Monitoring Performance with Net-SNMP ..........................................................
17.6.1. Installing Net-SNMP .............................................................................
17.6.2. Running the Net-SNMP Daemon ...........................................................
17.6.3. Configuring Net-SNMP .........................................................................
17.6.4. Retrieving Performance Data over SNMP ..............................................
17.6.5. Extending Net-SNMP ...........................................................................
17.7. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
17.7.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
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18. Viewing and Managing Log Files
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18.1. Configuring rsyslog ......................................................................................... 393
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18.1.1. Global Directives ..................................................................................
18.1.2. Modules ..............................................................................................
18.1.3. Rules ...................................................................................................
18.1.4. rsyslog Command Line Configuration ...................................................
18.2. Locating Log Files ..........................................................................................
18.2.1. Configuring logrotate ............................................................................
18.3. Viewing Log Files ...........................................................................................
18.4. Adding a Log File ...........................................................................................
18.5. Monitoring Log Files .......................................................................................
18.6. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
18.6.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
18.6.2. Useful Websites ...................................................................................
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19. Automating System Tasks
19.1. Cron and Anacron ..........................................................................................
19.1.1. Starting and Stopping the Service .........................................................
19.1.2. Configuring Anacron Jobs .....................................................................
19.1.3. Configuring Cron Jobs ..........................................................................
19.1.4. Controlling Access to Cron ...................................................................
19.1.5. Black/White Listing of Cron Jobs ...........................................................
19.2. At and Batch ..................................................................................................
19.2.1. Configuring At Jobs ..............................................................................
19.2.2. Configuring Batch Jobs ........................................................................
19.2.3. Viewing Pending Jobs ..........................................................................
19.2.4. Additional Command Line Options ........................................................
19.2.5. Controlling Access to At and Batch .......................................................
19.2.6. Starting and Stopping the Service .........................................................
19.3. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
19.3.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
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20. OProfile
20.1. Overview of Tools ...........................................................................................
20.2. Configuring OProfile ........................................................................................
20.2.1. Specifying the Kernel ...........................................................................
20.2.2. Setting Events to Monitor .....................................................................
20.2.3. Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles ............................................
20.3. Starting and Stopping OProfile ........................................................................
20.4. Saving Data ...................................................................................................
20.5. Analyzing the Data .........................................................................................
20.5.1. Using opreport .................................................................................
20.5.2. Using opreport on a Single Executable ..................................................
20.5.3. Getting more detailed output on the modules .........................................
20.5.4. Using opannotate ..............................................................................
20.6. Understanding /dev/oprofile/ ...................................................................
20.7. Example Usage ..............................................................................................
20.8. OProfile Support for Java ................................................................................
20.8.1. Profiling Java Code ..............................................................................
20.9. Graphical Interface ..........................................................................................
20.10. OProfile and SystemTap ...............................................................................
20.11. Additional Resources ....................................................................................
20.11.1. Installed Docs ....................................................................................
20.11.2. Useful Websites .................................................................................
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VII. Kernel, Module and Driver Configuration
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21. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
21.1. Overview of Kernel Packages ..........................................................................
21.2. Preparing to Upgrade ......................................................................................
21.3. Downloading the Upgraded Kernel ...................................................................
21.4. Performing the Upgrade ..................................................................................
21.5. Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image ................................................................
21.6. Verifying the Boot Loader ................................................................................
21.6.1. Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader ....................................................
21.6.2. Configuring the OS/400 Boot Loader .....................................................
21.6.3. Configuring the YABOOT Boot Loader ..................................................
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22. Working with Kernel Modules
22.1. Listing Currently-Loaded Modules ....................................................................
22.2. Displaying Information About a Module ............................................................
22.3. Loading a Module ...........................................................................................
22.4. Unloading a Module ........................................................................................
22.5. Setting Module Parameters .............................................................................
22.6. Persistent Module Loading ..............................................................................
22.7. Specific Kernel Module Capabilities .................................................................
22.7.1. Using Multiple Ethernet Cards ..............................................................
22.7.2. Using Channel Bonding ........................................................................
22.8. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
22.8.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
22.8.2. Useful Websites ...................................................................................
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23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
23.1. Installing the kdump Service ............................................................................
23.2. Configuring the kdump Service ........................................................................
23.2.1. Configuring the kdump at First Boot ......................................................
23.2.2. Using the Kernel Dump Configuration Utility ...........................................
23.2.3. Configuring kdump on the Command Line .............................................
23.2.4. Testing the Configuration ......................................................................
23.3. Analyzing the Core Dump ...............................................................................
23.3.1. Running the crash Utility ......................................................................
23.3.2. Displaying the Message Buffer ..............................................................
23.3.3. Displaying a Backtrace .........................................................................
23.3.4. Displaying a Process Status .................................................................
23.3.5. Displaying Virtual Memory Information ...................................................
23.3.6. Displaying Open Files ..........................................................................
23.3.7. Exiting the Utility ..................................................................................
23.4. Additional Resources ......................................................................................
23.4.1. Installed Documentation .......................................................................
23.4.2. Useful Websites ...................................................................................
465
465
465
465
466
470
473
474
474
475
476
476
477
477
478
478
478
478
A. Consistent Network Device Naming
A.1. Affected Systems .....................................................................................................
A.2. System Requirements ..............................................................................................
A.3. Enabling and Disabling the Feature ...........................................................................
A.4. Notes for Administrators ...........................................................................................
479
479
479
480
480
B. RPM
B.1. RPM Design Goals ..................................................................................................
B.2. Using RPM ..............................................................................................................
B.2.1. Finding RPM Packages .................................................................................
B.2.2. Installing and Upgrading ................................................................................
B.2.3. Configuration File Changes ............................................................................
481
482
482
483
483
486
xii
B.2.4. Uninstalling ...................................................................................................
B.2.5. Freshening ....................................................................................................
B.2.6. Querying .......................................................................................................
B.2.7. Verifying ........................................................................................................
B.3. Checking a Package's Signature ...............................................................................
B.3.1. Importing Keys ..............................................................................................
B.3.2. Verifying Signature of Packages .....................................................................
B.4. Practical and Common Examples of RPM Usage .......................................................
B.5. Additional Resources ................................................................................................
B.5.1. Installed Documentation .................................................................................
B.5.2. Useful Websites ............................................................................................
B.5.3. Related Books ...............................................................................................
486
487
488
489
490
490
491
491
493
493
493
493
C. The X Window System
C.1. The X Server ...........................................................................................................
C.2. Desktop Environments and Window Managers ..........................................................
C.2.1. Desktop Environments ...................................................................................
C.2.2. Window Managers .........................................................................................
C.3. X Server Configuration Files .....................................................................................
C.3.1. The Structure of the Configuration ..................................................................
C.3.2. The xorg.conf.d Directory .........................................................................
C.3.3. The xorg.conf File .....................................................................................
C.4. Fonts .......................................................................................................................
C.4.1. Adding Fonts to Fontconfig ............................................................................
C.5. Runlevels and X ......................................................................................................
C.5.1. Runlevel 3 ....................................................................................................
C.5.2. Runlevel 5 ....................................................................................................
C.6. Additional Resources ...............................................................................................
C.6.1. Installed Documentation .................................................................................
C.6.2. Useful Websites ............................................................................................
495
495
495
496
496
497
497
498
498
505
506
506
507
507
508
508
508
D. The sysconfig Directory
511
D.1. Files in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory .......................................................................... 511
D.1.1. /etc/sysconfig/arpwatch .................................................................................. 511
D.1.2. /etc/sysconfig/authconfig ................................................................................ 511
D.1.3. /etc/sysconfig/autofs ....................................................................................... 514
D.1.4. /etc/sysconfig/clock ........................................................................................ 516
D.1.5. /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd ....................................................................................... 516
D.1.6. /etc/sysconfig/firstboot .................................................................................... 516
D.1.7. /etc/sysconfig/i18n ......................................................................................... 517
D.1.8. /etc/sysconfig/init ........................................................................................... 517
D.1.9. /etc/sysconfig/ip6tables-config ......................................................................... 519
D.1.10. /etc/sysconfig/keyboard ................................................................................ 520
D.1.11. /etc/sysconfig/ldap ........................................................................................ 520
D.1.12. /etc/sysconfig/named .................................................................................... 522
D.1.13. /etc/sysconfig/network .................................................................................. 522
D.1.14. /etc/sysconfig/ntpd ....................................................................................... 523
D.1.15. /etc/sysconfig/quagga ................................................................................... 523
D.1.16. /etc/sysconfig/radvd ...................................................................................... 524
D.1.17. /etc/sysconfig/samba .................................................................................... 524
D.1.18. /etc/sysconfig/selinux .................................................................................... 525
D.1.19. /etc/sysconfig/sendmail ................................................................................. 525
D.1.20. /etc/sysconfig/spamassassin ......................................................................... 526
D.1.21. /etc/sysconfig/squid ...................................................................................... 526
D.1.22. /etc/sysconfig/system-config-users ................................................................ 526
xiii
System Administrator's Guide
D.1.23. /etc/sysconfig/vncservers ..............................................................................
D.1.24. /etc/sysconfig/xinetd .....................................................................................
D.2. Directories in the /etc/sysconfig/ Directory ..................................................................
D.3. Additional Resources ...............................................................................................
D.3.1. Installed Documentation .................................................................................
527
527
528
528
528
E. The proc File System
529
E.1. A Virtual File System ................................................................................................ 529
E.1.1. Viewing Virtual Files ...................................................................................... 529
E.1.2. Changing Virtual Files .................................................................................... 530
E.2. Top-level Files within the proc File System ............................................................... 530
E.2.1. /proc/buddyinfo .............................................................................................. 531
E.2.2. /proc/cmdline ................................................................................................. 531
E.2.3. /proc/cpuinfo .................................................................................................. 531
E.2.4. /proc/crypto .................................................................................................... 532
E.2.5. /proc/devices ................................................................................................. 533
E.2.6. /proc/dma ...................................................................................................... 533
E.2.7. /proc/execdomains ......................................................................................... 534
E.2.8. /proc/fb .......................................................................................................... 534
E.2.9. /proc/filesystems ............................................................................................ 534
E.2.10. /proc/interrupts ............................................................................................. 535
E.2.11. /proc/iomem ................................................................................................. 536
E.2.12. /proc/ioports ................................................................................................. 536
E.2.13. /proc/kcore ................................................................................................... 537
E.2.14. /proc/kmsg ................................................................................................... 537
E.2.15. /proc/loadavg ............................................................................................... 537
E.2.16. /proc/locks ................................................................................................... 537
E.2.17. /proc/mdstat ................................................................................................. 538
E.2.18. /proc/meminfo .............................................................................................. 538
E.2.19. /proc/misc .................................................................................................... 540
E.2.20. /proc/modules .............................................................................................. 540
E.2.21. /proc/mounts ................................................................................................ 541
E.2.22. /proc/mtrr ..................................................................................................... 541
E.2.23. /proc/partitions ............................................................................................. 542
E.2.24. /proc/slabinfo ............................................................................................... 542
E.2.25. /proc/stat ..................................................................................................... 543
E.2.26. /proc/swaps ................................................................................................. 544
E.2.27. /proc/sysrq-trigger ........................................................................................ 544
E.2.28. /proc/uptime ................................................................................................. 545
E.2.29. /proc/version ................................................................................................ 545
E.3. Directories within /proc/ ............................................................................................. 545
E.3.1. Process Directories ........................................................................................ 545
E.3.2. /proc/bus/ ...................................................................................................... 547
E.3.3. /proc/bus/pci .................................................................................................. 548
E.3.4. /proc/driver/ ................................................................................................... 549
E.3.5. /proc/fs .......................................................................................................... 549
E.3.6. /proc/irq/ ........................................................................................................ 549
E.3.7. /proc/net/ ....................................................................................................... 549
E.3.8. /proc/scsi/ ...................................................................................................... 550
E.3.9. /proc/sys/ ....................................................................................................... 552
E.3.10. /proc/sysvipc/ ............................................................................................... 562
E.3.11. /proc/tty/ ...................................................................................................... 562
E.3.12. /proc/PID/ .................................................................................................... 562
E.4. Using the sysctl Command ....................................................................................... 563
xiv
E.5. References .............................................................................................................. 564
F. Revision History
567
Index
569
xv
xvi
Preface
The System Administrator's Guide contains information on how to customize the Fedora 17 system
to fit your needs. If you are looking for a comprehensive, task-oriented guide for configuring and
customizing your system, this is the manual for you.
This manual discusses many intermediate topics such as the following:
• Installing and managing packages using the graphical PackageKit and command line Yum
package managers
• Setting up a network—from establishing an Ethernet connection using NetworkManager to
configuring channel bonding interfaces to increase server bandwidth
• Configuring DHCP, BIND, Apache HTTP Server, Postfix, Sendmail and other enterprise-class
servers and software
• Gathering information about your system, including obtaining user-space crash data with the
Automatic Bug Reporting Tool, and kernel-space crash data with kdump
• Easily working with kernel modules and upgrading the kernel
1. Target Audience
The Deployment Guide assumes you have a basic understanding of the Fedora operating system. If
1
you need help with the installation of this system, refer to the Fedora 17 Installation Guide .
2. How to Read this Book
This manual is divided into the following main categories:
Part I, “Basic System Configuration”
This part covers basic system administration tasks such as keyboard configuration, date and time
configuration, and managing users and groups.
Chapter 1, Configuring the Language and Keyboard covers basic language and keyboard setup.
Read this chapter if you need to configure the language of your desktop, change the keyboard
layout, or add the keyboard layout indicator to the panel.
Chapter 2, Configuring the Date and Time covers the configuration of the system date and time.
Read this chapter if you need to change the date and time setup, or configure the system to
synchronize the clock with a remote Network Time Protocol (NTP) server.
Chapter 3, Managing Users and Groups covers the management of users and groups in a
graphical user interface and on the command line. Read this chapter if you need to manage users
and groups on your system, or enable password aging.
Part II, “Package Management”
This part describes how to manage software packages on Fedora using both Yum and the
PackageKit suite of graphical package management tools.
Chapter 4, Yum describes the Yum package manager. Read this chapter for information how to
search, install, update, and uninstall packages on the command line.
1
http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/16/html/Installation_Guide/index.html
xvii
Preface
Chapter 5, PackageKit describes the PackageKit suite of graphical package management tools.
Read this chapter for information how to search, install, update, and uninstall packages using a
graphical user interface.
Part III, “Networking”
This part describes how to configure the network on Fedora.
Chapter 7, Network Interfaces explores various interface configuration files, interface control
scripts, and network function files located in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory. Read this chapter for information how to use these files to configure network interfaces.
Part IV, “Infrastructure Services”
This part provides information how to configure services and daemons, configure authentication,
and enable remote logins.
Chapter 8, Services and Daemons covers the configuration of the services to be run when a
system is started, and provides information on how to start, stop, and restart the services on the
command line using the systemctl utility.
Chapter 9, Configuring Authentication describes how to configure user information retrieval from
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Network Information Service (NIS), and Winbind
user account databases, and provides an introduction to the System Security Services Daemon
(SSSD). Read this chapter if you need to configure authentication on your system.
Chapter 10, OpenSSH describes how to enable a remote login via the SSH protocol. It covers the
configuration of the sshd service, as well as a basic usage of the ssh, scp, sftp client utilities.
Read this chapter if you need a remote access to a machine.
Part V, “Servers”
This part discusses various topics related to servers such as how to set up a Web server or share
files and directories over the network.
Chapter 11, DHCP Servers guides you through the installation of a Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) server and client. Read this chapter if you need to configure DHCP on your
system.
Chapter 12, DNS Servers introduces you to Domain Name System (DNS), explains how to install,
configure, run, and administer the BIND DNS server. Read this chapter if you need to configure a
DNS server on your system.
Chapter 13, Web Servers focuses on the Apache HTTP Server 2.2, a robust, full-featured open
source web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Read this chapter if you need
to configure a web server on your system.
Chapter 14, Mail Servers reviews modern email protocols in use today, and some of the programs
designed to send and receive email, including Postfix, Sendmail, Fetchmail, and Procmail.
Read this chapter if you need to configure a mail server on your system.
Chapter 15, Directory Servers covers the installation and configuration of OpenLDAP 2.4, an open
source implementation of the LDAPv2 and LDAPv3 protocols. Read this chapter if you need to
configure a directory server on your system.
Chapter 16, File and Print Servers guides you through the installation and configuration of Samba,
an open source implementation of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, and vsftpd,
the primary FTP server shipped with Fedora. Additionally, it explains how to use the Printer
Configuration tool to configure printers. Read this chapter if you need to configure a file or print
server on your system.
xviii
How to Read this Book
Part VI, “Monitoring and Automation”
This part describes various tools that allow system administrators to monitor system performance,
automate system tasks, and report bugs.
Chapter 17, System Monitoring Tools discusses applications and commands that can be used to
retrieve important information about the system. Read this chapter to learn how to gather essential
system information.
Chapter 18, Viewing and Managing Log Files describes the configuration of the rsyslog
daemon, and explains how to locate, view, and monitor log files. Read this chapter to learn how to
work with log files.
Chapter 19, Automating System Tasks provides an overview of the cron, at, and batch utilities.
Read this chapter to learn how to use these utilities to perform automated tasks.
Chapter 20, OProfile covers OProfile, a low overhead, system-wide performance monitoring tool.
Read this chapter for information how to use OProfile on your system.
Part VII, “Kernel, Module and Driver Configuration”
This part covers various tools that assist administrators with kernel customization.
Chapter 21, Manually Upgrading the Kernel provides important information how to manually
update a kernel package using the rpm command instead of yum. Read this chapter if you cannot
update a kernel package with the Yum package manager.
Chapter 22, Working with Kernel Modules explains how to display, query, load, and unload kernel
modules and their dependencies, and how to set module parameters. Additionally, it covers
specific kernel module capabilities such as using multiple Ethernet cards and using channel
bonding. Read this chapter if you need to work with kernel modules.
Chapter 23, The kdump Crash Recovery Service explains how to configure, test, and use the
kdump service in Fedora, and provides a brief overview of how to analyze the resulting core
dump using the crash debugging utility. Read this chapter to learn how to enable kdump on your
system.
Appendix A, Consistent Network Device Naming
This appendix covers consistent network device naming for network interfaces, a feature that
changes the name of network interfaces on a system in order to make locating and differentiating
the interfaces easier. Read this appendix to learn more about this feature and how to enable or
disable it.
Appendix B, RPM
This appendix concentrates on the RPM Package Manager (RPM), an open packaging system
used by Fedora, and the use of the rpm utility. Read this appendix if you need to use rpm instead
of yum.
Appendix C, The X Window System
This appendix covers the configuration of the X Window System, the graphical environment used
by Fedora. Read this appendix if you need to adjust the configuration of your X Window System.
Appendix D, The sysconfig Directory
This appendix outlines some of the files and directories located in the /etc/sysconfig/
directory. Read this appendix if you want to learn more about these files and directories, their
function, and their contents.
xix
Preface
Appendix E, The proc File System
This appendix explains the concept of a virtual file system, and describes some of the top-level
files and directories within the proc file system (that is, the /proc/ directory). Read this appendix
if you want to learn more about this file system.
3. Document Conventions
This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to
specific pieces of information.
2
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The
Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not,
alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes
the Liberation Fonts set by default.
3.1. Typographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These
conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight
keycaps and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current
working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the
shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold
and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key
combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to
return to your X-Windows session.
The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. The second highlights two key
combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values
mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for
directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text;
labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
2
https://fedorahosted.org/liberation-fonts/
xx
Pull-quote Conventions
Choose System��� Preferences��� Mouse from the main menu bar to launch
Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed mouse check box
and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making
the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose Applications��� Accessories
�� Character Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose Search��� Find…
from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search
field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character
Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and
then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose Edit��
Paste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific
menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and
all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or
variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on
circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at
a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that
machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file
system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o
remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package
command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and
release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text
displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and
important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.
3.2. Pull-quote Conventions
Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books
books_tests
Desktop
Desktop1
documentation
downloads
drafts
images
mss
notes
photos
scripts
stuff
svgs
svn
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
package org.jboss.book.jca.ex1;
xxi
Preface
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
public class ExClient
{
public static void main(String args[])
throws Exception
{
InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
Object
ref
= iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
EchoHome
home
= (EchoHome) ref;
Echo
echo
= home.create();
System.out.println("Created Echo");
System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
}
}
3.3. Notes and Warnings
Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.
Note
Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should
have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.
Important
Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to
the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box
labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.
Warning
Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.
4. We Need Feedback!
If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual
better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/
enter_bug.cgi?product=Fedora Documentation&component=system-administrator's-guide
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when
describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the
surrounding text so we can find it easily.
xxii
Acknowledgments
5. Acknowledgments
Certain portions of this text first appeared in the Deployment Guide, copyright © 2007 Red Hat, Inc.,
available at http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/5/html/Deployment_Guide/
index.html.
Section 17.6, “Monitoring Performance with Net-SNMP” is based on an article written by Michael
Solberg.
The authors of this book would like to thank the following people for their valuable contributions: Adam
Tkáč, Andrew Fitzsimon, Andrius Benokraitis, Brian Cleary Edward Bailey, Garrett LeSage, Jeffrey
Fearn, Joe Orton, Joshua Wulf, Karsten Wade, Lucy Ringland, Marcela Mašláňová, Mark Johnson,
Michael Behm, Miroslav Lichvár, Radek Vokál, Rahul Kavalapara, Rahul Sundaram, Sandra Moore,
Zbyšek Mráz, Jan Včelák, Peter Hutterer, T.C. Hollingsworth, and James Antill, among many others.
xxiii
xxiv
Part I. Basic System Configuration
This part covers basic system administration tasks such as keyboard configuration, date and time
configuration, and managing users and groups.
Chapter 1.
Configuring the Language and
Keyboard
Fedora 17 is shipped with the Region and Language configuration tool, which allows you to configure
keyboard layouts, the language of your desktop environment, and other regional settings. To start the
tool, open the System Settings window by selecting Applications��� System Tools��� System
Settings from the Activities menu, and click Region and Language.
1.1. Changing the Language
To configure the language of your desktop, select the Language tab of the Region and Language
application. You will be presented with a short list of common languages.
Figure 1.1. Changing the language
By default, this list only contains a few of the available languages. To add another language, click the
+ (the plus sign) button below the list. A dialog window appears, allowing you to select the desired
language. The input field at the bottom part of the dialog window allows you to reduce the number of
displayed items by first few letters part of the language name in it (for example, “slov” for the Slovak
language). Once you select a language, click the Select button to confirm your choice.
3
Chapter 1. Configuring the Language and Keyboard
Figure 1.2. Adding another language
To choose a particular language from the list, click its name to select it. The changes will take effect
the next time you log in to the system.
1.2. Changing the Date, Time, and Numeric Format
To change the default date, time, number, and currency format, select the Formats tab of the Region
and Language application. You will be presented with a short list of available formats.
4
Changing the Date, Time, and Numeric Format
Figure 1.3. Changing the date, time, and numeric format
By default, this list only contains a few of the available formats. To add another format, click the + (the
plus sign) button below the list. A dialog window appears, allowing you to select the desired format
according to a region. The input field at the bottom part of the dialog window allows you to reduce the
number of displayed items by typing first few letters of the region name in it (for example, “slov” for
Slovakia). Once you select a region, click the Select button to confirm your choice.
5
Chapter 1. Configuring the Language and Keyboard
Figure 1.4. Adding a format
To choose a particular format from the list, click its name to select it. The changes will take effect the
next time you log in to the system.
1.3. Changing the Keyboard Layout
Although the installation program allows a system administrator to configure a keyboard layout during
the system installation, the default settings may not always suit your current needs. To change the
default keyboard layout, select the Layouts tab of the Region and Language application. You will be
presented with a list of currently enabled layouts.
6
Changing the Keyboard Layout
Figure 1.5. Changing the keyboard layout
To add a layout to the list, click the + (the plus sign) button below the list. A dialog window appears,
allowing you to select the desired keyboard layout. The input field at the bottom part of the dialog
window allows you to reduce the number of displayed items by typing first few letters of the layout
name in it (for example, “slov” for a Slovak layout). Once you select a layout, click the Add button to
confirm your choice.
Figure 1.6. Adding a keyboard layout
7
Chapter 1. Configuring the Language and Keyboard
The first layout in the list is always considered the default. To move a particular layout up or down in
the list, select it and click the ∧ (the upwards arrow) or ∧ (the downwards arrow) buttons respectively.
To remove a layout, click the − (that is, the minus sign) button. Additionally, by selecting an option
button on the right side of the window, you can choose if you want to use different keyboard layouts for
individual windows, or a single layout for all windows.
When more than one layout is enabled, a keyboard indicator appears on the panel in order to allow
you to switch between the layouts.
Figure 1.7. The keyboard layout indicator
1.4. Viewing the Current Configuration
To view the current configuration, select the System tab of the Region and Language application.
You will be presented with a comparison of your own configuration and system-wide settings.
Figure 1.8. Viewing the current configuration
8
Chapter 2.
Configuring the Date and Time
This chapter covers setting the system date and time in Fedora, both manually and using the Network
Time Protocol (NTP), as well as setting the adequate time zone. Two methods are covered: setting the
date and time using the Date and Time configuration tool, and doing so on the command line.
2.1. Using the Date and Time Configuration Tool
Fedora 17 is shipped with the Date and Time configuration tool, which allows you to change the date
and time of the system, to configure the time zone used by the system, and to set up the Network
Time Protocol daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server. To start the tool, either
select Applications��� System Tools��� System Settings from the Activities menu and click
the Date and Time icon, or click the time in the panel and select Date and Time Settings from the
drop-down menu.
Figure 2.1. The Date and Time configuration tool
By default, the tool only allows you to review the current settings. This is because only root is allowed
to set the system date and time. To unlock the configuration tool for changes, click the Unlock button
in the top-right corner of the window, and provide the correct password when prompted.
To change the current time of your system, either configure the system to synchronize it over the
network by clicking the Network Time switch, or set it manually by clicking the up and down arrows
above and below the numbers. You can also select 24-hour or AM/PM to enable or disable the 24hour time format.
To change the time zone, either click on the map, or select the region and city from the Region and
City drop-down lists.
To change the current date of your system, select a month from the drop-down list below the time, and
use the up and down arrows to choose the day and year.
The changes take effect immediately.
9
Chapter 2. Configuring the Date and Time
2.2. Using the Command Line Tools
Fedora 17 provides command line tools that allow you to configure the date and time both manually
and using the NTP protocol.
2.2.1. Changing the Date
To change the system date, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
date +%D -s YYYY-MM-DD
…where YYYY is a four-digit year, MM is a two-digit month, and DD is a two-digit day of the month. For
example, to change the date to 2 June 2010, type:
~]# date +%D -s 2010-06-02
You can verify the current settings by running date without any additional argument.
2.2.2. Changing the Time
To change the current time, run the following command as root:
date +%T -s HH:MM:SS
…where HH stands for an hour, MM is a minute, and SS is a second, all typed in a two-digit form. If your
system clock is set to use UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), also add the following option:
date +%T -s HH:MM:SS -u
For instance, to set the system clock to 11:26 PM using the UTC, type:
~]# date +%T -s 23:26:00 -u
You can verify the current settings by running date without any additional argument.
2.2.3. Configuring the Network Time Protocol
As opposed to the manual setup described above, you can also synchronize the system clock with a
remote server over the Network Time Protocol (NTP). For the one-time synchronization only, use the
ntpdate command:
1.
Check whether the selected NTP server is accessible by using the ntpdate command in the
following form:
ntpdate -q server_address
For example, to connect to 0.fedora.pool.ntp.org, type:
~]$ ntpdate -q 0.fedora.pool.ntp.org
10
Configuring the Network Time Protocol
server
server
server
17 Oct
2.
204.15.208.61, stratum 2, offset -39.275438, delay 0.16083
69.65.40.29, stratum 2, offset -39.269122, delay 0.17191
148.167.132.201, stratum 2, offset -39.270239, delay 0.20482
17:41:09 ntpdate[10619]: step time server 204.15.208.61 offset -39.275438 sec
When you find a satisfactory server, as root, run the ntpdate command followed with one or
more server addresses:
ntpdate server_address…
For instance:
~]# ntpdate 0.fedora.pool.ntp.org 1.fedora.pool.ntp.org
17 Oct 17:42:13 ntpdate[10669]: step time server 204.15.208.61 offset -39.275436 sec
Unless an error message is displayed, the system time is now set. You can verify the current time
by running the date command with no additional arguments.
3.
In most cases, these steps are sufficient. Only if you really need one or more system services
to always use the correct time, enable running the ntpdate at boot time by running the following
command as root:
systemctl enable ntpdate.service
For more information about system services and their setup, refer to Chapter 8, Services and
Daemons.
Note
If the synchronization with the time server at boot time keeps failing, that is, you find a
relevant error message in the /var/log/boot.log system log, try to add the following line
to /etc/sysconfig/network:
NETWORKWAIT=1
However, the more convenient way is to set the ntpd daemon to synchronize the time at boot time
automatically:
1.
As root, open the NTP configuration file /etc/ntp.conf in a text editor, creating a new one if it
does not already exist.
2.
Add or edit the list of public NTP servers. If you are using Fedora 17, the file should already
contain the following lines, but feel free to change or expand these according to your needs:
server 0.fedora.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 1.fedora.pool.ntp.org iburst
server 2.fedora.pool.ntp.org iburst
11
Chapter 2. Configuring the Date and Time
Speeding up initial synchronization
To speed the initial synchronization up, it is recommended that the iburst directive is
added at the end of each server line.
3.
In the same file, set the proper permissions, giving the unrestricted access to localhost only:
restrict
restrict
restrict
restrict
4.
default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
-6 default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
127.0.0.1
-6 ::1
Save the changes, exit the editor, and restart the NTP daemon:
systemctl restart ntpd.service
5.
Additionally, make sure that ntpd daemon is started at boot time:
systemctl enable ntpd.service
2.3. Additional Resources
For more information about the date and time configuration, refer to the following resources.
2.3.1. Installed Documentation
• date(1) — The manual page for the date utility.
• ntpdate(8) — The manual page for the ntpdate utility.
• ntpd(8) — The manual page for the ntpd service.
12
Chapter 3.
Managing Users and Groups
The control of users and groups is a core element of Fedora system administration. This chapter
explains how to add, manage, and delete users and groups in the graphical user interface and on
the command line, and covers advanced topics, such as enabling password aging or creating group
directories.
3.1. Introduction to Users and Groups
While users can be either people (meaning accounts tied to physical users) or accounts which exist for
specific applications to use, groups are logical expressions of organization, tying users together for a
common purpose. Users within a group can read, write, or execute files owned by that group.
Each user is associated with a unique numerical identification number called a user ID (UID).
Likewise, each group is associated with a group ID (GID). A user who creates a file is also the owner
and group owner of that file. The file is assigned separate read, write, and execute permissions for
the owner, the group, and everyone else. The file owner can be changed only by root, and access
permissions can be changed by both the root user and file owner.
Additionally, Fedora supports access control lists (ACLs) for files and directories which allow
permissions for specific users outside of the owner to be set. Refer to For more information about this
1
2
feature, refer to the Access Control Lists chapter of the Storage Administration Guide .
3.1.1. User Private Groups
Fedora uses a user private group (UPG) scheme, which makes UNIX groups easier to manage. A
user private group is created whenever a new user is added to the system. It has the same name as
the user for which it was created and that user is the only member of the user private group.
User private groups make it safe to set default permissions for a newly created file or directory,
allowing both the user and the group of that user to make modifications to the file or directory.
The setting which determines what permissions are applied to a newly created file or directory is called
a umask and is configured in the /etc/bashrc file. Traditionally on UNIX systems, the umask is
set to 022, which allows only the user who created the file or directory to make modifications. Under
this scheme, all other users, including members of the creator's group, are not allowed to make any
modifications. However, under the UPG scheme, this “group protection” is not necessary since every
user has their own private group.
3.1.2. Shadow Passwords
Especially in environments with multiple users, it is very important to use shadow passwords provided
by the shadow-utils package to enhance the security of system authentication files. For this reason,
the installation program enables shadow passwords by default.
The following is a list of the advantages shadow passwords have over the traditional way of storing
passwords on UNIX-based systems:
1
2
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/ch-acls.html
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/index.html
13
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
• Shadow passwords improve system security by moving encrypted password hashes from the worldreadable /etc/passwd file to /etc/shadow, which is readable only by the root user.
• Shadow passwords store information about password aging.
• Shadow passwords allow the /etc/login.defs file to enforce security policies.
Most utilities provided by the shadow-utils package work properly whether or not shadow passwords
are enabled. However, since password aging information is stored exclusively in the /etc/shadow
file, any commands which create or modify password aging information do not work. The following is a
list of utilities and commands that do not work without first enabling shadow passwords:
• The chage utility.
• The gpasswd utility.
• The usermod command with the -e or -f option.
• The useradd command with the -e or -f option.
3.2. Using the User Accounts Tool
The User Accounts configuration tool allows you to view, modify, add, and delete local users. To run
the tool, select Applications��� System Tools��� System Settings from the Activities menu
and click the User Accounts icon.
Figure 3.1. The User Accounts configuration tool
By default, the tool only allows you to change certain settings regarding your account. This is because
only the root user is allowed to configure users and groups. To unlock the configuration tool for all
kinds of changes, click the Unlock button in the top-right corner of the window, and provide the correct
password when prompted.
14
Configuring an Account
3.2.1. Configuring an Account
To change the image associated with an account, click the icon next to the account name and either
select a picture from the pulldown list, or click Browse for more pictures... to use an image from your
local drive.
To change the name associated with an account, click the name next to the icon to edit it.
To change the account type, click the text next to the Account type label. Note that this change
requires the configuration tool to be unlocked even if you are changing your own account.
To change the default language for an account, click the text next to the Language label and select a
language from the list.
To change the password, click the field next to the Password label. A dialog box appears, allowing
you to set the new password. Note that the current password must be provided in order to confirm the
change. Once done, click the Change button to save the change.
Figure 3.2. Changing the password
Password security advice
It is advisable to use a much longer password, as this makes it more difficult for an intruder to
guess it and access the account without permission. It is also recommended that the password
not be based on a dictionary term: use a combination of letters, numbers and special characters.
Finally, to set up automatic login for a particular account, enable the Automatic Login switch. The
configuration tool must be unlocked to make this change.
15
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
3.2.2. Adding a New User
To add a new user, make sure the configuration tool is unlocked, and click the + button (that is, the
plus sign) below the account list. A dialog window appears, allowing you to supply user details.
Figure 3.3. Creating a new account
Take the following steps to create an account:
1.
Select an account type from the Account type pulldown list. Available account types are
Administrator and Standard (the default option).
2.
Fill in the Full name input field to set the name associated with the account. This name will be
used by the login manager, and will be displayed on the panel.
3.
Either select a suggested username from the Username pulldown list, or fill in the corresponding
input field.
4.
Click the Create button to confirm the settings.
Fedora uses a user private group (UPG) scheme. The UPG scheme does not add or change anything
in the standard UNIX way of handling groups; it offers a new convention. Whenever you create a new
user, a unique group with the same name as the user is created.
When a new account is created, default configuration files are copied from the /etc/skel/ directory
into the new home directory.
3.2.3. Removing a User
To remove a user, make sure the configuration tool is unlocked, select the desired account from the
account list, and click the − button (that is, the minus sign) below the account list. A dialog window
appears, allowing you to confirm or cancel the change.
16
Using the User Manager Tool
Figure 3.4. Removing an account
To delete files and directories that belong to the user (that is, the home directory, mail spool, and
temporary files), click the Delete Files button. To keep these files intact and only delete the user
account, click Keep Files. To abort the deletion, click Cancel.
3.3. Using the User Manager Tool
The User Manager application allows you to view, modify, add, and delete local users and groups
in the graphical user interface. To start the application, either select Applications��� Other��
Users and Groups from the Activities menu, or type system-config-users at a shell prompt.
Note that unless you have superuser privileges, the application will prompt you to authenticate as
root.
3.3.1. Viewing Users and Groups
The main window of the User Manager is divided into two tabs: The Users tab provides a list of local
users along with additional information about their user ID, primary group, home directory, login shell,
and full name. The Groups tab provides a list of local groups with information about their group ID and
group members.
Figure 3.5. Viewing users and groups
17
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
To find a specific user or group, type the first few letters of the name in the Search filter field and
either press Enter, or click the Apply filter button. You can also sort the items according to any of
the available columns by clicking the column header.
Fedora reserves user and group IDs below 1000 for system users and groups. By default, the
User Manager does not display the system users. To view all users and groups, select Edit��
Preferences to open the Preferences dialog box, and clear the Hide system users and groups
check box.
3.3.2. Adding a New User
To add a new user, click the Add User button. A window as shown in Figure 3.6, “Adding a new user”
appears.
Figure 3.6. Adding a new user
The Add New User dialog box allows you to provide information about the newly created user. In
order to create a user, enter the username and full name in the appropriate fields and then type the
user's password in the Password and Confirm Password fields. The password must be at least six
characters long.
18
Adding a New Group
Password security advice
It is advisable to use a much longer password, as this makes it more difficult for an intruder to
guess it and access the account without permission. It is also recommended that the password
not be based on a dictionary term: use a combination of letters, numbers and special characters.
The Login Shell pulldown list allows you to select a login shell for the user. If you are not sure which
shell to select, accept the default value of /bin/bash.
By default, the User Manager application creates the home directory for a new user in /
home/username/. You can choose not to create the home directory by clearing the Create home
directory check box, or change this directory by editing the content of the Home Directory text box.
Note that when the home directory is created, default configuration files are copied into it from the /
etc/skel/ directory.
Fedora uses a user private group (UPG) scheme. Whenever you create a new user, a unique group
with the same name as the user is created by default. If you do not want to create this group, clear the
Create a private group for the user check box.
To specify a user ID for the user, select Specify user ID manually. If the option is not selected, the
next available user ID above 1000 is assigned to the new user. Because Fedora reserves user IDs
below 1000 for system users, it is not advisable to manually assign user IDs 1–999.
Clicking the OK button creates the new user. To configure more advanced user properties, such as
password expiration, modify the user's properties after adding the user.
3.3.3. Adding a New Group
To add a new user group, select Add Group from the toolbar. A window similar to Figure 3.7, “New
Group” appears. Type the name of the new group. To specify a group ID for the new group, select
Specify group ID manually and select the GID. Note that Fedora also reserves group IDs lower than
1000 for system groups.
Figure 3.7. New Group
Click OK to create the group. The new group appears in the group list.
3.3.4. Modifying User Properties
To view the properties of an existing user, click on the Users tab, select the user from the user list,
and click Properties from the menu (or choose File��� Properties from the pulldown menu). A
window similar to Figure 3.8, “User Properties” appears.
19
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
Figure 3.8. User Properties
The User Properties window is divided into multiple tabbed pages:
• User Data — Shows the basic user information configured when you added the user. Use this tab to
change the user's full name, password, home directory, or login shell.
• Account Info — Select Enable account expiration if you want the account to expire on a certain
date. Enter the date in the provided fields. Select Local password is locked to lock the user
account and prevent the user from logging into the system.
• Password Info — Displays the date that the user's password last changed. To force the user to
change passwords after a certain number of days, select Enable password expiration and enter
a desired value in the Days before change required: field. The number of days before the user's
password expires, the number of days before the user is warned to change passwords, and days
before the account becomes inactive can also be changed.
• Groups — Allows you to view and configure the Primary Group of the user, as well as other groups
that you want the user to be a member of.
3.3.5. Modifying Group Properties
To view the properties of an existing group, select the group from the group list and click Properties
from the menu (or choose File��� Properties from the pulldown menu). A window similar to
Figure 3.9, “Group Properties” appears.
20
Using Command Line Tools
Figure 3.9. Group Properties
The Group Users tab displays which users are members of the group. Use this tab to add or remove
users from the group. Click OK to save your changes.
3.4. Using Command Line Tools
The easiest say to manage users and groups on Fedora is to use the User Manager application as
described in Section 3.3, “Using the User Manager Tool”. However, if you prefer command line tools
or do not have the X Window System installed, you can use command line utilities that are listed in
Table 3.1, “Command line utilities for managing users and groups”.
Table 3.1. Command line utilities for managing users and groups
Utilities
Description
useradd, usermod, userdel
Standard utilities for adding, modifying, and deleting user
accounts.
groupadd, groupmod,
groupdel
Standard utilities for adding, modifying, and deleting groups.
gpasswd
Standard utility for administering the /etc/group configuration
file.
pwck, grpck
Utilities that can be used for verification of the password, group,
and associated shadow files.
pwconv, pwunconv
Utilities that can be used for the conversion of passwords
to shadow passwords, or back from shadow passwords to
standard passwords.
3.4.1. Adding a New User
To add a new user to the system, typing the following at a shell prompt as root:
useradd [options] username
…where options are command line options as described in Table 3.2, “useradd command line
options”.
21
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
By default, the useradd command creates a locked user account. To unlock the account, run the
following command as root to assign a password:
passwd username
Optionally, you can set password aging policy. Refer to Section 3.4.3, “Enabling Password Aging” for
information on how to enable password aging.
Table 3.2. useradd command line options
Option
Description
-c 'comment'
comment can be replaced with any string. This option is generally
used to specify the full name of a user.
-d home_directory
Home directory to be used instead of default /home/username/.
-e date
Date for the account to be disabled in the format YYYY-MM-DD.
-f days
Number of days after the password expires until the account is
disabled. If 0 is specified, the account is disabled immediately
after the password expires. If -1 is specified, the account is not be
disabled after the password expires.
-g group_name
Group name or group number for the user's default group. The group
must exist prior to being specified here.
-G group_list
List of additional (other than default) group names or group numbers,
separated by commas, of which the user is a member. The groups
must exist prior to being specified here.
-m
Create the home directory if it does not exist.
-M
Do not create the home directory.
-N
Do not create a user private group for the user.
-p password
The password encrypted with crypt.
-r
Create a system account with a UID less than 1000 and without a
home directory.
-s
User's login shell, which defaults to /bin/bash.
-u uid
User ID for the user, which must be unique and greater than 999.
Explaining the Process
The following steps illustrate what happens if the command useradd juan is issued on a system
that has shadow passwords enabled:
1.
A new line for juan is created in /etc/passwd:
juan:x:501:501::/home/juan:/bin/bash
The line has the following characteristics:
• It begins with the username juan.
• There is an x for the password field indicating that the system is using shadow passwords.
• A UID greater than 999 is created. Under Fedora, UIDs below 1000 are reserved for system
use and should not be assigned to users.
22
Adding a New User
• A GID greater than 999 is created. Under Fedora, GIDs below 1000 are reserved for system
use and should not be assigned to users.
• The optional GECOS information is left blank.
• The home directory for juan is set to /home/juan/.
• The default shell is set to /bin/bash.
2.
A new line for juan is created in /etc/shadow:
juan:!!:14798:0:99999:7:::
The line has the following characteristics:
• It begins with the username juan.
• Two exclamation marks (!!) appear in the password field of the /etc/shadow file, which locks
the account.
Note
If an encrypted password is passed using the -p flag, it is placed in the /etc/shadow file
on the new line for the user.
• The password is set to never expire.
3.
A new line for a group named juan is created in /etc/group:
juan:x:501:
A group with the same name as a user is called a user private group. For more information on
user private groups, refer to Section 3.1.1, “User Private Groups”.
The line created in /etc/group has the following characteristics:
• It begins with the group name juan.
• An x appears in the password field indicating that the system is using shadow group
passwords.
• The GID matches the one listed for user juan in /etc/passwd.
4.
A new line for a group named juan is created in /etc/gshadow:
juan:!::
The line has the following characteristics:
• It begins with the group name juan.
23
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
• An exclamation mark (!) appears in the password field of the /etc/gshadow file, which locks
the group.
• All other fields are blank.
5.
A directory for user juan is created in the /home/ directory:
~]# ls -l /home
total 4
drwx------. 4 juan juan 4096 Mar
3 18:23 juan
This directory is owned by user juan and group juan. It has read, write, and execute privileges
only for the user juan. All other permissions are denied.
6.
The files within the /etc/skel/ directory (which contain default user settings) are copied into
the new /home/juan/ directory:
~]# ls -la /home/juan
total 28
drwx------. 4 juan juan
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root
-rw-r--r--. 1 juan juan
-rw-r--r--. 1 juan juan
-rw-r--r--. 1 juan juan
drwxr-xr-x. 2 juan juan
drwxr-xr-x. 4 juan juan
4096
4096
18
176
124
4096
4096
Mar
Mar
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jul
Nov
3 18:23 .
3 18:23 ..
22 2010 .bash_logout
22 2010 .bash_profile
22 2010 .bashrc
14 2010 .gnome2
23 15:09 .mozilla
At this point, a locked account called juan exists on the system. To activate it, the administrator must
next assign a password to the account using the passwd command and, optionally, set password
aging guidelines.
3.4.2. Adding a New Group
To add a new group to the system, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
groupadd [options] group_name
…where options are command line options as described in Table 3.3, “groupadd command line
options”.
Table 3.3. groupadd command line options
Option
Description
-f, --force
When used with -g gid and gid already exists, groupadd will
choose another unique gid for the group.
-g gid
Group ID for the group, which must be unique and greater than 999.
-K, --key key=value
Override /etc/login.defs defaults.
-o, --non-unique
Allow to create groups with duplicate.
-p, -password password
Use this encrypted password for the new group.
-r
Create a system group with a GID less than 1000.
24
Enabling Password Aging
3.4.3. Enabling Password Aging
For security reasons, it is advisable to require users to change their passwords periodically. This
can either be done when adding or editing a user on the Password Info tab of the User Manager
application, or by using the chage command.
Shadow passwords must be enabled to use chage
Shadow passwords must be enabled to use the chage command. For more information, see
Section 3.1.2, “Shadow Passwords”.
To configure password expiration for a user from a shell prompt, run the following command as root:
chage [options] username
…where options are command line options as described in Table 3.4, “chage command line
options”. When the chage command is followed directly by a username (that is, when no command
line options are specified), it displays the current password aging values and allows you to change
them interactively.
Table 3.4. chage command line options
Option
Description
-d days
Specifies the number of days since January 1, 1970 the password
was changed.
-E date
Specifies the date on which the account is locked, in the format
YYYY-MM-DD. Instead of the date, the number of days since January
1, 1970 can also be used.
-I days
Specifies the number of inactive days after the password expiration
before locking the account. If the value is 0, the account is not locked
after the password expires.
-l
Lists current account aging settings.
-m days
Specify the minimum number of days after which the user must
change passwords. If the value is 0, the password does not expire.
-M days
Specify the maximum number of days for which the password is valid.
When the number of days specified by this option plus the number
of days specified with the -d option is less than the current day, the
user must change passwords before using the account.
-W days
Specifies the number of days before the password expiration date to
warn the user.
You can configure a password to expire the first time a user logs in. This forces users to change
passwords immediately.
1.
Set up an initial password. There are two common approaches to this step: you can either assign
a default password, or you can use a null password.
To assign a default password, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
25
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
passwd username
To assign a null password instead, use the following command:
passwd -d username
Avoid using null passwords whenever possible
Using a null password, while convenient, is a highly insecure practice, as any third party can
log in first and access the system using the insecure username. Always make sure that the
user is ready to log in before unlocking an account with a null password.
2.
Force immediate password expiration by running the following command as root:
chage -d 0 username
This command sets the value for the date the password was last changed to the epoch (January
1, 1970). This value forces immediate password expiration no matter what password aging policy,
if any, is in place.
Upon the initial log in, the user is now prompted for a new password.
3.4.4. Enabling Automatic Logouts
Especially when the user is logged in as root, an unattended login session may pose a significant
security risk. To reduce this risk, you can configure the system to automatically log out idle users after
a fixed period of time:
1.
Make sure the screen package is installed. You can do so by running the following command as
root:
yum install screen
For more information on how to install packages in Fedora, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
2.
As root, add the following line at the beginning of the /etc/profile file to make sure the
processing of this file cannot be interrupted:
trap "" 1 2 3 15
3.
Add the following lines at the end of the /etc/profile file to start a screen session each time
a user logs in to a virtual console or remotely:
SCREENEXEC="screen"
if [ -w $(tty) ]; then
trap "exec $SCREENEXEC" 1 2 3 15
echo -n 'Starting session in 10 seconds'
26
Creating Group Directories
sleep 10
exec $SCREENEXEC
fi
Note that each time a new session starts, a message will be displayed and the user will have to
wait ten seconds. To adjust the time to wait before starting a session, change the value after the
sleep command.
4.
Add the following lines to the /etc/screenrc configuration file to close the screen session
after a given period of inactivity:
idle 120 quit
autodetach off
This will set the time limit to 120 seconds. To adjust this limit, change the value after the idle
directive.
Alternatively, you can configure the system to only lock the session by using the following lines
instead:
idle 120 lockscreen
autodetach off
This way, a password will be required to unlock the session.
The changes take effect the next time a user logs in to the system.
3.4.5. Creating Group Directories
System administrators usually like to create a group for each major project and assign people to the
group when they need to access that project's files. With this traditional scheme, file managing is
difficult; when someone creates a file, it is associated with the primary group to which they belong.
When a single person works on multiple projects, it becomes difficult to associate the right files with
the right group. However, with the UPG scheme, groups are automatically assigned to files created
within a directory with the setgid bit set. The setgid bit makes managing group projects that share a
common directory very simple because any files a user creates within the directory are owned by the
group which owns the directory.
For example, a group of people need to work on files in the /opt/myproject/ directory. Some
people are trusted to modify the contents of this directory, but not everyone.
1.
As root, create the /opt/myproject/ directory by typing the following at a shell prompt:
mkdir /opt/myproject
2.
Add the myproject group to the system:
groupadd myproject
3.
Associate the contents of the /opt/myproject/ directory with the myproject group:
chown root:myproject /opt/myproject
27
Chapter 3. Managing Users and Groups
4.
Allow users to create files within the directory, and set the setgid bit:
chmod 2775 /opt/myproject
At this point, all members of the myproject group can create and edit files in the /opt/myproject/
directory without the administrator having to change file permissions every time users write new files.
To verify that the permissions have been set correctly, run the following command:
~]# ls -l /opt
total 4
drwxrwsr-x. 3 root myproject 4096 Mar
3 18:31 myproject
3.5. Additional Resources
Refer to the following resources for more information about managing users and groups.
3.5.1. Installed Documentation
For information about various utilities for managing users and groups, refer to the following manual
pages:
• chage(1) — A command to modify password aging policies and account expiration.
• gpasswd(1) — A command to administer the /etc/group file.
• groupadd(8) — A command to add groups.
• grpck(8) — A command to verify the /etc/group file.
• groupdel(8) — A command to remove groups.
• groupmod(8) — A command to modify group membership.
• pwck(8) — A command to verify the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files.
• pwconv(8) — A tool to convert standard passwords to shadow passwords.
• pwunconv(8) — A tool to convert shadow passwords to standard passwords.
• useradd(8) — A command to add users.
• userdel(8) — A command to remove users.
• usermod(8) — A command to modify users.
For information about related configuration files, see:
• group(5) — The file containing group information for the system.
• passwd(5) — The file containing user information for the system.
• shadow(5) — The file containing passwords and account expiration information for the system.
28
Part II. Package Management
All software on a Fedora system is divided into RPM packages, which can be installed, upgraded,
or removed. This part describes how to manage packages on Fedora using both Yum and the
PackageKit suite of graphical package management tools.
Chapter 4.
Yum
Yum is the The Fedora Project package manager that is able to query for information about packages,
fetch packages from repositories, install and uninstall packages using automatic dependency
resolution, and update an entire system to the latest available packages. Yum performs automatic
dependency resolution on packages you are updating, installing or removing, and thus is able to
automatically determine, fetch and install all available dependent packages. Yum can be configured
with new, additional repositories, or package sources, and also provides many plug-ins which enhance
and extend its capabilities. Yum is able to perform many of the same tasks that RPM can; additionally,
many of the command line options are similar. Yum enables easy and simple package management
on a single machine or on groups of them.
Secure package management with GPG-signed packages
Yum provides secure package management by enabling GPG (Gnu Privacy Guard; also known
as GnuPG) signature verification on GPG-signed packages to be turned on for all package
repositories (i.e. package sources), or for individual repositories. When signature verification is
enabled, Yum will refuse to install any packages not GPG-signed with the correct key for that
repository. This means that you can trust that the RPM packages you download and install on
your system are from a trusted source, such as The Fedora Project, and were not modified during
transfer. Refer to Section 4.3, “Configuring Yum and Yum Repositories” for details on enabling
signature-checking with Yum, or Section B.3, “Checking a Package's Signature” for information
on working with and verifying GPG-signed RPM packages in general.
Yum also enables you to easily set up your own repositories of RPM packages for download and
installation on other machines.
Learning Yum is a worthwhile investment because it is often the fastest way to perform system
administration tasks, and it provides capabilities beyond those provided by the PackageKit graphical
package management tools. Refer to Chapter 5, PackageKit for details on using PackageKit.
Yum and superuser privileges
You must have superuser privileges in order to use yum to install, update or remove packages
on your system. All examples in this chapter assume that you have already obtained superuser
privileges by using either the su or sudo command.
4.1. Checking For and Updating Packages
4.1.1. Checking For Updates
To see which installed packages on your system have updates available, use the following command:
yum check-update
For example:
31
Chapter 4. Yum
~]# yum check-update
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
PackageKit.x86_64
PackageKit-command-not-found.x86_64
PackageKit-device-rebind.x86_64
PackageKit-glib.x86_64
PackageKit-gstreamer-plugin.x86_64
PackageKit-gtk-module.x86_64
PackageKit-gtk3-module.x86_64
PackageKit-yum.x86_64
PackageKit-yum-plugin.x86_64
gdb.x86_64
kernel.x86_64
rpm.x86_64
rpm-libs.x86_64
rpm-python.x86_64
yum.noarch
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
0.6.14-2.fc15
7.2.90.20110429-36.fc15
2.6.38.6-26.fc15
4.9.0-6.fc15
4.9.0-6.fc15
4.9.0-6.fc15
3.2.29-5.fc15
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
fedora
The packages in the above output are listed as having updates available. The first package in the list
is PackageKit, the graphical package manager. The line in the example output tells us:
• PackageKit — the name of the package
• x86_64 — the CPU architecture the package was built for
• 0.6.14 — the version of the updated package to be installed
• fedora — the repository in which the updated package is located
The output also shows us that we can update the kernel (the kernel package), Yum and RPM
themselves (the yum and rpm packages), as well as their dependencies (such as the kernel-firmware,
rpm-libs, and rpm-python packages), all using yum.
4.1.2. Updating Packages
You can choose to update a single package, multiple packages, or all packages at once. If any
dependencies of the package (or packages) you update have updates available themselves, then they
are updated too.
Updating a Single Package
To update a single package, run the following command as root:
yum update package_name
For example, to update the udev package, type:
~]# yum update udev
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Updating Red Hat repositories.
INFO:rhsm-app.repolib:repos updated: 0
Setting up Update Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package gdb.x86_64 0:7.2.90.20110411-34.fc15 will be updated
32
Updating Packages
---> Package gdb.x86_64 0:7.2.90.20110429-36.fc15 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
================================================================================
Package
Arch
Version
Repository
Size
================================================================================
Updating:
gdb
x86_64
7.2.90.20110429-36.fc15
fedora
1.9 M
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Upgrade
1 Package(s)
Total download size: 1.9 M
Is this ok [y/N]:
This output contains several items of interest:
1. Loaded plugins: — yum always informs you which Yum plug-ins are installed and enabled.
Here, yum is using the langpacks, presto, and refresh-packagekit plug-ins. Refer to Section 4.4,
“Yum Plug-ins” for general information on Yum plug-ins, or to Section 4.4.3, “Plug-in Descriptions”
for descriptions of specific plug-ins.
2. gdb.x86_64 — you can download and install new gdb package.
3. yum presents the update information and then prompts you as to whether you want it to perform
the update; yum runs interactively by default. If you already know which transactions yum plans to
perform, you can use the -y option to automatically answer yes to any questions yum may ask (in
which case it runs non-interactively). However, you should always examine which changes yum
plans to make to the system so that you can easily troubleshoot any problems that might arise.
If a transaction does go awry, you can view Yum's transaction history by using the yum history
command as described in Section 4.2.6, “Working with Transaction History”.
Updating and installing kernels with Yum
yum always installs a new kernel in the same sense that RPM installs a new kernel when you
use the command rpm -i kernel. Therefore, you do not need to worry about the distinction
between installing and upgrading a kernel package when you use yum: it will do the right thing,
regardless of whether you are using the yum update or yum install command.
When using RPM, on the other hand, it is important to use the rpm -i kernel command
(which installs a new kernel) instead of rpm -u kernel (which replaces the current kernel).
Refer to Section B.2.2, “Installing and Upgrading” for more information on installing/updating
kernels with RPM.
Updating All Packages and Their Dependencies
To update all packages and their dependencies, simply enter yum update (without any arguments):
yum update
33
Chapter 4. Yum
Updating Security-Related Packages
Discovering which packages have security updates available and then updating those packages
quickly and easily is important. Yum provides the plug-in for this purpose. The security plug-in
extends the yum command with a set of highly-useful security-centric commands, subcommands and
options. Refer to Section 4.4.3, “Plug-in Descriptions” for specific information.
4.1.3. Preserving Configuration File Changes
You will inevitably make changes to the configuration files installed by packages as you use your
Fedora system. RPM, which Yum uses to perform changes to the system, provides a mechanism for
ensuring their integrity. Refer to Section B.2.2, “Installing and Upgrading” for details on how to manage
changes to configuration files across package upgrades.
4.2. Packages and Package Groups
4.2.1. Searching Packages
You can search all RPM package names, descriptions and summaries by using the following
command:
yum search term…
This command displays the list of matches for each term. For example, to list all packages that match
“meld” or “kompare”, type:
~]# yum search meld kompare
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
============================== N/S Matched: meld ===============================
meld.noarch : Visual diff and merge tool
python-meld3.x86_64 : HTML/XML templating system for Python
============================= N/S Matched: kompare =============================
komparator.x86_64 : Kompare and merge two folders
Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
The yum search command is useful for searching for packages you do not know the name of, but for
which you know a related term.
4.2.2. Listing Packages
yum list and related commands provide information about packages, package groups, and
repositories.
All of Yum's list commands allow you to filter the results by appending one or more glob expressions
as arguments. Glob expressions are normal strings of characters which contain one or more of the
wildcard characters * (which expands to match any character multiple times) and ? (which expands to
match any one character).
34
Listing Packages
Filtering results with glob expressions
Be careful to escape the glob expressions when passing them as arguments to a yum command,
otherwise the Bash shell will interpret these expressions as pathname expansions, and
potentially pass all files in the current directory that match the globs to yum. To make sure the
glob expressions are passed to yum as intended, either:
• escape the wildcard characters by preceding them with a backslash character
• double-quote or single-quote the entire glob expression.
Refer to Example 4.1, “Listing all ABRT addons and plug-ins using glob expressions” and
Example 4.4, “Listing available packages using a single glob expression with escaped wildcard
characters” for an example usage of both these methods.
yum list glob_expression…
Lists information on installed and available packages matching all glob expressions.
Example 4.1. Listing all ABRT addons and plug-ins using glob expressions
Packages with various ABRT addons and plug-ins either begin with “abrt-addon-”, or “abrtplugin-”. To list these packages, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# yum list abrt-addon\* abrt-plugin\*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Installed Packages
abrt-addon-ccpp.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-addon-kerneloops.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-addon-python.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-plugin-bugzilla.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-plugin-logger.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
Available Packages
abrt-plugin-mailx.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-plugin-reportuploader.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
abrt-plugin-rhtsupport.x86_64
2.0.2-5.fc15
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
updates
updates
updates
yum list all
Lists all installed and available packages.
Example 4.2. Listing all installed and available packages
~]# yum list all
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Installed Packages
ConsoleKit.x86_64
0.4.4-1.fc15
ConsoleKit-libs.x86_64
0.4.4-1.fc15
ConsoleKit-x11.x86_64
0.4.4-1.fc15
GConf2.x86_64
2.32.3-1.fc15
GConf2-gtk.x86_64
2.32.3-1.fc15
ModemManager.x86_64
0.4-7.git20110201.fc15
NetworkManager.x86_64
1:0.8.998-4.git20110427.fc15
NetworkManager-glib.x86_64
1:0.8.998-4.git20110427.fc15
NetworkManager-gnome.x86_64
1:0.8.998-4.git20110427.fc15
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
@fedora
35
Chapter 4. Yum
NetworkManager-openconnect.x86_64
[output truncated]
0.8.1-9.git20110419.fc15
@fedora
yum list installed
Lists all packages installed on your system. The rightmost column in the output lists the repository
from which the package was retrieved.
Example 4.3. Listing installed packages using a double-quoted glob expression
To list all installed packages that begin with “krb” followed by exactly one character and a
hyphen, type:
~]# yum list installed "krb?-*"
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Installed Packages
krb5-libs.x86_64
1.9-7.fc15
@fedora
yum list available
Lists all available packages in all enabled repositories.
Example 4.4. Listing available packages using a single glob expression with escaped wildcard
characters
To list all available packages with names that contain “gstreamer” and then “plugin”, run the
following command:
~]# yum list available gstreamer\*plugin\*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Available Packages
gstreamer-plugin-crystalhd.x86_64
3.5.1-1.fc14
gstreamer-plugins-bad-free.x86_64
0.10.22-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-bad-free-devel.x86_64
0.10.22-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-bad-free-devel-docs.x86_64
0.10.22-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-bad-free-extras.x86_64
0.10.22-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-base.x86_64
0.10.33-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-base-devel.x86_64
0.10.33-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-base-devel-docs.noarch
0.10.33-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-base-tools.x86_64
0.10.33-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-espeak.x86_64
0.3.3-3.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-fc.x86_64
0.2-2.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-good.x86_64
0.10.29-1.fc15
gstreamer-plugins-good-devel-docs.noarch
0.10.29-1.fc15
yum grouplist
Lists all package groups.
Example 4.5. Listing all package groups
~]# yum grouplist
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Setting up Group Process
Installed Groups:
Administration Tools
Design Suite
Dial-up Networking Support
Fonts
GNOME Desktop Environment
36
fedora
updates
updates
updates
updates
updates
updates
updates
updates
fedora
fedora
updates
updates
Displaying Package Information
[output truncated]
yum repolist
Lists the repository ID, name, and number of packages it provides for each enabled repository.
Example 4.6. Listing enabled repositories
~]# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
repo id
repo name
fedora
Fedora 15 - i386
updates
Fedora 15 - i386 - Updates
repolist: 23,213
status
19,365
3,848
4.2.3. Displaying Package Information
To display information about one or more packages (glob expressions are valid here as well), use the
following command:
yum info package_name…
For example, to display information about the abrt package, type:
~]# yum info abrt
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Installed Packages
Name
: abrt
Arch
: x86_64
Version
: 2.0.1
Release
: 2.fc15
Size
: 806 k
Repo
: installed
From repo
: fedora
Summary
: Automatic bug detection and reporting tool
URL
: https://fedorahosted.org/abrt/
License
: GPLv2+
Description : abrt is a tool to help users to detect defects in applications and
: to create a bug report with all informations needed by maintainer
: to fix it. It uses plugin system to extend its functionality.
The yum info package_name command is similar to the rpm -q --info package_name
command, but provides as additional information the ID of the Yum repository the RPM package is
found in (look for the From repo: line in the output).
You can also query the Yum database for alternative and useful information about a package by using
the following command:
yumdb info package_name
This command provides additional information about a package, including the checksum of the
package (and algorithm used to produce it, such as SHA-256), the command given on the command
line that was invoked to install the package (if any), and the reason that the package is installed on
the system (where user indicates it was installed by the user, and dep means it was brought in as a
dependency). For example, to display additional information about the yum package, type:
37
Chapter 4. Yum
~]# yumdb info yum
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
yum-3.2.29-4.fc15.noarch
checksum_data = 249f21fb43c41381c8c9b0cd98d2ea5fa0aa165e81ed2009cfda74c05af67246
checksum_type = sha256
from_repo = fedora
from_repo_revision = 1304429533
from_repo_timestamp = 1304442346
installed_by = 0
reason = user
releasever = $releasever
For more information on the yumdb command, refer to the yumdb(8) manual page.
4.2.4. Installing Packages
Yum allows you to install both a single package and multiple packages, as well as a package group of
your choice.
Installing Individual Packages
To install a single package and all of its non-installed dependencies, enter a command in the following
form:
yum install package_name
You can also install multiple packages simultaneously by appending their names as arguments:
yum install package_name package_name…
If you are installing packages on a multilib system, such as an AMD64 or Intel64 machine, you
can specify the architecture of the package (as long as it is available in an enabled repository) by
appending .arch to the package name. For example, to install the sqlite2 package for i586, type:
~]# yum install sqlite2.i586
You can use glob expressions to quickly install multiple similarly-named packages:
~]# yum install audacious-plugins-\*
In addition to package names and glob expressions, you can also provide file names to yum
install. If you know the name of the binary you want to install, but not its package name, you can
give yum install the path name:
~]# yum install /usr/sbin/named
yum then searches through its package lists, finds the package which provides /usr/sbin/named, if
any, and prompts you as to whether you want to install it.
38
Installing Packages
Finding which package owns a file
If you know you want to install the package that contains the named binary, but you do not know
in which bin or sbin directory is the file installed, use the yum provides command with a glob
expression:
~]# yum provides "*bin/named"
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
32:bind-9.8.0-3.P1.fc15.i686 : The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) DNS
: (Domain Name System) server
Repo
: fedora
Matched from:
Filename
: /usr/sbin/named
yum provides "*/file_name" is a common and useful trick to find the packages that
contain file_name.
Installing a Package Group
A package group is similar to a package: it is not useful by itself, but installing one pulls a group of
dependent packages that serve a common purpose. A package group has a name and a groupid. The
yum grouplist -v command lists the names of all package groups, and, next to each of them, their
groupid in parentheses. The groupid is always the term in the last pair of parentheses, such as kdedesktop in the following example:
~]# yum -v grouplist kde\*
Not loading "blacklist" plugin, as it is disabled
Loading "langpacks" plugin
Loading "presto" plugin
Loading "refresh-packagekit" plugin
Not loading "whiteout" plugin, as it is disabled
Adding en_US to language list
Config time: 0.900
Yum Version: 3.2.29
Setting up Group Process
rpmdb time: 0.002
group time: 0.995
Available Groups:
KDE Software Compilation (kde-desktop)
KDE Software Development (kde-software-development)
Done
You can install a package group by passing its full group name (without the groupid part) to
groupinstall:
yum groupinstall group_name
You can also install by groupid:
yum groupinstall groupid
You can even pass the groupid (or quoted name) to the install command if you prepend it with an
@-symbol (which tells yum that you want to perform a groupinstall):
39
Chapter 4. Yum
yum install @group
For example, the following are alternative but equivalent ways of installing the KDE Desktop group:
~]# yum groupinstall "KDE Desktop"
~]# yum groupinstall kde-desktop
~]# yum install @kde-desktop
4.2.5. Removing Packages
Similarly to package installation, Yum allows you to uninstall (remove in RPM and Yum terminology)
both individual packages and a package group.
Removing Individual Packages
To uninstall a particular package, as well as any packages that depend on it, run the following
command as root:
yum remove package_name…
As when you install multiple packages, you can remove several at once by adding more package
names to the command. For example, to remove totem, rhythmbox, and sound-juicer, type the
following at a shell prompt:
~]# yum remove totem rhythmbox sound-juicer
Similar to install, remove can take these arguments:
• package names
• glob expressions
• file lists
• package provides
Removing a package when other packages depend on it
Yum is not able to remove a package without also removing packages which depend on it. This
type of operation can only be performed by RPM, is not advised, and can potentially leave your
system in a non-functioning state or cause applications to misbehave and/or crash. For further
information, refer to Section B.2.4, “Uninstalling” in the RPM chapter.
Removing a Package Group
You can remove a package group using syntax congruent with the install syntax:
yum groupremove group
40
Working with Transaction History
yum remove @group
The following are alternative but equivalent ways of removing the KDE Desktop group:
~]# yum groupremove "KDE Desktop"
~]# yum groupremove kde-desktop
~]# yum remove @kde-desktop
Intelligent package group removal
When you tell yum to remove a package group, it will remove every package in that group, even
if those packages are members of other package groups or dependencies of other installed
packages. However, you can instruct yum to remove only those packages which are not required
by any other packages or groups by adding the groupremove_leaf_only=1 directive to the
[main] section of the /etc/yum.conf configuration file. For more information on this directive,
refer to Section 4.3.1, “Setting [main] Options”.
4.2.6. Working with Transaction History
The yum history command allows users to review information about a timeline of Yum transactions,
the dates and times on when they occurred, the number of packages affected, whether transactions
succeeded or were aborted, and if the RPM database was changed between transactions.
Additionally, this command can be used to undo or redo certain transactions.
Listing Transactions
To display a list of twenty most recent transactions, as root, either run yum history with no
additional arguments, or type the following at a shell prompt:
yum history list
To display all transactions, add the all keyword:
yum history list all
To display only transactions in a given range, use the command in the following form:
yum history list start_id..end_id
You can also list only transactions regarding a particular package or packages. To do so, use the
command with a package name or a glob expression:
yum history list glob_expression…
For example, the list of first five transactions may look as follows:
~]# yum history list 1..5
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
41
Chapter 4. Yum
ID
| Login user
| Date and time
| Action(s)
| Altered
------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 | Jaromir ... <jhradilek> | 2011-07-29 15:33 | Install
|
1
4 | Jaromir ... <jhradilek> | 2011-07-21 15:10 | Install
|
1
3 | Jaromir ... <jhradilek> | 2011-07-16 15:27 | I, U
|
73
2 | System <unset>
| 2011-07-16 15:19 | Update
|
1
1 | System <unset>
| 2011-07-16 14:38 | Install
| 1106
history list
All forms of the yum history list command produce tabular output with each row consisting of
the following columns:
• ID — an integer value that identifies a particular transaction.
• Login user — the name of the user whose login session was used to initiate a transaction. This
information is typically presented in the Full Name <username> form. For transactions that were
not issued by a user (such as an automatic system update), System <unset> is used instead.
• Date and time — the date and time when a transaction was issued.
• Action(s) — a list of actions that were performed during a transaction as described in Table 4.1,
“Possible values of the Action(s) field”.
• Altered — the number of packages that were affected by a transaction, possibly followed by
additional information as described in Table 4.2, “Possible values of the Altered field”.
Table 4.1. Possible values of the Action(s) field
Action
Abbreviation Description
Downgrade
D
At least one package has been downgraded to an older version.
Erase
E
At least one package has been removed.
Install
I
At least one new package has been installed.
Obsoleting
O
At least one package has been marked as obsolete.
Reinstall
R
At least one package has been reinstalled.
Update
U
At least one package has been updated to a newer version.
Table 4.2. Possible values of the Altered field
Symbol
Description
<
Before the transaction finished, the rpmdb database was changed outside Yum.
>
After the transaction finished, the rpmdb database was changed outside Yum.
*
The transaction failed to finish.
#
The transaction finished successfully, but yum returned a non-zero exit code.
E
The transaction finished successfully, but an error or a warning was displayed.
P
The transaction finished successfully, but problems already existed in the
rpmdb database.
s
The transaction finished successfully, but the --skip-broken command line
option was used and certain packages were skipped.
Yum also allows you to display a summary of all past transactions. To do so, run the command in the
following form as root:
yum history summary
42
Working with Transaction History
To display only transactions in a given range, type:
yum history summary start_id..end_id
Similarly to the yum history list command, you can also display a summary of transactions
regarding a certain package or packages by supplying a package name or a glob expression:
yum history summary glob_expression…
For instance, a summary of the transaction history displayed above would look like the following:
~]# yum history summary 1..5
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Login user
| Time
| Action(s)
| Altered
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jaromir ... <jhradilek>
| Last day
| Install
|
1
Jaromir ... <jhradilek>
| Last week
| Install
|
1
Jaromir ... <jhradilek>
| Last 2 weeks
| I, U
|
73
System <unset>
| Last 2 weeks
| I, U
|
1107
history summary
All forms of the yum history summary command produce simplified tabular output similar to the
output of yum history list.
As shown above, both yum history list and yum history summary are oriented towards
transactions, and although they allow you to display only transactions related to a given package
or packages, they lack important details, such as package versions. To list transactions from the
perspective of a package, run the following command as root:
yum history package-list glob_expression…
For example, to trace the history of subscription-manager and related packages, type the following at
a shell prompt:
~]# yum history package-list subscription-manager\*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
ID
| Action(s)
| Package
------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 | Updated
| subscription-manager-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
3 | Update
|
0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64
3 | Updated
| subscription-manager-firstboot-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
3 | Update
|
0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64
3 | Updated
| subscription-manager-gnome-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
3 | Update
|
0.95.17-1.el6_1.x86_64
1 | Install
| subscription-manager-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
1 | Install
| subscription-manager-firstboot-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
1 | Install
| subscription-manager-gnome-0.95.11-1.el6.x86_64
history package-list
In this example, three packages were installed during the initial system installation: subscriptionmanager, subscription-manager-firstboot, and subscription-manager-gnome. In the third transaction,
all these packages were updated from version 0.95.11 to version 0.95.17.
Examining Transactions
To display the summary of a single transaction, as root, use the yum history summary command
in the following form:
43
Chapter 4. Yum
yum history summary id
To examine a particular transaction or transactions in more detail, run the following command as
root:
yum history info id…
The id argument is optional and when you omit it, yum automatically uses the last transaction. Note
that when specifying more than one transaction, you can also use a range:
yum history info start_id..end_id
The following is sample output for two transactions, each installing one new package:
~]# yum history info 4..5
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Transaction ID : 4..5
Begin time
: Thu Jul 21 15:10:46 2011
Begin rpmdb
: 1107:0c67c32219c199f92ed8da7572b4c6df64eacd3a
End time
:
15:33:15 2011 (22 minutes)
End rpmdb
: 1109:1171025bd9b6b5f8db30d063598f590f1c1f3242
User
: Jaromir Hradilek <jhradilek>
Return-Code
: Success
Command Line
: install screen
Command Line
: install yum-plugin-fs-snapshot
Transaction performed with:
Installed
rpm-4.8.0-16.el6.x86_64
Installed
yum-3.2.29-17.el6.noarch
Installed
yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-16.el6.x86_64
Packages Altered:
Install screen-4.0.3-16.el6.x86_64
Install yum-plugin-fs-snapshot-1.1.30-6.el6.noarch
history info
You can also view additional information, such as what configuration options were used at the time
of the transaction, or from what repository and why were certain packages installed. To determine
what additional information is available for a certain transaction, type the following at a shell prompt as
root:
yum history addon-info id
Similarly to yum history info, when no id is provided, yum automatically uses the latest
transaction. Another way to refer to the latest transaction is to use the last keyword:
yum history addon-info last
For instance, for the first transaction in the previous example, the yum history addon-info
command would provide the following output:
~]# yum history addon-info 4
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Transaction ID: 4
Available additional history information:
config-main
config-repos
44
Working with Transaction History
saved_tx
history addon-info
In this example, three types of information are available:
• config-main — global Yum options that were in use during the transaction. Refer to
Section 4.3.1, “Setting [main] Options” for information on how to change global options.
• config-repos — options for individual Yum repositories. Refer to Section 4.3.2, “Setting
[repository] Options” for information on how to change options for individual repositories.
• saved_tx — the data that can be used by the yum load-transaction command in order to
repeat the transaction on another machine (see below).
To display selected type of additional information, run the following command as root:
yum history addon-info id information
Reverting and Repeating Transactions
Apart from reviewing the transaction history, the yum history command provides means to revert or
repeat a selected transaction. To revert a transaction, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum history undo id
To repeat a particular transaction, as root, run the following command:
yum history redo id
Both commands also accept the last keyword to undo or repeat the latest transaction.
Note that both yum history undo and yum history redo commands merely revert or repeat
the steps that were performed during a transaction: if the transaction installed a new package, the yum
history undo command will uninstall it, and vice versa. If possible, this command will also attempt
to downgrade all updated packages to their previous version, but these older packages may no longer
be available. If you need to be able to restore the system to the state before an update, consider using
the fs-snapshot plug-in described in Section 4.4.3, “Plug-in Descriptions”.
When managing several identical systems, Yum also allows you to perform a transaction on one of
them, store the transaction details in a file, and after a period of testing, repeat the same transaction
on the remaining systems as well. To store the transaction details to a file, type the following at a shell
prompt as root:
yum -q history addon-info id saved_tx > file_name
Once you copy this file to the target system, you can repeat the transaction by using the following
command as root:
yum load-transaction file_name
Note, however that the rpmdb version stored in the file must by identical to the version on the target
system. You can verify the rpmdb version by using the yum version nogroups command.
45
Chapter 4. Yum
Starting New Transaction History
Yum stores the transaction history in a single SQLite database file. To start new transaction history,
run the following command as root:
yum history new
This will create a new, empty database file in the /var/lib/yum/history/ directory. The old
transaction history will be kept, but will not be accessible as long as a newer database file is present in
the directory.
4.3. Configuring Yum and Yum Repositories
The configuration file for yum and related utilities is located at /etc/yum.conf. This file contains one
mandatory [main] section, which allows you to set Yum options that have global effect, and may
also contain one or more [repository] sections, which allow you to set repository-specific options.
However, best practice is to define individual repositories in new or existing .repo files in the /etc/
yum.repos.d/directory. The values you define in the [main] section of the /etc/yum.conf file
may override values set in individual [repository] sections.
This section shows you how to:
• set global Yum options by editing the [main] section of the /etc/yum.conf configuration file;
• set options for individual repositories by editing the [repository] sections in /etc/yum.conf
and .repo files in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory;
• use Yum variables in /etc/yum.conf and files in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory so that
dynamic version and architecture values are handled correctly;
• add, enable, and disable Yum repositories on the command line; and,
• set up your own custom Yum repository.
4.3.1. Setting [main] Options
The /etc/yum.conf configuration file contains exactly one [main] section, and while some of the
key-value pairs in this section affect how yum operates, others affect how Yum treats repositories. You
can add many additional options under the [main] section heading in /etc/yum.conf.
A sample /etc/yum.conf configuration file can look like this:
[main]
cachedir=/var/cache/yum/$basearch/$releasever
keepcache=0
debuglevel=2
logfile=/var/log/yum.log
exactarch=1
obsoletes=1
gpgcheck=1
plugins=1
installonly_limit=3
[comments abridged]
# PUT YOUR REPOS HERE OR IN separate files named file.repo
46
Setting [main] Options
# in /etc/yum.repos.d
The following are the most commonly-used options in the [main] section:
assumeyes=value
…where value is one of:
0 — yum should prompt for confirmation of critical actions it performs. This is the default.
1 — Do not prompt for confirmation of critical yum actions. If assumeyes=1 is set, yum behaves in
the same way that the command line option -y does.
cachedir=directory
…where directory is an absolute path to the directory where Yum should store its cache
and database files. By default, Yum's cache directory is /var/cache/yum/$basearch/
$releasever.
Refer to Section 4.3.3, “Using Yum Variables” for descriptions of the $basearch and
$releasever Yum variables.
debuglevel=value
…where value is an integer between 1 and 10. Setting a higher debuglevel value causes yum
to display more detailed debugging output. debuglevel=0 disables debugging output, while
debuglevel=2 is the default.
exactarch=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Do not take into account the exact architecture when updating packages.
1 — Consider the exact architecture when updating packages. With this setting, yum will not install
an i686 package to update an i386 package already installed on the system. This is the default.
exclude=package_name [more_package_names]
This option allows you to exclude packages by keyword during installation/updates. Listing
multiple packages for exclusion can be accomplished by quoting a space-delimited list of
packages. Shell globs using wildcards (for example, * and ?) are allowed.
gpgcheck=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Disable GPG signature-checking on packages in all repositories, including local package
installation.
1 — Enable GPG signature-checking on all packages in all repositories, including local package
installation. gpgcheck=1 is the default, and thus all packages' signatures are checked.
If this option is set in the [main] section of the /etc/yum.conf file, it sets the GPG-checking
rule for all repositories. However, you can also set gpgcheck=value for individual repositories
instead; that is, you can enable GPG-checking on one repository while disabling it on another.
Setting gpgcheck=value for an individual repository in its corresponding .repo file overrides
the default if it is present in /etc/yum.conf.
For more information on GPG signature-checking, refer to Section B.3, “Checking a Package's
Signature”.
groupremove_leaf_only=value
…where value is one of:
47
Chapter 4. Yum
0 — yum should not check the dependencies of each package when removing a package group.
With this setting, yum removes all packages in a package group, regardless of whether those
packages are required by other packages or groups. groupremove_leaf_only=0 is the default.
1 — yum should check the dependencies of each package when removing a package group, and
remove only those packages which are not not required by any other package or group.
For more information on removing packages, refer to Intelligent package group removal.
installonlypkgs=space separated list of packages
Here you can provide a space-separated list of packages which yum can install, but will never
update. Refer to the yum.conf(5) manual page for the list of packages which are install-only by
default.
If you add the installonlypkgs directive to /etc/yum.conf, you should ensure that
you list all of the packages that should be install-only, including any of those listed under the
installonlypkgs section of yum.conf(5). In particular, kernel packages should always be
listed in installonlypkgs (as they are by default), and installonly_limit should always
be set to a value greater than 2 so that a backup kernel is always available in case the default one
fails to boot.
installonly_limit=value
…where value is an integer representing the maximum number of versions that can be installed
simultaneously for any single package listed in the installonlypkgs directive.
The defaults for the installonlypkgs directive include several different kernel packages, so
be aware that changing the value of installonly_limit will also affect the maximum number
of installed versions of any single kernel package. The default value listed in /etc/yum.conf is
installonly_limit=3, and it is not recommended to decrease this value, particularly below 2.
keepcache=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Do not retain the cache of headers and packages after a successful installation. This is the
default.
1 — Retain the cache after a successful installation.
logfile=file_name
…where file_name is an absolute path to the file in which yum should write its logging output. By
default, yum logs to /var/log/yum.log.
multilib_policy=value
…where value is one of:
best — install the best-choice architecture for this system. For example, setting
multilib_policy=best on an AMD64 system causes yum to install 64-bit versions of all
packages.
all — always install every possible architecture for every package. For example, with
multilib_policy set to all on an AMD64 system, yum would install both the i586 and AMD64
versions of a package, if both were available.
obsoletes=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Disable yum's obsoletes processing logic when performing updates.
48
Setting [repository] Options
1 — Enable yum's obsoletes processing logic when performing updates. When one package
declares in its spec file that it obsoletes another package, the latter package will be replaced by
the former package when the former package is installed. Obsoletes are declared, for example,
when a package is renamed. obsoletes=1 the default.
plugins=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Disable all Yum plug-ins globally.
Disabling all plug-ins is not advised
Disabling all plug-ins is not advised because certain plug-ins provide important Yum services.
Disabling plug-ins globally is provided as a convenience option, and is generally only
recommended when diagnosing a potential problem with Yum.
1 — Enable all Yum plug-ins globally. With plugins=1, you can still disable a specific Yum plugin by setting enabled=0 in that plug-in's configuration file.
For more information about various Yum plug-ins, refer to Section 4.4, “Yum Plug-ins”. For further
information on controlling plug-ins, see Section 4.4.1, “Enabling, Configuring, and Disabling Yum
Plug-ins”.
reposdir=directory
…where directory is an absolute path to the directory where .repo files are located. All .repo
files contain repository information (similar to the [repository] sections of /etc/yum.conf).
yum collects all repository information from .repo files and the [repository] section of the /
etc/yum.conf file to create a master list of repositories to use for transactions. If reposdir is
not set, yum uses the default directory /etc/yum.repos.d/.
retries=value
…where value is an integer 0 or greater. This value sets the number of times yum should attempt
to retrieve a file before returning an error. Setting this to 0 makes yum retry forever. The default
value is 10.
For a complete list of available [main] options, refer to the [main] OPTIONS section of the
yum.conf(5) manual page.
4.3.2. Setting [repository] Options
The [repository] sections, where repository is a unique repository ID such as
my_personal_repo (spaces are not permitted), allow you to define individual Yum repositories.
The following is a bare-minimum example of the form a [repository] section takes:
[repository]
name=repository_name
baseurl=repository_url
Every [repository] section must contain the following directives:
49
Chapter 4. Yum
name=repository_name
…where repository_name is a human-readable string describing the repository.
baseurl=repository_url
…where repository_url is a URL to the directory where the repodata directory of a repository
is located:
• If the repository is available over HTTP, use: http://path/to/repo
• If the repository is available over FTP, use: ftp://path/to/repo
• If the repository is local to the machine, use: file:///path/to/local/repo
• If a specific online repository requires basic HTTP authentication, you can specify your
username and password by prepending it to the URL as username:password@link.
For example, if a repository on http://www.example.com/repo/ requires a username
of “user” and a password of “password”, then the baseurl link could be specified as
http://user:password@www.example.com/repo/.
Usually this URL is an HTTP link, such as:
baseurl=http://path/to/repo/releases/$releasever/server/$basearch/os/
Note that Yum always expands the $releasever, $arch, and $basearch variables in URLs.
For more information about Yum variables, refer to Section 4.3.3, “Using Yum Variables”.
Another useful [repository] directive is the following:
enabled=value
…where value is one of:
0 — Do not include this repository as a package source when performing updates and installs.
This is an easy way of quickly turning repositories on and off, which is useful when you desire a
single package from a repository that you do not want to enable for updates or installs.
1 — Include this repository as a package source.
Turning repositories on and off can also be performed by passing either the -enablerepo=repo_name or --disablerepo=repo_name option to yum, or through the Add/
Remove Software window of the PackageKit utility.
Many more [repository] options exist. For a complete list, refer to the [repository] OPTIONS
section of the yum.conf(5) manual page.
4.3.3. Using Yum Variables
You can use and reference the following built-in variables in yum commands and in all Yum
configuration files (that is, /etc/yum.conf and all .repo files in the /etc/yum.repos.d/
directory):
$releasever
You can use this variable to reference the release version of Fedora. Yum obtains the value of
$releasever from the distroverpkg=value line in the /etc/yum.conf configuration file. If
there is no such line in /etc/yum.conf, then yum infers the correct value by deriving the version
number from the redhat-release package.
50
Viewing the Current Configuration
$arch
You can use this variable to refer to the system's CPU architecture as returned when calling
Python's os.uname() function. Valid values for $arch include: i586, i686 and x86_64.
$basearch
You can use $basearch to reference the base architecture of the system. For example, i686 and
i586 machines both have a base architecture of i386, and AMD64 and Intel64 machines have a
base architecture of x86_64.
$YUM0-9
These ten variables are each replaced with the value of any shell environment variables with the
same name. If one of these variables is referenced (in /etc/yum.conf for example) and a shell
environment variable with the same name does not exist, then the configuration file variable is not
replaced.
To define a custom variable or to override the value of an existing one, create a file with the same
name as the variable (without the “$” sign) in the /etc/yum/vars/ directory, and add the desired
value on its first line.
For example, repository descriptions often include the operating system name. To define a new
variable called $osname, create a new file with “Fedora” on the first line and save it as /etc/yum/
vars/osname:
~]# echo "Fedora" > /etc/yum/vars/osname
Instead of “Fedora 17”, you can now use the following in the .repo files:
name=$osname $releasever
4.3.4. Viewing the Current Configuration
To display the current values of global Yum options (that is, the options specified in the [main]
section of the /etc/yum.conf file), run the yum-config-manager with no command line options:
yum-config-manager
To list the content of a different configuration section or sections, use the command in the following
form:
yum-config-manager section…
You can also use a glob expression to display the configuration of all matching sections:
yum-config-manager glob_expression…
For example, to list all configuration options and their corresponding values, type the following at a
shell prompt:
~]$ yum-config-manager main \*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
================================== main ===================================
[main]
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Chapter 4. Yum
alwaysprompt = True
assumeyes = False
bandwith = 0
bugtracker_url = https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?product=Red%20Hat%20Enterprise
%20Linux%206&component=yum
cache = 0
[output truncated]
4.3.5. Adding, Enabling, and Disabling a Yum Repository
Section 4.3.2, “Setting [repository] Options” described various options you can use to define a Yum
repository. This section explains how to add, enable, and disable a repository by using the yumconfig-manager command.
Adding a Yum Repository
To define a new repository, you can either add a [repository] section to the /etc/yum.conf file,
or to a .repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. All files with the .repo file extension in this
directory are read by yum, and best practice is to define your repositories here instead of in /etc/
yum.conf.
Be careful when using untrusted software sources
Obtaining and installing software packages from unverified or untrusted software sources
constitutes a potential security risk, and could lead to security, stability, compatibility
maintainability issues.
Yum repositories commonly provide their own .repo file. To add such a repository to your system and
enable it, run the following command as root:
yum-config-manager --add-repo repository_url
…where repository_url is a link to the .repo file. For example, to add a repository located at
http://www.example.com/example.repo, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# yum-config-manager --add-repo http://www.example.com/example.repo
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
adding repo from: http://www.example.com/example.repo
grabbing file http://www.example.com/example.repo to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo
example.repo
| 413 B
00:00
repo saved to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo
Enabling a Yum Repository
To enable a particular repository or repositories, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum-config-manager --enable repository…
…where repository is the unique repository ID (use yum repolist all to list available
repository IDs). Alternatively, you can use a glob expression to enable all matching repositories:
52
Creating a Yum Repository
yum-config-manager --enable glob_expression…
For example, to disable repositories defined in the [example], [example-debuginfo], and
[example-source]sections, type:
~]# yum-config-manager --enable example\*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
============================== repo: example ==============================
[example]
bandwidth = 0
base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6Server
baseurl = http://www.example.com/repo/6Server/x86_64/
cache = 0
cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6Server/example
[output truncated]
When successful, the yum-config-manager --enable command displays the current repository
configuration.
Disabling a Yum Repository
To disable a Yum repository, run the following command as root:
yum-config-manager --disable repository…
…where repository is the unique repository ID (use yum repolist all to list available
repository IDs). Similarly to yum-config-manager --enable, you can use a glob expression to
disable all matching repositories at the same time:
yum-config-manager --disable glob_expression…
When successful, the yum-config-manager --disable command displays the current
configuration.
4.3.6. Creating a Yum Repository
To set up a Yum repository, follow these steps:
1.
Install the createrepo package:
~]# yum install createrepo
2.
Copy all of the packages into one directory, such as /mnt/local_repo/.
3.
Run the createrepo --database command on that directory:
~]# createrepo --database /mnt/local_repo
This creates the necessary metadata for your Yum repository, as well as the sqlite database for
speeding up yum operations.
4.4. Yum Plug-ins
53
Chapter 4. Yum
Yum provides plug-ins that extend and enhance its operations. Certain plug-ins are installed by
default. Yum always informs you which plug-ins, if any, are loaded and active whenever you call any
yum command. For example:
~]# yum info yum
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
[output truncated]
Note that the plug-in names which follow Loaded plugins are the names you can provide to the -disableplugins=plugin_name option.
4.4.1. Enabling, Configuring, and Disabling Yum Plug-ins
To enable Yum plug-ins, ensure that a line beginning with plugins= is present in the [main] section
of /etc/yum.conf, and that its value is set to 1:
plugins=1
You can disable all plug-ins by changing this line to plugins=0.
Disabling all plug-ins is not advised
Disabling all plug-ins is not advised because certain plug-ins provide important Yum services.
Disabling plug-ins globally is provided as a convenience option, and is generally only
recommended when diagnosing a potential problem with Yum.
Every installed plug-in has its own configuration file in the /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/ directory. You
can set plug-in specific options in these files. For example, here is the refresh-packagekit plug-in's
refresh-packagekit.conf configuration file:
[main]
enabled=1
Plug-in configuration files always contain a [main] section (similar to Yum's /etc/yum.conf file) in
which there is (or you can place if it is missing) an enabled= option that controls whether the plug-in
is enabled when you run yum commands.
If you disable all plug-ins by setting enabled=0 in /etc/yum.conf, then all plug-ins are disabled
regardless of whether they are enabled in their individual configuration files.
If you merely want to disable all Yum plug-ins for a single yum command, use the --noplugins
option.
If you want to disable one or more Yum plug-ins for a single yum command, add the -disableplugin=plugin_name option to the command. For example, to disable the presto plug-in
while updating a system, type:
~]# yum update --disableplugin=presto
The plug-in names you provide to the --disableplugin= option are the same names listed after
the Loaded plugins line in the output of any yum command. You can disable multiple plug-ins by
54
Installing Additional Yum Plug-ins
separating their names with commas. In addition, you can match multiple plug-in names or shorten
long ones by using glob expressions:
~]# yum update --disableplugin=presto,refresh-pack*
4.4.2. Installing Additional Yum Plug-ins
Yum plug-ins usually adhere to the yum-plugin-plugin_name package-naming convention, but not
always: the package which provides the presto plug-in is named yum-presto, for example. You can
install a Yum plug-in in the same way you install other packages. For instance, to install the security
plug-in, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# yum install yum-plugin-security
4.4.3. Plug-in Descriptions
The following list provides descriptions of a few useful Yum plug-ins:
fs-snapshot (yum-plugin-fs-snapshot)
The fs-snapshot plug-in extends Yum to create a snapshot of a file system before proceeding
with a transaction such as a system update or package removal. When a user decides that the
changes made by the transaction are unwanted, this mechanism allows the user to roll back to the
changes that are stored in a snapshot.
In order for the plug-in to work, the root file system (that is, /) must be on an LVM (Logical
Volume Manager) or Btrfs volume. To use the fs-snapshot plug-in on an LVM volume, take the
following steps:
1.
Make sure that the volume group with the root file system has enough free extents. The
required size is a function of the amount of changes to the original logical volume that is
expected during the life of the snapshot. The reasonable default is 50–80 % of the original
logical volume size.
To display detailed information about a particular volume group, run the vgdisplay
command in the following form as root:
vgdisplay volume_group
The number of free extents is listed on the Free PE / Size line.
2.
If the volume group with the root file system does not have enough free extents, add a new
physical volume:
a.
As root, run the pvcreate command in the following form to initialize a physical
volume for use with the Logical Volume Manager:
pvcreate device
b.
Use the vgextend command in the following form as root to add the physical volume
to the volume group:
vgextend volume_group physical_volume
55
Chapter 4. Yum
3.
Edit the configuration file located in /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/fs-snapshot.conf, and
make the following changes to the [lvm] section:
a.
Change the value of the enabled option to 1:
enabled = 1
b.
Remove the hash sign (that is, #) from the beginning of the lvcreate_size_args line,
and adjust the number of logical extents to be allocated for a snapshot. For example, to
allocate 80 % of the size of the original logical volume, use:
lvcreate_size_args = -l 80%ORIGIN
Refer to Table 4.3, “Supported fs-snapshot.conf directives” for a complete list of
available configuration options.
4.
Run the desired yum command, and make sure fs-snapshot is included in the list of loaded
plug-ins (the Loaded plugins line) before you confirm the changes and proceed with the
transaction. The fs-snapshot plug-in displays a line in the following form for each affected
logical volume:
fs-snapshot: snapshotting file_system (/
dev/volume_group/logical_volume): logical_volume_yum_timestamp
5.
Verify that the system is working as expected:
If you decide to keep the changes, remove the snapshot by running the lvremove
command as root:
lvremove /dev/volume_group/logical_volume_yum_timestamp
If you decide to revert the changes and restore the file system to a state that is saved in a
snapshot, take the following steps:
a.
As root, run the command in the following form to merge a snapshot into its original
logical volume:
lvconvert --merge /dev/volume_group/logical_volume_yum_timestamp
The lvconvert command will inform you that a restart is required in order for the
changes to take effect.
b.
Restart the system as instructed. You can do so by typing the following at a shell
prompt as root:
reboot
To use the fs-snapshot plug-in on a Btrfs file system, take the following steps:
1.
56
Run the desired yum command, and make sure fs-snapshot is included in the list of loaded
plug-ins (the Loaded plugins line) before you confirm the changes and proceed with the
transaction. The fs-snapshot plug-in displays a line in the following form for each affected file
system:
Plug-in Descriptions
fs-snapshot: snapshotting file_system: file_system/yum_timestamp
2.
Verify that the system is working as expected:
If you decide to keep the changes, you can optionally remove unwanted snapshots. To
remove a Btrfs snapshot, use the command in the following form as root:
btrfs subvolume delete file_system/yum_timestamp
If you decide to revert the changes and restore a file system to a state that is saved in a
snapshot, take the following steps:
a.
Determine the identifier of a particular snapshot by using the following command as
root:
btrfs subvolume list file_system
b.
As root, configure the system to mount this snapshot by default:
btrfs subvolume set-default id file_system
c.
Restart the system. You can do so by typing the following at a shell prompt as root:
reboot
For more information on logical volume management, Btrfs, and file system snapshots, see the
1
Fedora 17 Storage Administration Guide . For additional information about the plug-in and its
configuration, refer to the yum-fs-snapshot(1) and yum-fs-snapshot.conf(5) manual pages.
Table 4.3. Supported fs-snapshot.conf directives
Section
[main]
[lvm]
Directive
Description
enabled=value
Allows you to enable or disable the plug-in.
The value must be either 1 (enabled), or
0 (disabled). When installed, the plug-in is
enabled by default.
exclude=list
Allows you to exclude certain file systems.
The value must be a space-separated list of
mount points you do not want to snapshot (for
example, /srv /mnt/backup). This option is
not included in the configuration file by default.
enabled=value
Allows you to enable or disable the use of the
plug-in on LVM volumes. The value must be
either 1 (enabled), or 0 (disabled). This option
is disabled by default.
lvcreate_size_args=value Allows you to specify the size of a logical
volume snapshot. The value must be the -
1
https://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Storage_Administration_Guide/
57
Chapter 4. Yum
Section
Directive
Description
l or -L command line option for the lvcreate
utility followed by a valid argument (for
example, -l 80%ORIGIN).
presto (yum-presto)
The presto plug-in adds support to Yum for downloading delta RPM packages, during updates,
from repositories which have presto metadata enabled. Delta RPMs contain only the differences
between the version of the package installed on the client requesting the RPM package and the
updated version in the repository.
Downloading a delta RPM is much quicker than downloading the entire updated package, and can
speed up updates considerably. Once the delta RPMs are downloaded, they must be rebuilt to
apply the difference to the currently-installed package and thus create the full, updated package.
This process takes CPU time on the installing machine. Using delta RPMs is therefore a tradeoff
between time-to-download, which depends on the network connection, and time-to-rebuild, which
is CPU-bound. Using the presto plug-in is recommended for fast machines and systems with
slower network connections, while slower machines on very fast connections may benefit more
from downloading normal RPM packages, that is, by disabling presto.
refresh-packagekit (PackageKit-yum-plugin)
The refresh-packagekit plug-in updates metadata for PackageKit whenever yum is run. The
refresh-packagekit plug-in is installed by default.
rhnplugin (yum-rhn-plugin)
The rhnplugin provides support for connecting to RHN Classic. This allows systems registered
with RHN Classic to update and install packages from this system.
Refer to the rhnplugin(8) manual page for more information about the plug-in.
security (yum-plugin-security)
Discovering information about and applying security updates easily and often is important to all
system administrators. For this reason Yum provides the security plug-in, which extends yum with
a set of highly-useful security-related commands, subcommands and options.
You can check for security-related updates as follows:
~]# yum check-update --security
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit, security
Limiting package lists to security relevant ones
updates-testing/updateinfo
| 329 kB
9 package(s) needed for security, out of 270 available
ConsoleKit.x86_64
ConsoleKit-libs.x86_64
ConsoleKit-x11.x86_64
NetworkManager.x86_64
NetworkManager-glib.x86_64
[output truncated]
0.4.5-1.fc15
0.4.5-1.fc15
0.4.5-1.fc15
1:0.8.999-2.git20110509.fc15
1:0.8.999-2.git20110509.fc15
00:00
updates
updates
updates
updates
updates
You can then use either yum update --security or yum update-minimal --security
to update those packages which are affected by security advisories. Both of these commands
update all packages on the system for which a security advisory has been issued. yum updateminimal --security updates them to the latest packages which were released as part of
a security advisory, while yum update --security will update all packages affected by a
security advisory to the latest version of that package available.
58
Additional Resources
In other words, if:
• the kernel-2.6.38.4-20 package is installed on your system;
• the kernel-2.6.38.6-22 package was released as a security update;
• then kernel-2.6.38.6-26 was released as a bug fix update,
...then yum update-minimal --security will update you to kernel-2.6.38.6-22, and yum
update --security will update you to kernel-2.6.38.6-26. Conservative system administrators
may want to use update-minimal to reduce the risk incurred by updating packages as much as
possible.
Refer to the yum-security(8) manual page for usage details and further explanation of the
enhancements the security plug-in adds to yum.
4.5. Additional Resources
http://yum.baseurl.org/wiki/Guides
The Yum Guides section of the Yum wiki contains more documentation.
59
60
Chapter 5.
PackageKit
Fedora provides PackageKit for viewing, managing, updating, installing and uninstalling packages
compatible with your system. PackageKit consists of several graphical interfaces that can be opened
from the GNOME panel menu, or from the Notification Area when PackageKit alerts you that updates
are available. For more information on PackageKit's architecture and available front ends, refer to
Section 5.3, “PackageKit Architecture”.
5.1. Updating Packages with Software Update
You can open Software Updates by clicking Applications��� System Tools��� Software
Update from the Activities menu, or running the gpk-update-viewer command at the shell
prompt. In the Software Updates window, all available updates are listed along with the names of the
packages being updated (minus the .rpm suffix, but including the CPU architecture), a short summary
of the package, and, usually, short descriptions of the changes the update provides. Any updates
you do not wish to install can be de-selected here by unchecking the checkbox corresponding to the
update.
Figure 5.1. Installing updates with Software Update
The updates presented in the Software Updates window only represent the currently-installed
packages on your system for which updates are available; dependencies of those packages, whether
they are existing packages on your system or new ones, are not shown until you click Install Updates.
61
Chapter 5. PackageKit
PackageKit utilizes the fine-grained user authentication capabilities provided by the PolicyKit
toolkit whenever you request it to make changes to the system. Whenever you instruct PackageKit
to update, install or remove packages, you will be prompted to enter the superuser password before
changes are made to the system.
If you instruct PackageKit to update the kernel package, then it will prompt you after installation,
asking you whether you want to reboot the system and thereby boot into the newly-installed kernel.
5.1.1. Setting the Update-Checking Interval
Selecting Applications��� Other��� Software Updates from the Activities menu opens the
Software Update Preferences window. The Update Settings tab allows you to define the interval at
which PackageKit checks for package updates, as well as whether or not to automatically install all
updates or only security updates. Leaving the Check for updates when using mobile broadband
box unchecked is handy for avoiding extraneous bandwidth usage when using a wireless connection
on which you are charged for the amount of data you download.
Figure 5.2. Setting PackageKit's update-checking interval
5.1.2. Setting the Software Sources
To select which package repositories to use to install software updates, select Applications��
Other��� Software Updates from the Activities menu, and click the Software Sources tab of the
Software Update Preferences window.
62
Using Add/Remove Software
Figure 5.3. Setting PackageKit's software sources
PackageKit refers to Yum repositories as software sources. It obtains all packages from enabled
software sources.The Software Sources tab shows the repository name, as written on the name=My
Repository Name field of all [repository] sections in the /etc/yum.conf configuration file, and
in all repository.repo files in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory.
Entries which are checked in the Enabled column indicate that the corresponding repository will
be used to locate packages to satisfy all update and installation requests (including dependency
resolution). The Enabled column corresponds to the enabled=<1 or 0> field in [repository]
sections. Checking an unchecked box enables the Yum repository, and unchecking it disables it.
Performing either function causes PolicyKit to prompt for superuser authentication to enable or
disable the repository. PackageKit actually inserts the enabled=<1 or 0> line into the correct
[repository] section if it does not exist, or changes the value if it does. This means that enabling
or disabling a repository through the Software Sources window causes that change to persist after
closing the window or rebooting the system. The ability to quickly enable and disable repositories
based on our needs is a highly-convenient feature of PackageKit.
Note that it is not possible to add or remove Yum repositories through PackageKit.
Showing source RPM, test, and debuginfo repositories
Checking the box at the bottom of the Software Sources tab causes PackageKit to display
source RPM, testing and debuginfo repositories as well. This box is unchecked by default.
5.2. Using Add/Remove Software
PackageKit's Software Update GUI window is a separate application from its Add/Remove
Software application, although the two have intuitively similar interfaces. To find and install a new
package, select Applications��� System Tools��� Add/Remove Software from the Activities
menu, or run the gpk-application command at the shell prompt.
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Chapter 5. PackageKit
Figure 5.4. PackageKit's Add/Remove Software window
5.2.1. Refreshing Software Sources (Yum Repositories)
To enable or disable a Yum repository, open a dialog box by sclicking System��� Software
Sources, and select the Software Sources tab. Refer to Section 5.1.2, “Setting the Software
Sources” for more information on available configuration options.
After enabling and/or disabling the correct Yum repositories, make sure that you have the latest list
of available packages. Click on System��� Refresh Package Lists and PackageKit will obtain the
latest lists of packages from all enabled software sources, that is, Yum repositories.
5.2.2. Finding Packages with Filters
You can view the list of all configured and unfiltered (see below) Yum repositories by opening Add/
Remove Software and clicking System��� Software Sources. Once the software sources have
been updated, it is often beneficial to apply some filters so that PackageKit retrieves the results of
our Find queries faster. This is especially helpful when performing many package searches. Four of
the filters in the Filters drop-down menu are used to split results by matching or not matching a single
criterion. By default when PackageKit starts, these filters are all unapplied (No Filter), but once you
do filter by one of them, that filter remains set until you either change it or close PackageKit.
Because you are usually searching for available packages that are not installed on the system, click
Filters��� Installed and select the Only Available radio button.
64
Finding Packages with Filters
Figure 5.5. Filtering out already-installed packages
Also, unless we require development files such as C header files, we can filter for Only End User
Files and, in doing so, filter out all of the package_name-devel packages we are not interested in.
Figure 5.6. Filtering out development packages from the list of Find results
The two remaining filters with submenus are:
Graphical
Narrows the search to either applications which provide a GUI interface (Only Graphical) or those
that do not. This filter is useful when browsing for GUI applications that perform a specific function.
Free
1
Search for packages which are considered to be free software Refer to the Fedora Licensing List
for details on approved licenses.
The remaining checkbox filters are always either checked or unchecked. They are:
Hide Subpackages
Checking the Hide Subpackages checkbox filters out generally-uninteresting packages that
are typically only dependencies of other packages that we want. For example, checking Hide
Subpackages and searching for package would cause the following related packages to be
filtered out of the Find results (if it exists):
1
https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Licensing#SoftwareLicenses
65
Chapter 5. PackageKit
• package-devel
• package-libs
• package-libs-devel
• package-debuginfo
Only Newest Packages
Checking Only Newest Packages filters out all older versions of the same package from the list
of results, which is generally what we want.
Using the Only Newest Packages filter
Checking Only Newest Packages filters out all but the most recent version of any package
from the results list. This filter is often combined with the Only Available filter to search for
the latest available versions of new (not installed) packages.
Only native packages
Checking the Only Native Packages box on a multilib system causes PackageKit to omit listing
results for packages compiled for the architecture that runs in compatibility mode. For example,
enabling this filter on a 64-bit system with an AMD64 CPU would cause all packages built for the
32-bit x86 CPU architecture not to be shown in the list of results, even though those packages
are able to run on an AMD64 machine. Packages which are architecture-agnostic (i.e. noarch
packages such as crontabs-1.10-32.1.el6.noarch.rpm) are never filtered out by checking
Only Native Packages. This filter has no affect on non-multilib systems, such as x86 machines.
5.2.3. Installing and Removing Packages (and Dependencies)
With the two filters selected, Only Available and Only End User Files, search for the htop interactive
process viewer and highlight the package. You now have access to some very useful information
about it, including: a clickable link to the project homepage; the Yum package group it is found in, if
any; the license of the package; a pointer to the GNOME menu location from where the application
can be opened, if applicable; and the size of the package, which is relevant when we download and
install it.
66
Installing and Removing Packages (and Dependencies)
Figure 5.7. Viewing and installing a package with PackageKit's Add/Remove Software window
When the checkbox next to a package or group is checked, then that item is already installed on
the system. Checking an unchecked box causes it to be marked for installation, which only occurs
when the Apply button is clicked. In this way, you can search for and select multiple packages or
package groups before performing the actual installation transactions. Additionally, you can remove
installed packages by unchecking the checked box, and the removal will occur along with any pending
installations when Apply is pressed. Dependency resolution , which may add additional packages to
be installed or removed, is performed after pressing Apply. PackageKit will then display a window
listing those additional packages to install or remove, and ask for confirmation to proceed.
Check htop and click the Apply button. You will then be prompted for the superuser password; enter
it, and PackageKit will install htop. One nice feature of PackageKit is that, following installation, it
sometimes presents you with a list of your newly-installed applications and offer you the choice of
running them immediately. Alternatively, you will remember that finding a package and selecting it
in the Add/Remove Software window shows you the Location of where in the GNOME menus its
application shortcut is located, which is helpful when you want to run it.
Once it is installed, you can run htop, a colorful and enhanced version of the top process viewer, by
opening a shell prompt and entering:
htop
htop is nifty, but we decide that top is good enough for us and we want to uninstall it. Remembering
that we need to change the Only Available filter we recently used to install it to Only Installed in
Filters��� Installed, we search for htop again and uncheck it. The program did not install any
dependencies of its own; if it had, those would be automatically removed as well, as long as they were
not also dependencies of any other packages still installed on our system.
67
Chapter 5. PackageKit
Removing a package when other packages depend on it
Although PackageKit automatically resolves dependencies during package installation and
removal, it is unable to remove a package without also removing packages which depend on it.
This type of operation can only be performed by RPM, is not advised, and can potentially leave
your system in a non-functioning state or cause applications to misbehave and/or crash.
Figure 5.8. Removing a package with PackageKit's Add/Remove Software window
5.2.4. Installing and Removing Package Groups
PackageKit also has the ability to install Yum package groups, which it calls Package collections.
Clicking on Package collections in the top-left list of categories in the Software Updates window
allows us to scroll through and find the package group we want to install. In this case, we want to
install Czech language support (the Czech Support group). Checking the box and clicking Apply
informs us how many additional packages must be installed in order to fulfill the dependencies of the
package group.
68
Viewing the Transaction Log
Figure 5.9. Installing the Czech Support package group
Similarly, installed package groups can be uninstalled by selecting Package collections, unchecking
the appropriate checkbox, and applying.
5.2.5. Viewing the Transaction Log
PackageKit maintains a log of the transactions that it performs. To view the log, from the Add/
Remove Software window, click System��� Software Log, or run the gpk-log command at the
shell prompt.
The Software Log Viewer shows the Action, such as Updated Packages or Installed
Packages, the Date on which that action was performed, the Username of the user who performed
the action, and the front end Application the user used (such as Add/Remove Software, or
Update System). The Details column provides the types of the transactions, such as Updated,
Installed, or Removed, as well as the list of packages the transactions were performed on.
Figure 5.10. Viewing the log of package management transactions with the Software Log Viewer
Typing the name of a package in the top text entry field filters the list of transactions to those which
affected that package.
69
Chapter 5. PackageKit
5.3. PackageKit Architecture
Fedora provides the PackageKit suite of applications for viewing, updating, installing and uninstalling
packages and package groups compatible with your system. Architecturally, PackageKit consists
of several graphical front ends that communicate with the packagekitd daemon back end, which
communicates with a package manager-specific back end that utilizes Yum to perform the actual
transactions, such as installing and removing packages, etc.
Table 5.1, “PackageKit GUI windows, menu locations, and shell prompt commands” shows the name
of the GUI window, how to start the window from the GNOME desktop or from the Add/Remove
Software window, and the name of the command line application that opens that window.
Table 5.1. PackageKit GUI windows, menu locations, and shell prompt commands
Window Title
Function
How to Open
Shell Command
Add/Remove Software
Install, remove or view
package info
From the GNOME
panel: System��
Administration
�� Add/Remove
Software
gpk-application
Software Update
Perform package
updates
From the GNOME
panel: System��
Administration��
Software Update
gpk-update-viewer
Software Sources
Enable and disable
Yum repositories
From Add/Remove
Software: System��
Software Sources
gpk-repo
Software Log Viewer
View the transaction
log
From Add/Remove
Software: System��
Software Log
gpk-log
Software Update
Preferences
Set PackageKit
preferences
(Notification Area Alert)
Alerts you when
updates are available
gpk-prefs
From the GNOME
panel: System��
Preferences��
Startup Applications,
Startup Programs tab
gpk-update-icon
The packagekitd daemon runs outside the user session and communicates with the various
2
graphical front ends. The packagekitd daemon communicates via the DBus system message bus
with another back end, which utilizes Yum's Python API to perform queries and make changes to
the system. On Linux systems other than Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora, packagekitd can
communicate with other back ends that are able to utilize the native package manager for that system.
This modular architecture provides the abstraction necessary for the graphical interfaces to work with
many different package managers to perform essentially the same types of package management
tasks. Learning how to use the PackageKit front ends means that you can use the same familiar
2
System daemons are typically long-running processes that provide services to the user or to other programs, and which are
started, often at boot time. Daemons respond to the systemctl command and can be turned on or off permanently by using
the systemctl enable or systemctl disablecommands. They can typically be recognized by a “d” appended to their
name, such as the packagekitd daemon. Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for information about system services.
70
Additional Resources
graphical interface across many different Linux distributions, even when they utilize a native package
manager other than Yum.
In addition, PackageKit's separation of concerns provides reliability in that a crash of one of the GUI
windows—or even the user's X Window session—will not affect any package management tasks being
supervised by the packagekitd daemon, which runs outside of the user session.
All of the front end graphical applications discussed in this chapter are provided by the gnomepackagekit package instead of by PackageKit and its dependencies. Users working in a KDE
environment may prefer to install the kpackagekit package, which provides a KDE interface for
PackageKit.
Finally, PackageKit also comes with a console-based front end called pkcon.
5.4. Additional Resources
PackageKit home page — http://www.packagekit.org/index.html
Information about and mailing lists for PackageKit.
PackageKit FAQ — http://www.packagekit.org/pk-faq.html
An informative list of Frequently Asked Questions for the PackageKit software suite.
PackageKit Feature Matrix — http://www.packagekit.org/pk-matrix.html
Cross-reference PackageKit-provided features with the long list of package manager back ends.
71
72
Part III. Networking
This part describes how to configure the network on Fedora.
Chapter 6.
NetworkManager
NetworkManager is a dynamic network control and configuration system that attempts to keep
network devices and connections up and active when they are available. NetworkManager consists
of a core daemon, a GNOME Notification Area applet that provides network status information,
and graphical configuration tools that can create, edit and remove connections and interfaces.
NetworkManager can be used to configure the following types of connections: Ethernet, wireless,
mobile broadband (such as cellular 3G), and DSL and PPPoE (Point-to-Point over Ethernet). In
addition, NetworkManager allows for the configuration of network aliases, static routes, DNS
information and VPN connections, as well as many connection-specific parameters. Finally,
NetworkManager provides a rich API via D-Bus which allows applications to query and control
network configuration and state.
Previous versions of Fedora included the Network Administration Tool, which was commonly known
as system-config-network after its command line invocation. In Fedora 17, NetworkManager
replaces the former Network Administration Tool while providing enhanced functionality, such
as user-specific and mobile broadband configuration. It is also possible to configure the network in
Fedora 17 by editing interface configuration files; refer to Chapter 7, Network Interfaces for more
information.
NetworkManager may be installed by default on Fedora. To ensure that it is, first run the following
command as the root user:
~]# yum install NetworkManager
6.1. The NetworkManager Daemon
The NetworkManager daemon runs with root privileges and is usually configured to start up at boot
time. You can determine whether the NetworkManager daemon is running by entering this command
as root:
~]# service NetworkManager status
NetworkManager (pid 1527) is running...
The service command will report NetworkManager is stopped if the NetworkManager service
is not running. To start it for the current session:
~]# service NetworkManager start
Run the chkconfig command to ensure that NetworkManager starts up every time the system
boots:
~]# chkconfig NetworkManager on
For more information on starting, stopping and managing services and runlevels, refer to Chapter 8,
Services and Daemons.
6.2. Interacting with NetworkManager
Users do not interact with the NetworkManager system service directly. Instead, you can perform
network configuration tasks via NetworkManager's Notification Area applet. The applet has multiple
states that serve as visual indicators for the type of connection you are currently using.
75
Chapter 6. NetworkManager
Figure 6.1. NetworkManager applet states
If you do not see the NetworkManager applet in the GNOME panel, and assuming that the
NetworkManager package is installed on your system, you can start the applet by running the
following command as a normal user (not root):
~]$ nm-applet &
After running this command, the applet appears in your Notification Area.
6.2.1. Connecting to a Network
When you click on the applet icon, you are presented with:
• a list of categorized networks you are currently connected to (such as Wired and Wireless);
• a list of all Available Networks that NetworkManager has detected;
• options for connecting to any configured Virtual Private Networks (VPNs); and,
• options for connecting to hidden or new wireless networks.
If you are connected to a network, its name is presented first under its network type, such as Wired
or Wireless with a bulletpoint to the left. When many networks are available, such as wireless access
points, the More networks expandable menu entry appears.
Figure 6.2. The NetworkManager applet's drop-down menu, showing all available and connected-to
networks
6.2.2. Configuring New and Editing Existing Connections
Click on the NetworkManager applet to open the drop-down menu, this is the main point of entry for
interacting with NetworkManager to configure connections.
76
Connecting to a Network Automatically
If the system has detected a wired connection, the Wired menu entry will appear. If the system has
detected a wireless card, then you will also see a Wireless menu entry. Clicking the Wired and
Wireless labels or the associated ON OFF indicator to the right will toggle the status between ON and
OFF.
Finally, clicking on the Network Settings menu entry opens the Network window, from where you can
view some basic network configuration information and initiate configuration tasks.
Figure 6.3. Configure networks using the Network window
Then, to configure:
• wired Ethernet connections, click on Wired followed by Options and proceed to Section 6.3.1,
“Establishing a Wired (Ethernet) Connection”;
• wireless connections, click on Wireless followed by Options and proceed to Section 6.3.2,
“Establishing a Wireless Connection”; or,
• mobile broadband connections, proceed to Section 6.3.3, “Establishing a Mobile Broadband
Connection”; or,
• VPN connections, click on the VPN menu entry followed by Options and proceed to Section 6.3.4,
“Establishing a VPN Connection”. If there is no VPN menu entry click on the plus sign at the bottom.
A dialog box appears. Ensure the interface is set to VPN. Click the Create button to open the
Choose a VPN Connection Type assistant. Proceed to Step 5
6.2.3. Connecting to a Network Automatically
For any connection type you add or configure, you can choose whether you want NetworkManager to
try to connect to that network automatically when it is available.
Procedure 6.1. Configuring NetworkManager to Connect to a Network Automatically When Detected
1. Click on the NetworkManager applet icon in the Notification Area.
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Click Network Settings.
2.
The Network window appears.
3.
Select the type of connection from the left-hand-side menu.
4.
Click on Configure
5.
Select Connect automatically to cause NetworkManager to auto-connect to the connection
whenever NetworkManager detects that it is available. Unselect the checkbox if you do not want
NetworkManager to connect automatically. If the box is unchecked, you will have to select that
connection manually in the NetworkManager applet's initial menu to cause it to connect.
6.2.4. User and System Connections
NetworkManager connections are always either user connections or system connections. Depending
on the system-specific policy that the administrator has configured, users may need root privileges
to create and modify system connections. NetworkManager's default policy enables users to create
and modify user connections, but requires them to have root privileges to add, modify or delete system
connections.
User connections are so-called because they are specific to the user who creates them. In contrast
to system connections, whose configurations are stored under the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ directory (mainly in ifcfg-<network_type> interface configuration files), user
connection settings are stored in the GConf configuration database and the GNOME keyring, and are
only available during login sessions for the user who created them. Thus, logging out of the desktop
session causes user-specific connections to become unavailable.
Increase security by making VPN connections user-specific
Because NetworkManager uses the GConf and GNOME keyring applications to store user
connection settings, and because these settings are specific to your desktop session, it is highly
recommended to configure your personal VPN connections as user connections. If you do so,
other non-root users on the system cannot view or access these connections in any way.
System connections, on the other hand, become available at boot time and can be used by other
users on the system without first logging in to a desktop session.
NetworkManager can quickly and conveniently convert user to system connections and vice versa.
Converting a user connection to a system connection causes NetworkManager to create the relevant
interface configuration files under the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory, and to
delete the GConf settings from the user's session. Conversely, converting a system to a user-specific
connection causes NetworkManager to remove the system-wide configuration files and create the
corresponding GConf/GNOME keyring settings.
Figure 6.4. The Available to all users checkbox controls whether connections are user-specific or
system-wide
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Establishing Connections
Procedure 6.2. Changing a Connection to be User-Specific instead of System-Wide, or Vice-Versa
Root privileges may be required
Depending on the system's policy, you may need root privileges on the system in order to change
whether a connection is user-specific or system-wide.
1.
Click on the NetworkManager applet icon in the Notification Area and click Network Settings.
The Network window appears.
2.
Select the menu entry for the type of network connection you want to configure.
3.
Select the Configure button.
4.
Check the Available to all users checkbox to ask NetworkManager to make the connection a
system-wide connection. Depending on system policy, you may then be prompted for the root
password by the PolicyKit application. If so, enter the root password to finalize the change.
Conversely, uncheck the Available to all users checkbox to make the connection user-specific.
6.3. Establishing Connections
6.3.1. Establishing a Wired (Ethernet) Connection
To establish a wired network connection, click on the NetworkManager applet to open its menu, then
click on Network Settings. This opens the Network window.
Select the Wired menu entry and then click Configure.
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Figure 6.5. Editing the newly-created Wired connection 1
The system startup scripts create and configure a single wired connection called System eth0 by
default on all systems. Although you can edit System eth0, creating a new wired connection for your
custom settings is recommended. You can create a new wired connection by selecting the Wired tab
and clicking the Add button.
The dialog for adding and editing connections is the same
When you add a new connection by clicking the Add button, NetworkManager creates a new
configuration file for that connection and then opens the same dialog that is used for editing
an existing connection. There is no difference between these dialogs. In effect, you are always
editing a connection; the difference only lies in whether that connection previously existed or was
just created by NetworkManager when you clicked Add.
Configuring the Connection Name, Auto-Connect Behavior, and
Availability Settings
Three settings in the Editing dialog are common to all connection types:
• Connection name — Enter a descriptive name for your network connection. This name will be used
to list this connection in the Wired tab of the Network Connections window.
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Establishing a Wired (Ethernet) Connection
• Connect automatically — Check this box if you want NetworkManager to auto-connect to this
connection when it is available. Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Connecting to a Network Automatically” for
more information.
• Available to all users — Check this box to create a connection available to all users on the
system. Changing this setting may require root privileges. Refer to Section 6.2.4, “User and System
Connections” for details.
Configuring the Wired Tab
The final two configurable settings are located within the Wired tab itself: the first is a text-entry
field where you can specify a MAC (Media Access Control) address, and the second allows you to
specify the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) value. Normally, you can leave the MAC address field
blank and the MTU set to automatic. These defaults will suffice unless you are associating a wired
connection with a second or specific NIC, or performing advanced networking. In such cases, refer to
the following descriptions:
MAC Address
Network hardware such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) has a unique MAC address (Media
Access Control; also known as a hardware address) that identifies it to the system. Running
the ip addr command will show the MAC address associated with each interface. For
example, in the following ip addr output, the MAC address for the eth0 interface (which is
52:54:00:26:9e:f1) immediately follows the link/ether keyword:
~]# ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen
1000
link/ether 52:54:00:26:9e:f1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.122.251/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global eth0
inet6 fe80::5054:ff:fe26:9ef1/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
A single system can have one or more NICs installed on it. The MAC address field therefore
allows you to associate a specific NIC with a specific connection (or connections). As mentioned,
you can determine the MAC address using the ip addr command, and then copy and paste that
value into the MAC address text-entry field.
MTU
The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) value represents the size in bytes of the largest packet
that the connection will use to transmit. This value defaults to 1500 when using IPv4, or a variable
number 1280 or higher for IPv6, and does not generally need to be specified or changed.
Saving Your New (or Modified) Connection and Making Further
Configurations
Once you have finished editing your wired connection, click the Apply button and NetworkManager
will immediately save your customized configuration. Given a correct configuration, you can connect to
your new or customized connection by selecting it from the NetworkManager Notification Area applet.
See Section 6.2.1, “Connecting to a Network” for information on using your new or altered connection.
You can further configure an existing connection by selecting it in the Network Connections window
and clicking Edit to return to the Editing dialog.
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Then, to configure:
• port-based Network Access Control (PNAC), click the 802.1x Security tab and proceed to
Section 6.4.1, “Configuring 802.1x Security”;
• IPv4 settings for the connection, click the IPv4 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.4,
“Configuring IPv4 Settings”; or,
• IPv6 settings for the connection, click the IPv6 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.5,
“Configuring IPv6 Settings”.
6.3.2. Establishing a Wireless Connection
This section explains how to use NetworkManager to configure a wireless (also known as Wi-Fi or
802.1a/b/g/n) connection to an Access Point.
To configure a mobile broadband (such as 3G) connection, refer to Section 6.3.3, “Establishing a
Mobile Broadband Connection”.
Quickly Connecting to an Available Access Point
The easiest way to connect to an available access point is to click on the NetworkManager applet,
locate the Service Set Identifier (SSID) of the access point in the list of available networks, and click
on it. If the access point is secured, a dialog prompts you for authentication.
NetworkManager tries to auto-detect the type of security used by the access point. If there are
multiple possibilities, NetworkManager guesses the security type and presents it in the Wireless
security dropdown menu. To see if there are multiple choices, click the Wireless security dropdown
menu and select the type of security the access point is using. If you are unsure, try connecting
to each type in turn. Finally, enter the key or passphrase in the Password field. Certain password
types, such as a 40-bit WEP or 128-bit WPA key, are invalid unless they are of a requisite length.
The Connect button will remain inactive until you enter a key of the length required for the selected
security type. To learn more about wireless security, refer to Section 6.4.2, “Configuring Wireless
Security”.
If NetworkManager connects to the access point successfully, its applet icon will change into a
graphical indicator of the wireless connection's signal strength.
Figure 6.6. Applet icon indicating wireless connection signal strength
Connecting to a Hidden Wireless Network
All access points have a Service Set Identifier (SSID) to identify them. However, an access point
may be configured not to broadcast its SSID, in which case it is hidden, and will not show up in
NetworkManager's list of Available networks. You can still connect to a wireless access point that is
hiding its SSID as long as you know its SSID, authentication method, and secrets.
To connect to a hidden wireless network, click NetworkManager's applet icon and then click Network
Settings. The Network window appears. Select the Wireless menu entry and then click to the right of
the Network Name to activate the drop-down list. Select Other. The Hidden wireless network dialog
window appears.
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Establishing a Wireless Connection
Figure 6.7. Hidden wireless network dialog window
If you have connected to the hidden network before, use the Connection drop-down list to select it,
and click Connect. If you have not, leave the Connection dropdown as New..., enter the SSID of the
hidden network, select its Wireless security method, enter the correct authentication secrets, and
click Connect.
For more information on wireless security settings, refer to Section 6.4.2, “Configuring Wireless
Security”.
Editing a Connection, or Creating a Completely New One
You can create a new connection by clicking on the NetworkManager applet to open its menu.
1.
Click on the NetworkManager applet icon in the Notification Area and click Network Settings.
The Network window appears.
2.
Select the Wireless menu entry.
3.
Click to the right of the Network Name to activate the drop-down list.
4.
Select the SSID you want to connect to.
5.
Click the Configure button. The editing a wireless connection window appears.
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Figure 6.8. Editing the newly-created Wireless connection
Configuring the Connection Name, Auto-Connect Behavior, and
Availability Settings
Three settings in the Editing dialog are common to all connection types:
• Connection name — Enter a descriptive name for your network connection. This name will be
used to list this connection in the Wireless tab of the Network Connections window. By default,
wireless connections are named the same as the SSID of the wireless access point. You can
rename the wireless connection without affecting its ability to connect, as in the example above, but
it is recommended to retain the SSID name.
• Connect automatically — Check this box if you want NetworkManager to auto-connect to this
connection when it is available. Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Connecting to a Network Automatically” for
more information.
• Available to all users — Check this box to create a connection available to all users on the
system. Changing this setting may require root privileges. Refer to Section 6.2.4, “User and System
Connections” for details.
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Establishing a Wireless Connection
Configuring the Wireless Tab
SSID
All access points have a Service Set identifier to identify them. However, an access point may
be configured not to broadcast its SSID, in which case it is hidden, and will not show up in
NetworkManager's list of Available networks. You can still connect to a wireless access point
that is hiding its SSID as long as you know its SSID (and authentication secrets).
For information on connecting to a hidden wireless network, refer to Section 6.3.2, “Connecting to
a Hidden Wireless Network”.
Mode
Infrastructure — Set Mode to Infrastructure if you are connecting to a dedicated wireless
access point or one built into a network device such as a router or a switch.
Ad-hoc — Set Mode to Ad-hoc if you are creating a peer-to-peer network for two or more
mobile devices to communicate directly with each other. If you use Ad-hoc mode, referred to as
Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) in the 802.11 standard, you must ensure that the same
SSID is set for all participating wireless devices, and that they are all communicating over the
same channel.
BSSID
The Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) is the MAC address of the specific wireless access point
you are connecting to when in Infrastructure mode. This field is blank by default, and you are
able to connect to a wireless access point by SSID without having to specify its BSSID. If the
BSSID is specified, it will force the system to associate to a specific access point only.
For ad-hoc networks, the BSSID is generated randomly by the mac80211 subsystem when the
ad-hoc network is created. It is not displayed by NetworkManager
MAC address
Like an Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC), a wireless adapter has a unique MAC address
(Media Access Control; also known as a hardware address) that identifies it to the system.
Running the ip addr command will show the MAC address associated with each interface. For
example, in the following ip addr output, the MAC address for the wlan0 interface (which is
00:1c:bf:02:f8:70) immediately follows the link/ether keyword:
~]# ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN qlen
1000
link/ether 52:54:00:26:9e:f1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.122.251/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global eth0
inet6 fe80::5054:ff:fe26:9ef1/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:1c:bf:02:f8:70 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.200.130.67/24 brd 10.200.130.255 scope global wlan0
inet6 fe80::21c:bfff:fe02:f870/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
A single system could have one or more wireless network adapters connected to it. The MAC
address field therefore allows you to associate a specific wireless adapter with a specific
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connection (or connections). As mentioned, you can determine the MAC address using the ip
addr command, and then copy and paste that value into the MAC address text-entry field.
MTU
The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) value represents the size in bytes of the largest packet
that the connection will use to transmit. If set to a non-zero number, only packets of the specified
size or smaller will be transmitted. Larger packets are broken up into multiple Ethernet frames. It is
recommended to leave this setting on automatic.
Saving Your New (or Modified) Connection and Making Further
Configurations
Once you have finished editing the wireless connection, click the Apply button and NetworkManager
will immediately save your customized configuration. Given a correct configuration, you can
successfully connect to your the modified connection by selecting it from the NetworkManager
Notification Area applet. See Section 6.2.1, “Connecting to a Network” for details on selecting and
connecting to a network.
You can further configure an existing connection by selecting it in the Network Connections window
and clicking Edit to return to the Editing dialog.
Then, to configure:
• security authentication for the wireless connection, click the Wireless Security tab and proceed to
Section 6.4.2, “Configuring Wireless Security”;
• IPv4 settings for the connection, click the IPv4 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.4,
“Configuring IPv4 Settings”; or,
• IPv6 settings for the connection, click the IPv6 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.5,
“Configuring IPv6 Settings”.
6.3.3. Establishing a Mobile Broadband Connection
You can use NetworkManager's mobile broadband connection abilities to connect to the following 2G
and 3G services:
• 2G — GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) or EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)
• 3G — UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) or HSPA (High Speed Packet Access)
Your computer must have a mobile broadband device (modem), which the system has discovered
and recognized, in order to create the connection. Such a device may be built into your computer (as
is the case on many notebooks and netbooks), or may be provided separately as internal or external
hardware. Examples include PC card, USB Modem or Dongle, mobile or cellular telephone capable of
acting as a modem.
Procedure 6.3. Adding a New Mobile Broadband Connection
You can configure a mobile broadband connection by opening the Network Connections window and
selecting the Mobile Broadband tab.
1.
Open the Network Connections window by running, as a normal user:
~]$ nm-connection-editor &
The Network Connections window appears.
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Establishing a Mobile Broadband Connection
2.
Select the Mobile Broadband tab.
3.
Click the Add button to open the Set up a Mobile Broadband Connection assistant.
4.
Under Create a connection for this mobile broadband device, choose the 2G- or 3G-capable
device you want to use with the connection. If the dropdown menu is inactive, this indicates
that the system was unable to detect a device capable of mobile broadband. In this case, click
Cancel, ensure that you do have a mobile broadband-capable device attached and recognized by
the computer and then retry this procedure. Click the Forward button.
5.
Select the country where your service provider is located from the list and click the Forward
button.
6.
Select your provider from the list or enter it manually. Click the Forward button.
7.
Select your payment plan from the dropdown menu and confirm the Access Point Name (APN) is
correct. Click the Forward button.
8.
Review and confirm the settings and then click the Apply button.
9.
Edit the mobile broadband-specific settings by referring to the Configuring the Mobile Broadband
Tab description below .
Procedure 6.4. Editing an Existing Mobile Broadband Connection
Follow these steps to edit an existing mobile broadband connection.
1.
Open the Network Connections window by running, as a normal user:
~]$ nm-connection-editor &
The Network Connections window appears.
2.
Select the Mobile Broadband tab.
3.
Select the connection you wish to edit and click the Edit button.
4.
Configure the connection name, auto-connect behavior, and availability settings.
Three settings in the Editing dialog are common to all connection types:
• Connection name — Enter a descriptive name for your network connection. This name will be
used to list this connection in the Mobile Broadband tab of the Network Connections window.
• Connect automatically — Check this box if you want NetworkManager to auto-connect to this
connection when it is available. Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Connecting to a Network Automatically”
for more information.
• Available to all users — Check this box to create a connection available to all users on the
system. Changing this setting may require root privileges. Refer to Section 6.2.4, “User and
System Connections” for details.
5.
Edit the mobile broadband-specific settings by referring to the Configuring the Mobile Broadband
Tab description below .
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Saving Your New (or Modified) Connection and Making Further
Configurations
Once you have finished editing your mobile broadband connection, click the Apply button and
NetworkManager will immediately save your customized configuration. Given a correct configuration,
you can connect to your new or customized connection by selecting it from the NetworkManager
Notification Area applet. See Section 6.2.1, “Connecting to a Network” for information on using your
new or altered connection.
You can further configure an existing connection by selecting it in the Network Connections window
and clicking Edit to return to the Editing dialog.
Then, to configure:
• Point-to-point settings for the connection, click the PPP Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.3,
“Configuring PPP (Point-to-Point) Settings”;
• IPv4 settings for the connection, click the IPv4 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.4,
“Configuring IPv4 Settings”; or,
• IPv6 settings for the connection, click the IPv6 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.5,
“Configuring IPv6 Settings”.
Configuring the Mobile Broadband Tab
If you have already added a new mobile broadband connection using the assistant (refer to
Procedure 6.3, “Adding a New Mobile Broadband Connection” for instructions), you can edit the
Mobile Broadband tab to disable roaming if home network is not available, assign a network ID,
or instruct NetworkManager to prefer a certain technology (such as 3G or 2G) when using the
connection.
Number
The number that is dialed to establish a PPP connection with the GSM-based mobile broadband
network. This field may be automatically populated during the initial installation of the broadband
device. You can usually leave this field blank and enter the APN instead.
Username
Enter the username used to authenticate with the network. Some providers do not provide a
username, or accept any username when connecting to the network.
Password
Enter the password used to authenticate with the network. Some providers do not provide a
password, or accept any password.
APN
Enter the Access Point Name (APN) used to establish a connection with the GSM-based network.
Entering the correct APN for a connection is important because it often determines:
• how the user is billed for their network usage; and/or
• whether the user has access to the Internet, an intranet, or a subnetwork.
Network ID
Entering a Network ID causes NetworkManager to force the device to register only to a specific
network. This can be used to ensure the connection does not roam when it is not possible to
control roaming directly.
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Establishing a VPN Connection
Type
Any — The default value of Any leaves the modem to select the fastest network.
3G (UMTS/HSPA) — Force the connection to use only 3G network technologies.
2G (GPRS/EDGE) — Force the connection to use only 2G network technologies.
Prefer 3G (UMTS/HSPA) — First attempt to connect using a 3G technology such as HSPA or
UMTS, and fall back to GPRS or EDGE only upon failure.
Prefer 2G (GPRS/EDGE) — First attempt to connect using a 2G technology such as GPRS or
EDGE, and fall back to HSPA or UMTS only upon failure.
Allow roaming if home network is not available
Uncheck this box if you want NetworkManager to terminate the connection rather than transition
from the home network to a roaming one, thereby avoiding possible roaming charges. If the box
is checked, NetworkManager will attempt to maintain a good connection by transitioning from the
home network to a roaming one, and vice versa.
PIN
If your device's SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is locked with a PIN (Personal Identification
Number), enter the PIN so that NetworkManager can unlock the device. NetworkManager must
unlock the SIM if a PIN is required in order to use the device for any purpose.
6.3.4. Establishing a VPN Connection
Establishing an encrypted Virtual Private Network (VPN) enables you to communicate securely
between your Local Area Network (LAN), and another, remote LAN. After successfully establishing
a VPN connection, a VPN router or gateway performs the following actions upon the packets you
transmit:
1. it adds an Authentication Header for routing and authentication purposes;
2. it encrypts the packet data; and,
3. it encloses the data with an Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), which constitutes the
decryption and handling instructions.
The receiving VPN router strips the header information, decrypts the data, and routes it to its intended
destination (either a workstation or other node on a network). Using a network-to-network connection,
the receiving node on the local network receives the packets already decrypted and ready for
processing. The encryption/decryption process in a network-to-network VPN connection is therefore
transparent to clients.
Because they employ several layers of authentication and encryption, VPNs are a secure and effective
means of connecting multiple remote nodes to act as a unified intranet.
Procedure 6.5. Adding a New VPN Connection
1. You can configure a new VPN connection by opening the Network window and selecting the VPN
menu entry.
2.
Click on the NetworkManager applet icon in the Notification Area. Clicking on the Network
Settings menu entry opens the Network window, from where you can view some basic network
configuration information and initiate configuration tasks.
3.
Click on the VPN menu entry followed by Configure and proceed to Section 6.3.4, “Establishing a
VPN Connection”. If there is no VPN menu entry click on the plus sign at the bottom. A dialog box
appears. Ensure the interface is set to VPN.
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A VPN plug-in is required
The appropriate NetworkManager VPN plug-in for the VPN type you want to configure must
be installed. (refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing Packages” for more information on how to
install new packages in Fedora 17).
4.
Click the Create button to open the Choose a VPN Connection Type assistant.
5.
Select the VPN protocol for the gateway you are connecting to from the dropdown menu. The
VPN protocols available for selection in the dropdown menu corresponds to the NetworkManager
VPN plug-ins installed. For example, if the NetworkManager VPN plug-in for openswanis installed
then the IPsec based VPN will be selectable from the dropdown menu.
After selecting the correct one, press the Create... button.
6.
The Editing VPN Connection 1 window then appears. This window presents settings
customized for the type of VPN connection you selected in Step 5.
You can configure an existing VPN connection by opening the Network window and selecting the
VPN menu entry.
1.
Click on the NetworkManager applet icon in the Notification Area and click Network Settings.
The Network window appears.
2.
Select the VPN menu entry.
3.
Select the connection you wish to edit and click the Configure button.
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Establishing a VPN Connection
Figure 6.9. Editing the newly-created VPN connection 1.
Configuring the Connection Name, Auto-Connect Behavior, and
Availability Settings
Three settings in the Editing dialog are common to all connection types:
• Connection name — Enter a descriptive name for your network connection. This name will be used
to list this connection in the VPN tab of the Network Connections window.
• Connect automatically — Check this box if you want NetworkManager to auto-connect to this
connection when it is available. Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Connecting to a Network Automatically” for
more information.
• Available to all users — Check this box to create a connection available to all users on the
system. Changing this setting may require root privileges. Refer to Section 6.2.4, “User and System
Connections” for details.
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Configuring the VPN Tab
Gateway
The name or IP address of the remote VPN gateway.
Group name
The name of a VPN group configured on the remote gateway.
User password
If required, enter the password used to authenticate with the VPN.
Group password
If required, enter the password used to authenticate with the VPN.
User name
If required, enter the username used to authenticate with the VPN.
Phase1 Algorithms
If required, enter the algorithms to be used to authenticate and set up an encrypted channel.
Phase2 Algorithms
If required, enter the algorithms to be used for the IPsec negotiations.
Domain
If required, enter the Domain Name.
NAT traversal
Cisco UDP (default) — IPsec over UDP.
NAT-T — ESP encapsulation and IKE extensions are used to handle NAT Traversal.
Disabled — No special NAT measures required.
Disable Dead Peer Detection — Disable the sending of probes to the remote gateway or
endpoint.
Saving Your New (or Modified) Connection and Making Further
Configurations
Once you have finished editing your new VPN connection, click the Apply button and
NetworkManager will immediately save your customized configuration. Given a correct configuration,
you can connect to your new or customized connection by selecting it from the NetworkManager
Notification Area applet. See Section 6.2.1, “Connecting to a Network” for information on using your
new or altered connection.
You can further configure an existing connection by selecting it in the Network Connections window
and clicking Edit to return to the Editing dialog.
Then, to configure:
• IPv4 settings for the connection, click the IPv4 Settings tab and proceed to Section 6.4.4,
“Configuring IPv4 Settings”.
6.3.5. Establishing a DSL Connection
Open the Network Connections window by running, as a normal user:
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Establishing Routes
~]$ nm-connection-editor &
Select the DSL tab and click Add.
Username
Enter the username used to authenticate with the service provider.
Service
Leave blank unless otherwise directed.
Password
Enter the password supplied by the service provider.
6.3.6. Establishing Routes
Figure 6.10. Configuring static network routes
Addresses
Address — The IP address of a network, sub-net or host.
Netmask — The netmask or prefix length of the IP address just entered.
Gateway — The IP address of the gateway leading to the network, sub-net or host.
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Metric — A network cost, that is to say a preference value to give to this route. Lower values will
be preferred over higher values.
Ignore automatically obtained routes
Select this check box to only use manually entered routes for the VPN tunnel.
Use this connection only for resources on its network
Select this checkbox to prevent the VPN from becoming the default route. Then only the specific
routes sent by the VPN server (or routes entered here manually) will be routed over the VPN
tunnel.
6.4. Configuring Connection Settings
6.4.1. Configuring 802.1x Security
802.1x security is the name of the IEEE standard for port-based Network Access Control (PNAC).
Simply put, 802.1x security is a way of defining a logical network out of a physical one. All clients who
want to join the logical network must authenticate with the server (a router, for example) using the
correct 802.1x authentication method.
802.1x security is most often associated with securing wireless networks (WLANs), but can also be
used to prevent intruders with physical access to the network (LAN) from gaining entry. In the past,
DHCP servers were configured not to lease IP addresses to unauthorized users, but for various
reasons this practice is both impractical and insecure, and thus is no longer recommended. Instead,
802.1x security is used to ensure a logically-secure network through port-based authentication.
802.1x provides a framework for WLAN and LAN access control and serves as an envelope for
carrying one of the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) types. An EAP type is a protocol that
defines how WLAN security is achieved on the network.
You can configure 802.1x security for a wired or wireless connection type by opening the Network
Connections window (refer to Section 6.2.2, “Configuring New and Editing Existing Connections”) and
following the applicable procedure:
Procedure 6.6. For a wired connection...
1. Select the Wired tab.
2.
Either click on Add to add a new network connection for which you want to configure 802.1x
security, or select an existing connection and click Edit.
3.
Then select the 802.1x Security tab and check the Use 802.1x security for this connection
checkbox to enable settings configuration.
4.
Proceed to Section 6.4.1.1, “Configuring TLS (Transport Layer Security) Settings”
Procedure 6.7. For a wireless connection...
1. Select the Wireless tab.
2.
Either click on Add to add a new network connection for which you want to configure 802.1x
security, or select an existing connection and click Edit.
3.
Then click the Security dropdown and choose one of the following security methods: LEAP,
Dynamic WEP (802.1x), or WPA & WPA2 Enterprise.
4.
Refer to Section 6.4.1.1, “Configuring TLS (Transport Layer Security) Settings” for descriptions of
which EAP types correspond to your selection in the Security dropdown.
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6.4.1.1. Configuring TLS (Transport Layer Security) Settings
With Transport Layer Security, the client and server mutually authenticate using the TLS protocol. The
server demonstrates that it holds a digital certificate, the client proves its own identity using its clientside certificate, and key information is exchanged. Once authentication is complete, the TLS tunnel
is no longer used. Instead, the client and server use the exchanged keys to encrypt data using AES,
TKIP or WEP.
The fact that certificates must be distributed to all clients who want to authenticate means that the
EAP-TLS authentication method is very strong, but also more complicated to set up. Using TLS
security requires the overhead of a public key infrastructure (PKI) to manage certificates. The benefit
of using TLS security is that a compromised password does not allow access to the (W)LAN: an
intruder must also have access to the authenticating client's private key.
Network Manger does not determine the version of TLS supported. Network Manager gathers the
parameters entered by the user and passes them to the daemon, wpa_supplicant, that handles the
procedure. It, in turn, uses OpenSSL to establish the TLS tunnel. OpenSSL itself negotiates the SSL/
TLS protocol version. It uses the highest version both ends support.
Identity
Identity string for EAP authentication methods, such as a username or login name.
User certificate
Click to browse for, and select, a user's certificate.
CA certificate
Click to browse for, and select, a Certificate Authority's certificate.
Private key
Click to browse for, and select, a user's private key file.
Private key password
Enter the user password corresponding to the user's private key.
6.4.1.2. Configuring Tunneled TLS Settings
Anonymous identity
This value is used as the unencrypted identity.
CA certificate
Click to browse for, and select, a Certificate Authority's certificate.
Inner authentication
PAP — Password Authentication Protocol.
MSCHAP — Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
MSCHAPv2 — Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2.
CHAP — Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
Username
Enter the username to be used in the authentication process.
Password
Enter the password to be used in the authentication process.
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6.4.1.3. Configuring Protected EAP (PEAP) Settings
Anonymous Identity
This value is used as the unencrypted identity.
CA certificate
Click to browse for, and select, a Certificate Authority's certificate.
PEAP version
The version of Protected EAP to use. Automatic, 0 or 1.
Inner authentication
MSCHAPv2 — Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2.
MD5 — Message Digest 5, a cryptographic hash function.
GTC — Generic Token Card.
Username
Enter the username to be used in the authentication process.
Password
Enter the password to be used in the authentication process.
6.4.2. Configuring Wireless Security
Security
None — Do not encrypt the Wi-Fi connection.
WEP 40/128-bit Key — Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), from the IEEE 802.11 standard. Uses a
single pre-shared key (PSK).
WEP 128-bit Passphrase — An MD5 hash of the passphrase will be used to derive a WEP key.
LEAP — Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol, from Cisco Systems.
Dynamic WEP (802.1x) — WEP keys are changed dynamically.
WPA & WPA2 Personal — Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), from the draft IEEE 802.11i standard.
A replacement for WEP. Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2), from the 802.11i-2004 standard.
Personal mode uses a pre-shared key (WPA-PSK).
WPA & WPA2 Enterprise — WPA for use with a RADUIS authentication server to provide IEEE
802.1x network access control.
Password
Enter the password to be used in the authentication process.
6.4.3. Configuring PPP (Point-to-Point) Settings
Configure Methods
Use point-to-point encryption (MPPE)
Microsoft Point-To-Point Encryption protocol (RFC 3078).
Allow BSD data compression
PPP BSD Compression Protocol (RFC 1977).
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Configuring IPv4 Settings
Allow Deflate data compression
PPP Deflate Protocol (RFC 1979).
Use TCP header compression
Compressing TCP/IP Headers for Low-Speed Serial Links (RFC 1144).
Send PPP echo packets
LCP Echo-Request and Echo-Reply Codes for loopback tests (RFC 1661).
6.4.4. Configuring IPv4 Settings
Figure 6.11. Editing the IPv4 Settings Tab
The IPv4 Settings tab allows you to configure the method by which you connect to the Internet and
enter IP address, route, and DNS information as required. The IPv4 Settings tab is available when
you create and modify one of the following connection types: wired, wireless, mobile broadband, VPN
or DSL.
If you are using DHCP to obtain a dynamic IP address from a DHCP server, you can simply set
Method to Automatic (DHCP).
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Setting the Method
Available IPv4 Methods by Connection Type
When you click the Method dropdown menu, depending on the type of connection you are
configuring, you are able to select one of the following IPv4 connection methods. All of the methods
are listed here according to which connection type or types they are associated with.
Method
Automatic (DHCP) — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a DHCP
server to assign IP addresses. You do not need to fill in the DHCP client ID field.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to
uses a DHCP server to assign IP addresses but you want to assign DNS servers manually.
Link-Local Only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to does not have a
DHCP server and you do not want to assign IP addresses manually. Random addresses will be
selected as per RFC 3927.
Shared to other computers — Choose this option if the interface you are configuring is for
sharing an Internet or WAN connection.
Wired, Wireless and DSL Connection Methods
Manual — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to does not have a DHCP server
and you want to assign IP addresses manually.
Mobile Broadband Connection Methods
Automatic (PPP) — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a DHCP server
to assign IP addresses.
Automatic (PPP) addresses only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to
uses a DHCP server to assign IP addresses but you want to assign DNS servers manually.
VPN Connection Methods
Automatic (VPN) — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a DHCP server
to assign IP addresses.
Automatic (VPN) addresses only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to
uses a DHCP server to assign IP addresses but you want to assign DNS servers manually.
DSL Connection Methods
Automatic (PPPoE) — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a DHCP
server to assign IP addresses.
Automatic (PPPoE) addresses only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to
uses a DHCP server to assign IP addresses but you want to assign DNS servers manually.
6.4.5. Configuring IPv6 Settings
Method
Ignore — Choose this option if you want to disable IPv6 settings.
Automatic — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a DHCP server to
assign IP addresses.
Automatic, addresses only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to uses a
DHCP server to assign IP addresses but you want to assign DNS servers manually.
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Manual — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to does not have a DHCP server
and you want to assign IP addresses manually.
Link-Local Only — Choose this option if the network you are connecting to does not have a
DHCP server and you do not want to assign IP addresses manually. Random addresses will be
selected as per RFC 4862.
Shared to other computers — Choose this option if the interface you are configuring is for
sharing an Internet or WAN connection.
Addresses
DNS servers — Enter a comma separated list of DNS servers.
Search domains — Enter a comma separated list of domain controllers.
6.5. NetworkManager Architecture
See http://live.gnome.org/NetworkManagerConfiguration
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Chapter 7.
Network Interfaces
Under Fedora, all network communications occur between configured software interfaces and physical
networking devices connected to the system.
The configuration files for network interfaces are located in the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ directory. The scripts used to activate and deactivate these network interfaces are also
located here. Although the number and type of interface files can differ from system to system, there
are three categories of files that exist in this directory:
1. Interface configuration files
2. Interface control scripts
3. Network function files
The files in each of these categories work together to enable various network devices.
This chapter explores the relationship between these files and how they are used.
7.1. Network Configuration Files
Before delving into the interface configuration files, let us first itemize the primary configuration files
used in network configuration. Understanding the role these files play in setting up the network stack
can be helpful when customizing a Fedora system.
The primary network configuration files are as follows:
/etc/hosts
The main purpose of this file is to resolve hostnames that cannot be resolved any other way. It
can also be used to resolve hostnames on small networks with no DNS server. Regardless of the
type of network the computer is on, this file should contain a line specifying the IP address of the
loopback device (127.0.0.1) as localhost.localdomain. For more information, refer to the
hosts(5) manual page.
/etc/resolv.conf
This file specifies the IP addresses of DNS servers and the search domain. Unless configured to
do otherwise, the network initialization scripts populate this file. For more information about this
file, refer to the resolv.conf(5) manual page.
/etc/sysconfig/network
This file specifies routing and host information for all network interfaces. For more information
about this file and the directives it accepts, refer to Section D.1.13, “ /etc/sysconfig/network ”.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-interface-name
For each network interface, there is a corresponding interface configuration script. Each of these
files provide information specific to a particular network interface. Refer to Section 7.2, “Interface
Configuration Files” for more information on this type of file and the directives it accepts.
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Network interface names
Network interface names may be different on different hardware types. Refer to Appendix A,
Consistent Network Device Naming for more information.
The /etc/sysconfig/networking/ directory
The /etc/sysconfig/networking/ directory is used by the now deprecated Network
Administration Tool (system-config-network). Its contents should not be edited manually.
Using only one method for network configuration is strongly encouraged, due to the risk of
configuration deletion. For more information about configuring network interfaces using graphical
configuration tools, refer to Chapter 6, NetworkManager.
7.2. Interface Configuration Files
Interface configuration files control the software interfaces for individual network devices. As the
system boots, it uses these files to determine what interfaces to bring up and how to configure them.
These files are usually named ifcfg-name , where name refers to the name of the device that the
configuration file controls.
7.2.1. Ethernet Interfaces
One of the most common interface files is /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0,
which controls the first Ethernet network interface card or NIC in the system. In a system with multiple
NICs, there are multiple ifcfg-ethX files (where X is a unique number corresponding to a specific
interface). Because each device has its own configuration file, an administrator can control how each
interface functions individually.
The following is a sample ifcfg-eth0 file for a system using a fixed IP address:
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
IPADDR=10.0.1.27
USERCTL=no
The values required in an interface configuration file can change based on other values. For example,
the ifcfg-eth0 file for an interface using DHCP looks different because IP information is provided
by the DHCP server:
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
ONBOOT=yes
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Ethernet Interfaces
NetworkManager is graphical configuration tool which provides an easy way to make changes to
the various network interface configuration files (refer to Chapter 6, NetworkManager for detailed
instructions on using this tool).
However, it is also possible to manually edit the configuration files for a given network interface.
Below is a listing of the configurable parameters in an Ethernet interface configuration file:
BONDING_OPTS=parameters
sets the configuration parameters for the bonding device, and is used in /etc/sysconfig/
network-scripts/ifcfg-bondN (see Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding Interfaces”).
These parameters are identical to those used for bonding devices in /sys/class/
net/bonding_device/bonding, and the module parameters for the bonding driver as
described in bonding Module Directives.
This configuration method is used so that multiple bonding devices can have different
configurations. It is highly recommended to place all of your bonding options after the
BONDING_OPTS directive in ifcfg-name. Do not specify options for the bonding device in /etc/
modprobe.d/bonding.conf, or in the deprecated /etc/modprobe.conf file.
BOOTPROTO=protocol
where protocol is one of the following:
• none — No boot-time protocol should be used.
• bootp — The BOOTP protocol should be used.
• dhcp — The DHCP protocol should be used.
BROADCAST=address
where address is the broadcast address. This directive is deprecated, as the value is calculated
automatically with ipcalc.
DEVICE=name
where name is the name of the physical device (except for dynamically-allocated PPP devices
where it is the logical name).
DHCP_HOSTNAME=name
where name is a short hostname to be sent to the DHCP server. Use this option only if the DHCP
server requires the client to specify a hostname before receiving an IP address.
DNS{1,2}=address
where address is a name server address to be placed in /etc/resolv.conf if the PEERDNS
directive is set to yes.
ETHTOOL_OPTS=options
where options are any device-specific options supported by ethtool. For example, if you
wanted to force 100Mb, full duplex:
ETHTOOL_OPTS="autoneg off speed 100 duplex full"
Instead of a custom initscript, use ETHTOOL_OPTS to set the interface speed and duplex settings.
Custom initscripts run outside of the network init script lead to unpredictable results during a postboot network service restart.
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Set “autoneg off” before changing speed or duplex settings
Changing speed or duplex settings almost always requires disabling autonegotiation with the
autoneg off option. This option needs to be stated first, as the option entries are orderdependent.
HOTPLUG=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — This device should be activated when it is hot-plugged (this is the default option).
• no — This device should not be activated when it is hot-plugged.
The HOTPLUG=no option can be used to prevent a channel bonding interface from being activated
when a bonding kernel module is loaded.
Refer to Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding Interfaces” for more information about channel bonding
interfaces.
HWADDR=MAC-address
where MAC-address is the hardware address of the Ethernet device in the form
AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF. This directive must be used in machines containing more than one NIC to
ensure that the interfaces are assigned the correct device names regardless of the configured load
order for each NIC's module. This directive should not be used in conjunction with MACADDR.
Note
Persistent device names are now handled by /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistentnet.rules.
IPADDR=address
where address is the IP address.
LINKDELAY=time
where time is the number of seconds to wait for link negotiation before configuring the device.
MACADDR=MAC-address
where MAC-address is the hardware address of the Ethernet device in the form
AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF.
This directive is used to assign a MAC address to an interface, overriding the one assigned to the
physical NIC. This directive should not be used in conjunction with the HWADDR directive.
MASTER=bond-interface
where bond-interface is the channel bonding interface to which the Ethernet interface is
linked.
This directive is used in conjunction with the SLAVE directive.
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Ethernet Interfaces
Refer to Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding Interfaces” for more information about channel bonding
interfaces.
NETMASK=mask
where mask is the netmask value.
NETWORK=address
where address is the network address. This directive is deprecated, as the value is calculated
automatically with ipcalc.
NM_CONTROLLED=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — NetworkManager is permitted to configure this device.This is the default behavior and
can be omitted.
• no — NetworkManager is not permitted to configure this device.
ONBOOT=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — This device should be activated at boot-time.
• no — This device should not be activated at boot-time.
PEERDNS=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — Modify /etc/resolv.conf if the DNS directive is set. If using DHCP, then yes is the
default.
• no — Do not modify /etc/resolv.conf.
SLAVE=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — This device is controlled by the channel bonding interface specified in the MASTER
directive.
• no — This device is not controlled by the channel bonding interface specified in the MASTER
directive.
This directive is used in conjunction with the MASTER directive.
Refer to Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding Interfaces” for more about channel bonding interfaces.
SRCADDR=address
where address is the specified source IP address for outgoing packets.
USERCTL=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — Non-root users are allowed to control this device.
• no — Non-root users are not allowed to control this device.
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7.2.2. Channel Bonding Interfaces
Fedora allows administrators to bind multiple network interfaces together into a single channel using
the bonding kernel module and a special network interface called a channel bonding interface.
Channel bonding enables two or more network interfaces to act as one, simultaneously increasing the
bandwidth and providing redundancy.
To create a channel bonding interface, create a file in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory called ifcfg-bondN, replacing N with the number for the interface, such as 0.
The contents of the file can be identical to whatever type of interface is getting bonded, such as an
Ethernet interface. The only difference is that the DEVICE directive is bondN, replacing N with the
number for the interface.
The following is a sample channel bonding configuration file:
Example 7.1. Sample ifcfg-bond0 interface configuration file
DEVICE=bond0
IPADDR=192.168.1.1
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
USERCTL=no
BONDING_OPTS="bonding parameters separated by spaces"
After the channel bonding interface is created, the network interfaces to be bound together must be
configured by adding the MASTER and SLAVE directives to their configuration files. The configuration
files for each of the channel-bonded interfaces can be nearly identical.
For example, if two Ethernet interfaces are being channel bonded, both eth0 and eth1 may look like
the following example:
DEVICE=ethN
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
In this example, replace N with the numerical value for the interface.
For a channel bonding interface to be valid, the kernel module must be loaded. To ensure that the
module is loaded when the channel bonding interface is brought up, create a new file as root named
bonding.conf in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory. Note that you can name this file anything you
like as long as it ends with a .conf extension. Insert the following line in this new file:
alias bondN bonding
Replace N with the interface number, such as 0. For each configured channel bonding interface, there
must be a corresponding entry in your new /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf file.
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Network Bridge
Put all bonding module parameters in ifcfg-bondN files
Parameters for the bonding kernel module must be specified as a space-separated list in the
BONDING_OPTS="bonding parameters" directive in the ifcfg-bondN interface file. Do
not specify options for the bonding device in /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf, or in the
deprecated /etc/modprobe.conf file. For further instructions and advice on configuring
the bonding module and to view the list of bonding parameters, refer to Section 22.7.2, “Using
Channel Bonding”.
7.2.3. Network Bridge
A network bridge is a Link Layer device which forwards traffic between networks based on MAC
addresses and is therefore also referred to as a Layer 2 device. It makes forwarding decisions based
on tables of MAC addresses which it builds by learning what hosts are connected to each network. A
software bridge can be used within a Linux host in order to emulate a hardware bridge, for example in
virtualization applications for sharing a NIC with one or more virtual NICs. This case will be illustrated
here as an example.
To create a network bridge, create a file in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory
called ifcfg-brN, replacing N with the number for the interface, such as 0.
The contents of the file is similar to whatever type of interface is getting bridged to, such as an
Ethernet interface. The differences in this example are as follows:
• The DEVICE directive is given an interface name as its argument in the format brN, where N is
replaced with the number of the interface.
• The TYPE directive is given an argument Bridge or Ethernet. This directive determines the
device type and the argument is case sensitive.
• The bridge interface configuration file now has the IP address and the physical interface has only a
MAC address.
• An extra directive, DELAY=0, is added to prevent the bridge from waiting while it monitors traffic,
learns where hosts are located, and builds a table of MAC addresses on which to base its filtering
decisions. The default delay of 30 seconds is not needed if no routing loops are possible.
• The NM_CONTROLLED=no should be added to the Ethernet interface to prevent NetworkManager
from altering the file. It can also be added to the bridge configuration file in case future versions of
NetworkManager support bridge configuration.
The following is a sample bridge interface configuration file using a static IP address:
Example 7.2. Sample ifcfg-br0 interface configuration file
DEVICE=br0
TYPE=Bridge
IPADDR=192.168.1.1
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
NM_CONTROLLED=no
DELAY=0
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To complete the bridge another interface is created, or an existing interface is modified, and pointed to
the bridge interface. The following is a sample Ethernet interface configuration file pointing to a bridge
interface. Configure your physical interface in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX,
where X is a unique number corresponding to a specific interface, as follows:
Example 7.3. Sample ifcfg-ethX interface configuration file
DEVICE=ethX
TYPE=Ethernet
HWADDR=AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BRIDGE=br0
Note
For the DEVICE directive, almost any interface name could be used as it does not determine
the device type. Other commonly used names include tap, dummy and bond for example.
TYPE=Ethernet is not strictly required. If the TYPE directive is not set, the device is treated as
an Ethernet device (unless it's name explicitly matches a different interface configuration file.)
You can refer to Section 7.2, “Interface Configuration Files” for a review of the directives and options
used in network interface config files.
Warning
If you are configuring bridging on a remote host, and you are connected to that host over the
physical NIC you are configuring, please consider the implications of losing connectivity before
proceeding. You will lose connectivity when restarting the service and may not be able to regain
connectivity if any errors have been made. Console, or out-of-band access is advised.
Restart the networking service, in order for the changes to take effect by running as root:
systemctl restart network.service
An example of a network bridge formed from two or more bonded Ethernet interfaces will now be
given as this is another common application in a virtualization environment. If you are not very familiar
with the configuration files for bonded interfaces then please refer to Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding
Interfaces”
Create or edit two or more Ethernet interface configuration files, which are to be bonded, as follows:
DEVICE=ethX
TYPE=Ethernet
USERCTL=no
SLAVE=yes
MASTER=bond0
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Network Bridge
BOOTPROTO=none
HWADDR=AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF
NM_CONTROLLED=no
Note
Using ethX as the interface name is common practice but almost any name could be used.
Names such as tap, dummy and bond are commonly used.
Create or edit one interface configuration file, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfgbond0, as follows:
DEVICE=bond0
ONBOOT=yes
BONDING_OPTS='mode=1 miimon=100'
BRIDGE=brbond0
NM_CONTROLLED=no
For further instructions and advice on configuring the bonding module and to view the list of bonding
parameters, refer to Section 22.7.2, “Using Channel Bonding”.
Create or edit one interface configuration file, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfgbrbond0, as follows:
DEVICE=brbond0
ONBOOT=yes
TYPE=Bridge
IPADDR=192.168.1.1
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
NM_CONTROLLED=no
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Figure 7.1. A network bridge consisting of two bonded Ethernet interfaces.
We now have two or more interface configuration files with the MASTER=bond0 directive. These
point to the configuration file named /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0, which
contains the DEVICE=bond0 directive. This ifcfg-bond0 in turn points to the /etc/sysconfig/
network-scripts/ifcfg-brbond0 configuration file, which contains the IP address, and acts as
an interface to the virtual networks inside the host.
Restart the networking service, in order for the changes to take effect by running as root:
systemctl restart network.service
7.2.4. Setting Up 802.1q VLAN Tagging
1.
Ensure that the module is loaded by entering the following command:
lsmod | grep 8021q
2.
If the module is not loaded, load it with the following command:
modprobe 8021q
3.
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Configure your physical interface in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX,
where X is a unique number corresponding to a specific interface, as follows:
Alias and Clone Files
DEVICE=ethX
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
4.
Configure the VLAN interface configuration in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts. The
configuration filename should be the physical interface plus a . character plus the VLAN ID
number. For example, if the VLAN ID is 192, and the physical interface is eth0, then the
configuration filename should be ifcfg-eth0.192:
DEVICE=ethX.192
BOOTPROTO=static
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.1.1
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
NETWORK=192.168.1.0
VLAN=yes
If there is a need to configure a second VLAN, with for example, VLAN ID 193, on the same
interface, eth0 , add a new file with the name eth0.193 with the VLAN configuration details.
5.
Restart the networking service, in order for the changes to take effect by running as root:
systemctl restart network.service
7.2.5. Alias and Clone Files
Two lesser-used types of interface configuration files are alias and clone files. As the ip command
of the iproute package now supports assigning multiple address to the same interface it is no longer
necessary to use this method of binding multiple addresses to the same interface.
Note
At the time of writing, NetworkManager does not detect IP aliases in ifcfg files. For example, if
ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth0:1 files are present, NetworkManager creates two connections,
which will cause confusion.
For new installations, users should select the Manual method on the IPv4 or IPv6 tab in
NetworkManager to assign multiple IP address to the same interface. For more information on using
this tool, refer to Chapter 6, NetworkManager.
Alias interface configuration files, which are used to bind multiple addresses to a single interface, use
the ifcfg-if-name:alias-value naming scheme.
For example, an ifcfg-eth0:0 file could be configured to specify DEVICE=eth0:0 and a static
IP address of 10.0.0.2, serving as an alias of an Ethernet interface already configured to receive
its IP information via DHCP in ifcfg-eth0. Under this configuration, eth0 is bound to a dynamic
IP address, but the same physical network card can receive requests via the fixed, 10.0.0.2 IP
address.
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Warning
Alias interfaces do not support DHCP.
A clone interface configuration file should use the following naming convention: ifcfg-ifname-clone-name. While an alias file allows multiple addresses for an existing interface, a clone file
is used to specify additional options for an interface. For example, a standard DHCP Ethernet interface
called eth0, may look similar to this:
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
Since the default value for the USERCTL directive is no if it is not specified, users cannot bring this
interface up and down. To give users the ability to control the interface, create a clone by copying
ifcfg-eth0 to ifcfg-eth0-user and add the following line to ifcfg-eth0-user:
USERCTL=yes
This way a user can bring up the eth0 interface using the /sbin/ifup eth0-user command
because the configuration options from ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth0-user are combined. While
this is a very basic example, this method can be used with a variety of options and interfaces.
It is no longer possible to create alias and clone interface configuration files using a graphical tool.
However, as explained at the beginning of this section, it is no longer necessary to use this method
as it is now possible to directly assign multiple IP address to the same interface. For new installations,
users should select the Manual method on the IPv4 or IPv6 tab in NetworkManager to assign
multiple IP address to the same interface. For more information on using this tool, refer to Chapter 6,
NetworkManager.
7.2.6. Dialup Interfaces
If you are connecting to the Internet via a dialup connection, a configuration file is necessary for the
interface.
PPP interface files are named using the following format:
ifcfg-pppX
where X is a unique number corresponding to a specific interface.
The PPP interface configuration file is created automatically when wvdial, the Network
Administration Tool or Kppp is used to create a dialup account. It is also possible to create and edit
this file manually.
The following is a typical ifcfg-ppp0 file:
DEVICE=ppp0
NAME=test
WVDIALSECT=test
MODEMPORT=/dev/modem
LINESPEED=115200
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Dialup Interfaces
PAPNAME=test
USERCTL=true
ONBOOT=no
PERSIST=no
DEFROUTE=yes
PEERDNS=yes
DEMAND=no
IDLETIMEOUT=600
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is another dialup interface, although it is used less frequently.
SLIP files have interface configuration file names such as ifcfg-sl0.
Other options that may be used in these files include:
DEFROUTE=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — Set this interface as the default route.
• no — Do not set this interface as the default route.
DEMAND=answer
where answer is one of the following:
• yes — This interface allows pppd to initiate a connection when someone attempts to use it.
• no — A connection must be manually established for this interface.
IDLETIMEOUT=value
where value is the number of seconds of idle activity before the interface disconnects itself.
INITSTRING=string
where string is the initialization string passed to the modem device. This option is primarily used
in conjunction with SLIP interfaces.
LINESPEED=value
where value is the baud rate of the device. Possible standard values include 57600, 38400,
19200, and 9600.
MODEMPORT=device
where device is the name of the serial device that is used to establish the connection for the
interface.
MTU=value
where value is the Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) setting for the interface. The MTU refers to
the largest number of bytes of data a frame can carry, not counting its header information. In
some dialup situations, setting this to a value of 576 results in fewer packets dropped and a slight
improvement to the throughput for a connection.
NAME=name
where name is the reference to the title given to a collection of dialup connection configurations.
PAPNAME=name
where name is the username given during the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) exchange
that occurs to allow connections to a remote system.
PERSIST=answer
where answer is one of the following:
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• yes — This interface should be kept active at all times, even if deactivated after a modem hang
up.
• no — This interface should not be kept active at all times.
REMIP=address
where address is the IP address of the remote system. This is usually left unspecified.
WVDIALSECT=name
where name associates this interface with a dialer configuration in /etc/wvdial.conf. This file
contains the phone number to be dialed and other important information for the interface.
7.2.7. Other Interfaces
Other common interface configuration files include the following:
ifcfg-lo
A local loopback interface is often used in testing, as well as being used in a variety of applications
that require an IP address pointing back to the same system. Any data sent to the loopback device
is immediately returned to the host's network layer.
Do not manually edit the ifcfg-lo script
The loopback interface script, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo, should
never be edited manually. Doing so can prevent the system from operating correctly.
ifcfg-irlan0
An infrared interface allows information between devices, such as a laptop and a printer, to flow
over an infrared link. This works in a similar way to an Ethernet device except that it commonly
occurs over a peer-to-peer connection.
ifcfg-plip0
A Parallel Line Interface Protocol (PLIP) connection works much the same way as an Ethernet
device, except that it utilizes a parallel port.
7.3. Interface Control Scripts
The interface control scripts activate and deactivate system interfaces. There are two primary interface
control scripts that call on control scripts located in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
directory: /sbin/ifdown and /sbin/ifup.
The ifup and ifdown interface scripts are symbolic links to scripts in the /sbin/ directory. When
either of these scripts are called, they require the value of the interface to be specified, such as:
ifup eth0
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Interface Control Scripts
Use the ifup and ifdown interface scripts
The ifup and ifdown interface scripts are the only scripts that the user should use to bring up
and take down network interfaces.
The following scripts are described for reference purposes only.
Two files used to perform a variety of network initialization tasks during the process of bringing up
a network interface are /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions and /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/network-functions. Refer to Section 7.5, “Network Function Files” for more information.
After verifying that an interface has been specified and that the user executing the request is allowed
to control the interface, the correct script brings the interface up or down. The following are common
interface control scripts found within the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory:
ifup-aliases
Configures IP aliases from interface configuration files when more than one IP address is
associated with an interface.
ifup-ippp and ifdown-ippp
Brings ISDN interfaces up and down.
ifup-ipv6 and ifdown-ipv6
Brings IPv6 interfaces up and down.
ifup-plip
Brings up a PLIP interface.
ifup-plusb
Brings up a USB interface for network connections.
ifup-post and ifdown-post
Contains commands to be executed after an interface is brought up or down.
ifup-ppp and ifdown-ppp
Brings a PPP interface up or down.
ifup-routes
Adds static routes for a device as its interface is brought up.
ifdown-sit and ifup-sit
Contains function calls related to bringing up and down an IPv6 tunnel within an IPv4 connection.
ifup-wireless
Brings up a wireless interface.
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Be careful when removing or modifying network scripts!
Removing or modifying any scripts in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory can
cause interface connections to act irregularly or fail. Only advanced users should modify scripts
related to a network interface.
The easiest way to manipulate all network scripts simultaneously is to use the systemctl command
on the network service (/etc/rc.d/init.d/network), as illustrated by the following command:
systemctl action network.service
Here, action can be either start, stop, or restart.
To view a list of configured devices and currently active network interfaces, use the following
command:
systemctl status network.service
Note
The older SysV service commands, such as “service network status” are considered deprecated
but will still work. The SysV services can define their status in an arbitrary fashion so the output of
the status command is not considered predictable over time. The SysV commands are retained
for compatibility purposes. The /sbin/service utility will call systemctl when necessary.
7.4. Static Routes and the Default Gateway
Static routes are for traffic that must not, or should not, go through the default gateway. Routing is
usually handled by routing devices and therefore it is often not necessary to configure static routes
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers or clients. Exceptions include traffic that must pass through an
encrypted VPN tunnel or traffic that should take a less costly route. The default gateway is for any and
all traffic which is not destined for the local network and for which no preferred route is specified in the
routing table. The default gateway is traditionally a dedicated network router.
Static Routes
Use the ip route command to display the IP routing table. If static routes are required, they can
be added to the routing table by means of the ip route add command and removed using the ip
route del command. To add a static route to a host address, that is to say to a single IP address,
issue the following command as root:
ip route add X.X.X.X
where X.X.X.X is the IP address of the host in dotted decimal notation. To add a static route to a
network, that is to say to an IP address representing a range of IP addresses, issue the following
command as root:
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The Default Gateway
ip route add X.X.X.X/Y
where X.X.X.X is the IP address of the network in dotted decimal notation and Y is the network prefix.
The network prefix is the number of enabled bits in the subnet mask. This format of network address
slash prefix length is referred to as CIDR notation.
Static route configuration is stored per-interface in a /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
route-interface file. For example, static routes for the eth0 interface would be stored in the
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth0 file. The route-interface file has two
formats: IP command arguments and network/netmask directives. These are described below.
The Default Gateway
The default gateway is specified by means of the GATEWAY directive and can be specified either
globally or in interface-specific configuration files. Specifying the default gateway globally has certain
advantages especially if more than one network interface is present and it can make fault finding
simpler if applied consistently. There is also the GATEWAYDEV directive, which is a global option.
If multiple devices specify GATEWAY, and one interface uses the GATEWAYDEV directive, that
directive will take precedence. This option is not recommend as it can have unexpected consequences
if an interface goes down and it can complicate fault finding.
Global default gateway configuration is stored in the /etc/sysconfig/network file. This file
specifies gateway and host information for all network interfaces. For more information about this file
and the directives it accepts, refer to Section D.1.13, “ /etc/sysconfig/network ”.
IP Command Arguments Format
If required in a per-interface configuration file, define a default gateway on the first line. This is only
required if the default gateway is not set via DHCP and is not set globally as mentioned above:
default via X.X.X.X dev interface
X.X.X.X is the IP address of the default gateway. The interface is the interface that is connected
to, or can reach, the default gateway. The dev option can be omitted, it is optional.
Define a static route. Each line is parsed as an individual route:
X.X.X.X/Y via X.X.X.X dev interface
X.X.X.X/Y is the network address and netmask for the static route. X.X.X.X and interface
are the IP address and interface for the default gateway respectively. The X.X.X.X address does
not have to be the default gateway IP address. In most cases, X.X.X.X will be an IP address in a
different subnet, and interface will be the interface that is connected to, or can reach, that subnet.
Add as many static routes as required.
The following is a sample route-eth0 file using the IP command arguments format. The default
gateway is 192.168.0.1, interface eth0. The two static routes are for the 10.10.10.0/24 and
172.16.1.0/24 networks:
default via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
10.10.10.0/24 via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
172.16.1.0/24 via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
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Static routes should only be configured for other subnets. The above example is not necessary, since
packets going to the 10.10.10.0/24 and 172.16.1.0/24 networks will use the default gateway anyway.
Below is an example of setting static routes to a different subnet, on a machine in a 192.168.0.0/24
subnet. The example machine has an eth0 interface in the 192.168.0.0/24 subnet, and an eth1
interface (10.10.10.1) in the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet:
10.10.10.0/24 via 10.10.10.1 dev eth1
Specifying an exit interface is optional. It can be useful if you want to force traffic out of a specific
interface. For example, in the case of a VPN, you can force traffic to a remote network to pass through
a tun0 interface even when the interface is in a different sub-net to the destination network.
Duplicate default gateways
If the default gateway is already assigned from DHCP, the IP command arguments format can
cause one of two errors during start-up, or when bringing up an interface from the down state
using the ifup command: "RTNETLINK answers: File exists" or 'Error: either "to" is a duplicate,
or "X.X.X.X" is a garbage.', where X.X.X.X is the gateway, or a different IP address. These
errors can also occur if you have another route to another network using the default gateway.
Both of these errors are safe to ignore.
Network/Netmask Directives Format
You can also use the network/netmask directives format for route-interface files. The following is
a template for the network/netmask format, with instructions following afterwards:
ADDRESS0=X.X.X.X NETMASK0=X.X.X.X GATEWAY0=X.X.X.X
• ADDRESS0=X.X.X.X is the network number for the static route.
• NETMASK0=X.X.X.X is the netmask for the network number defined with ADDRESS0=X.X.X.X.
• GATEWAY0=X.X.X.X is the default gateway, or an IP address that can be used to reach
ADDRESS0=X.X.X.X
The following is a sample route-eth0 file using the network/netmask directives format. The
default gateway is 192.168.0.1, interface eth0. The two static routes are for the 10.10.10.0/24
and 172.16.1.0/24 networks. However, as mentioned before, this example is not necessary as the
10.10.10.0/24 and 172.16.1.0/24 networks would use the default gateway anyway:
ADDRESS0=10.10.10.0
NETMASK0=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY0=192.168.0.1
ADDRESS1=172.16.1.0
NETMASK1=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY1=192.168.0.1
Subsequent static routes must be numbered sequentially, and must not skip any values. For example,
ADDRESS0, ADDRESS1, ADDRESS2, and so on.
Below is an example of setting static routes to a different subnet, on a machine in the 192.168.0.0/24
subnet. The example machine has an eth0 interface in the 192.168.0.0/24 subnet, and an eth1
interface (10.10.10.1) in the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet:
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Network Function Files
ADDRESS0=10.10.10.0
NETMASK0=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY0=10.10.10.1
Note that if DHCP is used, it can assign these settings automatically.
7.5. Network Function Files
Fedora makes use of several files that contain important common functions used to bring interfaces up
and down. Rather than forcing each interface control file to contain these functions, they are grouped
together in a few files that are called upon when necessary.
The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/network-functions file contains the most commonly
used IPv4 functions, which are useful to many interface control scripts. These functions include
contacting running programs that have requested information about changes in the status of an
interface, setting hostnames, finding a gateway device, verifying whether or not a particular device is
down, and adding a default route.
As the functions required for IPv6 interfaces are different from IPv4 interfaces, a /etc/sysconfig/
network-scripts/network-functions-ipv6 file exists specifically to hold this information.
The functions in this file configure and delete static IPv6 routes, create and remove tunnels, add and
remove IPv6 addresses to an interface, and test for the existence of an IPv6 address on an interface.
7.6. Additional Resources
The following are resources which explain more about network interfaces.
7.6.1. Installed Documentation
/usr/share/doc/initscripts-version/sysconfig.txt
A guide to available options for network configuration files, including IPv6 options not covered in
this chapter.
7.6.2. Useful Websites
http://linux-ip.net/gl/ip-cref/
This document contains a wealth of information about the ip command, which can be used to
manipulate routing tables, among other things.
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Part IV. Infrastructure Services
This part provides information how to configure services and daemons, configure authentication, and
enable remote logins.
Chapter 8.
Services and Daemons
Maintaining security on your system is extremely important, and one approach for this task is to
manage access to system services carefully. Your system may need to provide open access to
particular services (for example, httpd if you are running a web server). However, if you do not need
to provide a service, you should turn it off to minimize your exposure to possible bug exploits.
This chapter covers the configuration of the services to be run when a system is started, and provides
information on how to start, stop, and restart the services on the command line using the systemctl
utility.
Keep the system secure
When you allow access for new services, always remember that both the firewall and SELinux
need to be configured as well. One of the most common mistakes committed when configuring a
new service is neglecting to implement the necessary firewall configuration and SELinux policies
to allow access for it. For more information, refer to the Fedora 17 Security Guide.
8.1. Configuring Services
To allow you to configure which services are started at boot time, Fedora is shipped with the
systemctl command line tool.
Do not use the ntsysv and chkconfig utilities
Although it is still possible to use the ntsysv and chkconfig utilities to manage services that
have init scripts installed in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory, it is advised that you use the
systemctl utility.
Enabling the irqbalance service
To ensure optimal performance on POWER architecture, it is recommended that the
irqbalance service is enabled. In most cases, this service is installed and configured to run
during the Fedora 17 installation. To verify that irqbalance is running, type the following at a
shell prompt:
systemctl status irqbalance.service
8.1.1. Enabling the Service
To configure a service to be automatically started at boot time, use the systemctl command in the
following form:
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Chapter 8. Services and Daemons
systemctl enable service_name.service
The service will be started the next time you boot the system. For information on how to start the
service immediately, refer to Section 8.2.2, “Running the Service”.
Example 8.1. Enabling the httpd service
Imagine you want to run the Apache HTTP Server on your system. Provided that you have the httpd
package installed, you can enable the httpd service by typing the following at a shell prompt as
root:
~]# systemctl enable httpd.service
8.1.2. Disabling the Service
To disable starting a service at boot time, use the systemctl command in the following form:
systemctl disable service_name.service
The next time you boot the system, the service will not be started. For information on how to stop the
service immediately, refer to Section 8.2.3, “Stopping the Service”.
Example 8.2. Disabling the telnet service
In order to secure the system, users are advised to disable insecure connection protocols such as
Telnet. You can make sure that the telnet service is disabled by running the following command
as root:
~]# systemctl disable telnet.service
8.2. Running Services
The systemctl utility also allows you to determine the status of a particular service, as well as to start,
stop, or restart a service.
Do not use the service utility
Although it is still possible to use the service utility to manage services that have init scripts
installed in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory, it is advised that you use the systemctl utility.
8.2.1. Checking the Service Status
To determine the status of a particular service, use the systemctl command in the following form:
systemctl status service_name.service
This command provides detailed information on the service's status. However, if you merely need to
verify that a service is running, you can use the systemctl command in the following form instead:
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Checking the Service Status
systemctl is-active service_name.service
Example 8.3. Checking the status of the httpd service
Example 8.1, “Enabling the httpd service” illustrated how to enable starting the httpd service at
boot time. Imagine that the system has been restarted and you need to verify that the service is
really running. You can do so by typing the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ systemctl is-active httpd.service
active
You can also display detailed information about the service by running the following command:
~]$ systemctl status httpd.service
httpd.service - LSB: start and stop Apache HTTP Server
Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd)
Active: active (running) since Mon, 23 May 2011 21:38:57 +0200; 27s ago
Process: 2997 ExecStart=/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd start (code=exited, status=0/
SUCCESS)
Main PID: 3002 (httpd)
CGroup: name=systemd:/system/httpd.service
├ 3002 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3004 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3005 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3006 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3007 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3008 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3009 /usr/sbin/httpd
├ 3010 /usr/sbin/httpd
└ 3011 /usr/sbin/httpd
To display a list of all active system services, use the following command:
systemctl list-units --type=service
This command provides a tabular output with each line consisting of the following columns:
• UNIT — A systemd unit name. In this case, a service name.
• LOAD — Information whether the systemd unit was properly loaded.
• ACTIVE — A high-level unit activation state.
• SUB — A low-level unit activation state.
• JOB — A pending job for the unit.
• DESCRIPTION — A brief description of the unit.
Example 8.4. Listing all active services
You can list all active services by using the following command:
~]$ systemctl list-units --type=service
UNIT
LOAD
ACTIVE SUB
JOB DESCRIPTION
abrt-ccpp.service
loaded active exited
LSB: Installs coredump handler which
saves segfault data
abrt-oops.service
loaded active running
LSB: Watches system log for oops
messages, creates ABRT dump directories for each oops
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abrtd.service
accounts-daemon.service
atd.service
[output truncated]
loaded active running
loaded active running
loaded active running
ABRT Automated Bug Reporting Tool
Accounts Service
Job spooling tools
In the example above, the abrtd service is loaded, active, and running, and it does not have any
pending jobs.
8.2.2. Running the Service
To run a service, use the systemctl command in the following form:
systemctl start service_name.service
This will start the service in the current session. To configure the service to be started at boot time,
refer to Section 8.1.1, “Enabling the Service”.
Example 8.5. Running the httpd service
Example 8.1, “Enabling the httpd service” illustrated how to run the httpd service at boot time. You
can start the service immediately by typing the following at a shell prompt as root:
~]# systemctl start httpd.service
8.2.3. Stopping the Service
To stop a service, use the systemctl command in the following form:
systemctl stop service_name.service
This will stop the service in the current session. To disable starting the service at boot time, refer to
Section 8.1.1, “Enabling the Service”.
Example 8.6. Stopping the telnet service
Example 8.2, “Disabling the telnet service” illustrated how to disable starting the telnet service at
boot time. You can stop the service immediately by running the following command as root:
~]# systemctl stop telnet.service
8.2.4. Restarting the Service
To restart a service, use the systemctl command in the following form:
systemctl restart service_name.service
Example 8.7. Restarting the sshd service
For any changes in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config configuration file to take effect, it is required that
you restart the sshd service. You can do so by typing the following at a shell prompt as root:
~]# systemctl restart sshd.service
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Additional Resources
8.3. Additional Resources
8.3.1. Installed Documentation
• systemctl(1) — The manual page for the systemctl utility.
8.3.2. Related Books
Fedora 17 Security Guide
A guide to securing Fedora. It contains valuable information on how to set up the firewall, as well
as the configuration of SELinux.
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Chapter 9.
Configuring Authentication
9.1. The Authentication Configuration Tool
When a user logs in to a Fedora system, the username and password combination must be verified,
or authenticated, as a valid and active user. Sometimes the information to verify the user is located on
the local system, and other times the system defers the authentication to a user database on a remote
system.
The Authentication Configuration Tool provides a graphical interface for configuring user
information retrieval from Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Network Information Service
(NIS), and Winbind user account databases. This tool also allows you to configure Kerberos to be
used as the authentication protocol when using LDAP or NIS.
Using a high or medium security level
If you configured a medium or high security level during installation (or with the Security Level
Configuration Tool), then the firewall will prevent NIS authentication. For more information about
firewalls, refer to the "Firewalls" section of the Fedora 17 Security Guide.
To start the graphical version of the Authentication Configuration tool from the desktop, select
Applications��� Other��� Authentication form the Activities menu or type the command
system-config-authentication at a shell prompt (for example, in an XTerm or a GNOME
terminal).
Your changes are immediately applied
After exiting the authentication program, any changes you made take effect immediately.
9.1.1. Identity & Authentication
The Identity & Authentication tab allows you to configure how users should be authenticated, and
has several options for each method of authentication. To select which user account database should
be used, select an option from the drop-down list.
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
Figure 9.1. Identity & Authentication; changing the option in the User Account Database drop-down list
changes the contents of the tab
The following list explains what each option configures:
LDAP
The LDAP option instructs the system to retrieve user information via LDAP. It contains the following
specifications:
• LDAP Search Base DN — Specifies that user information should be retrieved using the listed
Distinguished Name (DN).
• LDAP Server — Specifies the address of the LDAP server.
• Use TLS to encrypt connections — When enabled, Transport Layer Security (TLC) will be
used to encrypt passwords sent to the LDAP server. The Download CA Certificate option allows
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Identity & Authentication
you to specify a URL from which to download a valid Certificate Authority certificate (CA). A valid CA
certificate must be in the Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format.
Using ldaps:// in the LDAP Server field
The Use TLS to encrypt connections option must not be ticked if an ldaps:// server
address is specified in the LDAP Server field.
For more information about CA Certificates, refer to Section 13.1.8.1, “An Overview of Certificates
and Security”.
The openldap-clients package must be installed for this option to work.
For more information about LDAP, refer to Section 15.1, “OpenLDAP”.
LDAP provides the following methods of authentication:
•
Kerberos password — This option enables Kerberos authentication. It contains the following
specifications:
• Realm — Configures the realm for the Kerberos server. The realm is the network that uses
Kerberos, composed of one or more KDCs and a potentially large number of clients.
• KDCs — Defines the Key Distribution Centers (KDC), which are servers that issue Kerberos
tickets.
• Admin Servers — Specifies the administration server(s) running kadmind.
The Kerberos Settings dialog also allows you to use DNS to resolve hosts to realms and locate
KDCs for realms.
The krb5-libs and krb5-workstation packages must be installed for this option to work. For
more information about Kerberos, refer to section Using Kerberos of the Fedora 17 Managing Single
Sign-On and Smart Cards guide.
• LDAP password — This option instructs standard PAM-enabled applications to use LDAP
authentication with options specified in the User Account Configuration of LDAP. When using this
option, you must provide an ldaps:// server address or use TLS for LDAP authentication.
Setting up the SSSD service
The SSSD service is used as a client for LDAP and Kerberos servers. Thus, offline login is
enabled and supported by default. No user interaction is needed to set up the SSSD service with
the Authentication Configuration Tool. For more information about the SSSD service, refer to
Section 9.2, “The System Security Services Daemon (SSSD)”
NIS
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The NIS option configures the system to connect to a NIS server (as an NIS client) for user and
password authentication. To configure this option, specify the NIS domain and NIS server. If the NIS
server is not specified, the daemon attempts to find it via broadcast.
The ypbind package must be installed for this option to work. If the NIS user account database is
used, the portmap and ypbind services are started and are also enabled to start at boot time.
For more information about NIS, refer to section "Securing NIS" of the Fedora 17 Security Guide.
NIS provides the following methods of authentication:
• Kerberos password — This option enables Kerberos authentication. For more information about
configuration of the Kerberos authentication method, refer to the previous section on LDAP.
• NIS password — This option enables NIS authentication. NIS can provide authentication
information to outside processes to authenticate users.
Winbind
The Winbind option configures the system to connect to a Windows Active Directory or a Windows
domain controller. User information from the specified directory or domain controller can then be
accessed, and server authentication options can be configured. It contains the following specifications:
• Winbind Domain — Specifies the Windows Active Directory or domain controller to connect to.
• Security Model — Allows you to select a security model, which configures the Samba client mode
of operation. The drop-down list allows you to select any of the following:
• ads — This mode instructs Samba to act as a domain member in an Active Directory Server
(ADS) realm. To operate in this mode, the krb5-server package must be installed, and
Kerberos must be configured properly.
• domain — In this mode, Samba will attempt to validate the username/password by authenticating
it through a Windows NT Primary or Backup Domain Controller, similar to how a Windows NT
Server would.
• server — In this mode, Samba will attempt to validate the username/password by authenticating
it through another SMB server (for example, a Windows NT Server). If the attempt fails, the user
mode will take effect instead.
• user — This is the default mode. With this level of security, a client must first log in with a valid
username and password. Encrypted passwords can also be used in this security mode.
• Winbind ADS Realm — When the ads Security Model is selected, this allows you to specify the
ADS Realm the Samba server should act as a domain member of.
• Winbind Domain Controllers — Use this option to specify which domain controller winbind
should use. For more information about domain controllers, please refer to Section 16.1.6.3,
“Domain Controller”.
• Template Shell — When filling out the user information for a Windows NT user, the winbindd
daemon uses the value chosen here to specify the login shell for that user.
• Allow offline login — By checking this option, you allow authentication information to be stored in a
local cache (provided by SSSD). This information is then used when a user attempts to authenticate
while offline.
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Advanced Options
For more information about the winbindd service, refer to Section 16.1.2, “Samba Daemons and
Related Services”.
Winbind provides only one method of authentication, Winbind password. This method of
authentication uses the options specified in the User Account Configuration of Winbind to connect to a
Windows Active Directory or a Windows domain controller.
9.1.2. Advanced Options
This tab allows you to configure advanced options, as listed below.
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Figure 9.2. Advanced Options
Local Authentication Options
•
Enable fingerprint reader support — By checking this option, you enable fingerprint authentication
to log in by scanning your finger with the fingerprint reader.
• Enable local access control — When enabled, /etc/security/access.conf is consulted for
authorization of a user.
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Command Line Version
• Password Hashing Algorithm — This option lets you specify which hashing or cryptographic
algorithm should be used to encrypt locally stored passwords.
Other Authentication Options
Create home directories on the first login — When enabled, the user's home directory is
automatically created when they log in if it does not already exist.
Smart Card Authentication Options
Enable smart card support — This option enables smart card authentication. Smart card
authentication allows you to log in using a certificate and a key associated with a smart card.
When the Enable smart card support option is checked, the following options can be specified:
• Card Removal Action — This option defines what action the system performs when the card is
removed from the card reader during an active session. Two alternatives are available:
• Ignore — The card removal is ignored and the system continues to function as normal.
• Lock — The current session is immediately locked.
• Require smart card login — Requires the user to login and authenticate with a smart card. It
essentially disables any other type of password authentication. This option should not be selected
until after you have successfully logged in using a smart card.
The pam_pkcs11 and the coolkey packages must be installed for this option to work. For more
information about smart cards, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Managing Single Sign-On and
1
Smart Cards Guide .
Click Revert to restore the previous configuration
You can restore all of the options specified in the Authentication Configuration Tool to the
previous configuration setup by clicking Revert.
9.1.3. Command Line Version
The Authentication Configuration tool also supports a command line interface. The command
line version can be used in a configuration script or a kickstart script. The authentication options are
summarized in Table 9.1, “Command line options”.
Getting the list of supported authentication options
These options can also be found in the authconfig man page or by typing authconfig -help at the shell prompt.
1
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Managing_Smart_Cards/enabling-smart-card-login.html
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Table 9.1. Command line options
Option
Description
--enableshadow, --useshadow
Enable shadow passwords
--disableshadow
Disable shadow passwords
--passalgo=descrypt|bigcrypt|md5|sha256|
sha512
Hash/crypt algorithm to be used
--enablenis
Enable NIS for user account
configuration
--disablenis
Disable NIS for user account
configuration
--nisdomain=domain
Specify an NIS domain
--nisserver=server
Specify an NIS server
--enableldap
Enable LDAP for user account
configuration
--disableldap
Disable LDAP for user account
configuration
--enableldaptls
Enable use of TLS with LDAP
--disableldaptls
Disable use of TLS with LDAP
--enablerfc2307bis
Enable use of RFC-2307bis schema
for LDAP user information lookups
--disablerfc2307bis
Disable use of RFC-2307bis schema
for LDAP user information lookups
--enableldapauth
Enable LDAP for authentication
--disableldapauth
Disable LDAP for authentication
--ldapserver=server
Specify an LDAP server
--ldapbasedn=dn
Specify an LDAP base DN
(Distinguished Name)
--ldaploadcacert=URL
Load a CA certificate from the
specified URL
--enablekrb5
Enable Kerberos for authentication
--disablekrb5
Disable Kerberos for authentication
--krb5kdc=server
Specify Kerberos KDC server
--krb5adminserver=server
Specify Kerberos administration server
--krb5realm=realm
Specify Kerberos realm
--enablekrb5kdcdns
Enable use of DNS to find Kerberos
KDCs
--disablekrb5kdcdns
Disable use of DNS to find Kerberos
KDCs
--enablekrb5realmdns
Enable use of DNS to find Kerberos
realms
--disablekrb5realmdns
Disable use of DNS to find Kerberos
realms
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Command Line Version
Option
Description
--enablewinbind
Enable winbind for user account
configuration
--disablewinbind
Disable winbind for user account
configuration
--enablewinbindauth
Enable winbindauth for authentication
--disablewinbindauth
Disable winbindauth for authentication
--winbindseparator=\
Character used to separate
the domain and user part
of winbind usernames if
winbindusedefaultdomain is not
enabled
--winbindtemplatehomedir=/home/%D/%U
Directory that winbind users have as
their home
--winbindtemplateprimarygroup=nobody
Group that winbind users have as their
primary group
--winbindtemplateshell=/bin/false
Shell that winbind users have as their
default login shell
--enablewinbindusedefaultdomain
Configures winbind to assume
that users with no domain in their
usernames are domain users
--disablewinbindusedefaultdomain
Configures winbind to assume
that users with no domain in their
usernames are not domain users
--winbindjoin=Administrator
Joins the winbind domain or ADS
realm as the specified administrator
--enablewinbindoffline
Configures winbind to allow offline
login
--disablewinbindoffline
Configures winbind to prevent offline
login
--smbsecurity=user|server|domain|ads
Security mode to use for the Samba
and Winbind services
--smbrealm=realm
Default realm for Samba and Winbind
services when security is set to ads
--enablewins
Enable Wins for hostname resolution
--disablewins
Disable Wins for hostname resolution
--enablesssd
Enable SSSD for user information
--disablesssd
Disable SSSD for user information
--enablecache
Enable nscd
--disablecache
Disable nscd
--enablelocauthorize
Local authorization is sufficient for
local users
--disablelocauthorize
Local users are also authorized
through a remote service
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Option
Description
--enablesysnetauth
Authenticate system accounts with
network services
--disablesysnetauth
Authenticate system accounts with
local files only
--enablepamaccess
Check /etc/security/
access.conf during account
authorization
--disablepamaccess
Do not check /etc/security/
access.conf during account
authorization
--enablemkhomedir
Create a home directory for a user on
the first login
--disablemkhomedir
Do not create a home directory for a
user on the first login
--enablesmartcard
Enable authentication with a smart
card
--disablesmartcard
Disable authentication with a smart
card
--enablerequiresmartcard
Require smart card for authentication
--disablerequiresmartcard
Do not require smart card for
authentication
--smartcardmodule=module
Default smart card module to use
--smartcardaction=0=Lock|1=Ignore
Action to be taken when smart card
removal is detected
--enablefingerprint
Enable fingerprint authentication
--disablefingerprint
Disable fingerprint authentication
--nostart
Do not start or stop the portmap,
ypbind, or nscd services even if they
are configured
--test
Do not update the configuration files,
only print the new settings
--update, --kickstart
Opposite of --test, update
configuration files with changed
settings
--updateall
Update all configuration files
--probe
Probe and display network defaults
--savebackup=name
Save a backup of all configuration files
--restorebackup=name
Restore a backup of all configuration
files
--restorelastbackup
Restore the backup of configuration
files saved before the previous
configuration change
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The System Security Services Daemon (SSSD)
9.2. The System Security Services Daemon (SSSD)
This section provides an introduction to the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD), the main
features that it provides, and discusses the requirements and any limitations of a typical SSSD
deployment.
This section also describes how to configure SSSD, and how to use the features that it provides.
It provides information on the types of services that it supports and how to configure them, and
introduces and describes the most important configuration options. Sample configuration files are also
provided to help you optimize your deployment.
9.2.1. What is SSSD?
The System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) is a service which provides access to different identity
and authentication providers. You can configure SSSD to use a native LDAP domain (that is, an LDAP
identity provider with LDAP authentication), or an LDAP identity provider with Kerberos authentication.
It provides an NSS and PAM interface to the system, and a pluggable back-end system to connect to
multiple different account sources.
SSSD is also extensible; you can configure it to use new identity sources and authentication
mechanisms should they arise. In addition, SSSD is fully IPv6-compatible, provided that it is built
against c-ares 1.7.1 or later and krb5-libs 1.8.1 or later.
9.2.2. SSSD Features
9.2.2.1. Offline Authentication
One of the primary benefits of SSSD is offline authentication. This solves the case of users having
a separate corporate account and a local machine account because of the common requirement to
implement a Virtual Private Network (VPN).
SSSD can cache remote identities and authentication credentials. This means that you can still
authenticate with these remote identities even when a machine is offline. In an SSSD system, you only
need to manage one account.
9.2.2.2. Server Load Reduction
The use of SSSD also helps to reduce the load on identification servers. For example, using nss_ldap,
every client application that needs to request user information opens its own connection to the LDAP
server. Managing these multiple connections can lead to a heavy load on the LDAP server. In an
SSSD system, only the SSSD Data Provider process actually communicates with the LDAP server,
reducing the load to one connection per client system.
9.2.2.3. Support for Multiple Domains
You can use SSSD to specify multiple domains of the same type. Compare this to an
nsswitch.conf file configuration, with which you can only request user information from a single
server of any particular type (LDAP, NIS, etc.). With SSSD, you can create multiple domains of the
same, or of different types of identity provider.
Beginning with version 0.6.0, SSSD maintains a separate database file for each domain. This means
that each domain has its own cache, and in the event that problems occur and maintenance is
necessary, it is very easy to purge the cache for a single domain, by stopping sssd and deleting the
corresponding cache file. These cache files are stored in the /var/lib/sss/db/ directory.
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All cache files are named according to the domain that they represent, for example
cache_DOMAINNAME.ldb.
Considerations Associated with Deleting Cache Files
Deleting a domain's cache file can have some unexpected side effects. You should be aware of the
following before you proceed:
• Deleting the cache file also deletes all user data (both identification and cached credentials).
Consequently, you should not proceed unless you are online and can authenticate with your
username against the domain's servers, because offline authentication will fail.
• If you are online and change your configuration to reference a different identity provider, SSSD will
recognize users from both providers until the cached entries from the original provider time out.
To avoid this situation, you can either purge the cache or use a different domain name for the new
provider (this is the recommended practice). Changing the domain name means that when you
restart SSSD it will create a new cache file (with the new name) and the old file will be ignored.
9.2.2.4. Support for LDAP Referrals
SSSD supports two types of LDAP referrals: object-level referrals and subtree referrals. These referral
types and the extent of SSSD support is outlined below.
9.2.2.4.1. Object-level Referrals
SSSD provides full support for object-level referrals within the same LDAP server, correctly handling
any differences in the distinguished name (DN) that might exist as part of the LDAP server referral
configuration.
SSSD provides partial support for object-level referrals between different LDAP servers, and requires
that the full DN of an LDAP request be identical on each server. SSSD does not support referrals to
different DN paths on other servers.
9.2.2.4.2. Subtree Referrals
SSSD provides a similar level of support for subtree referrals as it does for object-level referrals. That
is, it supports referrals to a changed DN on the local system or to an identical DN on a remote system.
The difference with subtree referrals, however, is the ability to set up identical subtrees on each LDAP
server and to then configure referrals between these subtrees.
9.2.2.4.3. Enabling LDAP Referrals
To take advantage of the SSSD LDAP referral functionality, you need to set the ldap_referrals
option to TRUE in the LDAP domain configuration section of the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file. This will
enable anonymous access to the second LDAP server.
later
Make sure SSSD is compiled with OpenLDAP version 2.4.13 or
SSSD only supports LDAP referrals when it is compiled with OpenLDAP version 2.4.13 or later.
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9.2.2.5. Differentiating Like-named Users
SSSD supports the differentiation of like-named users in different domains. For example, you
can differentiate the user kate in the ldap.example.com domain from the user kate in the
ldap.myhome.com domain. You can use SSSD to make requests using fully-qualified usernames.
If you request information for kate, you will receive the information from whichever domain is listed
first in the look-up order. If you request information for kate@ldap.myhome.com, however, you will
receive the correct user information.
SSSD also provides a filter_users option, which you can use to exclude certain users from being
fetched from the database. Refer to the sssd.conf(5) manual page for full details about this option.
9.2.2.6. Integration with IPA
Beyond the offline authentication, multiple domain management and other features already
described, SSSD is also designed to integrate with and enhance the functionality of IPA clients. In an
environment with the latest version of IPA installed, SSSD provides additional functionality, including
support for dynamic DNS updates, host-based access control, and password migration from an LDAPonly environment into the LDAP/Kerberos 5 environment employed by IPA.
9.2.2.6.1. Support for Dynamic DNS Updates
Because the IP address of IPA clients can change, SSSD provides the ability to dynamically update
the client's DNS entry on the IPA server. Using a combination of Kerberos and GSS-TSIG (Generic
Security Service Algorithm for Secret Key Transaction), IPA can determine the identity of the host
machine, authenticate it, and allow that machine to edit its own DNS record. These changes are then
stored in the LDAP back end.
Each IPA client can only edit its own DNS record
Using this authentication system means that each IPA client can only edit its own DNS record; it
cannot edit the DNS record of any other client.
Setting up Dynamic DNS Updates
The SSSD configuration file provides two options used for setting up dynamic DNS updates:
ipa_dyndns_update, used to enable dynamic DNS updates; and ipa_dyndns_iface, which
specifies the interface whose IP address should be used for dynamic DNS updates.
Refer to the sssd-ipa manual page for more information about these options, and how to configure
dynamic DNS updates.
Support for dynamic DNS updates
Support for dynamic DNS updates is only available on IPA version 2 or later, and with DNS
correctly configured.
9.2.3. Setting Up SSSD
This section describes how to install SSSD, how to run the service, and how to configure it for each
type of supported information provider.
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9.2.3.1. Installing SSSD
Run the following command to install SSSD and any dependencies, including the SSSD client:
# yum install sssd
SSSD requires very few dependencies and should install very quickly, depending on the speed of your
network connection.
9.2.3.1.1. Upgrading from a Previous Version
Upgrading Using RPM Packages
If you are upgrading using RPM packages, the script will run automatically when you upgrade to the
new version. This will upgrade the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file to the new format, and copy the
existing version to /etc/sssd/sssd.conf.bak.
Upgrading Manually
It may be necessary to run the upgrade script manually, either because you built SSSD from source
files, or because you are using a platform that does not support the use of RPM packages. The
synopsis for the script is as follows:
upgrade_config.py [ -f INFILE ] [ -o OUTFILE ] [ -verbose ] [ --no-backup ]
• -f INFILE — the configuration file to upgrade. If not specified, this defaults to /etc/sssd/
sssd.conf
• -o OUTFILE — the name of the upgraded configuration file. If not specified, this defaults to /etc/
sssd/sssd.conf
• -verbose — produce more verbose output during the upgrade process
• --no-backup — do not produce a back-up file. If not specified, this defaults to INFILE.bak
9.2.3.1.2. Starting and Stopping SSSD
Starting SSSD for the first time
Before you start SSSD for the first time, you need to configure at least one domain. Refer to
Section 9.2.5, “Configuring Domains” for information on how to configure an SSSD domain.
You can use either the service command or the /etc/init.d/sssd script to control SSSD. For
example, run the following command to start sssd:
# systemctl start sssd.service
By default, SSSD is configured not to start automatically. There are two ways to change this behavior;
if you use the Authentication Configuration tool to configure SSSD, it will reconfigure the default
behavior so that SSSD starts when the machine boots. Alternatively, you can use the systemctl
command, as follows:
# systemctl enable sssd.service
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9.2.3.2. Configuring SSSD
The global configuration of SSSD is stored in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file. This file consists of
various sections, each of which contains a number of key/value pairs. Some keys accept multiple
values; use commas to separate multiple values for such keys. This configuration file uses data
types of string (no quotes required), integer and Boolean (with values of TRUE or FALSE). Comments
are indicated by either a hash sign (#) or a semicolon (;) in the first column. The following example
illustrates some of this syntax:
[section]
# Keys with single values
key1 = value
key2 = val2
# Keys with multiple values
key10 = val10,val11
Specifying a different configuration file
You can use the -c (or --config) parameter on the command line to specify a different
configuration file for SSSD.
The format of the configuration file is described in Section 9.2.9, “SSSD Configuration File Format”
Refer to the sssd.conf(5) manual page for more information on global SSSD configuration options.
9.2.3.2.1. Configuring NSS
SSSD provides a new NSS module, sssd_nss, so that you can configure your system to use SSSD
to retrieve user information. Edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file for your system to use the sss name
database. For example:
passwd: files sss
group: files sss
9.2.3.2.2. Configuring PAM
Be careful when changing your PAM configuration
Use extreme care when changing your PAM configuration. A mistake in the PAM configuration
file can lock you out of the system completely. Always back up your configuration files before
performing any changes, and keep a session open so that you can revert any changes you make
should the need arise.
To enable your system to use SSSD for PAM, you need to edit the default PAM configuration file.
On Fedora—based systems, this is the /etc/pam.d/system-auth file. Edit this file to reflect the
following example, and then restart sssd:
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#%PAM-1.0
# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.
auth
required
pam_env.so
auth
sufficient
pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
auth
requisite
pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
auth
sufficient
pam_sss.so use_first_pass
auth
required
pam_deny.so
account
required
pam_unix.so broken_shadow
account
sufficient
pam_localuser.so
account
sufficient
pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
account [default=bad success=ok user_unknown=ignore] pam_sss.so
account
required
pam_permit.so
password
password
password
password
requisite
sufficient
sufficient
required
pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3
pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok
pam_sss.so use_authtok
pam_deny.so
session
session
session
session
session
session
required
pam_mkhomedir.so umask=0022 skel=/etc/skel/
optional
pam_keyinit.so revoke
required
pam_limits.so
[success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if.so service in crond quiet use_uid
sufficient
pam_sss.so
required
pam_unix.so
9.2.3.2.2.1. Using Custom Home Directories with SSSD
If your LDAP users have home directories that are not in /home, and if your system is configured to
create home directories the first time your users log in, then these directories will be created with the
wrong permissions. For example, instead of a typical home directory such as /home/<username>,
your users might have home directories that include their locale, such as /home/<locale>/
<username>. If this is true for your system, the following steps need to be taken (preemptively):
1. Apply the correct SELinux context and permissions from the /home directory to the home directory
that you use on your system. In the example above, the following command would achieve this
result (replace the directory names with those that apply to your system):
# semanage fcontext -a -e /home /home/locale
2. Ensure the oddjob-mkhomedir package is installed on your system and then re-run the
Authentication Configuration tool.
This package provides the pam_oddjob_mkhomedir.so library, which the Authentication
Configuration tool will then use to create your custom home directories. You need to use this
library to create your home directories, and not the default pam_mkhomedir.so library, because
the latter cannot create SELinux labels.
The pam_oddjob_mkhomedir and pam_mkhomedir libraries
The Authentication Configuration tool will automatically use the
pam_oddjob_mkhomedir.so library if it is available. Otherwise, it will default to using
pam_mkhomedir.so.
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If the preceding steps were not performed before the custom home directories were created, you can
use the following commands to correct the permissions and SELinux contexts (again, replace the
directory names with those that apply to your system):
# semanage fcontext -a -e /home /home/locale
# restorecon -R -v /home/locale
9.2.3.2.2.2. Using "include" Statements in PAM Configurations
Recent PAM implementations allow you to use include statements in PAM configurations. For
example:
...
session
session
...
include
optional
system-auth
pam_console.so
In the preceding example, if a sufficient condition from system-auth returns PAM_SUCCESS,
pam_console.so will not be executed.
9.2.3.2.3. Configuring Access Control
SSSD provides a rudimentary access control mechanism, offering two solutions based on the value of
the access_provider option in the [domain/<NAME>] section in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file.
9.2.3.2.3.1. The Simple Access Provider
The first of these solutions is known as the Simple Access Provider, and is based on the
implementation of access or deny lists of usernames. To enable the Simple Access Provider, you
need to set the access_provider option to simple, and then add usernames as a commaseparated list to either the simple_allow_users or simple_deny_users options.
Using the Simple Access Provider
By using the Simple Access Provider, you can continue to support a number of network logins to
maintain common network accounts on company or department laptops, but you might want to
restrict the use of a particular laptop to one or two users. This means that even if a different user
authenticated successfully against the same authentication provider, the Simple Access Provider
would prevent that user from gaining access.
The following example demonstrates the use of the Simple Access Provider to grant access to two
users. This example assumes that SSSD is correctly configured and example.com is one of the
domains specified in the [sssd] section, and only shows the Simple Access Provider-specific
options.
[domain/example.com]
access_provider = simple
simple_allow_users = user1, user2
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Using the Local ID provider
The Local ID provider does not support simple as an access provider.
Access Control Rules
The Simple Access Provider adheres to the following three rules to determine which users should or
should not be granted access:
• If both lists are empty, access is granted.
• If simple_allow_users is set, only users from this list are allowed access. This setting
supersedes the simple_deny_users list (which would be redundant).
• If the simple_allow_users list is empty, users are allowed access unless they appear in the
simple_deny_users list.
Do not define both simple_allow_users and simple_deny_users
Defining both simple_allow_users and simple_deny_users is a configuration error. If this
occurs, SSSD will output an error to the /var/log/sssd/sssd_default.log log file when
loading the back end, but continue to start normally. Future versions of SSSD will output an error
and fail to start.
9.2.3.2.3.2. The LDAP Access Provider
The second access control solution uses the LDAP server itself as the access provider
(access_provider=ldap) and the associated filter option (ldap_access_filter) to specify
which users are granted access to the specified host. Note that these two options are codependent; if
you use LDAP as your access provider then you must specify a value for the ldap_access_filter
option, otherwise all users will be denied access. If you are not using LDAP as your access provider,
then the ldap_access_filter option has no effect.
Using the LDAP Access Provider
The following example demonstrates the use of the LDAP Access Provider to grant access to
members of the "allowedusers" group in LDAP. This example assumes that SSSD is correctly
configured and example.com is one of the domains specified in the [sssd] section, and only shows
the LDAP Access Provider-specific options.
[domain/example.com]
access_provider = ldap
ldap_access_filter = memberOf=cn=allowedusers,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
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Setting Up SSSD
Using offline caching
Offline caching for this feature is limited to determining whether or not the user's last online login
attempt was successful. If they were granted access during their last login, they will continue to
be granted access while offline, and vice-versa.
Refer to the sssd-ldap manual page for more information about using the LDAP Access Provider.
9.2.3.2.4. Configuring Failover
The failover feature allows back ends to automatically switch to a different server if the primary
server fails. These servers are entered as a case-insensitive, comma-separated list in the [domain/
<NAME>] sections of the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file, and listed in order of preference. This list can
contain any number of servers.
For example, if you have configured a native LDAP domain, you could specify the following as your
ldap_uri values:
ldap_uri = ldap://ldap0.mydomain.org, ldap://ldap1.mydomain.org, ldap://ldap2.mydomain.org
In this configuration, ldap://ldap0.mydomain.org functions as the primary server. If this server
fails, the SSSD failover mechanism first attempts to connect to ldap1.mydomain.org, and if that
server is unavailable, it then attempts to connect to ldap2.mydomain.org.
If the parameter that specifies which server to connect to for the specific domain (for example,
ldap_uri, krb5_server, …) is not specified, the back end defaults to using Use service
discovery. Refer to Section 9.2.3.2.4.1, “Using SRV Records with Failover” for more information on
service discovery.
Do not use multiple ldap_uri parameters
Do not use multiple ldap_uri parameters to specify your failover servers. The failover servers
must be entered as a comma-separated list of values for a single ldap_uri parameter. If you
enter multiple ldap_uri parameters, SSSD only recognizes the last entry.
Future versions of SSSD will throw an error upon receiving additional ldap_uri entries.
9.2.3.2.4.1. Using SRV Records with Failover
SSSD also supports the use of SRV records in its failover configuration. This means that you can
specify a server that is later resolved into a list of specific servers using SRV requests. The priority
and weight attributes of SRV records provide further opportunity for specifying which servers should
be contacted first in the event that the primary server fails.
For every service with which you want to use service discovery, you need to add a special DNS record
to your DNS server using the following form:
_service._protocol._domain TTL priority weight port hostname
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
A typical configuration would contain multiple such records, each with a different priority (for failover)
and different weights (for load balancing).
The client then makes an SRV DNS query to retrieve a list of host names, their priorities,
and weights. These queries are of the form _service._protocol._domain, for example,
_ldap._tcp._redhat.com. The client then sorts this list according to the priorities and weights,
and connects to the first server in this sorted list.
2
For more information on SRV records, refer to RFC 2782 .
9.2.3.2.4.2. How the Failover Mechanism Works
The failover mechanism distinguishes between machines and services. The back end first tries to
resolve the hostname of a given machine; if this resolution attempt fails, the machine is considered
offline. No further attempts are made to connect to this machine for any other service. If the resolution
attempt succeeds, the back end tries to connect to a service on this machine. If the service connection
attempt fails, then only this particular service is considered offline and the back end automatically
switches over to the next service. The machine is still considered online and might still be tried for
another service.
The failover mechanism does not handle DNS A records with multiple IP addresses; instead it only
uses the first address. DNS round-robin cannot be used for failover. Further, providing multiple A
records does not provide failover. Only the first A record is used, and if a lookup attempt on the
first record fails then the system attempts no further lookups. To find multiple servers with a single
request, and thus implementing failover, SSSD relies on SRV resource records, as explained in
Section 9.2.3.2.4.1, “Using SRV Records with Failover”.
Further connection attempts are made to machines or services marked as offline after a specified
period of time; this is currently hard coded to 30 seconds. If there are no more machines to try, the
back end as a whole switches to offline mode, and then attempts to reconnect every 30 seconds.
9.2.4. Configuring Services
Individual pieces of SSSD functionality are provided by special SSSD services that are started and
stopped together with SSSD. The services provided by SSSD have their own configuration sections.
The [sssd] section also lists the services that are active and should be started when sssd starts
within the services directive.
SSSD currently provides several services:
• NSS — An NSS provider service that answers NSS requests from the sssd_nss module.
• PAM — A PAM provider service that manages a PAM conversation through the sssd_pam PAM
module.
• monitor — A special service that monitors all other SSSD services, and starts or restarts them
as needed. Its options are specified in the [sssd] section of the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
configuration file.
9.2.4.1. Configuration Options
The following sections cover the most important SSSD configuration options. Refer to the sssd.conf(5)
manual page that ships with SSSD for information on all the available configuration options.
2
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2782
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Configuring Services
9.2.4.1.1. General Configuration Options
• debug_level (integer)
Sets the debug level for a particular service. This is a per-service setting (that is, it can appear in
any of the [service/<NAME>] sections in the SSSD configuration file).
• reconnection_retries (integer)
In the event of a data provider crash or restart, this specifies the number of times that a service
should attempt to reconnect.
DNS lookup of IPv6 addresses
If a DNS lookup fails to return an IPv4 address for a hostname, SSSD attempts to look up an
IPv6 address before returning a failure. Note that this only ensures that the async resolver
identifies the correct address; there is currently a bug in the LDAP code that prevents SSSD
from connecting to an LDAP server over IPv6. This is being investigated separately.
9.2.4.1.2. NSS Configuration Options
Use the following options to configure the Name Service Switch (NSS) service. Refer to the
sssd.conf(5) manual page for full details about each option.
• enum_cache_timeout (integer)
Specifies for how long (in seconds) sssd_nss should cache enumerations (requests for information
about all users).
• entry_cache_nowait_percentage (integer)
Specifies for how long sssd_nss should return cached entries before initiating an out-of-band cache
refresh (0 disables this feature).
You can configure the entry cache to automatically update entries in the background if they are
requested beyond a percentage of the entry_cache_timeout value for the domain.
Valid values for this option are 0-99, and represent a percentage of the entry_cache_timeout
value for each domain.
• entry_negative_timeout (integer)
Specifies for how long (in seconds) sssd_nss should cache negative cache hits (that is, queries for
invalid database entries, such as nonexistent ones) before asking the back end again.
• filter_users, filter_groups (string)
Exclude certain users from being fetched from the sss NSS database. This is particularly useful for
system accounts such as root.
• filter_users_in_groups (Boolean)
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
If set to TRUE, specifies that users listed in the filter_users list do not appear in group
memberships when performing group lookups. If set to FALSE, group lookups return all users that
are members of that group. If not specified, defaults to TRUE.
9.2.4.1.3. PAM Configuration Options
Use the following options to configure the Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) service.
• offline_credentials_expiration (integer)
If the authentication provider is offline, specifies for how long to allow cached log-ins (in days). This
value is measured from the last successful online log-in. If not specified, defaults to 0 (no limit).
• offline_failed_login_attempts (integer)
If the authentication provider is offline, specifies how many failed log in attempts are allowed. If not
specified, defaults to 0 (no limit).
• offline_failed_login_delay (integer)
Specifies the time in minutes after the value of offline_failed_login_attempts has been
reached before a new log in attempt is possible.
If set to 0, the user cannot authenticate offline if the value of offline_failed_login_attempts
has been reached. Only a successful online authentication can re-enable offline authentication. If
not specified, defaults to 5.
9.2.5. Configuring Domains
A domain is a database of user information. SSSD can use more than one domain at the same time,
but at least one must be configured for SSSD to start. Using SSSD domains, it is possible to use
several LDAP servers providing several unique namespaces. You can specify not only where users'
identity information is stored, but how users authenticate against each of the specified domains.
SSSD supports the following identity and authentication combinations:
LDAP/LDAP
This combination uses an LDAP back end as both the identity and authentication provider. For
more information, refer to Section 9.2.5.2, “Configuring an LDAP Domain”.
LDAP/KRB5
This combination uses an LDAP back end as the identity provider, and uses Kerberos to provide
authentication. For more information, refer to Section 9.2.6, “Setting Up Kerberos Authentication”.
proxy
Specifying a proxy identity or an authentication provider uses an existing NSS library or a
customized PAM stack, but takes advantage of the SSSD caching mechanism. For more
information, refer to Section 9.2.7, “Configuring a Proxy Domain”.
The following example assumes that SSSD is correctly configured and FOO is one of the domains in
the [sssd] section. This example shows only the configuration of Kerberos authentication; it does not
include any identity provider.
[domain/FOO]
auth_provider = krb5
krb5_server = 192.168.1.1
krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
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Configuring Domains
9.2.5.1. Domain Configuration Options
You can add new domain configurations to the [domain/<NAME>] sections of the /etc/sssd/
sssd.conf file, and then add the list of domains to the domains attribute of the [sssd] section, in
the order you want them to be queried.
9.2.5.1.1. General Domain Configuration Options
You can use the following configuration options in a domain configuration section:
• min_id,max_id (integer)
Specifies the UID and GID limits for the domain. If a domain contains entries that are outside these
limits, they are ignored.
The default value for min_id is 1; the default value for max_id is 0 (unbounded).
Avoid conflicts with users in /etc/passwd
If min_id is unspecified, it defaults to 1 for any back end. This default was chosen to provide
compatibility with existing systems and to ease any migration attempts. LDAP administrators
should be aware that granting identities in this range may conflict with users in the local /
etc/passwd file. To avoid these conflicts, min_id should be set to 1000 or higher wherever
possible.
The min_id option determines the minimum acceptable value for both UID and GID numbers.
Accounts with either UID or GID values below the min_id value are filtered out and not made
available on the client.
• enumerate (Boolean)
Specifies whether or not to enumerate (list) the users and groups of a domain.
Enumeration means that the entire set of available users and groups on the remote source is
cached on the local machine. When enumeration is disabled, users and groups are only cached as
they are requested.
Disable enumeration for domains with many users and groups
If a client has enumeration enabled, reinitialization of the client results in a complete refresh
of the entire set of available users and groups from the remote source. Similarly, when
SSSD is connected to a new server, the entire set of available users and groups from the
remote source is pulled and cached on the local machine. In a domain with a large amount
of clients connected to a remote source, both aforementioned cases can affect the network
performance due to frequent queries from the clients. If the set of available users and groups
is large enough, it will affect the performance of clients as well. For performance reasons, it is
recommended that you disable enumeration for domains with many users and groups.
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
The default value for this parameter is FALSE. Set this value to TRUE to enable enumeration of
users and groups of a domain.
• timeout (integer)
Specifies the timeout in seconds for this particular domain.
This is used to ensure that the back end process is alive and capable of answering requests. The
default value for this parameter is 10 seconds. Raising this timeout might prove useful for slower
back ends, such as distant LDAP servers.
Changing the timeout value to 0
If you set timeout = 0, SSSD reverts to the default value; you cannot force a timeout value
of zero, because this would force the sssd daemon into a loop.
• cache_credentials (Boolean)
Specifies whether or not to store user credentials in the local SSSD domain database cache.
The default value for this parameter is FALSE. You should set this value to TRUE for domains other
than local if you want to enable offline authentication.
• id_provider (string)
Specifies the data provider identity back end to use for this domain. Currently supported identity
back ends are:
• proxy — Support a legacy NSS provider (for example, nss_nis).
Changing the id_provider value to proxy
SSSD needs to know which legacy NSS library to load in order to start successfully. If you
set id_provider to proxy, ensure that you also specify a value for proxy_lib_name.
Refer to Section 9.2.7, “Configuring a Proxy Domain” for information on this attribute.
• local — SSSD internal local provider.
• ldap — LDAP provider.
• entry_cache_timeout (integer)
Specifies for how long the domain's data provider should cache positive cache hits (that is, queries
for valid database entries) before asking the database again.
• use_fully_qualified_names (Boolean)
Specifies whether or not requests to this domain require fully-qualified domain names.
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Configuring Domains
If set to TRUE, all requests to this domain must use fully-qualified domain names. It also means that
the output from the request displays the fully-qualified name.
The ability to restrict requests in this way means that if you know you have multiple domains with
conflicting usernames, then there is no doubt about which username the query will resolve.
Consider the following examples, in which the IPA domain database contains a user named
ipauser01, and the use_fully_qualified_names attribute is set to TRUE:
# getent passwd ipauser01
[no output]
# getent passwd ipauser01@IPA
ipauser01@IPA:x:937315651:937315651:ipauser01:/home/ipauser01:/bin/sh
In the following examples, using the same IPA domain and user, the
use_fully_qualified_names attribute is set to FALSE:
# getent passwd ipauser01
ipauser01:x:937315651:937315651:ipauser01:/home/ipauser01:/bin/sh
# getent passwd ipauser01@IPA
ipauser01:x:937315651:937315651:ipauser01:/home/ipauser01:/bin/sh
Changing the use_fully_qualified_names value to FALSE
If use_fully_qualified_names is set to FALSE, you can continue to use the fully-qualified
name in your requests, but only the simplified version is displayed in the output.
SSSD can only parse name@domain, not name@realm. You can, however, use the same
name for both your domain and your realm.
• auth_provider (string)
The authentication provider used for the domain. The default value for this option is the value of
id_provider if it is set and can handle authentication requests.
Currently supported authentication providers are:
• ldap — for native LDAP authentication. Refer to the sssd-ldap(5) manual page for more
information on configuring LDAP.
• krb5 — for Kerberos authentication. Refer to the sssd-krb5(5) manual page for more information
on configuring Kerberos.
• proxy — for relaying authentication to some other PAM target.
• none — explicitly disables authentication.
9.2.5.1.2. Proxy Configuration Options
• proxy_pam_target (string)
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
This option is only used when the auth_provider option is set to proxy, and specifies the target
to which PAM must proxy.
This option has no default value. If proxy authentication is required, you need to specify your own
PAM target. This corresponds to a file containing PAM stack information in the system's default
PAM configuration directory. On Fedora-based systems, this is the /etc/pam.d/ directory.
Avoid recursive inclusion of pam_sss
Ensure that your proxy PAM stack does not recursively include pam_sss.so.
• proxy_lib_name (string)
This option is only used when the id_provider option is set to proxy, and specifies which
existing NSS library to proxy identity requests through.
This option has no default value. You need to manually specify an existing library to take advantage
of this option. For example, set this value to nis to use the existing libnss_nis.so file.
9.2.5.2. Configuring an LDAP Domain
An LDAP domain is one where the id_provider option is set to ldap (id_provider = ldap).
Such a domain requires a running LDAP server against which to authenticate. This can be an open
source LDAP server such as OpenLDAP or Microsoft Active Directory. SSSD currently supports
Microsoft Active Directory 2003 (+Services for UNIX) and Active Directory 2008 (+Subsystem
for UNIX-based Applications). In all cases, the client configuration is stored in the /etc/sssd/
sssd.conf file.
How to Authenticate Against an LDAP Server
SSSD does not support authentication over an unencrypted channel. Consequently, if you want to
authenticate against an LDAP server, either TLS/SSL or LDAPS is required. If the LDAP server is used
only as an identity provider, an encrypted channel is not needed.
Edit your /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file to include the following settings:
# A native LDAP domain
[domain/LDAP]
enumerate = false
cache_credentials = TRUE
id_provider = ldap
auth_provider = ldap
ldap_schema = rfc2307
chpass_provider = ldap
ldap_uri = ldap://ldap.mydomain.org
ldap_search_base = dc=mydomain,dc=org
ldap_tls_reqcert = demand
ldap_tls_cacert = /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
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Configuring Domains
Creating a certificate with an IP address instead of the server name
If you wish to use an IP address in the ldap_uri option instead of the server name, for example,
1. Using your command line, execute the following command to convert an existing certificate
if GSSAPI is used to avoid time consuming DNS lookups, the TSL/SSL setup might fail. This is due
(previously
signed
by how
the key.pem
into a certificate
request:
The
show
to create
akey)
certificate
with
a Subject
Alternative
Name being
the
IP
to thefollowing
fact thatsteps
TSL/SSL
certificates
contain
the server
name
only. However,
a special
field in
the
Alternatively,
if
you
are
using
a
self-signed
certificate(for
example,
one
created
by
the
openssl
x509
-x509toreq
-in
old_cert.pem
-out
req.pem
-signkey
old_cert.pem
address
of called
your server:
certificate,
Subject Alternative Name (subjectAltName), can be used to additionally set
Fedora
OpenLDAP
package-in
in /etc/pki/tls/certs/slapd.pem),
execute the following
openssl
x509 -x509toreq
old_cert.pem -out req.pem -signkey key.pem
the IP address of the server.
command:
2. Edit your /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf configuration file to include the following line
under the [ v3_ca ] section:
Replace the IP address with one of your choice.
3.
subjectAltName = IP:10.0.0.10
By executing the following command, use the previously generated certificate request to
• The openssl x509 command creates the new certificate.
generate a new self-signed certificate that will contain your desired IP address:
• The -req option tells the command to expect a certificate request as an input.
where:
openssl x509 -req -in req.pem -out new_cert.pem -extfile ./openssl.cnf -extensions
v3_ca
-signkey
old_cert.pem
• The
-in
and -out
options specify the input and output files.
• The -extfile option expects a file containing certificate extensions to use (in our case
the subjectAltName extension).
• The -extensions option specifies the section of the openssl.cnf file to add certificate
extensions from (in this case, the [ v3_ca ] section).
• The -signkey option tells the command to self-sign the input file using the supplied
private key.
For more information on the x509 utility and its parameters, refer to man x509.
4.
Lastly, copy the private key block from the old_cert.pem file into the new_cert.pem file
to keep all relevant information in one file.
It is advisable to use a Certificate Authority to issue your certificate. Consider using the Red Hat
Certificate
System;
for morethrough
information
on managing
subject names
subject
alternative
When creating
a certificate
the certutil
utility provided
by the and
nss-utils
package,
note that
3
names insupports
your certificate,
referalternative
to the Rednames
Hat Certificate
System
Adminonly.
Guide .
certutil
DNS subject
for certificate
creation
3
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Certificate_System/8.0/html/Admin_Guide/
Managing_Subject_Names_and_Subject_Alternative_Names.html
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Chapter 9. Configuring Authentication
Selecting an LDAP Schema
You can set the ldap_schema attribute to either rfc2307 or rfc2307bis. These schema
define how groups in LDAP are specified. In RFC 2307, group objects use a multi-valued attribute,
memberuid, which lists the names of the users that belong to that group. In RFC 2307bis, instead
of the memberuid, group objects use the member attribute. Rather than just the name of the user,
this attribute contains the full Distinguished Name (DN) of another object in the LDAP database. This
means that groups can have other groups as members. That is, it adds support for nested groups.
SSSD assumes that your LDAP server is using RFC 2307. If your LDAP server is using RFC 2307bis,
and you do not update the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file accordingly, this can impact how your users
and groups are displayed. It also means that some groups will not be available and network resources
may be inaccessible even though you have permissions to use them.
For example, when using RFC 2307bis and you have configured both primary and secondary groups,
or are using nested groups, you can use the id command to display these groups:
[f12server@ipaserver ~]$ id
uid=500(f12server) gid=500(f12server) groups=500(f12server),510(f12tester)
If instead you have configured your client to use RFC 2307 then only the primary group is displayed.
Changes to this setting only affect how SSSD determines the groups to which a user belongs; there
is no negative effect on the actual user data. If you do not know the correct value for this attribute,
consult your System Administrator.
Specifying Timeout Values
SSSD supports a number of timeout values that apply when configuring an LDAP domain. These are
described below.
• ldap_search_timeout (integer) — Specifies the timeout (in seconds) that LDAP searches
are allowed to run before they are canceled and cached results are returned (and offline mode is
entered). If not specified:
Defaults to five when enumerate = False
Defaults to 30 when enumerate = True. This option is forced to a minimum of 30 in this case.
The ldap_network_timeout option is going to be changed
This option is subject to change in future versions of SSSD, where it may be replaced by a
series of timeouts for specific look-up types.
• ldap_network_timeout (integer) — Specifies the timeout (in seconds) after which the
poll(2)/select(2) following a connect(2) returns in case of no activity.
If not specified, defaults to five.
• ldap_opt_timeout (integer) — Specifies the timeout (in seconds) after which calls to
synchronous LDAP APIs will abort if no response is received. This option also controls the timeout
when communicating with the KDC in case of a SASL bind.
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Configuring Domains
If not specified, defaults to five.
DNS Service Discovery
The DNS service discovery feature allows the LDAP back end to automatically find the
appropriate DNS servers to connect to using a special DNS query. For more information on the
DNS service discovery feature, refer to Section 9.2.3.2.4.1, “Using SRV Records with Failover”.
9.2.5.3. Configuring a Microsoft Active Directory Domain
You can configure SSSD to use Microsoft Active Directory as an LDAP back end, providing both
identity and authentication services. If you are using Active Directory 2003, SSSD requires that you
install Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) on the machine where Active Directory is installed. If instead
you are using Active Directory 2008, you need to install the Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications
(SUA) on the Active Directory machine.
SFU is not supported on 64-bit systems
SFU is not supported on 64-bit operating systems. Refer to http://support.microsoft.com/
kb/920751 for more information about which Windows systems can provide a suitable platform for
an SSSD LDAP back end.
9.2.5.3.1. Configuring Active Directory 2003 as an LDAP Back End
The example /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file that ships with SSSD contains the following sample
configuration for Active Directory 2003:
# Example LDAP domain where the LDAP server is an Active Directory 2003 server.
[domain/AD]
description = LDAP domain with AD server
enumerate = false
min_id = 1000
;
id_provider = ldap
auth_provider = ldap
ldap_uri = ldap://your.ad.server.com
ldap_schema = rfc2307bis
ldap_search_base = dc=example,dc=com
ldap_default_bind_dn = cn=Administrator,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com
ldap_default_authtok_type = password
ldap_default_authtok = YOUR_PASSWORD
ldap_user_object_class = person
ldap_user_name = msSFU30Name
ldap_user_uid_number = msSFU30UidNumber
ldap_user_gid_number = msSFU30GidNumber
ldap_user_home_directory = msSFU30HomeDirectory
ldap_user_shell = msSFU30LoginShell
ldap_user_principal = userPrincipalName
ldap_group_object_class = group
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ldap_group_name = msSFU30Name
ldap_group_gid_number = msSFU30GidNumber
This configuration is specific to Windows Active Directory 2003. Refer to Section 9.2.5.3.2,
“Configuring Active Directory 2003 R2 and 2008 as LDAP Back Ends” for information on how to
configure Active Directory 2003 R2 and Active Directory 2008.
Note that the above configuration assumes that the certificates are stored in the default location (that
is, in /etc/openldap/cacerts) and that the c_rehash function has been used to create the
appropriate symlinks.
More Information
Refer to the sssd-ldap(5) manual page for a full description of all the options that apply to LDAP
domains.
9.2.5.3.2. Configuring Active Directory 2003 R2 and 2008 as LDAP Back Ends
The configuration of /etc/sssd/sssd.conf to support Active Directory 2003 R2 or Active Directory
2008 as a back end is similar to that for AD 2003. The following example configuration highlights the
necessary changes.
# Example LDAP domain where the LDAP server is an Active Directory 2003 R2 or an Active
Directory 2008 server.
[domain/AD]
description = LDAP domain with AD server
; debug_level = 9
enumerate = false
id_provider = ldap
auth_provider = ldap
chpass_provider = ldap
ldap_uri = ldap://your.ad.server.com
ldap_tls_cacertdir = /etc/openldap/cacerts
ldap_tls_cacert = /etc/openldap/cacerts/test.cer
ldap_search_base = dc=example,dc=com
ldap_default_bind_dn = cn=Administrator,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com
ldap_default_authtok_type = password
ldap_default_authtok = YOUR_PASSWORD
ldap_pwd_policy = none
ldap_user_object_class = user
ldap_group_object_class = group
Note that the above configuration assumes that the certificates are stored in the default location (that
is, in /etc/openldap/cacerts) and that the c_rehash function has been used to create the
appropriate symlinks.
9.2.6. Setting Up Kerberos Authentication
In order to set up Kerberos authentication, you need to know the address of your key distribution
center (KDC) and the Kerberos domain. The client configuration is then stored in the /etc/sssd/
sssd.conf file.
The Kerberos 5 authentication back end does not contain an identity provider and must be paired with
one in order to function properly (for example, id_provider = ldap). Some information required by
the Kerberos 5 authentication back end must be supplied by the identity provider, such as the user's
Kerberos Principal Name (UPN). The identity provider configuration should contain an entry to specify
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Setting Up Kerberos Authentication
this UPN. Refer to the manual page for the applicable identity provider for details on how to configure
the UPN.
If the UPN is not available in the identity back end, SSSD will construct a UPN using the format
username@krb5_realm.
SSSD assumes that the Kerberos KDC is also a Kerberos kadmin server. However, it is very common
for production environments to have multiple, read-only replicas of the KDC, but only a single kadmin
server (because password changes and similar procedures are comparatively rare). To manage
this type of configuration, you can use the krb5_kpasswd option to specify where your password
changing service is running, or if it is running on a non-default port. If the krb5_kpasswd option is
not defined, SSSD tries to use the Kerberos KDC in order to change the password. Refer to the sssdkrb5(5) manual page for more information about this and all Kerberos configuration options.
How to Set Up Kerberos Authentication
Edit your /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file to include the following settings:
# A domain with identities provided by LDAP and authentication by Kerberos
[domain/KRBDOMAIN]
enumerate = false
id_provider = ldap
chpass_provider = krb5
ldap_uri = ldap://ldap.mydomain.org
ldap_search_base = dc=mydomain,dc=org
tls_reqcert = demand
ldap_tls_cacert = /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
auth_provider = krb5
krb5_server = 192.168.1.1
krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
krb5_changepw_principal = kadmin/changepw
krb5_ccachedir = /tmp
krb5_ccname_template = FILE:%d/krb5cc_%U_XXXXXX
krb5_auth_timeout = 15
This example describes the minimum options that must be configured when using Kerberos
authentication. Refer to the sssd-krb5(5) manual page for a full description of all the options that apply
to configuring Kerberos authentication.
DNS Service Discovery
The DNS service discovery feature allows the Kerberos 5 authentication back end to automatically
find the appropriate DNS servers to connect to using a special DNS query. For more information
on the DNS service discovery feature, refer to Section 9.2.3.2.4.1, “Using SRV Records with
Failover”.
9.2.6.1. Setting up SASL/GSSAPI Authentication
GSSAPI (Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface) is a supported SASL (Simple
Authentication and Security Layer) authentication method. Kerberos is currently the only commonly
used GSSAPI implementation. An LDAP client and an LDAP server use SASL to take advantage of
GSSAPI as the authentication method (an alternative to plain text passwords, etc.). The GSSAPI plugin for SASL is then invoked on the client and server side to use Kerberos to communicate.
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Using GSSAPI protected communication for LDAP is an advanced configuration not supported by the
Authentication Configuration tool; the following steps show how to manually configure it.
On the KDC
1. Using kadmin, set up a Kerberos service principal for the directory server. Use the -randkey
option for the kadmin's addprinc command to create the principal and assign it a random
key:
kadmin: addprinc -randkey ldap/server.example.com
2. Use the ktadd command to write the service principal to a file:
kadmin: ktadd -k /root/ldap.keytab ldap/server.example.com
3. Using kadmin, set up a Kerberos host principal for the client running SSSD. Use the randkey option for the kadmin's addprinc command to create the principal and assign it a
random key:
kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/client.example.com
4. Use the ktadd command to write the host principal to a file:
kadmin: ktadd -k /root/client.keytab host/client.example.com
On the Directory Server
Complete the following steps for a directory server of your choice:
OpenLDAP
1. Copy the previously created /root/ldap.keytab file from the KDC to the /etc/
openldap/ directory and name it ldap.keytab.
2. Make the /etc/openldap/ldap.keytab file read-writable for the ldap user and
readable for the ldap group only.
Red Hat Directory Server
1. Copy the previously created /root/ldap.keytab file from the KDC to the /etc/
dirsrv/ directory and name it ldap.keytab.
2. Uncomment the KRB5_KTNAME line in the /etc/sysconfig/dirsrv (or instancespecific) file, and set the keytab location for the KRB5_KTNAME variable. For example:
# In order to use SASL/GSSAPI the directory
# server needs to know where to find its keytab
# file - uncomment the following line and set
# the path and filename appropriately
KRB5_KTNAME=/etc/dirsrv/ldap.keytab; export KRB5_KTNAME
On the Client
1. Copy the previously created /root/client.keytab file from the KDC to the /etc/
directory and name it krb5.keytab. If the /etc/krb5.keytab file exists already, use the
ktutil utility to merge both files properly. For more information on the ktutil utility, refer to man
ktutil.
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Configuring a Proxy Domain
2. Modify your /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file to include the following settings:
ldap_sasl_mech = gssapi
ldap_sasl_authid = host/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
ldap_krb5_keytab = /etc/krb5.keytab (default)
ldap_krb5_init_creds = true (default)
ldap_krb5_ticket_lifetime = 86400 (default)
krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
9.2.7. Configuring a Proxy Domain
SSSD currently only supports LDAP and Kerberos as authentication providers. If you prefer to use
SSSD (for example, to take advantage of its caching functionality), but SSSD does not support your
authentication method, you can set up a proxy authentication provider. This could be the case if you
use fingerprint scanners or smart cards as part of your authentication process. Similarly, you can set
up proxy to serve as an identity provider.
The following sections cover combinations of identity and authentication providers in which the proxy
server takes the role of one.
9.2.7.1. proxy/KRB5
The following configuration is an example of a combination of a proxy identity provider used with
Kerberos authentication:
Edit the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file to include the following settings:
[domain/PROXY_KRB5]
auth_provider = krb5
krb5_server = 192.168.1.1
krb5_realm = EXAMPLE.COM
id_provider = proxy
proxy_lib_name = nis
enumerate = true
cache_credentials = true
For more information on various Kerberos configuration options, refer to Section 9.2.6, “Setting Up
Kerberos Authentication”.
9.2.7.2. LDAP/proxy
An example of a combination of an LDAP identity provider and a proxy authentication provider is the
use of the LDAP with a custom PAM stack. To enable authentication via the PAM stack, complete the
following steps:
1. Edit the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file to include the following settings:
[domain/LDAP_PROXY]
id_provider = ldap
ldap_uri = ldap://example.com
ldap_search_base = dc=example,dc=com
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auth_provider = proxy
proxy_pam_target = sssdpamproxy
enumerate = true
cache_credentials = true
By specifying the options above, authentication requests will be proxied via the /etc/pam.d/
sssdpamproxy file which provides the needed module interfaces. Note that the pam_ldap.so
file can be substituted with a PAM module of your choice.
For more information on various LDAP configuration options, refer to Section 9.2.5.2, “Configuring
an LDAP Domain”.
2. Create a /etc/pam.d/sssdpamproxy file (if not already created) and specify the following
settings in it:
auth
account
password
session
required
required
required
required
pam_ldap.so
pam_ldap.so
pam_ldap.so
pam_ldap.so
9.2.7.3. proxy/proxy
An example of a combination of an proxy identity provider and a proxy authentication provider is the
use of the proxy identity provider with a custom PAM stack. To enable authentication via the PAM
stack, complete the following steps:
Make sure the nss-pam-ldapd package is installed
In order to use the proxy identity provider, you must have the nss-pam-ldapd package installed.
1. Edit the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file to include the following settings:
[domain/PROXY_PROXY]
auth_provider = proxy
id_provider = proxy
proxy_lib_name = ldap
proxy_pam_target = sssdproxyldap
enumerate = true
cache_credentials = true
By specifying the options above, authentication requests will be proxied via the /etc/pam.d/
sssdproxyldap file which provides the needed module interfaces.
For more information on the options used in the configuration example above, refer to man
sssd.conf
2. Create a /etc/pam.d/sssdproxyldap file (if not already created) and specify the following
settings in it:
auth
account
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required
required
pam_ldap.so
pam_ldap.so
Troubleshooting
password
session
required
required
pam_ldap.so
pam_ldap.so
3. Edit the /etc/nslcd.conf file (the default configuration file for the LDAP name service daemon)
to include the following settings:
uid nslcd
gid ldap
uri ldaps://ldap.mydomain.org:636
base dc=mydomain,dc=org
ssl on
tls_cacertdir /etc/openldap/cacerts
For more information on the options used in the configuration example above, refer to man
nslcd.conf
9.2.8. Troubleshooting
This section lists some of the issues you may encounter when implementing SSSD, the possible
causes of these issues, and how to resolve them. If you find further issues that are not covered here,
refer to the We Need Feedback section in the Preface for information on how to file a bug report.
9.2.8.1. Using SSSD Log Files
SSSD uses a number of log files to report information about its operation, and this information can
help to resolve issues in the event of SSSD failure or unexpected behavior. The default location for
these log files on Fedora—based systems is the /var/log/sssd/ directory.
SSSD produces a log file for each back end (that is, one log file for each domain specified in the /
etc/sssd/sssd.conf file), as well as an sssd_pam.log and an sssd_nss.log file. This level of
granularity can help you to quickly isolate and resolve any errors or issues you might experience with
SSSD.
You should also examine the /var/log/secure file, which logs authentication failures and the
reason for the failure. For example, if you see Reason 4: System Error reported against any failure,
you should increase the debug level of the log files.
Producing More Verbose Log Files
If you are unable to identify and resolve any problems with SSSD after inspection of the default log
files, you can configure SSSD to produce more verbose files. You can set the debug_level option
in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf for the domain that is causing concern, and then restart SSSD. Refer
to the sssd.conf(5) manual page for more information on how to set the debug_level for a specific
domain.
All log files include timestamps on debug messages by default. This can make it easier to understand
any errors that may occur, why they occurred, and how to address them. If necessary, you can disable
these timestamps by setting the appropriate parameter to FALSE in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file:
--debug-timestamps=FALSE
9.2.8.2. Problems with SSSD Configuration
• SSSD fails to start
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• SSSD requires at least one properly configured domain before the service will start. Without such
a domain, you might see the following error message when trying to start SSSD with the following
command:
# sssd -d4
[sssd] [ldb] (3): server_sort:Unable to register control with rootdse!
[sssd] [confdb_get_domains] (0): No domains configured, fatal error!
[sssd] [get_monitor_config] (0): No domains configured.
You can ignore the "Unable to register control with rootdse!" message, as it is erroneous. The
other messages, however, indicate that SSSD is unable to locate any properly configured
domains.
Edit your /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file and ensure you have at least one properly configured
domain, and then try to start SSSD.
• SSSD requires at least one available service provider before it will start. With no available service
providers, you might see the following error message when trying to start SSSD with the following
command:
# sssd -d4
[sssd] [ldb] (3): server_sort:Unable to register control with rootdse!
[sssd] [get_monitor_config] (0): No services configured!
You can ignore the "Unable to register control with rootdse!" message, as it is erroneous. The
other message, however, indicates that SSSD is unable to locate any available service providers.
Edit your /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file and ensure you have at least one available service
providers, and then try to start SSSD.
Configuring the service providers
SSSD requires that service providers be configured as a comma-separated list in a single
services entry in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file. If services are listed in multiple entries,
only the last entry is recognized by SSSD.
• Refer to the sssd.conf(5) manual page for more options that might assist in troubleshooting issues
with SSSD.
9.2.8.3. Problems with SSSD Service Configuration
9.2.8.3.1. Problems with NSS
This section describes some common problems with NSS, their symptoms, and how to resolve them.
• NSS fails to return user information
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Troubleshooting
• Ensure that NSS is running
# systemctl is-active sssd.service
This command should return results similar to the following:
sssd (pid 21762) is running...
• Ensure that you have correctly configured the [nss] section of the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file.
For example, ensure that you have not misconfigured the filter_users or filter_groups
attributes. Refer to the NSS configuration options section of the sssd.conf(5) manual page for
information on how to configure these attributes.
• Ensure that you have included nss in the list of services that sssd should start
• Ensure that you have correctly configured the /etc/nsswitch.conf file. Refer to the section
Section 9.2.3.2.1, “Configuring NSS” for information on how to correctly configure this file.
9.2.8.3.2. Problems with PAM
This section describes some common problems with PAM, their symptoms, and how to resolve them.
• Setting the password for the local SSSD user prompts twice for the password
When attempting to change a local SSSD user's password, you might see output similar to the
following:
[root@clientF11 tmp]# passwd user1000
Changing password for user user1000.
New password:
Retype new password:
New Password:
Reenter new Password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
This is the result of an incorrect PAM configuration. Refer to Section 9.2.3.2.2, “Configuring PAM”,
and ensure that the use_authtok option is correctly configured in your /etc/pam.d/systemauth file.
9.2.8.3.3. Problems with NFS and NSCD
SSSD is not designed to be used with the nscd daemon, and will likely generate warnings in the
SSSD log files. Even though SSSD does not directly conflict with nscd, the use of both at the same
time can result in unexpected behavior (specifically with how long entries are being cached).
If you are using Network Manager to manage your network connections, it may take several minutes
for the network interface to come up. During this time, various services will attempt to start. If these
services start before the network is up (that is, the DNS servers cannot yet be reached) they will
fail to identify the forward or reverse DNS entries they might need. These services will be reading
an incorrect or possibly empty resolv.conf file. This file is typically only read once, and so any
changes made to this file are not automatically applied.
This can result in the failure of some system services, and in particular can cause NFS locking to fail
on the machine where the nscd service is running, unless that service is manually restarted.
One method of working around this problem is to enable caching for hosts and services in the /
etc/nscd.conf file, and to rely on the SSSD cache for the passwd and group entries. With nscd
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answering hosts and services requests, these entries would have been cached and returned by
nscd during the boot process.
NSCD and later versions of SSSD
Later versions of SSSD should negate any need for NSCD.
9.2.8.4. Problems with SSSD Domain Configuration
• NSS returns incorrect user information
• If your search for user information returns incorrect data, ensure that you do not have conflicting
usernames in separate domains. If you use multiple domains, it is recommended that you set the
use_fully_qualified_domains attribute to TRUE in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file.
9.2.8.5. Additional Resources
9.2.8.5.1. Manual Pages
SSSD ships with a number of manual pages, all of which provide additional information about specific
aspects of SSSD, such as configuration files, commands, and available options. SSSD currently
provides the following manual pages:
• sssd.conf(5)
• sssd-ipa(5)
• sssd-krb5(5)
• sssd-ldap(5)
• sssd(8)
• sssd_krb5_locator_plugin(8)
• pam_sss(8)
You should refer to these manual pages for detailed information about all aspects of SSSD, its
configuration, and associated tools and commands.
9.2.8.5.2. Mailing Lists
You can subscribe to the SSSD mailing list to follow and become involved in the development of
SSSD, or to ask questions about any issues you may be experiencing with your SSSD deployment.
Visit https://fedorahosted.org/mailman/listinfo/sssd-devel to subscribe to this mailing list.
9.2.9. SSSD Configuration File Format
The following listing describes the current version (Version 2) of the SSSD configuration file format.
[sssd]
config_file_version = 2
services = nss, pam
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domains = mybox.example.com, ldap.example.com, ipa.example.com, nis.example.com
# sbus_timeout = 300
[nss]
nss_filter_groups = root
nss_filter_users = root
nss_entry_cache_timeout = 30
nss_enum_cache_timeout = 30
[domain/mybox.example.com]
domain_type = local
enumerate = true
min_id = 1000
# max_id = 2000
local_default_shell = /bin/bash
local_default_homedir = /home
#
#
#
#
#
Possible overrides
id_provider = local
auth_provider = local
authz_provider = local
passwd_provider = local
[domain/ldap.example.com]
domain_type = ldap
server = ldap.example.com, ldap3.example.com, 10.0.0.2
# ldap_uri = ldaps://ldap.example.com:9093
# ldap_use_tls = ssl
ldap_search_base = dc=ldap,dc=example,dc=com
enumerate = false
#
#
#
#
#
#
Possible overrides
id_provider = ldap
id_server = ldap2.example.com
auth_provider = krb5
auth_server = krb5.example.com
krb5_realm = KRB5.EXAMPLE.COM
[domain/ipa.example.com]
domain_type = ipa
server = ipa.example.com, ipa2.example.com
enumerate = false
#
#
#
#
#
#
Possible overrides
id_provider = ldap
id_server = ldap2.example.com
auth_provider = krb5
auth_server = krb5.example.com
krb5_realm = KRB5.EXAMPLE.COM
[domain/nis.example.com]
id_provider = proxy
proxy_lib = nis
auth_provider = proxy
proxy_auth_target = nis_pam_proxy
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Chapter 10.
OpenSSH
SSH (Secure Shell) is a protocol which facilitates secure communications between two systems using
a client/server architecture and allows users to log into server host systems remotely. Unlike other
remote communication protocols, such as FTP or Telnet, SSH encrypts the login session, rendering
the connection difficult for intruders to collect unencrypted passwords.
The ssh program is designed to replace older, less secure terminal applications used to log into
remote hosts, such as telnet or rsh. A related program called scp replaces older programs
designed to copy files between hosts, such as rcp. Because these older applications do not encrypt
passwords transmitted between the client and the server, avoid them whenever possible. Using
secure methods to log into remote systems decreases the risks for both the client system and the
remote host.
Fedora includes the general OpenSSH package (openssh) as well as the OpenSSH server (opensshserver) and client (openssh-clients) packages. Note that the OpenSSH packages require the
OpenSSL package (openssl), which installs several important cryptographic libraries, enabling
OpenSSH to provide encrypted communications.
10.1. The SSH Protocol
10.1.1. Why Use SSH?
Potential intruders have a variety of tools at their disposal enabling them to disrupt, intercept, and reroute network traffic in an effort to gain access to a system. In general terms, these threats can be
categorized as follows:
Interception of communication between two systems
The attacker can be somewhere on the network between the communicating parties, copying
any information passed between them. He may intercept and keep the information, or alter the
information and send it on to the intended recipient.
This attack is usually performed using a packet sniffer, a rather common network utility that
captures each packet flowing through the network, and analyzes its content.
Impersonation of a particular host
Attacker's system is configured to pose as the intended recipient of a transmission. If this strategy
works, the user's system remains unaware that it is communicating with the wrong host.
This attack can be performed using a technique known as DNS poisoning, or via so-called IP
spoofing. In the first case, the intruder uses a cracked DNS server to point client systems to a
maliciously duplicated host. In the second case, the intruder sends falsified network packets that
appear to be from a trusted host.
Both techniques intercept potentially sensitive information and, if the interception is made for hostile
reasons, the results can be disastrous. If SSH is used for remote shell login and file copying, these
security threats can be greatly diminished. This is because the SSH client and server use digital
signatures to verify their identity. Additionally, all communication between the client and server
systems is encrypted. Attempts to spoof the identity of either side of a communication does not work,
since each packet is encrypted using a key known only by the local and remote systems.
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10.1.2. Main Features
The SSH protocol provides the following safeguards:
No one can pose as the intended server
After an initial connection, the client can verify that it is connecting to the same server it had
connected to previously.
No one can capture the authentication information
The client transmits its authentication information to the server using strong, 128-bit encryption.
No one can intercept the communication
All data sent and received during a session is transferred using 128-bit encryption, making
intercepted transmissions extremely difficult to decrypt and read.
Additionally, it also offers the following options:
It provides secure means to use graphical applications over a network
Using a technique called X11 forwarding, the client can forward X11 (X Window System)
applications from the server.
It provides a way to secure otherwise insecure protocols
The SSH protocol encrypts everything it sends and receives. Using a technique called port
forwarding, an SSH server can become a conduit to securing otherwise insecure protocols, like
POP, and increasing overall system and data security.
It can be used to create a secure channel
The OpenSSH server and client can be configured to create a tunnel similar to a virtual private
network for traffic between server and client machines.
It supports the Kerberos authentication
OpenSSH servers and clients can be configured to authenticate using the GSSAPI (Generic
Security Services Application Program Interface) implementation of the Kerberos network
authentication protocol.
10.1.3. Protocol Versions
Two varieties of SSH currently exist: version 1, and newer version 2. The OpenSSH suite under
Fedora uses SSH version 2, which has an enhanced key exchange algorithm not vulnerable to the
known exploit in version 1. However, for compatibility reasons, the OpenSSH suite does support
version 1 connections as well.
Avoid using SSH version 1
To ensure maximum security for your connection, it is recommended that only SSH version 2compatible servers and clients are used whenever possible.
10.1.4. Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
The following series of events help protect the integrity of SSH communication between two hosts.
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Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
1. A cryptographic handshake is made so that the client can verify that it is communicating with the
correct server.
2. The transport layer of the connection between the client and remote host is encrypted using a
symmetric cipher.
3. The client authenticates itself to the server.
4. The remote client interacts with the remote host over the encrypted connection.
10.1.4.1. Transport Layer
The primary role of the transport layer is to facilitate safe and secure communication between
the two hosts at the time of authentication and during subsequent communication. The transport
layer accomplishes this by handling the encryption and decryption of data, and by providing
integrity protection of data packets as they are sent and received. The transport layer also provides
compression, speeding the transfer of information.
Once an SSH client contacts a server, key information is exchanged so that the two systems can
correctly construct the transport layer. The following steps occur during this exchange:
• Keys are exchanged
• The public key encryption algorithm is determined
• The symmetric encryption algorithm is determined
• The message authentication algorithm is determined
• The hash algorithm is determined
During the key exchange, the server identifies itself to the client with a unique host key. If the client
has never communicated with this particular server before, the server's host key is unknown to the
client and it does not connect. OpenSSH gets around this problem by accepting the server's host
key. This is done after the user is notified and has both accepted and verified the new host key. In
subsequent connections, the server's host key is checked against the saved version on the client,
providing confidence that the client is indeed communicating with the intended server. If, in the future,
the host key no longer matches, the user must remove the client's saved version before a connection
can occur.
Always verify the integrity of a new SSH server
It is possible for an attacker to masquerade as an SSH server during the initial contact since the
local system does not know the difference between the intended server and a false one set up by
an attacker. To help prevent this, verify the integrity of a new SSH server by contacting the server
administrator before connecting for the first time or in the event of a host key mismatch.
SSH is designed to work with almost any kind of public key algorithm or encoding format. After an
initial key exchange creates a hash value used for exchanges and a shared secret value, the two
systems immediately begin calculating new keys and algorithms to protect authentication and future
data sent over the connection.
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After a certain amount of data has been transmitted using a given key and algorithm (the exact
amount depends on the SSH implementation), another key exchange occurs, generating another set
of hash values and a new shared secret value. Even if an attacker is able to determine the hash and
shared secret value, this information is only useful for a limited period of time.
10.1.4.2. Authentication
Once the transport layer has constructed a secure tunnel to pass information between the two
systems, the server tells the client the different authentication methods supported, such as using a
private key-encoded signature or typing a password. The client then tries to authenticate itself to the
server using one of these supported methods.
SSH servers and clients can be configured to allow different types of authentication, which gives each
side the optimal amount of control. The server can decide which encryption methods it supports based
on its security model, and the client can choose the order of authentication methods to attempt from
the available options.
10.1.4.3. Channels
After a successful authentication over the SSH transport layer, multiple channels are opened via a
1
technique called multiplexing . Each of these channels handles communication for different terminal
sessions and for forwarded X11 sessions.
Both clients and servers can create a new channel. Each channel is then assigned a different number
on each end of the connection. When the client attempts to open a new channel, the clients sends
the channel number along with the request. This information is stored by the server and is used to
direct communication to that channel. This is done so that different types of sessions do not affect
one another and so that when a given session ends, its channel can be closed without disrupting the
primary SSH connection.
Channels also support flow-control, which allows them to send and receive data in an orderly fashion.
In this way, data is not sent over the channel until the client receives a message that the channel is
open.
The client and server negotiate the characteristics of each channel automatically, depending on the
type of service the client requests and the way the user is connected to the network. This allows
great flexibility in handling different types of remote connections without having to change the basic
infrastructure of the protocol.
10.2. An OpenSSH Configuration
In order to perform tasks described in this section, you must have superuser privileges. To obtain
them, log in as root by typing:
su -
10.2.1. Configuration Files
1
A multiplexed connection consists of several signals being sent over a shared, common medium. With SSH, different channels
are sent over a common secure connection.
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Configuration Files
There are two different sets of configuration files: those for client programs (that is, ssh, scp, and
sftp), and those for the server (the sshd daemon).
System-wide SSH configuration information is stored in the /etc/ssh/ directory. See Table 10.1,
“System-wide configuration files” for a description of its content.
Table 10.1. System-wide configuration files
Configuration File
Description
/etc/ssh/moduli
Contains Diffie-Hellman groups used for the Diffie-Hellman key
exchange which is critical for constructing a secure transport
layer. When keys are exchanged at the beginning of an SSH
session, a shared, secret value is created which cannot be
determined by either party alone. This value is then used to
provide host authentication.
/etc/ssh/ssh_config
The default SSH client configuration file. Note that it is
overridden by ~/.ssh/config if it exists.
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
The configuration file for the sshd daemon.
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
The DSA private key used by the sshd daemon.
/etc/ssh/
ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
The DSA public key used by the sshd daemon.
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
The RSA private key used by the sshd daemon for version 1
of the SSH protocol.
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
The RSA public key used by the sshd daemon for version 1 of
the SSH protocol.
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
The RSA private key used by the sshd daemon for version 2
of the SSH protocol.
/etc/ssh/
ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
The RSA public key used by the sshd for version 2 of the SSH
protocol.
User-specific SSH configuration information is stored in the user's home directory within the ~/.ssh/
directory. See Table 10.2, “User-specific configuration files” for a description of its content.
Table 10.2. User-specific configuration files
Configuration File
Description
~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Holds a list of authorized public keys for servers. When the
client connects to a server, the server authenticates the client
by checking its signed public key stored within this file.
~/.ssh/id_dsa
Contains the DSA private key of the user.
~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
The DSA public key of the user.
~/.ssh/id_rsa
The RSA private key used by ssh for version 2 of the SSH
protocol.
~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
The RSA public key used by ssh for version 2 of the SSH
protocol
~/.ssh/identity
The RSA private key used by ssh for version 1 of the SSH
protocol.
~/.ssh/identity.pub
The RSA public key used by ssh for version 1 of the SSH
protocol.
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Configuration File
Description
~/.ssh/known_hosts
Contains DSA host keys of SSH servers accessed by the user.
This file is very important for ensuring that the SSH client is
connecting the correct SSH server.
Refer to the ssh_config and sshd_config man pages for information concerning the various
directives available in the SSH configuration files.
10.2.2. Starting an OpenSSH Server
Make sure you have relevant packages installed
To run an OpenSSH server, you must have the openssh-server and openssh packages installed.
Refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing Packages” for more information on how to install new packages
in Fedora.
To start the sshd daemon, type the following at a shell prompt:
systemctl start sshd.service
To stop the running sshd daemon, use the following command:
systemctl stop sshd.service
If you want the daemon to start automatically at the boot time, type:
systemctl enable sshd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
Note that if you reinstall the system, a new set of identification keys will be created. As a result, clients
who had connected to the system with any of the OpenSSH tools before the reinstall will see the
following message:
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@
WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!
@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed.
To prevent this, you can back up the relevant files from the /etc/ssh/ directory (see Table 10.1,
“System-wide configuration files” for a complete list), and restore them whenever you reinstall the
system.
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Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
10.2.3. Requiring SSH for Remote Connections
For SSH to be truly effective, using insecure connection protocols should be prohibited. Otherwise, a
user's password may be protected using SSH for one session, only to be captured later while logging
in using Telnet. Some services to disable include telnet, rsh, rlogin, and vsftpd.
To make sure these services are not running, type the following commands at a shell prompt:
systemctl
systemctl
systemctl
systemctl
stop
stop
stop
stop
telnet.service
rsh.service
rlogin.service
vsftpd.service
To disable running these services at startup, type:
systemctl
systemctl
systemctl
systemctl
disable
disable
disable
disable
telnet.service
rsh.service
rlogin.service
vsftpd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
10.2.4. Using a Key-Based Authentication
To improve the system security even further, you can enforce the key-based authentication by
disabling the standard password authentication. To do so, open the /etc/ssh/sshd_config
configuration file in a text editor, and change the PasswordAuthentication option as follows:
PasswordAuthentication no
To be able to use ssh, scp, or sftp to connect to the server from a client machine, generate an
authorization key pair by following the steps below. Note that keys must be generated for each user
separately.
Fedora 17 uses SSH Protocol 2 and RSA keys by default (see Section 10.1.3, “Protocol Versions” for
more information).
Do not generate key pairs as root
If you complete the steps as root, only root will be able to use the keys.
Backup your ~/.ssh/ directory
If you reinstall your system and want to keep previously generated key pair, backup the ~/.ssh/
directory. After reinstalling, copy it back to your home directory. This process can be done for all
users on your system, including root.
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10.2.4.1. Generating Key Pairs
To generate an RSA key pair for version 2 of the SSH protocol, follow these steps:
1.
Generate an RSA key pair by typing the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/john/.ssh/id_rsa):
2.
Press Enter to confirm the default location (that is, ~/.ssh/id_rsa) for the newly created key.
3.
Enter a passphrase, and confirm it by entering it again when prompted to do so. For security
reasons, avoid using the same password as you use to log in to your account.
After this, you will be presented with a message similar to this:
Your identification has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
e7:97:c7:e2:0e:f9:0e:fc:c4:d7:cb:e5:31:11:92:14 john@penguin.example.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|
E. |
|
. . |
|
o . |
|
. .|
|
S .
. |
|
+ o o ..|
|
* * +oo|
|
O +..=|
|
o* o.|
+-----------------+
4.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/ directory:
~]$ chmod 755 ~/.ssh
5.
Copy the content of ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the machine
to which you want to connect, appending it to its end if the file already exists.
6.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file using the following command:
~]$ chmod 644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
To generate a DSA key pair for version 2 of the SSH protocol, follow these steps:
1.
Generate a DSA key pair by typing the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ ssh-keygen -t dsa
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
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Using a Key-Based Authentication
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/john/.ssh/id_dsa):
2.
Press Enter to confirm the default location (that is, ~/.ssh/id_dsa) for the newly created key.
3.
Enter a passphrase, and confirm it by entering it again when prompted to do so. For security
reasons, avoid using the same password as you use to log in to your account.
After this, you will be presented with a message similar to this:
Your identification has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/id_dsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/id_dsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
81:a1:91:a8:9f:e8:c5:66:0d:54:f5:90:cc:bc:cc:27 john@penguin.example.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ DSA 1024]----+
|
.oo*o.
|
| ...o Bo
|
| .. . + o.
|
|. .
E o
|
| o..o
S
|
|. o= .
|
|. +
|
| .
|
|
|
+-----------------+
4.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/ directory:
~]$ chmod 775 ~/.ssh
5.
Copy the content of ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the machine
to which you want to connect, appending it to its end if the file already exists.
6.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file using the following command:
~]$ chmod 644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
To generate an RSA key pair for version 1 of the SSH protocol, follow these steps:
1.
Generate an RSA key pair by typing the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ ssh-keygen -t rsa1
Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/john/.ssh/identity):
2.
Press Enter to confirm the default location (that is, ~/.ssh/identity) for the newly created
key.
3.
Enter a passphrase, and confirm it by entering it again when prompted to do so. For security
reasons, avoid using the same password as you use to log into your account.
After this, you will be presented with a message similar to this:
Your identification has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/identity.
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Chapter 10. OpenSSH
Your public key has been saved in /home/john/.ssh/identity.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
cb:f6:d5:cb:6e:5f:2b:28:ac:17:0c:e4:62:e4:6f:59 john@penguin.example.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[RSA1 2048]----+
|
|
|
. .
|
|
o o
|
|
+ o E
|
|
. o S
|
|
= +
.
|
|
. = . o . .|
|
. = o o..o|
|
.o o o=o.|
+-----------------+
4.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/ directory:
~]$ chmod 755 ~/.ssh
5.
Copy the content of ~/.ssh/identity.pub into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the
machine to which you want to connect, appending it to its end if the file already exists.
6.
Change the permissions of the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file using the following command:
~]$ chmod 644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Refer to Section 10.2.4.2, “Configuring ssh-agent” for information on how to set up your system to
remember the passphrase.
Never share your private key
The private key is for your personal use only, and it is important that you never give it to anyone.
10.2.4.2. Configuring ssh-agent
To store your passphrase so that you do not have to enter it each time you initiate a connection with
a remote machine, you can use the ssh-agent authentication agent. To save your passphrase for a
certain shell prompt, use the following command:
~]$ ssh-add
Enter passphrase for /home/john/.ssh/id_rsa:
Note that when you log out, your passphrase will be forgotten. You must execute the command each
time you log in to a virtual console or a terminal window.
10.3. OpenSSH Clients
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Using the ssh Utility
Make sure you have relevant packages installed
To connect to an OpenSSH server from a client machine, you must have the openssh-clients and
openssh packages installed. Refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing Packages” for more information on
how to install new packages in Fedora.
10.3.1. Using the ssh Utility
ssh allows you to log in to a remote machine and execute commands there. It is a secure replacement
for the rlogin, rsh, and telnet programs.
Similarly to telnet, to log in to a remote machine named penguin.example.com, type the
following command at a shell prompt:
~]$ ssh penguin.example.com
This will log you in with the same username you are using on a local machine. If you want to specify
a different one, use a command in the ssh username@hostname form. For example, to log in as
john, type:
~]$ ssh john@penguin.example.com
The first time you initiate a connection, you will be presented with a message similar to this:
The authenticity of host 'penguin.example.com' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 94:68:3a:3a:bc:f3:9a:9b:01:5d:b3:07:38:e2:11:0c.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Type yes to confirm. You will see a notice that the server has been added to the list of known hosts,
and a prompt asking for your password:
Warning: Permanently added 'penguin.example.com' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
john@penguin.example.com's password:
Updating the host key of an SSH server
If the SSH server's host key changes, the client notifies the user that the connection cannot
proceed until the server's host key is deleted from the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. To do so,
open the file in a text editor, and remove a line containing the remote machine name at the
beginning. Before doing this, however, contact the system administrator of the SSH server to
verify the server is not compromised.
After entering the password, you will be provided with a shell prompt for the remote machine.
Alternatively, the ssh program can be used to execute a command on the remote machine without
logging in to a shell prompt. The syntax for that is ssh [username@]hostname command. For
example, if you want to execute the whoami command on penguin.example.com, type:
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Chapter 10. OpenSSH
~]$ ssh john@penguin.example.com whoami
john@penguin.example.com's password:
john
After you enter the correct password, the username will be displayed, and you will return to your local
shell prompt.
10.3.2. Using the scp Utility
scp can be used to transfer files between machines over a secure, encrypted connection. In its
design, it is very similar to rcp.
To transfer a local file to a remote system, use a command in the following form:
scp localfile username@hostname:remotefile
For example, if you want to transfer taglist.vim to a remote machine named
penguin.example.com, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]$ scp taglist.vim john@penguin.example.com:.vim/plugin/taglist.vim
john@penguin.example.com's password:
taglist.vim
100% 144KB 144.5KB/s
00:00
Multiple files can be specified at once. To transfer the contents of .vim/plugin/ to the same
directory on the remote machine penguin.example.com, type the following command:
~]$ scp .vim/plugin/* john@penguin.example.com:.vim/plugin/
john@penguin.example.com's password:
closetag.vim
100%
13KB 12.6KB/s
snippetsEmu.vim
100%
33KB 33.1KB/s
taglist.vim
100% 144KB 144.5KB/s
00:00
00:00
00:00
To transfer a remote file to the local system, use the following syntax:
scp username@hostname:remotefile localfile
For instance, to download the .vimrc configuration file from the remote machine, type:
~]$ scp john@penguin.example.com:.vimrc .vimrc
john@penguin.example.com's password:
.vimrc
100% 2233
2.2KB/s
00:00
10.3.3. Using the sftp Utility
The sftp utility can be used to open a secure, interactive FTP session. In its design, it is similar to
ftp except that it uses a secure, encrypted connection.
To connect to a remote system, use a command in the following form:
sftp username@hostname
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More Than a Secure Shell
For example, to log in to a remote machine named penguin.example.com with john as a
username, type:
~]$ sftp john@penguin.example.com
john@penguin.example.com's password:
Connected to penguin.example.com.
sftp>
After you enter the correct password, you will be presented with a prompt. The sftp utility accepts
a set of commands similar to those used by ftp (see Table 10.3, “A selection of available sftp
commands”).
Table 10.3. A selection of available sftp commands
Command
Description
ls [directory]
List the content of a remote directory. If none is supplied, a
current working directory is used by default.
cd directory
Change the remote working directory to directory.
mkdir directory
Create a remote directory.
rmdir path
Remove a remote directory.
put localfile [remotefile]
Transfer localfile to a remote machine.
get remotefile [localfile]
Transfer remotefile from a remote machine.
For a complete list of available commands, refer to the sftp man page.
10.4. More Than a Secure Shell
A secure command line interface is just the beginning of the many ways SSH can be used. Given the
proper amount of bandwidth, X11 sessions can be directed over an SSH channel. Or, by using TCP/
IP forwarding, previously insecure port connections between systems can be mapped to specific SSH
channels.
10.4.1. X11 Forwarding
To open an X11 session over an SSH connection, use a command in the following form:
ssh -Y username@hostname
For example, to log in to a remote machine named penguin.example.com with john as a
username, type:
~]$ ssh -Y john@penguin.example.com
john@penguin.example.com's password:
When an X program is run from the secure shell prompt, the SSH client and server create a new
secure channel, and the X program data is sent over that channel to the client machine transparently.
X11 forwarding can be very useful. For example, X11 forwarding can be used to create a secure,
interactive session of the Printer Configuration utility. To do this, connect to the server using ssh and
type:
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Chapter 10. OpenSSH
~]$ system-config-printer &
The Printer Configuration Tool will appear, allowing the remote user to safely configure printing on
the remote system.
10.4.2. Port Forwarding
SSH can secure otherwise insecure TCP/IP protocols via port forwarding. When using this technique,
the SSH server becomes an encrypted conduit to the SSH client.
Port forwarding works by mapping a local port on the client to a remote port on the server. SSH can
map any port from the server to any port on the client. Port numbers do not need to match for this
technique to work.
Using reserved port numbers
Setting up port forwarding to listen on ports below 1024 requires root level access.
To create a TCP/IP port forwarding channel which listens for connections on the localhost, use a
command in the following form:
ssh -L local-port:remote-hostname:remote-port username@hostname
For example, to check email on a server called mail.example.com using POP3 through an
encrypted connection, use the following command:
~]$ ssh -L 1100:mail.example.com:110 mail.example.com
Once the port forwarding channel is in place between the client machine and the mail server, direct a
POP3 mail client to use port 1100 on the localhost to check for new email. Any requests sent to
port 1100 on the client system will be directed securely to the mail.example.com server.
If mail.example.com is not running an SSH server, but another machine on the same network
is, SSH can still be used to secure part of the connection. However, a slightly different command is
necessary:
~]$ ssh -L 1100:mail.example.com:110 other.example.com
In this example, POP3 requests from port 1100 on the client machine are forwarded through the
SSH connection on port 22 to the SSH server, other.example.com. Then, other.example.com
connects to port 110 on mail.example.com to check for new email. Note that when using this
technique, only the connection between the client system and other.example.com SSH server is
secure.
Port forwarding can also be used to get information securely through network firewalls. If the firewall
is configured to allow SSH traffic via its standard port (that is, port 22) but blocks access to other
ports, a connection between two hosts using the blocked ports is still possible by redirecting their
communication over an established SSH connection.
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Additional Resources
A connection is only as secure as a client system
Using port forwarding to forward connections in this manner allows any user on the client system
to connect to that service. If the client system becomes compromised, the attacker also has
access to forwarded services.
System administrators concerned about port forwarding can disable this functionality on the
server by specifying a No parameter for the AllowTcpForwarding line in /etc/ssh/
sshd_config and restarting the sshd service.
10.5. Additional Resources
The OpenSSH and OpenSSL projects are in constant development, and the most up-to-date
information for them is available from their websites. The man pages for OpenSSH and OpenSSL
tools are also good sources of detailed information.
10.5.1. Installed Documentation
man ssh
The manual page for ssh containing the full documentation on its usage.
man scp
The manual page for scp containing the full documentation on its usage.
man sftp
The manual page for sftp containing the full documentation on its usage.
man sshd
The manual page for sshd containing the full documentation on its usage.
man ssh-keygen
The manual page for ssh-keygen containing the full documentation on its usage.
man ssh_config
The manual page with full description of available SSH client configuration options.
man sshd_config
The manual page with full description of available SSH daemon configuration options.
10.5.2. Useful Websites
http://www.openssh.com/
The OpenSSH home page containing further documentation, frequently asked questions, links to
the mailing lists, bug reports, and other useful resources.
http://www.openssl.org/
The OpenSSL home page containing further documentation, frequently asked questions, links to
the mailing lists, and other useful resources.
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Chapter 10. OpenSSH
http://www.freesshd.com/
Another implementation of an SSH server.
184
Part V. Servers
This part discusses various topics related to servers such as how to set up a Web server or share files
and directories over the network.
Chapter 11.
DHCP Servers
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that automatically assigns TCP/
IP information to client machines. Each DHCP client connects to the centrally located DHCP server,
which returns that client's network configuration (including the IP address, gateway, and DNS servers).
11.1. Why Use DHCP?
DHCP is useful for automatic configuration of client network interfaces. When configuring the client
system, the administrator chooses DHCP instead of specifying an IP address, netmask, gateway, or
DNS servers. The client retrieves this information from the DHCP server. DHCP is also useful if an
administrator wants to change the IP addresses of a large number of systems. Instead of reconfiguring
all the systems, he can just edit one DHCP configuration file on the server for the new set of IP
addresses. If the DNS servers for an organization changes, the changes are made on the DHCP
server, not on the DHCP clients. When the administrator restarts the network or reboots the clients,
the changes will go into effect.
If an organization has a functional DHCP server properly connected to a network, laptops and other
mobile computer users can move these devices from office to office.
11.2. Configuring a DHCP Server
The dhcp package contains an ISC DHCP server. First, install the package as root:
yum install dhcp
Installing the dhcp package creates a file, /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf, which is merely an empty
configuration file:
#
# DHCP Server Configuration file.
#
see /usr/share/doc/dhcp*/dhcpd.conf.sample
#
see dhcpd.conf(5) man page
#
The sample configuration file can be found at /usr/share/doc/dhcp-version/
dhcpd.conf.sample. You should use this file to help you configure /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf,
which is explained in detail below.
DHCP also uses the file /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases to store the client lease database. Refer
to Section 11.2.2, “Lease Database” for more information.
11.2.1. Configuration File
The first step in configuring a DHCP server is to create the configuration file that stores the network
information for the clients. Use this file to declare options and global options for client systems.
The configuration file can contain extra tabs or blank lines for easier formatting. Keywords are caseinsensitive and lines beginning with a hash sign (#) are considered comments.
There are two types of statements in the configuration file:
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Chapter 11. DHCP Servers
• Parameters — State how to perform a task, whether to perform a task, or what network
configuration options to send to the client.
• Declarations — Describe the topology of the network, describe the clients, provide addresses for the
clients, or apply a group of parameters to a group of declarations.
The parameters that start with the keyword option are referred to as options. These options control
DHCP options; whereas, parameters configure values that are not optional or control how the DHCP
server behaves.
Parameters (including options) declared before a section enclosed in curly brackets ({ }) are
considered global parameters. Global parameters apply to all the sections below it.
Restart the DHCP daemon for the changes to take effect
If the configuration file is changed, the changes do not take effect until the DHCP daemon is
restarted. To do so, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl restart dhcpd.service
Use the omshell command
Instead of changing a DHCP configuration file and restarting the service each time, using
the omshell command provides an interactive way to connect to, query, and change the
configuration of a DHCP server. By using omshell, all changes can be made while the server is
running. For more information on omshell, refer to the omshell man page.
In Example 11.1, “Subnet declaration”, the routers, subnet-mask, domain-search, domainname-servers, and time-offset options are used for any host statements declared below it.
Additionally, a subnet can be declared, a subnet declaration must be included for every subnet in
the network. If it is not, the DHCP server fails to start.
In this example, there are global options for every DHCP client in the subnet and a range declared.
Clients are assigned an IP address within the range.
Example 11.1. Subnet declaration
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option routers
192.168.1.254;
option subnet-mask
255.255.255.0;
option domain-search
"example.com";
option domain-name-servers
192.168.1.1;
option time-offset
-18000;
# Eastern Standard Time
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;
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Configuration File
}
To configure a DHCP server that leases a dynamic IP address to a system within a subnet, modify
Example 11.2, “Range parameter” with your values. It declares a default lease time, maximum lease
time, and network configuration values for the clients. This example assigns IP addresses in the
range 192.168.1.10 and 192.168.1.100 to client systems.
Example 11.2. Range parameter
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
option routers 192.168.1.254;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2;
option domain-search "example.com";
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;
}
To assign an IP address to a client based on the MAC address of the network interface card, use
the hardware ethernet parameter within a host declaration. As demonstrated in Example 11.3,
“Static IP address using DHCP”, the host apex declaration specifies that the network interface card
with the MAC address 00:A0:78:8E:9E:AA always receives the IP address 192.168.1.4.
Note that the optional parameter host-name can also be used to assign a host name to the client.
Example 11.3. Static IP address using DHCP
host apex {
option host-name "apex.example.com";
hardware ethernet 00:A0:78:8E:9E:AA;
fixed-address 192.168.1.4;
}
All subnets that share the same physical network should be declared within a shared-network
declaration as shown in Example 11.4, “Shared-network declaration”. Parameters within the sharednetwork, but outside the enclosed subnet declarations, are considered to be global parameters. The
name of the shared-network must be a descriptive title for the network, such as using the title 'testlab' to describe all the subnets in a test lab environment.
Example 11.4. Shared-network declaration
shared-network name {
option domain-search
"test.redhat.com";
option domain-name-servers
ns1.redhat.com, ns2.redhat.com;
option routers
192.168.0.254;
more parameters for EXAMPLE shared-network
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 {
parameters for subnet
range 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254;
}
subnet 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 {
parameters for subnet
range 192.168.2.1 192.168.2.254;
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}
}
As demonstrated in Example 11.5, “Group declaration”, the group declaration is used to apply global
parameters to a group of declarations. For example, shared networks, subnets, and hosts can be
grouped.
Example 11.5. Group declaration
group {
option routers
192.168.1.254;
option subnet-mask
255.255.255.0;
option domain-search
"example.com";
option domain-name-servers
192.168.1.1;
option time-offset
-18000;
# Eastern Standard Time
host apex {
option host-name "apex.example.com";
hardware ethernet 00:A0:78:8E:9E:AA;
fixed-address 192.168.1.4;
}
host raleigh {
option host-name "raleigh.example.com";
hardware ethernet 00:A1:DD:74:C3:F2;
fixed-address 192.168.1.6;
}
}
Using the sample configuration file
The sample configuration file provided can be used as a starting point and custom configuration
options can be added to it. To copy it to the proper location, use the following command:
cp /usr/share/doc/dhcp-version-number/dhcpd.conf.sample /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
... where version-number is the DHCP version number.
For a complete list of option statements and what they do, refer to the dhcp-options man page.
11.2.2. Lease Database
On the DHCP server, the file /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases stores the DHCP client lease
database. Do not change this file. DHCP lease information for each recently assigned IP address is
automatically stored in the lease database. The information includes the length of the lease, to whom
the IP address has been assigned, the start and end dates for the lease, and the MAC address of the
network interface card that was used to retrieve the lease.
All times in the lease database are in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), not local time.
The lease database is recreated from time to time so that it is not too large. First, all known leases are
saved in a temporary lease database. The dhcpd.leases file is renamed dhcpd.leases~ and the
temporary lease database is written to dhcpd.leases.
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Starting and Stopping the Server
The DHCP daemon could be killed or the system could crash after the lease database has
been renamed to the backup file but before the new file has been written. If this happens, the
dhcpd.leases file does not exist, but it is required to start the service. Do not create a new lease file.
If you do, all old leases are lost which causes many problems. The correct solution is to rename the
dhcpd.leases~ backup file to dhcpd.leases and then start the daemon.
11.2.3. Starting and Stopping the Server
Starting the DHCP server for the first time
When the DHCP server is started for the first time, it fails unless the dhcpd.leases file exists.
Use the command touch /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases to create the file if it does not
exist.
If the same server is also running BIND as a DNS server, this step is not necessary, as starting
the named service automatically checks for a dhcpd.leases file.
To start the DHCP service, use the following command:
systemctl start dhcpd.service
To stop the DHCP server, type:
systemctl stop dhcpd.service
By default, the DHCP service does not start at boot time. To configure the daemon to start
automatically at boot time, run:
systemctl enable dhcpd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
If more than one network interface is attached to the system, but the DHCP server should only be
started on one of the interfaces, configure the DHCP server to start only on that device. In /etc/
sysconfig/dhcpd, add the name of the interface to the list of DHCPDARGS:
# Command line options here
DHCPDARGS=eth0
This is useful for a firewall machine with two network cards. One network card can be configured as a
DHCP client to retrieve an IP address to the Internet. The other network card can be used as a DHCP
server for the internal network behind the firewall. Specifying only the network card connected to the
internal network makes the system more secure because users can not connect to the daemon via the
Internet.
Other command line options that can be specified in /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd include:
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• -p portnum — Specifies the UDP port number on which dhcpd should listen. The default is port
67. The DHCP server transmits responses to the DHCP clients at a port number one greater than
the UDP port specified. For example, if the default port 67 is used, the server listens on port 67 for
requests and responses to the client on port 68. If a port is specified here and the DHCP relay agent
is used, the same port on which the DHCP relay agent should listen must be specified. Refer to
Section 11.2.4, “DHCP Relay Agent” for details.
• -f — Runs the daemon as a foreground process. This is mostly used for debugging.
• -d — Logs the DHCP server daemon to the standard error descriptor. This is mostly used for
debugging. If this is not specified, the log is written to /var/log/messages.
• -cf filename — Specifies the location of the configuration file. The default location is /etc/
dhcp/dhcpd.conf.
• -lf filename — Specifies the location of the lease database file. If a lease database file already
exists, it is very important that the same file be used every time the DHCP server is started. It is
strongly recommended that this option only be used for debugging purposes on non-production
machines. The default location is /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases.
• -q — Do not print the entire copyright message when starting the daemon.
11.2.4. DHCP Relay Agent
The DHCP Relay Agent (dhcrelay) allows for the relay of DHCP and BOOTP requests from a subnet
with no DHCP server on it to one or more DHCP servers on other subnets.
When a DHCP client requests information, the DHCP Relay Agent forwards the request to the list of
DHCP servers specified when the DHCP Relay Agent is started. When a DHCP server returns a reply,
the reply is broadcast or unicast on the network that sent the original request.
The DHCP Relay Agent listens for DHCP requests on all interfaces unless the interfaces are specified
in /etc/sysconfig/dhcrelay with the INTERFACES directive.
To start the DHCP Relay Agent, use the following command:
systemctl start dhcrelay.service
11.3. Configuring a DHCP Client
To configure a DHCP client manually, modify the /etc/sysconfig/network file to enable
networking and the configuration file for each network device in the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts directory. In this directory, each device should have a configuration file named ifcfgeth0, where eth0 is the network device name.
The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file should contain the following lines:
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
ONBOOT=yes
A configuration file is needed for each device to be configured to use DHCP.
Other options for the network script includes:
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• DHCP_HOSTNAME — Only use this option if the DHCP server requires the client to specify a
hostname before receiving an IP address. (The DHCP server daemon in Fedora does not support
this feature.)
• PEERDNS=answer , where answer is one of the following:
• yes — Modify /etc/resolv.conf with information from the server. If using DHCP, then yes is
the default.
• no — Do not modify /etc/resolv.conf.
Advanced configurations
For advanced configurations of client DHCP options such as protocol timing, lease requirements
and requests, dynamic DNS support, aliases, as well as a wide variety of values to override,
prepend, or append to client-side configurations, refer to the dhclient and dhclient.conf
man pages.
11.4. Configuring a Multihomed DHCP Server
A multihomed DHCP server serves multiple networks, that is, multiple subnets. The examples in these
sections detail how to configure a DHCP server to serve multiple networks, select which network
interfaces to listen on, and how to define network settings for systems that move networks.
Before making any changes, back up the existing /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd and /etc/dhcp/
dhcpd.conf files.
The DHCP daemon listens on all network interfaces unless otherwise specified. Use the /etc/
sysconfig/dhcpd file to specify which network interfaces the DHCP daemon listens on. The
following /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd example specifies that the DHCP daemon listens on the eth0
and eth1 interfaces:
DHCPDARGS="eth0 eth1";
If a system has three network interfaces cards -- eth0, eth1, and eth2 -- and it is only desired that
the DHCP daemon listens on eth0, then only specify eth0 in /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd:
DHCPDARGS="eth0";
The following is a basic /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf file, for a server that has two network interfaces,
eth0 in a 10.0.0.0/24 network, and eth1 in a 172.16.0.0/24 network. Multiple subnet declarations
allow different settings to be defined for multiple networks:
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option routers 10.0.0.1;
range 10.0.0.5 10.0.0.15;
}
subnet 172.16.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
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option routers 172.16.0.1;
range 172.16.0.5 172.16.0.15;
}
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0;
A subnet declaration is required for every network your DHCP server is serving. Multiple subnets
require multiple subnet declarations. If the DHCP server does not have a network interface in a
range of a subnet declaration, the DHCP server does not serve that network.
If there is only one subnet declaration, and no network interfaces are in the range of that subnet,
the DHCP daemon fails to start, and an error such as the following is logged to /var/log/
messages:
dhcpd: No subnet declaration for eth0 (0.0.0.0).
dhcpd: ** Ignoring requests on eth0. If this is not what
dhcpd:
you want, please write a subnet declaration
dhcpd:
in your dhcpd.conf file for the network segment
dhcpd:
to which interface eth1 is attached. **
dhcpd:
dhcpd:
dhcpd: Not configured to listen on any interfaces!
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
The option subnet-mask option defines a subnet mask, and overrides the netmask value in
the subnet declaration. In simple cases, the subnet and netmask values are the same.
option routers 10.0.0.1;
The option routers option defines the default gateway for the subnet. This is required for
systems to reach internal networks on a different subnet, as well as external networks.
range 10.0.0.5 10.0.0.15;
The range option specifies the pool of available IP addresses. Systems are assigned an address
from the range of specified IP addresses.
For further information, refer to the dhcpd.conf(5) man page.
Do not use alias interfaces
Alias interfaces are not supported by DHCP. If an alias interface is the only interface, in the only
subnet specified in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf, the DHCP daemon fails to start.
11.4.1. Host Configuration
Before making any changes, back up the existing /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd and /etc/dhcp/
dhcpd.conf files.
Configuring a single system for multiple networks
The following /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf example creates two subnets, and configures an IP address
for the same system, depending on which network it connects to:
default-lease-time 600;
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max-lease-time 7200;
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option routers 10.0.0.1;
range 10.0.0.5 10.0.0.15;
}
subnet 172.16.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option routers 172.16.0.1;
range 172.16.0.5 172.16.0.15;
}
host example0 {
hardware ethernet 00:1A:6B:6A:2E:0B;
fixed-address 10.0.0.20;
}
host example1 {
hardware ethernet 00:1A:6B:6A:2E:0B;
fixed-address 172.16.0.20;
}
host example0
The host declaration defines specific parameters for a single system, such as an IP address. To
configure specific parameters for multiple hosts, use multiple host declarations.
Most DHCP clients ignore the name in host declarations, and as such, this name can anything,
as long as it is unique to other host declarations. To configure the same system for multiple
networks, use a different name for each host declaration, otherwise the DHCP daemon fails
to start. Systems are identified by the hardware ethernet option, not the name in the host
declaration.
hardware ethernet 00:1A:6B:6A:2E:0B;
The hardware ethernet option identifies the system. To find this address, run the ip link
command.
fixed-address 10.0.0.20;
The fixed-address option assigns a valid IP address to the system specified by the hardware
ethernet option. This address must be outside the IP address pool specified with the range
option.
If option statements do not end with a semicolon, the DHCP daemon fails to start, and an error such
as the following is logged to /var/log/messages:
/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf line 20: semicolon expected.
dhcpd: }
dhcpd: ^
dhcpd: /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf line 38: unexpected end of file
dhcpd:
dhcpd: ^
dhcpd: Configuration file errors encountered -- exiting
Configuring systems with multiple network interfaces
The following host declarations configure a single system, that has multiple network interfaces, so
that each interface receives the same IP address. This configuration will not work if both network
interfaces are connected to the same network at the same time:
host interface0 {
hardware ethernet 00:1a:6b:6a:2e:0b;
fixed-address 10.0.0.18;
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}
host interface1 {
hardware ethernet 00:1A:6B:6A:27:3A;
fixed-address 10.0.0.18;
}
For this example, interface0 is the first network interface, and interface1 is the second
interface. The different hardware ethernet options identify each interface.
If such a system connects to another network, add more host declarations, remembering to:
• assign a valid fixed-address for the network the host is connecting to.
• make the name in the host declaration unique.
When a name given in a host declaration is not unique, the DHCP daemon fails to start, and an error
such as the following is logged to /var/log/messages:
dhcpd:
dhcpd:
dhcpd:
dhcpd:
/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf line 31: host interface0: already exists
}
^
Configuration file errors encountered -- exiting
This error was caused by having multiple host interface0 declarations defined in /etc/dhcp/
dhcpd.conf.
11.5. DHCP for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
The ISC DHCP includes support for IPv6 (DHCPv6) since the 4.x release with a DHCPv6 server,
client and relay agent functionality. The server, client and relay agents support both IPv4 and IPv6.
However, the client and the server can only manage one protocol at a time — for dual support they
must be started separately for IPv4 and IPv6.
The DHCPv6 server configuration file can be found at /etc/dhcp/dhcpd6.conf.
The sample server configuration file can be found at /usr/share/doc/dhcp-version/
dhcpd6.conf.sample.
To start the DHCPv6 service, use the following command:
systemctl start dhcpd6.service
A simple DHCPv6 server configuration file can look like this:
subnet6 2001:db8:0:1::/64 {
range6 2001:db8:0:1::129 2001:db8:0:1::254;
option dhcp6.name-servers fec0:0:0:1::1;
option dhcp6.domain-search "domain.example";
}
11.6. Additional Resources
For additional information, refer to The DHCP Handbook; Ralph Droms and Ted Lemon; 2003 or the
following resources.
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Installed Documentation
11.6.1. Installed Documentation
• dhcpd man page — Describes how the DHCP daemon works.
• dhcpd.conf man page — Explains how to configure the DHCP configuration file; includes some
examples.
• dhcpd.leases man page — Describes a persistent database of leases.
• dhcp-options man page — Explains the syntax for declaring DHCP options in dhcpd.conf;
includes some examples.
• dhcrelay man page — Explains the DHCP Relay Agent and its configuration options.
• /usr/share/doc/dhcp-version/ — Contains sample files, README files, and release notes
for current versions of the DHCP service.
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Chapter 12.
DNS Servers
DNS (Domain Name System), also known as a nameserver, is a network system that associates
hostnames with their respective IP addresses. For users, this has the advantage that they can refer to
machines on the network by names that are usually easier to remember than the numerical network
addresses. For system administrators, using the nameserver allows them to change the IP address
for a host without ever affecting the name-based queries, or to decide which machines handle these
queries.
12.1. Introduction to DNS
DNS is usually implemented using one or more centralized servers that are authoritative for
certain domains. When a client host requests information from a nameserver, it usually connects
to port 53. The nameserver then attempts to resolve the name requested. If it does not have an
authoritative answer, or does not already have the answer cached from an earlier query, it queries
other nameservers, called root nameservers, to determine which nameservers are authoritative for the
name in question, and then queries them to get the requested name.
12.1.1. Nameserver Zones
In a DNS server such as BIND, all information is stored in basic data elements called resource records
(RR). The resource record is usually a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a host, and is broken
down into multiple sections organized into a tree-like hierarchy. This hierarchy consists of a main
trunk, primary branches, secondary branches, and so on. The following is an example of a resource
record:
bob.sales.example.com
Each level of the hierarchy is divided by a period (that is, .). In the example above, com defines the
top-level domain, example its subdomain, and sales the subdomain of example. In this case, bob
identifies a resource record that is part of the sales.example.com domain. With the exception of
the part furthest to the left (that is, bob), each of these sections is called a zone and defines a specific
namespace.
Zones are defined on authoritative nameservers through the use of zone files, which contain
definitions of the resource records in each zone. Zone files are stored on primary nameservers (also
called master nameservers), where changes are made to the files, and secondary nameservers (also
called slave nameservers), which receive zone definitions from the primary nameservers. Both primary
and secondary nameservers are authoritative for the zone and look the same to clients. Depending on
the configuration, any nameserver can also serve as a primary or secondary server for multiple zones
at the same time.
12.1.2. Nameserver Types
There are two nameserver configuration types:
authoritative
Authoritative nameservers answer to resource records that are part of their zones only. This
category includes both primary (master) and secondary (slave) nameservers.
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recursive
Recursive nameservers offer resolution services, but they are not authoritative for any zone.
Answers for all resolutions are cached in a memory for a fixed period of time, which is specified by
the retrieved resource record.
Although a nameserver can be both authoritative and recursive at the same time, it is recommended
not to combine the configuration types. To be able to perform their work, authoritative servers should
be available to all clients all the time. On the other hand, since the recursive lookup takes far more
time than authoritative responses, recursive servers should be available to a restricted number of
clients only, otherwise they are prone to distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks.
12.1.3. BIND as a Nameserver
BIND consists of a set of DNS-related programs. It contains a monolithic nameserver called named, an
administration utility called rndc, and a debugging tool called dig. Refer to Chapter 8, Services and
Daemons for more information on how to configure services in Fedora.
12.2. BIND
This chapter covers BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain), the DNS server included in Fedora. It
focuses on the structure of its configuration files, and describes how to administer it both locally and
remotely.
12.2.1. Configuring the named Service
When the named service is started, it reads the configuration from the files as described in Table 12.1,
“The named service configuration files”.
Table 12.1. The named service configuration files
Path
Description
/etc/named.conf
The main configuration file.
/etc/named/
An auxiliary directory for configuration files that are included in
the main configuration file.
The configuration file consists of a collection of statements with nested options surrounded by opening
and closing curly brackets (that is, { and }). Note that when editing the file, you have to be careful not
to make any syntax error, otherwise the named service will not start. A typical /etc/named.conf file
is organized as follows:
statement-1 ["statement-1-name"] [statement-1-class] {
option-1;
option-2;
option-N;
};
statement-2 ["statement-2-name"] [statement-2-class] {
option-1;
option-2;
option-N;
};
statement-N ["statement-N-name"] [statement-N-class] {
option-1;
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Configuring the named Service
option-2;
option-N;
};
Running BIND in a chroot environment
If you have installed the bind-chroot package, the BIND service will run in the /var/named/
chroot environment. In that case, the initialization script will mount the above configuration
files using the mount --bind command, so that you can manage the configuration outside this
environment.
12.2.1.1. Common Statement Types
The following types of statements are commonly used in /etc/named.conf:
acl
The acl (Access Control List) statement allows you to define groups of hosts, so that they can be
permitted or denied access to the nameserver. It takes the following form:
acl acl-name {
match-element;
...
};
The acl-name statement name is the name of the access control list, and the match-element
option is usually an individual IP address (such as 10.0.1.1) or a CIDR network notation (for
example, 10.0.1.0/24). For a list of already defined keywords, see Table 12.2, “Predefined
access control lists”.
Table 12.2. Predefined access control lists
Keyword
Description
any
Matches every IP address.
localhost
Matches any IP address that is in use by the local system.
localnets
Matches any IP address on any network to which the local system is
connected.
none
Does not match any IP address.
The acl statement can be especially useful with conjunction with other statements such as
options. Example 12.1, “Using acl in conjunction with options” defines two access control lists,
black-hats and red-hats, and adds black-hats on the blacklist while granting red-hats a
normal access.
Example 12.1. Using acl in conjunction with options
acl black-hats {
10.0.2.0/24;
192.168.0.0/24;
1234:5678::9abc/24;
};
acl red-hats {
10.0.1.0/24;
};
options {
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blackhole { black-hats; };
allow-query { red-hats; };
allow-query-cache { red-hats; };
};
include
The include statement allows you to include files in the /etc/named.conf, so that potentially
sensitive data can be placed in a separate file with restricted permissions. It takes the following
form:
include "file-name"
The file-name statement name is an absolute path to a file.
Example 12.2. Including a file to /etc/named.conf
include "/etc/named.rfc1912.zones";
options
The options statement allows you to define global server configuration options as well as to set
defaults for other statements. It can be used to specify the location of the named working directory,
the types of queries allowed, and much more. It takes the following form:
options {
option;
...
};
For a list of frequently used option directives, see Table 12.3, “Commonly used options” below.
Table 12.3. Commonly used options
202
Option
Description
allow-query
Specifies which hosts are allowed to query the nameserver for
authoritative resource records. It accepts an access control lists, a
collection of IP addresses, or networks in the CIDR notation. All hosts
are allowed by default.
allow-querycache
Specifies which hosts are allowed to query the nameserver for nonauthoritative data such as recursive queries. Only localhost and
localnets are allowed by default.
blackhole
Specifies which hosts are not allowed to query the nameserver. This
option should be used when particular host or network floods the server
with requests. The default option is none.
directory
Specifies a working directory for the named service. The default option
is /var/named/.
dnssec-enable
Specifies whether to return DNSSEC related resource records. The
default option is yes.
dnssecvalidation
Specifies whether to prove that resource records are authentic via
DNSSEC. The default option is yes.
forwarders
Specifies a list of valid IP addresses for nameservers to which the
requests should be forwarded for resolution.
Configuring the named Service
Option
Description
forward
Specifies the behavior of the forwarders directive. It accepts the
following options:
• first — The server will query the nameservers listed in the
forwarders directive before attempting to resolve the name on its
own.
• only — When unable to query the nameservers listed in the
forwarders directive, the server will not attempt to resolve the
name on its own.
listen-on
Specifies the IPv4 network interface on which to listen for queries. On
a DNS server that also acts as a gateway, you can use this option
to answer queries originating from a single network only. All IPv4
interfaces are used by default.
listen-on-v6
Specifies the IPv6 network interface on which to listen for queries. On
a DNS server that also acts as a gateway, you can use this option
to answer queries originating from a single network only. All IPv6
interfaces are used by default.
max-cache-size
Specifies the maximum amount of memory to be used for server
caches. When the limit is reached, the server causes records to expire
prematurely so that the limit is not exceeded. In a server with multiple
views, the limit applies separately to the cache of each view. The
default option is 32M.
notify
Specifies whether to notify the secondary nameservers when a zone is
updated. It accepts the following options:
• yes — The server will notify all secondary nameservers.
• no — The server will not notify any secondary nameserver.
• master-only — The server will notify primary server for the zone
only.
• explicit — The server will notify only the secondary servers that
are specified in the also-notify list within a zone statement.
pid-file
Specifies the location of the process ID file created by the named
service.
recursion
Specifies whether to act as a recursive server. The default option is
yes.
statistics-file
Specifies an alternate location for statistics files. The /var/named/
named.stats file is used by default.
Restrict recursive servers to selected clients only
To prevent distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, it is recommended that you use the
allow-query-cache option to restrict recursive DNS services for a particular subset of
clients only.
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Refer to the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual referenced in Section 12.2.7.1, “Installed
Documentation”, and the named.conf manual page for a complete list of available options.
Example 12.3. Using the options statement
options {
allow-query
listen-on port
listen-on-v6 port
max-cache-size
directory
statistics-file
{ localhost; };
53 { 127.0.0.1; };
53 { ::1; };
256M;
"/var/named";
"/var/named/data/named_stats.txt";
recursion
yes;
dnssec-enable
yes;
dnssec-validation yes;
};
zone
The zone statement allows you to define the characteristics of a zone, such as the location of
its configuration file and zone-specific options, and can be used to override the global options
statements. It takes the following form:
zone zone-name [zone-class] {
option;
...
};
The zone-name attribute is the name of the zone, zone-class is the optional class of the zone,
and option is a zone statement option as described in Table 12.4, “Commonly used options”.
The zone-name attribute is particularly important, as it is the default value assigned for the
$ORIGIN directive used within the corresponding zone file located in the /var/named/ directory.
The named daemon appends the name of the zone to any non-fully qualified domain name listed
in the zone file. For example, if a zone statement defines the namespace for example.com,
use example.com as the zone-name so that it is placed at the end of hostnames within the
example.com zone file.
For more information about zone files, refer to Section 12.2.2, “Editing Zone Files”.
Table 12.4. Commonly used options
Option
Description
allow-query
Specifies which clients are allowed to request information about this
zone. This option overrides global allow-query option. All query
requests are allowed by default.
allow-transfer
Specifies which secondary servers are allowed to request a transfer of
the zone's information. All transfer requests are allowed by default.
allow-update
Specifies which hosts are allowed to dynamically update information in
their zone. The default option is to deny all dynamic update requests.
Note that you should be careful when allowing hosts to update
information about their zone. Do not set IP addresses in this option
unless the server is in the trusted network. Instead, use TSIG key as
described in Section 12.2.5.3, “Transaction SIGnatures (TSIG)”.
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Option
Description
file
Specifies the name of the file in the named working directory that
contains the zone's configuration data.
masters
Specifies from which IP addresses to request authoritative zone
information. This option is used only if the zone is defined as type
slave.
notify
Specifies whether to notify the secondary nameservers when a zone is
updated. It accepts the following options:
• yes — The server will notify all secondary nameservers.
• no — The server will not notify any secondary nameserver.
• master-only — The server will notify primary server for the zone
only.
• explicit — The server will notify only the secondary servers that
are specified in the also-notify list within a zone statement.
type
Specifies the zone type. It accepts the following options:
• delegation-only — Enforces the delegation status of
infrastructure zones such as COM, NET, or ORG. Any answer that
is received without an explicit or implicit delegation is treated as
NXDOMAIN. This option is only applicable in TLDs or root zone files
used in recursive or caching implementations.
• forward — Forwards all requests for information about this zone to
other nameservers.
• hint — A special type of zone used to point to the root nameservers
which resolve queries when a zone is not otherwise known. No
configuration beyond the default is necessary with a hint zone.
• master — Designates the nameserver as authoritative for this zone.
A zone should be set as the master if the zone's configuration files
reside on the system.
• slave — Designates the nameserver as a slave server for this zone.
Master server is specified in masters directive.
Most changes to the /etc/named.conf file of a primary or secondary nameserver involve
adding, modifying, or deleting zone statements, and only a small subset of zone statement
options is usually needed for a nameserver to work efficiently.
In Example 12.4, “A zone statement for a primary nameserver”, the zone is identified as
example.com, the type is set to master, and the named service is instructed to read the /var/
named/example.com.zone file. It also allows only a secondary nameserver (192.168.0.2) to
transfer the zone.
Example 12.4. A zone statement for a primary nameserver
zone "example.com" IN {
type master;
file "example.com.zone";
allow-transfer { 192.168.0.2; };
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};
A secondary server's zone statement is slightly different. The type is set to slave, and the
masters directive is telling named the IP address of the master server.
In Example 12.5, “A zone statement for a secondary nameserver”, the named service is
configured to query the primary server at the 192.168.0.1 IP address for information about
the example.com zone. The received information is then saved to the /var/named/slaves/
example.com.zone file. Note that you have to put all slave zones to /var/named/slaves
directory, otherwise the service will fail to transfer the zone.
Example 12.5. A zone statement for a secondary nameserver
zone "example.com" {
type slave;
file "slaves/example.com.zone";
masters { 192.168.0.1; };
};
12.2.1.2. Other Statement Types
The following types of statements are less commonly used in /etc/named.conf:
controls
The controls statement allows you to configure various security requirements necessary to use
the rndc command to administer the named service.
Refer to Section 12.2.3, “Using the rndc Utility” for more information on the rndc utility and its
usage.
key
The key statement allows you to define a particular key by name. Keys are used to authenticate
various actions, such as secure updates or the use of the rndc command. Two options are used
with key:
• algorithm algorithm-name — The type of algorithm to be used (for example, hmac-md5).
• secret "key-value" — The encrypted key.
Refer to Section 12.2.3, “Using the rndc Utility” for more information on the rndc utility and its
usage.
logging
The logging statement allows you to use multiple types of logs, so called channels. By using the
channel option within the statement, you can construct a customized type of log with its own file
name (file), size limit (size), versioning (version), and level of importance (severity). Once
a customized channel is defined, a category option is used to categorize the channel and begin
logging when the named service is restarted.
By default, named sends standard messages to the rsyslog daemon, which places them in
/var/log/messages. Several standard channels are built into BIND with various severity
levels, such as default_syslog (which handles informational logging messages) and
default_debug (which specifically handles debugging messages). A default category, called
default, uses the built-in channels to do normal logging without any special configuration.
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Customizing the logging process can be a very detailed process and is beyond the scope of
this chapter. For information on creating custom BIND logs, refer to the BIND 9 Administrator
Reference Manual referenced in Section 12.2.7.1, “Installed Documentation”.
server
The server statement allows you to specify options that affect how the named service should
respond to remote nameservers, especially with regard to notifications and zone transfers.
The transfer-format option controls the number of resource records that are sent with each
message. It can be either one-answer (only one resource record), or many-answers (multiple
resource records). Note that while the many-answers option is more efficient, it is not supported
by older versions of BIND.
trusted-keys
The trusted-keys statement allows you to specify assorted public keys used for secure DNS
(DNSSEC). Refer to Section 12.2.5.4, “DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)” for more information
on this topic.
view
The view statement allows you to create special views depending upon which network the host
querying the nameserver is on. This allows some hosts to receive one answer regarding a zone
while other hosts receive totally different information. Alternatively, certain zones may only be
made available to particular trusted hosts while non-trusted hosts can only make queries for other
zones.
Multiple views can be used as long as their names are unique. The match-clients option
allows you to specify the IP addresses that apply to a particular view. If the options statement
is used within a view, it overrides the already configured global options. Finally, most view
statements contain multiple zone statements that apply to the match-clients list.
Note that the order in which the view statements are listed is important, as the first statement
that matches a particular client's IP address is used. For more information on this topic, refer to
Section 12.2.5.1, “Multiple Views”.
12.2.1.3. Comment Tags
Additionally to statements, the /etc/named.conf file can also contain comments. Comments are
ignored by the named service, but can prove useful when providing additional information to a user.
The following are valid comment tags:
//
Any text after the // characters to the end of the line is considered a comment. For example:
notify yes;
// notify all secondary nameservers
#
Any text after the # character to the end of the line is considered a comment. For example:
notify yes;
# notify all secondary nameservers
/* and */
Any block of text enclosed in /* and */ is considered a comment. For example:
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notify yes;
/* notify all secondary nameservers */
12.2.2. Editing Zone Files
As outlined in Section 12.1.1, “Nameserver Zones”, zone files contain information about a namespace.
They are stored in the named working directory located in /var/named/ by default, and each zone
file is named according to the file option in the zone statement, usually in a way that relates to the
domain in question and identifies the file as containing zone data, such as example.com.zone.
Table 12.5. The named service zone files
Path
Description
/var/named/
The working directory for the named service.
The nameserver is not allowed to write to this
directory.
/var/named/slaves/
The directory for secondary zones. This directory
is writable by the named service.
/var/named/dynamic/
The directory for other files, such as dynamic
DNS (DDNS) zones or managed DNSSEC keys.
This directory is writable by the named service.
/var/named/data/
The directory for various statistics and debugging
files. This directory is writable by the named
service.
A zone file consists of directives and resource records. Directives tell the nameserver to perform tasks
or apply special settings to the zone, resource records define the parameters of the zone and assign
identities to individual hosts. While the directives are optional, the resource records are required in
order to provide name service to a zone.
All directives and resource records should be entered on individual lines.
12.2.2.1. Common Directives
Directives begin with the dollar sign character (that is, $) followed by the name of the directive, and
usually appear at the top of the file. The following directives are commonly used in zone files:
$INCLUDE
The $INCLUDE directive allows you to include another file at the place where it appears, so that
other zone settings can be stored in a separate zone file.
Example 12.6. Using the $INCLUDE directive
$INCLUDE /var/named/penguin.example.com
$ORIGIN
The $ORIGIN directive allows you to append the domain name to unqualified records, such as
those with the hostname only. Note that the use of this directive is not necessary if the zone is
specified in /etc/named.conf, since the zone name is used by default.
In Example 12.7, “Using the $ORIGIN directive”, any names used in resource records that do not
end in a trailing period (that is, the . character) are appended with example.com.
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Example 12.7. Using the $ORIGIN directive
$ORIGIN example.com.
$TTL
The $TTL directive allows you to set the default Time to Live (TTL) value for the zone, that is, how
long is a zone record valid. Each resource record can contain its own TTL value, which overrides
this directive.
Increasing this value allows remote nameservers to cache the zone information for a longer period
of time, reducing the number of queries for the zone and lengthening the amount of time required
to proliferate resource record changes.
Example 12.8. Using the $TTL directive
$TTL 1D
12.2.2.2. Common Resource Records
The following resource records are commonly used in zone files:
A
The Address record specifies an IP address to be assigned to a name. It takes the following form:
hostname IN A IP-address
If the hostname value is omitted, the record will point to the last specified hostname.
In Example 12.9, “Using the A resource record”, the requests for server1.example.com are
pointed to 10.0.1.3 or 10.0.1.5.
Example 12.9. Using the A resource record
server1
IN
IN
A
A
10.0.1.3
10.0.1.5
CNAME
The Canonical Name record maps one name to another. Because of this, this type of record is
sometimes referred to as an alias record. It takes the following form:
alias-name IN CNAME real-name
CNAME records are most commonly used to point to services that use a common naming scheme,
such as www for Web servers. However, there are multiple restrictions for their usage:
• CNAME records should not point to other CNAME records. This is mainly to avoid possible
infinite loops.
• CNAME records should not contain other resource record types (such as A, NS, MX, etc.). The
only exception are DNSSEC related records (that is, RRSIG, NSEC, etc.) when the zone is
signed.
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• Other resource record that point to the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a host (that is,
NS, MX, PTR) should not point to a CNAME record.
In Example 12.10, “Using the CNAME resource record”, the A record binds a hostname to an IP
address, while the CNAME record points the commonly used www hostname to it.
Example 12.10. Using the CNAME resource record
server1
www
IN
IN
A
CNAME
10.0.1.5
server1
MX
The Mail Exchange record specifies where the mail sent to a particular namespace controlled by
this zone should go. It takes the following form:
IN MX preference-value email-server-name
The email-server-name is a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). The preference-value
allows numerical ranking of the email servers for a namespace, giving preference to some email
systems over others. The MX resource record with the lowest preference-value is preferred
over the others. However, multiple email servers can possess the same value to distribute email
traffic evenly among them.
In Example 12.11, “Using the MX resource record”, the first mail.example.com email server
is preferred to the mail2.example.com email server when receiving email destined for the
example.com domain.
Example 12.11. Using the MX resource record
example.com.
IN
IN
MX
MX
10
20
mail.example.com.
mail2.example.com.
NS
The Nameserver record announces authoritative nameservers for a particular zone. It takes the
following form:
IN NS nameserver-name
The nameserver-name should be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Note that when
two nameservers are listed as authoritative for the domain, it is not important whether these
nameservers are secondary nameservers, or if one of them is a primary server. They are both still
considered authoritative.
Example 12.12. Using the NS resource record
IN
IN
NS
NS
dns1.example.com.
dns2.example.com.
PTR
The Pointer record points to another part of the namespace. It takes the following form:
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Editing Zone Files
last-IP-digit IN PTR FQDN-of-system
The last-IP-digit directive is the last number in an IP address, and the FQDN-of-system is
a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
PTR records are primarily used for reverse name resolution, as they point IP addresses back to
a particular name. Refer to Section 12.2.2.4.2, “A Reverse Name Resolution Zone File” for more
examples of PTR records in use.
SOA
The Start of Authority record announces important authoritative information about a namespace
to the nameserver. Located after the directives, it is the first resource record in a zone file. It takes
the following form:
@
IN
SOA primary-name-server hostmaster-email (
serial-number
time-to-refresh
time-to-retry
time-to-expire
minimum-TTL )
The directives are as follows:
• The @ symbol places the $ORIGIN directive (or the zone's name if the $ORIGIN directive is not
set) as the namespace being defined by this SOA resource record.
• The primary-name-server directive is the hostname of the primary nameserver that is
authoritative for this domain.
• The hostmaster-email directive is the email of the person to contact about the namespace.
• The serial-number directive is a numerical value incremented every time the zone file is
altered to indicate it is time for the named service to reload the zone.
• The time-to-refresh directive is the numerical value secondary nameservers use to
determine how long to wait before asking the primary nameserver if any changes have been
made to the zone.
• The time-to-retry directive is a numerical value used by secondary nameservers to
determine the length of time to wait before issuing a refresh request in the event that the primary
nameserver is not answering. If the primary server has not replied to a refresh request before
the amount of time specified in the time-to-expire directive elapses, the secondary servers
stop responding as an authority for requests concerning that namespace.
• In BIND 4 and 8, the minimum-TTL directive is the amount of time other nameservers cache
the zone's information. In BIND 9, it defines how long negative answers are cached for. Caching
of negative answers can be set to a maximum of 3 hours (that is, 3H).
When configuring BIND, all times are specified in seconds. However, it is possible to use
abbreviations when specifying units of time other than seconds, such as minutes (M), hours (H),
days (D), and weeks (W). Table 12.6, “Seconds compared to other time units” shows an amount of
time in seconds and the equivalent time in another format.
Table 12.6. Seconds compared to other time units
Seconds
Other Time Units
60
1M
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Seconds
Other Time Units
1800
30M
3600
1H
10800
3H
21600
6H
43200
12H
86400
1D
259200
3D
604800
1W
31536000
365D
Example 12.13. Using the SOA resource record
@
IN
SOA dns1.example.com. hostmaster.example.com. (
2001062501 ; serial
21600
; refresh after 6 hours
3600
; retry after 1 hour
604800
; expire after 1 week
86400 )
; minimum TTL of 1 day
12.2.2.3. Comment Tags
Additionally to resource records and directives, a zone file can also contain comments. Comments are
ignored by the named service, but can prove useful when providing additional information to the user.
Any text after the semicolon character (that is, ;) to the end of the line is considered a comment. For
example:
604800
; expire after 1 week
12.2.2.4. Example Usage
The following examples show the basic usage of zone files.
12.2.2.4.1. A Simple Zone File
Example 12.14, “A simple zone file” demonstrates the use of standard directives and SOA values.
Example 12.14. A simple zone file
$ORIGIN example.com.
$TTL 86400
@
IN SOA dns1.example.com. hostmaster.example.com. (
2001062501 ; serial
21600
; refresh after 6 hours
3600
; retry after 1 hour
604800
; expire after 1 week
86400 )
; minimum TTL of 1 day
;
;
IN NS
dns1.example.com.
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Editing Zone Files
dns1
dns2
;
;
@
mail
mail2
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
NS
A
AAAA
A
AAAA
dns2.example.com.
10.0.1.1
aaaa:bbbb::1
10.0.1.2
aaaa:bbbb::2
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
MX
MX
A
AAAA
A
AAAA
10 mail.example.com.
20 mail2.example.com.
10.0.1.5
aaaa:bbbb::5
10.0.1.6
aaaa:bbbb::6
;
;
; This sample zone file illustrates sharing the same IP addresses
; for multiple services:
;
services IN A
10.0.1.10
IN AAAA
aaaa:bbbb::10
IN A
10.0.1.11
IN AAAA
aaaa:bbbb::11
ftp
www
;
;
IN
IN
CNAME
CNAME
services.example.com.
services.example.com.
In this example, the authoritative nameservers are set as dns1.example.com and
dns2.example.com, and are tied to the 10.0.1.1 and 10.0.1.2 IP addresses respectively using
the A record.
The email servers configured with the MX records point to mail and mail2 via A records. Since these
names do not end in a trailing period (that is, the . character), the $ORIGIN domain is placed after
them, expanding them to mail.example.com and mail2.example.com.
Services available at the standard names, such as www.example.com (WWW), are pointed at the
appropriate servers using the CNAME record.
This zone file would be called into service with a zone statement in the /etc/named.conf similar to
the following:
zone "example.com" IN {
type master;
file "example.com.zone";
allow-update { none; };
};
12.2.2.4.2. A Reverse Name Resolution Zone File
A reverse name resolution zone file is used to translate an IP address in a particular namespace into
an fully qualified domain name (FQDN). It looks very similar to a standard zone file, except that the
PTR resource records are used to link the IP addresses to a fully qualified domain name as shown in
Example 12.15, “A reverse name resolution zone file”.
Example 12.15. A reverse name resolution zone file
$ORIGIN 1.0.10.in-addr.arpa.
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$TTL 86400
@ IN SOA dns1.example.com. hostmaster.example.com. (
2001062501 ; serial
21600
; refresh after 6 hours
3600
; retry after 1 hour
604800
; expire after 1 week
86400 )
; minimum TTL of 1 day
;
@ IN NS
dns1.example.com.
;
1 IN PTR dns1.example.com.
2 IN PTR dns2.example.com.
;
5 IN PTR server1.example.com.
6 IN PTR server2.example.com.
;
3 IN PTR ftp.example.com.
4 IN PTR ftp.example.com.
In this example, IP addresses 10.0.1.1 through 10.0.1.6 are pointed to the corresponding fully
qualified domain name.
This zone file would be called into service with a zone statement in the /etc/named.conf file similar
to the following:
zone "1.0.10.in-addr.arpa" IN {
type master;
file "example.com.rr.zone";
allow-update { none; };
};
There is very little difference between this example and a standard zone statement, except for the
zone name. Note that a reverse name resolution zone requires the first three blocks of the IP address
reversed followed by .in-addr.arpa. This allows the single block of IP numbers used in the reverse
name resolution zone file to be associated with the zone.
12.2.3. Using the rndc Utility
The rndc utility is a command line tool that allows you to administer the named service, both locally
and from a remote machine. Its usage is as follows:
rndc [option...] command [command-option]
12.2.3.1. Configuring the Utility
To prevent unauthorized access to the service, named must be configured to listen on the selected
port (that is, 953 by default), and an identical key must be used by both the service and the rndc
utility.
Table 12.7. Relevant files
Path
Description
/etc/named.conf
The default configuration file for the named service.
/etc/rndc.conf
The default configuration file for the rndc utility.
/etc/rndc.key
The default key location.
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Using the rndc Utility
The rndc configuration is located in /etc/rndc.conf. If the file does not exist, the utility will use the
key located in /etc/rndc.key, which was generated automatically during the installation process
using the rndc-confgen -a command.
The named service is configured using the controls statement in the /etc/named.conf
configuration file as described in Section 12.2.1.2, “Other Statement Types”. Unless this statement is
present, only the connections from the loopback address (that is, 127.0.0.1) will be allowed, and the
key located in /etc/rndc.key will be used.
For more information on this topic, refer to manual pages and the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
Manual listed in Section 12.2.7, “Additional Resources”.
Set the correct permissions
To prevent unprivileged users from sending control commands to the service, make sure only
root is allowed to read the /etc/rndc.key file:
~]# chmod o-rwx /etc/rndc.key
12.2.3.2. Checking the Service Status
To check the current status of the named service, use the following command:
~]# rndc status
version: 9.7.0-P2-RedHat-9.7.0-5.P2.el6
CPUs found: 1
worker threads: 1
number of zones: 16
debug level: 0
xfers running: 0
xfers deferred: 0
soa queries in progress: 0
query logging is OFF
recursive clients: 0/0/1000
tcp clients: 0/100
server is up and running
12.2.3.3. Reloading the Configuration and Zones
To reload both the configuration file and zones, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# rndc reload
server reload successful
This will reload the zones while keeping all previously cached responses, so that you can make
changes to the zone files without losing all stored name resolutions.
To reload a single zone, specify its name after the reload command, for example:
~]# rndc reload localhost
zone reload up-to-date
Finally, to reload the configuration file and newly added zones only, type:
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~]# rndc reconfig
Modifying zones with dynamic DNS
If you intend to manually modify a zone that uses Dynamic DNS (DDNS), make sure you run the
freeze command first:
~]# rndc freeze localhost
Once you are finished, run the thaw command to allow the DDNS again and reload the zone:
~]# rndc thaw localhost
The zone reload and thaw was successful.
12.2.3.4. Updating Zone Keys
To update the DNSSEC keys and sign the zone, use the sign command. For example:
~]# rndc sign localhost
Note that to sign a zone with the above command, the auto-dnssec option has to be set to
maintain in the zone statement. For instance:
zone "localhost" IN {
type master;
file "named.localhost";
allow-update { none; };
auto-dnssec maintain;
};
12.2.3.5. Enabling the DNSSEC Validation
To enable the DNSSEC validation, type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# rndc validation on
Similarly, to disable this option, type:
~]# rndc validation off
Refer to the options statement described in Section 12.2.1.1, “Common Statement Types” for
information on how configure this option in /etc/named.conf.
12.2.3.6. Enabling the Query Logging
To enable (or disable in case it is currently enabled) the query logging, run the following command:
~]# rndc querylog
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Using the dig Utility
To check the current setting, use the status command as described in Section 12.2.3.2, “Checking
the Service Status”.
12.2.4. Using the dig Utility
The dig utility is a command line tool that allows you to perform DNS lookups and debug a
nameserver configuration. Its typical usage is as follows:
dig [@server] [option...] name type
Refer to Section 12.2.2.2, “Common Resource Records” for a list of common types.
12.2.4.1. Looking Up a Nameserver
To look up a nameserver for a particular domain, use the command in the following form:
dig name NS
In Example 12.16, “A sample nameserver lookup”, the dig utility is used to display nameservers for
example.com.
Example 12.16. A sample nameserver lookup
~]$ dig example.com NS
; <<>> DiG 9.7.1-P2-RedHat-9.7.1-2.P2.fc13 <<>> example.com NS
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 57883
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;example.com.
;; ANSWER SECTION:
example.com.
example.com.
;;
;;
;;
;;
99374
99374
IN
NS
IN
IN
NS
NS
a.iana-servers.net.
b.iana-servers.net.
Query time: 1 msec
SERVER: 10.34.255.7#53(10.34.255.7)
WHEN: Wed Aug 18 18:04:06 2010
MSG SIZE rcvd: 77
12.2.4.2. Looking Up an IP Address
To look up an IP address assigned to a particular domain, use the command in the following form:
dig name A
In Example 12.17, “A sample IP address lookup”, the dig utility is used to display the IP address of
example.com.
Example 12.17. A sample IP address lookup
~]$ dig example.com A
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; <<>> DiG 9.7.1-P2-RedHat-9.7.1-2.P2.fc13 <<>> example.com A
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 4849
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 0
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;example.com.
IN
A
;; ANSWER SECTION:
example.com.
155606
IN
A
192.0.32.10
;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
example.com.
example.com.
99175
99175
IN
IN
NS
NS
a.iana-servers.net.
b.iana-servers.net.
;;
;;
;;
;;
Query time: 1 msec
SERVER: 10.34.255.7#53(10.34.255.7)
WHEN: Wed Aug 18 18:07:25 2010
MSG SIZE rcvd: 93
12.2.4.3. Looking Up a Hostname
To look up a hostname for a particular IP address, use the command in the following form:
dig -x address
In Example 12.18, “A sample hostname lookup”, the dig utility is used to display the hostname
assigned to 192.0.32.10.
Example 12.18. A sample hostname lookup
~]$ dig -x 192.0.32.10
; <<>> DiG 9.7.1-P2-RedHat-9.7.1-2.P2.fc13 <<>> -x 192.0.32.10
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 29683
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 5, ADDITIONAL: 6
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;10.32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
IN
PTR
;; ANSWER SECTION:
10.32.0.192.in-addr.arpa. 21600 IN
PTR
www.example.com.
;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
32.0.192.in-addr.arpa.
21600
21600
21600
21600
21600
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
b.iana-servers.org.
c.iana-servers.net.
d.iana-servers.net.
ns.icann.org.
a.iana-servers.net.
;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
a.iana-servers.net.
b.iana-servers.org.
b.iana-servers.org.
c.iana-servers.net.
c.iana-servers.net.
ns.icann.org.
13688
5844
5844
12173
12173
12884
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
A
A
AAAA
A
AAAA
A
192.0.34.43
193.0.0.236
2001:610:240:2::c100:ec
139.91.1.10
2001:648:2c30::1:10
192.0.34.126
;; Query time: 156 msec
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Advanced Features of BIND
;; SERVER: 10.34.255.7#53(10.34.255.7)
;; WHEN: Wed Aug 18 18:25:15 2010
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 310
12.2.5. Advanced Features of BIND
Most BIND implementations only use the named service to provide name resolution services or to act
as an authority for a particular domain. However, BIND version 9 has a number of advanced features
that allow for a more secure and efficient DNS service.
Make sure the feature is supported
Before attempting to use advanced features like DNSSEC, TSIG, or IXFR, make sure that the
particular feature is supported by all nameservers in the network environment, especially when
you use older versions of BIND or non-BIND servers.
All of the features mentioned are discussed in greater detail in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference
Manual referenced in Section 12.2.7.1, “Installed Documentation”.
12.2.5.1. Multiple Views
Optionally, different information can be presented to a client depending on the network a request
originates from. This is primarily used to deny sensitive DNS entries from clients outside of the local
network, while allowing queries from clients inside the local network.
To configure multiple views, add the view statement to the /etc/named.conf configuration file. Use
the match-clients option to match IP addresses or entire networks and give them special options
and zone data.
12.2.5.2. Incremental Zone Transfers (IXFR)
Incremental Zone Transfers (IXFR) allow a secondary nameserver to only download the updated
portions of a zone modified on a primary nameserver. Compared to the standard transfer process, this
makes the notification and update process much more efficient.
Note that IXFR is only available when using dynamic updating to make changes to master zone
records. If manually editing zone files to make changes, Automatic Zone Transfer (AXFR) is used.
12.2.5.3. Transaction SIGnatures (TSIG)
Transaction SIGnatures (TSIG) ensure that a shared secret key exists on both primary and secondary
nameserver before allowing a transfer. This strengthens the standard IP address-based method of
transfer authorization, since attackers would not only need to have access to the IP address to transfer
the zone, but they would also need to know the secret key.
Since version 9, BIND also supports TKEY, which is another shared secret key method of authorizing
zone transfers.
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Secure the transfer
When communicating over an insecure network, do not rely on IP address-based authentication
only.
12.2.5.4. DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)
Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) provide origin authentication of DNS data,
authenticated denial of existence, and data integrity. When a particular domain is marked as secure,
the SERFVAIL response is returned for each resource record that fails the validation.
Note that to debug a DNSSEC-signed domain or a DNSSEC-aware resolver, you can use the dig
utility as described in Section 12.2.4, “Using the dig Utility”. Useful options are +dnssec (requests
DNSSEC-related resource records by setting the DNSSEC OK bit), +cd (tells recursive nameserver
not to validate the response), and +bufsize=512 (changes the packet size to 512B to get through
some firewalls).
12.2.5.5. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is supported through the use of AAAA resource records, and the
listen-on-v6 directive as described in Table 12.3, “Commonly used options”.
12.2.6. Common Mistakes to Avoid
The following is a list of advices how to avoid common mistakes users make when configuring a
nameserver:
Use semicolons and curly brackets correctly
An omitted semicolon or unmatched curly bracket in the /etc/named.conf file can prevent the
named service from starting.
Use period (that is, the . character) correctly
In zone files, a period at the end of a domain name denotes a fully qualified domain name. If
omitted, the named service will append the name of the zone or the value of $ORIGIN to complete
it.
Increment the serial number when editing a zone file
If the serial number is not incremented, the primary nameserver will have the correct, new
information, but the secondary nameservers will never be notified of the change, and will not
attempt to refresh their data of that zone.
Configure the firewall
If a firewall is blocking connections from the named service to other nameservers, the
recommended best practice is to change the firewall settings whenever possible.
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Additional Resources
Avoid using fixed UDP source ports
According to the recent research in DNS security, using a fixed UDP source port for DNS
queries is a potential security vulnerability that could allow an attacker to conduct cachepoisoning attacks more easily. To prevent this, configure your firewall to allow queries from a
random UDP source port.
12.2.7. Additional Resources
The following sources of information provide additional resources regarding BIND.
12.2.7.1. Installed Documentation
BIND features a full range of installed documentation covering many different topics, each placed in
its own subject directory. For each item below, replace version with the version of the bind package
installed on the system:
/usr/share/doc/bind-version/
The main directory containing the most recent documentation.
/usr/share/doc/bind-version/arm/
The directory containing the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual in HTML and SGML formats,
which details BIND resource requirements, how to configure different types of nameservers, how
to perform load balancing, and other advanced topics. For most new users of BIND, this is the
best place to start.
/usr/share/doc/bind-version/draft/
The directory containing assorted technical documents that review issues related to the DNS
service, and propose some methods to address them.
/usr/share/doc/bind-version/misc/
The directory designed to address specific advanced issues. Users of BIND version 8 should
consult the migration document for specific changes they must make when moving to BIND
9. The options file lists all of the options implemented in BIND 9 that are used in /etc/
named.conf.
/usr/share/doc/bind-version/rfc/
The directory providing every RFC document related to BIND.
There is also a number of man pages for the various applications and configuration files involved with
BIND:
man rndc
The manual page for rndc containing the full documentation on its usage.
man named
The manual page for named containing the documentation on assorted arguments that can be
used to control the BIND nameserver daemon.
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man lwresd
The manual page for lwresd containing the full documentation on the lightweight resolver
daemon and its usage.
man named.conf
The manual page with a comprehensive list of options available within the named configuration
file.
man rndc.conf
The manual page with a comprehensive list of options available within the rndc configuration file.
12.2.7.2. Useful Websites
http://www.isc.org/software/bind
The home page of the BIND project containing information about current releases as well as a
PDF version of the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
12.2.7.3. Related Books
DNS and BIND by Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu; O'Reilly & Associates
A popular reference that explains both common and esoteric BIND configuration options, and
provides strategies for securing a DNS server.
The Concise Guide to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt; Que
Looks at the connection between multiple network services and BIND, with an emphasis on taskoriented, technical topics.
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Chapter 13.
Web Servers
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) server, or a web server, is a network service that serves content
to a client over the web. This typically means web pages, but any other documents can be served as
well.
13.1. The Apache HTTP Server
This section focuses on the Apache HTTP Server 2.2, a robust, full-featured open source web server
1
developed by the Apache Software Foundation , that is included in Fedora 17. It describes the basic
configuration of the httpd service, and covers advanced topics such as adding server modules,
setting up virtual hosts, or configuring the secure HTTP server.
There are important differences between the Apache HTTP Server 2.2 and version 2.0, and if you are
upgrading from a previous release of Fedora, you will need to update the httpd service configuration
accordingly. This section reviews some of the newly added features, outlines important changes, and
guides you through the update of older configuration files.
13.1.1. New Features
The Apache HTTP Server version 2.2 introduces the following enhancements:
•
Improved caching modules, that is, mod_cache and mod_disk_cache.
• Support for proxy load balancing, that is, the mod_proxy_balancer module.
• Support for large files on 32-bit architectures, allowing the web server to handle files greater than
2GB.
• A new structure for authentication and authorization support, replacing the authentication modules
provided in previous versions.
13.1.2. Notable Changes
Since version 2.0, few changes have been made to the default httpd service configuration:
•
The following modules are no longer loaded by default: mod_cern_meta and mod_asis.
• The following module is newly loaded by default: mod_ext_filter.
13.1.3. Updating the Configuration
To update the configuration files from the Apache HTTP Server version 2.0, take the following steps:
1.
1
Make sure all module names are correct, since they may have changed. Adjust the LoadModule
directive for each module that has been renamed.
http://www.apache.org/
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2.
Recompile all third party modules before attempting to load them. This typically means
authentication and authorization modules.
3.
If you use the mod_userdir module, make sure the UserDir directive indicating a directory
name (typically public_html) is provided.
4.
If you use the Apache HTTP Secure Server, edit the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf to enable
the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol.
Note that you can check the configuration for possible errors by using the following command:
service httpd configtest
For more information on upgrading the Apache HTTP Server configuration from version 2.0 to 2.2,
refer to http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/upgrading.html.
13.1.4. Running the httpd Service
This section describes how to start, stop, restart, and check the current status of the Apache HTTP
Server. To be able to use the httpd service, make sure you have the httpd installed. You can do so
by using the following command as root:
yum install httpd
For more information on the concept of runlevels and how to manage system services in Fedora in
general, refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons.
13.1.4.1. Starting the Service
To run the httpd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl start httpd.service
If you want the service to start automatically at the boot time, use the following command:
systemctl enable httpd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
Using the secure server
If running the Apache HTTP Server as a secure server, a password may be required after the
machine boots if using an encrypted private SSL key.
13.1.4.2. Stopping the Service
To stop the running httpd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
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Editing the Configuration Files
systemctl stop httpd.service
To prevent the service from starting automatically at the boot time, type:
systemctl disable httpd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
13.1.4.3. Restarting the Service
There are two different ways to restart the running httpd service:
1. To restart the service completely, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl restart httpd.service
This will stop the running httpd service, and then start it again. Use this command after installing
or removing a dynamically loaded module such as PHP.
2. To only reload the configuration, as root, type:
systemctl reload httpd.service
This will cause the running httpd service to reload the configuration file. Note that any requests
being currently processed will be interrupted, which may cause a client browser to display an error
message or render a partial page.
3. To reload the configuration without affecting active requests, run the following command as root:
service httpd graceful
This will cause the running httpd service to reload the configuration file. Note that any requests
being currently processed will use the old configuration.
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
13.1.4.4. Checking the Service Status
To check whether the service is running, type the following at a shell prompt:
systemctl is-active httpd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
13.1.5. Editing the Configuration Files
When the httpd service is started, by default, it reads the configuration from locations that are listed
in Table 13.1, “The httpd service configuration files”.
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Table 13.1. The httpd service configuration files
Path
Description
/etc/httpd/conf/
httpd.conf
The main configuration file.
/etc/httpd/conf.d/
An auxiliary directory for configuration files that are included in the
main configuration file.
Although the default configuration should be suitable for most situations, it is a good idea to become at
least familiar with some of the more important configuration options. Note that for any changes to take
effect, the web server has to be restarted first. Refer to Section 13.1.4.3, “Restarting the Service” for
more information on how to restart the httpd service.
To check the configuration for possible errors, type the following at a shell prompt:
service httpd configtest
To make the recovery from mistakes easier, it is recommended that you make a copy of the original
file before editing it.
13.1.5.1. Common httpd.conf Directives
The following directives are commonly used in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf configuration
file:
<Directory>
The <Directory> directive allows you to apply certain directives to a particular directory only. It
takes the following form:
<Directory directory>
directive
…
</Directory>
The directory can be either a full path to an existing directory in the local file system, or a
wildcard expression.
This directive can be used to configure additional cgi-bin directories for server-side scripts
located outside the directory that is specified by ScriptAlias. In this case, the ExecCGI and
AddHandler directives must be supplied, and the permissions on the target directory must be set
correctly (that is, 0755).
Example 13.1. Using the <Directory> directive
<Directory /var/www/html>
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>
<IfDefine>
The IfDefine directive allows you to use certain directives only when a particular parameter is
supplied on the command line. It takes the following form:
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Editing the Configuration Files
<IfDefine [!]parameter>
directive
…
</IfDefine>
The parameter can be supplied at a shell prompt using the -Dparameter command line option
(for example, httpd -DEnableHome). If the optional exclamation mark (that is, !) is present, the
enclosed directives are used only when the parameter is not specified.
Example 13.2. Using the <IfDefine> directive
<IfDefine EnableHome>
UserDir public_html
</IfDefine>
<IfModule>
The <IfModule> directive allows you to use certain directive only when a particular module is
loaded. It takes the following form:
<IfModule [!]module>
directive
…
</IfModule>
The module can be identified either by its name, or by the file name. If the optional exclamation
mark (that is, !) is present, the enclosed directives are used only when the module is not loaded.
Example 13.3. Using the <IfModule> directive
<IfModule mod_disk_cache.c>
CacheEnable disk /
CacheRoot /var/cache/mod_proxy
</IfModule>
<Location>
The <Location> directive allows you to apply certain directives to a particular URL only. It takes
the following form:
<Location url>
directive
…
</Location>
The url can be either a path relative to the directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive
(for example, /server-info), or an external URL such as http://example.com/serverinfo.
Example 13.4. Using the <Location> directive
<Location /server-info>
SetHandler server-info
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from .example.com
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</Location>
<Proxy>
The <Proxy> directive allows you to apply certain directives to the proxy server only. It takes the
following form:
<Proxy pattern>
directive
…
</Proxy>
The pattern can be an external URL, or a wildcard expression (for example, http://
example.com/*).
Example 13.5. Using the <Proxy> directive
<Proxy *>
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from .example.com
</Proxy>
<VirtualHost>
The <VirtualHost> directive allows you apply certain directives to particular virtual hosts only. It
takes the following form:
<VirtualHost address[:port]…>
directive
…
</VirtualHost>
The address can be an IP address, a fully qualified domain name, or a special form as described
in Table 13.2, “Available <VirtualHost> options”.
Table 13.2. Available <VirtualHost> options
Option
Description
*
Represents all IP addresses.
_default_
Represents unmatched IP addresses.
Example 13.6. Using the <VirtualHost> directive
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@penguin.example.com
DocumentRoot /www/docs/penguin.example.com
ServerName penguin.example.com
ErrorLog logs/penguin.example.com-error_log
CustomLog logs/penguin.example.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>
AccessFileName
The AccessFileName directive allows you to specify the file to be used to customize access
control information for each directory. It takes the following form:
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Editing the Configuration Files
AccessFileName filename…
The filename is a name of the file to look for in the requested directory. By default, the server
looks for .htaccess.
For security reasons, the directive is typically followed by the Files tag to prevent the files
beginning with .ht from being accessed by web clients. This includes the .htaccess and
.htpasswd files.
Example 13.7. Using the AccessFileName directive
AccessFileName .htaccess
<Files ~ "^\.ht">
Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All
</Files>
Action
The Action directive allows you to specify a CGI script to be executed when a certain media type
is requested. It takes the following form:
Action content-type path
The content-type has to be a valid MIME type such as text/html, image/png, or
application/pdf. The path refers to an existing CGI script, and must be relative to the
directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for example, /cgi-bin/processimage.cgi).
Example 13.8. Using the Action directive
Action image/png /cgi-bin/process-image.cgi
AddDescription
The AddDescription directive allows you to specify a short description to be displayed in
server-generated directory listings for a given file. It takes the following form:
AddDescription "description" filename…
The description should be a short text enclosed in double quotes (that is, "). The filename
can be a full file name, a file extension, or a wildcard expression.
Example 13.9. Using the AddDescription directive
AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz
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AddEncoding
The AddEncoding directive allows you to specify an encoding type for a particular file extension.
It takes the following form:
AddEncoding encoding extension…
The encoding has to be a valid MIME encoding such as x-compress, x-gzip, etc. The
extension is a case sensitive file extension, and is conventionally written with a leading dot (for
example, .gz).
This directive is typically used to instruct web browsers to decompress certain file types as they
are downloaded.
Example 13.10. Using the AddEncoding directive
AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz
AddHandler
The AddHandler directive allows you to map certain file extensions to a selected handler. It takes
the following form:
AddHandler handler extension…
The handler has to be a name of previously defined handler. The extension is a case
sensitive file extension, and is conventionally written with a leading dot (for example, .cgi).
This directive is typically used to treat files with the .cgi extension as CGI scripts regardless of
the directory they are in. Additionally, it is also commonly used to process server-parsed HTML
and image-map files.
Example 13.11. Using the AddHandler option
AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
AddIcon
The AddIcon directive allows you to specify an icon to be displayed for a particular file in servergenerated directory listings. It takes the following form:
AddIcon path pattern…
The path refers to an existing icon file, and must be relative to the directory specified by the
DocumentRoot directive (for example, /icons/folder.png). The pattern can be a file
name, a file extension, a wildcard expression, or a special form as described in the following table:
Table 13.3. Available AddIcon options
230
Option
Description
^^DIRECTORY^^
Represents a directory.
^^BLANKICON^^
Represents a blank line.
Editing the Configuration Files
Example 13.12. Using the AddIcon directive
AddIcon /icons/text.png .txt README
AddIconByEncoding
The AddIconByEncoding directive allows you to specify an icon to be displayed for a particular
encoding type in server-generated directory listings. It takes the following form:
AddIconByEncoding path encoding…
The path refers to an existing icon file, and must be relative to the directory specified by the
DocumentRoot directive (for example, /icons/compressed.png). The encoding has to be a
valid MIME encoding such as x-compress, x-gzip, etc.
Example 13.13. Using the AddIconByEncoding directive
AddIconByEncoding /icons/compressed.png x-compress x-gzip
AddIconByType
The AddIconByType directive allows you to specify an icon to be displayed for a particular media
type in server-generated directory listings. It takes the following form:
AddIconByType path content-type…
The path refers to an existing icon file, and must be relative to the directory specified by the
DocumentRoot directive (for example, /icons/text.png). The content-type has to be
either a valid MIME type (for example, text/html or image/png), or a wildcard expression such
as text/*, image/*, etc.
Example 13.14. Using the AddIconByType directive
AddIconByType /icons/video.png video/*
AddLanguage
The AddLanguage directive allows you to associate a file extension with a specific language. It
takes the following form:
AddLanguage language extension…
The language has to be a valid MIME language such as cs, en, or fr. The extension is a
case sensitive file extension, and is conventionally written with a leading dot (for example, .cs).
This directive is especially useful for web servers that serve content in multiple languages based
on the client's language settings.
Example 13.15. Using the AddLanguage directive
AddLanguage cs .cs .cz
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AddType
The AddType directive allows you to define or override the media type for a particular file
extension. It takes the following form:
AddType content-type extension…
The content-type has to be a valid MIME type such as text/html, image/png, etc. The
extension is a case sensitive file extension, and is conventionally written with a leading dot (for
example, .cs).
Example 13.16. Using the AddType directive
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
Alias
The Alias directive allows you to refer to files and directories outside the default directory
specified by the DocumentRoot directive. It takes the following form:
Alias url-path real-path
The url-path must be relative to the directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for
example, /images/). The real-path is a full path to a file or directory in the local file system.
This directive is typically followed by the Directory tag with additional permissions to access
the target directory. By default, the /icons/ alias is created so that the icons from /var/www/
icons/ are displayed in server-generated directory listings.
Example 13.17. Using the Alias directive
Alias /icons/ /var/www/icons/
<Directory "/var/www/icons">
Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
<Directory>
Allow
The Allow directive allows you to specify which clients have permission to access a given
directory. It takes the following form:
Allow from client…
The client can be a domain name, an IP address (both full and partial), a network/netmask
pair, or all for all clients.
Example 13.18. Using the Allow directive
Allow from 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
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Editing the Configuration Files
AllowOverride
The AllowOverride directive allows you to specify which directives in a .htaccess file can
override the default configuration. It takes the following form:
AllowOverride type…
The type has to be one of the available grouping options as described in Table 13.4, “Available
AllowOverride options”.
Table 13.4. Available AllowOverride options
Option
Description
All
All directives in .htaccess are allowed to override earlier configuration
settings.
None
No directive in .htaccess is allowed to override earlier configuration
settings.
AuthConfig
Allows the use of authorization directives such as AuthName,
AuthType, or Require.
FileInfo
Allows the use of file type, metadata, and mod_rewrite directives
such as DefaultType, RequestHeader, or RewriteEngine, as well
as the Action directive.
Indexes
Allows the use of directory indexing directives such as
AddDescription, AddIcon, or FancyIndexing.
Limit
Allows the use of host access directives, that is, Allow, Deny, and
Order.
Options[=option,
…]
Allows the use of the Options directive. Additionally, you can provide a
comma-separated list of options to customize which options can be set
using this directive.
Example 13.19. Using the AllowOverride directive
AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
BrowserMatch
The BrowserMatch directive allows you to modify the server behavior based on the client's web
browser type. It takes the following form:
BrowserMatch pattern variable…
The pattern is a regular expression to match the User-Agent HTTP header field. The variable
is an environment variable that is set when the header field matches the pattern.
By default, this directive is used to deny connections to specific browsers with known issues, and
to disable keepalives and HTTP header flushes for browsers that are known to have problems with
these actions.
Example 13.20. Using the BrowserMatch directive
BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
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CacheDefaultExpire
The CacheDefaultExpire option allows you to set how long to cache a document that does not
have any expiration date or the date of its last modification specified. It takes the following form:
CacheDefaultExpire time
The time is specified in seconds. The default option is 3600 (that is, one hour).
Example 13.21. Using the CacheDefaultExpire directive
CacheDefaultExpire 3600
CacheDisable
The CacheDisable directive allows you to disable caching of certain URLs. It takes the following
form:
CacheDisable path
The path must be relative to the directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for example,
/files/).
Example 13.22. Using the CacheDisable directive
CacheDisable /temporary
CacheEnable
The CacheEnable directive allows you to specify a cache type to be used for certain URLs. It
takes the following form:
CacheEnable type url
The type has to be a valid cache type as described in Table 13.5, “Available cache types”.
The url can be a path relative to the directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for
example, /images/), a protocol (for example, ftp://), or an external URL such as http://
example.com/.
Table 13.5. Available cache types
Type
Description
mem
The memory-based storage manager.
disk
The disk-based storage manager.
fd
The file descriptor cache.
Example 13.23. Using the CacheEnable directive
CacheEnable disk /
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Editing the Configuration Files
CacheLastModifiedFactor
The CacheLastModifiedFactor directive allows you to customize how long to cache a
document that does not have any expiration date specified, but that provides information about the
date of its last modification. It takes the following form:
CacheLastModifiedFactor number
The number is a coefficient to be used to multiply the time that passed since the last modification
of the document. The default option is 0.1 (that is, one tenth).
Example 13.24. Using the CacheLastModifiedFactor directive
CacheLastModifiedFactor 0.1
CacheMaxExpire
The CacheMaxExpire directive allows you to specify the maximum amount of time to cache a
document. It takes the following form:
CacheMaxExpire time
The time is specified in seconds. The default option is 86400 (that is, one day).
Example 13.25. Using the CacheMaxExpire directive
CacheMaxExpire 86400
CacheNegotiatedDocs
The CacheNegotiatedDocs directive allows you to enable caching of the documents that were
negotiated on the basis of content. It takes the following form:
CacheNegotiatedDocs option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.6, “Available
CacheNegotiatedDocs options”. Since the content-negotiated documents may change over time or
because of the input from the requester, the default option is Off.
Table 13.6. Available CacheNegotiatedDocs options
Option
Description
On
Enables caching the content-negotiated documents.
Off
Disables caching the content-negotiated documents.
Example 13.26. Using the CacheNegotiatedDocs directive
CacheNegotiatedDocs On
CacheRoot
The CacheRoot directive allows you to specify the directory to store cache files in. It takes the
following form:
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CacheRoot directory
The directory must be a full path to an existing directory in the local file system. The default
option is /var/cache/mod_proxy/.
Example 13.27. Using the CacheRoot directive
CacheRoot /var/cache/mod_proxy
CustomLog
The CustomLog directive allows you to specify the log file name and the log file format. It takes
the following form:
CustomLog path format
The path refers to a log file, and must be relative to the directory that is specified by the
ServerRoot directive (that is, /etc/httpd/ by default). The format has to be either an explicit
format string, or a format name that was previously defined using the LogFormat directive.
Example 13.28. Using the CustomLog directive
CustomLog logs/access_log combined
DefaultIcon
The DefaultIcon directive allows you to specify an icon to be displayed for a file in servergenerated directory listings when no other icon is associated with it. It takes the following form:
DefaultIcon path
The path refers to an existing icon file, and must be relative to the directory specified by the
DocumentRoot directive (for example, /icons/unknown.png).
Example 13.29. Using the DefaultIcon directive
DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.png
DefaultType
The DefaultType directive allows you to specify a media type to be used in case the proper
MIME type cannot be determined by the server. It takes the following form:
DefaultType content-type
The content-type has to be a valid MIME type such as text/html, image/png,
application/pdf, etc.
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Example 13.30. Using the DefaultType directive
DefaultType text/plain
Deny
The Deny directive allows you to specify which clients are denied access to a given directory. It
takes the following form:
Deny from client…
The client can be a domain name, an IP address (both full and partial), a network/netmask
pair, or all for all clients.
Example 13.31. Using the Deny directive
Deny from 192.168.1.1
DirectoryIndex
The DirectoryIndex directive allows you to specify a document to be served to a client when
a directory is requested (that is, when the URL ends with the / character). It takes the following
form:
DirectoryIndex filename…
The filename is a name of the file to look for in the requested directory. By default, the server
looks for index.html, and index.html.var.
Example 13.32. Using the DirectoryIndex directive
DirectoryIndex index.html index.html.var
DocumentRoot
The DocumentRoot directive allows you to specify the main directory from which the content is
served. It takes the following form:
DocumentRoot directory
The directory must be a full path to an existing directory in the local file system. The default
option is /var/www/html/.
Example 13.33. Using the DocumentRoot directive
DocumentRoot /var/www/html
ErrorDocument
The ErrorDocument directive allows you to specify a document or a message to be displayed as
a response to a particular error. It takes the following form:
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ErrorDocument error-code action
The error-code has to be a valid code such as 403 (Forbidden), 404 (Not Found), or 500
(Internal Server Error). The action can be either a URL (both local and external), or a message
string enclosed in double quotes (that is, ").
Example 13.34. Using the ErrorDocument directive
ErrorDocument 403 "Access Denied"
ErrorDocument 404 /404-not_found.html
ErrorLog
The ErrorLog directive allows you to specify a file to which the server errors are logged. It takes
the following form:
ErrorLog path
The path refers to a log file, and can be either absolute, or relative to the directory that is
specified by the ServerRoot directive (that is, /etc/httpd/ by default). The default option is
logs/error_log
Example 13.35. Using the ErrorLog directive
ErrorLog logs/error_log
ExtendedStatus
The ExtendedStatus directive allows you to enable detailed server status information. It takes
the following form:
ExtendedStatus option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.7, “Available ExtendedStatus
options”. The default option is Off.
Table 13.7. Available ExtendedStatus options
Option
Description
On
Enables generating the detailed server status.
Off
Disables generating the detailed server status.
Example 13.36. Using the ExtendedStatus directive
ExtendedStatus On
Group
The Group directive allows you to specify the group under which the httpd service will run. It
takes the following form:
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Group group
The group has to be an existing UNIX group. The default option is apache.
Note that Group is no longer supported inside <VirtualHost>, and has been replaced by the
SuexecUserGroup directive.
Example 13.37. Using the Group directive
Group apache
HeaderName
The HeaderName directive allows you to specify a file to be prepended to the beginning of the
server-generated directory listing. It takes the following form:
HeaderName filename
The filename is a name of the file to look for in the requested directory. By default, the server
looks for HEADER.html.
Example 13.38. Using the HeaderName directive
HeaderName HEADER.html
HostnameLookups
The HostnameLookups directive allows you to enable automatic resolving of IP addresses. It
takes the following form:
HostnameLookups option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.8, “Available HostnameLookups
options”. To conserve resources on the server, the default option is Off.
Table 13.8. Available HostnameLookups options
Option
Description
On
Enables resolving the IP address for each connection so that the
hostname can be logged. However, this also adds a significant
processing overhead.
Double
Enables performing the double-reverse DNS lookup. In comparison to
the above option, this adds even more processing overhead.
Off
Disables resolving the IP address for each connection.
Note that when the presence of hostnames is required in server log files, it is often possible to use
one of the many log analyzer tools that perform the DNS lookups more efficiently.
Example 13.39. Using the HostnameLookups directive
HostnameLookups Off
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Include
The Include directive allows you to include other configuration files. It takes the following form:
Include filename
The filename can be an absolute path, a path relative to the directory specified by the
ServerRoot directive, or a wildcard expression. All configuration files from the /etc/httpd/
conf.d/ directory are loaded by default.
Example 13.40. Using the Include directive
Include conf.d/*.conf
IndexIgnore
The IndexIgnore directive allows you to specify a list of file names to be omitted from the
server-generated directory listings. It takes the following form:
IndexIgnore filename…
The filename option can be either a full file name, or a wildcard expression.
Example 13.41. Using the IndexIgnore directive
IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t
IndexOptions
The IndexOptions directive allows you to customize the behavior of server-generated directory
listings. It takes the following form:
IndexOptions option…
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.9, “Available directory
listing options”. The default options are Charset=UTF-8, FancyIndexing, HTMLTable,
NameWidth=*, and VersionSort.
Table 13.9. Available directory listing options
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Option
Description
Charset=encoding
Specifies the character set of a generated web page. The
encoding has to be a valid character set such as UTF-8 or
ISO-8859-2.
Type=content-type
Specifies the media type of a generated web page. The
content-type has to be a valid MIME type such as text/
html or text/plain.
DescriptionWidth=value
Specifies the width of the description column. The value can
be either a number of characters, or an asterisk (that is, *) to
adjust the width automatically.
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Option
Description
FancyIndexing
Enables advanced features such as different icons for certain
files or possibility to re-sort a directory listing by clicking on a
column header.
FolderFirst
Enables listing directories first, always placing them above files.
HTMLTable
Enables the use of HTML tables for directory listings.
IconsAreLinks
Enables using the icons as links.
IconHeight=value
Specifies an icon height. The value is a number of pixels.
IconWidth=value
Specifies an icon width. The value is a number of pixels.
IgnoreCase
Enables sorting files and directories in a case-sensitive manner.
IgnoreClient
Disables accepting query variables from a client.
NameWidth=value
Specifies the width of the file name column. The value can
be either a number of characters, or an asterisk (that is, *) to
adjust the width automatically.
ScanHTMLTitles
Enables parsing the file for a description (that is, the title
element) in case it is not provided by the AddDescription
directive.
ShowForbidden
Enables listing the files with otherwise restricted access.
SuppressColumnSorting
Disables re-sorting a directory listing by clicking on a column
header.
SuppressDescription
Disables reserving a space for file descriptions.
SuppressHTMLPreamble
Disables the use of standard HTML preamble when a file
specified by the HeaderName directive is present.
SuppressIcon
Disables the use of icons in directory listings.
SuppressLastModified
Disables displaying the date of the last modification field in
directory listings.
SuppressRules
Disables the use of horizontal lines in directory listings.
SuppressSize
Disables displaying the file size field in directory listings.
TrackModified
Enables returning the Last-Modified and ETag values in the
HTTP header.
VersionSort
Enables sorting files that contain a version number in the
expected manner.
XHTML
Enables the use of XHTML 1.0 instead of the default HTML 3.2.
Example 13.42. Using the IndexOptions directive
IndexOptions FancyIndexing VersionSort NameWidth=* HTMLTable Charset=UTF-8
KeepAlive
The KeepAlive directive allows you to enable persistent connections. It takes the following form:
KeepAlive option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.10, “Available KeepAlive options”.
The default option is Off.
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Table 13.10. Available KeepAlive options
Option
Description
On
Enables the persistent connections. In this case, the server will accept
more than one request per connection.
Off
Disables the keep-alive connections.
Note that when the persistent connections are enabled, on a busy server, the number of child
processes can increase rapidly and eventually reach the maximum limit, slowing down the server
significantly. To reduce the risk, it is recommended that you set KeepAliveTimeout to a low
number, and monitor the /var/log/httpd/logs/error_log log file carefully.
Example 13.43. Using the KeepAlive directive
KeepAlive Off
KeepAliveTimeout
The KeepAliveTimeout directive allows you to specify the amount of time to wait for another
request before closing the connection. It takes the following form:
KeepAliveTimeout time
The time is specified in seconds. The default option is 15.
Example 13.44. Using the KeepAliveTimeout directive
KeepAliveTimeout 15
LanguagePriority
The LanguagePriority directive allows you to customize the precedence of languages. It takes
the following form:
LanguagePriority language…
The language has to be a valid MIME language such as cs, en, or fr.
This directive is especially useful for web servers that serve content in multiple languages based
on the client's language settings.
Example 13.45. Using the LanguagePriority directive
LanguagePriority sk cs en
Listen
The Listen directive allows you to specify IP addresses or ports to listen to. It takes the following
form:
Listen [ip-address:]port [protocol]
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The ip-address is optional and unless supplied, the server will accept incoming requests on a
given port from all IP addresses. Since the protocol is determined automatically from the port
number, it can be usually omitted. The default option is to listen to port 80.
Note that if the server is configured to listen to a port under 1024, only superuser will be able to
start the httpd service.
Example 13.46. Using the Listen directive
Listen 80
LoadModule
The LoadModule directive allows you to load a Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) module. It takes
the following form:
LoadModule name path
The name has to be a valid identifier of the required module. The path refers to an existing
module file, and must be relative to the directory in which the libraries are placed (that is, /usr/
lib/httpd/ on 32-bit and /usr/lib64/httpd/ on 64-bit systems by default).
Refer to Section 13.1.6, “Working with Modules” for more information on the Apache HTTP
Server's DSO support.
Example 13.47. Using the LoadModule directive
LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
LogFormat
The LogFormat directive allows you to specify a log file format. It takes the following form:
LogFormat format name
The format is a string consisting of options as described in Table 13.11, “Common LogFormat
options”. The name can be used instead of the format string in the CustomLog directive.
Table 13.11. Common LogFormat options
Option
Description
%b
Represents the size of the response in bytes.
%h
Represents the IP address or hostname of a remote client.
%l
Represents the remote log name if supplied. If not, a hyphen (that is, -) is used
instead.
%r
Represents the first line of the request string as it came from the browser or client.
%s
Represents the status code.
%t
Represents the date and time of the request.
%u
If the authentication is required, it represents the remote user. If not, a hyphen (that
is, -) is used instead.
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Option
Description
%{field} Represents the content of the HTTP header field. The common options include
%{Referer} (the URL of the web page that referred the client to the server) and
%{User-Agent} (the type of the web browser making the request).
Example 13.48. Using the LogFormat directive
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
LogLevel
The LogLevel directive allows you to customize the verbosity level of the error log. It takes the
following form:
LogLevel option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.12, “Available LogLevel options”.
The default option is warn.
Table 13.12. Available LogLevel options
Option
Description
emerg
Only the emergency situations when the server cannot perform its work
are logged.
alert
All situations when an immediate action is required are logged.
crit
All critical conditions are logged.
error
All error messages are logged.
warn
All warning messages are logged.
notice
Even normal, but still significant situations are logged.
info
Various informational messages are logged.
debug
Various debugging messages are logged.
Example 13.49. Using the LogLevel directive
LogLevel warn
MaxKeepAliveRequests
The MaxKeepAliveRequests directive allows you to specify the maximum number of requests
for a persistent connection. It takes the following form:
MaxKeepAliveRequests number
A high number can improve the performance of the server. Note that using 0 allows unlimited
number of requests. The default option is 100.
Example 13.50. Using the MaxKeepAliveRequests option
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
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NameVirtualHost
The NameVirtualHost directive allows you to specify the IP address and port number for a
name-based virtual host. It takes the following form:
NameVirtualHost ip-address[:port]
The ip-address can be either a full IP address, or an asterisk (that is, *) representing all
interfaces. Note that IPv6 addresses have to be enclosed in square brackets (that is, [ and ]).
The port is optional.
Name-based virtual hosting allows one Apache HTTP Server to serve different domains without
using multiple IP addresses.
Using secure HTTP connections
Name-based virtual hosts only work with non-secure HTTP connections. If using virtual hosts
with a secure server, use IP address-based virtual hosts instead.
Example 13.51. Using the NameVirtualHost directive
NameVirtualHost *:80
Options
The Options directive allows you to specify which server features are available in a particular
directory. It takes the following form:
Options option…
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.13, “Available server features”.
Table 13.13. Available server features
Option
Description
ExecCGI
Enables the execution of CGI scripts.
FollowSymLinks
Enables following symbolic links in the directory.
Includes
Enables server-side includes.
IncludesNOEXEC
Enables server-side includes, but does not allow the execution of
commands.
Indexes
Enables server-generated directory listings.
MultiViews
Enables content-negotiated “MultiViews”.
SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Enables following symbolic links in the directory when both the link and
the target file have the same owner.
All
Enables all of the features above with the exception of MultiViews.
None
Disables all of the features above.
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Example 13.52. Using the Options directive
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
Order
The Order directive allows you to specify the order in which the Allow and Deny directives are
evaluated. It takes the following form:
Order option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.14, “Available Order options”.
The default option is allow,deny.
Table 13.14. Available Order options
Option
Description
allow,deny
Allow directives are evaluated first.
deny,allow
Deny directives are evaluated first.
Example 13.53. Using the Order directive
Order allow,deny
PidFile
The PidFile directive allows you to specify a file to which the process ID (PID) of the server is
stored. It takes the following form:
PidFile path
The path refers to a pid file, and can be either absolute, or relative to the directory that is
specified by the ServerRoot directive (that is, /etc/httpd/ by default). The default option is
run/httpd.pid.
Example 13.54. Using the PidFile directive
PidFile run/httpd.pid
ProxyRequests
The ProxyRequests directive allows you to enable forward proxy requests. It takes the following
form:
ProxyRequests option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.15, “Available ProxyRequests
options”. The default option is Off.
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Table 13.15. Available ProxyRequests options
Option
Description
On
Enables forward proxy requests.
Off
Disables forward proxy requests.
Example 13.55. Using the ProxyRequests directive
ProxyRequests On
ReadmeName
The ReadmeName directive allows you to specify a file to be appended to the end of the servergenerated directory listing. It takes the following form:
ReadmeName filename
The filename is a name of the file to look for in the requested directory. By default, the server
looks for README.html.
Example 13.56. Using the ReadmeName directive
ReadmeName README.html
Redirect
The Redirect directive allows you to redirect a client to another URL. It takes the following form:
Redirect [status] path url
The status is optional, and if provided, it has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.16,
“Available status options”. The path refers to the old location, and must be relative to the directory
specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for example, /docs). The url refers to the current
location of the content (for example, http://docs.example.com).
Table 13.16. Available status options
Status
Description
permanent
Indicates that the requested resource has been moved permanently.
The 301 (Moved Permanently) status code is returned to a client.
temp
Indicates that the requested resource has been moved only temporarily.
The 302 (Found) status code is returned to a client.
seeother
Indicates that the requested resource has been replaced. The 303 (See
Other) status code is returned to a client.
gone
Indicates that the requested resource has been removed permanently.
The 410 (Gone) status is returned to a client.
Note that for more advanced redirection techniques, you can use the mod_rewrite module that
is part of the Apache HTTP Server installation.
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Example 13.57. Using the Redirect directive
Redirect permanent /docs http://docs.example.com
ScriptAlias
The ScriptAlias directive allows you to specify the location of CGI scripts. It takes the following
form:
ScriptAlias url-path real-path
The url-path must be relative to the directory specified by the DocumentRoot directive (for
example, /cgi-bin/). The real-path is a full path to a file or directory in the local file system.
This directive is typically followed by the Directory tag with additional permissions to access
the target directory. By default, the /cgi-bin/ alias is created so that the scripts located in the /
var/www/cgi-bin/ are accessible.
The ScriptAlias directive is used for security reasons to prevent CGI scripts from being viewed
as ordinary text documents.
Example 13.58. Using the ScriptAlias directive
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/cgi-bin/
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
AllowOverride None
Options None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>
ServerAdmin
The ServerAdmin directive allows you to specify the email address of the server administrator to
be displayed in server-generated web pages. It takes the following form:
ServerAdmin email
The default option is root@localhost.
This directive is commonly set to webmaster@hostname, where hostname is the address of
the server. Once set, alias webmaster to the person responsible for the web server in /etc/
aliases, and as superuser, run the newaliases command.
Example 13.59. Using the ServerAdmin directive
ServerAdmin webmaster@penguin.example.com
ServerName
The ServerName directive allows you to specify the hostname and the port number of a web
server. It takes the following form:
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ServerName hostname[:port]
The hostname has to be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the server. The port is
optional, but when supplied, it has to match the number specified by the Listen directive.
When using this directive, make sure that the IP address and server name pair are included in the
/etc/hosts file.
Example 13.60. Using the ServerName directive
ServerName penguin.example.com:80
ServerRoot
The ServerRoot directive allows you to specify the directory in which the server operates. It
takes the following form:
ServerRoot directory
The directory must be a full path to an existing directory in the local file system. The default
option is /etc/httpd/.
Example 13.61. Using the ServerRoot directive
ServerRoot /etc/httpd
ServerSignature
The ServerSignature directive allows you to enable displaying information about the server on
server-generated documents. It takes the following form:
ServerSignature option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.17, “Available ServerSignature
options”. The default option is On.
Table 13.17. Available ServerSignature options
Option
Description
On
Enables appending the server name and version to server-generated
pages.
Off
Disables appending the server name and version to server-generated
pages.
EMail
Enables appending the server name, version, and the email address of
the system administrator as specified by the ServerAdmin directive to
server-generated pages.
Example 13.62. Using the ServerSignature directive
ServerSignature On
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ServerTokens
The ServerTokens directive allows you to customize what information are included in the Server
response header. It takes the following form:
ServerTokens option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.18, “Available ServerTokens
options”. The default option is OS.
Table 13.18. Available ServerTokens options
Option
Description
Prod
Includes the product name only (that is, Apache).
Major
Includes the product name and the major version of the server (for
example, 2).
Minor
Includes the product name and the minor version of the server (for
example, 2.2).
Min
Includes the product name and the minimal version of the server (for
example, 2.2.15).
OS
Includes the product name, the minimal version of the server, and the
type of the operating system it is running on (for example, Red Hat).
Full
Includes all the information above along with the list of loaded modules.
Note that for security reasons, it is recommended to reveal as little information about the server as
possible.
Example 13.63. Using the ServerTokens directive
ServerTokens Prod
SuexecUserGroup
The SuexecUserGroup directive allows you to specify the user and group under which the CGI
scripts will be run. It takes the following form:
SuexecUserGroup user group
The user has to be an existing user, and the group must be a valid UNIX group.
For security reasons, the CGI scripts should not be run with root privileges. Note that in
<VirtualHost>, SuexecUserGroup replaces the User and Group directives.
Example 13.64. Using the SuexecUserGroup directive
SuexecUserGroup apache apache
Timeout
The Timeout directive allows you to specify the amount of time to wait for an event before closing
a connection. It takes the following form:
Timeout time
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The time is specified in seconds. The default option is 60.
Example 13.65. Using the Timeout directive
Timeout 60
TypesConfig
The TypesConfig allows you to specify the location of the MIME types configuration file. It takes
the following form:
TypesConfig path
The path refers to an existing MIME types configuration file, and can be either absolute, or
relative to the directory that is specified by the ServerRoot directive (that is, /etc/httpd/ by
default). The default option is /etc/mime.types.
Note that instead of editing /etc/mime.types, the recommended way to add MIME type
mapping to the Apache HTTP Server is to use the AddType directive.
Example 13.66. Using the TypesConfig directive
TypesConfig /etc/mime.types
UseCanonicalName
The UseCanonicalName allows you to specify the way the server refers to itself. It takes the
following form:
UseCanonicalName option
The option has to be a valid keyword as described in Table 13.19, “Available
UseCanonicalName options”. The default option is Off.
Table 13.19. Available UseCanonicalName options
Option
Description
On
Enables the use of the name that is specified by the ServerName
directive.
Off
Disables the use of the name that is specified by the ServerName
directive. The hostname and port number provided by the requesting
client are used instead.
DNS
Disables the use of the name that is specified by the ServerName
directive. The hostname determined by a reverse DNS lookup is used
instead.
Example 13.67. Using the UseCanonicalName directive
UseCanonicalName Off
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User
The User directive allows you to specify the user under which the httpd service will run. It takes
the following form:
User user
The user has to be an existing UNIX user. The default option is apache.
For security reasons, the httpd service should not be run with root privileges. Note that User is
no longer supported inside <VirtualHost>, and has been replaced by the SuexecUserGroup
directive.
Example 13.68. Using the User directive
User apache
UserDir
The UserDir directive allows you to enable serving content from users' home directories. It takes
the following form:
UserDir option
The option can be either a name of the directory to look for in user's home directory (typically
public_html), or a valid keyword as described in Table 13.20, “Available UserDir options”. The
default option is disabled.
Table 13.20. Available UserDir options
Option
Description
enabled user…
Enables serving content from home directories of given users.
disabled [user…]
Disables serving content from home directories, either for all users, or,
if a space separated list of users is supplied, for given users only.
Set the correct permissions
In order for the web server to access the content, the permissions on relevant directories and
files must be set correctly. Make sure that all users are able to access the home directories,
and that they can access and read the content of the directory specified by the UserDir
directive. For example, to allow access to public_html/ in the home directory of user joe,
type the following at a shell prompt as root:
~]# chmod a+x /home/joe/
~]# chmod a+rx /home/joe/public_html/
All files in this directory must be set accordingly.
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Example 13.69. Using the UserDir directive
UserDir public_html
13.1.5.2. Common ssl.conf Directives
The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) directives allow you to customize the behavior of the Apache HTTP
Secure Server, and in most cases, they are configured appropriately during the installation. Be careful
when changing these settings, as incorrect configuration can lead to security vulnerabilities.
The following directive is commonly used in /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf:
SetEnvIf
The SetEnvIf directive allows you to set environment variables based on the headers of
incoming connections. It takes the following form:
SetEnvIf option pattern [!]variable[=value]…
The option can be either a HTTP header field, a previously defined environment variable name,
or a valid keyword as described in Table 13.21, “Available SetEnvIf options”. The pattern is a
regular expression. The variable is an environment variable that is set when the option matches
the pattern. If the optional exclamation mark (that is, !) is present, the variable is removed instead
of being set.
Table 13.21. Available SetEnvIf options
Option
Description
Remote_Host
Refers to the client's hostname.
Remote_Addr
Refers to the client's IP address.
Server_Addr
Refers to the server's IP address.
Request_Method
Refers to the request method (for example, GET).
Request_Protocol
Refers to the protocol name and version (for example, HTTP/1.1).
Request_URI
Refers to the requested resource.
The SetEnvIf directive is used to disable HTTP keepalives, and to allow SSL to close the
connection without a closing notification from the client browser. This is necessary for certain web
browsers that do not reliably shut down the SSL connection.
Example 13.70. Using the SetEnvIf directive
SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
Note that for the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf file to be present, the mod_ssl needs to be
installed. Refer to Section 13.1.8, “Setting Up an SSL Server” for more information on how to install
and configure an SSL server.
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13.1.5.3. Common Multi-Processing Module Directives
The Multi-Processing Module (MPM) directives allow you to customize the behavior of a particular
MPM specific server-pool. Since its characteristics differ depending on which MPM is used, the
directives are embedded in IfModule. By default, the server-pool is defined for both the prefork
and worker MPMs.
The following MPM directives are commonly used in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
MaxClients
The MaxClients directive allows you to specify the maximum number of simultaneously
connected clients to process at one time. It takes the following form:
MaxClients number
A high number can improve the performance of the server, although it is not recommended to
exceed 256 when using the prefork MPM.
Example 13.71. Using the MaxClients directive
MaxClients 256
MaxRequestsPerChild
The MaxRequestsPerChild directive allows you to specify the maximum number of request a
child process can serve before it dies. It takes the following form:
MaxRequestsPerChild number
Setting the number to 0 allows unlimited number of requests.
The MaxRequestsPerChild directive is used to prevent long-lived processes from causing
memory leaks.
Example 13.72. Using the MaxRequestsPerChild directive
MaxRequestsPerChild 4000
MaxSpareServers
The MaxSpareServers directive allows you to specify the maximum number of spare child
processes. It takes the following form:
MaxSpareServers number
This directive is used by the prefork MPM only.
Example 13.73. Using the MaxSpareServers directive
MaxSpareServers 20
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MaxSpareThreads
The MaxSpareThreads directive allows you to specify the maximum number of spare server
threads. It takes the following form:
MaxSpareThreads number
The number must be greater than or equal to the sum of MinSpareThreads and
ThreadsPerChild. This directive is used by the worker MPM only.
Example 13.74. Using the MaxSpareThreads directive
MaxSpareThreads 75
MinSpareServers
The MinSpareServers directive allows you to specify the minimum number of spare child
processes. It takes the following form:
MinSpareServers number
Note that a high number can create a heavy processing load on the server. This directive is used
by the prefork MPM only.
Example 13.75. Using the MinSpareServers directive
MinSpareServers 5
MinSpareThreads
The MinSpareThreads directive allows you to specify the minimum number of spare server
threads. It takes the following form:
MinSpareThreads number
This directive is used by the worker MPM only.
Example 13.76. Using the MinSpareThreads directive
MinSpareThreads 75
StartServers
The StartServers directive allows you to specify the number of child processes to create when
the service is started. It takes the following form:
StartServers number
Since the child processes are dynamically created and terminated according to the current traffic
load, it is usually not necessary to change this value.
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Example 13.77. Using the StartServers directive
StartServers 8
ThreadsPerChild
The ThreadsPerChild directive allows you to specify the number of threads a child process can
create. It takes the following form:
ThreadsPerChild number
This directive is used by the worker MPM only.
Example 13.78. Using the ThreadsPerChild directive
ThreadsPerChild 25
13.1.6. Working with Modules
Being a modular application, the httpd service is distributed along with a number of Dynamic Shared
Objects (DSOs), which can be dynamically loaded or unloaded at runtime as necessary. By default,
these modules are located in /usr/lib/httpd/modules/ on 32-bit and in /usr/lib64/httpd/
modules/ on 64-bit systems.
13.1.6.1. Loading a Module
To load a particular DSO module, use the LoadModule directive as described in Section 13.1.5.1,
“Common httpd.conf Directives”. Note that modules provided by a separate package often have their
own configuration file in the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.
Example 13.79. Loading the mod_ssl DSO
LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so
Once you are finished, restart the web server to reload the configuration. Refer to Section 13.1.4.3,
“Restarting the Service” for more information on how to restart the httpd service.
13.1.6.2. Writing a Module
If you intend to create a new DSO module, make sure you have the httpd-devel package installed. To
do so, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum install httpd-devel
This package contains the include files, the header files, and the APache eXtenSion (apxs) utility
required to compile a module.
Once written, you can build the module with the following command:
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apxs -i -a -c module_name.c
If the build was successful, you should be able to load the module the same way as any other module
that is distributed with the Apache HTTP Server.
13.1.7. Setting Up Virtual Hosts
The Apache HTTP Server's built in virtual hosting allows the server to provide different information
based on which IP address, hostname, or port is being requested.
To create a name-based virtual host, find the virtual host container provided in /etc/httpd/conf/
httpd.conf as an example, remove the hash sign (that is, #) from the beginning of each line, and
customize the options according to your requirements as shown in Example 13.80, “Sample virtual
host configuration”.
Example 13.80. Sample virtual host configuration
NameVirtualHost penguin.example.com:80
<VirtualHost penguin.example.com:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@penguin.example.com
DocumentRoot /www/docs/penguin.example.com
ServerName penguin.example.com:80
ErrorLog logs/penguin.example.com-error_log
CustomLog logs/penguin.example.com-access_log common
</VirtualHost>
Note that ServerName must be a valid DNS name assigned to the machine. The <VirtualHost>
container is highly customizable, and accepts most of the directives available within the main server
configuration. Directives that are not supported within this container include User and Group, which
were replaced by SuexecUserGroup.
Changing the port number
If you configure a virtual host to listen on a non-default port, make sure you update the Listen
directive in the global settings section of the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf file accordingly.
To activate a newly created virtual host, the web server has to be restarted first. Refer to
Section 13.1.4.3, “Restarting the Service” for more information on how to restart the httpd service.
13.1.8. Setting Up an SSL Server
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographic protocol that allows a server and a client to
communicate securely. Along with its extended and improved version called Transport Layer Security
(TLS), it ensures both privacy and data integrity. The Apache HTTP Server in combination with
mod_ssl, a module that uses the OpenSSL toolkit to provide the SSL/TLS support, is commonly
referred to as the SSL server.
Unlike a regular HTTP connection that can be read and possibly modified by anybody who is able to
intercept it, the use of mod_ssl prevents any inspection or modification of the transmitted content.
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This section provides basic information on how to enable this module in the Apache HTTP Server
configuration, and guides you through the process of generating private keys and self-signed
certificates.
13.1.8.1. An Overview of Certificates and Security
Secure communication is based on the use of keys. In conventional or symmetric cryptography, both
ends of the transaction have the same key they can use to decode each other's transmissions. On the
other hand, in public or asymmetric cryptography, two keys co-exist: a private key that is kept a secret,
and a public key that is usually shared with the public. While the data encoded with the public key can
only be decoded with the private key, data encoded with the private key can in turn only be decoded
with the public key.
To provide secure communications using SSL, an SSL server must use a digital certificate signed
by a Certificate Authority (CA). The certificate lists various attributes of the server (that is, the server
hostname, the name of the company, its location, etc.), and the signature produced using the CA's
private key. This signature ensures that a particular certificate authority has issued the certificate, and
that the certificate has not been modified in any way.
When a web browser establishes a new SSL connection, it checks the certificate provided by the web
server. If the certificate does not have a signature from a trusted CA, or if the hostname listed in the
certificate does not match the hostname used to establish the connection, it refuses to communicate
with the server and usually presents a user with an appropriate error message.
By default, most web browsers are configured to trust a set of widely used certificate authorities.
Because of this, an appropriate CA should be chosen when setting up a secure server, so that target
users can trust the connection, otherwise they will be presented with an error message, and will have
to accept the certificate manually. Since encouraging users to override certificate errors can allow
an attacker to intercept the connection, you should use a trusted CA whenever possible. For more
information on this, see Table 13.22, “CA lists for most common web browsers”.
Table 13.22. CA lists for most common web browsers
Web Browser
Link
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla root CA list .
Opera
The Opera Rootstore .
Internet Explorer
Windows root certificate program members .
2
3
4
When setting up an SSL server, you need to generate a certificate request and a private key, and then
send the certificate request, proof of the company's identity, and payment to a certificate authority.
Once the CA verifies the certificate request and your identity, it will send you a signed certificate you
can use with your server. Alternatively, you can create a self-signed certificate that does not contain a
CA signature, and thus should be used for testing purposes only.
13.1.8.2. Enabling the mod_ssl Module
If you intend to set up an SSL server, make sure you have the mod_ssl (the mod_ssl module) and
openssl (the OpenSSL toolkit) packages installed. To do so, type the following at a shell prompt as
root:
2
http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/certs/included/
http://my.opera.com/rootstore/blog/
4
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/931125
3
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yum install mod_ssl openssl
This will create the mod_ssl configuration file at /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf, which is
included in the main Apache HTTP Server configuration file by default. For the module to be loaded,
restart the httpd service as described in Section 13.1.4.3, “Restarting the Service”.
13.1.8.3. Using an Existing Key and Certificate
If you have a previously created key and certificate, you can configure the SSL server to use these
files instead of generating new ones. There are only two situations where this is not possible:
1. You are changing the IP address or domain name.
Certificates are issued for a particular IP address and domain name pair. If one of these values
changes, the certificate becomes invalid.
2. You have a certificate from VeriSign, and you are changing the server software.
VeriSign, a widely used certificate authority, issues certificates for a particular software product, IP
address, and domain name. Changing the software product renders the certificate invalid.
In either of the above cases, you will need to obtain a new certificate. For more information on this
topic, refer to Section 13.1.8.4, “Generating a New Key and Certificate”.
If you wish to use an existing key and certificate, move the relevant files to the /etc/pki/tls/
private/ and /etc/pki/tls/certs/ directories respectively. You can do so by running the
following commands as root:
mv key_file.key /etc/pki/tls/private/hostname.key
mv certificate.crt /etc/pki/tls/certs/hostname.crt
Then add the following lines to the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf configuration file:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/hostname.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/hostname.key
To load the updated configuration, restart the httpd service as described in Section 13.1.4.3,
“Restarting the Service”.
Example 13.81. Using a key and certificate from the Red Hat Secure Web Server
~]# mv /etc/httpd/conf/httpsd.key /etc/pki/tls/private/penguin.example.com.key
~]# mv /etc/httpd/conf/httpsd.crt /etc/pki/tls/certs/penguin.example.com.crt
13.1.8.4. Generating a New Key and Certificate
In order to generate a new key and certificate pair, you must to have the crypto-utils package installed
in your system. As root, you can install it by typing the following at a shell prompt:
yum install crypto-utils
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This package provides a set of tools to generate and manage SSL certificates and private keys, and
includes genkey, the Red Hat Keypair Generation utility that will guide you through the key generation
process.
Replacing an existing certificate
If the server already has a valid certificate and you are replacing it with a new one, specify a
different serial number. This ensures that client browsers are notified of this change, update to
this new certificate as expected, and do not fail to access the page. To create a new certificate
with a custom serial number, as root, use the following command instead of genkey:
openssl req -x509 -new -set_serial number -key hostname.key -out hostname.crt
Remove a previously created key
If there already is a key file for a particular hostname in your system, genkey will refuse to start.
In this case, remove the existing file using the following command as root:
rm /etc/pki/tls/private/hostname.key
To run the utility, as root, run the genkey command followed by the appropriate hostname (for
example, penguin.example.com):
genkey hostname
To complete the key and certificate creation, take the following steps:
1.
Review the target locations in which the key and certificate will be stored.
Figure 13.1. Running the genkey utility
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Use the Tab key to select the Next button, and press Enter to proceed to the next screen.
2.
Using the Up and down arrow keys, select the suitable key size. Note that while the large key
increases the security, it also increases the response time of your server. Because of this, the
recommended option is 1024 bits.
Figure 13.2. Selecting the key size
Once finished, use the Tab key to select the Next button, and press Enter to initiate the random
bits generation process. Depending on the selected key size, this may take some time.
3.
Decide whether you wish to send a certificate request to a certificate authority.
Figure 13.3. Generating a certificate request
Use the Tab key to select Yes to compose a certificate request, or No to generate a self-signed
certificate. Then press Enter to confirm your choice.
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4.
Using the Spacebar key, enable ([*]) or disable ([ ]) the encryption of the private key.
Figure 13.4. Encrypting the private key
Use the Tab key to select the Next button, and press Enter to proceed to the next screen.
5.
If you have enabled the private key encryption, enter an adequate passphrase. Note that for
security reasons, it is not displayed as you type, and it must be at least five characters long.
Figure 13.5. Entering a passphrase
Use the Tab key to select the Next button, and press Enter to proceed to the next screen.
Do not forget the passphrase
Entering the correct passphrase is required in order for the server to start. If you lose it, you
will need to generate a new key and certificate.
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6.
Customize the certificate details.
Figure 13.6. Specifying certificate information
Use the Tab key to select the Next button, and press Enter to finish the key generation.
7.
If you have previously enabled the certificate request generation, you will be prompted to send it
to a certificate authority.
Figure 13.7. Instructions on how to send a certificate request
Press Enter to return to a shell prompt.
Once generated, add the key and certificate locations to the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf
configuration file:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/hostname.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/hostname.key
Finally, restart the httpd service as described in Section 13.1.4.3, “Restarting the Service”, so that
the updated configuration is loaded.
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13.1.9. Additional Resources
To learn more about the Apache HTTP Server, refer to the following resources.
13.1.9.1. Installed Documentation
http://localhost/manual/
The official documentation for the Apache HTTP Server with the full description of its directives
and available modules. Note that in order to access this documentation, you must have the httpdmanual package installed, and the web server must be running.
man httpd
The manual page for the httpd service containing the complete list of its command line options.
man genkey
The manual page for genkey containing the full documentation on its usage.
13.1.9.2. Useful Websites
http://httpd.apache.org/
The official website for the Apache HTTP Server with documentation on all the directives and
default modules.
http://www.modssl.org/
The official website for the mod_ssl module.
http://www.openssl.org/
The OpenSSL home page containing further documentation, frequently asked questions, links to
the mailing lists, and other useful resources.
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Mail Servers
Email was born in the 1960s. The mailbox was a file in a user's home directory that was readable only
by that user. Primitive mail applications appended new text messages to the bottom of the file, making
the user wade through the constantly growing file to find any particular message. This system was
only capable of sending messages to users on the same system.
The first network transfer of an electronic mail message file took place in 1971 when a computer
engineer named Ray Tomlinson sent a test message between two machines via ARPANET—the
precursor to the Internet. Communication via email soon became very popular, comprising 75 percent
of ARPANET's traffic in less than two years.
Today, email systems based on standardized network protocols have evolved into some of the most
widely used services on the Internet. Fedora offers many advanced applications to serve and access
email.
This chapter reviews modern email protocols in use today, and some of the programs designed to
send and receive email.
14.1. Email Protocols
Today, email is delivered using a client/server architecture. An email message is created using a
mail client program. This program then sends the message to a server. The server then forwards the
message to the recipient's email server, where the message is then supplied to the recipient's email
client.
To enable this process, a variety of standard network protocols allow different machines, often running
different operating systems and using different email programs, to send and receive email.
The following protocols discussed are the most commonly used in the transfer of email.
14.1.1. Mail Transport Protocols
Mail delivery from a client application to the server, and from an originating server to the destination
server, is handled by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
14.1.1.1. SMTP
The primary purpose of SMTP is to transfer email between mail servers. However, it is critical for email
clients as well. To send email, the client sends the message to an outgoing mail server, which in turn
contacts the destination mail server for delivery. For this reason, it is necessary to specify an SMTP
server when configuring an email client.
Under Fedora, a user can configure an SMTP server on the local machine to handle mail delivery.
However, it is also possible to configure remote SMTP servers for outgoing mail.
One important point to make about the SMTP protocol is that it does not require authentication. This
allows anyone on the Internet to send email to anyone else or even to large groups of people. It is
this characteristic of SMTP that makes junk email or spam possible. Imposing relay restrictions limits
random users on the Internet from sending email through your SMTP server, to other servers on the
internet. Servers that do not impose such restrictions are called open relay servers.
Fedora provides the Postfix and Sendmail SMTP programs.
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14.1.2. Mail Access Protocols
There are two primary protocols used by email client applications to retrieve email from mail servers:
the Post Office Protocol (POP) and the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).
14.1.2.1. POP
The default POP server under Fedora is Dovecot and is provided by the dovecot package.
Installing the dovecot package
In order to use Dovecot, first ensure the dovecot package is installed on your system by
running, as root:
yum install dovecot
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
When using a POP server, email messages are downloaded by email client applications. By default,
most POP email clients are automatically configured to delete the message on the email server after it
has been successfully transferred, however this setting usually can be changed.
POP is fully compatible with important Internet messaging standards, such as Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions (MIME), which allow for email attachments.
POP works best for users who have one system on which to read email. It also works well for
users who do not have a persistent connection to the Internet or the network containing the mail
server. Unfortunately for those with slow network connections, POP requires client programs upon
authentication to download the entire content of each message. This can take a long time if any
messages have large attachments.
The most current version of the standard POP protocol is POP3.
There are, however, a variety of lesser-used POP protocol variants:
• APOP — POP3 with MDS (Monash Directory Service) authentication. An encoded hash of the user's
password is sent from the email client to the server rather then sending an unencrypted password.
• KPOP — POP3 with Kerberos authentication.
• RPOP — POP3 with RPOP authentication. This uses a per-user ID, similar to a password, to
authenticate POP requests. However, this ID is not encrypted, so RPOP is no more secure than
standard POP.
For added security, it is possible to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption for client authentication
and data transfer sessions. This can be enabled by using the pop3s service, or by using the /
usr/sbin/stunnel application. For more information on securing email communication, refer to
Section 14.5.1, “Securing Communication”.
14.1.2.2. IMAP
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The default IMAP server under Fedora is Dovecot and is provided by the dovecot package. Refer to
Section 14.1.2.1, “POP” for information on how to install Dovecot.
When using an IMAP mail server, email messages remain on the server where users can read or
delete them. IMAP also allows client applications to create, rename, or delete mail directories on the
server to organize and store email.
IMAP is particularly useful for users who access their email using multiple machines. The protocol is
also convenient for users connecting to the mail server via a slow connection, because only the email
header information is downloaded for messages until opened, saving bandwidth. The user also has
the ability to delete messages without viewing or downloading them.
For convenience, IMAP client applications are capable of caching copies of messages locally, so the
user can browse previously read messages when not directly connected to the IMAP server.
IMAP, like POP, is fully compatible with important Internet messaging standards, such as MIME, which
allow for email attachments.
For added security, it is possible to use SSL encryption for client authentication and data transfer
sessions. This can be enabled by using the imaps service, or by using the /usr/sbin/stunnel
program. For more information on securing email communication, refer to Section 14.5.1, “Securing
Communication”.
Other free, as well as commercial, IMAP clients and servers are available, many of which extend the
IMAP protocol and provide additional functionality.
14.1.2.3. Dovecot
The imap-login and pop3-login processes which implement the IMAP and POP3 protocols are
spawned by the master dovecot daemon included in the dovecot package. The use of IMAP and POP
is configured through the /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf configuration file; by default dovecot
runs IMAP and POP3 together with their secure versions using SSL. To configure dovecot to use
POP, complete the following steps:
1. Edit the /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf configuration file to make sure the protocols variable
is uncommented (remove the hash sign (#) at the beginning of the line) and contains the pop3
argument. For example:
protocols = imap imaps pop3 pop3s
When the protocols variable is left commented out, dovecot will use the default values
specified for this variable.
2. Make that change operational for the current session by running the following command as root:
systemctl restart dovecot.service
3. Make that change operational after the next reboot by running the command:
systemctl enable dovecot.service
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The dovecot service starts the POP3 server
Please note that dovecot only reports that it started the IMAP server, but also starts the
POP3 server.
Unlike SMTP, both IMAP and POP3 require connecting clients to authenticate using a username and
password. By default, passwords for both protocols are passed over the network unencrypted.
To configure SSL on dovecot:
• Edit the /etc/pki/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.conf configuration file as you prefer. However,
in a typical installation, this file does not require modification.
• Rename, move or delete the files /etc/pki/dovecot/certs/dovecot.pem and /etc/pki/
dovecot/private/dovecot.pem.
• Execute the /usr/libexec/dovecot/mkcert.sh script which creates the dovecot self signed
certificates. These certificates are copied in the /etc/pki/dovecot/certs and /etc/pki/
dovecot/private directories. To implement the changes, restart dovecot by typing the following
at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl restart dovecot.service
More details on dovecot can be found online at http://www.dovecot.org.
14.2. Email Program Classifications
In general, all email applications fall into at least one of three classifications. Each classification plays
a specific role in the process of moving and managing email messages. While most users are only
aware of the specific email program they use to receive and send messages, each one is important for
ensuring that email arrives at the correct destination.
14.2.1. Mail Transport Agent
A Mail Transport Agent (MTA) transports email messages between hosts using SMTP. A message may
involve several MTAs as it moves to its intended destination.
While the delivery of messages between machines may seem rather straightforward, the entire
process of deciding if a particular MTA can or should accept a message for delivery is quite
complicated. In addition, due to problems from spam, use of a particular MTA is usually restricted by
the MTA's configuration or the access configuration for the network on which the MTA resides.
Many modern email client programs can act as an MTA when sending email. However, this action
should not be confused with the role of a true MTA. The sole reason email client programs are capable
of sending email like an MTA is because the host running the application does not have its own MTA.
This is particularly true for email client programs on non-UNIX-based operating systems. However,
these client programs only send outbound messages to an MTA they are authorized to use and do not
directly deliver the message to the intended recipient's email server.
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Since Fedora offers two MTAs—Postfix and Sendmail—email client programs are often not required to
act as an MTA. Fedora also includes a special purpose MTA called Fetchmail.
For more information on Postfix, Sendmail, and Fetchmail, refer to Section 14.3, “Mail Transport
Agents”.
14.2.2. Mail Delivery Agent
A Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) is invoked by the MTA to file incoming email in the proper user's mailbox.
In many cases, the MDA is actually a Local Delivery Agent (LDA), such as mail or Procmail.
Any program that actually handles a message for delivery to the point where it can be read by an
email client application can be considered an MDA. For this reason, some MTAs (such as Sendmail
and Postfix) can fill the role of an MDA when they append new email messages to a local user's mail
spool file. In general, MDAs do not transport messages between systems nor do they provide a user
interface; MDAs distribute and sort messages on the local machine for an email client application to
access.
14.2.3. Mail User Agent
A Mail User Agent (MUA) is synonymous with an email client application. An MUA is a program that,
at the very least, allows a user to read and compose email messages. Many MUAs are capable of
retrieving messages via the POP or IMAP protocols, setting up mailboxes to store messages, and
sending outbound messages to an MTA.
MUAs may be graphical, such as Evolution, or have simple text-based interfaces, such as pine.
14.3. Mail Transport Agents
Fedora offers two primary MTAs: Postfix and Sendmail. Postfix is configured as the default MTA,
although it is easy to switch the default MTA to Sendmail. To switch the default MTA to Sendmail, as
root, you can either uninstall Postfix or use the following command to switch to Sendmail:
alternatives --config mta
You can also use the following command to enable/disable the desired service:
systemctl enable|disable service.service
14.3.1. Postfix
Originally developed at IBM by security expert and programmer Wietse Venema, Postfix is a
Sendmail-compatible MTA that is designed to be secure, fast, and easy to configure.
To improve security, Postfix uses a modular design, where small processes with limited privileges are
launched by a master daemon. The smaller, less privileged processes perform very specific tasks
related to the various stages of mail delivery and run in a change rooted environment to limit the
effects of attacks.
Configuring Postfix to accept network connections from hosts other than the local computer takes only
a few minor changes in its configuration file. Yet for those with more complex needs, Postfix provides
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a variety of configuration options, as well as third party add-ons that make it a very versatile and fullfeatured MTA.
The configuration files for Postfix are human readable and support upward of 250 directives. Unlike
Sendmail, no macro processing is required for changes to take effect and the majority of the most
commonly used options are described in the heavily commented files.
14.3.1.1. The Default Postfix Installation
The Postfix executable is /usr/sbin/postfix. This daemon launches all related processes needed
to handle mail delivery.
Postfix stores its configuration files in the /etc/postfix/ directory. The following is a list of the more
commonly used files:
• access — Used for access control, this file specifies which hosts are allowed to connect to Postfix.
• main.cf — The global Postfix configuration file. The majority of configuration options are specified
in this file.
• master.cf — Specifies how Postfix interacts with various processes to accomplish mail delivery.
• transport — Maps email addresses to relay hosts.
The aliases file can be found in the /etc/ directory. This file is shared between Postfix and
Sendmail. It is a configurable list required by the mail protocol that describes user ID aliases.
Configuring Postfix as a server for other clients
The default /etc/postfix/main.cf file does not allow Postfix to accept network connections
from a host other than the local computer. For instructions on configuring Postfix as a server for
other clients, refer to Section 14.3.1.2, “Basic Postfix Configuration”.
Restart the postfix service after changing any options in the configuration files under the /etc/
postfix directory in order for those changes to take effect. To do so, run the following command as
root:
systemctl restart postfix.service
14.3.1.2. Basic Postfix Configuration
By default, Postfix does not accept network connections from any host other than the local host.
Perform the following steps as root to enable mail delivery for other hosts on the network:
• Edit the /etc/postfix/main.cf file with a text editor, such as vi.
• Uncomment the mydomain line by removing the hash sign (#), and replace domain.tld with the
domain the mail server is servicing, such as example.com.
• Uncomment the myorigin = $mydomain line.
• Uncomment the myhostname line, and replace host.domain.tld with the hostname for the
machine.
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• Uncomment the mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain line.
• Uncomment the mynetworks line, and replace 168.100.189.0/28 with a valid network setting
for hosts that can connect to the server.
• Uncomment the inet_interfaces = all line.
• Comment the inet_interfaces = localhost line.
• Restart the postfix service.
Once these steps are complete, the host accepts outside emails for delivery.
Postfix has a large assortment of configuration options. One of the best ways to learn how to
configure Postfix is to read the comments within the /etc/postfix/main.cf configuration file.
Additional resources including information about Postfix configuration, SpamAssassin integration,
or detailed descriptions of the /etc/postfix/main.cf parameters are available online at http://
www.postfix.org/.
14.3.1.3. Using Postfix with LDAP
Postfix can use an LDAP directory as a source for various lookup tables (e.g.: aliases, virtual,
canonical, etc.). This allows LDAP to store hierarchical user information and Postfix to only be given
the result of LDAP queries when needed. By not storing this information locally, administrators can
easily maintain it.
14.3.1.3.1. The /etc/aliases lookup example
The following is a basic example for using LDAP to look up the /etc/aliases file. Make sure your /
etc/postfix/main.cf contains the following:
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases, ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap-aliases.cf
Create a /etc/postfix/ldap-aliases.cf file if you do not have one created already and make
sure it contains the following:
server_host = ldap.example.com
search_base = dc=example, dc=com
where ldap.example.com, example, and com are parameters that need to be replaced with
specification of an existing available LDAP server.
The /etc/postfix/ldap-aliases.cf file
The /etc/postfix/ldap-aliases.cf file can specify various parameters, including
parameters that enable LDAP SSL and STARTTLS. For more information, refer to the
ldap_table(5) man page.
For more information on LDAP, refer to Section 15.1, “OpenLDAP”.
14.3.2. Sendmail
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Sendmail's core purpose, like other MTAs, is to safely transfer email among hosts, usually using the
SMTP protocol. However, Sendmail is highly configurable, allowing control over almost every aspect of
how email is handled, including the protocol used. Many system administrators elect to use Sendmail
as their MTA due to its power and scalability.
14.3.2.1. Purpose and Limitations
It is important to be aware of what Sendmail is and what it can do, as opposed to what it is not. In
these days of monolithic applications that fulfill multiple roles, Sendmail may seem like the only
application needed to run an email server within an organization. Technically, this is true, as Sendmail
can spool mail to each users' directory and deliver outbound mail for users. However, most users
actually require much more than simple email delivery. Users usually want to interact with their email
using an MUA, that uses POP or IMAP, to download their messages to their local machine. Or, they
may prefer a Web interface to gain access to their mailbox. These other applications can work in
conjunction with Sendmail, but they actually exist for different reasons and can operate separately
from one another.
It is beyond the scope of this section to go into all that Sendmail should or could be configured to
do. With literally hundreds of different options and rule sets, entire volumes have been dedicated
to helping explain everything that can be done and how to fix things that go wrong. Refer to the
Section 14.6, “Additional Resources” for a list of Sendmail resources.
This section reviews the files installed with Sendmail by default and reviews basic configuration
changes, including how to stop unwanted email (spam) and how to extend Sendmail with the
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
14.3.2.2. The Default Sendmail Installation
In order to use Sendmail, first ensure the sendmail package is installed on your system by running, as
root:
yum install sendmail
In order to configure Sendmail, ensure the sendmail-cf package is installed on your system by running,
as root:
yum install sendmail-cf
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing Packages”.
Before using Sendmail, the default MTA has to be switched from Postfix. For more information how to
switch the default MTA refer to Section 14.3, “Mail Transport Agents”.
The Sendmail executable is /usr/sbin/sendmail.
Sendmail's lengthy and detailed configuration file is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Avoid editing
the sendmail.cf file directly. To make configuration changes to Sendmail, edit the /etc/
mail/sendmail.mc file, back up the original /etc/mail/sendmail.cf, and use the following
alternatives to generate a new configuration file:
• Use the included makefile in /etc/mail/ (~]# make all -C /etc/mail/) to create a new /
etc/mail/sendmail.cf configuration file. All other generated files in /etc/mail (db files) will
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be regenerated if needed. The old makemap commands are still usable. The make command will
automatically be used by systemctl start|restart|reload sendmail.service.
• Alternatively you may use the m4 macro processor to create a new /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.
The m4 macro processor is not installed by default. Before using it to create /etc/mail/
sendmail.cf, install the m4 package as root:
yum install m4
More information on configuring Sendmail can be found in Section 14.3.2.3, “Common Sendmail
Configuration Changes”.
Various Sendmail configuration files are installed in the /etc/mail/ directory including:
• access — Specifies which systems can use Sendmail for outbound email.
• domaintable — Specifies domain name mapping.
• local-host-names — Specifies aliases for the host.
• mailertable — Specifies instructions that override routing for particular domains.
• virtusertable — Specifies a domain-specific form of aliasing, allowing multiple virtual domains
to be hosted on one machine.
Several of the configuration files in /etc/mail/, such as access, domaintable, mailertable
and virtusertable, must actually store their information in database files before Sendmail can use
any configuration changes. To include any changes made to these configurations in their database
files, run the following command, as root:
makemap hash /etc/mail/name < /etc/mail/name
where name represents the name of the configuration file to be updated. You may also restart the
sendmail service for the changes to take effect by running:
systemctl restart sendmail.service
For example, to have all emails addressed to the example.com domain delivered to
bob@other-example.com , add the following line to the virtusertable file:
@example.com bob@other-example.com
To finalize the change, the virtusertable.db file must be updated:
makemap hash /etc/mail/virtusertable < /etc/mail/virtusertable
Sendmail will create an updated virtusertable.db file containing the new configuration.
14.3.2.3. Common Sendmail Configuration Changes
When altering the Sendmail configuration file, it is best not to edit an existing file, but to generate an
entirely new /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file.
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Backup the sendmail.cf file before changing its content
Before changing the sendmail.cf file, it is a good idea to create a backup copy.
To add the desired functionality to Sendmail, edit the /etc/mail/sendmail.mc file as root. Once
you are finished, restart the sendmail service and, if the m4 package is installed, the m4 macro
processor will automatically generate a new sendmail.cf configuration file:
systemctl restart sendmail.service
Configuring Sendmail as a server for other clients
The default sendmail.cf file does not allow Sendmail to accept network connections from any
host other than the local computer. To configure Sendmail as a server for other clients, edit the /
etc/mail/sendmail.mc file, and either change the address specified in the Addr= option of
the DAEMON_OPTIONS directive from 127.0.0.1 to the IP address of an active network device
or comment out the DAEMON_OPTIONS directive all together by placing dnl at the beginning of
the line. When finished, regenerate /etc/mail/sendmail.cf by restarting the service:
systemctl restart sendmail.service
The default configuration which ships with Fedora works for most SMTP-only sites. However, it does
not work for UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol) sites. If using UUCP mail transfers, the /etc/
mail/sendmail.mc file must be reconfigured and a new /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file must be
generated.
Consult the /usr/share/sendmail-cf/README file before editing any files in the directories under
the /usr/share/sendmail-cf directory, as they can affect the future configuration of the /etc/
mail/sendmail.cf file.
14.3.2.4. Masquerading
One common Sendmail configuration is to have a single machine act as a mail gateway for
all machines on the network. For instance, a company may want to have a machine called
mail.example.com that handles all of their email and assigns a consistent return address to all
outgoing mail.
In this situation, the Sendmail server must masquerade the machine names on the company network
so that their return address is user@example.com instead of user@host.example.com.
To do this, add the following lines to /etc/mail/sendmail.mc:
FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl
FEATURE(`masquerade_entire_domain')dnl
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FEATURE(`masquerade_envelope')dnl
FEATURE(`allmasquerade')dnl
MASQUERADE_AS(`bigcorp.com.')dnl
MASQUERADE_DOMAIN(`bigcorp.com.')dnl
MASQUERADE_AS(bigcorp.com)dnl
After generating a new sendmail.cf using the m4 macro processor, this configuration makes all mail
from inside the network appear as if it were sent from bigcorp.com.
14.3.2.5. Stopping Spam
Email spam can be defined as unnecessary and unwanted email received by a user who
never requested the communication. It is a disruptive, costly, and widespread abuse of Internet
communication standards.
Sendmail makes it relatively easy to block new spamming techniques being employed to send junk
email. It even blocks many of the more usual spamming methods by default. Main anti-spam features
available in sendmail are header checks, relaying denial (default from version 8.9), access database
and sender information checks.
For example, forwarding of SMTP messages, also called relaying, has been disabled by default since
Sendmail version 8.9. Before this change occurred, Sendmail directed the mail host (x.edu) to
accept messages from one party (y.com) and sent them to a different party (z.net). Now, however,
Sendmail must be configured to permit any domain to relay mail through the server. To configure relay
domains, edit the /etc/mail/relay-domains file and restart Sendmail:
systemctl restart sendmail.service
However, many times users are bombarded with spam from other servers throughout the Internet. In
these instances, Sendmail's access control features available through the /etc/mail/access file
can be used to prevent connections from unwanted hosts. The following example illustrates how this
file can be used to both block and specifically allow access to the Sendmail server:
badspammer.com ERROR:550 "Go away and do not spam us" tux.badspammer.com OK 10.0 RELAY
This example shows that any email sent from badspammer.com is blocked with a 550
RFC-821 compliant error code, with a message sent back to the spammer. Email sent from the
tux.badspammer.com sub-domain, is accepted. The last line shows that any email sent from the
10.0.*.* network can be relayed through the mail server.
Because the /etc/mail/access.db file is a database, use the makemap command to update any
changes. Do this using the following command as root:
makemap hash /etc/mail/access < /etc/mail/access
Message header analysis allows you to reject mail based on header contents. SMTP servers store
information about an email's journey in the message header. As the message travels from one MTA
to another, each puts in a Received header above all the other Received headers. It is important to
note that this information may be altered by spammers.
The above examples only represent a small part of what Sendmail can do in terms of allowing or
blocking access. Refer to the /usr/share/sendmail-cf/README for more information and
examples.
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Since Sendmail calls the Procmail MDA when delivering mail, it is also possible to use a spam filtering
program, such as SpamAssassin, to identify and file spam for users. Refer to Section 14.4.2.6, “Spam
Filters” for more information about using SpamAssassin.
14.3.2.6. Using Sendmail with LDAP
Using LDAP is a very quick and powerful way to find specific information about a particular user from
a much larger group. For example, an LDAP server can be used to look up a particular email address
from a common corporate directory by the user's last name. In this kind of implementation, LDAP is
largely separate from Sendmail, with LDAP storing the hierarchical user information and Sendmail only
being given the result of LDAP queries in pre-addressed email messages.
However, Sendmail supports a much greater integration with LDAP, where it uses LDAP to replace
separately maintained files, such as /etc/aliases and /etc/mail/virtusertables, on
different mail servers that work together to support a medium- to enterprise-level organization. In
short, LDAP abstracts the mail routing level from Sendmail and its separate configuration files to a
powerful LDAP cluster that can be leveraged by many different applications.
The current version of Sendmail contains support for LDAP. To extend the Sendmail server using
LDAP, first get an LDAP server, such as OpenLDAP, running and properly configured. Then edit the /
etc/mail/sendmail.mc to include the following:
LDAPROUTE_DOMAIN('yourdomain.com')dnl
FEATURE('ldap_routing')dnl
Advanced configuration
This is only for a very basic configuration of Sendmail with LDAP. The configuration can differ
greatly from this depending on the implementation of LDAP, especially when configuring several
Sendmail machines to use a common LDAP server.
Consult /usr/share/sendmail-cf/README for detailed LDAP routing configuration
instructions and examples.
Next, recreate the /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file by running the m4 macro processor and again
restarting Sendmail. Refer to Section 14.3.2.3, “Common Sendmail Configuration Changes” for
instructions.
For more information on LDAP, refer to Section 15.1, “OpenLDAP”.
14.3.3. Fetchmail
Fetchmail is an MTA which retrieves email from remote servers and delivers it to the local MTA. Many
users appreciate the ability to separate the process of downloading their messages located on a
remote server from the process of reading and organizing their email in an MUA. Designed with the
needs of dial-up users in mind, Fetchmail connects and quickly downloads all of the email messages
to the mail spool file using any number of protocols, including POP3 and IMAP. It can even forward
email messages to an SMTP server, if necessary.
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Installing the fetchmail package
In order to use Fetchmail, first ensure the fetchmail package is installed on your system by
running, as root:
yum install fetchmail
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
Fetchmail is configured for each user through the use of a .fetchmailrc file in the user's home
directory. If it does not already exist, create the .fetchmailrc file in your home directory
Using preferences in the .fetchmailrc file, Fetchmail checks for email on a remote server and
downloads it. It then delivers it to port 25 on the local machine, using the local MTA to place the email
in the correct user's spool file. If Procmail is available, it is launched to filter the email and place it in a
mailbox so that it can be read by an MUA.
14.3.3.1. Fetchmail Configuration Options
Although it is possible to pass all necessary options on the command line to check for email on a
remote server when executing Fetchmail, using a .fetchmailrc file is much easier. Place any
desired configuration options in the .fetchmailrc file for those options to be used each time
the fetchmail command is issued. It is possible to override these at the time Fetchmail is run by
specifying that option on the command line.
A user's .fetchmailrc file contains three classes of configuration options:
• global options — Gives Fetchmail instructions that control the operation of the program or provide
settings for every connection that checks for email.
• server options — Specifies necessary information about the server being polled, such as the
hostname, as well as preferences for specific email servers, such as the port to check or number of
seconds to wait before timing out. These options affect every user using that server.
• user options — Contains information, such as username and password, necessary to authenticate
and check for email using a specified email server.
Global options appear at the top of the .fetchmailrc file, followed by one or more server options,
each of which designate a different email server that Fetchmail should check. User options follow
server options for each user account checking that email server. Like server options, multiple user
options may be specified for use with a particular server as well as to check multiple email accounts
on the same server.
Server options are called into service in the .fetchmailrc file by the use of a special option verb,
poll or skip, that precedes any of the server information. The poll action tells Fetchmail to use
this server option when it is run, which checks for email using the specified user options. Any server
options after a skip action, however, are not checked unless this server's hostname is specified when
Fetchmail is invoked. The skip option is useful when testing configurations in the .fetchmailrc file
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because it only checks skipped servers when specifically invoked, and does not affect any currently
working configurations.
The following is a sample example of a .fetchmailrc file:
set postmaster "user1"
set bouncemail
poll pop.domain.com proto pop3
user 'user1' there with password 'secret' is user1 here
poll mail.domain2.com
user 'user5' there with password 'secret2' is user1 here
user 'user7' there with password 'secret3' is user1 here
In this example, the global options specify that the user is sent email as a last resort (postmaster
option) and all email errors are sent to the postmaster instead of the sender (bouncemail option).
The set action tells Fetchmail that this line contains a global option. Then, two email servers are
specified, one set to check using POP3, the other for trying various protocols to find one that works.
Two users are checked using the second server option, but all email found for any user is sent to
user1's mail spool. This allows multiple mailboxes to be checked on multiple servers, while appearing
in a single MUA inbox. Each user's specific information begins with the user action.
Omitting the password from the configuration
Users are not required to place their password in the .fetchmailrc file. Omitting the with
password 'password' section causes Fetchmail to ask for a password when it is launched.
Fetchmail has numerous global, server, and local options. Many of these options are rarely used or
only apply to very specific situations. The fetchmail man page explains each option in detail, but the
most common ones are listed in the following three sections.
14.3.3.2. Global Options
Each global option should be placed on a single line after a set action.
• daemon seconds — Specifies daemon-mode, where Fetchmail stays in the background. Replace
seconds with the number of seconds Fetchmail is to wait before polling the server.
• postmaster — Specifies a local user to send mail to in case of delivery problems.
• syslog — Specifies the log file for errors and status messages. By default, this is /var/log/
maillog.
14.3.3.3. Server Options
Server options must be placed on their own line in .fetchmailrc after a poll or skip action.
• auth auth-type — Replace auth-type with the type of authentication to be used. By default,
password authentication is used, but some protocols support other types of authentication,
including kerberos_v5, kerberos_v4, and ssh. If the any authentication type is used, Fetchmail
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first tries methods that do not require a password, then methods that mask the password, and finally
attempts to send the password unencrypted to authenticate to the server.
• interval number — Polls the specified server every number of times that it checks for email
on all configured servers. This option is generally used for email servers where the user rarely
receives messages.
• port port-number — Replace port-number with the port number. This value overrides the
default port number for the specified protocol.
• proto protocol — Replace protocol with the protocol, such as pop3 or imap, to use when
checking for messages on the server.
• timeout seconds — Replace seconds with the number of seconds of server inactivity after
which Fetchmail gives up on a connection attempt. If this value is not set, a default of 300 seconds
is assumed.
14.3.3.4. User Options
User options may be placed on their own lines beneath a server option or on the same line as the
server option. In either case, the defined options must follow the user option (defined below).
• fetchall — Orders Fetchmail to download all messages in the queue, including messages that
have already been viewed. By default, Fetchmail only pulls down new messages.
• fetchlimit number — Replace number with the number of messages to be retrieved before
stopping.
• flush — Deletes all previously viewed messages in the queue before retrieving new messages.
• limit max-number-bytes — Replace max-number-bytes with the maximum size in bytes
that messages are allowed to be when retrieved by Fetchmail. This option is useful with slow
network links, when a large message takes too long to download.
• password 'password' — Replace password with the user's password.
• preconnect "command" — Replace command with a command to be executed before retrieving
messages for the user.
• postconnect "command" — Replace command with a command to be executed after retrieving
messages for the user.
• ssl — Activates SSL encryption.
• user "username" — Replace username with the username used by Fetchmail to retrieve
messages. This option must precede all other user options.
14.3.3.5. Fetchmail Command Options
Most Fetchmail options used on the command line when executing the fetchmail command mirror
the .fetchmailrc configuration options. In this way, Fetchmail may be used with or without a
configuration file. These options are not used on the command line by most users because it is easier
to leave them in the .fetchmailrc file.
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There may be times when it is desirable to run the fetchmail command with other options for a
particular purpose. It is possible to issue command options to temporarily override a .fetchmailrc
setting that is causing an error, as any options specified at the command line override configuration file
options.
14.3.3.6. Informational or Debugging Options
Certain options used after the fetchmail command can supply important information.
• --configdump — Displays every possible option based on information from .fetchmailrc and
Fetchmail defaults. No email is retrieved for any users when using this option.
• -s — Executes Fetchmail in silent mode, preventing any messages, other than errors, from
appearing after the fetchmail command.
• -v — Executes Fetchmail in verbose mode, displaying every communication between Fetchmail
and remote email servers.
• -V — Displays detailed version information, lists its global options, and shows settings to be used
with each user, including the email protocol and authentication method. No email is retrieved for any
users when using this option.
14.3.3.7. Special Options
These options are occasionally useful for overriding defaults often found in the .fetchmailrc file.
• -a — Fetchmail downloads all messages from the remote email server, whether new or previously
viewed. By default, Fetchmail only downloads new messages.
• -k — Fetchmail leaves the messages on the remote email server after downloading them. This
option overrides the default behavior of deleting messages after downloading them.
• -l max-number-bytes — Fetchmail does not download any messages over a particular size
and leaves them on the remote email server.
• --quit — Quits the Fetchmail daemon process.
More commands and .fetchmailrc options can be found in the fetchmail man page.
14.3.4. Mail Transport Agent (MTA) Configuration
A Mail Transport Agent (MTA) is essential for sending email. A Mail User Agent (MUA) such as
Evolution, Thunderbird, and Mutt, is used to read and compose email. When a user sends an email
from an MUA, the message is handed off to the MTA, which sends the message through a series of
MTAs until it reaches its destination.
Even if a user does not plan to send email from the system, some automated tasks or system
programs might use the /bin/mail command to send email containing log messages to the root
user of the local system.
Fedora 17 provides two MTAs: Postfix and Sendmail. If both are installed, Postfix is the default MTA.
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14.4. Mail Delivery Agents
Fedora includes two primary MDAs, Procmail and mail. Both of the applications are considered LDAs
and both move email from the MTA's spool file into the user's mailbox. However, Procmail provides a
robust filtering system.
This section details only Procmail. For information on the mail command, consult its man page (man
mail).
Procmail delivers and filters email as it is placed in the mail spool file of the localhost. It is powerful,
gentle on system resources, and widely used. Procmail can play a critical role in delivering email to be
read by email client applications.
Procmail can be invoked in several different ways. Whenever an MTA places an email into the mail
spool file, Procmail is launched. Procmail then filters and files the email for the MUA and quits.
Alternatively, the MUA can be configured to execute Procmail any time a message is received so that
messages are moved into their correct mailboxes. By default, the presence of /etc/procmailrc
or of a ~/.procmailrc file (also called an rc file) in the user's home directory invokes Procmail
whenever an MTA receives a new message.
By default, no system-wide rc files exist in the /etc/ directory and no .procmailrc files exist in
any user's home directory. Therefore, to use Procmail, each user must construct a .procmailrc file
with specific environment variables and rules.
Whether Procmail acts upon an email message depends upon whether the message matches a
specified set of conditions or recipes in the rc file. If a message matches a recipe, then the email is
placed in a specified file, is deleted, or is otherwise processed.
When Procmail starts, it reads the email message and separates the body from the header
information. Next, Procmail looks for a /etc/procmailrc file and rc files in the /etc/
procmailrcs directory for default, system-wide, Procmail environmental variables and recipes.
Procmail then searches for a .procmailrc file in the user's home directory. Many users also create
additional rc files for Procmail that are referred to within the .procmailrc file in their home directory.
14.4.1. Procmail Configuration
The Procmail configuration file contains important environmental variables. These variables specify
things such as which messages to sort and what to do with the messages that do not match any
recipes.
These environmental variables usually appear at the beginning of the ~/.procmailrc file in the
following format:
env-variable="value"
In this example, env-variable is the name of the variable and value defines the variable.
There are many environment variables not used by most Procmail users and many of the more
important environment variables are already defined by a default value. Most of the time, the following
variables are used:
• DEFAULT — Sets the default mailbox where messages that do not match any recipes are placed.
The default DEFAULT value is the same as $ORGMAIL.
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• INCLUDERC — Specifies additional rc files containing more recipes for messages to be checked
against. This breaks up the Procmail recipe lists into individual files that fulfill different roles, such
as blocking spam and managing email lists, that can then be turned off or on by using comment
characters in the user's ~/.procmailrc file.
For example, lines in a user's .procmailrc file may look like this:
MAILDIR=$HOME/Msgs INCLUDERC=$MAILDIR/lists.rc INCLUDERC=$MAILDIR/spam.rc
To turn off Procmail filtering of email lists but leaving spam control in place, comment out the first
INCLUDERC line with a hash sign (#).
• LOCKSLEEP — Sets the amount of time, in seconds, between attempts by Procmail to use a
particular lockfile. The default is 8 seconds.
• LOCKTIMEOUT — Sets the amount of time, in seconds, that must pass after a lockfile was last
modified before Procmail assumes that the lockfile is old and can be deleted. The default is 1024
seconds.
• LOGFILE — The file to which any Procmail information or error messages are written.
• MAILDIR — Sets the current working directory for Procmail. If set, all other Procmail paths are
relative to this directory.
• ORGMAIL — Specifies the original mailbox, or another place to put the messages if they cannot be
placed in the default or recipe-required location.
By default, a value of /var/spool/mail/$LOGNAME is used.
• SUSPEND — Sets the amount of time, in seconds, that Procmail pauses if a necessary resource,
such as swap space, is not available.
• SWITCHRC — Allows a user to specify an external file containing additional Procmail recipes,
much like the INCLUDERC option, except that recipe checking is actually stopped on the referring
configuration file and only the recipes on the SWITCHRC-specified file are used.
• VERBOSE — Causes Procmail to log more information. This option is useful for debugging.
Other important environmental variables are pulled from the shell, such as LOGNAME, which is the
login name; HOME, which is the location of the home directory; and SHELL, which is the default shell.
A comprehensive explanation of all environments variables, as well as their default values, is available
in the procmailrc man page.
14.4.2. Procmail Recipes
New users often find the construction of recipes the most difficult part of learning to use Procmail.
To some extent, this is understandable, as recipes do their message matching using regular
expressions, which is a particular format used to specify qualifications for a matching string.
However, regular expressions are not very difficult to construct and even less difficult to understand
when read. Additionally, the consistency of the way Procmail recipes are written, regardless of
regular expressions, makes it easy to learn by example. To see example Procmail recipes, refer to
Section 14.4.2.5, “Recipe Examples”.
Procmail recipes take the following form:
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:0flags: lockfile-name * special-condition-character
condition-1 * special-condition-character
condition-2 * special-condition-character
condition-N
special-action-character
action-to-perform
The first two characters in a Procmail recipe are a colon and a zero. Various flags can be placed after
the zero to control how Procmail processes the recipe. A colon after the flags section specifies that
a lockfile is created for this message. If a lockfile is created, the name can be specified by replacing
lockfile-name .
A recipe can contain several conditions to match against the message. If it has no conditions,
every message matches the recipe. Regular expressions are placed in some conditions to facilitate
message matching. If multiple conditions are used, they must all match for the action to be performed.
Conditions are checked based on the flags set in the recipe's first line. Optional special characters
placed after the asterisk character (*) can further control the condition.
The action-to-perform argument specifies the action taken when the message matches one of
the conditions. There can only be one action per recipe. In many cases, the name of a mailbox is used
here to direct matching messages into that file, effectively sorting the email. Special action characters
may also be used before the action is specified. Refer to Section 14.4.2.4, “Special Conditions and
Actions” for more information.
14.4.2.1. Delivering vs. Non-Delivering Recipes
The action used if the recipe matches a particular message determines whether it is considered a
delivering or non-delivering recipe. A delivering recipe contains an action that writes the message to
a file, sends the message to another program, or forwards the message to another email address.
A non-delivering recipe covers any other actions, such as a nesting block. A nesting block is a
set of actions, contained in braces { }, that are performed on messages which match the recipe's
conditions. Nesting blocks can be nested inside one another, providing greater control for identifying
and performing actions on messages.
When messages match a delivering recipe, Procmail performs the specified action and stops
comparing the message against any other recipes. Messages that match non-delivering recipes
continue to be compared against other recipes.
14.4.2.2. Flags
Flags are essential to determine how or if a recipe's conditions are compared to a message. The
following flags are commonly used:
• A — Specifies that this recipe is only used if the previous recipe without an A or a flag also matched
this message.
• a — Specifies that this recipe is only used if the previous recipe with an A or a flag also matched this
message and was successfully completed.
• B — Parses the body of the message and looks for matching conditions.
• b — Uses the body in any resulting action, such as writing the message to a file or forwarding it.
This is the default behavior.
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• c — Generates a carbon copy of the email. This is useful with delivering recipes, since the required
action can be performed on the message and a copy of the message can continue being processed
in the rc files.
• D — Makes the egrep comparison case-sensitive. By default, the comparison process is not casesensitive.
• E — While similar to the A flag, the conditions in the recipe are only compared to the message if
the immediately preceding the recipe without an E flag did not match. This is comparable to an else
action.
• e — The recipe is compared to the message only if the action specified in the immediately
preceding recipe fails.
• f — Uses the pipe as a filter.
• H — Parses the header of the message and looks for matching conditions. This is the default
behavior.
• h — Uses the header in a resulting action. This is the default behavior.
• w — Tells Procmail to wait for the specified filter or program to finish, and reports whether or not it
was successful before considering the message filtered.
• W — Is identical to w except that "Program failure" messages are suppressed.
For a detailed list of additional flags, refer to the procmailrc man page.
14.4.2.3. Specifying a Local Lockfile
Lockfiles are very useful with Procmail to ensure that more than one process does not try to alter a
message simultaneously. Specify a local lockfile by placing a colon (:) after any flags on a recipe's
first line. This creates a local lockfile based on the destination file name plus whatever has been set in
the LOCKEXT global environment variable.
Alternatively, specify the name of the local lockfile to be used with this recipe after the colon.
14.4.2.4. Special Conditions and Actions
Special characters used before Procmail recipe conditions and actions change the way they are
interpreted.
The following characters may be used after the asterisk character (*) at the beginning of a recipe's
condition line:
• ! — In the condition line, this character inverts the condition, causing a match to occur only if the
condition does not match the message.
• < — Checks if the message is under a specified number of bytes.
• > — Checks if the message is over a specified number of bytes.
The following characters are used to perform special actions:
• ! — In the action line, this character tells Procmail to forward the message to the specified email
addresses.
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• $ — Refers to a variable set earlier in the rc file. This is often used to set a common mailbox that is
referred to by various recipes.
• | — Starts a specified program to process the message.
• { and } — Constructs a nesting block, used to contain additional recipes to apply to matching
messages.
If no special character is used at the beginning of the action line, Procmail assumes that the action line
is specifying the mailbox in which to write the message.
14.4.2.5. Recipe Examples
Procmail is an extremely flexible program, but as a result of this flexibility, composing Procmail recipes
from scratch can be difficult for new users.
The best way to develop the skills to build Procmail recipe conditions stems from a strong
understanding of regular expressions combined with looking at many examples built by others.
A thorough explanation of regular expressions is beyond the scope of this section. The structure
of Procmail recipes and useful sample Procmail recipes can be found at various places on the
Internet (such as http://www.iki.fi/era/procmail/links.html). The proper use and adaptation of regular
expressions can be derived by viewing these recipe examples. In addition, introductory information
about basic regular expression rules can be found in the grep man page.
The following simple examples demonstrate the basic structure of Procmail recipes and can provide
the foundation for more intricate constructions.
A basic recipe may not even contain conditions, as is illustrated in the following example:
:0: new-mail.spool
The first line specifies that a local lockfile is to be created but does not specify a name, so Procmail
uses the destination file name and appends the value specified in the LOCKEXT environment variable.
No condition is specified, so every message matches this recipe and is placed in the single spool file
called new-mail.spool, located within the directory specified by the MAILDIR environment variable.
An MUA can then view messages in this file.
A basic recipe, such as this, can be placed at the end of all rc files to direct messages to a default
location.
The following example matched messages from a specific email address and throws them away.
:0 * ^From: spammer@domain.com /dev/null
With this example, any messages sent by spammer@domain.com are sent to the /dev/null device,
deleting them.
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Sending messages to /dev/null
Be certain that rules are working as intended before sending messages to /dev/null for
permanent deletion. If a recipe inadvertently catches unintended messages, and those messages
disappear, it becomes difficult to troubleshoot the rule.
A better solution is to point the recipe's action to a special mailbox, which can be checked from
time to time to look for false positives. Once satisfied that no messages are accidentally being
matched, delete the mailbox and direct the action to send the messages to /dev/null.
The following recipe grabs email sent from a particular mailing list and places it in a specified folder.
:0: * ^(From|Cc|To).*tux-lug tuxlug
Any messages sent from the tux-lug@domain.com mailing list are placed in the tuxlug mailbox
automatically for the MUA. Note that the condition in this example matches the message if it has the
mailing list's email address on the From, Cc, or To lines.
Consult the many Procmail online resources available in Section 14.6, “Additional Resources” for more
detailed and powerful recipes.
14.4.2.6. Spam Filters
Because it is called by Sendmail, Postfix, and Fetchmail upon receiving new emails, Procmail can be
used as a powerful tool for combating spam.
This is particularly true when Procmail is used in conjunction with SpamAssassin. When used
together, these two applications can quickly identify spam emails, and sort or destroy them.
SpamAssassin uses header analysis, text analysis, blacklists, a spam-tracking database, and selflearning Bayesian spam analysis to quickly and accurately identify and tag spam.
Installing the spamassassin package
In order to use SpamAssassin, first ensure the spamassassin package is installed on your
system by running, as root:
yum install spamassassin
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
The easiest way for a local user to use SpamAssassin is to place the following line near the top of the
~/.procmailrc file:
INCLUDERC=/etc/mail/spamassassin/spamassassin-default.rc
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The /etc/mail/spamassassin/spamassassin-default.rc contains a simple Procmail rule
that activates SpamAssassin for all incoming email. If an email is determined to be spam, it is tagged
in the header as such and the title is prepended with the following pattern:
*****SPAM*****
The message body of the email is also prepended with a running tally of what elements caused it to be
diagnosed as spam.
To file email tagged as spam, a rule similar to the following can be used:
:0 Hw * ^X-Spam-Status: Yes spam
This rule files all email tagged in the header as spam into a mailbox called spam.
Since SpamAssassin is a Perl script, it may be necessary on busy servers to use the binary
SpamAssassin daemon (spamd) and the client application (spamc). Configuring SpamAssassin this
way, however, requires root access to the host.
To start the spamd daemon, type the following command:
systemctl start spamassassin.service
To start the SpamAssassin daemon when the system is booted, run:
systemctl enable spamassassin.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
To configure Procmail to use the SpamAssassin client application instead of the Perl script, place the
following line near the top of the ~/.procmailrc file. For a system-wide configuration, place it in /
etc/procmailrc:
INCLUDERC=/etc/mail/spamassassin/spamassassin-spamc.rc
14.5. Mail User Agents
Fedora offers a variety of email programs, both, graphical email client programs, such as Evolution,
and text-based email programs such as mutt.
The remainder of this section focuses on securing communication between a client and a server.
14.5.1. Securing Communication
Popular MUAs included with Fedora, such as Evolution and mutt offer SSL-encrypted email
sessions.
Like any other service that flows over a network unencrypted, important email information, such
as usernames, passwords, and entire messages, may be intercepted and viewed by users on the
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network. Additionally, since the standard POP and IMAP protocols pass authentication information
unencrypted, it is possible for an attacker to gain access to user accounts by collecting usernames
and passwords as they are passed over the network.
14.5.1.1. Secure Email Clients
Most Linux MUAs designed to check email on remote servers support SSL encryption. To use SSL
when retrieving email, it must be enabled on both the email client and the server.
SSL is easy to enable on the client-side, often done with the click of a button in the MUA's
configuration window or via an option in the MUA's configuration file. Secure IMAP and POP have
known port numbers (993 and 995, respectively) that the MUA uses to authenticate and download
messages.
14.5.1.2. Securing Email Client Communications
Offering SSL encryption to IMAP and POP users on the email server is a simple matter.
First, create an SSL certificate. This can be done in two ways: by applying to a Certificate Authority
(CA) for an SSL certificate or by creating a self-signed certificate.
Avoid using self-signed certificates
Self-signed certificates should be used for testing purposes only. Any server used in a production
environment should use an SSL certificate granted by a CA.
To create a self-signed SSL certificate for IMAP or POP, change to the /etc/pki/dovecot/
directory, edit the certificate parameters in the /etc/pki/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.conf
configuration file as you prefer, and type the following commands, as root:
dovecot]# rm -f certs/dovecot.pem private/dovecot.pem
dovecot]# /usr/libexec/dovecot/mkcert.sh
Once finished, make sure you have the following configurations in your /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10ssl.conf file:
ssl_cert = </etc/pki/dovecot/certs/dovecot.pem
ssl_key = </etc/pki/dovecot/private/dovecot.pem
Execute the systemctl restart dovecot.service command to restart the dovecot daemon.
Alternatively, the stunnel command can be used as an SSL encryption wrapper around the
standard, non-secure connections to IMAP or POP services.
The stunnel utility uses external OpenSSL libraries included with Fedora to provide strong
cryptography and to protect the network connections. It is recommended to apply to a CA to obtain an
SSL certificate, but it is also possible to create a self-signed certificate.
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Installing the stunnel package
In order to use stunnel, first ensure the stunnel package is installed on your system by running,
as root:
yum install stunnel
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
To create a self-signed SSL certificate, change to the /etc/pki/tls/certs/ directory, and type the
following command:
certs]# make stunnel.pem
Answer all of the questions to complete the process.
Once the certificate is generated, create an stunnel configuration file, for example /etc/stunnel/
mail.conf, with the following content:
cert = /etc/pki/tls/certs/stunnel.pem
[pop3s]
accept = 995
connect = 110
[imaps]
accept = 993
connect = 143
Once you start stunnel with the created configuration file using the /usr/bin/stunnel /etc/
stunnel/mail.conf command, it will be possible to use an IMAP or a POP email client and connect
to the email server using SSL encryption.
For more information on stunnel, refer to the stunnel man page or the documents in the /usr/
share/doc/stunnel-version-number / directory, where version-number is the version
number of stunnel.
14.6. Additional Resources
The following is a list of additional documentation about email applications.
14.6.1. Installed Documentation
• Information on configuring Sendmail is included with the sendmail and sendmail-cf packages.
• /usr/share/sendmail-cf/README — Contains information on the m4 macro processor, file
locations for Sendmail, supported mailers, how to access enhanced features, and more.
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In addition, the sendmail and aliases man pages contain helpful information covering various
Sendmail options and the proper configuration of the Sendmail /etc/mail/aliases file.
• /usr/share/doc/postfix-version-number — Contains a large amount of information about
ways to configure Postfix. Replace version-number with the version number of Postfix.
• /usr/share/doc/fetchmail-version-number — Contains a full list of Fetchmail features in
the FEATURES file and an introductory FAQ document. Replace version-number with the version
number of Fetchmail.
• /usr/share/doc/procmail-version-number — Contains a README file that provides an
overview of Procmail, a FEATURES file that explores every program feature, and an FAQ file with
answers to many common configuration questions. Replace version-number with the version
number of Procmail.
When learning how Procmail works and creating new recipes, the following Procmail man pages are
invaluable:
• procmail — Provides an overview of how Procmail works and the steps involved with filtering
email.
• procmailrc — Explains the rc file format used to construct recipes.
• procmailex — Gives a number of useful, real-world examples of Procmail recipes.
• procmailsc — Explains the weighted scoring technique used by Procmail to match a particular
recipe to a message.
• /usr/share/doc/spamassassin-version-number/ — Contains a large amount of
information pertaining to SpamAssassin. Replace version-number with the version number of
the spamassassin package.
14.6.2. Useful Websites
• http://www.sendmail.org/ — Offers a thorough technical breakdown of Sendmail features,
documentation and configuration examples.
• http://www.sendmail.com/ — Contains news, interviews and articles concerning Sendmail, including
an expanded view of the many options available.
• http://www.postfix.org/ — The Postfix project home page contains a wealth of information about
Postfix. The mailing list is a particularly good place to look for information.
• http://fetchmail.berlios.de/ — The home page for Fetchmail, featuring an online manual, and a
thorough FAQ.
• http://www.procmail.org/ — The home page for Procmail with links to assorted mailing lists
dedicated to Procmail as well as various FAQ documents.
• http://partmaps.org/era/procmail/mini-faq.html — An excellent Procmail FAQ, offers troubleshooting
tips, details about file locking, and the use of wildcard characters.
• http://www.uwasa.fi/~ts/info/proctips.html — Contains dozens of tips that make using Procmail much
easier. Includes instructions on how to test .procmailrc files and use Procmail scoring to decide
if a particular action should be taken.
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Related Books
• http://www.spamassassin.org/ — The official site of the SpamAssassin project.
14.6.3. Related Books
• Sendmail Milters: A Guide for Fighting Spam by Bryan Costales and Marcia Flynt; Addison-Wesley
— A good Sendmail guide that can help you customize your mail filters.
• Sendmail by Bryan Costales with Eric Allman et al.; O'Reilly & Associates — A good Sendmail
reference written with the assistance of the original creator of Delivermail and Sendmail.
• Removing the Spam: Email Processing and Filtering by Geoff Mulligan; Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company — A volume that looks at various methods used by email administrators using established
tools, such as Sendmail and Procmail, to manage spam problems.
• Internet Email Protocols: A Developer's Guide by Kevin Johnson; Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company — Provides a very thorough review of major email protocols and the security they provide.
• Managing IMAP by Dianna Mullet and Kevin Mullet; O'Reilly & Associates — Details the steps
required to configure an IMAP server.
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Directory Servers
15.1. OpenLDAP
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a set of open protocols used to access centrally
stored information over a network. It is based on the X.500 standard for directory sharing, but is less
complex and resource-intensive. For this reason, LDAP is sometimes referred to as “X.500 Lite”.
Like X.500, LDAP organizes information in a hierarchical manner using directories. These directories
can store a variety of information such as names, addresses, or phone numbers, and can even be
used in a manner similar to the Network Information Service (NIS), enabling anyone to access their
account from any machine on the LDAP enabled network.
LDAP is commonly used for centrally managed users and groups, user authentication, or system
configuration. It can also serve as a virtual phone directory, allowing users to easily access contact
information for other users. Additionally, it can refer a user to other LDAP servers throughout the
world, and thus provide an ad-hoc global repository of information. However, it is most frequently used
within individual organizations such as universities, government departments, and private companies.
This section covers the installation and configuration of OpenLDAP 2.4, an open source
implementation of the LDAPv2 and LDAPv3 protocols.
15.1.1. Introduction to LDAP
Using a client/server architecture, LDAP provides reliable means to create a central information
directory accessible from the network. When a client attempts to modify information within this
directory, the server verifies the user has permission to make the change, and then adds or updates
the entry as requested. To ensure the communication is secure, the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
or Transport Layer Security (TLS) cryptographic protocols can be used to prevent an attacker from
intercepting the transmission.
Using Mozilla NSS
The OpenLDAP suite in Fedora 17 no longer uses OpenSSL. Instead, it uses the Mozilla
implementation of Network Security Services (NSS). OpenLDAP continues to work with existing
certificates, keys, and other TLS configuration. For more information on how to configure it to use
1
Mozilla certificate and key database, refer to How do I use TLS/SSL with Mozilla NSS .
The LDAP server supports several database systems, which gives administrators the flexibility to
choose the best suited solution for the type of information they are planning to serve. Because of
a well-defined client Application Programming Interface (API), the number of applications able to
communicate with an LDAP server is numerous, and increasing in both quantity and quality.
15.1.1.1. LDAP Terminology
The following is a list of LDAP-specific terms that are used within this chapter:
1
http://www.openldap.org/faq/index.cgi?file=1514
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entry
A single unit within an LDAP directory. Each entry is identified by its unique Distinguished Name
(DN).
attribute
Information directly associated with an entry. For example, if an organization is represented as an
LDAP entry, attributes associated with this organization might include an address, a fax number,
etc. Similarly, people can be represented as entries with common attributes such as personal
telephone number or email address.
An attribute can either have a single value, or an unordered space-separated list of values. While
certain attributes are optional, other are required. Required attributes are specified using the
objectClass definition, and can be found in schema files located in the /etc/openldap/
slapd.d/cn=config/cn=schema/ directory.
The assertion of an attribute and its corresponding value is also referred to as a Relative
Distinguished Name (RDN). Unlike distinguished names that are unique globally, a relative
distinguished name is only unique per entry.
LDIF
The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) is a plain text representation of an LDAP entry. It takes
the following form:
[id] dn: distinguished_name
attribute_type: attribute_value…
attribute_type: attribute_value…
…
The optional id is a number determined by the application that is used to edit the entry. Each
entry can contain as many attribute_type and attribute_value pairs as needed, as long
as they are all defined in a corresponding schema file. A blank line indicates the end of an entry.
15.1.1.2. OpenLDAP Features
OpenLDAP suite provides a number of important features:
• LDAPv3 Support — Many of the changes in the protocol since LDAP version 2 are designed
to make LDAP more secure. Among other improvements, this includes the support for Simple
Authentication and Security Layer (SASL), Transport Layer Security (TLS), and Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL) protocols.
• LDAP Over IPC — The use of inter-process communication (IPC) enhances security by eliminating
the need to communicate over a network.
• IPv6 Support — OpenLDAP is compliant with Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), the next generation
of the Internet Protocol.
• LDIFv1 Support — OpenLDAP is fully compliant with LDIF version 1.
• Updated C API — The current C API improves the way programmers can connect to and use LDAP
directory servers.
• Enhanced Standalone LDAP Server — This includes an updated access control system, thread
pooling, better tools, and much more.
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15.1.1.3. OpenLDAP Server Setup
The typical steps to set up an LDAP server on Fedora are as follows:
1.
Install the OpenLDAP suite. Refer to Section 15.1.2, “Installing the OpenLDAP Suite” for more
information on required packages.
2.
Customize the configuration as described in Section 15.1.3, “Configuring an OpenLDAP Server”.
3.
Start the slapd service as described in Section 15.1.4, “Running an OpenLDAP Server”.
4.
Use the ldapadd utility to add entries to the LDAP directory.
5.
Use the ldapsearch utility to verify that the slapd service is accessing the information correctly.
15.1.2. Installing the OpenLDAP Suite
The suite of OpenLDAP libraries and tools is provided by the following packages:
Table 15.1. List of OpenLDAP packages
Package
Description
openldap
A package containing the libraries necessary to run the
OpenLDAP server and client applications.
openldap-clients
A package containing the command line utilities for viewing and
modifying directories on an LDAP server.
openldap-servers
A package containing both the services and utilities to configure
and run an LDAP server. This includes the Standalone LDAP
Daemon, slapd.
openldap-servers-sql
A package containing the SQL support module.
Additionally, the following packages are commonly used along with the LDAP server:
Table 15.2. List of commonly installed additional LDAP packages
Package
Description
nss-pam-ldapd
A package containing nslcd, a local LDAP name service that
allows a user to perform local LDAP queries.
mod_authz_ldap
A package containing mod_authz_ldap, the LDAP authorization
module for the Apache HTTP Server. This module uses the short
form of the distinguished name for a subject and the issuer of the
client SSL certificate to determine the distinguished name of the
user within an LDAP directory. It is also capable of authorizing
users based on attributes of that user's LDAP directory entry,
determining access to assets based on the user and group
privileges of the asset, and denying access for users with expired
passwords. Note that the mod_ssl module is required when using
the mod_authz_ldap module.
To install these packages, use the yum command in the following form:
yum install package…
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For example, to perform the basic LDAP server installation, type the following at a shell prompt as
root:
yum install openldap openldap-clients openldap-servers
Note that you must have superuser privileges (that is, you must be logged in as root) to run this
command. For more information on how to install new packages in Fedora, refer to Section 4.2.4,
“Installing Packages”.
15.1.2.1. Overview of OpenLDAP Server Utilities
To perform administrative tasks, the openldap-servers package installs the following utilities along with
the slapd service:
Table 15.3. List of OpenLDAP server utilities
Command
Description
slapacl
Allows you to check the access to a list of attributes.
slapadd
Allows you to add entries from an LDIF file to an LDAP directory.
slapauth
Allows you to check a list of IDs for authentication and
authorization permissions.
slapcat
Allows you to pull entries from an LDAP directory in the default
format and save them in an LDIF file.
slapdn
Allows you to check a list of Distinguished Names (DNs) based on
available schema syntax.
slapindex
Allows you to re-index the slapd directory based on the current
content. Run this utility whenever you change indexing options in
the configuration file.
slappasswd
Allows you to create an encrypted user password to be used with
the ldapmodify utility, or in the slapd configuration file.
slapschema
Allows you to check the compliance of a database with the
corresponding schema.
slaptest
Allows you to check the LDAP server configuration.
For a detailed description of these utilities and their usage, refer to the corresponding manual pages
as referred to in Section 15.1.6.1, “Installed Documentation”.
Make sure the files have correct owner
Although only root can run slapadd, the slapd service runs as the ldap user. Because of
this, the directory server is unable to modify any files created by slapadd. To correct this issue,
after running the slapadd utility, type the following at a shell prompt:
chown -R ldap:ldap /var/lib/ldap
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Stop slapd before using these utilities
To preserve the data integrity, stop the slapd service before using slapadd, slapcat, or
slapindex. You can do so by typing the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl stop slapd.service
For more information on how to start, stop, restart, and check the current status of the slapd
service, refer to Section 15.1.4, “Running an OpenLDAP Server”.
15.1.2.2. Overview of OpenLDAP Client Utilities
The openldap-clients package installs the following utilities which can be used to add, modify, and
delete entries in an LDAP directory:
Table 15.4. List of OpenLDAP client utilities
Command
Description
ldapadd
Allows you to add entries to an LDAP directory, either from a file,
or from standard input. It is a symbolic link to ldapmodify -a.
ldapcompare
Allows you to compare given attribute with an LDAP directory
entry.
ldapdelete
Allows you to delete entries from an LDAP directory.
ldapexop
Allows you to perform extended LDAP operations.
ldapmodify
Allows you to modify entries in an LDAP directory, either from a
file, or from standard input.
ldapmodrdn
Allows you to modify the RDN value of an LDAP directory entry.
ldappasswd
Allows you to set or change the password for an LDAP user.
ldapsearch
Allows you to search LDAP directory entries.
ldapurl
Allows you to compose or decompose LDAP URLs.
ldapwhoami
Allows you to perform a whoami operation on an LDAP server.
With the exception of ldapsearch, each of these utilities is more easily used by referencing a file
containing the changes to be made rather than typing a command for each entry to be changed within
an LDAP directory. The format of such a file is outlined in the man page for each utility.
15.1.2.3. Overview of Common LDAP Client Applications
Although there are various graphical LDAP clients capable of creating and modifying directories on the
server, none of them is included in Fedora. Popular applications that can access directories in a readonly mode include Mozilla Thunderbird, Evolution, or Ekiga.
15.1.3. Configuring an OpenLDAP Server
By default, the OpenLDAP configuration is stored in the /etc/openldap/ directory. The following
table highlights the most important directories and files within this directory:
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Table 15.5. List of OpenLDAP configuration files and directories
Path
Description
/etc/openldap/ldap.conf The configuration file for client applications that use the
OpenLDAP libraries. This includes ldapadd, ldapsearch,
Evolution, etc.
/etc/openldap/slapd.d/
The directory containing the slapd configuration.
Note that OpenLDAP no longer reads its configuration from the /etc/openldap/slapd.conf file.
Instead, it uses a configuration database located in the /etc/openldap/slapd.d/ directory. If you
have an existing slapd.conf file from a previous installation, you can convert it to the new format by
running the following command as root:
slaptest -f /etc/openldap/slapd.conf -F /etc/openldap/slapd.d/
The slapd configuration consists of LDIF entries organized in a hierarchical directory structure, and
the recommended way to edit these entries is to use the server utilities described in Section 15.1.2.1,
“Overview of OpenLDAP Server Utilities”.
Do not edit LDIF files directly
An error in an LDIF file can render the slapd service unable to start. Because of this, it is
strongly advised that you avoid editing the LDIF files within the /etc/openldap/slapd.d/
directly.
15.1.3.1. Changing the Global Configuration
Global configuration options for the LDAP server are stored in the /etc/openldap/slapd.d/
cn=config.ldif file. The following directives are commonly used:
olcAllows
The olcAllows directive allows you to specify which features to enable. It takes the following
form:
olcAllows: feature…
It accepts a space-separated list of features as described in Table 15.6, “Available olcAllows
options”. The default option is bind_v2.
Table 15.6. Available olcAllows options
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Option
Description
bind_v2
Enables the acceptance of LDAP version 2 bind requests.
bind_anon_cred
Enables an anonymous bind when the Distinguished Name (DN) is
empty.
bind_anon_dn
Enables an anonymous bind when the Distinguished Name (DN) is not
empty.
update_anon
Enables processing of anonymous update operations.
Configuring an OpenLDAP Server
Option
Description
proxy_authz_anon
Enables processing of anonymous proxy authorization control.
Example 15.1. Using the olcAllows directive
olcAllows: bind_v2 update_anon
olcConnMaxPending
The olcConnMaxPending directive allows you to specify the maximum number of pending
requests for an anonymous session. It takes the following form:
olcConnMaxPending: number
The default option is 100.
Example 15.2. Using the olcConnMaxPending directive
olcConnMaxPending: 100
olcConnMaxPendingAuth
The olcConnMaxPendingAuth directive allows you to specify the maximum number of pending
requests for an authenticated session. It takes the following form:
olcConnMaxPendingAuth: number
The default option is 1000.
Example 15.3. Using the olcConnMaxPendingAuth directive
olcConnMaxPendingAuth: 1000
olcDisallows
The olcDisallows directive allows you to specify which features to disable. It takes the following
form:
olcDisallows: feature…
It accepts a space-separated list of features as described in Table 15.7, “Available olcDisallows
options”. No features are disabled by default.
Table 15.7. Available olcDisallows options
Option
Description
bind_anon
Disables the acceptance of anonymous bind requests.
bind_simple
Disables the simple bind authentication mechanism.
tls_2_anon
Disables the enforcing of an anonymous session when the STARTTLS
command is received.
tls_authc
Disallows the STARTTLS command when authenticated.
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Example 15.4. Using the olcDisallows directive
olcDisallows: bind_anon
olcIdleTimeout
The olcIdleTimeout directive allows you to specify how many seconds to wait before closing
an idle connection. It takes the following form:
olcIdleTimeout: number
This option is disabled by default (that is, set to 0).
Example 15.5. Using the olcIdleTimeout directive
olcIdleTimeout: 180
olcLogFile
The olcLogFile directive allows you to specify a file in which to write log messages. It takes the
following form:
olcLogFile: file_name
The log messages are written to standard error by default.
Example 15.6. Using the olcLogFile directive
olcLogFile: /var/log/slapd.log
olcReferral
The olcReferral option allows you to specify a URL of a server to process the request in case
the server is not able to handle it. It takes the following form:
olcReferral: URL
This option is disabled by default.
Example 15.7. Using the olcReferral directive
olcReferral: ldap://root.openldap.org
olcWriteTimeout
The olcWriteTimeout option allows you to specify how many seconds to wait before closing a
connection with an outstanding write request. It takes the following form:
olcWriteTimeout
This option is disabled by default (that is, set to 0).
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Example 15.8. Using the olcWriteTimeout directive
olcWriteTimeout: 180
15.1.3.2. Changing the Database-Specific Configuration
By default, the OpenLDAP server uses Berkeley DB (BDB) as a database back end. The
configuration for this database is stored in the /etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn=config/
olcDatabase={1}bdb.ldif file. The following directives are commonly used in a database-specific
configuration:
olcReadOnly
The olcReadOnly directive allows you to use the database in a read-only mode. It takes the
following form:
olcReadOnly: boolean
It accepts either TRUE (enable the read-only mode), or FALSE (enable modifications of the
database). The default option is FALSE.
Example 15.9. Using the olcReadOnly directive
olcReadOnly: TRUE
olcRootDN
The olcRootDN directive allows you to specify the user that is unrestricted by access controls
or administrative limit parameters set for operations on the LDAP directory. It takes the following
form:
olcRootDN: distinguished_name
It accepts a Distinguished Name (DN). The default option is cn=Manager,dn=mydomain,dc=com.
Example 15.10. Using the olcRootDN directive
olcRootDN: cn=root,dn=example,dn=com
olcRootPW
The olcRootPW directive allows you to set a password for the user that is specified using the
olcRootDN directive. It takes the following form:
olcRootPW: password
It accepts either a plain text string, or a hash. To generate a hash, use the slappaswd utility, for
example:
~]$ slappaswd
New password:
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Re-enter new password:
{SSHA}WczWsyPEnMchFf1GRTweq2q7XJcvmSxD
Example 15.11. Using the olcRootPW directive
olcRootPW: {SSHA}WczWsyPEnMchFf1GRTweq2q7XJcvmSxD
olcSuffix
The olcSuffix directive allows you to specify the domain for which to provide information. It
takes the following form:
olcSuffix: domain_name
It accepts a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). The default option is dc=my-domain,dc=com.
Example 15.12. Using the olcSuffix directive
olcSuffix: dc=example,dc=com
15.1.3.3. Extending Schema
Since OpenLDAP 2.3, the /etc/openldap/slapd.d/ directory also contains LDAP definitions that
were previously located in /etc/openldap/schema/. It is possible to extend the schema used by
OpenLDAP to support additional attribute types and object classes using the default schema files as a
guide. However, this task is beyond the scope of this chapter. For more information on this topic, refer
to http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin/schema.html.
15.1.4. Running an OpenLDAP Server
This section describes how to start, stop, restart, and check the current status of the Standalone
LDAP Daemon. For more information on how to manage system services in general, refer to
Chapter 8, Services and Daemons.
15.1.4.1. Starting the Service
To run the slapd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl start slapd.service
If you want the service to start automatically at the boot time, use the following command:
systemctl enable slapd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
15.1.4.2. Stopping the Service
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To stop the running slapd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl stop slapd.service
To prevent the service from starting automatically at the boot time, type:
systemctl disable slapd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
15.1.4.3. Restarting the Service
To restart the running slapd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl restart slapd.service
This stops the service, and then starts it again. Use this command to reload the configuration.
15.1.4.4. Checking the Service Status
To check whether the service is running, type the following at a shell prompt:
systemctl is-active slapd.service
15.1.5. Configuring a System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
In order to configure a system to authenticate using OpenLDAP, make sure that the appropriate
packages are installed on both LDAP server and client machines. For information on how to set up the
server, follow the instructions in Section 15.1.2, “Installing the OpenLDAP Suite” and Section 15.1.3,
“Configuring an OpenLDAP Server”. On a client, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum install openldap openldap-clients nss-pam-ldapd
Chapter 9, Configuring Authentication provides detailed instructions on how to configure applications
to use LDAP for authentication.
15.1.5.1. Migrating Old Authentication Information to LDAP Format
The migrationtools package provides a set of shell and Perl scripts to help you migrate authentication
information into an LDAP format. To install this package, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum install migrationtools
This will install the scripts to the /usr/share/migrationtools/ directory. Once installed, edit the
/usr/share/migrationtools/migrate_common.ph file and change the following lines to reflect
the correct domain, for example:
# Default DNS domain
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$DEFAULT_MAIL_DOMAIN = "example.com";
# Default base
$DEFAULT_BASE = "dc=example,dc=com";
Alternatively, you can specify the environment variables directly on the command line. For example, to
run the migrate_all_online.sh script with the default base set to dc=example,dc=com, type:
export DEFAULT_BASE="dc=example,dc=com" \
/usr/share/migrationtools/migrate_all_online.sh
To decide which script to run in order to migrate the user database, refer to Table 15.8, “Commonly
used LDAP migration scripts”.
Table 15.8. Commonly used LDAP migration scripts
Existing Name Service
Is LDAP
Running?
Script to Use
/etc flat files
yes
migrate_all_online.sh
/etc flat files
no
migrate_all_offline.sh
NetInfo
yes
migrate_all_netinfo_online.sh
NetInfo
no
migrate_all_netinfo_offline.sh
NIS (YP)
yes
migrate_all_nis_online.sh
NIS (YP)
no
migrate_all_nis_offline.sh
For more information on how to use these scripts, refer to the README and the migrationtools.txt files in the /usr/share/doc/migrationtools-version/ directory.
15.1.6. Additional Resources
The following resources offer additional information on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
Before configuring LDAP on your system, it is highly recommended that you review these resources,
especially the OpenLDAP Software Administrator's Guide.
15.1.6.1. Installed Documentation
The following documentation is installed with the openldap-servers package:
/usr/share/doc/openldap-servers-version/guide.html
A copy of the OpenLDAP Software Administrator's Guide.
/usr/share/doc/openldap-servers-version/README.schema
A README file containing the description of installed schema files.
Additionally, there is also a number of manual pages that are installed with the openldap, openldapservers, and openldap-clients packages:
Client Applications
• man ldapadd — Describes how to add entries to an LDAP directory.
• man ldapdelete — Describes how to delete entries within an LDAP directory.
• man ldapmodify — Describes how to modify entries within an LDAP directory.
• man ldapsearch — Describes how to search for entries within an LDAP directory.
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Additional Resources
• man ldappasswd — Describes how to set or change the password of an LDAP user.
• man ldapcompare — Describes how to use the ldapcompare tool.
• man ldapwhoami — Describes how to use the ldapwhoami tool.
• man ldapmodrdn — Describes how to modify the RDNs of entries.
Server Applications
• man slapd — Describes command line options for the LDAP server.
Administrative Applications
• man slapadd — Describes command line options used to add entries to a slapd database.
• man slapcat — Describes command line options used to generate an LDIF file from a slapd
database.
• man slapindex — Describes command line options used to regenerate an index based upon
the contents of a slapd database.
• man slappasswd — Describes command line options used to generate user passwords for
LDAP directories.
Configuration Files
• man ldap.conf — Describes the format and options available within the configuration file for
LDAP clients.
• man slapd-config — Describes the format and options available within the configuration
directory.
15.1.6.2. Useful Websites
http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/
The current version of the OpenLDAP Software Administrator's Guide.
http://www.kingsmountain.com/ldapRoadmap.shtml
Jeff Hodges' LDAP Roadmap & FAQ containing links to several useful resources and emerging
news concerning the LDAP protocol.
http://www.ldapman.org/articles/
A collection of articles that offer a good introduction to LDAP, including methods to design a
directory tree and customizing directory structures.
http://www.padl.com/
A website of developers of several useful LDAP tools.
15.1.6.3. Related Books
OpenLDAP by Example by John Terpstra and Benjamin Coles; Prentice Hall.
A collection of practical exercises in the OpenLDAP deployment.
Implementing LDAP by Mark Wilcox; Wrox Press, Inc.
A book covering LDAP from both the system administrator's and software developer's perspective.
Understanding and Deploying LDAP Directory Services by Tim Howes et al.; Macmillan Technical
Publishing.
A book covering LDAP design principles, as well as its deployment in a production environment.
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Chapter 16.
File and Print Servers
This chapter guides you through the installation and configuration of Samba, an open source
implementation of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, and vsftpd, the primary FTP server
shipped with Fedora. Additionally, it explains how to use the Printer Configuration tool to configure
printers.
16.1. Samba
Samba is an open source implementation of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. It allows the
networking of Microsoft Windows®, Linux, UNIX, and other operating systems together, enabling
access to Windows-based file and printer shares. Samba's use of SMB allows it to appear as a
Windows server to Windows clients.
Installing the samba package
In order to use Samba, first ensure the samba package is installed on your system by running, as
root:
yum install samba
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
16.1.1. Introduction to Samba
The third major release of Samba, version 3.0.0, introduced numerous improvements from prior
versions, including:
• The ability to join an Active Directory domain by means of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP) and Kerberos
• Built in Unicode support for internationalization
• Support for all recent Microsoft Windows server and client versions to connect to Samba servers
without needing local registry hacking
• Two new documents developed by the Samba.org team, which include a 400+ page reference
manual, and a 300+ page implementation and integration manual. For more information about these
published titles, refer to Section 16.1.12.2, “Related Books”.
16.1.1.1. Samba Features
Samba is a powerful and versatile server application. Even seasoned system administrators must
know its abilities and limitations before attempting installation and configuration.
What Samba can do:
• Serve directory trees and printers to Linux, UNIX, and Windows clients
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• Assist in network browsing (with or without NetBIOS)
• Authenticate Windows domain logins
• Provide Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) name server resolution
• Act as a Windows NT®-style Primary Domain Controller (PDC)
• Act as a Backup Domain Controller (BDC) for a Samba-based PDC
• Act as an Active Directory domain member server
• Join a Windows NT/2000/2003/2008 PDC
What Samba cannot do:
• Act as a BDC for a Windows PDC (and vice versa)
• Act as an Active Directory domain controller
16.1.2. Samba Daemons and Related Services
The following is a brief introduction to the individual Samba daemons and services.
16.1.2.1. Samba Daemons
Samba is comprised of three daemons (smbd, nmbd, and winbindd). Three services (smb, nmb, and
winbind) control how the daemons are started, stopped, and other service-related features. These
services act as different init scripts. Each daemon is listed in detail below, as well as which specific
service has control over it.
smbd
The smbd server daemon provides file sharing and printing services to Windows clients. In addition,
it is responsible for user authentication, resource locking, and data sharing through the SMB protocol.
The default ports on which the server listens for SMB traffic are TCP ports 139 and 445.
The smbd daemon is controlled by the smb service.
nmbd
The nmbd server daemon understands and replies to NetBIOS name service requests such as those
produced by SMB/Common Internet File System (CIFS) in Windows-based systems. These systems
include Windows 95/98/ME, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and LanManager clients. It
also participates in the browsing protocols that make up the Windows Network Neighborhood view.
The default port that the server listens to for NMB traffic is UDP port 137.
The nmbd daemon is controlled by the nmb service.
winbindd
The winbind service resolves user and group information on a server running Windows NT, 2000,
2003 or Windows Server 2008. This makes Windows user / group information understandable by
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Connecting to a Samba Share
UNIX platforms. This is achieved by using Microsoft RPC calls, Pluggable Authentication Modules
(PAM), and the Name Service Switch (NSS). This allows Windows NT domain users to appear
and operate as UNIX users on a UNIX machine. Though bundled with the Samba distribution, the
winbind service is controlled separately from the smb service.
The winbindd daemon is controlled by the winbind service and does not require the smb service
to be started in order to operate. winbindd is also used when Samba is an Active Directory member,
and may also be used on a Samba domain controller (to implement nested groups and/or interdomain
trust). Because winbind is a client-side service used to connect to Windows NT-based servers,
further discussion of winbind is beyond the scope of this chapter.
Obtaining a list of utilities that are shipped with Samba
You may refer to Section 16.1.11, “Samba Distribution Programs” for a list of utilities included in
the Samba distribution.
16.1.3. Connecting to a Samba Share
You can use Nautilus to view available Samba shares on your network. To view a list of Samba
workgroups and domains on your network, select Applications��� Accessories��� Files from the
Activities menu, and click Browse Network at the sidebar.
Figure 16.1. Browsing a network in Nautilus
An icon appears for each available SMB workgroup or domain on the network. Double-click one of the
workgroup/domain icons to view a list of computers within the workgroup/domain.
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Each machine within the workgroup is represented by its own icon. Double-click on an icon to view
the Samba shares on the machine. If a username and password combination is required, you are
prompted for them.
Alternately, you can also specify the Samba server and sharename in the Location: bar for Nautilus
using the following syntax (replace servername and sharename with the appropriate values):
smb://servername/sharename
16.1.3.1. Command Line
To query the network for Samba servers, use the findsmb command. For each server found, it
displays its IP address, NetBIOS name, workgroup name, operating system, and SMB server version.
To connect to a Samba share from a shell prompt, type the following command:
smbclient //hostname/sharename -U username
Replace hostname with the hostname or IP address of the Samba server you want to connect
to, sharename with the name of the shared directory you want to browse, and username with the
Samba username for the system. Enter the correct password or press Enter if no password is
required for the user.
If you see the smb:\> prompt, you have successfully logged in. Once you are logged in, type help
for a list of commands. If you wish to browse the contents of your home directory, replace sharename
with your username. If the -U switch is not used, the username of the current user is passed to the
Samba server.
To exit smbclient, type exit at the smb:\> prompt.
16.1.3.2. Mounting the Share
Sometimes it is useful to mount a Samba share to a directory so that the files in the directory can be
treated as if they are part of the local file system.
To mount a Samba share to a directory, create a directory to mount it to (if it does not already exist),
and execute the following command as root:
mount -t cifs //servername/sharename /mnt/point/ -o username=username,password=password
This command mounts sharename from servername in the local directory /mnt/point/.
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Installing cifs-utils package
The mount.cifs utility is a separate RPM (independent from Samba). In order to use mount.cifs,
first ensure the cifs-utils package is installed on your system by running, as root:
yum install cifs-utils
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
Note that the cifs-utils package also contains the cifs.upcall binary called by the kernel in
order to perform kerberized CIFS mounts. For more information on cifs.upcall, refer to man
cifs.upcall.
For more information about mounting a samba share, refer to man mount.cifs.
CIFS servers that require plain text passwords
Some CIFS servers require plain text passwords for authentication. Support for plain text
password authentication can be enabled using the following command as root:
echo 0x37 > /proc/fs/cifs/SecurityFlags
WARNING: This operation can expose passwords by removing password encryption.
16.1.4. Configuring a Samba Server
The default configuration file (/etc/samba/smb.conf) allows users to view their home directories
as a Samba share. It also shares all printers configured for the system as Samba shared printers. In
other words, you can attach a printer to the system and print to it from the Windows machines on your
network.
16.1.4.1. Graphical Configuration
To configure Samba using a graphical interface, use one of the available Samba graphical user
interfaces. A list of available GUIs can be found at http://www.samba.org/samba/GUI/.
16.1.4.2. Command Line Configuration
Samba uses /etc/samba/smb.conf as its configuration file. If you change this configuration file, the
changes do not take effect until you restart the Samba daemon with the following command, as root:
systemctl restart smb.service
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To specify the Windows workgroup and a brief description of the Samba server, edit the following lines
in your /etc/samba/smb.conf file:
workgroup = WORKGROUPNAME
server string = BRIEF COMMENT ABOUT SERVER
Replace WORKGROUPNAME with the name of the Windows workgroup to which this machine should
belong. The BRIEF COMMENT ABOUT SERVER is optional and is used as the Windows comment
about the Samba system.
To create a Samba share directory on your Linux system, add the following section to your /etc/
samba/smb.conf file (after modifying it to reflect your needs and your system):
[sharename]
comment = Insert a comment here
path = /home/share/
valid users = tfox carole
public = no
writable = yes
printable = no
create mask = 0765
The above example allows the users tfox and carole to read and write to the directory /home/
share, on the Samba server, from a Samba client.
16.1.4.3. Encrypted Passwords
Encrypted passwords are enabled by default because it is more secure to do so. To create a user with
an encrypted password, use the command smbpasswd -a username .
16.1.5. Starting and Stopping Samba
To start a Samba server, type the following command in a shell prompt, as root:
systemctl start smb.service
Setting up a domain member server
To set up a domain member server, you must first join the domain or Active Directory using the
net join command before starting the smb service.
To stop the server, type the following command in a shell prompt, as root:
systemctl stop smb.service
The restart option is a quick way of stopping and then starting Samba. This is the most reliable way
to make configuration changes take effect after editing the configuration file for Samba. Note that the
restart option starts the daemon even if it was not running originally.
To restart the server, type the following command in a shell prompt, as root:
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systemctl restart smb.service
The condrestart (conditional restart) option only starts smb on the condition that it is currently
running. This option is useful for scripts, because it does not start the daemon if it is not running.
Applying the changes to the configuration
When the /etc/samba/smb.conf file is changed, Samba automatically reloads it after a few
minutes. Issuing a manual restart or reload is just as effective.
To conditionally restart the server, type the following command, as root:
systemctl condrestart smb.service
A manual reload of the /etc/samba/smb.conf file can be useful in case of a failed automatic reload
by the smb service. To ensure that the Samba server configuration file is reloaded without restarting
the service, type the following command, as root:
systemctl reload smb.service
By default, the smb service does not start automatically at boot time. To configure Samba to start at
boot time, use a service manager such as systemctl. Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for
more information regarding this tool.
16.1.6. Samba Server Types and the smb.conf File
Samba configuration is straightforward. All modifications to Samba are done in the /etc/samba/
smb.conf configuration file. Although the default smb.conf file is well documented, it does not
address complex topics such as LDAP, Active Directory, and the numerous domain controller
implementations.
The following sections describe the different ways a Samba server can be configured. Keep in
mind your needs and the changes required to the /etc/samba/smb.conf file for a successful
configuration.
16.1.6.1. Stand-alone Server
A stand-alone server can be a workgroup server or a member of a workgroup environment. A
stand-alone server is not a domain controller and does not participate in a domain in any way. The
following examples include several anonymous share-level security configurations and one user-level
security configuration. For more information on share-level and user-level security modes, refer to
Section 16.1.7, “Samba Security Modes”.
16.1.6.1.1. Anonymous Read-Only
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement
anonymous read-only file sharing. The security = share parameter makes a share anonymous.
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Note, security levels for a single Samba server cannot be mixed. The security directive is a global
Samba parameter located in the [global] configuration section of the /etc/samba/smb.conf file.
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
netbios name = DOCS_SRV
security = share
[data]
comment = Documentation Samba Server
path = /export
read only = Yes
guest only = Yes
16.1.6.1.2. Anonymous Read/Write
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement
anonymous read/write file sharing. To enable anonymous read/write file sharing, set the read only
directive to no. The force user and force group directives are also added to enforce the
ownership of any newly placed files specified in the share.
Do not use anonymous read/write servers
Although having an anonymous read/write server is possible, it is not recommended. Any files
placed in the share space, regardless of user, are assigned the user/group combination as
specified by a generic user (force user) and group (force group) in the /etc/samba/
smb.conf file.
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
netbios name = DOCS_SRV
security = share
[data]
comment = Data
path = /export
force user = docsbot
force group = users
read only = No
guest ok = Yes
16.1.6.1.3. Anonymous Print Server
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement an
anonymous print server. Setting browseable to no as shown does not list the printer in Windows
Network Neighborhood. Although hidden from browsing, configuring the printer explicitly is possible.
By connecting to DOCS_SRV using NetBIOS, the client can have access to the printer if the client is
also part of the DOCS workgroup. It is also assumed that the client has the correct local printer driver
installed, as the use client driver directive is set to Yes. In this case, the Samba server has no
responsibility for sharing printer drivers to the client.
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
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netbios name = DOCS_SRV
security = share
printcap name = cups
disable spools= Yes
show add printer wizard = No
printing = cups
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
guest ok = Yes
printable = Yes
use client driver = Yes
browseable = Yes
16.1.6.1.4. Secure Read/Write File and Print Server
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement a
secure read/write print server. Setting the security directive to user forces Samba to authenticate
client connections. Notice the [homes] share does not have a force user or force group
directive as the [public] share does. The [homes] share uses the authenticated user details for
any files created as opposed to the force user and force group in [public].
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
netbios name = DOCS_SRV
security = user
printcap name = cups
disable spools = Yes
show add printer wizard = No
printing = cups
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
valid users = %S
read only = No
browseable = No
[public]
comment = Data
path = /export
force user = docsbot
force group = users
guest ok = Yes
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
printer admin = john, ed, @admins
create mask = 0600
guest ok = Yes
printable = Yes
use client driver = Yes
browseable = Yes
16.1.6.2. Domain Member Server
A domain member, while similar to a stand-alone server, is logged into a domain controller (either
Windows or Samba) and is subject to the domain's security rules. An example of a domain member
server would be a departmental server running Samba that has a machine account on the Primary
Domain Controller (PDC). All of the department's clients still authenticate with the PDC, and desktop
profiles and all network policy files are included. The difference is that the departmental server has the
ability to control printer and network shares.
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16.1.6.2.1. Active Directory Domain Member Server
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement
an Active Directory domain member server. In this example, Samba authenticates users for
services being run locally but is also a client of the Active Directory. Ensure that your kerberos
realm parameter is shown in all caps (for example realm = EXAMPLE.COM). Since Windows
2000/2003/2008 requires Kerberos for Active Directory authentication, the realm directive is required.
If Active Directory and Kerberos are running on different servers, the password server directive
may be required to help the distinction.
[global]
realm = EXAMPLE.COM
security = ADS
encrypt passwords = yes
# Optional. Use only if Samba cannot determine the Kerberos server automatically.
password server = kerberos.example.com
In order to join a member server to an Active Directory domain, the following steps must be completed:
• Configuration of the /etc/samba/smb.conf file on the member server
• Configuration of Kerberos, including the /etc/krb5.conf file, on the member server
• Creation of the machine account on the Active Directory domain server
• Association of the member server to the Active Directory domain
To create the machine account and join the Windows 2000/2003/2008 Active Directory, Kerberos
must first be initialized for the member server wishing to join the Active Directory domain. To create an
administrative Kerberos ticket, type the following command as root on the member server:
kinit administrator@EXAMPLE.COM
The kinit command is a Kerberos initialization script that references the Active Directory
administrator account and Kerberos realm. Since Active Directory requires Kerberos tickets, kinit
obtains and caches a Kerberos ticket-granting ticket for client/server authentication. For more
information on Kerberos, the /etc/krb5.conf file, and the kinit command, refer to the Using
Kerberos section of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Managing Single Sign-On and Smart Cards guide.
To join an Active Directory server (windows1.example.com), type the following command as root on
the member server:
net ads join -S windows1.example.com -U administrator%password
Since the machine windows1 was automatically found in the corresponding Kerberos realm (the
kinit command succeeded), the net command connects to the Active Directory server using its
required administrator account and password. This creates the appropriate machine account on the
Active Directory and grants permissions to the Samba domain member server to join the domain.
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The security option
Since security = ads and not security = user is used, a local password back end
such as smbpasswd is not needed. Older clients that do not support security = ads are
authenticated as if security = domain had been set. This change does not affect functionality
and allows local users not previously in the domain.
16.1.6.2.2. Windows NT4-based Domain Member Server
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement a
Windows NT4-based domain member server. Becoming a member server of an NT4-based domain
is similar to connecting to an Active Directory. The main difference is NT4-based domains do not use
Kerberos in their authentication method, making the /etc/samba/smb.conf file simpler. In this
instance, the Samba member server functions as a pass through to the NT4-based domain server.
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
netbios name = DOCS_SRV
security = domain
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
valid users = %S
read only = No
browseable = No
[public]
comment = Data
path = /export
force user = docsbot
force group = users
guest ok = Yes
Having Samba as a domain member server can be useful in many situations. There are times where
the Samba server can have other uses besides file and printer sharing. It may be beneficial to make
Samba a domain member server in instances where Linux-only applications are required for use in the
domain environment. Administrators appreciate keeping track of all machines in the domain, even if
not Windows-based. In the event the Windows-based server hardware is deprecated, it is quite easy
to modify the /etc/samba/smb.conf file to convert the server to a Samba-based PDC. If Windows
NT-based servers are upgraded to Windows 2000/2003/2008, the /etc/samba/smb.conf file is
easily modifiable to incorporate the infrastructure change to Active Directory if needed.
Make sure you join the domain before starting Samba
After configuring the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, join the domain before starting Samba by
typing the following command as root:
net rpc join -U administrator%password
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Note that the -S option, which specifies the domain server hostname, does not need to be stated in
the net rpc join command. Samba uses the hostname specified by the workgroup directive in
the /etc/samba/smb.conf file instead of it being stated explicitly.
16.1.6.3. Domain Controller
A domain controller in Windows NT is functionally similar to a Network Information Service (NIS)
server in a Linux environment. Domain controllers and NIS servers both host user/group information
databases as well as related services. Domain controllers are mainly used for security, including
the authentication of users accessing domain resources. The service that maintains the user/group
database integrity is called the Security Account Manager (SAM). The SAM database is stored
differently between Windows and Linux Samba-based systems, therefore SAM replication cannot be
achieved and platforms cannot be mixed in a PDC/BDC environment.
In a Samba environment, there can be only one PDC and zero or more BDCs.
A mixed Samba/Windows domain controller environment
Samba cannot exist in a mixed Samba/Windows domain controller environment (Samba cannot
be a BDC of a Windows PDC or vice versa). Alternatively, Samba PDCs and BDCs can coexist.
16.1.6.3.1. Primary Domain Controller (PDC) using tdbsam
The simplest and most common implementation of a Samba PDC uses the new default tdbsam
password database back end. Replacing the aging smbpasswd back end, tdbsam has numerous
improvements that are explained in more detail in Section 16.1.8, “Samba Account Information
Databases”. The passdb backend directive controls which back end is to be used for the PDC.
The following /etc/samba/smb.conf file shows a sample configuration needed to implement a
tdbsam password database back end.
[global]
workgroup = DOCS
netbios name = DOCS_SRV
passdb backend = tdbsam
security = user
add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -m "%u"
delete user script = /usr/sbin/userdel -r "%u"
add group script = /usr/sbin/groupadd "%g"
delete group script = /usr/sbin/groupdel "%g"
add user to group script = /usr/sbin/usermod -G "%g" "%u"
add machine script = /usr/sbin/useradd -s /bin/false -d /dev/null
# The following specifies the default logon script
# Per user logon scripts can be specified in the user
# account using pdbedit logon script = logon.bat
# This sets the default profile path.
# Set per user paths with pdbedit
logon drive = H:
domain logons = Yes
os level = 35
preferred master = Yes
domain master = Yes
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
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valid users = %S
read only = No
[netlogon]
comment = Network Logon Service
path = /var/lib/samba/netlogon/scripts
browseable = No
read only = No
# For profiles to work, create a user directory under the
# path shown.
mkdir -p /var/lib/samba/profiles/john
[Profiles]
comment = Roaming Profile Share
path = /var/lib/samba/profiles
read only = No
browseable = No
guest ok = Yes
profile acls = Yes
# Other resource shares ... ...
To provide a functional PDC system which uses the tdbsam follow these steps:
1. Use a configuration of the smb.conf file as shown in the example above.
2. Add the root user to the Samba password database:
smbpasswd -a root
3. Start the smb service.
4. Make sure all profile, user, and netlogon directories are created.
5. Add groups that users can be members of:
groupadd -f users
groupadd -f nobody
groupadd -f ntadmins
6. Associate the UNIX groups with their respective Windows groups:
net groupmap add ntgroup="Domain Users" unixgroup=users
net groupmap add ntgroup="Domain Guests" unixgroup=nobody
net groupmap add ntgroup="Domain Admins" unixgroup=ntadmins
7. Grant access rights to a user or a group. For example, to grant the right to add client machines to
the domain on a Samba domain controller, to the members to the Domain Admins group, execute
the following command:
net rpc rights grant 'DOCS\Domain Admins' SetMachineAccountPrivilege -S PDC -U root
Keep in mind that Windows systems prefer to have a primary group which is mapped to a domain
group such as Domain Users.
Windows groups and users use the same namespace thus not allowing the existence of a group and a
user with the same name like in UNIX.
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Limitations of the tdbsam authentication back end
If you need more than one domain controller or have more than 250 users, do not use a tdbsam
authentication back end. LDAP is recommended in these cases.
16.1.6.3.2. Primary Domain Controller (PDC) with Active Directory
Although it is possible for Samba to be a member of an Active Directory, it is not possible for Samba to
operate as an Active Directory domain controller.
16.1.7. Samba Security Modes
There are only two types of security modes for Samba, share-level and user-level, which are
collectively known as security levels . Share-level security can only be implemented in one way,
while user-level security can be implemented in one of four different ways. The different ways of
implementing a security level are called security modes.
16.1.7.1. User-Level Security
User-level security is the default setting for Samba. Even if the security = user directive is not
listed in the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, it is used by Samba. If the server accepts the client's
username/password, the client can then mount multiple shares without specifying a password for each
instance. Samba can also accept session-based username/password requests. The client maintains
multiple authentication contexts by using a unique UID for each logon.
In the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, the security = user directive that sets user-level security is:
[GLOBAL]
...
security = user
...
The following sections describe other implementations of user-level security.
16.1.7.1.1. Domain Security Mode (User-Level Security)
In domain security mode, the Samba server has a machine account (domain security trust account)
and causes all authentication requests to be passed through to the domain controllers. The Samba
server is made into a domain member server by using the following directives in the /etc/samba/
smb.conf file:
[GLOBAL]
...
security = domain
workgroup = MARKETING
...
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16.1.7.1.2. Active Directory Security Mode (User-Level Security)
If you have an Active Directory environment, it is possible to join the domain as a native Active
Directory member. Even if a security policy restricts the use of NT-compatible authentication protocols,
the Samba server can join an ADS using Kerberos. Samba in Active Directory member mode can
accept Kerberos tickets.
In the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, the following directives make Samba an Active Directory member
server:
[GLOBAL]
...
security = ADS
realm = EXAMPLE.COM
password server = kerberos.example.com
...
16.1.7.1.3. Server Security Mode (User-Level Security)
Server security mode was previously used when Samba was not capable of acting as a domain
member server.
Avoid using the server security mode
It is highly recommended to not use this mode since there are numerous security drawbacks.
In the /etc/samba/smb.conf, the following directives enable Samba to operate in server security
mode:
[GLOBAL]
...
encrypt passwords = Yes
security = server
password server = "NetBIOS_of_Domain_Controller"
...
16.1.7.2. Share-Level Security
With share-level security, the server accepts only a password without an explicit username from the
client. The server expects a password for each share, independent of the username. There have
been recent reports that Microsoft Windows clients have compatibility issues with share-level security
servers. Samba developers strongly discourage use of share-level security.
In the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, the security = share directive that sets share-level security
is:
[GLOBAL]
...
security = share
...
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16.1.8. Samba Account Information Databases
The latest release of Samba offers many new features including new password database back ends
not previously available. Samba version 3.0.0 fully supports all databases used in previous versions of
Samba. However, although supported, many back ends may not be suitable for production use.
The following is a list different back ends you can use with Samba. Other back ends not listed here
may also be available.
Plain Text
Plain text back ends are nothing more than the /etc/passwd type back ends. With a plain text
back end, all usernames and passwords are sent unencrypted between the client and the Samba
server. This method is very unsecure and is not recommended for use by any means. It is possible
that different Windows clients connecting to the Samba server with plain text passwords cannot
support such an authentication method.
smbpasswd
A popular back end used in previous Samba packages, the smbpasswd back end utilizes a
plain ASCII text layout that includes the MS Windows LanMan and NT account, and encrypted
password information. The smbpasswd back end lacks the storage of the Windows NT/2000/2003
SAM extended controls. The smbpasswd back end is not recommended because it does not scale
well or hold any Windows information, such as RIDs for NT-based groups. The tdbsam back end
solves these issues for use in a smaller database (250 users), but is still not an enterprise-class
solution.
ldapsam_compat
The ldapsam_compat back end allows continued OpenLDAP support for use with upgraded
versions of Samba. This option is normally used when migrating to Samba 3.0.
tdbsam
The new default tdbsam password back end provides an ideal database back end for local
servers, servers that do not need built-in database replication, and servers that do not require the
scalability or complexity of LDAP. The tdbsam back end includes all of the smbpasswd database
information as well as the previously-excluded SAM information. The inclusion of the extended
SAM data allows Samba to implement the same account and system access controls as seen with
Windows NT/2000/2003/2008-based systems.
The tdbsam back end is recommended for 250 users at most. Larger organizations should
require Active Directory or LDAP integration due to scalability and possible network infrastructure
concerns.
ldapsam
The ldapsam back end provides an optimal distributed account installation method for Samba.
LDAP is optimal because of its ability to replicate its database to any number of servers such as
the Red Hat Directory Server or an OpenLDAP Server. LDAP databases are light-weight and
scalable, and as such are preferred by large enterprises. Installation and configuration of directory
servers is beyond the scope of this chapter. For more information on the Red Hat Directory
Server, refer to the Red Hat Directory Server 8.2 Deployment Guide. For more information on
LDAP, refer to Section 15.1, “OpenLDAP”.
If you are upgrading from a previous version of Samba to 3.0, note that the OpenLDAP schema
file (/usr/share/doc/samba-version/LDAP/samba.schema) and the Red Hat Directory
Server schema file (/usr/share/doc/samba-version/LDAP/samba-schema-FDS.ldif)
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have changed. These files contain the attribute syntax definitions and objectclass definitions that
the ldapsam back end needs in order to function properly.
As such, if you are using the ldapsam back end for your Samba server, you will need to configure
slapd to include one of these schema file. Refer to Section 15.1.3.3, “Extending Schema” for
directions on how to do this.
Make sure the openldap-server package is installed
You need to have the openldap-server package installed if you want to use the ldapsam
back end.
16.1.9. Samba Network Browsing
Network browsing enables Windows and Samba servers to appear in the Windows Network
Neighborhood. Inside the Network Neighborhood, icons are represented as servers and if opened,
the server's shares and printers that are available are displayed.
Network browsing capabilities require NetBIOS over TCP/IP. NetBIOS-based networking uses
broadcast (UDP) messaging to accomplish browse list management. Without NetBIOS and WINS as
the primary method for TCP/IP hostname resolution, other methods such as static files (/etc/hosts)
or DNS, must be used.
A domain master browser collates the browse lists from local master browsers on all subnets so
that browsing can occur between workgroups and subnets. Also, the domain master browser should
preferably be the local master browser for its own subnet.
16.1.9.1. Domain Browsing
By default, a Windows server PDC for a domain is also the domain master browser for that domain. A
Samba server must not be set up as a domain master server in this type of situation
For subnets that do not include the Windows server PDC, a Samba server can be implemented as a
local master browser. Configuring the /etc/samba/smb.conf file for a local master browser (or no
browsing at all) in a domain controller environment is the same as workgroup configuration.
16.1.9.2. WINS (Windows Internet Name Server)
Either a Samba server or a Windows NT server can function as a WINS server. When a WINS server
is used with NetBIOS enabled, UDP unicasts can be routed which allows name resolution across
networks. Without a WINS server, the UDP broadcast is limited to the local subnet and therefore
cannot be routed to other subnets, workgroups, or domains. If WINS replication is necessary, do not
use Samba as your primary WINS server, as Samba does not currently support WINS replication.
In a mixed NT/2000/2003/2008 server and Samba environment, it is recommended that you use the
Microsoft WINS capabilities. In a Samba-only environment, it is recommended that you use only one
Samba server for WINS.
The following is an example of the /etc/samba/smb.conf file in which the Samba server is serving
as a WINS server:
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[global]
wins support = Yes
Using WINS
All servers (including Samba) should connect to a WINS server to resolve NetBIOS names.
Without WINS, browsing only occurs on the local subnet. Furthermore, even if a domain-wide list
is somehow obtained, hosts cannot be resolved for the client without WINS.
16.1.10. Samba with CUPS Printing Support
Samba allows client machines to share printers connected to the Samba server. In addition, Samba
also allows client machines to send documents built in Linux to Windows printer shares. Although
there are other printing systems that function with Fedora, CUPS (Common UNIX Print System) is the
recommended printing system due to its close integration with Samba.
16.1.10.1. Simple smb.conf Settings
The following example shows a very basic /etc/samba/smb.conf configuration for CUPS support:
[global]
load printers = Yes
printing = cups
printcap name = cups
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
browseable = No
public = Yes
guest ok = Yes
writable = No
printable = Yes
printer admin = @ntadmins
[print$]
comment = Printer Drivers Share
path = /var/lib/samba/drivers
write list = ed, john
printer admin = ed, john
Other printing configurations are also possible. To add additional security and privacy for printing
confidential documents, users can have their own print spooler not located in a public path. If a job
fails, other users would not have access to the file.
The print$ directive contains printer drivers for clients to access if not available locally. The print$
directive is optional and may not be required depending on the organization.
Setting browseable to Yes enables the printer to be viewed in the Windows Network Neighborhood,
provided the Samba server is set up correctly in the domain/workgroup.
16.1.11. Samba Distribution Programs
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findsmb
findsmb subnet_broadcast_address
The findsmb program is a Perl script which reports information about SMB-aware systems on a
specific subnet. If no subnet is specified the local subnet is used. Items displayed include IP address,
NetBIOS name, workgroup or domain name, operating system, and version.
The following example shows the output of executing findsmb as any valid user on a system:
~]$ findsmb
IP ADDR
NETBIOS NAME WORKGROUP/OS/VERSION
-----------------------------------------------------------------10.1.59.25
VERVE
[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 3.0.0-15]
10.1.59.26
STATION22
[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 3.0.2-7.FC1]
10.1.56.45
TREK
+[WORKGROUP] [Windows 5.0] [Windows 2000 LAN Manager]
10.1.57.94
PIXEL
[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 3.0.0-15]
10.1.57.137
MOBILE001
[WORKGROUP] [Windows 5.0] [Windows 2000 LAN Manager]
10.1.57.141
JAWS
+[KWIKIMART] [Unix] [Samba 2.2.7a-security-rollup-fix]
10.1.56.159
FRED
+[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 3.0.0-14.3E]
10.1.59.192
LEGION
*[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 2.2.7-security-rollup-fix]
10.1.56.205
NANCYN
+[MYGROUP] [Unix] [Samba 2.2.7a-security-rollup-fix]
net
net protocol function misc_options target_options
The net utility is similar to the net utility used for Windows and MS-DOS. The first argument is used
to specify the protocol to use when executing a command. The protocol option can be ads, rap,
or rpc for specifying the type of server connection. Active Directory uses ads, Win9x/NT3 uses rap,
and Windows NT4/2000/2003/2008 uses rpc. If the protocol is omitted, net automatically tries to
determine it.
The following example displays a list the available shares for a host named wakko:
~]$ net -l share -S wakko
Password:
Enumerating shared resources (exports) on remote server:
Share name
Type
Description
----------------------data
Disk
Wakko data share
tmp
Disk
Wakko tmp share
IPC$
IPC
IPC Service (Samba Server)
ADMIN$
IPC
IPC Service (Samba Server)
The following example displays a list of Samba users for a host named wakko:
~]$ net -l user -S wakko
root password:
User name
Comment
----------------------------andriusb
Documentation
joe
Marketing
lisa
Sales
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nmblookup
nmblookup options netbios_name
The nmblookup program resolves NetBIOS names into IP addresses. The program broadcasts its
query on the local subnet until the target machine replies.
Here is an example:
~]$ nmblookup trek
querying trek on 10.1.59.255
10.1.56.45 trek<00>
pdbedit
pdbedit options
The pdbedit program manages accounts located in the SAM database. All back ends are supported
including smbpasswd, LDAP, and the tdb database library.
The following are examples of adding, deleting, and listing users:
~]$ pdbedit -a kristin
new password:
retype new password:
Unix username:
kristin
NT username:
Account Flags:
[U
]
User SID:
S-1-5-21-1210235352-3804200048-1474496110-2012
Primary Group SID:
S-1-5-21-1210235352-3804200048-1474496110-2077
Full Name: Home Directory:
\\wakko\kristin
HomeDir Drive:
Logon Script:
Profile Path:
\\wakko\kristin\profile
Domain:
WAKKO
Account desc:
Workstations: Munged
dial:
Logon time:
0
Logoff time:
Mon, 18 Jan 2038 22:14:07 GMT
Kickoff time:
Mon, 18 Jan 2038 22:14:07 GMT
Password last set:
Thu, 29 Jan 2004 08:29:28
GMT Password can change: Thu, 29 Jan 2004 08:29:28 GMT
Password must change: Mon, 18 Jan 2038 22:14:07 GMT
~]$ pdbedit -v -L kristin
Unix username:
kristin
NT username:
Account Flags:
[U
]
User SID:
S-1-5-21-1210235352-3804200048-1474496110-2012
Primary Group SID:
S-1-5-21-1210235352-3804200048-1474496110-2077
Full Name:
Home Directory:
\\wakko\kristin
HomeDir Drive:
Logon Script:
Profile Path:
\\wakko\kristin\profile
Domain:
WAKKO
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Account desc:
Workstations: Munged
dial:
Logon time:
0
Logoff time:
Mon, 18 Jan 2038
Kickoff time:
Mon, 18 Jan 2038
Password last set:
Thu, 29 Jan 2004
Password can change: Thu, 29 Jan 2004
Password must change: Mon, 18 Jan 2038
~]$ pdbedit -L
andriusb:505:
joe:503:
lisa:504:
kristin:506:
~]$ pdbedit -x joe
~]$ pdbedit -L
andriusb:505: lisa:504: kristin:506:
22:14:07
22:14:07
08:29:28
08:29:28
22:14:07
GMT
GMT
GMT
GMT
GMT
rpcclient
rpcclient server options
The rpcclient program issues administrative commands using Microsoft RPCs, which provide
access to the Windows administration graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for systems management. This
is most often used by advanced users that understand the full complexity of Microsoft RPCs.
smbcacls
smbcacls //server/share filename options
The smbcacls program modifies Windows ACLs on files and directories shared by a Samba server or
a Windows server.
smbclient
smbclient //server/share password options
The smbclient program is a versatile UNIX client which provides functionality similar to ftp.
smbcontrol
smbcontrol -i options
smbcontrol options destination messagetype parameters
The smbcontrol program sends control messages to running smbd, nmbd, or winbindd daemons.
Executing smbcontrol -i runs commands interactively until a blank line or a 'q' is entered.
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smbpasswd
smbpasswd options username password
The smbpasswd program manages encrypted passwords. This program can be run by a superuser to
change any user's password as well as by an ordinary user to change their own Samba password.
smbspool
smbspool job user title copies options filename
The smbspool program is a CUPS-compatible printing interface to Samba. Although designed for use
with CUPS printers, smbspool can work with non-CUPS printers as well.
smbstatus
smbstatus options
The smbstatus program displays the status of current connections to a Samba server.
smbtar
smbtar options
The smbtar program performs backup and restores of Windows-based share files and directories to a
local tape archive. Though similar to the tar command, the two are not compatible.
testparm
testparm options filename hostname IP_address
The testparm program checks the syntax of the /etc/samba/smb.conf file. If your /etc/
samba/smb.conf file is in the default location (/etc/samba/smb.conf) you do not need to specify
the location. Specifying the hostname and IP address to the testparm program verifies that the
hosts.allow and host.deny files are configured correctly. The testparm program also displays
a summary of your /etc/samba/smb.conf file and the server's role (stand-alone, domain, etc.)
after testing. This is convenient when debugging as it excludes comments and concisely presents
information for experienced administrators to read.
For example:
~]$ testparm
Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
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Additional Resources
Processing section "[homes]"
Processing section "[printers]"
Processing section "[tmp]"
Processing section "[html]"
Loaded services file OK.
Server role: ROLE_STANDALONE
Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
<enter>
# Global parameters
[global]
workgroup = MYGROUP
server string = Samba Server
security = SHARE
log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
max log size = 50
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
dns proxy = No
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
read only = No
browseable = No
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
printable = Yes
browseable = No
[tmp]
comment = Wakko tmp
path = /tmp
guest only = Yes
[html]
comment = Wakko www
path = /var/www/html
force user = andriusb
force group = users
read only = No
guest only = Yes
wbinfo
wbinfo options
The wbinfo program displays information from the winbindd daemon. The winbindd daemon must
be running for wbinfo to work.
16.1.12. Additional Resources
The following sections give you the means to explore Samba in greater detail.
16.1.12.1. Installed Documentation
• /usr/share/doc/samba-version-number/ — All additional files included with the Samba
distribution. This includes all helper scripts, sample configuration files, and documentation. This
directory also contains online versions of The Official Samba-3 HOWTO-Collection and Samba-3 by
Example, both of which are cited below.
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Make sure you have the samba-doc package installed
In order to use the Samba documentation, first ensure the samba-doc package is installed on
your system by running, as root:
yum install samba-doc
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
Refer to the following manual pages for detailed information specific Samba features:
• smb.conf
• samba
• smbd
• nmbd
• winbind
16.1.12.2. Related Books
• The Official Samba-3 HOWTO-Collection by John H. Terpstra and Jelmer R. Vernooij; Prentice Hall
— The official Samba-3 documentation as issued by the Samba development team. This is more of
a reference guide than a step-by-step guide.
• Samba-3 by Example by John H. Terpstra; Prentice Hall — This is another official release issued
by the Samba development team which discusses detailed examples of OpenLDAP, DNS, DHCP,
and printing configuration files. This has step-by-step related information that helps in real-world
implementations.
• Using Samba, 2nd Edition by Jay T's, Robert Eckstein, and David Collier-Brown; O'Reilly — A good
resource for novice to advanced users, which includes comprehensive reference material.
16.1.12.3. Useful Websites
• http://www.samba.org/ — Homepage for the Samba distribution and all official documentation
created by the Samba development team. Many resources are available in HTML and PDF formats,
while others are only available for purchase. Although many of these links are not Fedora specific,
some concepts may apply.
1
• http://samba.org/samba/archives.html — Active email lists for the Samba community. Enabling
digest mode is recommended due to high levels of list activity.
1
http://us1.samba.org/samba/archives.html
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• Samba newsgroups — Samba threaded newsgroups, such as gmane.org, that use the NNTP
protocol are also available. This an alternative to receiving mailing list emails.
16.2. FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is one of the oldest and most commonly used protocols found on the
Internet today. Its purpose is to reliably transfer files between computer hosts on a network without
requiring the user to log directly into the remote host or have knowledge of how to use the remote
system. It allows users to access files on remote systems using a standard set of simple commands.
This section outlines the basics of the FTP protocol, as well as configuration options for the primary
FTP server shipped with Fedora, vsftpd.
16.2.1. The File Transfer Protocol
However, because FTP is so prevalent on the Internet, it is often required to share files to the public.
System administrators, therefore, should be aware of the FTP protocol's unique characteristics.
16.2.1.1. Multiple Ports, Multiple Modes
Unlike most protocols used on the Internet, FTP requires multiple network ports to work properly.
When an FTP client application initiates a connection to an FTP server, it opens port 21 on the
server — known as the command port. This port is used to issue all commands to the server. Any
data requested from the server is returned to the client via a data port. The port number for data
connections, and the way in which data connections are initialized, vary depending upon whether the
client requests the data in active or passive mode.
The following defines these modes:
active mode
Active mode is the original method used by the FTP protocol for transferring data to the client
application. When an active mode data transfer is initiated by the FTP client, the server opens a
connection from port 20 on the server to the IP address and a random, unprivileged port (greater
than 1024) specified by the client. This arrangement means that the client machine must be
allowed to accept connections over any port above 1024. With the growth of insecure networks,
such as the Internet, the use of firewalls to protect client machines is now prevalent. Because
these client-side firewalls often deny incoming connections from active mode FTP servers, passive
mode was devised.
passive mode
Passive mode, like active mode, is initiated by the FTP client application. When requesting data
from the server, the FTP client indicates it wants to access the data in passive mode and the
server provides the IP address and a random, unprivileged port (greater than 1024) on the
server. The client then connects to that port on the server to download the requested information.
While passive mode resolves issues for client-side firewall interference with data connections, it
can complicate administration of the server-side firewall. You can reduce the number of open ports
on a server by limiting the range of unprivileged ports on the FTP server. This also simplifies the
process of configuring firewall rules for the server. Refer to Section 16.2.5.8, “Network Options” for
more information about limiting passive ports.
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16.2.2. FTP Servers
Fedora ships with two different FTP servers:
• Red Hat Content Accelerator — A kernel-based Web server that delivers high performance Web
server and FTP services. Since speed is its primary design goal, it has limited functionality and runs
only as an anonymous FTP server. For more information about configuring and administering Red
Hat Content Accelerator, consult the documentation available online at http://www.redhat.com/
docs/manuals/tux/.
• vsftpd — A fast, secure FTP daemon which is the preferred FTP server for Fedora. The remainder
of this section focuses on vsftpd.
16.2.2.1. vsftpd
The Very Secure FTP Daemon (vsftpd) is designed from the ground up to be fast, stable, and, most
importantly, secure. vsftpd is the only stand-alone FTP server distributed with Fedora, due to its
ability to handle large numbers of connections efficiently and securely.
The security model used by vsftpd has three primary aspects:
• Strong separation of privileged and non-privileged processes — Separate processes handle
different tasks, and each of these processes run with the minimal privileges required for the task.
• Tasks requiring elevated privileges are handled by processes with the minimal privilege necessary
— By leveraging compatibilities found in the libcap library, tasks that usually require full root
privileges can be executed more safely from a less privileged process.
• Most processes run in a chroot jail — Whenever possible, processes are change-rooted to
the directory being shared; this directory is then considered a chroot jail. For example, if the
directory /var/ftp/ is the primary shared directory, vsftpd reassigns /var/ftp/ to the new
root directory, known as /. This disallows any potential malicious hacker activities for any directories
not contained below the new root directory.
Use of these security practices has the following effect on how vsftpd deals with requests:
• The parent process runs with the least privileges required — The parent process dynamically
calculates the level of privileges it requires to minimize the level of risk. Child processes handle
direct interaction with the FTP clients and run with as close to no privileges as possible.
• All operations requiring elevated privileges are handled by a small parent process — Much like
the Apache HTTP Server, vsftpd launches unprivileged child processes to handle incoming
connections. This allows the privileged, parent process to be as small as possible and handle
relatively few tasks.
• All requests from unprivileged child processes are distrusted by the parent process —
Communication with child processes are received over a socket, and the validity of any information
from child processes is checked before being acted on.
• Most interaction with FTP clients is handled by unprivileged child processes in a chroot jail —
Because these child processes are unprivileged and only have access to the directory being shared,
any crashed processes only allows the attacker access to the shared files.
16.2.3. Files Installed with vsftpd
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Starting and Stopping vsftpd
The vsftpd RPM installs the daemon (/usr/sbin/vsftpd), its configuration and related files, as
well as FTP directories onto the system. The following lists the files and directories related to vsftpd
configuration:
• /etc/rc.d/init.d/vsftpd — The initialization script (initscript) used by the systemctl
command to start, stop, or reload vsftpd. Refer to Section 16.2.4, “Starting and Stopping vsftpd ”
for more information about using this script.
• /etc/pam.d/vsftpd — The Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) configuration file for
vsftpd. This file specifies the requirements a user must meet to login to the FTP server. For more
information on PAM, refer to the Using Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) chapter of the
Fedora 17 Managing Single Sign-On and Smart Cards guide.
• /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf — The configuration file for vsftpd. Refer to Section 16.2.5, “
vsftpd Configuration Options” for a list of important options contained within this file.
• /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers — A list of users not allowed to log into vsftpd. By default, this list
includes the root, bin, and daemon users, among others.
• /etc/vsftpd/user_list — This file can be configured to either deny or allow access to the
users listed, depending on whether the userlist_deny directive is set to YES (default) or NO in /
etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf. If /etc/vsftpd/user_list is used to grant access to users, the
usernames listed must not appear in /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers.
• /var/ftp/ — The directory containing files served by vsftpd. It also contains the /var/ftp/
pub/ directory for anonymous users. Both directories are world-readable, but writable only by the
root user.
16.2.4. Starting and Stopping vsftpd
The vsftpd RPM installs the /etc/rc.d/init.d/vsftpd script, which can be accessed using the
systemctl command.
To start the server, as root type:
systemctl start vsftpd.service
To stop the server, as root type:
systemctl stop vsftpd.service
The restart option is a shorthand way of stopping and then starting vsftpd. This is the most
efficient way to make configuration changes take effect after editing the configuration file for vsftpd.
To restart the server, as root type:
systemctl restart vsftpd.service
The condrestart (conditional restart) option only starts vsftpd if it is currently running. This option
is useful for scripts, because it does not start the daemon if it is not running.
To conditionally restart the server, as root type:
systemctl condrestart vsftpd.service
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By default, the vsftpd service does not start automatically at boot time. To configure the vsftpd
service to start at boot time, use a service manager such as systemctl. Refer to Chapter 8, Services
and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in Fedora.
16.2.4.1. Starting Multiple Copies of vsftpd
Sometimes one computer is used to serve multiple FTP domains. This is a technique called
multihoming. One way to multihome using vsftpd is by running multiple copies of the daemon, each
with its own configuration file.
To do this, first assign all relevant IP addresses to network devices or alias network devices on the
system. Additional information about network configuration scripts can be found in Chapter 7, Network
Interfaces.
Next, the DNS server for the FTP domains must be configured to reference the correct machine. For
information about BIND and its configuration files, refer to Section 12.2, “BIND”.
If there is more configuration files present in the /etc/vsftpd directory, calling systemctl start
vsftpd.service results in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/vsftpd initscript starting the same number of
processes as the number of configuration files. Each configuration file must have a unique name in the
/etc/vsftpd/ directory and must be readable and writable only by root.
16.2.5. vsftpd Configuration Options
Although vsftpd may not offer the level of customization other widely available FTP servers have, it
offers enough options to fill most administrator's needs. The fact that it is not overly feature-laden limits
configuration and programmatic errors.
All configuration of vsftpd is handled by its configuration file, /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf. Each
directive is on its own line within the file and follows the following format:
directive=value
For each directive, replace directive with a valid directive and value with a valid value.
Do not use spaces
There must not be any spaces between the directive, equal symbol, and the value in a
directive.
Comment lines must be preceded by a hash sign (#) and are ignored by the daemon.
For a complete list of all directives available, refer to the man page for vsftpd.conf.
Securing the vsftpd service
For an overview of ways to secure vsftpd, refer to the Fedora 17 Security Guide.
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The following is a list of some of the more important directives within /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf.
All directives not explicitly found or commented out within vsftpd's configuration file are set to their
default value.
16.2.5.1. Daemon Options
The following is a list of directives which control the overall behavior of the vsftpd daemon.
• listen — When enabled, vsftpd runs in stand-alone mode. Fedora sets this value to YES. This
directive cannot be used in conjunction with the listen_ipv6 directive.
The default value is NO.
• listen_ipv6 — When enabled, vsftpd runs in stand-alone mode, but listens only to IPv6
sockets. This directive cannot be used in conjunction with the listen directive.
The default value is NO.
• session_support — When enabled, vsftpd attempts to maintain login sessions for each
user through Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). For more information, refer to the Using
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) chapter of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Managing
Single Sign-On and Smart Cards and the PAM man pages. . If session logging is not necessary,
disabling this option allows vsftpd to run with less processes and lower privileges.
The default value is YES.
16.2.5.2. Log In Options and Access Controls
The following is a list of directives which control the login behavior and access control mechanisms.
• anonymous_enable — When enabled, anonymous users are allowed to log in. The usernames
anonymous and ftp are accepted.
The default value is YES.
Refer to Section 16.2.5.3, “Anonymous User Options” for a list of directives affecting anonymous
users.
• banned_email_file — If the deny_email_enable directive is set to YES, this directive
specifies the file containing a list of anonymous email passwords which are not permitted access to
the server.
The default value is /etc/vsftpd/banned_emails.
• banner_file — Specifies the file containing text displayed when a connection is established to
the server. This option overrides any text specified in the ftpd_banner directive.
There is no default value for this directive.
• cmds_allowed — Specifies a comma-delimited list of FTP commands allowed by the server. All
other commands are rejected.
There is no default value for this directive.
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• deny_email_enable — When enabled, any anonymous user utilizing email passwords specified
in the /etc/vsftpd/banned_emails are denied access to the server. The name of the file
referenced by this directive can be specified using the banned_email_file directive.
The default value is NO.
• ftpd_banner — When enabled, the string specified within this directive is displayed when a
connection is established to the server. This option can be overridden by the banner_file
directive.
By default vsftpd displays its standard banner.
• local_enable — When enabled, local users are allowed to log into the system.
The default value is YES.
Refer to Section 16.2.5.4, “Local User Options” for a list of directives affecting local users.
• pam_service_name — Specifies the PAM service name for vsftpd.
The default value is ftp. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to vsftpd.
• The default value is NO. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to YES.
• userlist_deny — When used in conjunction with the userlist_enable directive and set
to NO, all local users are denied access unless the username is listed in the file specified by the
userlist_file directive. Because access is denied before the client is asked for a password,
setting this directive to NO prevents local users from submitting unencrypted passwords over the
network.
The default value is YES.
• userlist_enable — When enabled, the users listed in the file specified by the userlist_file
directive are denied access. Because access is denied before the client is asked for a password,
users are prevented from submitting unencrypted passwords over the network.
The default value is NO, however under Fedora the value is set to YES.
• userlist_file — Specifies the file referenced by vsftpd when the userlist_enable
directive is enabled.
The default value is /etc/vsftpd/user_list and is created during installation.
16.2.5.3. Anonymous User Options
The following lists directives which control anonymous user access to the server. To use these
options, the anonymous_enable directive must be set to YES.
• anon_mkdir_write_enable — When enabled in conjunction with the write_enable directive,
anonymous users are allowed to create new directories within a parent directory which has write
permissions.
The default value is NO.
• anon_root — Specifies the directory vsftpd changes to after an anonymous user logs in.
There is no default value for this directive.
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• anon_upload_enable — When enabled in conjunction with the write_enable directive,
anonymous users are allowed to upload files within a parent directory which has write permissions.
The default value is NO.
• anon_world_readable_only — When enabled, anonymous users are only allowed to download
world-readable files.
The default value is YES.
• ftp_username — Specifies the local user account (listed in /etc/passwd) used for the
anonymous FTP user. The home directory specified in /etc/passwd for the user is the root
directory of the anonymous FTP user.
The default value is ftp.
• no_anon_password — When enabled, the anonymous user is not asked for a password.
The default value is NO.
• secure_email_list_enable — When enabled, only a specified list of email passwords for
anonymous logins are accepted. This is a convenient way to offer limited security to public content
without the need for virtual users.
Anonymous logins are prevented unless the password provided is listed in /etc/vsftpd/
email_passwords. The file format is one password per line, with no trailing white spaces.
The default value is NO.
16.2.5.4. Local User Options
The following lists directives which characterize the way local users access the server. To use these
options, the local_enable directive must be set to YES.
• chmod_enable — When enabled, the FTP command SITE CHMOD is allowed for local users. This
command allows the users to change the permissions on files.
The default value is YES.
• chroot_list_enable — When enabled, the local users listed in the file specified in the
chroot_list_file directive are placed in a chroot jail upon log in.
If enabled in conjunction with the chroot_local_user directive, the local users listed in the file
specified in the chroot_list_file directive are not placed in a chroot jail upon log in.
The default value is NO.
• chroot_list_file — Specifies the file containing a list of local users referenced when the
chroot_list_enable directive is set to YES.
The default value is /etc/vsftpd/chroot_list.
• chroot_local_user — When enabled, local users are change-rooted to their home directories
after logging in.
The default value is NO.
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Avoid enabling the chroot_local_user option
Enabling chroot_local_user opens up a number of security issues, especially for users
with upload privileges. For this reason, it is not recommended.
• guest_enable — When enabled, all non-anonymous users are logged in as the user guest,
which is the local user specified in the guest_username directive.
The default value is NO.
• guest_username — Specifies the username the guest user is mapped to.
The default value is ftp.
• local_root — Specifies the directory vsftpd changes to after a local user logs in.
There is no default value for this directive.
• local_umask — Specifies the umask value for file creation. Note that the default value is in octal
form (a numerical system with a base of eight), which includes a "0" prefix. Otherwise the value is
treated as a base-10 integer.
The default value is 022.
• passwd_chroot_enable — When enabled in conjunction with the chroot_local_user
directive, vsftpd change-roots local users based on the occurrence of the /./ in the home
directory field within /etc/passwd.
The default value is NO.
• user_config_dir — Specifies the path to a directory containing configuration files bearing the
name of local system users that contain specific setting for that user. Any directive in the user's
configuration file overrides those found in /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf.
There is no default value for this directive.
16.2.5.5. Directory Options
The following lists directives which affect directories.
• dirlist_enable — When enabled, users are allowed to view directory lists.
The default value is YES.
• dirmessage_enable — When enabled, a message is displayed whenever a user enters a
directory with a message file. This message resides within the current directory. The name of this
file is specified in the message_file directive and is .message by default.
The default value is NO. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to YES.
• force_dot_files — When enabled, files beginning with a dot (.) are listed in directory listings,
with the exception of the . and .. files.
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The default value is NO.
• hide_ids — When enabled, all directory listings show ftp as the user and group for each file.
The default value is NO.
• message_file — Specifies the name of the message file when using the dirmessage_enable
directive.
The default value is .message.
• text_userdb_names — When enabled, text usernames and group names are used in place of
UID and GID entries. Enabling this option may slow performance of the server.
The default value is NO.
• use_localtime — When enabled, directory listings reveal the local time for the computer instead
of GMT.
The default value is NO.
16.2.5.6. File Transfer Options
The following lists directives which affect directories.
• download_enable — When enabled, file downloads are permitted.
The default value is YES.
• chown_uploads — When enabled, all files uploaded by anonymous users are owned by the user
specified in the chown_username directive.
The default value is NO.
• chown_username — Specifies the ownership of anonymously uploaded files if the
chown_uploads directive is enabled.
The default value is root.
• write_enable — When enabled, FTP commands which can change the file system are allowed,
such as DELE, RNFR, and STOR.
The default value is YES.
16.2.5.7. Logging Options
The following lists directives which affect vsftpd's logging behavior.
• dual_log_enable — When enabled in conjunction with xferlog_enable, vsftpd writes
two files simultaneously: a wu-ftpd-compatible log to the file specified in the xferlog_file
directive (/var/log/xferlog by default) and a standard vsftpd log file specified in the
vsftpd_log_file directive (/var/log/vsftpd.log by default).
The default value is NO.
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• log_ftp_protocol — When enabled in conjunction with xferlog_enable and with
xferlog_std_format set to NO, all FTP commands and responses are logged. This directive is
useful for debugging.
The default value is NO.
• syslog_enable — When enabled in conjunction with xferlog_enable, all logging normally
written to the standard vsftpd log file specified in the vsftpd_log_file directive (/var/log/
vsftpd.log by default) is sent to the system logger instead under the FTPD facility.
The default value is NO.
• vsftpd_log_file — Specifies the vsftpd log file. For this file to be used,
xferlog_enable must be enabled and xferlog_std_format must either be set to NO or, if
xferlog_std_format is set to YES, dual_log_enable must be enabled. It is important to note
that if syslog_enable is set to YES, the system log is used instead of the file specified in this
directive.
The default value is /var/log/vsftpd.log.
• xferlog_enable — When enabled, vsftpd logs connections (vsftpd format only) and file
transfer information to the log file specified in the vsftpd_log_file directive (/var/log/
vsftpd.log by default). If xferlog_std_format is set to YES, file transfer information is
logged but connections are not, and the log file specified in xferlog_file (/var/log/xferlog
by default) is used instead. It is important to note that both log files and log formats are used if
dual_log_enable is set to YES.
The default value is NO. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to YES.
• xferlog_file — Specifies the wu-ftpd-compatible log file. For this file to be used,
xferlog_enable must be enabled and xferlog_std_format must be set to YES. It is also
used if dual_log_enable is set to YES.
The default value is /var/log/xferlog.
• xferlog_std_format — When enabled in conjunction with xferlog_enable, only a wu-ftpdcompatible file transfer log is written to the file specified in the xferlog_file directive (/var/
log/xferlog by default). It is important to note that this file only logs file transfers and does not
log connections to the server.
The default value is NO. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to YES.
Maintaining compatibility with older log file formats
To maintain compatibility with log files written by the older wu-ftpd FTP server, the
xferlog_std_format directive is set to YES under Fedora. However, this setting means that
connections to the server are not logged.
To both log connections in vsftpd format and maintain a wu-ftpd-compatible file transfer log,
set dual_log_enable to YES.
If maintaining a wu-ftpd-compatible file transfer log is not important, either set
xferlog_std_format to NO, comment the line with a hash sign (#), or delete the line entirely.
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16.2.5.8. Network Options
The following lists directives which affect how vsftpd interacts with the network.
• accept_timeout — Specifies the amount of time for a client using passive mode to establish a
connection.
The default value is 60.
• anon_max_rate — Specifies the maximum data transfer rate for anonymous users in bytes per
second.
The default value is 0, which does not limit the transfer rate.
• connect_from_port_20 When enabled, vsftpd runs with enough privileges to open port 20 on
the server during active mode data transfers. Disabling this option allows vsftpd to run with less
privileges, but may be incompatible with some FTP clients.
The default value is NO. Note, in Fedora, the value is set to YES.
• connect_timeout — Specifies the maximum amount of time a client using active mode has to
respond to a data connection, in seconds.
The default value is 60.
• data_connection_timeout — Specifies maximum amount of time data transfers are allowed to
stall, in seconds. Once triggered, the connection to the remote client is closed.
The default value is 300.
• ftp_data_port — Specifies the port used for active data connections when
connect_from_port_20 is set to YES.
The default value is 20.
• idle_session_timeout — Specifies the maximum amount of time between commands from a
remote client. Once triggered, the connection to the remote client is closed.
The default value is 300.
• listen_address — Specifies the IP address on which vsftpd listens for network connections.
There is no default value for this directive.
Running multiple copies of vsftpd
If running multiple copies of vsftpd serving different IP addresses, the configuration file
for each copy of the vsftpd daemon must have a different value for this directive. Refer to
Section 16.2.4.1, “Starting Multiple Copies of vsftpd ” for more information about multihomed
FTP servers.
• listen_address6 — Specifies the IPv6 address on which vsftpd listens for network
connections when listen_ipv6 is set to YES.
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There is no default value for this directive.
Running multiple copies of vsftpd
If running multiple copies of vsftpd serving different IP addresses, the configuration file
for each copy of the vsftpd daemon must have a different value for this directive. Refer to
Section 16.2.4.1, “Starting Multiple Copies of vsftpd ” for more information about multihomed
FTP servers.
• listen_port — Specifies the port on which vsftpd listens for network connections.
The default value is 21.
• local_max_rate — Specifies the maximum rate data is transferred for local users logged into the
server in bytes per second.
The default value is 0, which does not limit the transfer rate.
• max_clients — Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous clients allowed to connect to the
server when it is running in standalone mode. Any additional client connections would result in an
error message.
The default value is 0, which does not limit connections.
• max_per_ip — Specifies the maximum of clients allowed to connected from the same source IP
address.
The default value is 0, which does not limit connections.
• pasv_address — Specifies the IP address for the public facing IP address of the server for
servers behind Network Address Translation (NAT) firewalls. This enables vsftpd to hand out the
correct return address for passive mode connections.
There is no default value for this directive.
• pasv_enable — When enabled, passive mode connects are allowed.
The default value is YES.
• pasv_max_port — Specifies the highest possible port sent to the FTP clients for passive mode
connections. This setting is used to limit the port range so that firewall rules are easier to create.
The default value is 0, which does not limit the highest passive port range. The value must not
exceed 65535.
• pasv_min_port — Specifies the lowest possible port sent to the FTP clients for passive mode
connections. This setting is used to limit the port range so that firewall rules are easier to create.
The default value is 0, which does not limit the lowest passive port range. The value must not be
lower 1024.
• pasv_promiscuous — When enabled, data connections are not checked to make sure they are
originating from the same IP address. This setting is only useful for certain types of tunneling.
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Avoid enabling the pasv_promiscuous option
Do not enable this option unless absolutely necessary as it disables an important security
feature which verifies that passive mode connections originate from the same IP address as
the control connection that initiates the data transfer.
The default value is NO.
• port_enable — When enabled, active mode connects are allowed.
The default value is YES.
16.2.6. Additional Resources
For more information about vsftpd, refer to the following resources.
16.2.6.1. Installed Documentation
• The /usr/share/doc/vsftpd-version-number/ directory — Replace version-number
with the installed version of the vsftpd package. This directory contains a README with basic
information about the software. The TUNING file contains basic performance tuning tips and the
SECURITY/ directory contains information about the security model employed by vsftpd.
• vsftpd related man pages — There are a number of man pages for the daemon and configuration
files. The following lists some of the more important man pages.
Server Applications
• man vsftpd — Describes available command line options for vsftpd.
Configuration Files
• man vsftpd.conf — Contains a detailed list of options available within the configuration file
for vsftpd.
• man 5 hosts_access — Describes the format and options available within the TCP
wrappers configuration files: hosts.allow and hosts.deny.
16.2.6.2. Useful Websites
• http://vsftpd.beasts.org/ — The vsftpd project page is a great place to locate the latest
documentation and to contact the author of the software.
• http://slacksite.com/other/ftp.html — This website provides a concise explanation of the differences
between active and passive mode FTP.
• http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0959.txt — The original Request for Comments (RFC) of the FTP protocol
from the IETF.
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16.3. Printer Configuration
The Printer Configuration tool serves for printer configuring, maintenance of printer configuration
files, print spool directories and print filters, and printer classes management.
The tool is based on the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS). If you upgraded the system from a
previous Fedora version that used CUPS, the upgrade process preserved the configured printers.
Using the CUPS web application or command line tools
You can perform the same and additional operations on printers directly from the CUPS
web application or command line. To access the application, in a web browser, go to http://
localhost:631/. For CUPS manuals refer to the links on the Home tab of the web site.
16.3.1. Starting the Printer Configuration Tool
With the Printer Configuration tool you can perform various operations on existing printers and set up
new printers.
On the upper panel, go to Activities, choose Applications and click Printing. Alternatively, run the
system-config-printer command from the command line to start the tool.
The Printer Configuration window depicted in Figure 16.2, “Printer Configuration window” appears.
Figure 16.2. Printer Configuration window
16.3.2. Starting Printer Setup
Printer setup process varies depending on the printer queue type.
If you are setting up a local printer connected with USB, the printer is discovered and added
automatically. You will be prompted to confirm the packages to be installed and provide the root
password. Local printers connected with other port types and network printers need to be set up
manually.
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Adding a Local Printer
Follow this procedure to start a manual printer setup:
1.
Start the Printer Configuration tool (refer to Section 16.3.1, “Starting the Printer Configuration
Tool”).
2.
Go to Server��� New��� Printer.
3.
In the Authentication Required box, type the root user password and confirm.
4.
Select the printer connection type and provide its details in the area on the right.
16.3.3. Adding a Local Printer
Follow this procedure to add a local printer connected with other than a serial port:
1.
Open the New Printer dialog (refer to Section 16.3.2, “Starting Printer Setup”).
2.
If the device does not appear automatically, select the port to which the printer is connected in the
list on the left (such as Serial Port ∧1 or LPT ∧1).
3.
On the right, enter the connection properties:
for Enter URI
URI (for example file:/dev/lp0)
for Serial Port
Baud Rate
Parity
Data Bits
Flow Control
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Figure 16.3. Adding a local printer
4.
Click Forward.
5.
Select the printer model. Refer to Section 16.3.8, “Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing” for
details.
16.3.4. Adding an AppSocket/HP JetDirect printer
Follow this procedure to add an AppSocket/HP JetDirect printer:
1.
Open the New Printer dialog (refer to Section 16.3.1, “Starting the Printer Configuration Tool”).
2.
In the list on the left, select Network Printer��� AppSocket/HP JetDirect.
3.
On the right, enter the connection settings:
Hostname
printer hostname or IP address
Port Number
printer port listening for print jobs (9100 by default)
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Adding an IPP Printer
Figure 16.4. Adding a JetDirect printer
4.
Click Forward.
5.
Select the printer model. Refer to Section 16.3.8, “Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing” for
details.
16.3.5. Adding an IPP Printer
An IPP printer is a printer attached to a different system on the same TCP/IP network. The system this
printer is attached to may either be running CUPS or simply configured to use IPP.
If a firewall is enabled on the printer server, then the firewall must be configured to allow incoming
TCP connections on port 631. Note that the CUPS browsing protocol allows client machines to
discover shared CUPS queues automatically. To enable this, the firewall on the client machine must
be configured to allow incoming UDP packets on port 631.
Follow this procedure to add an IPP printer:
1.
Open the New Printer dialog (refer to Section 16.3.2, “Starting Printer Setup”).
2.
In the list of devices on the left, select Network Printer and Internet Printing Protocol (ipp) or
Internet Printing Protocol (https).
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
3.
On the right, enter the connection settings:
Host
the hostname for the system that controls the printer
Queue
the queue name to be given to the new queue (if the box is left empty, a name based on the
device node will be used)
Figure 16.5. Adding an IPP printer
4.
Optionally, click Verify to detect the printer.
5.
Click Forward to continue.
6.
Select the printer model. Refer to Section 16.3.8, “Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing” for
details.
16.3.6. Adding an LPD/LPR Host or Printer
Follow this procedure to add an LPD/LPR host or printer:
1.
Open the New Printer dialog (refer to Section 16.3.2, “Starting Printer Setup”).
2.
In the list of devices on the left, select Network Printer��� LPD/LPR Host or Printer.
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Adding a Samba (SMB) printer
3.
On the right, enter the connection settings:
Host
the hostname of the LPD/LPR printer or host
Optionally, click Probe to find queues on the LPD host.
Queue
the queue name to be given to the new queue (if the box is left empty, a name based on the
device node will be used)
Figure 16.6. Adding an LPD/LPR printer
4.
Click Forward to continue.
5.
Select the printer model. Refer to Section 16.3.8, “Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing” for
details.
16.3.7. Adding a Samba (SMB) printer
Follow this procedure to add a Samba printer:
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
Installing the samba-client package
Note that in order to add a Samba printer, you need to have the samba-client package installed.
You can do so by running, as root:
yum install samba-client
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
1.
Open the New Printer dialog (refer to Section 16.3.2, “Starting Printer Setup”).
2.
In the list on the left, select Network Printer��� Windows Printer via SAMBA.
3.
Enter the SMB address in the smb:// field. Use the format computer name/printer share. In
Figure 16.7, “Adding a SMB printer”, the computer name is dellbox and the printer share
is r2.
Figure 16.7. Adding a SMB printer
4.
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Click Browse to see the available workgroups/domains. To display only queues of a particular
host, type in the host name (NetBios name) and click Browse.
Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
5.
Select either of the options:
Prompt user if authentication is required: username and password are collected from the
user when printing a document.
Set authentication details now: provide authentication information now so it is not required
later. In the Username field, enter the username to access the printer. This user must exist
on the SMB system, and the user must have permission to access the printer. The default
user name is typically guest for Windows servers, or nobody for Samba servers.
6.
Enter the Password (if required) for the user specified in the Username field.
Be careful when choosing a password
Samba printer usernames and passwords are stored in the printer server as unencrypted
files readable by root and lpd. Thus, other users that have root access to the printer server
can view the username and password you use to access the Samba printer.
As such, when you choose a username and password to access a Samba printer, it is
advisable that you choose a password that is different from what you use to access your
local Fedora system.
If there are files shared on the Samba print server, it is recommended that they also use a
password different from what is used by the print queue.
7.
Click Verify to test the connection. Upon successful verification, a dialog box appears confirming
printer share accessibility.
8.
Click Forward.
9.
Select the printer model. Refer to Section 16.3.8, “Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing” for
details.
16.3.8. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
Once you have properly selected a printer connection type, the system attempts to acquire a driver. If
the process fails, you can locate or search for the driver resources manually.
Follow this procedure to provide the printer driver and finish the installation:
1.
In the window displayed after the automatic driver detection has failed, select one of the following
options:
Select printer from database — the system chooses a driver based on the selected make
of your printer from the list of Makes. If your printer model is not listed, choose Generic.
Provide PPD file — the system uses the provided PostScript Printer Description (PPD) file
for installation. A PPD file may also be delivered with your printer as being normally provided
by the manufacturer. If the PPD file is available, you can choose this option and use the
browser bar below the option description to select the PPD file.
Search for a printer driver to download — enter the make and model of your printer into
the Make and model field to search on OpenPrinting.org for the appropriate packages.
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Figure 16.8. Selecting a printer brand
2.
Depending on your previous choice provide details in the area displayed below:
• Printer brand for the Select printer from database option
• PPD file location for the Provide PPD file option
• Printer make and model for the Search for a printer driver to download option
3.
Click Forward to continue.
4.
If applicable for your option, window shown in Figure 16.9, “Selecting a printer model” appears.
Choose the corresponding model in the Models column on the left.
Selecting a printer driver
On the right, the recommended printed driver is automatically selected; however, you can
select another available driver. The print driver processes the data that you want to print
into a format the printer can understand. Since a local printer is attached directly to your
computer, you need a printer driver to process the data that is sent to the printer.
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Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing
Figure 16.9. Selecting a printer model
5.
Click Forward.
6.
Under the Describe Printer enter a unique name for the printer in the Printer Name field.
The printer name can contain letters, numbers, dashes (-), and underscores (_); it must not
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
contain any spaces. You can also use the Description and Location fields to add further printer
information. Both fields are optional, and may contain spaces.
Figure 16.10. Printer setup
7.
Click Apply to confirm your printer configuration and add the print queue if the settings are
correct. Click Back to modify the printer configuration.
8.
After the changes are applied, a dialog box appears allowing you to print a test page. Click Print
Test Page to print a test page now. Alternatively, you can print a test page also later, refer to
Section 16.3.9, “Printing a test page” for details.
16.3.9. Printing a test page
After you have set up a printer or changed a printer configuration, print a test page to make sure the
printer is functioning properly:
1.
Right-click the printer in the Printing window and click Properties.
2.
In the Properties window, click Settings on the left.
3.
On the displayed Settings tab, click the Print Test Page button.
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Modifying Existing Printers
16.3.10. Modifying Existing Printers
To delete an existing printer, in the Printer Configuration window, select the printer and go to Printer
�� Delete. Confirm the printer deletion. Alternatively, press the Delete key.
To set the default printer, right-click the printer in the printer list and click the Set As Default button in
the context menu.
16.3.10.1. The Settings Page
To change printer driver configuration, double-click the corresponding name in the Printer list and
click the Settings label on the left to display the Settings page.
You can modify printer settings such as make and model, print a test page, change the device location
(URI), and more.
Figure 16.11. Settings page
16.3.10.2. The Policies Page
Click the Policies button on the left to change settings in printer state and print output.
You can select the printer states, configure the Error Policy of the printer (you can decide to abort the
print job, retry, or stop it if an error occurs).
You can also create a banner page (a page that describes aspects of the print job such as the
originating printer, the username from the which the job originated, and the security status of the
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
document being printed): click the Starting Banner or Ending Banner drop-menu and choose the
option that best describes the nature of the print jobs (such as topsecret, classified, or confidential).
16.3.10.2.1. Sharing Printers
On the Policies page, you can mark a printer as shared: if a printer is shared, users published on the
network can use it. To allow the sharing function for printers, go to Server��� Settings and select
Publish shared printers connected to this system.
Finally, ensure that the firewall allows incoming TCP connections to port 631, which is Network
Printing Server (IPP) in system-config-firewall.
Figure 16.12. Policies page
16.3.10.2.2. The Access Control Page
You can change user-level access to the configured printer on the Access Control page. Click the
Access Control label on the left to display the page. Select either Allow printing for everyone
except these users or Deny printing for everyone except these users and define the user set
below: enter the user name in the text box and click the Add button to add the user to the user set.
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Modifying Existing Printers
Figure 16.13. Access Control page
16.3.10.2.3. The Printer Options Page
The Printer Options page contains various configuration options for the printer media and output, and
its content may vary from printer to printer. It contains general printing, paper, quality, and printing size
settings.
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
Figure 16.14. Printer Options page
16.3.10.2.4. Job Options Page
On the Job Options page, you can detail the printer job options. Click the Job Options label on
the left to display the page. Edit the default settings to apply custom job options, such as number of
copies, orientation, pages per side,scaling (increase or decrease the size of the printable area, which
can be used to fit an oversize print area onto a smaller physical sheet of print medium), detailed text
options, and custom job options.
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Modifying Existing Printers
Figure 16.15. Job Options page
16.3.10.2.5. Ink/Toner Levels Page
The Ink/Toner Levels page contains details on toner status if available and printer status messages.
Click the Ink/Toner Levels label on the left to display the page.
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
Figure 16.16. Ink/Toner Levels page
16.3.10.3. Managing Print Jobs
When you send a print job to the printer daemon, such as printing a text file from Emacs or printing an
image from GIMP, the print job is added to the print spool queue. The print spool queue is a list of print
jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request, such as the status of
the request, the job number, and more.
During the printing process, messages informing about the process appear in the notification area.
Figure 16.17. GNOME Print Status
To cancel, hold, release, reprint or authenticate a print job, select the job in the GNOME Print Status
and on the Job menu, click the respective command.
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Additional Resources
To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpstat -o. The
last few lines look similar to the following:
Example 16.1. Example of lpstat -o output
$ lpstat -o
Charlie-60
Aaron-61
Ben-62
twaugh
twaugh
root
1024
1024
1024
Tue 08 Feb 2011 16:42:11 GMT
Tue 08 Feb 2011 16:42:44 GMT
Tue 08 Feb 2011 16:45:42 GMT
If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpstat -o and
then use the command cancel job number. For example, cancel 60 would cancel the print job
in Example 16.1, “Example of lpstat -o output”. You cannot cancel print jobs that were started by
other users with the cancel command. However, you can enforce deletion of such job by issuing the
cancel -U root job_number command. To prevent such canceling, change the printer operation
policy to Authenticated to force root authentication.
You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lp sample.txt
prints the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it into a
format the printer can understand.
16.3.11. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Fedora, refer to the following resources.
16.3.11.1. Installed Documentation
man lp
The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command line.
man cancel
The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the print queue.
man mpage
The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet of paper.
man cupsd
The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon.
man cupsd.conf
The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file.
man classes.conf
The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.
man lpstat
The manual page for the lpstat command, which displays status information about classes,
jobs, and printers.
16.3.11.2. Useful Websites
http://www.linuxprinting.org/
GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux.
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Chapter 16. File and Print Servers
http://www.cups.org/
Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.
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Part VI. Monitoring and Automation
This part describes various tools that allow system administrators to monitor system performance,
automate system tasks, and report bugs.
Chapter 17.
System Monitoring Tools
In order to configure the system, system administrators often need to determine the amount of free
memory, how much free disk space is available, how the hard drive is partitioned, or what processes
are running.
17.1. Viewing System Processes
17.1.1. Using the ps Command
The ps command allows you to display information about running processes. It produces a static
list, that is, a snapshot of what is running when you execute the command. If you want a constantly
updated list of running processes, use the top command or the System Monitor application instead.
To list all processes that are currently running on the system including processes owned by other
users, type the following at a shell prompt:
ps ax
For each listed process, the ps ax command displays the process ID (PID), the terminal that is
associated with it (TTY), the current status (STAT), the cumulated CPU time (TIME), and the name of
the executable file (COMMAND). For example:
~]$ ps ax
PID TTY
STAT
1 ?
Ss
2 ?
S
3 ?
S
5 ?
S
6 ?
S
[output truncated]
TIME
0:02
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
COMMAND
/usr/lib/systemd/systemd --system --deserialize 20
[kthreadd]
[ksoftirqd/0]
[kworker/u:0]
[migration/0]
To display the owner alongside each process, use the following command:
ps aux
Apart from the information provided by the ps ax command, ps aux displays the effective username
of the process owner (USER), the percentage of the CPU (%CPU) and memory (%MEM) usage, the
virtual memory size in kilobytes (VSZ), the non-swapped physical memory size in kilobytes (RSS), and
the time or date the process was started. For instance:
~]$ ps aux
USER
PID %CPU %MEM
root
1 0.0 0.3
system --deserialize 20
root
2 0.0 0.0
root
3 0.0 0.0
root
5 0.0 0.0
root
6 0.0 0.0
[output truncated]
VSZ
53128
0
0
0
0
RSS TTY
2988 ?
0
0
0
0
?
?
?
?
STAT START
Ss
13:28
TIME COMMAND
0:02 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --
S
S
S
S
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
13:28
13:28
13:28
13:28
[kthreadd]
[ksoftirqd/0]
[kworker/u:0]
[migration/0]
You can also use the ps command in a combination with grep to see if a particular process is
running. For example, to determine if Emacs is running, type:
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
~]$ ps ax | grep emacs
2625 ?
Sl
0:00 emacs
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the ps(1) manual page.
17.1.2. Using the top Command
The top command displays a real-time list of processes that are running on the system. It also
displays additional information about the system uptime, current CPU and memory usage, or total
number of running processes, and allows you to perform actions such as sorting the list or killing a
process.
To run the top command, type the following at a shell prompt:
top
For each listed process, the top command displays the process ID (PID), the effective username
of the process owner (USER), the priority (PR), the nice value (NI), the amount of virtual memory the
process uses (VIRT), the amount of non-swapped physical memory the process uses (RES), the
amount of shared memory the process uses (SHR), the percentage of the CPU (%CPU) and memory
(%MEM) usage, the cumulated CPU time (TIME+), and the name of the executable file (COMMAND). For
example:
~]$ top
top - 19:22:08 up 5:53, 3 users, load average: 1.08, 1.03, 0.82
Tasks: 117 total,
2 running, 115 sleeping,
0 stopped,
0 zombie
Cpu(s): 9.3%us, 1.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 85.1%id, 0.0%wa, 1.7%hi, 0.0%si, 2.6%st
Mem:
761956k total,
617256k used,
144700k free,
24356k buffers
Swap: 1540092k total,
55780k used, 1484312k free,
256408k cached
PID
510
32686
2625
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
USER
john
root
john
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
PR
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
RT
RT
0
0
20
0
20
20
0
0
NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM
0 1435m 99m 18m S 9.0 13.3
0 156m 27m 3628 R 2.0 3.7
0 488m 27m 14m S 0.3 3.7
0 53128 2640 1152 S 0.0 0.3
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
-20
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
-20
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
-20
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
0
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
-20
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
-20
0
0
0 S 0.0 0.0
TIME+
3:30.52
0:48.69
0:00.70
0:02.83
0:00.01
0:00.18
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.30
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.11
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.00
COMMAND
gnome-shell
Xorg
emacs
systemd
kthreadd
ksoftirqd/0
kworker/u:0
migration/0
watchdog/0
cpuset
khelper
kdevtmpfs
netns
sync_supers
bdi-default
kintegrityd
kblockd
Table 17.1, “Interactive top commands” contains useful interactive commands that you can use with
top. For more information, refer to the top(1) manual page.
Table 17.1. Interactive top commands
Command
Description
Enter, Space
Immediately refreshes the display.
h, ?
Displays a help screen.
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Using the System Monitor Tool
Command
Description
k
Kills a process. You are prompted for the process ID and the signal to
send to it.
n
Changes the number of displayed processes. You are prompted to enter
the number.
u
Sorts the list by user.
M
Sorts the list by memory usage.
P
Sorts the list by CPU usage.
q
Terminates the utility and returns to the shell prompt.
17.1.3. Using the System Monitor Tool
The Processes tab of the System Monitor tool allows you to view, search for, change the priority of,
and kill processes from the graphical user interface.
To start the System Monitor tool, either select Applications��� System Tools��� System
Monitor from the Activities menu, or type gnome-system-monitor at a shell prompt. Then click
the Processes tab to view the list of running processes.
Figure 17.1. System Monitor — Processes
For each listed process, the System Monitor tool displays its name (Process Name), current status
(Status), percentage of the memory usage (% CPU), nice value (Nice), process ID (ID), memory
usage (Memory), the channel the process is waiting in (Waiting Channel), and additional details
about the session (Session). To sort the information by a specific column in ascending order, click the
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
name of that column. Click the name of the column again to toggle the sort between ascending and
descending order.
By default, the System Monitor tool displays a list of processes that are owned by the current user.
Selecting various options from the View menu allows you to:
• view only active processes,
• view all processes,
• view your processes,
• view process dependencies,
• view a memory map of a selected process,
• view the files opened by a selected process, and
• refresh the list of processes.
Additionally, various options in the Edit menu allows you to:
• stop a process,
• continue running a stopped process,
• end a process,
• kill a process,
• change the priority of a selected process, and
• edit the System Monitor preferences, such as the refresh interval for the list of processes, or what
information to show.
You can also end a process by selecting it from the list and clicking the End Process button.
17.2. Viewing Memory Usage
17.2.1. Using the free Command
The free command allows you to display the amount of free and used memory on the system. To do
so, type the following at a shell prompt:
free
The free command provides information about both the physical memory (Mem) and swap space
(Swap). It displays the total amount of memory (total), as well as the amount of memory that is in
use (used), free (free), shared (shared), in kernel buffers (buffers), and cached (cached). For
example:
~]$ free
total
Mem:
761956
-/+ buffers/cache:
368
used
607500
413920
free
154456
348036
shared
0
buffers
37404
cached
156176
Using the System Monitor Tool
Swap:
1540092
84408
1455684
By default, free displays the values in kilobytes. To display the values in megabytes, supply the -m
command line option:
free -m
For instance:
~]$ free -m
total
Mem:
744
-/+ buffers/cache:
Swap:
1503
used
593
404
82
free
150
339
1421
shared
0
buffers
36
cached
152
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the free(1) manual page.
17.2.2. Using the System Monitor Tool
The Resources tab of the System Monitor tool allows you to view the amount of free and used
memory on the system.
To start the System Monitor tool, either select Applications��� System Tools��� System
Monitor from the Activities menu, or type gnome-system-monitor at a shell prompt. Then click
the Resources tab to view the system's memory usage.
Figure 17.2. System Monitor — Resources
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
In the Memory and Swap History section, the System Monitor tool displays a graphical
representation of the memory and swap usage history, as well as the total amount of the physical
memory (Memory) and swap space (Swap) and how much of it is in use.
17.3. Viewing CPU Usage
17.3.1. Using the System Monitor Tool
The Resources tab of the System Monitor tool allows you to view the current CPU usage on the
system.
To start the System Monitor tool, either select Applications��� System Tools��� System
Monitor from the Activities menu, or type gnome-system-monitor at a shell prompt. Then click
the Resources tab to view the system's CPU usage.
Figure 17.3. System Monitor — Resources
In the CPU History section, the System Monitor tool displays a graphical representation of the CPU
usage history and shows the percentage of how much CPU is currently in use.
17.4. Viewing Block Devices and File Systems
370
Using the lsblk Command
17.4.1. Using the lsblk Command
The lsblk command allows you to display a list of available block devices. To do so, type the
following at a shell prompt:
lsblk
For each listed block device, the lsblk command displays the device name (NAME), major and minor
device number (MAJ:MIN), if the device is removable (RM), what is its size (SIZE), if the device is
read-only (RO), what type is it (TYPE), and where the device is mounted (MOUNTPOINT). For example:
~]$ lsblk
NAME
MAJ:MIN RM
sr0
11:0
1
vda
252:0
0
|-vda1
252:1
0
`-vda2
252:2
0
|-vg_fedora-lv_swap (dm-0) 253:0
0
`-vg_fedora-lv_root (dm-1) 253:1
0
SIZE RO TYPE
1024M 0 rom
20G 0 disk
500M 0 part
19.5G 0 part
1.5G 0 lvm
18G 0 lvm
MOUNTPOINT
/boot
[SWAP]
/
By default, lsblk lists block devices in a tree-like format. To display the information as an ordinary
list, add the -l command line option:
lsblk -l
For instance:
~]$ lsblk -l
NAME
MAJ:MIN RM
sr0
11:0
1
vda
252:0
0
vda1
252:1
0
vda2
252:2
0
vg_fedora-lv_swap (dm-0) 253:0
0
vg_fedora-lv_root (dm-1) 253:1
0
SIZE RO TYPE
1024M 0 rom
20G 0 disk
500M 0 part
19.5G 0 part
1.5G 0 lvm
18G 0 lvm
MOUNTPOINT
/boot
[SWAP]
/
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the lsblk(8) manual page.
17.4.2. Using the blkid Command
The blkid command allows you to display information about available block devices. To do so, type
the following at a shell prompt as root:
blkid
For each listed block device, the blkid command displays available attributes such as its universally
unique identifier (UUID), file system type (TYPE), or volume label (LABEL). For example:
~]# blkid
/dev/vda1: UUID="4ea24c68-ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba" TYPE="ext4"
/dev/vda2: UUID="iJ9YwJ-leFf-A1zb-VVaK-H9t1-raLW-HoqlUG" TYPE="LVM2_member"
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_swap: UUID="d6d755bc-3e3e-4e8f-9bb5-a5e7f4d86ffd" TYPE="swap"
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root: LABEL="_Fedora-17-x86_6" UUID="77ba9149-751a-48e0-974fad94911734b9" TYPE="ext4"
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
By default, the lsblk command lists all available block devices. To display information about a
particular device only, specify the device name on the command line:
blkid device_name
For instance, to display information about /dev/vda1, type:
~]# blkid /dev/vda1
/dev/vda1: UUID="4ea24c68-ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba" TYPE="ext4"
You can also use the above command with the -p and -o udev command line options to obtain more
detailed information. Note that root privileges are required to run this command:
blkid -po udev device_name
For example:
~]# blkid -po udev /dev/vda1
ID_FS_UUID=4ea24c68-ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba
ID_FS_UUID_ENC=4ea24c68-ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba
ID_FS_VERSION=1.0
ID_FS_TYPE=ext4
ID_FS_USAGE=filesystem
ID_PART_ENTRY_SCHEME=dos
ID_PART_ENTRY_TYPE=0x83
ID_PART_ENTRY_FLAGS=0x80
ID_PART_ENTRY_NUMBER=1
ID_PART_ENTRY_OFFSET=2048
ID_PART_ENTRY_SIZE=1024000
ID_PART_ENTRY_DISK=252:0
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the blkid(8) manual page.
17.4.3. Using the partx Command
The partx command allows you to display a list of disk partitions. To list the partition table of a
particular disk, as root, run this command with the -s option followed by the device name:
partx -s device_name
For example, to list partitions on /dev/vda, type:
~]# partx -s /dev/vda
NR
START
END SECTORS SIZE NAME UUID
1
2048 1026047 1024000 500M
2 1026048 41943039 40916992 19.5G
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the partx(8) manual page.
17.4.4. Using the findmnt Command
The findmnt command allows you to display a list of currently mounted file systems. To do so, type
the following at a shell prompt:
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Using the findmnt Command
findmnt
For each listed file system, the findmnt command displays the target mount point (TARGET), source
device (SOURCE), file system type (FSTYPE), and relevant mount options (OPTIONS). For example:
~]$ findmnt
TARGET
/
SOURCE
FSTYPE
OPTIONS
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root
ext4
rw,relatime,seclabel,data=o
|-/proc
proc
proc
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| `-/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
systemd-1 autofs
rw,relatime,fd=23,pgrp=1,ti
|-/sys
sysfs
sysfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| |-/sys/kernel/security
securityfs security rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| |-/sys/fs/selinux
selinuxfs selinuxf rw,relatime
| |-/sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs
tmpfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,secl
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/systemd
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/memory
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/devices
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/freezer
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/net_cls
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | |-/sys/fs/cgroup/blkio
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| | `-/sys/fs/cgroup/perf_event cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,rela
| |-/sys/kernel/debug
debugfs
debugfs rw,relatime
| `-/sys/kernel/config
configfs
configfs rw,relatime
[output truncated]
By default, findmnt lists file systems in a tree-like format. To display the information as an ordinary
list, add the -l command line option:
findmnt -l
For instance:
~]$ findmnt -l
TARGET
/proc
/sys
/dev
/dev/pts
/dev/shm
/run
/
/sys/kernel/security
/sys/fs/selinux
/sys/fs/cgroup
/sys/fs/cgroup/systemd
[output truncated]
SOURCE
FSTYPE
OPTIONS
proc
proc
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
sysfs
sysfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,s
devtmpfs
devtmpfs rw,nosuid,seclabel,size=370080k,n
devpts
devpts
rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,seclabe
tmpfs
tmpfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel
tmpfs
tmpfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,mode=755
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root
ext4
rw,relatime,seclabel,data=ordered
securityfs security rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
selinuxfs selinuxf rw,relatime
tmpfs
tmpfs
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,seclabel,m
cgroup
cgroup
rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,r
You can also choose to list only file systems of a particular type. To do so, add the -t command line
option followed by a file system type:
findmnt -t type
For example, to all list ext4 file systems, type:
~]$ findmnt -t ext4
TARGET SOURCE
FSTYPE OPTIONS
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
/
/boot
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root ext4
/dev/vda1
ext4
rw,relatime,seclabel,data=ordered
rw,relatime,seclabel,data=ordered
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the findmnt(8) manual page.
17.4.5. Using the df Command
The df command allows you to display a detailed report on the system's disk space usage. To do so,
type the following at a shell prompt:
df
For each listed file system, the df command displays its name (Filesystem), size (1K-blocks
or Size), how much space is used (Used), how much space is still available (Available), the
percentage of space usage (Use%), and where is the file system mounted (Mounted on). For
example:
~]$ df
Filesystem
1K-blocks
Used Available Use% Mounted on
rootfs
18877356 4605476 14082844 25% /
devtmpfs
370080
0
370080
0% /dev
tmpfs
380976
256
380720
1% /dev/shm
tmpfs
380976
3048
377928
1% /run
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root 18877356 4605476 14082844 25% /
tmpfs
380976
0
380976
0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs
380976
0
380976
0% /media
/dev/vda1
508745
85018
398127 18% /boot
By default, the df command shows the partition size in 1 kilobyte blocks and the amount of used and
available disk space in kilobytes. To view the information in megabytes and gigabytes, supply the -h
command line option, which causes df to display the values in a human-readable format:
df -h
For instance:
~]$ df -h
Filesystem
rootfs
devtmpfs
tmpfs
tmpfs
/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root
tmpfs
tmpfs
/dev/vda1
Size
19G
362M
373M
373M
19G
373M
373M
497M
Used Avail Use% Mounted on
4.4G
14G 25% /
0 362M
0% /dev
256K 372M
1% /dev/shm
3.0M 370M
1% /run
4.4G
14G 25% /
0 373M
0% /sys/fs/cgroup
0 373M
0% /media
84M 389M 18% /boot
Note that the /dev/shm entry represents the system's virtual memory file system, /sys/fs/cgroup
is a cgroup file system, and /run contains information about the running system.
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the df(1) manual page.
17.4.6. Using the du Command
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Using the System Monitor Tool
The du command allows you to displays the amount of space that is being used by files in a directory.
To display the disk usage for each of the subdirectories in the current working directory, run the
command with no additional command line options:
du
For example:
~]$ du
8
12
16
[output
460
68828
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal/profiles/Default
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal/profiles
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal
truncated]
./.gimp-2.6
.
By default, the du command displays the disk usage in kilobytes. To view the information in
megabytes and gigabytes, supply the -h command line option, which causes the utility to display the
values in a human-readable format:
du -h
For instance:
~]$ du -h
8.0K
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal/profiles/Default
12K
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal/profiles
16K
./.gconf/apps/gnome-terminal
[output truncated]
460K
./.gimp-2.6
68M
.
At the end of the list, the du command always shows the grand total for the current directory. To
display only this information, supply the -s command line option:
du -sh
For example:
~]$ du -sh
68M
.
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the du(1) manual page.
17.4.7. Using the System Monitor Tool
The File Systems tab of the System Monitor tool allows you to view file systems and disk space
usage in the graphical user interface.
To start the System Monitor tool, either select Applications��� System Tools��� System
Monitor from the Activities menu, or type gnome-system-monitor at a shell prompt. Then click
the File Systems tab to view a list of file systems.
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
Figure 17.4. System Monitor — File Systems
For each listed file system, the System Monitor tool displays the source device (Device), target
mount point (Directory), and file system type (Type), as well as its size (Total) and how much space
is free (Free), available (Available), and used (Used).
17.5. Viewing Hardware Information
17.5.1. Using the lspci Command
The lspci command lists all PCI devices that are present in the system:
lspci
For example:
~]$ lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82X38/X48 Express DRAM Controller
00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82X38/X48 Express Host-Primary PCI Express Bridge
00:1a.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4 (rev
02)
00:1a.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5 (rev
02)
00:1a.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801I (ICH9 Family) USB UHCI Controller #6 (rev
02)
[output truncated]
You can also use the -v command line option to display more verbose output, or -vv for very verbose
output:
lspci -v|-vv
For instance, to determine the manufacturer, model, and memory size of a system's video card, type:
~]$ lspci -v
[output truncated]
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: nVidia Corporation G84 [Quadro FX 370] (rev a1) (prog-if
00 [VGA controller])
376
Using the lsusb Command
Subsystem: nVidia Corporation Device 0491
Physical Slot: 2
Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 16
Memory at f2000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
Memory at e0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
Memory at f0000000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=32M]
I/O ports at 1100 [size=128]
Expansion ROM at <unassigned> [disabled]
Capabilities: <access denied>
Kernel driver in use: nouveau
Kernel modules: nouveau, nvidiafb
[output truncated]
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the lspci(8) manual page.
17.5.2. Using the lsusb Command
The lsusb command allows you to display information about USB buses and devices that are
attached to them. To list all USB devices that are in the system, type the following at a shell prompt:
lsusb
This displays a simple list of devices, for example:
~]$ lsusb
Bus 001 Device 001:
Bus 002 Device 001:
[output truncated]
Bus 001 Device 002:
Reader)
Bus 008 Device 002:
Bus 008 Device 003:
ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
ID 0bda:0151 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. Mass Storage Device (Multicard
ID 03f0:2c24 Hewlett-Packard Logitech M-UAL-96 Mouse
ID 04b3:3025 IBM Corp.
You can also use the -v command line option to display more verbose output:
lsusb -v
For instance:
~]$ lsusb -v
[output truncated]
Bus 008 Device 002: ID 03f0:2c24 Hewlett-Packard Logitech M-UAL-96 Mouse
Device Descriptor:
bLength
18
bDescriptorType
1
bcdUSB
2.00
bDeviceClass
0 (Defined at Interface level)
bDeviceSubClass
0
bDeviceProtocol
0
bMaxPacketSize0
8
idVendor
0x03f0 Hewlett-Packard
idProduct
0x2c24 Logitech M-UAL-96 Mouse
bcdDevice
31.00
iManufacturer
1
iProduct
2
iSerial
0
bNumConfigurations
1
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
Configuration Descriptor:
bLength
9
bDescriptorType
2
[output truncated]
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the lsusb(8) manual page.
17.5.3. Using the lspcmcia Command
The lspcmcia command allows you to list all PCMCIA devices that are present in the system. To do
so, type the following at a shell prompt:
lspcmcia
For example:
~]$ lspcmcia
Socket 0 Bridge:
[yenta_cardbus]
(bus ID: 0000:15:00.0)
You can also use the -v command line option to display more verbose information, or -vv to increase
the verbosity level even further:
lspcmcia -v|-vv
For instance:
~]$ lspcmcia -v
Socket 0 Bridge:
Configuration:
[yenta_cardbus]
(bus ID: 0000:15:00.0)
state: on
ready: unknown
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the pccardctl(8) manual page.
17.5.4. Using the lscpu Command
The lscpu command allows you to list information about CPUs that are present in the system,
including the number of CPUs, their architecture, vendor, family, model, CPU caches, etc. To do so,
type the following at a shell prompt:
lscpu
For example:
~]$ lscpu
Architecture:
CPU op-mode(s):
Byte Order:
CPU(s):
On-line CPU(s) list:
Thread(s) per core:
Core(s) per socket:
Socket(s):
NUMA node(s):
Vendor ID:
378
x86_64
32-bit, 64-bit
Little Endian
4
0-3
1
4
1
1
GenuineIntel
Monitoring Performance with Net-SNMP
CPU family:
Model:
Stepping:
CPU MHz:
BogoMIPS:
Virtualization:
L1d cache:
L1i cache:
L2 cache:
NUMA node0 CPU(s):
6
23
7
1998.000
4999.98
VT-x
32K
32K
3072K
0-3
For a complete list of available command line options, refer to the lscpu(1) manual page.
17.6. Monitoring Performance with Net-SNMP
Fedora 17 includes the Net-SNMP software suite, which includes a flexible and extensible Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent. This agent and its associated utilities can be used to
provide performance data from a large number of systems to a variety of tools which support polling
over the SNMP protocol.
This section provides information on configuring the Net-SNMP agent to securely provide performance
data over the network, retrieving the data using the SNMP protocol, and extending the SNMP agent to
provide custom performance metrics.
17.6.1. Installing Net-SNMP
The Net-SNMP software suite is available as a set of RPM packages in the Fedora software
distribution. Table 17.2, “Available Net-SNMP packages” summarizes each of the packages and their
contents.
Table 17.2. Available Net-SNMP packages
Package
Provides
net-snmp
The SNMP Agent Daemon and documentation. This package is required
for exporting performance data.
net-snmp-libs
The netsnmp library and the bundled management information bases
(MIBs). This package is required for exporting performance data.
net-snmp-utils
SNMP clients such as snmpget and snmpwalk. This package is required
in order to query a system's performance data over SNMP.
net-snmp-perl
The mib2c utility and the NetSNMP Perl module.
net-snmp-python
An SNMP client library for Python.
To install any of these packages, use the yum command in the following form:
yum install package…
For example, to install the SNMP Agent Daemon and SNMP clients used in the rest of this section,
type the following at a shell prompt:
~]# yum install net-snmp net-snmp-libs net-snmp-utils
Note that you must have superuser privileges (that is, you must be logged in as root) to run this
command. For more information on how to install new packages in Fedora, refer to Section 4.2.4,
“Installing Packages”.
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Chapter 17. System Monitoring Tools
17.6.2. Running the Net-SNMP Daemon
The net-snmp package contains snmpd, the SNMP Agent Daemon. This section provides information
on how to start, stop, and restart the snmpd service, and shows how to enable or disable it in the
multi-user target unit. For more information on the concept of target units and how to manage
system services in Fedora in general, refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons.
17.6.2.1. Starting the Service
To run the snmpd service in the current session, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl start snmpd.service
To configure the service to be automatically started at boot time, use the following command:
systemctl enable snmpd.service
This will enable the service in the multi-user target unit.
17.6.2.2. Stopping the Service
To stop the running snmpd service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl stop snmpd.service
To disable starting the service at boot time, use the following command:
systemctl disable snmpd.service
This will disable the service in the multi-user target unit.
17.6.2.3. Restarting the Service
To restart the running snmpd service, type the following at a shell prompt:
systemctl restart snmpd.service
This will stop the service and start it again in quick succession. To only reload the configuration
without stopping the service, run the following command instead:
systemctl reload snmpd.service
This will cause the running snmpd service to reload the configuration.
17.6.3. Configuring Net-SNMP
To change the Net-SNMP Agent Daemon configuration, edit the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
configuration file. The default snmpd.conf file shipped with Fedora 17 is heavily commented and
serves as a good starting point for agent configuration.
This section focuses on two common tasks: setting system information and configuring authentication.
For more information about available configuration directives, refer to the snmpd.conf(5) manual
page. Additionally, there is a utility in the net-snmp package named snmpconf which can be used to
interactively generate a valid agent configuration.
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Configuring Net-SNMP
Note that the net-snmp-utils package must be installed in order to use the snmpwalk utility described
in this section.
Applying the changes
For any changes to the configuration file to take effect, force the snmpd service to re-read the
configuration by running the following command as root:
systemctl reload snmpd.service
17.6.3.1. Setting System Information
Net-SNMP provides some rudimentary system information via the system tree. For example, the
following snmpwalk command shows the system tree with a default agent configuration.
~]# snmpwalk -v2c -c public localhost system
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-122.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed
Mar 9 23:54:34 EST 2011 x86_64
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (99554) 0:16:35.54
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: Root <root@localhost> (configure /etc/snmp/
snmp.local.conf)
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: localhost.localdomain
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: Unknown (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf)
By default, the sysName object is set to the hostname. The sysLocation and sysContact objects
can be configured in the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file by changing the value of the syslocation
and syscontact directives, for example:
syslocation Datacenter, Row 3, Rack 2
syscontact UNIX Admin <admin@example.com>
After making changes to the configuration file, reload the configuration and test it by running the
snmpwalk command again:
~]# systemct reload snmpd.service
~]# snmpwalk -v2c -c public localhost system
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-122.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed
Mar 9 23:54:34 EST 2011 x86_64
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (158357) 0:26:23.57
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: UNIX Admin <admin@example.com>
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: localhost.localdomain
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: Datacenter, Row 3, Rack 2
17.6.3.2. Configuring Authentication
The Net-SNMP Agent Daemon supports all three versions of the SNMP protocol. The first two
versions (1 and 2c) provide for simple authentication using a community string. This string is a shared
secret between the agent and any client utilities. The string is passed in clear text over the network
however and is not considered secure. Version 3 of the SNMP protocol supports user authentication
and message encryption using a variety of protocols. The Net-SNMP agent also supports tunneling
over SSH, TLS authentication with X.509 certificates, and Kerberos authentication.
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Configuring SNMP Version 2c Community
To configure an SNMP version 2c community, use either the rocommunity or rwcommunity
directive in the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf configuration file. The format of the directives is the
following:
directive community [source [OID]]
… where community is the community string to use, source is an IP address or subnet, and OID is
the SNMP tree to provide access to. For example, the following directive provides read-only access to
the system tree to a client using the community string “redhat” on the local machine:
rocommunity redhat 127.0.0.1 .1.3.6.1.2.1.1
To test the configuration, use the snmpwalk command with the -v and -c options.
~]# snmpwalk -v2c -c redhat localhost system
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-122.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed
Mar 9 23:54:34 EST 2011 x86_64
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (158357) 0:26:23.57
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: UNIX Admin <admin@example.com>
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: localhost.localdomain
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: Datacenter, Row 3, Rack 2
Configuring SNMP Version 3 User
To configure an SNMP version 3 user, use the net-snmp-create-v3-user command. This
command adds entries to the /var/lib/net-snmp/snmpd.conf and /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
files which create the user and grant access to the user. Note that the net-snmp-create-v3user command may only be run when the agent is not running. The following example creates the
“sysadmin” user with the password “redhatsnmp”:
~]# systemctl stop snmpd.service
~]# net-snmp-create-v3-user
Enter a SNMPv3 user name to create:
admin
Enter authentication pass-phrase:
redhatsnmp
Enter encryption pass-phrase:
[press return to reuse the authentication pass-phrase]
adding the following line to /var/lib/net-snmp/snmpd.conf:
createUser admin MD5 "redhatsnmp" DES
adding the following line to /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf:
rwuser admin
~]# systemctl start snmpd.service
The rwuser directive (or rouser when the -ro command line option is supplied) that net-snmpcreate-v3-user adds to /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf has a similar format to the rwcommunity and
rocommunity directives:
directive user [noauth|auth|priv] [OID]
… where user is a username and OID is the SNMP tree to provide access to. By default, the NetSNMP Agent Daemon allows only authenticated requests (the auth option). The noauth option
allows you to permit unauthenticated requests, and the priv option enforces the use of encryption.
The authpriv option specifies that requests must be authenticated and replies should be encrypted.
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For example, the following line grants the user “admin” read-write access to the entire tree:
rwuser admin authpriv .1
To test the configuration, create a .snmp directory in your user's home directory and a configuration
file named snmp.conf in that directory (~/.snmp/snmp.conf) with the following lines:
defVersion 3
defSecurityLevel authPriv
defSecurityName admin
defPassphrase redhatsnmp
The snmpwalk command will now use these authentication settings when querying the agent:
~]$ snmpwalk -v3 localhost system
SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-122.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed
Mar 9 23:54:34 EST 2011 x86_64
[output truncated]
17.6.4. Retrieving Performance Data over SNMP
The Net-SNMP Agent in Fedora provides a wide variety of performance information over the SNMP
protocol. In addition, the agent can be queried for a listing of the installed RPM packages on the
system, a listing of currently running processes on the system, or the network configuration of the
system.
This section provides an overview of OIDs related to performance tuning available over SNMP. It
assumes that the net-snmp-utils package is installed and that the user is granted access to the SNMP
tree as described in Section 17.6.3.2, “Configuring Authentication”.
17.6.4.1. Hardware Configuration
The Host Resources MIB included with Net-SNMP presents information about the current
hardware and software configuration of a host to a client utility. Table 17.3, “Available OIDs”
summarizes the different OIDs available under that MIB.
Table 17.3. Available OIDs
OID
Description
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystem
Contains general system information such as
uptime, number of users, and number of running
processes.
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorage
Contains data on memory and file system usage.
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrDevices
Contains a listing of all processors, network
devices, and file systems.
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSWRun
Contains a listing of all running processes.
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSWRunPerf
Contains memory and CPU statistics on the
process table from HOST-RESOURCESMIB::hrSWRun.
HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSWInstalled
Contains a listing of the RPM database.
There are also a number of SNMP tables available in the Host Resources MIB which can be used to
retrieve a summary of the available information. The following example displays HOST-RESOURCESMIB::hrFSTable:
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~]$ snmptable -Cb localhost HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrFSTable
SNMP table: HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrFSTable
Index MountPoint RemoteMountPoint
Type
Access Bootable StorageIndex LastFullBackupDate LastPartialBackupDate
1
"/"
"" HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrFSLinuxExt2
readWrite
true
31
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
5 "/dev/shm"
""
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrFSOther
readWrite
false
35
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
6
"/boot"
"" HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrFSLinuxExt2
readWrite
false
36
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
0-1-1,0:0:0.0
For more information about HOST-RESOURCES-MIB, see the /usr/share/snmp/mibs/HOSTRESOURCES-MIB.txt file.
17.6.4.2. CPU and Memory Information
Most system performance data is available in the UCD SNMP MIB. The systemStats OID provides a
number of counters around processor usage:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost UCD-SNMP-MIB::systemStats
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssIndex.0 = INTEGER: 1
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssErrorName.0 = STRING: systemStats
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssSwapIn.0 = INTEGER: 0 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssSwapOut.0 = INTEGER: 0 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssIOSent.0 = INTEGER: 0 blocks/s
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssIOReceive.0 = INTEGER: 0 blocks/s
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssSysInterrupts.0 = INTEGER: 29 interrupts/s
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssSysContext.0 = INTEGER: 18 switches/s
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuUser.0 = INTEGER: 0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuSystem.0 = INTEGER: 0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuIdle.0 = INTEGER: 99
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawUser.0 = Counter32: 2278
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawNice.0 = Counter32: 1395
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawSystem.0 = Counter32: 6826
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawIdle.0 = Counter32: 3383736
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawWait.0 = Counter32: 7629
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawKernel.0 = Counter32: 0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawInterrupt.0 = Counter32: 434
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssIORawSent.0 = Counter32: 266770
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssIORawReceived.0 = Counter32: 427302
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssRawInterrupts.0 = Counter32: 743442
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssRawContexts.0 = Counter32: 718557
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssCpuRawSoftIRQ.0 = Counter32: 128
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssRawSwapIn.0 = Counter32: 0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::ssRawSwapOut.0 = Counter32: 0
In particular, the ssCpuRawUser, ssCpuRawSystem, ssCpuRawWait, and ssCpuRawIdle OIDs
provide counters which are helpful when determining whether a system is spending most of its
processor time in kernel space, user space, or I/O. ssRawSwapIn and ssRawSwapOut can be helpful
when determining whether a system is suffering from memory exhaustion.
More memory information is available under the UCD-SNMP-MIB::memory OID, which provides
similar data to the free command:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost UCD-SNMP-MIB::memory
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memIndex.0 = INTEGER: 0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memErrorName.0 = STRING: swap
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memTotalSwap.0 = INTEGER: 1023992 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memAvailSwap.0 = INTEGER: 1023992 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memTotalReal.0 = INTEGER: 1021588 kB
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Retrieving Performance Data over SNMP
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memAvailReal.0 = INTEGER: 634260 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memTotalFree.0 = INTEGER: 1658252 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memMinimumSwap.0 = INTEGER: 16000 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memBuffer.0 = INTEGER: 30760 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memCached.0 = INTEGER: 216200 kB
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memSwapError.0 = INTEGER: noError(0)
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memSwapErrorMsg.0 = STRING:
Load averages are also available in the UCD SNMP MIB. The SNMP table UCD-SNMPMIB::laTable has a listing of the 1, 5, and 15 minute load averages:
~]$ snmptable localhost UCD-SNMP-MIB::laTable
SNMP table: UCD-SNMP-MIB::laTable
laIndex laNames laLoad laConfig laLoadInt laLoadFloat laErrorFlag laErrMessage
1 Load-1
0.00
12.00
0
0.000000
noError
2 Load-5
0.00
12.00
0
0.000000
noError
3 Load-15
0.00
12.00
0
0.000000
noError
17.6.4.3. File System and Disk Information
The Host Resources MIB provides information on file system size and usage. Each file system
(and also each memory pool) has an entry in the HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageTable table:
~]$ snmptable -Cb localhost HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageTable
SNMP table: HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageTable
Index
Type
Descr
AllocationUnits
Size
Used AllocationFailures
1
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageRam Physical memory
1024 Bytes 1021588 388064
?
3 HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageVirtualMemory Virtual memory
1024 Bytes 2045580 388064
?
6
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageOther Memory buffers
1024 Bytes 1021588 31048
?
7
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageOther
Cached memory
1024 Bytes 216604 216604
?
10 HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageVirtualMemory
Swap space
1024 Bytes 1023992
0
?
31
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk
/
4096 Bytes 2277614 250391
?
35
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk
/dev/shm
4096 Bytes 127698
0
?
36
HOST-RESOURCES-TYPES::hrStorageFixedDisk
/boot
1024 Bytes 198337 26694
?
The OIDs under HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrStorageSize and HOST-RESOURCESMIB::hrStorageUsed can be used to calculate the remaining capacity of each mounted file system.
I/O data is available both in UCD-SNMP-MIB::systemStats (ssIORawSent.0 and
ssIORawRecieved.0) and in UCD-DISKIO-MIB::diskIOTable. The latter provides much more
granular data. Under this table are OIDs for diskIONReadX and diskIONWrittenX, which provide
counters for the number of bytes read from and written to the block device in question since the
system boot:
~]$ snmptable -Cb localhost UCD-DISKIO-MIB::diskIOTable
SNMP table: UCD-DISKIO-MIB::diskIOTable
Index Device
...
NRead
NWritten Reads Writes LA1 LA5 LA15
NReadX NWrittenX
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25
26
27
28
sda 216886272 139109376 16409
sda1
2455552
5120
613
sda2
1486848
0
332
sda3 212321280 139104256 15312
4894
2
0
4871
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
? 216886272 139109376
?
2455552
5120
?
1486848
0
? 212321280 139104256
17.6.4.4. Network Information
Information on network devices is provided by the Interfaces MIB. IF-MIB::ifTable provides
an SNMP table with an entry for each interface on the system, the configuration of the interface,
and various packet counters for the interface. The following example shows the first few columns of
ifTable on a system with two physical network interfaces:
~]$ snmptable -Cb localhost IF-MIB::ifTable
SNMP table: IF-MIB::ifTable
Index Descr
Type
Mtu
Speed
PhysAddress AdminStatus
1
lo softwareLoopback 16436 10000000
up
2 eth0
ethernetCsmacd 1500
0 52:54:0:c7:69:58
up
3 eth1
ethernetCsmacd 1500
0 52:54:0:a7:a3:24
down
Network traffic is available under the OIDs IF-MIB::ifOutOctets and IF-MIB::ifInOctets.
The following SNMP queries will retrieve network traffic for each of the interfaces on this system:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost IF-MIB::ifDescr
IF-MIB::ifDescr.1 = STRING: lo
IF-MIB::ifDescr.2 = STRING: eth0
IF-MIB::ifDescr.3 = STRING: eth1
~]$ snmpwalk localhost IF-MIB::ifOutOctets
IF-MIB::ifOutOctets.1 = Counter32: 10060699
IF-MIB::ifOutOctets.2 = Counter32: 650
IF-MIB::ifOutOctets.3 = Counter32: 0
~]$ snmpwalk localhost IF-MIB::ifInOctets
IF-MIB::ifInOctets.1 = Counter32: 10060699
IF-MIB::ifInOctets.2 = Counter32: 78650
IF-MIB::ifInOctets.3 = Counter32: 0
17.6.5. Extending Net-SNMP
The Net-SNMP Agent can be extended to provide application metrics in addition to raw system
metrics. This allows for capacity planning as well as performance issue troubleshooting. For example,
it may be helpful to know that an email system had a 5-minute load average of 15 while being tested,
but it is more helpful to know that the email system has a load average of 15 while processing 80,000
messages a second. When application metrics are available via the same interface as the system
metrics, this also allows for the visualization of the impact of different load scenarios on system
performance (for example, each additional 10,000 messages increases the load average linearly until
100,000).
A number of the applications that ship with Fedora extend the Net-SNMP Agent to provide application
metrics over SNMP. There are several ways to extend the agent for custom applications as well. This
section describes extending the agent with shell scripts and Perl plug-ins. It assumes that the netsnmp-utils and net-snmp-perl packages are installed, and that the user is granted access to the SNMP
tree as described in Section 17.6.3.2, “Configuring Authentication”.
17.6.5.1. Extending Net-SNMP with Shell Scripts
The Net-SNMP Agent provides an extension MIB (NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB) that can be used to
query arbitrary shell scripts. To specify the shell script to run, use the extend directive in the /
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etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file. Once defined, the Agent will provide the exit code and any output of
the command over SNMP. The example below demonstrates this mechanism with a script which
determines the number of httpd processes in the process table.
Using the proc directive
The Net-SNMP Agent also provides a built-in mechanism for checking the process table via the
proc directive. Refer to the snmpd.conf(5) manual page for more information.
The exit code of the following shell script is the number of httpd processes running on the system at
a given point in time:
#!/bin/sh
NUMPIDS=`pgrep httpd | wc -l`
exit $NUMPIDS
To make this script available over SNMP, copy the script to a location on the system path, set the
executable bit, and add an extend directive to the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file. The format of the
extend directive is the following:
extend name prog args
… where name is an identifying string for the extension, prog is the program to run, and args are the
arguments to give the program. For instance, if the above shell script is copied to /usr/local/bin/
check_apache.sh, the following directive will add the script to the SNMP tree:
extend httpd_pids /bin/sh /usr/local/bin/check_apache.sh
The script can then be queried at NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendObjects:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendObjects
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendNumEntries.0 = INTEGER: 1
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendCommand."httpd_pids" = STRING: /bin/sh
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendArgs."httpd_pids" = STRING: /usr/local/bin/check_apache.sh
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendInput."httpd_pids" = STRING:
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendCacheTime."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: 5
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendExecType."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: exec(1)
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendRunType."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: run-on-read(1)
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendStorage."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: permanent(4)
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendStatus."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: active(1)
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutput1Line."httpd_pids" = STRING:
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutputFull."httpd_pids" = STRING:
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutNumLines."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: 1
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendResult."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: 8
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutLine."httpd_pids".1 = STRING:
Note that the exit code (“8” in this example) is provided as an INTEGER type and any output is
provided as a STRING type. To expose multiple metrics as integers, supply different arguments to the
script using the extend directive. For example, the following shell script can be used to determine the
number of processes matching an arbitrary string, and will also output a text string giving the number
of processes:
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#!/bin/sh
PATTERN=$1
NUMPIDS=`pgrep $PATTERN | wc -l`
echo "There are $NUMPIDS $PATTERN processes."
exit $NUMPIDS
The following /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf directives will give both the number of httpd PIDs
as well as the number of snmpd PIDs when the above script is copied to /usr/local/bin/
check_proc.sh:
extend httpd_pids /bin/sh /usr/local/bin/check_proc.sh httpd
extend snmpd_pids /bin/sh /usr/local/bin/check_proc.sh snmpd
The following example shows the output of an snmpwalk of the nsExtendObjects OID:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendObjects
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendNumEntries.0 = INTEGER: 2
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendCommand."httpd_pids" = STRING: /bin/sh
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendCommand."snmpd_pids" = STRING: /bin/sh
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendArgs."httpd_pids" = STRING: /usr/local/bin/check_proc.sh httpd
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendArgs."snmpd_pids" = STRING: /usr/local/bin/check_proc.sh snmpd
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendInput."httpd_pids" = STRING:
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendInput."snmpd_pids" = STRING:
...
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendResult."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: 8
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendResult."snmpd_pids" = INTEGER: 1
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutLine."httpd_pids".1 = STRING: There are 8 httpd processes.
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendOutLine."snmpd_pids".1 = STRING: There are 1 snmpd processes.
Integer exit codes are limited
Integer exit codes are limited to a range of 0–255. For values that are likely to exceed 256, either
use the standard output of the script (which will be typed as a string) or a different method of
extending the agent.
This last example shows a query for the free memory of the system and the number of httpd
processes. This query could be used during a performance test to determine the impact of the number
of processes on memory pressure:
~]$ snmpget localhost \
'NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendResult."httpd_pids"' \
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memAvailReal.0
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB::nsExtendResult."httpd_pids" = INTEGER: 8
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memAvailReal.0 = INTEGER: 799664 kB
17.6.5.2. Extending Net-SNMP with Perl
Executing shell scripts using the extend directive is a fairly limited method for exposing custom
application metrics over SNMP. The Net-SNMP Agent also provides an embedded Perl interface for
exposing custom objects. The net-snmp-perl package provides the NetSNMP::agent Perl module
that is used to write embedded Perl plug-ins on Fedora.
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The NetSNMP::agent Perl module provides an agent object which is used to handle requests for
a part of the agent's OID tree. The agent object's constructor has options for running the agent as
a sub-agent of snmpd or a standalone agent. No arguments are necessary to create an embedded
agent:
use NetSNMP::agent (':all');
my $agent = new NetSNMP::agent();
The agent object has a register method which is used to register a callback function with a
particular OID. The register function takes a name, OID, and pointer to the callback function. The
following example will register a callback function named hello_handler with the SNMP Agent
which will handle requests under the OID .1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999:
$agent->register("hello_world", ".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999",
\&hello_handler);
Obtaining a root OID
The OID .1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999 (NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen) is typically
used for demonstration purposes only. If your organization does not already have a root OID, you
can obtain one by contacting your Name Registration Authority (ANSI in the United States).
The handler function will be called with four parameters, HANDLER, REGISTRATION_INFO,
REQUEST_INFO, and REQUESTS. The REQUESTS parameter contains a list of requests in the current
call and should be iterated over and populated with data. The request objects in the list have get and
set methods which allow for manipulating the OID and value of the request. For example, the following
call will set the value of a request object to the string “hello world”:
$request->setValue(ASN_OCTET_STR, "hello world");
The handler function should respond to two types of SNMP requests: the GET request and the
GETNEXT request. The type of request is determined by calling the getMode method on the
request_info object passed as the third parameter to the handler function. If the request is a GET
request, the caller will expect the handler to set the value of the request object, depending on the
OID of the request. If the request is a GETNEXT request, the caller will also expect the handler to set
the OID of the request to the next available OID in the tree. This is illustrated in the following code
example:
my $request;
my $string_value = "hello world";
my $integer_value = "8675309";
for($request = $requests; $request; $request = $request->next()) {
my $oid = $request->getOID();
if ($request_info->getMode() == MODE_GET) {
if ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setValue(ASN_OCTET_STR, $string_value);
}
elsif ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.1")) {
$request->setValue(ASN_INTEGER, $integer_value);
}
} elsif ($request_info->getMode() == MODE_GETNEXT) {
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if ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setOID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.1");
$request->setValue(ASN_INTEGER, $integer_value);
}
elsif ($oid < new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setOID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0");
$request->setValue(ASN_OCTET_STR, $string_value);
}
}
}
When getMode returns MODE_GET, the handler analyzes the value of the getOID call on the
request object. The value of the request is set to either string_value if the OID ends in “.1.0”,
or set to integer_value if the OID ends in “.1.1”. If the getMode returns MODE_GETNEXT, the
handler determines whether the OID of the request is “.1.0”, and then sets the OID and value for
“.1.1”. If the request is higher on the tree than “.1.0”, the OID and value for “.1.0” is set. This in effect
returns the “next” value in the tree so that a program like snmpwalk can traverse the tree without prior
knowledge of the structure.
The type of the variable is set using constants from NetSNMP::ASN. See the perldoc for
NetSNMP::ASN for a full list of available constants.
The entire code listing for this example Perl plug-in is as follows:
#!/usr/bin/perl
use NetSNMP::agent (':all');
use NetSNMP::ASN qw(ASN_OCTET_STR ASN_INTEGER);
sub hello_handler {
my ($handler, $registration_info, $request_info, $requests) = @_;
my $request;
my $string_value = "hello world";
my $integer_value = "8675309";
for($request = $requests; $request; $request = $request->next()) {
my $oid = $request->getOID();
if ($request_info->getMode() == MODE_GET) {
if ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setValue(ASN_OCTET_STR, $string_value);
}
elsif ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.1")) {
$request->setValue(ASN_INTEGER, $integer_value);
}
} elsif ($request_info->getMode() == MODE_GETNEXT) {
if ($oid == new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setOID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.1");
$request->setValue(ASN_INTEGER, $integer_value);
}
elsif ($oid < new NetSNMP::OID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0")) {
$request->setOID(".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999.1.0");
$request->setValue(ASN_OCTET_STR, $string_value);
}
}
}
}
my $agent = new NetSNMP::agent();
$agent->register("hello_world", ".1.3.6.1.4.1.8072.9999.9999",
\&hello_handler);
To test the plug-in, copy the above program to /usr/share/snmp/hello_world.pl and add the
following line to the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf configuration file:
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perl do "/usr/share/snmp/hello_world.pl"
The SNMP Agent Daemon will need to be restarted to load the new Perl plug-in. Once it has been
restarted, an snmpwalk should return the new data:
~]$ snmpwalk localhost NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.0 = STRING: "hello world"
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.1 = INTEGER: 8675309
The snmpget should also be used to exercise the other mode of the handler:
~]$ snmpget localhost \
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.0 \
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.1
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.0 = STRING: "hello world"
NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpPlaypen.1.1 = INTEGER: 8675309
17.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about gathering system information, refer to the following resources.
17.7.1. Installed Documentation
• ps(1) — The manual page for the ps command.
• top(1) — The manual page for the top command.
• free(1) — The manual page for the free command.
• df(1) — The manual page for the df command.
• du(1) — The manual page for the du command.
• lspci(8) — The manual page for the lspci command.
• snmpd(8) — The manual page for the snmpd service.
• snmpd.conf(5) — The manual page for the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file containing full
documentation of available configuration directives.
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Viewing and Managing Log Files
Log files are files that contain messages about the system, including the kernel, services, and
applications running on it. There are different log files for different information. For example, there is a
default system log file, a log file just for security messages, and a log file for cron tasks.
Log files can be very useful when trying to troubleshoot a problem with the system such as trying
to load a kernel driver or when looking for unauthorized login attempts to the system. This chapter
discusses where to find log files, how to view log files, and what to look for in log files.
Some log files are controlled by a daemon called rsyslogd. A list of log files maintained by
rsyslogd can be found in the /etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file.
rsyslog is an enhanced, multi-threaded syslog daemon which replaced the sysklogd daemon.
rsyslog supports the same functionality as sysklogd and extends it with enhanced filtering,
encryption protected relaying of messages, various configuration options, or support for transportation
via the TCP or UDP protocols. Note that rsyslog is compatible with sysklogd.
18.1. Configuring rsyslog
The main configuration file for rsyslog is /etc/rsyslog.conf. It consists of global directives, rules
or comments (any empty lines or any text following a hash sign (#)). Both, global directives and rules
are extensively described in the sections below.
18.1.1. Global Directives
Global directives specify configuration options that apply to the rsyslogd daemon. They usually
specify a value for a specific pre-defined variable that affects the behavior of the rsyslogd daemon
or a rule that follows. All of the global directives must start with a dollar sign ($). Only one directive can
be specified per line. The following is an example of a global directive that specifies the maximum size
of the syslog message queue:
$MainMsgQueueSize 50000
The default size defined for this directive (10,000 messages) can be overridden by specifying a
different value (as shown in the example above).
You may define multiple directives in your /etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file. A directive affects
the behavior of all configuration options until another occurrence of that same directive is detected.
A comprehensive list of all available configuration directives and their detailed description can be
found in /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-<version-number>/rsyslog_conf_global.html.
18.1.2. Modules
Due to its modular design, rsyslog offers a variety of modules which provide dynamic functionality.
Note that modules can be written by third parties. Most modules provide additional inputs (see Input
Modules below) or outputs (see Output Modules below). Other modules provide special functionality
specific to each module. The modules may provide additional configuration directives that become
available after a module is loaded. To load a module, use the following syntax:
$ModLoad <MODULE>
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where $ModLoad is the global directive that loads the specified module and <MODULE> represents
your desired module. For example, if you want to load the Text File Input Module (imfile —
enables rsyslog to convert any standard text files into syslog messages), specify the following line in
your /etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file:
$ModLoad imfile
rsyslog offers a number of modules which are split into these main categories:
• Input Modules — Input modules gather messages from various sources. The name of an input
module always starts with the im prefix, such as imfile, imrelp, etc.
• Output Modules — Output modules provide a facility to store messages into various targets such
as sending them across network, storing them in a database or encrypting them. The name of an
output module always starts with the om prefix, such as omsnmp, omrelp, etc.
• Filter Modules — Filter modules provide the ability to filter messages according to specified rules.
The name of a filter module always starts with the fm prefix.
• Parser Modules — Parser modules use the message parsers to parse message content of any
received messages. The name of a parser module always starts with the pm prefix, such as
pmrfc5424, pmrfc3164, etc.
• Message Modification Modules — Message modification modules change the content of a syslog
message. The message modification modules only differ in their implementation from the output and
filter modules but share the same interface.
• String Generator Modules — String generator modules generate strings based on the message
content and strongly cooperate with the template feature provided by rsyslog. For more information
on templates, refer to Section 18.1.3.3, “Templates”. The name of a string generator module always
starts with the sm prefix, such as smfile, smtradfile, etc.
• Library Modules — Library modules generally provide functionality for other loadable modules.
These modules are loaded automatically by rsyslog when needed and cannot be configured by the
user.
A comprehensive list of all available modules and their detailed description can be found at http://
1
www.rsyslog.com/doc/rsyslog_conf_modules.html
Make sure you use trustworthy modules only
Note that when rsyslog loads any modules, it provides them with access to some of its functions
and data. This poses a possible security threat. To minimize security risks, use trustworthy
modules only.
18.1.3. Rules
A rule is specified by a filter part, which selects a subset of syslog messages, and an action
part, which specifies what to do with the selected messages. To define a rule in your /etc/
1
http://www.rsyslog.com/doc/rsyslog_conf_modules.html/
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rsyslog.conf configuration file, define both, a filter and an action, on one line and separate them
with one or more spaces or tabs. For more information on filters, refer to Section 18.1.3.1, “Filter
Conditions” and for information on actions, refer to Section 18.1.3.2, “Actions”.
18.1.3.1. Filter Conditions
rsyslog offers various ways how to filter syslog messages according to various properties. This
sections sums up the most used filter conditions.
Facility/Priority-based filters
The most used and well-known way to filter syslog messages is to use the facility/priority-based
filters which filter syslog messages based on two conditions: facility and priority. To create a
selector, use the following syntax:
<FACILITY>.<PRIORITY>
where:
• <FACILITY> specifies the subsystem that produces a specific syslog message. For example,
the mail subsystem handles all mail related syslog messages. <FACILITY> can be
represented by one of these keywords: auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, kern, lpr, mail,
news, syslog, user, uucp, and local0 through local7.
• <PRIORITY> specifies a priority of a syslog message. <PRIORITY> can be represented by one
of these keywords (listed in an ascending order): debug, info, notice, warning, err, crit,
alert, and emerg.
By preceding any priority with an equal sign (=), you specify that only syslog messages with
that priority will be selected. All other priorities will be ignored. Conversely, preceding a priority
with an exclamation mark (!) selects all syslog messages but those with the defined priority. By
not using either of these two extensions, you specify a selection of syslog messages with the
defined or higher priority.
In addition to the keywords specified above, you may also use an asterisk (*) to define all facilities
or priorities (depending on where you place the asterisk, before or after the dot). Specifying the
keyword none serves for facilities with no given priorities.
To define multiple facilities and priorities, simply separate them with a comma (,). To define
multiple filters on one line, separate them with a semi-colon (;).
The following are a few examples of simple facility/priority-based filters:
kern.*
mail.crit
# Selects all kernel syslog messages with any priority
# Selects all mail syslog messages with priority crit and higher.
cron.!info,!debug
or debug priority.
# Selects all cron syslog messages except those with the info
Property-based filters
Property-based filters let you filter syslog messages by any property, such as timegenerated
or syslogtag. For more information on properties, refer to Section 18.1.3.3.2, “Properties”. Each
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of the properties specified in the filters lets you compare it to a specific value using one of the
compare-operations listed in Table 18.1, “Property-based compare-operations”.
Table 18.1. Property-based compare-operations
Compare-operation
Description
contains
Checks whether the provided string matches any part of the
text provided by the property.
isequal
Compares the provided string against all of the text provided
by the property.
startswith
Checks whether the provided string matches a prefix of the
text provided by the property.
regex
Compares the provided POSIX BRE (Basic Regular
Expression) regular expression against the text provided by
the property.
ereregex
Compares the provided POSIX ERE (Extended Regular
Expression) regular expression against the text provided by
the property.
To define a property-based filter, use the following syntax:
:<PROPERTY>, [!]<COMPARE_OPERATION>, "<STRING>"
where:
• The <PROPERTY> attribute specifies the desired property (for example, timegenerated,
hostname, etc.).
• The optional exclamation point (!) negates the output of the compare-operation (if prefixing the
compare-operation).
• The <COMPARE_OPERATION> attribute specifies one of the compare-operations listed in
Table 18.1, “Property-based compare-operations”.
• The <STRING> attribute specifies the value that the text provided by the property is compared
to. To escape certain character (for example a quotation mark (")), use the backslash character
(\).
The following are few examples of property-based filters:
• The following filter selects syslog messages which contain the string error in their message
text:
:msg, contains, "error"
• The following filter selects syslog messages received from the hostname host1:
:hostname, isequal, "host1"
• The following filter selects syslog messages which do not contain any mention of the words
fatal and error with any or no text between them (for example, fatal lib error):
:msg, !regex, "fatal .* error"
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Expression-based filters
Expression-based filters select syslog messages according to defined arithmetic, boolean
or string operations. Expression-based filters use rsyslog's own scripting language. The
syntax of this language is defined in /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-<version-number>/
rscript_abnf.html along with examples of various expression-based filters.
To define an expression-based filter, use the following syntax:
if <EXPRESSION> then <ACTION>
where:
• The <EXPRESSION> attribute represents an expression to be evaluated, for example: $msg
startswith 'DEVNAME' or $syslogfacility-text == 'local0'.
• The <ACTION> attribute represents an action to be performed if the expression returns the
value true.
Define an expression-based filter on a single line
When defining an expression-based filter, it must be defined on a single line.
Do not use regular expressions
Regular expressions are currently not supported in expression-based filters.
BSD-style blocks
rsyslog supports BSD-style blocks inside the /etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file. Each block
consists of rules which are preceded with a program or hostname label. Use the '!<PROGRAM>'
or '-<PROGRAM>' labels to include or exclude programs, respectively. Use the '+<HOSTNAME> ' or
'-<HOSTNAME> ' labels include or exclude hostnames, respectively.
Example 18.1, “BSD-style block” shows a BSD-style block that saves all messages generated by
yum to a file.
Example 18.1. BSD-style block
!yum
*.*
/var/log/named.log
18.1.3.2. Actions
Actions specify what is to be done with the messages filtered out by an already-defined selector. The
following are some of the actions you can define in your rule:
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Saving syslog messages to log files
The majority of actions specify to which log file a syslog message is saved. This is done by
specifying a file path after your already-defined selector. The following is a rule comprised of a
selector that selects all cron syslog messages and an action that saves them into the /var/log/
cron.log log file:
cron.* /var/log/cron.log
Use a dash mark (-) as a prefix of the file path you specified if you want to omit syncing the
desired log file after every syslog message is generated.
Your specified file path can be either static or dynamic. Static files are represented by a simple
file path as was shown in the example above. Dynamic files are represented by a template
and a question mark (?) prefix. For more information on templates, refer to Section 18.1.3.3.1,
“Generating dynamic file names”.
If the file you specified is an existing tty or /dev/console device, syslog messages are sent
to standard output (using special tty-handling) or your console (using special /dev/consolehandling) when using the X Window System, respectively.
Sending syslog messages over the network
rsyslog allows you to send and receive syslog messages over the network. This feature allows to
administer syslog messages of multiple hosts on one machine. To forward syslog messages to a
remote machine, use the following syntax:
@[(<OPTION>)]<HOST>:[<PORT>]
where:
• The at sign (@) indicates that the syslog messages are forwarded to a host using the UDP
protocol. To use the TCP protocol, use two at signs with no space between them (@@).
• The <OPTION> attribute can be replaced with an option such as z<NUMBER> . This option
enables zlib compression for syslog messages; the <NUMBER> attribute specifies the level of
compression. To define multiple options, simply separate each one of them with a comma (,).
• The <HOST> attribute specifies the host which receives the selected syslog messages.
• The <PORT> attribute specifies the host machine's port.
When specifying an IPv6 address as the host, enclose the address in square brackets ([, ]).
The following are some examples of actions that forward syslog messages over the network (note
that all actions are preceded with a selector that selects all messages with any priority):
*.* @192.168.0.1
# Forwards messages to 192.168.0.1 via the UDP protocol
*.* @@example.com:18
protocol
*.* @(z9)[2001::1]
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# Forwards messages to "example.com" using port 18 and the TCP
# Compresses messages with zlib (level 9 compression)
# and forwards them to 2001::1 using the UDP protocol
Rules
Output channels
Output channels are primarily used for log file rotation (for more info on log file rotation, refer to
Section 18.2.1, “Configuring logrotate”), that is, to specify the maximum size a log file can grow to.
To define an output channel, use the following syntax:
$outchannel <NAME>, <FILE_NAME>, <MAX_SIZE>, <ACTION>
where:
• The <NAME> attribute specifies the name of the output channel.
• The <FILE_NAME> attribute specifies the name of the output file.
• The <MAX_SIZE> attribute represents the maximum size the specified file (in <FILE_NAME>)
can grow to. This value is specified in bytes.
• The <ACTION> attribute specifies the action that is taken when the maximum size, defined in
<MAX_SIZE>, is hit.
Example 18.2, “Output channel log rotation” shows a simple log rotation through the use of an
output channel. First, the output channel is defined via the $outchannel directive and then used
in a rule which selects every syslog message with any priority and executes the previously-defined
output channel on the acquired syslog messages. Once the limit (in the example 100 MB) is hit,
the /home/joe/log_rotation_script is executed. This script can contain anything from
moving the file into a different folder, editing specific content out of it, or simply removing it.
Example 18.2. Output channel log rotation
$outchannel log_rotation,/var/log/test_log.log, 104857600, /home/joe/
log_rotation_script
*.* $log_rotation
Support for output channels is to be removed in the future
Output channels are currently supported by rsyslog, however, they are planned to be
removed in the nearby future.
Sending syslog messages to specific users
rsyslog can send syslog messages to specific users by simply specifying a username of the user
you wish to send the messages to. To specify more than one user, separate each username with
a comma (,). To send messages to every user that is currently logged on, use an asterisk (*).
Executing a program
rsyslog lets you execute a program for selected syslog messages and uses the system()
call to execute the program in shell. To specify a program to be executed, prefix it with a caret
character (^). Consequently, specify a template that formats the received message and passes
it to the specified executable as a one line parameter (for more information on templates, refer to
Section 18.1.3.3, “Templates”). In the following example, any syslog message with any priority is
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selected, formatted with the template template and passed as a parameter to the test-program
program, which is then executed with the provided parameter:
*.* ^test-program;template
Be careful when using the shell execute action
When accepting messages from any host, and using the shell execute action, you may
be vulnerable to command injection. An attacker may try to inject and execute commands
specified by the attacker in the program you specified (in your action) to be executed. To
avoid any possible security threats, thoroughly consider the use of the shell execute action.
Inputting syslog messages in a database
Selected syslog messages can be directly written into a database table using the database writer
action. The database writer uses the following syntax:
:<PLUGIN>:<DB_HOST>,<DB_NAME>,<DB_USER>,<DB_PASSWORD>;[<TEMPLATE>]
where:
• The <PLUGIN> calls the specified plug-in that handles the database writing (for example, the
ommysql plug-in).
• The <DB_HOST> attribute specifies the database hostname.
• The <DB_NAME> attribute specifies the name of the database.
• The <DB_USER> attribute specifies the database user.
• The <DB_PASSWORD> attribute specifies the password used with the aforementioned database
user.
• The <TEMPLATE> attribute specifies an optional use of a template that modifies the syslog
message. For more information on templates, refer to Section 18.1.3.3, “Templates”.
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Using MySQL and PostgreSQL
Currently, rsyslog provides support for MySQL (for more information, refer to /usr/
share/doc/rsyslog-<version-number>/rsyslog_mysql.html) and PostgreSQL
databases only. In order to use the MySQL and PostgreSQL database writer functionality,
install the rsyslog-mysql and rsyslog-pgsql packages installed, respectively. Also, make sure
you load the appropriate modules in your /etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file:
$ModLoad ommysql
$ModLoad ompgsql
# Output module for MySQL support
# Output module for PostgreSQL support
For more information on rsyslog modules, refer to Section 18.1.2, “Modules”.
Alternatively, you may use a generic database interface provided by the omlibdb module.
However, this module is currently not compiled.
Discarding syslog messages
To discard your selected messages, use the tilde character (~). The following rule discards any
cron syslog messages:
cron.* ~
For each selector, you are allowed to specify multiple actions. To specify multiple actions for one
selector, write each action on a separate line and precede it with an ampersand character (&). Only
the first action is allowed to have a selector specified on its line. The following is an example of a rule
with multiple actions:
kern.=crit joe
& ^test-program;temp
& @192.168.0.1
In the example above, all kernel syslog messages with the critical priority (crit) are send to user
joe, processed by the template temp and passed on to the test-program executable, and
forwarded to 192.168.0.1 via the UDP protocol.
Specifying multiple actions improves the overall performance of the desired outcome since the
specified selector has to be evaluated only once.
Note that any action can be followed by a template that formats the message. To specify a template,
suffix an action with a semicolon (;) and specify the name of the template.
Using templates
A template must be defined before it is used in an action, otherwise, it is ignored.
For more information on templates, refer to Section 18.1.3.3, “Templates”.
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18.1.3.3. Templates
Any output that is generated by rsyslog can be modified and formatted according to your needs
through the use of templates. To create a template use the following syntax:
$template <TEMPLATE_NAME>,"text %<PROPERTY>% more text", [<OPTION>]
where:
• $template is the template directive that indicates that the text following it, defines a template.
• <TEMPLATE_NAME> is the name of the template. Use this name to refer to the template.
• Anything between the two quotation marks ("…") is the actual template text. Within this text, you
are allowed to escape characters in order to use their functionality, such as \n for new line or \r
for carriage return. Other characters, such as % or ", have to be escaped in case you want to those
characters literally.
The text specified within two percent signs (%) specifies a property that is consequently replaced
with the property's actual value. For more information on properties, refer to Section 18.1.3.3.2,
“Properties”
• The <OPTION> attribute specifies any options that modify the template functionality. Do not mistake
these for property options, which are defined inside the template text (between "…"). The currently
supported template options are sql and stdsql used for formatting the text as an SQL query.
The sql and stdsql options
Note that the database writer (for more information, refer to section Inputting syslog messages
in a database in Section 18.1.3.2, “Actions”) checks whether the sql and stdsql options are
specified in the template. If they are not, the database writer does not perform any action. This
is to prevent any possible security threats, such as SQL injection.
18.1.3.3.1. Generating dynamic file names
Templates can be used to generate dynamic file names. By specifying a property as a part of the
file path, a new file will be created for each unique property. For example, use the timegenerated
property to generate a unique file name for each syslog message:
$template DynamicFile,"/var/log/test_logs/%timegenerated%-test.log"
Keep in mind that the $template directive only specifies the template. You must use it inside a rule
for it to take effect:
*.* ?DynamicFile
18.1.3.3.2. Properties
Properties defined inside a template (within two percent signs (%)) allow you to access various
contents of a syslog message through the use of a property replacer. To define a property inside a
template (between the two quotation marks ("…")), use the following syntax:
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Rules
%<PROPERTY_NAME>[:<FROM_CHAR>:<TO_CHAR>:<OPTION>]%
where:
• The <PROPERTY_NAME> attribute specifies the name of a property. A comprehensible list
of all available properties and their detailed description can be found in /usr/share/doc/
rsyslog-<version-number>/property_replacer.html under the section Available
Properties.
• <FROM_CHAR> and <TO_CHAR> attributes denote a range of characters that the specified property
will act upon. Alternatively, regular expressions can be used to specify a range of characters. To do
so, specify the letter R as the <FROM_CHAR> attribute and specify your desired regular expression
as the <TO_CHAR> attribute.
• The <OPTION> attribute specifies any property options. A comprehensible list of all available
properties and their detailed description can be found in /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-<versionnumber>/property_replacer.html under the section Property Options.
The following are some examples of simple properties:
• The following property simply obtains the whole message text of a syslog message:
%msg%
• The following property obtains the first two characters of the message text of a syslog message:
%msg:1:2%
• The following property obtains the whole message text of a syslog message and drops its last line
feed character:
%msg:::drop-last-lf%
• The following property obtains the first 10 characters of the timestamp that is generated when the
syslog message is received and formats it according to the RFC 3999 date standard.
%timegenerated:1:10:date-rfc3339%
18.1.3.3.3. Template Examples
This section presents few examples of rsyslog templates.
Example 18.3, “A verbose syslog message template” shows a template that formats a syslog message
so that it outputs the message's severity, facility, the timestamp of when the message was received,
the hostname, the message tag, the message text, and ends with a new line.
Example 18.3. A verbose syslog message template
$template verbose,"%syslogseverity%,%syslogfacility%,%timegenerated%,%HOSTNAME%,%syslogtag
%,%msg%\n"
Example 18.4, “A wall message template” shows a template that resembles a traditional wall message
(a message that is send to every user that is logged in and has their mesg(1) permission set to yes).
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This template outputs the message text, along with a hostname, message tag and a timestamp, on a
new line (using \r and \n) and rings the bell (using \7).
Example 18.4. A wall message template
$template wallmsg,"\r\n\7Message from syslogd@%HOSTNAME% at %timegenerated% ...\r\n
%syslogtag% %msg%\n\r"
Example 18.5, “A database formatted message template” shows a template that formats a syslog
message so that it can be used as a database query. Notice the use of the sql option at the end of
the template specified as the template option. It tells the database writer to format the message as an
MySQL SQL query.
Example 18.5. A database formatted message template
$template dbFormat,"insert into SystemEvents (Message, Facility,FromHost, Priority,
DeviceReportedTime, ReceivedAt, InfoUnitID, SysLogTag) values ('%msg%', %syslogfacility
%, '%HOSTNAME%',%syslogpriority%, '%timereported:::date-mysql%', '%timegenerated:::datemysql%', %iut%, '%syslogtag%')",sql
rsyslog also contains a set of predefined templates identified by the RSYSLOG_ prefix. It is advisable
to not create a template using this prefix to avoid any conflicts. The following list shows these
predefined templates along with their definitions.
RSYSLOG_DebugFormat
"Debug line with all properties:\nFROMHOST: '%FROMHOST%', fromhost-ip: '%fromhost-ip%',
HOSTNAME: '%HOSTNAME%', PRI: %PRI%,\nsyslogtag '%syslogtag%', programname: '%programname
%', APP-NAME: '%APP-NAME%', PROCID: '%PROCID%', MSGID: '%MSGID%',\nTIMESTAMP: '%TIMESTAMP
%', STRUCTURED-DATA: '%STRUCTURED-DATA%',\nmsg: '%msg%'\nescaped msg: '%msg:::drop-cc
%'\nrawmsg: '%rawmsg%'\n\n\"
RSYSLOG_SyslogProtocol23Format
"<%PRI%>1 %TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %APP-NAME% %PROCID% %MSGID% %STRUCTUREDDATA% %msg%\n\"
RSYSLOG_FileFormat
"%TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg:::droplast-lf%\n\"
RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat
"%TIMESTAMP% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg:::drop-last-lf%\n\"
RSYSLOG_ForwardFormat
"<%PRI%>%TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag:1:32%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg
%\"
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rsyslog Command Line Configuration
RSYSLOG_TraditionalForwardFormat
"<%PRI%>%TIMESTAMP% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag:1:32%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg%\"
18.1.4. rsyslog Command Line Configuration
Some of rsyslog's functionality can be configured through the command line options, as sysklogd's
can. Note that as of version 3 of rsyslog, this method was deprecated. To enable some of these
option, you must specify the compatibility mode rsyslog should run in. However, configuring rsyslog
through the command line options should be avoided.
To specify the compatibility mode rsyslog should run in, use the -c option. When no parameter
is specified, rsyslog tries to be compatible with sysklogd. This is partially achieved by activating
configuration directives that modify your configuration accordingly. Therefore, it is advisable to supply
this option with a number that matches the major version of rsyslog that is in use and update your
/etc/rsyslog.conf configuration file accordingly. If you want to, for example, use sysklogd
options (which were deprecated in version 3 of rsyslog), you can specify so by executing the following
command:
~]# rsyslogd -c 2
Options that are passed to the rsyslogd daemon, including the backward compatibility mode, can be
specified in the /etc/sysconfig/rsyslog configuration file.
For more information on various rsyslogd options, refer to man rsyslogd.
18.2. Locating Log Files
Most log files are located in the /var/log/ directory. Some applications such as httpd and samba
have a directory within /var/log/ for their log files.
You may notice multiple files in the /var/log/ directory with numbers after them (for example,
cron-20100906). These numbers represent a timestamp that has been added to a rotated log file.
Log files are rotated so their file sizes do not become too large. The logrotate package contains a
cron task that automatically rotates log files according to the /etc/logrotate.conf configuration
file and the configuration files in the /etc/logrotate.d/ directory.
18.2.1. Configuring logrotate
The following is a sample /etc/logrotate.conf configuration file:
# rotate log files weekly
weekly
# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs
rotate 4
# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed
compress
All of the lines in the sample configuration file define global options that apply to every log file. In our
example, log files are rotated weekly, rotated log files are kept for the duration of 4 weeks, and all
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Chapter 18. Viewing and Managing Log Files
rotated log files are compressed by gzip into the .gz format. Any lines that begin with a hash sign (#)
are comments and are not processed
You may define configuration options for a specific log file and place it under the global options.
However, it is advisable to create a separate configuration file for any specific log file in the /etc/
logrotate.d/ directory and define any configuration options there.
The following is an example of a configuration file placed in the /etc/logrotate.d/ directory:
/var/log/messages {
rotate 5
weekly
postrotate
/usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd
endscript
}
The configuration options in this file are specific for the /var/log/messages log file only. The
settings specified here override the global settings where possible. Thus the rotated /var/log/
messages log file will be kept for five weeks instead of four weeks as was defined in the global
options.
The following is a list of some of the directives you can specify in your logrotate configuration file:
• weekly — Specifies the rotation of log files on a weekly basis. Similar directives include:
• daily
• monthly
• yearly
• compress — Enables compression of rotated log files. Similar directives include:
• nocompress
• compresscmd — Specifies the command to be used for compressing.
• uncompresscmd
• compressext — Specifies what extension is to be used for compressing.
• compressoptions — Lets you specify any options that may be passed to the used compression
program.
• delaycompress — Postpones the compression of log files to the next rotation of log files.
• rotate <INTEGER> — Specifies the number of rotations a log file undergoes before it is
removed or mailed to a specific address. If the value 0 is specified, old log files are removed instead
of rotated.
• mail <ADDRESS> — This option enables mailing of log files that have been rotated as many
times as is defined by the rotate directive to the specified address. Similar directives include:
• nomail
• mailfirst — Specifies that the just-rotated log files are to be mailed, instead of the about-toexpire log files.
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Viewing Log Files
• maillast — Specifies that the just-rotated log files are to be mailed, instead of the about-toexpire log files. This is the default option when mail is enabled.
For the full list of directives and various configuration options, refer to the logrotate man page
(man logrotate).
18.3. Viewing Log Files
Most log files are in plain text format. You can view them with any text editor such as Vi or Emacs.
Some log files are readable by all users on the system; however, root privileges are required to read
most log files.
To view system log files in an interactive, real-time application, use the Log File Viewer.
Installing the gnome-system-log package
In order to use the Log File Viewer, first ensure the gnome-system-log package is installed on
your system by running, as root:
yum install gnome-system-log
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
After you have installed the gnome-system-log package, you can open the Log File Viewer by
selecting Applications��� System Tools��� Log File Viewer from the Activities menu, or type
the following command at a shell prompt:
gnome-system-log
The application only displays log files that exist; thus, the list might differ from the one shown in
Figure 18.1, “ Log File Viewer ”.
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Chapter 18. Viewing and Managing Log Files
Figure 18.1. Log File Viewer
The Log File Viewer application lets you filter any existing log file. Click on Filters from the menu and
select Manage Filters to define or edit your desired filter.
Figure 18.2. Log File Viewer — filters
Adding or editing a filter lets you define its parameters as is shown in Figure 18.3, “ Log File Viewer —
defining a filter ”.
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Viewing Log Files
Figure 18.3. Log File Viewer — defining a filter
When defining a filter, you can edit the following parameters:
• Name — Specifies the name of the filter.
• Regular Expression — Specifies the regular expression that will be applied to the log file and will
attempt to match any possible strings of text in it.
• Effect
• Highlight — If checked, the found results will be highlighted with the selected color. You may
select whether to highlight the background or the foreground of the text.
• Hide — If checked, the found results will be hidden from the log file you are viewing.
When you have at least one filter defined, you may select it from the Filters menu and it will
automatically search for the strings you have defined in the filter and highlight/hide every successful
match in the log file you are currently viewing.
Figure 18.4. Log File Viewer — enabling a filter
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Chapter 18. Viewing and Managing Log Files
When you check the Show matches only option, only the matched strings will be shown in the log file
you are currently viewing.
18.4. Adding a Log File
To add a log file you wish to view in the list, select File��� Open. This will display the Open Log
window where you can select the directory and file name of the log file you wish to view.Figure 18.5,
“Log File Viewer — adding a log file” illustrates the Open Log window.
Figure 18.5. Log File Viewer — adding a log file
Click on the Open button to open the file. The file is immediately added to the viewing list where you
can select it and view its contents.
Reading zipped log files
The Log File Viewer also allows you to open log files zipped in the .gz format.
18.5. Monitoring Log Files
Log File Viewer monitors all opened logs by default. If a new line is added to a monitored log file, the
log name appears in bold in the log list. If the log file is selected or displayed, the new lines appear in
bold at the bottom of the log file. Figure 18.6, “Log File Viewer — new log alert” illustrates a new alert
in the yum.log log file and in the messages log file. Clicking on the messages log file displays the
logs in the file with the new lines in bold.
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Additional Resources
Figure 18.6. Log File Viewer — new log alert
18.6. Additional Resources
To learn more about rsyslog, logrotate, and log files in general, refer to the following resources.
18.6.1. Installed Documentation
• rsyslogd manual page — Type man rsyslogd to learn more about rsyslogd and its many
options.
• rsyslog.conf manual page — Type man rsyslog.conf to learn more about the /etc/
rsyslog.conf configuration file and its many options.
• /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-<version-number>/ — After installing the rsyslog package, this
directory contains extensive documentation in the html format.
• logrotate manual page — Type man logrotate to learn more about logrotate and its many
options.
18.6.2. Useful Websites
• http://www.rsyslog.com/ — Offers a thorough technical breakdown of rsyslog features,
documentation, configuration examples, and video tutorials.
• http://wiki.rsyslog.com/index.php/Main_Page — Contains useful /etc/rsyslog.conf
configuration examples.
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Chapter 19.
Automating System Tasks
In Linux, tasks, which are also known as jobs, can be configured to run automatically within a specified
period of time, on a specified date, or when the system load average is below a specified number.
Fedora is pre-configured to run important system tasks to keep the system updated. For example, the
slocate database used by the locate command is updated daily. A system administrator can use
automated tasks to perform periodic backups, monitor the system, run custom scripts, and more.
Fedora comes with several automated tasks utilities: cron, at, and batch.
19.1. Cron and Anacron
Both, Cron and Anacron, are daemons that can be used to schedule the execution of recurring tasks
according to a combination of the time, day of the month, month, day of the week, and week.
Cron assumes that the system is on continuously. If the system is not on when a job is scheduled, it
is not executed. Cron allows jobs to be run as often as every minute. Anacron does not assume the
system is always on, remembers every scheduled job, and executes it the next time the system is up.
However, Anacron can only run a job once a day. To schedule recurring jobs, refer to Section 19.1.2,
“Configuring Anacron Jobs” or Section 19.1.3, “Configuring Cron Jobs”. To schedule one-time jobs,
refer to Section 19.2, “At and Batch”.
To use the cron service, the cronie RPM package must be installed and the crond service must be
running. anacron is a sub-package of cronie. To determine if these packages are installed, use the
rpm -q cronie cronie-anacron command.
19.1.1. Starting and Stopping the Service
To determine if the service is running, use the following command:
systemctl is-active crond.service
To start the cron service, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl start crond.service
To stop the service, run the following command as root:
systemctl stop crond.service
It is recommended that you start the service at boot time. To do so, use the following command as
root:
systemctl enable crond.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
19.1.2. Configuring Anacron Jobs
The main configuration file to schedule jobs is /etc/anacrontab (only root is allowed to modify
this file), which contains the following lines:
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SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
MAILTO=root
# the maximal random delay added to the base delay of the jobs
RANDOM_DELAY=45
# the jobs will be started during the following hours only
START_HOURS_RANGE=3-22
#period in days
delay in minutes
job-identifier
command
1
5
cron.daily
nice run-parts /etc/cron.daily
7
25
cron.weekly
nice run-parts /etc/cron.weekly
@monthly 45
cron.monthly nice run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
The first three lines are variables used to configure the environment in which the anacron tasks are
run. The SHELL variable tells the system which shell environment to use (in this example the bash
shell). The PATH variable defines the path used to execute commands. The output of the anacron jobs
are emailed to the username defined with the MAILTO variable. If the MAILTO variable is not defined,
(i.e. is empty, MAILTO=), email is not sent.
The next two lines are variables that modify the time for each scheduled job. The RANDOM_DELAY
variable denotes the maximum number of minutes that will be added to the delay in minutes
variable which is specified for each job. The minimum delay value is set, by default, to 6 minutes. A
RANDOM_DELAY set to 12 would therefore add, randomly, between 6 and 12 minutes to the delay in
minutes for each job in that particular anacrontab. RANDOM_DELAY can also be set to a value below
6, or even 0. When set to 0, no random delay is added. This proves to be useful when, for example,
more computers that share one network connection need to download the same data every day. The
START_HOURS_RANGE variable defines an interval (in hours) when scheduled jobs can be run. In case
this time interval is missed, for example, due to a power down, then scheduled jobs are not executed
that day.
The rest of the lines in the /etc/anacrontab file represent scheduled jobs and have the following
format:
period in days
delay in minutes
job-identifier
command
• period in days — specifies the frequency of execution of a job in days. This variable can be
represented by an integer or a macro (@daily, @weekly, @monthly), where @daily denotes the
same value as the integer 1, @weekly the same as 7, and @monthly specifies that the job is run
once a month, independent on the length of the month.
• delay in minutes — specifies the number of minutes anacron waits, if necessary, before
executing a job. This variable is represented by an integer where 0 means no delay.
• job-identifier — specifies a unique name of a job which is used in the log files.
• command — specifies the command to execute. The command can either be a command such as
ls /proc >> /tmp/proc or a command to execute a custom script.
Any lines that begin with a hash sign (#) are comments and are not processed.
19.1.2.1. Examples of Anacron Jobs
The following example shows a simple /etc/anacrontab file:
SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
MAILTO=root
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Configuring Cron Jobs
# the maximal random delay added to the base delay of the jobs
RANDOM_DELAY=30
# the jobs will be started during the following hours only
START_HOURS_RANGE=16-20
#period in days
delay in minutes
job-identifier
command
1
20
dailyjob
nice run-parts /etc/cron.daily
7
25
weeklyjob
/etc/weeklyjob.bash
@monthly 45
monthlyjob
ls /proc >> /tmp/proc
All jobs defined in this anacrontab file are randomly delayed by 6-30 minutes and can be executed
between 16:00 and 20:00. Thus, the first defined job will run anywhere between 16:26 and 16:50 every
day. The command specified for this job will execute all present programs in the /etc/cron.daily
directory (using the run-parts script which takes a directory as a command-line argument and
sequentially executes every program within that directory). The second specified job will be executed
once a week and will execute the weeklyjob.bash script in the /etc directory. The third job is
executed once a month and runs a command to write the contents of the /proc to the /tmp/proc file
(e.g. ls /proc >> /tmp/proc).
19.1.2.1.1. Disabling Anacron
In case your system is continuously on and you do not require anacron to run your scheduled jobs,
you may uninstall the cronie-anacron package. Thus, you will be able to define jobs using crontabs
only.
19.1.3. Configuring Cron Jobs
The configuration file to configure cron jobs, /etc/crontab (only root is allowed to modify this file),
contains the following lines:
SHELL=/bin/bash
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
MAILTO=root
HOME=/
# For details see man 4 crontabs
# Example of job definition:
# .---------------- minute (0 - 59)
# | .------------- hour (0 - 23)
# | | .---------- day of month (1 - 31)
# | | | .------- month (1 - 12) OR jan,feb,mar,apr ...
# | | | | .---- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0 or 7) OR sun,mon,tue,wed,thu,fri,sat
# | | | | |
# * * * * * user command to be executed
The first three lines contain the same variables as an anacrontab file, SHELL, PATH and MAILTO.
For more information about these variables, refer to Section 19.1.2, “Configuring Anacron Jobs”. The
fourth line contains the HOME variable. The HOME variable can be used to set the home directory to use
when executing commands or scripts.
The rest of the lines in the /etc/crontab file represent scheduled jobs and have the following
format:
minute
hour
day
month
day of week
user
command
• minute — any integer from 0 to 59
• hour — any integer from 0 to 23
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Chapter 19. Automating System Tasks
• day — any integer from 1 to 31 (must be a valid day if a month is specified)
• month — any integer from 1 to 12 (or the short name of the month such as jan or feb)
• day of week — any integer from 0 to 7, where 0 or 7 represents Sunday (or the short name of the
week such as sun or mon)
• user — specifies the user under which the jobs are run
• command — the command to execute (the command can either be a command such as ls /proc
>> /tmp/proc or the command to execute a custom script)
For any of the above values, an asterisk (*) can be used to specify all valid values. For example, an
asterisk for the month value means execute the command every month within the constraints of the
other values.
A hyphen (-) between integers specifies a range of integers. For example, 1-4 means the integers 1,
2, 3, and 4.
A list of values separated by commas (,) specifies a list. For example, 3, 4, 6, 8 indicates those
four specific integers.
The forward slash (/) can be used to specify step values. The value of an integer can be skipped within
a range by following the range with /integer. For example, 0-59/2 can be used to define every
other minute in the minute field. Step values can also be used with an asterisk. For instance, the value
*/3 can be used in the month field to run the task every third month.
Any lines that begin with a hash sign (#) are comments and are not processed.
Users other than root can configure cron tasks by using the crontab utility. All user-defined
crontabs are stored in the /var/spool/cron/ directory and are executed using the usernames
of the users that created them. To create a crontab as a user, login as that user and type the
command crontab -e to edit the user's crontab using the editor specified by the VISUAL or EDITOR
environment variable. The file uses the same format as /etc/crontab. When the changes to the
crontab are saved, the crontab is stored according to username and written to the file /var/spool/
cron/username . To list the contents of your own personal crontab file, use the crontab -l
command.
Do not specify a user
When using the crontab utility, there is no need to specify a user when defining a job.
The /etc/cron.d/ directory contains files that have the same syntax as the /etc/crontab file.
Only root is allowed to create and modify files in this directory.
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Controlling Access to Cron
Do not restart the daemon to apply the changes
The cron daemon checks the /etc/anacrontab file, the /etc/crontab file, the /etc/
cron.d/ directory, and the /var/spool/cron/ directory every minute for any changes. If
any changes are found, they are loaded into memory. Thus, the daemon does not need to be
restarted if an anacrontab or a crontab file is changed.
19.1.4. Controlling Access to Cron
The /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny files are used to restrict access to cron. The format
of both access control files is one username on each line. Whitespace is not permitted in either file.
The cron daemon (crond) does not have to be restarted if the access control files are modified. The
access control files are checked each time a user tries to add or delete a cron job.
The root user can always use cron, regardless of the usernames listed in the access control files.
If the file cron.allow exists, only users listed in it are allowed to use cron, and the cron.deny file is
ignored.
If cron.allow does not exist, users listed in cron.deny are not allowed to use cron.
Access can also be controlled through Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). These settings are
stored in /etc/security/access.conf. For example, adding the following line in this file forbids
creating crontabs for all users except the root user:
-:ALL EXCEPT root :cron
The forbidden jobs are logged in an appropriate log file or, when using “crontab -e”, returned to the
standard output. For more information, refer to access.conf.5 (i.e. man 5 access.conf).
19.1.5. Black/White Listing of Cron Jobs
Black/White listing of jobs is used to omit parts of the defined jobs that do not need to be executed.
When calling the run-parts script on a cron folder, such as /etc/cron.daily, we can define
which of the programs in this folder will not be executed by run-parts.
To define a black list, create a jobs.deny file in the folder that run-parts will be executing
from. For example, if we need to omit a particular program from /etc/cron.daily, then, a file /etc/
cron.daily/jobs.deny has to be created. In this file, specify the names of the omitted programs
from the same directory. These will not be executed when a command, such as run-parts /etc/
cron.daily, is executed by a specific job.
To define a white list, create a jobs.allow file.
The principles of jobs.deny and jobs.allow are the same as those of cron.deny and
cron.allow described in section Section 19.1.4, “Controlling Access to Cron”.
19.2. At and Batch
While cron is used to schedule recurring tasks, the at command is used to schedule a one-time task
at a specific time and the batch command is used to schedule a one-time task to be executed when
the systems load average drops below 0.8.
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To use at or batch, the at RPM package must be installed, and the atd service must be running.
To determine if the package is installed, use the rpm -q at command. To determine if the service is
running, use the following command:
systemctl is-active atd.service
19.2.1. Configuring At Jobs
To schedule a one-time job at a specific time, type the command at time , where time is the time
to execute the command.
The argument time can be one of the following:
• HH:MM format — For example, 04:00 specifies 4:00 a.m. If the time is already past, it is executed at
the specified time the next day.
• midnight — Specifies 12:00 a.m.
• noon — Specifies 12:00 p.m.
• teatime — Specifies 4:00 p.m.
• month-name day year format — For example, January 15 2002 specifies the 15th day of January in
the year 2002. The year is optional.
• MMDDYY, MM/DD/YY, or MM.DD.YY formats — For example, 011502 for the 15th day of January
in the year 2002.
• now + time — time is in minutes, hours, days, or weeks. For example, now + 5 days specifies that
the command should be executed at the same time five days from now.
The time must be specified first, followed by the optional date. For more information about the time
format, read the /usr/share/doc/at-version/timespec text file.
After typing the at command with the time argument, the at> prompt is displayed. Type the command
to execute, press Enter, and press Ctrl+D . Multiple commands can be specified by typing each
command followed by the Enter key. After typing all the commands, press Enter to go to a blank
line and press Ctrl+D . Alternatively, a shell script can be entered at the prompt, pressing Enter
after each line in the script, and pressing Ctrl+D on a blank line to exit. If a script is entered, the shell
used is the shell set in the user's SHELL environment, the user's login shell, or /bin/sh (whichever is
found first).
If the set of commands or script tries to display information to standard output, the output is emailed to
the user.
Use the command atq to view pending jobs. Refer to Section 19.2.3, “Viewing Pending Jobs” for more
information.
Usage of the at command can be restricted. For more information, refer to Section 19.2.5, “Controlling
Access to At and Batch” for details.
19.2.2. Configuring Batch Jobs
To execute a one-time task when the load average is below 0.8, use the batch command.
After typing the batch command, the at> prompt is displayed. Type the command to execute, press
Enter, and press Ctrl+D . Multiple commands can be specified by typing each command followed
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Viewing Pending Jobs
by the Enter key. After typing all the commands, press Enter to go to a blank line and press Ctrl+D
. Alternatively, a shell script can be entered at the prompt, pressing Enter after each line in the script,
and pressing Ctrl+D on a blank line to exit. If a script is entered, the shell used is the shell set in the
user's SHELL environment, the user's login shell, or /bin/sh (whichever is found first). As soon as
the load average is below 0.8, the set of commands or script is executed.
If the set of commands or script tries to display information to standard out, the output is emailed to the
user.
Use the command atq to view pending jobs. Refer to Section 19.2.3, “Viewing Pending Jobs” for more
information.
Usage of the batch command can be restricted. For more information, refer to Section 19.2.5,
“Controlling Access to At and Batch” for details.
19.2.3. Viewing Pending Jobs
To view pending at and batch jobs, use the atq command. The atq command displays a list of
pending jobs, with each job on a line. Each line follows the job number, date, hour, job class, and
username format. Users can only view their own jobs. If the root user executes the atq command,
all jobs for all users are displayed.
19.2.4. Additional Command Line Options
Additional command line options for at and batch include:
Table 19.1. at and batch Command Line Options
Option
Description
-f
Read the commands or shell script from a file instead of specifying
them at the prompt.
-m
Send email to the user when the job has been completed.
-v
Display the time that the job is executed.
19.2.5. Controlling Access to At and Batch
The /etc/at.allow and /etc/at.deny files can be used to restrict access to the at and batch
commands. The format of both access control files is one username on each line. Whitespace is not
permitted in either file. The at daemon (atd) does not have to be restarted if the access control files
are modified. The access control files are read each time a user tries to execute the at or batch
commands.
The root user can always execute at and batch commands, regardless of the access control files.
If the file at.allow exists, only users listed in it are allowed to use at or batch, and the at.deny
file is ignored.
If at.allow does not exist, users listed in at.deny are not allowed to use at or batch.
19.2.6. Starting and Stopping the Service
To start the at service, use the following command as root:
systemctl start atd.service
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To stop the service, as root, type the following at a shell prompt:
systemctl stop atd.service
It is recommended that you start the service at boot time. To do so, run the following command as
root:
systemctl enable atd.service
Refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons for more information on how to configure services in
Fedora.
19.3. Additional Resources
To learn more about configuring automated tasks, refer to the following resources.
19.3.1. Installed Documentation
• cron man page — contains an overview of cron.
• crontab man pages in sections 1 and 5 — The man page in section 1 contains an overview of the
crontab file. The man page in section 5 contains the format for the file and some example entries.
• anacron man page — contains an overview of anacron.
• anacrontab man page — contains an overview of the anacrontab file.
• /usr/share/doc/at-version/timespec contains more detailed information about the times
that can be specified for cron jobs.
• at man page — description of at and batch and their command line options.
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Chapter 20.
OProfile
OProfile is a low overhead, system-wide performance monitoring tool. It uses the performance
monitoring hardware on the processor to retrieve information about the kernel and executables on the
system, such as when memory is referenced, the number of L2 cache requests, and the number of
hardware interrupts received. On a Fedora system, the oprofile package must be installed to use
this tool.
Many processors include dedicated performance monitoring hardware. This hardware makes it
possible to detect when certain events happen (such as the requested data not being in cache).
The hardware normally takes the form of one or more counters that are incremented each time
an event takes place. When the counter value, essentially rolls over, an interrupt is generated,
making it possible to control the amount of detail (and therefore, overhead) produced by performance
monitoring.
OProfile uses this hardware (or a timer-based substitute in cases where performance monitoring
hardware is not present) to collect samples of performance-related data each time a counter
generates an interrupt. These samples are periodically written out to disk; later, the data contained
in these samples can then be used to generate reports on system-level and application-level
performance.
OProfile is a useful tool, but be aware of some limitations when using it:
• Use of shared libraries — Samples for code in shared libraries are not attributed to the particular
application unless the --separate=library option is used.
• Performance monitoring samples are inexact — When a performance monitoring register triggers a
sample, the interrupt handling is not precise like a divide by zero exception. Due to the out-of-order
execution of instructions by the processor, the sample may be recorded on a nearby instruction.
• opreport does not associate samples for inline functions properly — opreport uses a simple
address range mechanism to determine which function an address is in. Inline function samples are
not attributed to the inline function but rather to the function the inline function was inserted into.
• OProfile accumulates data from multiple runs — OProfile is a system-wide profiler and expects
processes to start up and shut down multiple times. Thus, samples from multiple runs accumulate.
Use the command opcontrol --reset to clear out the samples from previous runs.
• Hardware performance counters do not work on guest virtual machines — Because the hardware
performance counters are not available on virtual systems, you need to use the timer mode. Run
the command opcontrol --deinit, and then execute modprobe oprofile timer=1 to
enable the timer mode.
• Non-CPU-limited performance problems — OProfile is oriented to finding problems with CPU-limited
processes. OProfile does not identify processes that are asleep because they are waiting on locks
or for some other event to occur (for example an I/O device to finish an operation).
20.1. Overview of Tools
Table 20.1, “OProfile Commands” provides a brief overview of the tools provided with the oprofile
package.
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Table 20.1. OProfile Commands
Command
Description
ophelp
Displays available events for the system's processor along with a brief
description of each.
opimport
Converts sample database files from a foreign binary format to the
native format for the system. Only use this option when analyzing a
sample database from a different architecture.
opannotate
Creates annotated source for an executable if the application was
compiled with debugging symbols. Refer to Section 20.5.4, “Using
opannotate ” for details.
opcontrol
Configures what data is collected. Refer to Section 20.2, “Configuring
OProfile” for details.
opreport
Retrieves profile data. Refer to Section 20.5.1, “Using opreport ” for
details.
oprofiled
Runs as a daemon to periodically write sample data to disk.
20.2. Configuring OProfile
Before OProfile can be run, it must be configured. At a minimum, selecting to monitor the kernel
(or selecting not to monitor the kernel) is required. The following sections describe how to use the
opcontrol utility to configure OProfile. As the opcontrol commands are executed, the setup
options are saved to the /root/.oprofile/daemonrc file.
20.2.1. Specifying the Kernel
First, configure whether OProfile should monitor the kernel. This is the only configuration option that is
required before starting OProfile. All others are optional.
To monitor the kernel, execute the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --setup --vmlinux=/usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/`uname -r`/vmlinux
Install the debuginfo package
The debuginfo package for the kernel must be installed (which contains the uncompressed
kernel) in order to monitor the kernel.
To configure OProfile not to monitor the kernel, execute the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --setup --no-vmlinux
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Setting Events to Monitor
This command also loads the oprofile kernel module, if it is not already loaded, and creates the /
dev/oprofile/ directory, if it does not already exist. Refer to Section 20.6, “Understanding /dev/
oprofile/ ” for details about this directory.
Setting whether samples should be collected within the kernel only changes what data is collected,
not how or where the collected data is stored. To generate different sample files for the kernel and
application libraries, refer to Section 20.2.3, “Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles”.
20.2.2. Setting Events to Monitor
Most processors contain counters, which are used by OProfile to monitor specific events. As shown
in Table 20.2, “OProfile Processors and Counters”, the number of counters available depends on the
processor.
Table 20.2. OProfile Processors and Counters
Processor
cpu_type
Number of Counters
AMD64
x86-64/hammer
4
AMD Athlon
i386/athlon
4
AMD Family 10h
x86-64/family10
4
AMD Family 11h
x86-64/family11
4
AMD Family 12h
x86-64/family12
4
AMD Family 14h
x86-64/family14
4
AMD Family 15h
x86-64/family15
6
IBM eServer System i and IBM eServer
System p
timer
1
IBM POWER4
ppc64/power4
8
IBM POWER5
ppc64/power5
6
IBM PowerPC 970
ppc64/970
8
IBM S/390 and IBM System z
timer
1
Intel Core i7
i386/core_i7
4
Intel Nehalem microarchitecture
i386/nehalem
4
Intel Pentium 4 (non-hyper-threaded)
i386/p4
8
Intel Pentium 4 (hyper-threaded)
i386/p4-ht
4
Intel Westmere microarchitecture
i386/westmere
4
TIMER_INT
timer
1
Use Table 20.2, “OProfile Processors and Counters” to verify that the correct processor type was
detected and to determine the number of events that can be monitored simultaneously. timer is used
as the processor type if the processor does not have supported performance monitoring hardware.
If timer is used, events cannot be set for any processor because the hardware does not have
support for hardware performance counters. Instead, the timer interrupt is used for profiling.
If timer is not used as the processor type, the events monitored can be changed, and counter 0
for the processor is set to a time-based event by default. If more than one counter exists on the
processor, the counters other than counter 0 are not set to an event by default. The default events
monitored are shown in Table 20.3, “Default Events”.
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Table 20.3. Default Events
Processor
Default Event for Counter
Description
AMD Athlon and
AMD64
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
AMD Family 10h, AMD
Family 11h, AMD
Family 12h
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
AMD Family 14h, AMD
Family 15h
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
IBM POWER4
CYCLES
Processor Cycles
IBM POWER5
CYCLES
Processor Cycles
IBM PowerPC 970
CYCLES
Processor Cycles
Intel Core i7
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
Intel Nehalem
microarchitecture
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
Intel Pentium 4 (hyperthreaded and nonhyper-threaded)
GLOBAL_POWER_EVENTS
The time during which the processor is
not stopped
Intel Westmere
microarchitecture
CPU_CLK_UNHALTED
The processor's clock is not halted
TIMER_INT
(none)
Sample for each timer interrupt
The number of events that can be monitored at one time is determined by the number of counters for
the processor. However, it is not a one-to-one correlation; on some processors, certain events must
be mapped to specific counters. To determine the number of counters available, execute the following
command:
~]# ls -d /dev/oprofile/[0-9]*
The events available vary depending on the processor type. To determine the events available for
profiling, execute the following command as root (the list is specific to the system's processor type):
~]# ophelp
The events for each counter can be configured via the command line or with a graphical interface. For
more information on the graphical interface, refer to Section 20.9, “Graphical Interface”. If the counter
cannot be set to a specific event, an error message is displayed.
To set the event for each configurable counter via the command line, use opcontrol:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate
Replace event-name with the exact name of the event from ophelp, and replace sample-rate
with the number of events between samples.
20.2.2.1. Sampling Rate
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Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles
By default, a time-based event set is selected. It creates a sample every 100,000 clock cycles per
processor. If the timer interrupt is used, the timer is set to whatever the jiffy rate is and is not usersettable. If the cpu_type is not timer, each event can have a sampling rate set for it. The sampling
rate is the number of events between each sample snapshot.
When setting the event for the counter, a sample rate can also be specified:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate
Replace sample-rate with the number of events to wait before sampling again. The smaller the
count, the more frequent the samples. For events that do not happen frequently, a lower count may be
needed to capture the event instances.
Sampling too frequently can overload the system
Be extremely careful when setting sampling rates. Sampling too frequently can overload the
system, causing the system to appear as if it is frozen or causing the system to actually freeze.
20.2.2.2. Unit Masks
Some user performance monitoring events may also require unit masks to further define the event.
Unit masks for each event are listed with the ophelp command. The values for each unit mask are
listed in hexadecimal format. To specify more than one unit mask, the hexadecimal values must be
combined using a bitwise or operation.
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate:unit-mask
20.2.3. Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles
By default, kernel mode and user mode information is gathered for each event. To configure OProfile
to ignore events in kernel mode for a specific counter, execute the following command:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate:unit-mask:0
Execute the following command to start profiling kernel mode for the counter again:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate:unit-mask:1
To configure OProfile to ignore events in user mode for a specific counter, execute the following
command:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate:unit-mask:kernel:0
Execute the following command to start profiling user mode for the counter again:
~]# opcontrol --event=event-name:sample-rate:unit-mask:kernel:1
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When the OProfile daemon writes the profile data to sample files, it can separate the kernel and library
profile data into separate sample files. To configure how the daemon writes to sample files, execute
the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --separate=choice
choice can be one of the following:
• none — do not separate the profiles (default)
• library — generate per-application profiles for libraries
• kernel — generate per-application profiles for the kernel and kernel modules
• all — generate per-application profiles for libraries and per-application profiles for the kernel and
kernel modules
If --separate=library is used, the sample file name includes the name of the executable as well
as the name of the library.
Restart the OProfile profiler
These configuration changes will take effect when the OProfile profiler is restarted.
20.3. Starting and Stopping OProfile
To start monitoring the system with OProfile, execute the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --start
Output similar to the following is displayed:
Using log file /var/lib/oprofile/oprofiled.log Daemon started. Profiler running.
The settings in /root/.oprofile/daemonrc are used.
The OProfile daemon, oprofiled, is started; it periodically writes the sample data to the /var/lib/
oprofile/samples/ directory. The log file for the daemon is located at /var/lib/oprofile/
oprofiled.log.
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Saving Data
Disable the nmi_watchdog registers
On a Fedora 17 system, the nmi_watchdog registers with the perf subsystem. Due to this,
the perf subsystem grabs control of the performance counter registers at boot time, blocking
OProfile from working.
To resolve this, either boot with the nmi_watchdog=0 kernel parameter set, or run the following
command to disable nmi_watchdog at run time:
~]# echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/nmi_watchdog
To re-enable nmi_watchdog, use the following command:
~]# echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/nmi_watchdog
To stop the profiler, execute the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --shutdown
20.4. Saving Data
Sometimes it is useful to save samples at a specific time. For example, when profiling an executable,
it may be useful to gather different samples based on different input data sets. If the number of events
to be monitored exceeds the number of counters available for the processor, multiple runs of OProfile
can be used to collect data, saving the sample data to different files each time.
To save the current set of sample files, execute the following command, replacing name with a unique
descriptive name for the current session.
~]# opcontrol --save=name
The directory /var/lib/oprofile/samples/name/ is created and the current sample files are
copied to it.
20.5. Analyzing the Data
Periodically, the OProfile daemon, oprofiled, collects the samples and writes them to the /var/
lib/oprofile/samples/ directory. Before reading the data, make sure all data has been written to
this directory by executing the following command as root:
~]# opcontrol --dump
Each sample file name is based on the name of the executable. For example, the samples for the
default event on a Pentium III processor for /bin/bash becomes:
\{root\}/bin/bash/\{dep\}/\{root\}/bin/bash/CPU_CLK_UNHALTED.100000
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The following tools are available to profile the sample data once it has been collected:
• opreport
• opannotate
Use these tools, along with the binaries profiled, to generate reports that can be further analyzed.
Back up the executable and the sample files
The executable being profiled must be used with these tools to analyze the data. If it must
change after the data is collected, back up the executable used to create the samples as well as
the sample files. Please note that the sample file and the binary have to agree. Making a backup
is not going to work if they do not match. oparchive can be used to address this problem.
Samples for each executable are written to a single sample file. Samples from each dynamically
linked library are also written to a single sample file. While OProfile is running, if the executable being
monitored changes and a sample file for the executable exists, the existing sample file is automatically
deleted. Thus, if the existing sample file is needed, it must be backed up, along with the executable
used to create it before replacing the executable with a new version. The OProfile analysis tools use
the executable file that created the samples during analysis. If the executable changes the analysis
tools will be unable to analyze the associated samples. Refer to Section 20.4, “Saving Data” for details
on how to back up the sample file.
20.5.1. Using opreport
The opreport tool provides an overview of all the executables being profiled.
The following is part of a sample output:
Profiling through timer interrupt
TIMER:0|
samples|
%|
-----------------25926 97.5212 no-vmlinux
359 1.3504 pi
65 0.2445 Xorg
62 0.2332 libvte.so.4.4.0
56 0.2106 libc-2.3.4.so
34 0.1279 libglib-2.0.so.0.400.7
19 0.0715 libXft.so.2.1.2
17 0.0639 bash
8 0.0301 ld-2.3.4.so
8 0.0301 libgdk-x11-2.0.so.0.400.13
6 0.0226 libgobject-2.0.so.0.400.7
5 0.0188 oprofiled
4 0.0150 libpthread-2.3.4.so
4 0.0150 libgtk-x11-2.0.so.0.400.13
3 0.0113 libXrender.so.1.2.2
3 0.0113 du
1 0.0038 libcrypto.so.0.9.7a
1 0.0038 libpam.so.0.77
1 0.0038 libtermcap.so.2.0.8
1 0.0038 libX11.so.6.2
1 0.0038 libgthread-2.0.so.0.400.7
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Using opreport on a Single Executable
1
0.0038 libwnck-1.so.4.9.0
Each executable is listed on its own line. The first column is the number of samples recorded for the
executable. The second column is the percentage of samples relative to the total number of samples.
The third column is the name of the executable.
Refer to the opreport man page for a list of available command line options, such as the -r option
used to sort the output from the executable with the smallest number of samples to the one with the
largest number of samples.
20.5.2. Using opreport on a Single Executable
To retrieve more detailed profiled information about a specific executable, use opreport:
~]# opreport mode executable
executable must be the full path to the executable to be analyzed. mode must be one of the
following:
-l
List sample data by symbols. For example, the following is part of the output from running the
command opreport -l /lib/tls/libc-version.so:
samples % symbol name
12 21.4286 __gconv_transform_utf8_internal
5 8.9286 _int_malloc 4 7.1429 malloc
3 5.3571 __i686.get_pc_thunk.bx
3 5.3571 _dl_mcount_wrapper_check
3 5.3571 mbrtowc
3 5.3571 memcpy
2 3.5714 _int_realloc
2 3.5714 _nl_intern_locale_data
2 3.5714 free
2 3.5714 strcmp
1 1.7857 __ctype_get_mb_cur_max
1 1.7857 __unregister_atfork
1 1.7857 __write_nocancel
1 1.7857 _dl_addr
1 1.7857 _int_free
1 1.7857 _itoa_word
1 1.7857 calc_eclosure_iter
1 1.7857 fopen@@GLIBC_2.1
1 1.7857 getpid
1 1.7857 memmove
1 1.7857 msort_with_tmp
1 1.7857 strcpy
1 1.7857 strlen
1 1.7857 vfprintf
1 1.7857 write
The first column is the number of samples for the symbol, the second column is the percentage of
samples for this symbol relative to the overall samples for the executable, and the third column is
the symbol name.
To sort the output from the largest number of samples to the smallest (reverse order), use -r in
conjunction with the -l option.
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-i symbol-name
List sample data specific to a symbol name. For example, the following output is from the
command opreport -l -i __gconv_transform_utf8_internal /lib/tls/
libc-version.so:
samples % symbol name
12 100.000 __gconv_transform_utf8_internal
The first line is a summary for the symbol/executable combination.
The first column is the number of samples for the memory symbol. The second column is the
percentage of samples for the memory address relative to the total number of samples for the
symbol. The third column is the symbol name.
-d
List sample data by symbols with more detail than -l. For example, the following output is from
the command opreport -l -d __gconv_transform_utf8_internal /lib/tls/
libc-version.so:
vma samples % symbol name
00a98640 12 100.000 __gconv_transform_utf8_internal
00a98640 1 8.3333
00a9868c 2 16.6667
00a9869a 1 8.3333
00a986c1 1 8.3333
00a98720 1 8.3333
00a98749 1 8.3333
00a98753 1 8.3333
00a98789 1 8.3333
00a98864 1 8.3333
00a98869 1 8.3333
00a98b08 1 8.3333
The data is the same as the -l option except that for each symbol, each virtual memory address
used is shown. For each virtual memory address, the number of samples and percentage of
samples relative to the number of samples for the symbol is displayed.
-x symbol-name
Exclude the comma-separated list of symbols from the output.
session:name
Specify the full path to the session or a directory relative to the /var/lib/oprofile/samples/
directory.
20.5.3. Getting more detailed output on the modules
OProfile collects data on a system-wide basis for kernel- and user-space code running on the
machine. However, once a module is loaded into the kernel, the information about the origin of the
kernel module is lost. The module could have come from the initrd file on boot up, the directory
with the various kernel modules, or a locally created kernel module. As a result, when OProfile records
sample for a module, it just lists the samples for the modules for an executable in the root directory,
but this is unlikely to be the place with the actual code for the module. You will need to take some
steps to make sure that analysis tools get the executable.
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Using opannotate
To get a more detailed view of the actions of the module, you will need to either have the module
"unstripped" (that is installed from a custom build) or have the debuginfo package installed for the
kernel.
Find out which kernel is running with the uname -a command, obtain the appropriate debuginfo
package and install it on the machine.
Then proceed with clearing out the samples from previous runs with the following command:
~]# opcontrol --reset
To start the monitoring process, for example, on a machine with Westmere processor, run the
following command:
~]# opcontrol --setup --vmlinux=/usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/`uname -r`/vmlinux \
--event=CPU_CLK_UNHALTED:500000
Then the detailed information, for instance, for the ext4 module can be obtained with:
~]# opreport /ext4 -l --image-path /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel
CPU: Intel Westmere microarchitecture, speed 2.667e+06 MHz (estimated)
Counted CPU_CLK_UNHALTED events (Clock cycles when not halted) with a unit mask of 0x00 (No
unit mask) count 500000
warning: could not check that the binary file /lib/modules/2.6.32-191.el6.x86_64/kernel/fs/
ext4/ext4.ko has not been modified since the profile was taken. Results may be inaccurate.
samples %
symbol name
1622
9.8381 ext4_iget
1591
9.6500 ext4_find_entry
1231
7.4665 __ext4_get_inode_loc
783
4.7492 ext4_ext_get_blocks
752
4.5612 ext4_check_dir_entry
644
3.9061 ext4_mark_iloc_dirty
583
3.5361 ext4_get_blocks
583
3.5361 ext4_xattr_get
479
2.9053 ext4_htree_store_dirent
469
2.8447 ext4_get_group_desc
414
2.5111 ext4_dx_find_entry
20.5.4. Using opannotate
The opannotate tool tries to match the samples for particular instructions to the corresponding lines
in the source code. The resulting files generated should have the samples for the lines at the left. It
also puts in a comment at the beginning of each function listing the total samples for the function.
For this utility to work, the appropriate debuginfo package for the executable must be installed on the
system. By default, Fedora debuginfo packages are not installed together with their corresponding
packages, which contain the executable, so that you have to obtain and install the debuginfo packages
separately.
The general syntax for opannotate is as follows:
~]# opannotate --search-dirs src-dir --source executable
The directory containing the source code and the executable to be analyzed must be specified. Refer
to the opannotate man page for a list of additional command line options.
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20.6. Understanding /dev/oprofile/
The /dev/oprofile/ directory contains the file system for OProfile. Use the cat command to
display the values of the virtual files in this file system. For example, the following command displays
the type of processor OProfile detected:
~]# cat /dev/oprofile/cpu_type
A directory exists in /dev/oprofile/ for each counter. For example, if there are 2 counters, the
directories /dev/oprofile/0/ and dev/oprofile/1/ exist.
Each directory for a counter contains the following files:
• count — The interval between samples.
• enabled — If 0, the counter is off and no samples are collected for it; if 1, the counter is on and
samples are being collected for it.
• event — The event to monitor.
• extra — Used on machines with Nehalem processors to further specify the event to monitor.
• kernel — If 0, samples are not collected for this counter event when the processor is in kernelspace; if 1, samples are collected even if the processor is in kernel-space.
• unit_mask — Defines which unit masks are enabled for the counter.
• user — If 0, samples are not collected for the counter event when the processor is in user-space; if
1, samples are collected even if the processor is in user-space.
The values of these files can be retrieved with the cat command. For example:
~]# cat /dev/oprofile/0/count
20.7. Example Usage
While OProfile can be used by developers to analyze application performance, it can also be used by
system administrators to perform system analysis. For example:
• Determine which applications and services are used the most on a system — opreport can be
used to determine how much processor time an application or service uses. If the system is used for
multiple services but is under performing, the services consuming the most processor time can be
moved to dedicated systems.
• Determine processor usage — The CPU_CLK_UNHALTED event can be monitored to determine the
processor load over a given period of time. This data can then be used to determine if additional
processors or a faster processor might improve system performance.
20.8. OProfile Support for Java
OProfile allows you to profile dynamically compiled code (also known as "just-in-time" or JIT code)
of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). OProfile in Fedora 17 includes build-in support for the JVM Tools
Interface (JVMTI) agent library, which supports Java 1.5 and higher.
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Profiling Java Code
20.8.1. Profiling Java Code
To profile JIT code from the Java Virtual Machine with the JVMTI agent, add the following to the JVM
startup parameters:
-agentlib:jvmti_oprofile
Install the oprofile-jit package
The oprofile-jit package must be installed on the system in order to profile JIT code with OProfile.
To learn more about Java support in OProfile, refer to the OProfile Manual, which is linked from
Section 20.11, “Additional Resources”.
20.9. Graphical Interface
Some OProfile preferences can be set with a graphical interface. To start it, execute the
oprof_start command as root at a shell prompt. To use the graphical interface, you will need to
have the oprofile-gui package installed.
After changing any of the options, save them by clicking the Save and quit button. The preferences
are written to /root/.oprofile/daemonrc, and the application exits. Exiting the application does
not stop OProfile from sampling.
On the Setup tab, to set events for the processor counters as discussed in Section 20.2.2, “Setting
Events to Monitor”, select the counter from the pulldown menu and select the event from the list.
A brief description of the event appears in the text box below the list. Only events available for the
specific counter and the specific architecture are displayed. The interface also displays whether the
profiler is running and some brief statistics about it.
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Figure 20.1. OProfile Setup
On the right side of the tab, select the Profile kernel option to count events in kernel mode for the
currently selected event, as discussed in Section 20.2.3, “Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles”.
If this option is unselected, no samples are collected for the kernel.
Select the Profile user binaries option to count events in user mode for the currently selected
event, as discussed in Section 20.2.3, “Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles”. If this option is
unselected, no samples are collected for user applications.
Use the Count text field to set the sampling rate for the currently selected event as discussed in
Section 20.2.2.1, “Sampling Rate”.
If any unit masks are available for the currently selected event, as discussed in Section 20.2.2.2,
“Unit Masks”, they are displayed in the Unit Masks area on the right side of the Setup tab. Select the
checkbox beside the unit mask to enable it for the event.
On the Configuration tab, to profile the kernel, enter the name and location of the vmlinux file
for the kernel to monitor in the Kernel image file text field. To configure OProfile not to monitor the
kernel, select No kernel image.
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OProfile and SystemTap
Figure 20.2. OProfile Configuration
If the Verbose option is selected, the oprofiled daemon log includes more information.
If Per-application profiles is selected, OProfile generates per-application profiles for libraries. This
is equivalent to the opcontrol --separate=library command. If Per-application profiles,
including kernel is selected, OProfile generates per-application profiles for the kernel and kernel
modules as discussed in Section 20.2.3, “Separating Kernel and User-space Profiles”. This is
equivalent to the opcontrol --separate=kernel command.
To force data to be written to samples files as discussed in Section 20.5, “Analyzing the Data”, click
the Flush button. This is equivalent to the opcontrol --dump command.
To start OProfile from the graphical interface, click Start. To stop the profiler, click Stop. Exiting the
application does not stop OProfile from sampling.
20.10. OProfile and SystemTap
SystemTap is a tracing and probing tool that allows users to study and monitor the activities of the
operating system in fine detail. It provides information similar to the output of tools like netstat, ps,
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Chapter 20. OProfile
top, and iostat; however, SystemTap is designed to provide more filtering and analysis options for
collected information.
While using OProfile is suggested in cases of collecting data on where and why the processor spends
time in a particular area of code, it is less usable when finding out why the processor stays idle.
You might want to use SystemTap when instrumenting specific places in code. Because SystemTap
allows you to run the code instrumentation without having to stop and restart the instrumentation, it is
particularly useful for instrumenting the kernel and daemons.
For more information on SystemTap, refer to Section 20.11.2, “Useful Websites” for the relevant
SystemTap documentation.
20.11. Additional Resources
This chapter only highlights OProfile and how to configure and use it. To learn more, refer to the
following resources.
20.11.1. Installed Docs
• /usr/share/doc/oprofile-version/oprofile.html — OProfile Manual
• oprofile man page — Discusses opcontrol, opreport, opannotate, and ophelp
20.11.2. Useful Websites
• http://oprofile.sourceforge.net/ — Contains the latest documentation, mailing lists, IRC channels,
and more.
1
• SystemTap Beginners Guide — Provides basic instructions on how to use SystemTap to monitor
different subsystems of Fedora in finer detail.
1
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/SystemTap_Beginners_Guide/index.html
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Part VII. Kernel, Module
and Driver Configuration
This part covers various tools that assist administrators with kernel customization.
Chapter 21.
Manually Upgrading the Kernel
The Fedora kernel is custom-built by the Fedora kernel team to ensure its integrity and compatibility
with supported hardware. Before a kernel is released, it must first pass a rigorous set of quality
assurance tests.
Fedora kernels are packaged in the RPM format so that they are easy to upgrade and verify using the
Yum or PackageKit package managers. PackageKit automatically queries the Yum repositories and
informs you of packages with available updates, including kernel packages.
This chapter is therefore only useful for users who need to manually update a kernel package using
the rpm command instead of yum.
Use Yum to install kernels whenever possible
Whenever possible, use either the Yum or PackageKit package manager to install a new kernel
because they always install a new kernel instead of replacing the current one, which could
potentially leave your system unable to boot.
For more information on installing kernel packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.1.2, “Updating
Packages”.
21.1. Overview of Kernel Packages
Fedora contains the following kernel packages:
• kernel — Contains the kernel for single, multicore and multiprocessor systems.
• kernel-debug — Contains a kernel with numerous debugging options enabled for kernel diagnosis,
at the expense of reduced performance.
• kernel-devel — Contains the kernel headers and makefiles sufficient to build modules against the
kernel package.
• kernel-debug-devel — Contains the development version of the kernel with numerous debugging
options enabled for kernel diagnosis, at the expense of reduced performance.
• kernel-doc — Documentation files from the kernel source. Various portions of the Linux kernel and
the device drivers shipped with it are documented in these files. Installation of this package provides
a reference to the options that can be passed to Linux kernel modules at load time.
By default, these files are placed in the /usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-kernel_version/
directory.
• kernel-headers — Includes the C header files that specify the interface between the Linux kernel
and user-space libraries and programs. The header files define structures and constants that are
needed for building most standard programs.
• linux-firmware — Contains all of the firmware files that are required by various devices to operate.
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Chapter 21. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
• perf — This package contains supporting scripts and documentation for the perf tool shipped in
each kernel image subpackage.
21.2. Preparing to Upgrade
Before upgrading the kernel, it is recommended that you take some precautionary steps.
First, ensure that working boot media exists for the system in case a problem occurs. If the boot loader
is not configured properly to boot the new kernel, the system cannot be booted into Fedora without
working boot media.
USB media often comes in the form of flash devices sometimes called pen drives, thumb disks, or
keys, or as an externally-connected hard disk device. Almost all media of this type is formatted as a
VFAT file system. You can create bootable USB media on media formatted as ext2, ext3, ext4, or
VFAT.
You can transfer a distribution image file or a minimal boot media image file to USB media. Make sure
that sufficient free space is available on the device. Around 4 GB is required for a distribution DVD
image, around 700 MB for a distribution CD image, or around 10 MB for a minimal boot media image.
You must have a copy of the boot.iso file from a Fedora installation DVD, or installation CDROM#1, and you need a USB storage device formatted with the VFAT file system and around 16 MB
of free space. The following procedure will not affect existing files on the USB storage device unless
they have the same path names as the files that you copy onto it. To create USB boot media, perform
the following commands as the root user:
1.
Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on the USB storage device:
syslinux /dev/sdX1
...where sdX is the device name.
2.
Create mount points for boot.iso and the USB storage device:
mkdir /mnt/isoboot /mnt/diskboot
3.
Mount boot.iso:
mount -o loop boot.iso /mnt/isoboot
4.
Mount the USB storage device:
mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt/diskboot
5.
Copy the ISOLINUX files from the boot.iso to the USB storage device:
cp /mnt/isoboot/isolinux/* /mnt/diskboot
6.
Use the isolinux.cfg file from boot.iso as the syslinux.cfg file for the USB device:
grep -v local /mnt/isoboot/isolinux/isolinux.cfg > /mnt/diskboot/syslinux.cfg
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Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
7.
Unmount boot.iso and the USB storage device:
umount /mnt/isoboot /mnt/diskboot
8.
You should reboot the machine with the boot media and verify that you are able to boot with it
before continuing.
Alternatively, on systems with a floppy drive, you can create a boot diskette by installing the
mkbootdisk package and running the mkbootdisk command as root. Refer to man mkbootdisk
man page after installing the package for usage information.
To determine which kernel packages are installed, execute the command yum list installed
"kernel-*" at a shell prompt. The output will comprise some or all of the following packages,
depending on the system's architecture, and the version numbers may differ:
~]# yum list installed "kernel-*"
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Installed Packages
kernel.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16
kernel.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16
kernel-doc.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16
kernel-doc.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16
kernel-headers.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16
kernel-headers.x86_64
3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16
@updates-testing
@updates-testing
@updates-testing
@updates-testing
@updates-testing
@updates-testing
From the output, determine which packages need to be downloaded for the kernel upgrade. For a
single processor system, the only required package is the kernel package. Refer to Section 21.1,
“Overview of Kernel Packages” for descriptions of the different packages.
21.3. Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
There are several ways to determine if an updated kernel is available for the system.
• Security Advisories — Refer to http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/FSA for information on Security
Advisories, including kernel upgrades that fix security issues.
• Via Fedora Update System — Download and install the kernel RPM packages. For more
information, refer to http://admin.fedoraproject.org/updates/.
To install the kernel manually, continue to Section 21.4, “Performing the Upgrade”.
21.4. Performing the Upgrade
After retrieving all of the necessary packages, it is time to upgrade the existing kernel.
Keep the old kernel when performing the upgrade
It is strongly recommended that you keep the old kernel in case there are problems with the new
kernel.
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Chapter 21. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
At a shell prompt, change to the directory that contains the kernel RPM packages. Use -i argument
with the rpm command to keep the old kernel. Do not use the -U option, since it overwrites the
currently installed kernel, which creates boot loader problems. For example:
rpm -ivh kernel-kernel_version.arch.rpm
The next step is to verify that the initial RAM disk image has been created. Refer to Section 21.5,
“Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image” for details.
21.5. Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
The job of the initial RAM disk image is to preload the block device modules, such as for IDE, SCSI
or RAID, so that the root file system, on which those modules normally reside, can then be accessed
and mounted. On Fedora 17 systems, whenever a new kernel is installed using either the Yum,
PackageKit, or RPM package manager, the Dracut utility is always called by the installation scripts to
create an initramfs (initial RAM disk image).
On all architectures other than IBM eServer System i (see Section 21.5, “ Verifying the Initial RAM
Disk Image and Kernel on IBM eServer System i ”), you can create an initramfs by running the
dracut command. However, you usually don't need to create an initramfs manually: this step is
automatically performed if the kernel and its associated packages are installed or upgraded from RPM
packages distributed by The Fedora Project.
On architectures that use the GRUB 2 boot loader, you can verify that an initramfs corresponding
to your current kernel version exists and is specified correctly in the /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
configuration file by following this procedure:
Procedure 21.1. Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
1. As root, list the contents in the /boot directory and find the kernel
(vmlinuz-kernel_version) and initramfs-kernel_version with the latest (most recent)
version number:
~]# ls /boot
config-3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16.x86_64
config-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64
elf-memtest86+-4.20
grub
grub2
initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16.x86_64.img
initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img
initrd-plymouth.img
memtest86+-4.20
System.map-3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16.x86_64
System.map-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64
vmlinuz-3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16.x86_64
vmlinuz-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64
The example above shows that:
• we have two kernels installed (or, more correctly, two kernel files are present in the /boot
directory),
• the latest kernel is vmlinuz-vmlinuz-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64, and
• an initramfs file matching our kernel version,
initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img, also exists.
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Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
files
initrd files in the /boot directory are not the same as initramfs
In the /boot directory you may find several initrd-<kernel_version>kdump.img files.
These are special files created by the kdump mechanism for kernel debugging purposes,
are not used to boot the system, and can safely be ignored. For more information on kdump,
refer to Chapter 23, The kdump Crash Recovery Service.
2.
(Optional) If your initramfs-kernel_version file does not match the version of the latest
kernel in /boot, or, in certain other situations, you may need to generate an initramfs file
with the Dracut utility. Simply invoking dracut as root without options causes it to generate an
initramfs file in the /boot directory for the latest kernel present in that directory:
~]# dracut
You must use the --force option if you want dracut to overwrite an existing initramfs (for
example, if your initramfs has become corrupt). Otherwise dracut will refuse to overwrite the
existing initramfs file:
~]# dracut
F: Will not override existing initramfs (/boot/
initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img) without --force
You can create an initramfs in the current directory by calling dracut initramfs_name
kernel_version, for example:
~]# dracut "initramfs-$(uname -r).img" $(uname -r)
If you need to specify specific kernel modules to be preloaded, add the names of those
modules (minus any file name suffixes such as .ko) inside the parentheses of the
add_dracutmodules="module [more_modules]" directive of the /etc/dracut.conf
configuration file. You can list the file contents of an initramfs image file created by dracut by
using the lsinitrd initramfs_file command:
~]# lsinitrd /boot/initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img
/boot/initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img: 16M
========================================================================
dracut-013-15.fc16
========================================================================
drwxr-xr-x
8 root
root
0 Oct 11 20:36 .
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root
root
17 Oct 11 20:36 lib -> run/initramfs/lib
drwxr-xr-x
2 root
root
0 Oct 11 20:36 sys
drwxr-xr-x
2 root
root
0 Oct 11 20:36 proc
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root
root
17 Oct 11 20:36 etc -> run/initramfs/etc
[output truncated]
Refer to man dracut and man dracut.conf for more information on options and usage.
3.
Examine the /boot/grub2/grub.cfg configuration file to ensure that an initrd /path/
initramfs-kernel_version.img exists for the kernel version you are booting. For example:
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Chapter 21. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
~]# grep initrd /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
initrd /initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc6.git0.3.fc16.x86_64.img
initrd /initramfs-3.1.0-0.rc9.git0.0.fc16.x86_64.img
Refer to Section 21.6, “Verifying the Boot Loader” for more information on how to read and update
the /boot/grub2/grub.cfg file.
Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image and Kernel on IBM eServer
System i
On IBM eServer System i machines, the initial RAM disk and kernel files are combined into a single
file, which is created with the addRamDisk command. This step is performed automatically if the
kernel and its associated packages are installed or upgraded from the RPM packages distributed by
The Fedora Project; thus, it does not need to be executed manually. To verify that it was created, run
the following command as root to make sure the /boot/vmlinitrd-kernel_version file already
exists:
ls -l /boot
The kernel_version should match the version of the kernel just installed.
21.6. Verifying the Boot Loader
When you install a kernel using rpm, the kernel package creates an entry in the boot loader
configuration file for that new kernel. However, rpm does not configure the new kernel to boot as the
default kernel. You must do this manually when installing a new kernel with rpm.
It is always recommended to double-check the boot loader configuration file after installing a new
kernel with rpm to ensure that the configuration is correct. Otherwise, the system may not be able to
boot into Fedora properly. If this happens, boot the system with the boot media created earlier and reconfigure the boot loader.
In the following table, find your system's architecture to determine the boot loader it uses, and then
click on the "Refer to" link to jump to the correct instructions for your system.
Table 21.1. Boot loaders by architecture
Architecture
Boot Loader
Refer to
x86
GRUB 2
Section 21.6.1, “Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot
Loader”
AMD AMD64 or Intel
64
GRUB 2
Section 21.6.1, “Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot
Loader”
IBM eServer System i
OS/400
Section 21.6.2, “Configuring the OS/400 Boot
Loader”
IBM eServer System p
YABOOT
Section 21.6.3, “Configuring the YABOOT Boot
Loader”
IBM System z
z/IPL
—
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Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader
21.6.1. Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader
Fedora 17 is distributed with GRUB 2, which reads its configuration from the /boot/grub2/
grub.cfg file. This file is generated by the grub2-mkconfig utility based on Linux kernels located
in the /boot directory, template files located in /etc/grub.d/, and custom settings in the /etc/
default/grub file and is automatically updated each time you install a new kernel from an RPM
package. To update this configuration file manually, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Among various code snippets and directives, the /boot/grub2/grub.cfg configuration file contains
one or more menuentry blocks, each representing a single GRUB 2 boot menu entry. These blocks
always start with the menuentry keyword followed by a title, list of options, and opening curly bracket,
and end with a closing curly bracket. Anything between the opening and closing bracket should be
indented. For example, the following is a sample menuentry block for Fedora 17 with Linux kernel
3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64:
menuentry 'Fedora (3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64)' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class
os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-simple-77ba9149-751a-48e0-974f-ad94911734b9' {
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='hd0,msdos1'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint='hd0,msdos1' 4ea24c68ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba
else
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 4ea24c68-ab10-47d4-8a6b-b8d3a002acba
fi
echo 'Loading Fedora (3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64)'
linux
/vmlinuz-3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64 root=/dev/mapper/vg_fedora-lv_root ro rd.md=0
rd.dm=0 SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg_fedora/lv_swap KEYTABLE=us rd.lvm.lv=vg_fedora/lv_root
rd.luks=0 LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /initramfs-3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64.img
}
Each menuentry block that represents an installed Linux kernel contains linux and initrd
directives followed by the path to the kernel and the initramfs image respectively. If a separate /
boot partition was created, the paths to the kernel and the initramfs image are relative to /boot.
In the example above, the initrd /initramfs-3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64.img line means that the
initramfs image is actually located at /boot/initramfs-3.4.0-1.fc17.x86_64.img when
the root file system is mounted, and likewise for the kernel path.
The kernel version number as given on the linux /vmlinuz-kernel_version
line must match the version number of the initramfs image given on the initrd /
initramfs-kernel_version.img line of each menuentry block. For more information on how to
verify the initial RAM disk image, refer to Procedure 21.1, “Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image”.
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Chapter 21. Manually Upgrading the Kernel
The initrd directive in grub.cfg refers to an initramfs image
In menuentry blocks, the initrd directive must point to the location (relative to the /boot
directory if it is on a separate partition) of the initramfs file corresponding to the same kernel
version. This directive is called initrd because the previous tool which created initial RAM disk
images, mkinitrd, created what were known as initrd files. The grub.cfg directive remains
initrd to maintain compatibility with other tools. The file-naming convention of systems using
the dracut utility to create the initial RAM disk image is initramfs-kernel_version.img.
For information on using Dracut, refer to Section 21.5, “Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image”.
After installing a new kernel with rpm, verify that /boot/grub2/grub.cfg is correct and reboot the
computer into the new kernel. Ensure your hardware is detected by watching the boot process output.
If GRUB 2 presents an error and is unable to boot into the new kernel, it is often easiest to try to boot
into an alternative or older kernel so that you can fix the problem. Alternatively, use the boot media
you created earlier to boot the system.
Causing the GRUB 2 boot menu to display
If you set the GRUB_TIMEOUT option in the /etc/default/grub file to 0, GRUB 2 will not
display its list of bootable kernels when the system starts up. In order to display this list when
booting, press and hold any alphanumeric key while and immediately after BIOS information is
displayed, and GRUB 2 will present you with the GRUB menu.
21.6.2. Configuring the OS/400 Boot Loader
The /boot/vmlinitrd-kernel-version file is installed when you upgrade the kernel. However,
you must use the dd command to configure the system to boot the new kernel.
1. As root, issue the command cat /proc/iSeries/mf/side to determine the default side
(either A, B, or C).
2. As root, issue the following command, where kernel-version is the version of the new kernel
and side is the side from the previous command:
dd if=/boot/vmlinitrd-kernel-version of=/proc/iSeries/mf/side/vmlinux bs=8k
Begin testing the new kernel by rebooting the computer and watching the messages to ensure that the
hardware is detected properly.
21.6.3. Configuring the YABOOT Boot Loader
IBM eServer System p uses YABOOT as its boot loader. YABOOT uses /etc/aboot.conf as its
configuration file. Confirm that the file contains an image section with the same version as the kernel
package just installed, and likewise for the initramfs image:
boot=/dev/sda1 init-message=Welcome to Fedora! Hit <TAB> for boot options
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Configuring the YABOOT Boot Loader
partition=2 timeout=30 install=/usr/lib/yaboot/yaboot delay=10 nonvram
image=/vmlinuz-2.6.32-17.EL
label=old
read-only
initrd=/initramfs-2.6.32-17.EL.img
append="root=LABEL=/"
image=/vmlinuz-2.6.32-19.EL
label=linux
read-only
initrd=/initramfs-2.6.32-19.EL.img
append="root=LABEL=/"
Notice that the default is not set to the new kernel. The kernel in the first image is booted by default.
To change the default kernel to boot either move its image stanza so that it is the first one listed or add
the directive default and set it to the label of the image stanza that contains the new kernel.
Begin testing the new kernel by rebooting the computer and watching the messages to ensure that the
hardware is detected properly.
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448
Chapter 22.
Working with Kernel Modules
The Linux kernel is modular, which means it can extend its capabilities through the use of dynamicallyloaded kernel modules. A kernel module can provide:
• a device driver which adds support for new hardware; or,
• support for a file system such as btrfs or NFS.
Like the kernel itself, modules can take parameters that customize their behavior, though the default
parameters work well in most cases. User-space tools can list the modules currently loaded into a
running kernel; query all available modules for available parameters and module-specific information;
and load or unload (remove) modules dynamically into or from a running kernel. Many of these utilities,
which are provided by the module-init-tools package, take module dependencies into account when
performing operations so that manual dependency-tracking is rarely necessary.
On modern systems, kernel modules are automatically loaded by various mechanisms when the
conditions call for it. However, there are occasions when it is necessary to load and/or unload modules
manually, such as when a module provides optional functionality, one module should be preferred
over another although either could provide basic functionality, or when a module is misbehaving,
among other situations.
This chapter explains how to:
• use the user-space module-init-tools package to display, query, load and unload kernel modules
and their dependencies;
• set module parameters both dynamically on the command line and permanently so that you can
customize the behavior of your kernel modules; and,
• load modules at boot time.
Installing the module-init-tools package
In order to use the kernel module utilities described in this chapter, first ensure the module-inittools package is installed on your system by running, as root:
yum install module-init-tools
For more information on installing packages with Yum, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
22.1. Listing Currently-Loaded Modules
You can list all kernel modules that are currently loaded into the kernel by running the lsmod
command, for example:
~]$ lsmod
Module
xfs
Size
803635
Used by
1
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Chapter 22. Working with Kernel Modules
exportfs
vfat
fat
tun
fuse
ip6table_filter
ip6_tables
ebtable_nat
ebtables
ipt_MASQUERADE
iptable_nat
nf_nat
rfcomm
ipv6
sco
bridge
stp
llc
bnep
l2cap
cpufreq_ondemand
acpi_cpufreq
freq_table
usb_storage
sha256_generic
aes_x86_64
aes_generic
cbc
dm_crypt
kvm_intel
kvm
[output truncated]
3424
8216
43410
13014
54749
2743
16558
1895
15186
2208
5420
19059
65122
267017
16204
45753
1887
4557
15121
45185
8420
7493
3851
44536
10023
7654
27012
2793
10930
40311
253162
1 xfs
1
1 vfat
2
2
0
1 ip6table_filter
0
1 ebtable_nat
6
1
2 ipt_MASQUERADE,iptable_nat
4
33
2
0
1 bridge
2 bridge,stp
2
16 rfcomm,bnep
2
1
2 cpufreq_ondemand,acpi_cpufreq
1
2
5
1 aes_x86_64
1
1
0
1 kvm_intel
Each row of lsmod output specifies:
• the name of a kernel module currently loaded in memory;
• the amount of memory it uses; and,
• the sum total of processes that are using the module and other modules which depend on it,
followed by a list of the names of those modules, if there are any. Using this list, you can first
unload all the modules depending the module you want to unload. For more information, refer to
Section 22.4, “Unloading a Module”.
Finally, note that lsmod output is less verbose and considerably easier to read than the content of the
/proc/modules pseudo-file.
22.2. Displaying Information About a Module
You can display detailed information about a kernel module by running the modinfo module_name
command.
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Displaying Information About a Module
Module names do not end in .ko
When entering the name of a kernel module as an argument to one of the module-init-tools
utilities, do not append a .ko extension to the end of the name. Kernel module names do not
have extensions: their corresponding files do.
Example 22.1. Listing information about a kernel module with lsmod
To display information about the e1000e module, which is the Intel PRO/1000 network driver, run:
~]# modinfo e1000e
filename:
/lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/net/e1000e/e1000e.ko
version:
1.2.7-k2
license:
GPL
description:
Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Driver
author:
Intel Corporation, <linux.nics@intel.com>
srcversion:
93CB73D3995B501872B2982
alias:
pci:v00008086d00001503sv*sd*bc*sc*i*
alias:
pci:v00008086d00001502sv*sd*bc*sc*i*
[some alias lines omitted]
alias:
pci:v00008086d0000105Esv*sd*bc*sc*i*
depends:
vermagic:
2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 SMP mod_unload modversions
parm:
copybreak:Maximum size of packet that is copied to a new buffer on receive
(uint)
parm:
TxIntDelay:Transmit Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
TxAbsIntDelay:Transmit Absolute Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
RxIntDelay:Receive Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
RxAbsIntDelay:Receive Absolute Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
InterruptThrottleRate:Interrupt Throttling Rate (array of int)
parm:
IntMode:Interrupt Mode (array of int)
parm:
SmartPowerDownEnable:Enable PHY smart power down (array of int)
parm:
KumeranLockLoss:Enable Kumeran lock loss workaround (array of int)
parm:
WriteProtectNVM:Write-protect NVM [WARNING: disabling this can lead to
corrupted NVM] (array of int)
parm:
CrcStripping:Enable CRC Stripping, disable if your BMC needs the CRC
(array of int)
parm:
EEE:Enable/disable on parts that support the feature (array of int)
Here are descriptions of a few of the fields in modinfo output:
filename
The absolute path to the .ko kernel object file. You can use modinfo -n as a shortcut command
for printing only the filename field.
description
A short description of the module. You can use modinfo -d as a shortcut command for printing
only the description field.
alias
The alias field appears as many times as there are aliases for a module, or is omitted entirely if
there are none.
depends
This field contains a comma-separated list of all the modules this module depends on.
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Omitting the depends field
If a module has no dependencies, the depends field may be omitted from the output.
parm
Each parm field presents one module parameter in the form parameter_name:description,
where:
• parameter_name is the exact syntax you should use when using it as a module parameter on
the command line, or in an option line in a .conf file in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory; and,
• description is a brief explanation of what the parameter does, along with an expectation for
the type of value the parameter accepts (such as int, unit or array of int) in parentheses.
Example 22.2. Listing module parameters
You can list all parameters that the module supports by using the -p option. However, because
useful value type information is omitted from modinfo -p output, it is more useful to run:
~]# modinfo e1000e | grep "^parm" | sort
parm:
copybreak:Maximum size of packet that is copied to a new buffer on
receive (uint)
parm:
CrcStripping:Enable CRC Stripping, disable if your BMC needs the CRC
(array of int)
parm:
EEE:Enable/disable on parts that support the feature (array of int)
parm:
InterruptThrottleRate:Interrupt Throttling Rate (array of int)
parm:
IntMode:Interrupt Mode (array of int)
parm:
KumeranLockLoss:Enable Kumeran lock loss workaround (array of int)
parm:
RxAbsIntDelay:Receive Absolute Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
RxIntDelay:Receive Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
SmartPowerDownEnable:Enable PHY smart power down (array of int)
parm:
TxAbsIntDelay:Transmit Absolute Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
TxIntDelay:Transmit Interrupt Delay (array of int)
parm:
WriteProtectNVM:Write-protect NVM [WARNING: disabling this can lead to
corrupted NVM] (array of int)
22.3. Loading a Module
To load a kernel module, run modprobe module_name as root. For example, to load the wacom
module, run:
~]# modprobe wacom
By default, modprobe attempts to load the module from /lib/modules/kernel_version/
kernel/drivers/. In this directory, each type of module has its own subdirectory, such as net/
and scsi/, for network and SCSI interface drivers respectively.
Some modules have dependencies, which are other kernel modules that must be loaded before
the module in question can be loaded. The modprobe command always takes dependencies into
account when performing operations. When you ask modprobe to load a specific kernel module, it first
examines the dependencies of that module, if there are any, and loads them if they are not already
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loaded into the kernel. modprobe resolves dependencies recursively: it will load all dependencies of
dependencies, and so on, if necessary, thus ensuring that all dependencies are always met.
You can use the -v (or --verbose) option to cause modprobe to display detailed information about
what it is doing, which may include loading module dependencies.
Example 22.3. modprobe -v shows module dependencies as they are loaded
You can load the Fibre Channel over Ethernet module verbosely by typing the following at a
shell prompt:
~]# modprobe -v fcoe
insmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_tgt.ko
insmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_fc.ko
insmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/scsi/libfc/libfc.ko
insmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/scsi/fcoe/libfcoe.ko
insmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/scsi/fcoe/fcoe.ko
In this example, you can see that modprobe loaded the scsi_tgt, scsi_transport_fc, libfc
and libfcoe modules as dependencies before finally loading fcoe. Also note that modprobe
used the more “primitive” insmod command to insert the modules into the running kernel.
Always use modprobe instead of insmod!
Although the insmod command can also be used to load kernel modules, it does not resolve
dependencies. Because of this, you should always load modules using modprobe instead.
22.4. Unloading a Module
You can unload a kernel module by running modprobe -r module_name as root. For example,
assuming that the wacom module is already loaded into the kernel, you can unload it by running:
~]# modprobe -r wacom
However, this command will fail if a process is using:
• the wacom module,
• a module that wacom directly depends on, or,
• any module that wacom—through the dependency tree—depends on indirectly.
Refer to Section 22.1, “Listing Currently-Loaded Modules” for more information about using lsmod to
obtain the names of the modules which are preventing you from unloading a certain module.
Example 22.4. Unloading a kernel module
For example, if you want to unload the firewire_ohci module (because you believe there is a
bug in it that is affecting system stability, for example), your terminal session might look similar to
this:
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~]# modinfo -F depends firewire_ohci
depends:
firewire-core
~]# modinfo -F depends firewire_core
depends:
crc-itu-t
~]# modinfo -F depends crc-itu-t
depends:
You have figured out the dependency tree (which does not branch in this example) for the loaded
Firewire modules: firewire_ohci depends on firewire_core, which itself depends on crcitu-t.
You can unload firewire_ohci using the modprobe -v -r module_name command, where r is short for --remove and -v for --verbose:
~]# modprobe -r -v firewire_ohci
rmmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/firewire/firewire-ohci.ko
rmmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/firewire/firewire-core.ko
rmmod /lib/modules/2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64/kernel/lib/crc-itu-t.ko
The output shows that modules are unloaded in the reverse order that they are loaded, given that
no processes depend on any of the modules being unloaded.
Do not use rmmod directly!
Although the rmmod command can be used to unload kernel modules, it is recommended to use
modprobe -r instead.
22.5. Setting Module Parameters
Like the kernel itself, modules can also take parameters that change their behavior. Most of the time,
the default ones work well, but occasionally it is necessary or desirable to set custom parameters for
a module. Because parameters cannot be dynamically set for a module that is already loaded into a
running kernel, there are two different methods for setting them.
1. You can unload all dependencies of the module you want to set parameters for, unload the
module using modprobe -r, and then load it with modprobe along with a list of customized
parameters. This method is often used when the module does not have many dependencies, or
to test different combinations of parameters without making them persistent, and is the method
covered in this section.
2. Alternatively, you can list the new parameters in an existing or newly-created file in the /etc/
modprobe.d/ directory. This method makes the module parameters persistent by ensuring that
they are set each time the module is loaded, such as after every reboot or modprobe command.
This method is covered in Section 22.6, “Persistent Module Loading”, though the following
information is a prerequisite.
You can use modprobe to load a kernel module with custom parameters using the following command
line format:
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modprobe module_name [parameter=value]
When loading a module with custom parameters on the command line, be aware of the following:
• You can enter multiple parameters and values by separating them with spaces.
• Some module parameters expect a list of comma-separated values as their argument. When
entering the list of values, do not insert a space after each comma, or modprobe will incorrectly
interpret the values following spaces as additional parameters.
• The modprobe command silently succeeds with an exit status of 0 if:
• it successfully loads the module, or
• the module is already loaded into the kernel.
Thus, you must ensure that the module is not already loaded before attempting to load it with
custom parameters. The modprobe command does not automatically reload the module, or alert
you that it is already loaded.
Here are the recommended steps for setting custom parameters and then loading a kernel module.
This procedure illustrates the steps using the e1000e module, which is the network driver for Intel
PRO/1000 network adapters, as an example:
Procedure 22.1. Loading a Kernel Module with Custom Parameters
1. First, ensure the module is not already loaded into the kernel. For example:
~]# lsmod | grep e1000e
~]#
Output indicates that the module is already loaded into the kernel, in which case you must first
unload it before proceeding. Refer to Section 22.4, “Unloading a Module” for instructions on safely
unloading it.
2.
Load the module and list all custom parameters after the module name. For example, if you
wanted to load the Intel PRO/1000 network driver with the interrupt throttle rate set to 3000
interrupts per second for the first, second and third instances of the driver, and Energy Efficient
1
Ethernet (EEE) turned on , you would run, as root:
~]# modprobe e1000e InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000 EEE=1
This example illustrates passing multiple valued to a single parameter by separating them with
commas and omitting any spaces between them.
22.6. Persistent Module Loading
As shown in Example 22.1, “Listing information about a kernel module with lsmod”, many kernel
modules are loaded automatically at boot time. You can specify additional modules to be loaded by
creating a new file_name.modules file in the /etc/sysconfig/modules/ directory, where
file_name is any descriptive name of your choice. Your file_name.modules files are treated by
1
Despite what the example might imply, Energy Efficient Ethernet is turned on by default in the e1000e driver.
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the system startup scripts as shell scripts, and as such should begin with an interpreter directive (also
called a “bang line”) as their first line:
#!/bin/sh
Additionally, the file_name.modules file should be executable. You can make it executable by
running:
modules]# chmod +x file_name.modules
Example 22.5. /etc/sysconfig/modules/bluez-uinput.modules
The following bluez-uinput.modules script loads the uinput module:
#!/bin/sh
if [ ! -c /dev/input/uinput ] ; then
exec /sbin/modprobe uinput >/dev/null 2>&1
fi
The if-conditional statement on the third line ensures that the /dev/input/uinput file does
not already exist (the ! symbol negates the condition), and, if that is the case, loads the uinput
module by calling exec /sbin/modprobe uinput. Note that the uinput module creates the
/dev/input/uinput file, so testing to see if that file exists serves as verification of whether the
uinput module is loaded into the kernel.
The following >/dev/null 2>&1 clause at the end of that line redirects any output to /dev/null
so that the modprobe command remains quiet.
22.7. Specific Kernel Module Capabilities
This section explains how to enable specific kernel capabilities using various kernel modules.
22.7.1. Using Multiple Ethernet Cards
It is possible to use multiple Ethernet cards on a single machine. For each card there must be an
alias and, possibly, options lines for each card in a user-created module_name.conf file in the /
etc/modprobe.d/ directory.
For additional information about using multiple Ethernet cards, refer to the Linux Ethernet-HOWTO
online at http://www.redhat.com/mirrors/LDP/HOWTO/Ethernet-HOWTO.html.
22.7.2. Using Channel Bonding
Fedora allows administrators to bind NICs together into a single channel using the bonding kernel
module and a special network interface, called a channel bonding interface. Channel bonding enables
two or more network interfaces to act as one, simultaneously increasing the bandwidth and providing
redundancy.
To channel bond multiple network interfaces, the administrator must perform the following steps:
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1. As root, create a new file named bonding.conf in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory. Note
that you can name this file anything you like as long as it ends with a .conf extension. Insert the
following line in this new file:
alias bondN bonding
Replace N with the interface number, such as 0. For each configured channel bonding interface,
there must be a corresponding entry in your new /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf file.
2. Configure a channel bonding interface as outlined in Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding Interfaces”.
3. To enhance performance, adjust available module options to ascertain what combination works
best. Pay particular attention to the miimon or arp_interval and the arp_ip_target
parameters. Refer to Section 22.7.2.1, “Bonding Module Directives” for a list of available options
and how to quickly determine the best ones for your bonded interface.
22.7.2.1. Bonding Module Directives
It is a good idea to test which channel bonding module parameters work best for your bonded
interfaces before adding them to the BONDING_OPTS="bonding parameters" directive in your
bonding interface configuration file (ifcfg-bond0 for example). Parameters to bonded interfaces
can be configured without unloading (and reloading) the bonding module by manipulating files in the
sysfs file system.
sysfs is a virtual file system that represents kernel objects as directories, files and symbolic links.
sysfs can be used to query for information about kernel objects, and can also manipulate those
objects through the use of normal file system commands. The sysfs virtual file system has a line in
/etc/fstab, and is mounted under the /sys/ directory. All bonding interfaces can be configured
dynamically by interacting with and manipulating files under the /sys/class/net/ directory.
In order to determine the best parameters for your bonding interface, create a channel bonding
interface file such as ifcfg-bond0 by following the instructions in Section 7.2.2, “Channel Bonding
Interfaces”. Insert the SLAVE=yes and MASTER=bond0 directives in the configuration files for each
interface bonded to bond0. Once this is completed, you can proceed to testing the parameters.
First, bring up the bond you created by running ifconfig bondN up as root:
~]# ifconfig bond0 up
If you have correctly created the ifcfg-bond0 bonding interface file, you will be able to see bond0
listed in the output of running ifconfig (without any options):
~]# ifconfig
bond0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:00:00:00:00
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 52:54:00:26:9E:F1
inet addr:192.168.122.251 Bcast:192.168.122.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::5054:ff:fe26:9ef1/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:207 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:205 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:70374 (68.7 KiB) TX bytes:25298 (24.7 KiB)
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[output truncated]
To view all existing bonds, even if they are not up, run:
~]# cat /sys/class/net/bonding_masters
bond0
You can configure each bond individually by manipulating the files located in the /sys/class/net/
bondN/bonding/ directory. First, the bond you are configuring must be taken down:
~]# ifconfig bond0 down
As an example, to enable MII monitoring on bond0 with a 1 second interval, you could run (as root):
~]# echo 1000 > /sys/class/net/bond0/bonding/miimon
To configure bond0 for balance-alb mode, you could run either:
~]# echo 6 > /sys/class/net/bond0/bonding/mode
...or, using the name of the mode:
~]# echo balance-alb > /sys/class/net/bond0/bonding/mode
After configuring options for the bond in question, you can bring it up and test it by running ifconfig
bondN up . If you decide to change the options, take the interface down, modify its parameters using
sysfs, bring it back up, and re-test.
Once you have determined the best set of parameters for your bond, add those parameters as
a space-separated list to the BONDING_OPTS= directive of the /etc/sysconfig/networkscripts/ifcfg-bondN file for the bonding interface you are configuring. Whenever that bond
is brought up (for example, by the system during the boot sequence if the ONBOOT=yes directive
is set), the bonding options specified in the BONDING_OPTS will take effect for that bond. For more
information on configuring bonding interfaces (and BONDING_OPTS), refer to Section 7.2.2, “Channel
Bonding Interfaces”.
The following list provides the names of many of the more common channel bonding parameters,
along with a descriptions of what they do. For more information, refer to the brief descriptions for each
parm in modinfo bonding output, or the exhaustive descriptions in the bonding.txt file in the
kernel-doc package (see Section 22.8, “Additional Resources”).
Bonding Interface Parameters
arp_interval=time_in_milliseconds
Specifies (in milliseconds) how often ARP monitoring occurs.
Make sure you specify all required parameters
It is essential that both arp_interval and arp_ip_target parameters are specified, or,
alternatively, the miimon parameter is specified. Failure to do so can cause degradation of
network performance in the event that a link fails.
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If using this setting while in mode=0 or mode=1 (the two load-balancing modes), the network
switch must be configured to distribute packets evenly across the NICs. For more information
on how to accomplish this, refer to /usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-kernel_version/
Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
The value is set to 0 by default, which disables it.
arp_ip_target=ip_address[,ip_address_2,…ip_address_16]
Specifies the target IP address of ARP requests when the arp_interval parameter is enabled.
Up to 16 IP addresses can be specified in a comma separated list.
arp_validate=value
Validate source/distribution of ARP probes; default is none. Other valid values are active,
backup, and all.
debug=number
Enables debug messages. Possible values are:
• 0 — Debug messages are disabled. This is the default.
• 1 — Debug messages are enabled.
downdelay=time_in_milliseconds
Specifies (in milliseconds) how long to wait after link failure before disabling the link. The value
must be a multiple of the value specified in the miimon parameter. The value is set to 0 by
default, which disables it.
lacp_rate=value
Specifies the rate at which link partners should transmit LACPDU packets in 802.3ad mode.
Possible values are:
• slow or 0 — Default setting. This specifies that partners should transmit LACPDUs every 30
seconds.
• fast or 1 — Specifies that partners should transmit LACPDUs every 1 second.
miimon=time_in_milliseconds
Specifies (in milliseconds) how often MII link monitoring occurs. This is useful if high availability is
required because MII is used to verify that the NIC is active. To verify that the driver for a particular
NIC supports the MII tool, type the following command as root:
~]# ethtool interface_name | grep "Link detected:"
In this command, replace interface_name with the name of the device interface, such as eth0,
not the bond interface. If MII is supported, the command returns:
Link detected: yes
If using a bonded interface for high availability, the module for each NIC must support MII. Setting
the value to 0 (the default), turns this feature off. When configuring this setting, a good starting
point for this parameter is 100.
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Make sure you specify all required parameters
It is essential that both arp_interval and arp_ip_target parameters are specified, or,
alternatively, the miimon parameter is specified. Failure to do so can cause degradation of
network performance in the event that a link fails.
mode=value
Allows you to specify the bonding policy. The value can be one of:
• balance-rr or 0 — Sets a round-robin policy for fault tolerance and load balancing.
Transmissions are received and sent out sequentially on each bonded slave interface beginning
with the first one available.
• active-backup or 1 — Sets an active-backup policy for fault tolerance. Transmissions are
received and sent out via the first available bonded slave interface. Another bonded slave
interface is only used if the active bonded slave interface fails.
• balance-xor or 2 — Sets an XOR (exclusive-or) policy for fault tolerance and load balancing.
Using this method, the interface matches up the incoming request's MAC address with the MAC
address for one of the slave NICs. Once this link is established, transmissions are sent out
sequentially beginning with the first available interface.
• broadcast or 3 — Sets a broadcast policy for fault tolerance. All transmissions are sent on all
slave interfaces.
• 802.3ad or 4 — Sets an IEEE 802.3ad dynamic link aggregation policy. Creates aggregation
groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Transmits and receives on all slaves in
the active aggregator. Requires a switch that is 802.3ad compliant.
• balance-tlb or 5 — Sets a Transmit Load Balancing (TLB) policy for fault tolerance and
load balancing. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load on each slave
interface. Incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the receiving slave fails, another
slave takes over the MAC address of the failed slave.
• balance-alb or 6 — Sets an Active Load Balancing (ALB) policy for fault tolerance and load
balancing. Includes transmit and receive load balancing for IPV4 traffic. Receive load balancing
is achieved through ARP negotiation.
num_unsol_na=number
Specifies the number of unsolicited IPv6 Neighbor Advertisements to be issued after a failover
event. One unsolicited NA is issued immediately after the failover.
The valid range is 0 - 255; the default value is 1. This parameter affects only the active-backup
mode.
primary=interface_name
Specifies the interface name, such as eth0, of the primary device. The primary device is the
first of the bonding interfaces to be used and is not abandoned unless it fails. This setting is
particularly useful when one NIC in the bonding interface is faster and, therefore, able to handle a
bigger load.
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This setting is only valid when the bonding interface is in active-backup mode. Refer to
/usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-kernel-version/Documentation/networking/
bonding.txt for more information.
primary_reselect=value
Specifies the reselection policy for the primary slave. This affects how the primary slave is chosen
to become the active slave when failure of the active slave or recovery of the primary slave occurs.
This parameter is designed to prevent flip-flopping between the primary slave and other slaves.
Possible values are:
• always or 0 (default) — The primary slave becomes the active slave whenever it comes back
up.
• better or 1 — The primary slave becomes the active slave when it comes back up, if the
speed and duplex of the primary slave is better than the speed and duplex of the current active
slave.
• failure or 2 — The primary slave becomes the active slave only if the current active slave
fails and the primary slave is up.
The primary_reselect setting is ignored in two cases:
• If no slaves are active, the first slave to recover is made the active slave.
• When initially enslaved, the primary slave is always made the active slave.
Changing the primary_reselect policy via sysfs will cause an immediate selection of the
best active slave according to the new policy. This may or may not result in a change of the active
slave, depending upon the circumstances
updelay=time_in_milliseconds
Specifies (in milliseconds) how long to wait before enabling a link. The value must be a multiple of
the value specified in the miimon parameter. The value is set to 0 by default, which disables it.
use_carrier=number
Specifies whether or not miimon should use MII/ETHTOOL ioctls or netif_carrier_ok()
to determine the link state. The netif_carrier_ok() function relies on the device driver to
maintains its state with netif_carrier_on/off ; most device drivers support this function.
The MII/ETHROOL ioctls tools utilize a deprecated calling sequence within the kernel. However,
this is still configurable in case your device driver does not support netif_carrier_on/off .
Valid values are:
• 1 — Default setting. Enables the use of netif_carrier_ok().
• 0 — Enables the use of MII/ETHTOOL ioctls.
Note
If the bonding interface insists that the link is up when it should not be, it is possible that your
network device driver does not support netif_carrier_on/off.
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xmit_hash_policy=value
Selects the transmit hash policy used for slave selection in balance-xor and 802.3ad modes.
Possible values are:
• 0 or layer2 — Default setting. This parameter uses the XOR of hardware MAC addresses to
generate the hash. The formula used is:
(source_MAC_address XOR destination_MAC) MODULO slave_count
This algorithm will place all traffic to a particular network peer on the same slave, and is 802.3ad
compliant.
• 1 or layer3+4 — Uses upper layer protocol information (when available) to generate the hash.
This allows for traffic to a particular network peer to span multiple slaves, although a single
connection will not span multiple slaves.
The formula for unfragmented TCP and UDP packets used is:
((source_port XOR dest_port) XOR
((source_IP XOR dest_IP) AND 0xffff)
MODULO slave_count
For fragmented TCP or UDP packets and all other IP protocol traffic, the source and destination
port information is omitted. For non-IP traffic, the formula is the same as the layer2 transmit
hash policy.
This policy intends to mimic the behavior of certain switches; particularly, Cisco switches with
PFC2 as well as some Foundry and IBM products.
The algorithm used by this policy is not 802.3ad compliant.
• 2 or layer2+3 — Uses a combination of layer2 and layer3 protocol information to generate the
hash.
Uses XOR of hardware MAC addresses and IP addresses to generate the hash. The formula is:
(((source_IP XOR dest_IP) AND 0xffff) XOR
( source_MAC XOR destination_MAC ))
MODULO slave_count
This algorithm will place all traffic to a particular network peer on the same slave. For non-IP
traffic, the formula is the same as for the layer2 transmit hash policy.
This policy is intended to provide a more balanced distribution of traffic than layer2 alone,
especially in environments where a layer3 gateway device is required to reach most
destinations.
This algorithm is 802.3ad compliant.
22.8. Additional Resources
For more information on kernel modules and their utilities, refer to the following resources.
22.8.1. Installed Documentation
There is a number of manual pages for various utilities related to the kernel modules:
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Useful Websites
man lsmod
The manual page for the lsmod command.
man modinfo
The manual page for the modinfo command.
man modprobe
The manual page for the modprobe command.
man rmmod
The manual page for the rmmod command.
man ethtool
The manual page for the ethtool command.
man mii-tool
The manual page for the mii-tool command.
Additionally, you can refer to the documentation provided by the kernel-doc package:
/usr/share/doc/kernel-doc-kernel_version/Documentation/
This directory contains information on the kernel, kernel modules, and their respective parameters.
Note that before accessing the kernel documentation, you must run the following command as
root:
yum install kernel-doc
22.8.2. Useful Websites
2
Linux Loadable Kernel Module HOWTO
The Linux Loadable Kernel Module HOWTO from the Linux Documentation Project contains
further information on working with kernel modules.
2
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Module-HOWTO/
463
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Chapter 23.
The kdump Crash Recovery Service
When the kdump crash dumping mechanism is enabled, the system is booted from the context of
another kernel. This second kernel reserves a small amount of memory and its only purpose is to
capture the core dump image in case the system crashes.
Being able to analyze the core dump significantly helps to determine the exact cause of the system
failure, and it is therefore strongly recommended to have this feature enabled. This chapter explains
how to configure, test, and use the kdump service in Fedora, and provides a brief overview of how to
analyze the resulting core dump using the crash debugging utility.
23.1. Installing the kdump Service
In order use the kdump service on your system, make sure you have the kexec-tools package
installed. To do so, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum install kexec-tools
For more information on how to install new packages in Fedora, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
23.2. Configuring the kdump Service
There are three common means of configuring the kdump service: at the first boot, using the Kernel
Dump Configuration graphical utility, and doing so manually on the command line.
Disable IOMMU on Intel chipsets
A limitation in the current implementation of the Intel IOMMU driver can occasionally prevent
the kdump service from capturing the core dump image. To use kdump on Intel architectures
reliably, it is advised that the IOMMU support is disabled.
23.2.1. Configuring the kdump at First Boot
When the system boots for the first time, the firstboot application is launched to guide the user
through the initial configuration of the freshly installed system. To configure kdump, navigate to the
Kdump section and follow the instructions below.
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
Make sure the system has enough memory
Unless the system has enough memory, this option will not be available. For the information
1
on minimum memory requirements, refer to the Hardware Overview section of the Fedora 17
2
Release Notes . When the kdump crash recovery is enabled, the minimum memory requirements
increase by the amount of memory reserved for it. This value is determined by the user, and
defaults to 128 MB plus 64 MB for each TB of physical memory (that is, a total of 192 MB for a
system with 1 TB of physical memory).
23.2.1.1. Enabling the Service
To allow the kdump daemon to start at boot time, select the Enable kdump? checkbox. This will
enable the service and start it for the current session. Similarly, unselecting the checkbox will disable it
for and stop the service immediately.
23.2.1.2. Configuring the Memory Usage
To configure the amount of memory that is reserved for the kdump kernel, click the up and down arrow
buttons next to the Kdump Memory field to increase or decrease the value. Notice that the Usable
System Memory field changes accordingly showing you the remaining memory that will be available
to the system.
23.2.2. Using the Kernel Dump Configuration Utility
To start the Kernel Dump Configuration utility, select Applications��� Other��� Kernel crash
dumps from the Activities menu, or type system-config-kdump at a shell prompt. You will be
presented with a window as shown in Figure 23.1, “Basic Settings”.
The utility allows you to configure kdump as well as to enable or disable starting the service at boot
time. When you are done, click Apply to save the changes. The system reboot will be requested, and
unless you are already authenticated, you will be prompted to enter the superuser password.
1
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2
http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/17/html/Release_Notes/index.html
466
Using the Kernel Dump Configuration Utility
Make sure the system has enough memory
Unless the system has enough memory, this option will not be available. For the information
3
on minimum memory requirements, refer to the Hardware Overview section of the Fedora 17
4
Release Notes . When the kdump crash recovery is enabled, the minimum memory requirements
increase by the amount of memory reserved for it. This value is determined by the user, and
defaults to 128 MB plus 64 MB for each TB of physical memory (that is, a total of 192 MB for a
system with 1 TB of physical memory).
23.2.2.1. Enabling the Service
To start the kdump daemon at boot time, click the Enable button on the toolbar. This will enable the
service and start it for the current session. Similarly, clicking the Disable button will disable it and stop
the service immediately.
For more information on system services and their configuration, refer to Chapter 8, Services and
Daemons.
23.2.2.2. The Basic Settings Tab
The Basic Settings tab enables you to configure the amount of memory that is reserved for the
kdump kernel. To do so, select the Manual kdump memory settings radio button, and click the up
and down arrow buttons next to the New kdump Memory field to increase or decrease the value.
Notice that the Usable Memory field changes accordingly showing you the remaining memory that will
be available to the system.
Figure 23.1. Basic Settings
3
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4
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
23.2.2.3. The Target Settings Tab
The Target Settings tab enables you to specify the target location for the vmcore dump. It can be
either stored as a file in a local file system, written directly to a device, or sent over a network using the
NFS (Network File System) or SSH (Secure Shell) protocol.
Figure 23.2. Target Settings
To save the dump to the local file system, select the Local filesystem radio button. Optionally, you
can customize the settings by choosing a different partition from the Partition, and a target directory
from the Path pulldown lists.
To write the dump directly to a device, select the Raw device radio button, and choose the desired
target device from the pulldown list next to it.
To store the dump to a remote machine, select the Network radio button. To use the NFS protocol,
select the NFS radio button, and fill the Server name and Path to directory fields. To use the SSH
protocol, select the SSH radio button, and fill the Server name, Path to directory, and User name
fields with the remote server address, target directory, and a valid remote user name respectively.
Refer to Chapter 10, OpenSSH for information on how to configure an SSH server, and how to set up
a key-based authentication.
For a complete list of currently supported targets, see Table 23.1, “Supported kdump targets”.
Table 23.1. Supported kdump targets
Type
Supported Targets
Unsupported Targets
Raw device
All locally attached raw disks and
partitions.
—
The eCryptfs file system.
Local file system
ext2, ext3, ext4, minix file
systems on directly attached disk
drives, hardware RAID logical drives,
LVM devices, and mdraid arrays.
Remote directory
Remote directories accessed using the Remote directories on the rootfs
NFS or SSH protocol over IPv4.
file system accessed using the NFS
protocol.
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Using the Kernel Dump Configuration Utility
Type
Supported Targets
Unsupported Targets
Remote directories accessed using
the iSCSI protocol over hardware
initiators.
Remote directories accessed using
the iSCSI protocol over software
initiators.
—
Remote directories accessed over
IPv6.
Remote directories accessed using the
SMB/CIFS protocol.
Remote directories accessed using the
FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet)
protocol.
Remote directories accessed using
wireless network interfaces.
Multipath-based storages.
23.2.2.4. The Filtering Settings Tab
The Filtering Settings tab enables you to select the filtering level for the vmcore dump.
Figure 23.3. Filtering Settings
To exclude the zero page, cache page, cache private, user data, or free page from the dump,
select the checkbox next to the appropriate label.
23.2.2.5. The Expert Settings Tab
The Expert Settings tab enables you to choose which kernel and initial RAM disk to use, as well as to
customize the options that are passed to the kernel and the core collector program.
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
Figure 23.4. Expert Settings
To use a different initial RAM disk, select the Custom initrd radio button, and choose the desired
RAM disk from the pulldown list next to it.
To capture a different kernel, select the Custom kernel radio button, and choose the desired kernel
image from the pulldown list on the right.
To adjust the list of options that are passed to the kernel at boot time, edit the content of the Edited
text field. Note that you can always revert your changes by clicking the Refresh button.
To choose what action to perform when kdump fails to create a core dump, select an appropriate
option from the Default action pulldown list. Available options are mount rootfs and run /sbin/init
(the default action), reboot (to reboot the system), shell (to present a user with an interactive shell
prompt), halt (to halt the system), and poweroff (to power the system off).
To customize the options that are passed to the makedumpfile core collector, edit the Core
collector text field; see Section 23.2.3.3, “Configuring the Core Collector” for more information.
23.2.3. Configuring kdump on the Command Line
23.2.3.1. Configuring the Memory Usage
To configure the amount of memory that is reserved for the kdump kernel, as root, edit the /etc/
default/grub file and add the crashkernel=<size>M (or crashkernel=auto) parameter to the
list of kernel options (the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line). For example, to reserve 128 MB of memory,
use:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="crashkernel=128M quiet rhgb"
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Configuring kdump on the Command Line
Then update the configuration file for the GRUB 2 boot loader by typing the following at a shell prompt
as root:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
Make sure the system has enough memory
Unless the system has enough memory, this option will not be available. For the information
5
on minimum memory requirements, refer to the Hardware Overview section of the Fedora 17
6
Release Notes . When the kdump crash recovery is enabled, the minimum memory requirements
increase by the amount of memory reserved for it. This value is determined by the user, and
defaults to 128 MB plus 64 MB for each TB of physical memory (that is, a total of 192 MB for a
system with 1 TB of physical memory).
Using the crashkernel=auto parameter
In Fedora 17, the crashkernel=auto only reserves memory if the system has 4 GB of physical
memory or more.
23.2.3.2. Configuring the Target Type
When a kernel crash is captured, the core dump can be either stored as a file in a local file system,
written directly to a device, or sent over a network using the NFS (Network File System) or SSH
(Secure Shell) protocol. Only one of these options can be set at the moment, and the default option
is to store the vmcore file in the /var/crash/ directory of the local file system. To change this, as
root, open the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file in a text editor and edit the options as described
below.
To change the local directory in which the core dump is to be saved, remove the hash sign (“#”)
from the beginning of the #path /var/crash line, and replace the value with a desired directory
path. Optionally, if you wish to write the file to a different partition, follow the same procedure with the
#ext4 /dev/sda3 line as well, and change both the file system type and the device (a device name,
a file system label, and UUID are all supported) accordingly. For example:
ext3 /dev/sda4
path /usr/local/cores
To write the dump directly to a device, remove the hash sign (“#”) from the beginning of the #raw /
dev/sda5 line, and replace the value with a desired device name. For example:
raw /dev/sdb1
5
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6
http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/17/html/Release_Notes/index.html
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
To store the dump to a remote machine using the NFS protocol, remove the hash sign (“#”) from the
beginning of the #net my.server.com:/export/tmp line, and replace the value with a valid
hostname and directory path. For example:
net penguin.example.com:/export/cores
To store the dump to a remote machine using the SSH protocol, remove the hash sign (“#”) from the
beginning of the #net user@my.server.com line, and replace the value with a valid username and
hostname. For example:
net john@penguin.example.com
Refer to Chapter 10, OpenSSH for information on how to configure an SSH server, and how to set up
a key-based authentication.
For a complete list of currently supported targets, see Table 23.1, “Supported kdump targets”.
23.2.3.3. Configuring the Core Collector
To reduce the size of the vmcore dump file, kdump allows you to specify an external application (that
is, a core collector) to compress the data, and optionally leave out all irrelevant information. Currently,
the only fully supported core collector is makedumpfile.
To enable the core collector, as root, open the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file in a text editor,
remove the hash sign (“#”) from the beginning of the #core_collector makedumpfile -c -message-level 1 -d 31 line, and edit the command line options as described below.
To enable the dump file compression, add the -c parameter. For example:
core_collector makedumpfile -c
To remove certain pages from the dump, add the -d value parameter, where value is a sum of
values of pages you want to omit as described in Table 23.2, “Supported filtering levels”. For example,
to remove both zero and free pages, use the following:
core_collector makedumpfile -d 17 -c
Refer to the manual page for makedumpfile for a complete list of available options.
Table 23.2. Supported filtering levels
Option
Description
1
Zero pages
2
Cache pages
4
Cache private
8
User pages
16
Free pages
23.2.3.4. Changing the Default Action
472
Testing the Configuration
By default, when kdump fails to create a core dump, the root file system is mounted and /sbin/init
is run. To change this behavior, as root, open the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file in a text
editor, remove the hash sign (“#”) from the beginning of the #default shell line, and replace the
value with a desired action as described in Table 23.3, “Supported actions”.
Table 23.3. Supported actions
Option
Description
reboot
Reboot the system, losing the core in the process.
halt
Halt the system.
poweroff
Power off the system.
shell
Run the msh session from within the initramfs, allowing a user to record the
core manually.
For example:
default halt
23.2.3.5. Enabling the Service
To start the kdump daemon at boot time, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
systemctl enable kdump.service
Similarly, typing systemctl disable kdump.service will disable it. To start the service in the
current session, use the following command as root:
systemctl start kdump.service
For more information on services and their configuration, refer to Chapter 8, Services and Daemons.
23.2.4. Testing the Configuration
Be careful when using these commands
The commands below will cause the kernel to crash. Use caution when following these steps,
and by no means use them on a production machine.
To test the configuration, reboot the system with kdump enabled, and make sure that the service
is running (refer to Section 8.2, “Running Services” for more information on how to run a service in
Fedora):
systemctl is-active kdump.service
Then type the following commands at a shell prompt:
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq
echo c > /proc/sysrq-trigger
This will force the Linux kernel to crash, and the address-YYYY-MM-DD-HH:MM:SS/vmcore file will
be copied to the location you have selected in the configuration (that is, to /var/crash/ by default).
23.3. Analyzing the Core Dump
To determine the cause of the system crash, you can use the crash utility, which provides an
interactive prompt very similar to the GNU Debugger (GDB). This utility allows you to interactively
analyze a running Linux system as well as a core dump created by netdump, diskdump, xendump,
or kdump.
Make sure you have relevant packages installed
To analyze the vmcore dump file, you must have the crash and kernel-debuginfo packages
installed. To install these packages, type the following at a shell prompt as root:
yum install crash
debuginfo-install kernel
For more information on how to install new packages in Fedora, refer to Section 4.2.4, “Installing
Packages”.
23.3.1. Running the crash Utility
To start the utility, type the command in the following form at a shell prompt:
crash /var/crash/timestamp/vmcore /usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/kernel/vmlinux
Note that the kernel version should be the same that was captured by kdump. To find out which
kernel you are currently running, use the uname -r command.
Example 23.1. Running the crash utility
~]# crash /usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/2.6.32-69.el6.i686/vmlinux \
/var/crash/127.0.0.1-2010-08-25-08:45:02/vmcore
crash 5.0.0-23.el6
Copyright (C) 2002-2010 Red Hat, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2006 IBM Corporation
Copyright (C) 1999-2006 Hewlett-Packard Co
Copyright (C) 2005, 2006 Fujitsu Limited
Copyright (C) 2006, 2007 VA Linux Systems Japan K.K.
Copyright (C) 2005 NEC Corporation
Copyright (C) 1999, 2002, 2007 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Mission Critical Linux, Inc.
This program is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License,
and you are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under
474
Displaying the Message Buffer
certain conditions. Enter "help copying" to see the conditions.
This program has absolutely no warranty. Enter "help warranty" for details.
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.0
Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law. Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...
KERNEL:
DUMPFILE:
CPUS:
DATE:
UPTIME:
LOAD AVERAGE:
TASKS:
NODENAME:
RELEASE:
VERSION:
MACHINE:
MEMORY:
PANIC:
PID:
COMMAND:
TASK:
CPU:
STATE:
/usr/lib/debug/lib/modules/2.6.32-69.el6.i686/vmlinux
/var/crash/127.0.0.1-2010-08-25-08:45:02/vmcore [PARTIAL DUMP]
4
Wed Aug 25 08:44:47 2010
00:09:02
0.00, 0.01, 0.00
140
hp-dl320g5-02.lab.bos.redhat.com
2.6.32-69.el6.i686
#1 SMP Tue Aug 24 10:31:45 EDT 2010
i686 (2394 Mhz)
8 GB
"Oops: 0002 [#1] SMP " (check log for details)
5591
"bash"
f196d560 [THREAD_INFO: ef4da000]
2
TASK_RUNNING (PANIC)
crash>
23.3.2. Displaying the Message Buffer
To display the kernel message buffer, type the log command at the interactive prompt.
Example 23.2. Displaying the kernel message buffer
crash> log
... several lines omitted ...
EIP: 0060:[<c068124f>] EFLAGS: 00010096 CPU: 2
EIP is at sysrq_handle_crash+0xf/0x20
EAX: 00000063 EBX: 00000063 ECX: c09e1c8c EDX: 00000000
ESI: c0a09ca0 EDI: 00000286 EBP: 00000000 ESP: ef4dbf24
DS: 007b ES: 007b FS: 00d8 GS: 00e0 SS: 0068
Process bash (pid: 5591, ti=ef4da000 task=f196d560 task.ti=ef4da000)
Stack:
c068146b c0960891 c0968653 00000003 00000000 00000002 efade5c0 c06814d0
<0> fffffffb c068150f b7776000 f2600c40 c0569ec4 ef4dbf9c 00000002 b7776000
<0> efade5c0 00000002 b7776000 c0569e60 c051de50 ef4dbf9c f196d560 ef4dbfb4
Call Trace:
[<c068146b>] ? __handle_sysrq+0xfb/0x160
[<c06814d0>] ? write_sysrq_trigger+0x0/0x50
[<c068150f>] ? write_sysrq_trigger+0x3f/0x50
[<c0569ec4>] ? proc_reg_write+0x64/0xa0
[<c0569e60>] ? proc_reg_write+0x0/0xa0
[<c051de50>] ? vfs_write+0xa0/0x190
[<c051e8d1>] ? sys_write+0x41/0x70
[<c0409adc>] ? syscall_call+0x7/0xb
Code: a0 c0 01 0f b6 41 03 19 d2 f7 d2 83 e2 03 83 e0 cf c1 e2 04 09 d0 88 41 03 f3 c3 90
c7 05 c8 1b 9e c0 01 00 00 00 0f ae f8 89 f6 <c6> 05 00 00 00 00 01 c3 89 f6 8d bc 27 00
00 00 00 8d 50 d0 83
EIP: [<c068124f>] sysrq_handle_crash+0xf/0x20 SS:ESP 0068:ef4dbf24
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
CR2: 0000000000000000
Type help log for more information on the command usage.
23.3.3. Displaying a Backtrace
To display the kernel stack trace, type the bt command at the interactive prompt. You can use bt
pid to display the backtrace of the selected process.
Example 23.3. Displaying the kernel stack trace
crash> bt
PID: 5591
TASK: f196d560 CPU: 2
COMMAND: "bash"
#0 [ef4dbdcc] crash_kexec at c0494922
#1 [ef4dbe20] oops_end at c080e402
#2 [ef4dbe34] no_context at c043089d
#3 [ef4dbe58] bad_area at c0430b26
#4 [ef4dbe6c] do_page_fault at c080fb9b
#5 [ef4dbee4] error_code (via page_fault) at c080d809
EAX: 00000063 EBX: 00000063 ECX: c09e1c8c EDX: 00000000 EBP: 00000000
DS: 007b
ESI: c0a09ca0 ES: 007b
EDI: 00000286 GS: 00e0
CS: 0060
EIP: c068124f ERR: ffffffff EFLAGS: 00010096
#6 [ef4dbf18] sysrq_handle_crash at c068124f
#7 [ef4dbf24] __handle_sysrq at c0681469
#8 [ef4dbf48] write_sysrq_trigger at c068150a
#9 [ef4dbf54] proc_reg_write at c0569ec2
#10 [ef4dbf74] vfs_write at c051de4e
#11 [ef4dbf94] sys_write at c051e8cc
#12 [ef4dbfb0] system_call at c0409ad5
EAX: ffffffda EBX: 00000001 ECX: b7776000 EDX: 00000002
DS: 007b
ESI: 00000002 ES: 007b
EDI: b7776000
SS: 007b
ESP: bfcb2088 EBP: bfcb20b4 GS: 0033
CS: 0073
EIP: 00edc416 ERR: 00000004 EFLAGS: 00000246
Type help bt for more information on the command usage.
23.3.4. Displaying a Process Status
To display status of processes in the system, type the ps command at the interactive prompt. You can
use ps pid to display the status of the selected process.
Example 23.4. Displaying status of processes in the system
crash> ps
PID
PPID CPU
TASK
>
0
0
0 c09dc560
>
0
0
1 f7072030
0
0
2 f70a3a90
>
0
0
3 f70ac560
1
0
1 f705ba90
... several lines omitted ...
5566
1
1 f2592560
5567
1
2 ef427560
5587
5132
0 f196d030
> 5591
5587
2 f196d560
476
ST
RU
RU
RU
RU
IN
%MEM
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
VSZ
0
0
0
0
2828
RSS
0
0
0
0
1424
COMM
[swapper]
[swapper]
[swapper]
[swapper]
init
IN
IN
IN
RU
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12876
12876
11064
5084
784
784
3184
1648
auditd
auditd
sshd
bash
Displaying Virtual Memory Information
Type help ps for more information on the command usage.
23.3.5. Displaying Virtual Memory Information
To display basic virtual memory information, type the vm command at the interactive prompt. You can
use vm pid to display information on the selected process.
Example 23.5. Displaying virtual memory information of the current context
crash> vm
PID: 5591
TASK: f196d560 CPU: 2
COMMAND: "bash"
MM
PGD
RSS
TOTAL_VM
f19b5900 ef9c6000 1648k
5084k
VMA
START
END
FLAGS FILE
f1bb0310
242000
260000 8000875 /lib/ld-2.12.so
f26af0b8
260000
261000 8100871 /lib/ld-2.12.so
efbc275c
261000
262000 8100873 /lib/ld-2.12.so
efbc2a18
268000
3ed000 8000075 /lib/libc-2.12.so
efbc23d8
3ed000
3ee000 8000070 /lib/libc-2.12.so
efbc2888
3ee000
3f0000 8100071 /lib/libc-2.12.so
efbc2cd4
3f0000
3f1000 8100073 /lib/libc-2.12.so
efbc243c
3f1000
3f4000 100073
efbc28ec
3f6000
3f9000 8000075 /lib/libdl-2.12.so
efbc2568
3f9000
3fa000 8100071 /lib/libdl-2.12.so
efbc2f2c
3fa000
3fb000 8100073 /lib/libdl-2.12.so
f26af888
7e6000
7fc000 8000075 /lib/libtinfo.so.5.7
f26aff2c
7fc000
7ff000 8100073 /lib/libtinfo.so.5.7
efbc211c
d83000
d8f000 8000075 /lib/libnss_files-2.12.so
efbc2504
d8f000
d90000 8100071 /lib/libnss_files-2.12.so
efbc2950
d90000
d91000 8100073 /lib/libnss_files-2.12.so
f26afe00
edc000
edd000 4040075
f1bb0a18
8047000
8118000 8001875 /bin/bash
f1bb01e4
8118000
811d000 8101873 /bin/bash
f1bb0c70
811d000
8122000 100073
f26afae0
9fd9000
9ffa000 100073
... several lines omitted ...
Type help vm for more information on the command usage.
23.3.6. Displaying Open Files
To display information about open files, type the files command at the interactive prompt. You can
use files pid to display files opened by the selected process.
Example 23.6. Displaying information about open files of the current context
crash> files
PID: 5591
TASK: f196d560 CPU: 2
ROOT: /
CWD: /root
FD
FILE
DENTRY
INODE
0 f734f640 eedc2c6c eecd6048
1 efade5c0 eee14090 f00431d4
2 f734f640 eedc2c6c eecd6048
10 f734f640 eedc2c6c eecd6048
255 f734f640 eedc2c6c eecd6048
COMMAND: "bash"
TYPE
CHR
REG
CHR
CHR
CHR
PATH
/pts/0
/proc/sysrq-trigger
/pts/0
/pts/0
/pts/0
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Chapter 23. The kdump Crash Recovery Service
Type help files for more information on the command usage.
23.3.7. Exiting the Utility
To exit the interactive prompt and terminate crash, type exit or q.
Example 23.7. Exiting the crash utility
crash> exit
~]#
23.4. Additional Resources
23.4.1. Installed Documentation
• kdump.conf(5) — a manual page for the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file containing the full
documentation of available options.
• makedumpfile(8) — a manual page for the makedumpfile core collector.
• kexec(8) — a manual page for kexec.
• crash(8) — a manual page for the crash utility.
• /usr/share/doc/kexec-tools-version/kexec-kdump-howto.txt — an overview of the
kdump and kexec installation and usage.
23.4.2. Useful Websites
https://access.redhat.com/kb/docs/DOC-6039
The Red Hat Knowledgebase article about the kexec and kdump configuration.
https://access.redhat.com/kb/docs/DOC-45183
The Red Hat Knowledgebase article about supported kdump targets.
http://people.redhat.com/anderson/
The crash utility homepage.
478
Appendix A. Consistent Network
Device Naming
Fedora 17 provides consistent network device naming for network interfaces. This feature changes
the name of network interfaces on a system in order to make locating and differentiating the interfaces
easier.
Traditionally, network interfaces in Linux are enumerated as eth[0123…], but these names do not
necessarily correspond to actual labels on the chassis. Modern server platforms with multiple network
adapters can encounter non-deterministic and counter-intuitive naming of these interfaces. This affects
both network adapters embedded on the motherboard (Lan-on-Motherboard, or LOM) and add-in
(single and multiport) adapters.
The new naming convention assigns names to network interfaces based on their physical location,
whether embedded or in PCI slots. By converting to this naming convention, system administrators will
no longer have to guess at the physical location of a network port, or modify each system to rename
them into some consistent order.
This feature, implemented via the biosdevname program, will change the name of all embedded
network interfaces, PCI card network interfaces, and virtual function network interfaces from the
existing eth[0123…] to the new naming convention as shown in Table A.1, “The new naming
convention”.
Table A.1. The new naming convention
Device
Old Name
Embedded network interface
(LOM)
eth[0123…] em[1234…]
PCI card network interface
eth[0123…] p<slot>p<ethernet port>
Virtual function
eth[0123…] p<slot>p<ethernet port>_<virtual interface>
1
New enumeration starts at 1.
2
For example: p3p4
3
For example: p3p4_1
New Name
1
2
3
System administrators may continue to write rules in /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistentnet.rules to change the device names to anything desired; those will take precedence over this
physical location naming convention.
A.1. Affected Systems
Consistent network device naming is enabled by default for all systems that meet the requirements in
Section A.2, “System Requirements”.
Regardless of the type of system, Fedora guests will not have devices renamed unless the virtual
machine BIOS provides the SMBIOS information outlined in Section A.2, “System Requirements”.
Also, upgrades from prior releases that did not use this naming convention (that is, Fedora 14 and
older) are unaffected, and the old naming convention will continue to be used.
A.2. System Requirements
The biosdevname program uses information from the system's BIOS, specifically the type 9 (System
Slot) and type 41 (Onboard Devices Extended Information) fields contained within the SMBIOS. If the
system's BIOS does not have SMBIOS version 2.6 or higher and this data, the new naming convention
479
Appendix A. Consistent Network Device Naming
will not be used. Most older hardware does not support this feature because of a lack of BIOSes with
the correct SMBIOS version and field information. For BIOS or SMBIOS version information, contact
your hardware vendor.
For this feature to take effect, the biosdevname package must also be installed. The biosdevname
package is part of the base package group in Fedora 17. All install options, except for Minimal
Install, include this package.
A.3. Enabling and Disabling the Feature
To disable the consistent network device naming on Dell systems that would normally have it on by
default, pass the following option on the boot command line, both during and after installation:
biosdevname=0
To enable this feature on other system types that meet the minimum requirements (see Section A.2,
“System Requirements”), pass the following option on the boot command line, both during and after
installation:
biosdevname=1
Unless the system meets the minimum requirements, this option will be ignored and the system will
boot with the traditional network interface name format.
If the biosdevname install option is specified, it must remain as a boot option for the lifetime of the
system.
A.4. Notes for Administrators
Many system customization files can include network interface names, and thus will require updates
if moving a system from the old convention to the new convention. If you use the new naming
convention, you will also need to update network interface names in areas such as custom iptables
rules, scripts altering irqbalance, and other similar configuration files. Also, enabling this change for
installation will require modification to existing kickstart files that use device names via the ksdevice
parameter; these kickstart files will need to be updated to use the network device's MAC address or
the network device's new name.
The Fedora Project strongly recommends that you consider this feature to be an install-time choice;
enabling or disabling the feature post-install, while technically possible, can be complicated and is
not recommended. For those system administrators who wish to do so, on a system that meets the
minimum requirements, remove the /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules file
and the HWADDR lines from all /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* files. In addition,
rename those ifcfg-* files to use this new naming convention. The new names will be in effect after
reboot. Remember to update any custom scripts, iptables rules, and service configuration files that
might include network interface names.
480
Appendix B. RPM
The RPM Package Manager (RPM) is an open packaging system , which runs on Fedora as well
as other Linux and UNIX systems. Red Hat, Inc. and the Fedora Project encourage other vendors to
use RPM for their own products. RPM is distributed under the terms of the GPL (GNU General Public
License).
The RPM Package Manager only works with packages built to work with the RPM format. RPM is
itself provided as a pre-installed rpm package. For the end user, RPM makes system updates easy.
Installing, uninstalling and upgrading RPM packages can be accomplished with short commands.
RPM maintains a database of installed packages and their files, so you can invoke powerful queries
and verifications on your system.
The RPM package format has been improved for Fedora 17. RPM packages are now compressed
using the XZ lossless data compression format, which has the benefit of greater compression and less
CPU usage during decompression, and support multiple strong hash algorithms, such as SHA-256, for
package signing and verification.
Use Yum Instead of RPM Whenever Possible
For most package management tasks, the Yum package manager offers equal and often
greater capabilities and utility than RPM . Yum also performs and tracks complicated system
dependency resolution, and will complain and force system integrity checks if you use RPM
as well to install and remove packages. For these reasons, it is highly recommended that you
use Yum instead of RPM whenever possible to perform package management tasks. Refer to
Chapter 4, Yum.
If you prefer a graphical interface, you can use the PackageKit GUI application, which uses Yum
as its back end, to manage your system's packages. Refer to Chapter 5, PackageKit for details.
Install RPM packages with the correct architecture!
When installing a package, ensure it is compatible with your operating system and processor
architecture. This can usually be determined by checking the package name. Many of
the following examples show RPM packages compiled for the AMD64/Intel 64 computer
architectures; thus, the RPM file name ends in x86_64.rpm.
During upgrades, RPM handles configuration files carefully, so that you never lose your
customizations—something that you cannot accomplish with regular .tar.gz files.
For the developer, RPM allows you to take software source code and package it into source and
binary packages for end users. This process is quite simple and is driven from a single file and
optional patches that you create. This clear delineation between pristine sources and your patches
along with build instructions eases the maintenance of the package as new versions of the software
are released.
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Appendix B. RPM
Running rpm commands must be performed as root
Because RPM makes changes to your system, you must be logged in as root to install, remove,
or upgrade an RPM package.
B.1. RPM Design Goals
To understand how to use RPM, it can be helpful to understand the design goals of RPM:
Upgradability
With RPM, you can upgrade individual components of your system without completely reinstalling.
When you get a new release of an operating system based on RPM, such as Fedora, you do not
need to reinstall a fresh copy of the operating system your machine (as you might need to with
operating systems based on other packaging systems). RPM allows intelligent, fully-automated, inplace upgrades of your system. In addition, configuration files in packages are preserved across
upgrades, so you do not lose your customizations. There are no special upgrade files needed to
upgrade a package because the same RPM file is used to both install and upgrade the package
on your system.
Powerful Querying
RPM is designed to provide powerful querying options. You can perform searches on your entire
database for packages or even just certain files. You can also easily find out what package a
file belongs to and from where the package came. The files an RPM package contains are in a
compressed archive, with a custom binary header containing useful information about the package
and its contents, allowing you to query individual packages quickly and easily.
System Verification
Another powerful RPM feature is the ability to verify packages. If you are worried that you
deleted an important file for some package, you can verify the package. You are then notified of
anomalies, if any—at which point you can reinstall the package, if necessary. Any configuration
files that you modified are preserved during reinstallation.
Pristine Sources
A crucial design goal was to allow the use of pristine software sources, as distributed by the
original authors of the software. With RPM, you have the pristine sources along with any patches
that were used, plus complete build instructions. This is an important advantage for several
reasons. For instance, if a new version of a program is released, you do not necessarily have to
start from scratch to get it to compile. You can look at the patch to see what you might need to
do. All the compiled-in defaults, and all of the changes that were made to get the software to build
properly, are easily visible using this technique.
The goal of keeping sources pristine may seem important only for developers, but it results in
higher quality software for end users, too.
B.2. Using RPM
RPM has five basic modes of operation (not counting package building): installing, uninstalling,
upgrading, querying, and verifying. This section contains an overview of each mode. For complete
details and options, try rpm --help or man rpm. You can also refer to Section B.5, “Additional
Resources” for more information on RPM.
482
Finding RPM Packages
B.2.1. Finding RPM Packages
Before using any RPM packages, you must know where to find them. An Internet search returns many
RPM repositories, but if you are looking for Red Hat RPM packages, they can be found at the following
locations:
• The Fedora installation media contain many installable RPMs.
• The initial RPM repositories provided with the YUM package manager . Refer to Chapter 4, Yum
for details on how to use the official Fedora package repositories.
• The active Fedora mirrors contains many installable RPMs: http://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/
publiclist/.
• Unofficial, third-party repositories not affiliated with The Fedora Project also provide RPM packages.
Third-party repositories and package compatibility
When considering third-party repositories for use with your Fedora system, pay close attention
to the repository's web site with regard to package compatibility before adding the repository as
a package source. Alternate package repositories may offer different, incompatible versions of
the same software, including packages already included in the Fedora repositories.
B.2.2. Installing and Upgrading
RPM packages typically have file names like tree-1.5.3-2.fc17.x86_64.rpm. The file name
includes the package name (tree), version (1.5.3), release (2), operating system major version
(fc17) and CPU architecture (x86_64).
You can use rpm's -U option to:
• upgrade an existing but older package on the system to a newer version, or
• install the package even if an older version is not already installed.
That is, rpm -U <rpm_file> is able to perform the function of either upgrading or installing as is
appropriate for the package.
Assuming the tree-1.5.3-2.fc17.x86_64.rpm package is in the current directory, log in as root
and type the following command at a shell prompt to either upgrade or install the tree package as
determined by rpm:
rpm -Uvh tree-1.5.3-2.fc17.x86_64.rpm
483
Appendix B. RPM
Use -Uvh for nicely-formatted RPM installs
The -v and -h options (which are combined with -U) cause rpm to print more verbose output
and display a progress meter using hash signs.
If the upgrade/installation is successful, the following output is displayed:
Preparing...
1:tree
########################################### [100%]
########################################### [100%]
Always use the -i (install) option to install new kernel packages!
rpm provides two different options for installing packages: the aforementioned -U option (which
historically stands for upgrade), and the -i option, historically standing for install. Because the U option subsumes both install and upgrade functions, we recommend to use rpm -Uvh with all
packages except kernel packages.
You should always use the -i option to simply install a new kernel package instead of upgrading
it. This is because using the -U option to upgrade a kernel package removes the previous (older)
kernel package, which could render the system unable to boot if there is a problem with the new
kernel. Therefore, use the rpm -i <kernel_package> command to install a new kernel
without replacing any older kernel packages. For more information on installing kernel packages,
refer to Chapter 21, Manually Upgrading the Kernel.
The signature of a package is checked automatically when installing or upgrading a package. The
signature confirms that the package was signed by an authorized party. For example, if the verification
of the signature fails, an error message such as the following is displayed:
error: tree-1.5.2.2-4.fc17.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 signature: BAD, key ID
d22e77f2
If it is a new, header-only, signature, an error message such as the following is displayed:
error: tree-1.5.2.2-4.fc17.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 signature: BAD,
key ID d22e77f2
If you do not have the appropriate key installed to verify the signature, the message contains the word
NOKEY:
warning: tree-1.5.2.2-4.fc17.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA1 signature: NOKEY, key ID 57bbccba
Refer to Section B.3, “Checking a Package's Signature” for more information on checking a package's
signature.
B.2.2.1. Package Already Installed
If a package of the same name and version is already installed , the following output is displayed:
484
Installing and Upgrading
Preparing...
########################################### [100%]
package tree-1.5.3-2.fc17.x86_64 is already installed
However, if you want to install the package anyway, you can use the --replacepkgs option, which
tells RPM to ignore the error:
rpm -Uvh --replacepkgs tree-1.5.3-2.fc17.x86_64.rpm
This option is helpful if files installed from the RPM were deleted or if you want the original
configuration files from the RPM to be installed.
B.2.2.2. Conflicting Files
If you attempt to install a package that contains a file which has already been installed by another
package , the following is displayed:
Preparing... ##################################################
file /usr/bin/foobar from install of foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64 conflicts
with file from package bar-3.1.1.fc17.x86_64
To make RPM ignore this error, use the --replacefiles option:
rpm -Uvh --replacefiles foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64.rpm
B.2.2.3. Unresolved Dependency
RPM packages may sometimes depend on other packages , which means that they require other
packages to be installed to run properly. If you try to install a package which has an unresolved
dependency, output similar to the following is displayed:
error: Failed dependencies:
bar.so.3()(64bit) is needed by foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64
If you are installing a package from the Fedora installation media, such as from a CD-ROM or DVD,
the dependencies may be available. Find the suggested package(s) on the Fedora installation media
or on one of the active Fedora mirrors and add it to the command:
rpm -Uvh foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64.rpm
bar-3.1.1.fc17.x86_64.rpm
If installation of both packages is successful, output similar to the following is displayed:
Preparing...
1:foo
2:bar
########################################### [100%]
########################################### [ 50%]
########################################### [100%]
You can try the --whatprovides option to determine which package contains the required file.
rpm -q --whatprovides "bar.so.3"
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Appendix B. RPM
If the package that contains bar.so.3 is in the RPM database, the name of the package is displayed:
bar-3.1.1.fc17.i586.rpm
Warning: Forcing Package Installation
Although we can force rpm to install a package that gives us a Failed dependencies
error (using the --nodeps option), this is not recommended, and will usually result in the
installed package failing to run. Installing or removing packages with rpm --nodeps can cause
applications to misbehave and/or crash, and can cause serious package management problems
or, possibly, system failure. For these reasons, it is best to heed such warnings; the package
manager—whether RPM, Yum or PackageKit—shows us these warnings and suggests possible
fixes because accounting for dependencies is critical. The Yum package manager can perform
dependency resolution and fetch dependencies from online repositories, making it safer, easier
and smarter than forcing rpm to carry out actions without regard to resolving dependencies.
B.2.3. Configuration File Changes
Because RPM performs intelligent upgrading of packages with configuration files , you may see one
or the other of the following messages:
saving /etc/foo.conf as /etc/foo.conf.rpmsave
This message means that changes you made to the configuration file may not be forward-compatible
with the new configuration file in the package, so RPM saved your original file and installed a new one.
You should investigate the differences between the two configuration files and resolve them as soon
as possible, to ensure that your system continues to function properly.
Alternatively, RPM may save the package's new configuration file as, for example,
foo.conf.rpmnew, and leave the configuration file you modified untouched. You should still resolve
any conflicts between your modified configuration file and the new one, usually by merging changes
from the old one to the new one with a diff program.
If you attempt to upgrade to a package with an older version number (that is, if a higher version of the
package is already installed), the output is similar to the following:
package foo-2.0-1.fc17.x86_64.rpm (which is newer than foo-1.0-1) is already installed
To force RPM to upgrade anyway, use the --oldpackage option:
rpm -Uvh --oldpackage foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64.rpm
B.2.4. Uninstalling
Uninstalling a package is just as simple as installing one. Type the following command at a shell
prompt:
rpm -e foo
486
Freshening
rpm -e and package name errors
Notice that we used the package name foo, not the name of the original package file,
foo-1.0-1.fc17.x86_64. If you attempt to uninstall a package using the rpm -e command
and the original full file name, you will receive a package name error.
You can encounter dependency errors when uninstalling a package if another installed package
depends on the one you are trying to remove. For example:
rpm -e ghostscript
error: Failed dependencies:
libgs.so.8()(64bit) is needed by (installed) libspectre-0.2.2-3.fc17.x86_64
libgs.so.8()(64bit) is needed by (installed) foomatic-4.0.3-1.fc17.x86_64
libijs-0.35.so()(64bit) is needed by (installed) gutenprint-5.2.4-5.fc17.x86_64
ghostscript is needed by (installed) printer-filters-1.1-4.fc17.noarch
Similar to how we searched for a shared object library (i.e. a <library_name>.so.<number> file)
in Section B.2.2.3, “Unresolved Dependency”, we can search for a 64-bit shared object library using
this exact syntax (and making sure to quote the file name):
~]# rpm -q --whatprovides "libgs.so.8()(64bit)"
ghostscript-8.70-1.fc17.x86_64
Warning: Forcing Package Installation
Although we can force rpm to remove a package that gives us a Failed dependencies error
(using the --nodeps option), this is not recommended, and may cause harm to other installed
applications. Installing or removing packages with rpm --nodeps can cause applications to
misbehave and/or crash, and can cause serious package management problems or, possibly,
system failure. For these reasons, it is best to heed such warnings; the package manager—
whether RPM, Yum or PackageKit—shows us these warnings and suggests possible fixes
because accounting for dependencies is critical. The Yum package manager can perform
dependency resolution and fetch dependencies from online repositories, making it safer, easier
and smarter than forcing rpm to carry out actions without regard to resolving dependencies.
B.2.5. Freshening
Freshening is similar to upgrading, except that only existent packages are upgraded. Type the
following command at a shell prompt:
rpm -Fvh foo-2.0-1.fc17.x86_64.rpm
RPM's freshen option checks the versions of the packages specified on the command line against the
versions of packages that have already been installed on your system. When a newer version of an
already-installed package is processed by RPM's freshen option, it is upgraded to the newer version.
487
Appendix B. RPM
However, RPM's freshen option does not install a package if no previously-installed package of the
same name exists. This differs from RPM's upgrade option, as an upgrade does install packages
whether or not an older version of the package was already installed.
Freshening works for single packages or package groups. If you have just downloaded a large number
of different packages, and you only want to upgrade those packages that are already installed on your
system, freshening does the job. Thus, you do not have to delete any unwanted packages from the
group that you downloaded before using RPM.
In this case, issue the following with the *.rpm glob:
rpm -Fvh *.rpm
RPM then automatically upgrades only those packages that are already installed.
B.2.6. Querying
The RPM database stores information about all RPM packages installed in your system. It is stored in
the directory /var/lib/rpm/, and is used to query what packages are installed, what versions each
package is, and to calculate any changes to any files in the package since installation, among other
use cases.
To query this database, use the -q option. The rpm -q package name command displays
the package name, version, and release number of the installed package <package_name>. For
example, using rpm -q tree to query installed package tree might generate the following output:
tree-1.5.2.2-4.fc17.x86_64
You can also use the following Package Selection Options (which is a subheading in the RPM man
page: see man rpm for details) to further refine or qualify your query:
• -a — queries all currently installed packages.
• -f <file_name> — queries the RPM database for which package owns <file_name> .
Specify the absolute path of the file (for example, rpm -qf /bin/ls instead of rpm -qf ls).
• -p <package_file>
— queries the uninstalled package <package_file> .
There are a number of ways to specify what information to display about queried packages. The
following options are used to select the type of information for which you are searching. These are
called the Package Query Options.
• -i displays package information including name, description, release, size, build date, install date,
vendor, and other miscellaneous information.
• -l displays the list of files that the package contains.
• -s displays the state of all the files in the package.
• -d displays a list of files marked as documentation (man pages, info pages, READMEs, etc.) in the
package.
• -c displays a list of files marked as configuration files. These are the files you edit after installation
to adapt and customize the package to your system (for example, sendmail.cf, passwd,
inittab, etc.).
488
Verifying
For options that display lists of files, add -v to the command to display the lists in a familiar ls -l
format.
B.2.7. Verifying
Verifying a package compares information about files installed from a package with the same
information from the original package. Among other things, verifying compares the file size, MD5 sum,
permissions, type, owner, and group of each file.
The command rpm -V verifies a package. You can use any of the Verify Options listed for querying to
specify the packages you wish to verify. A simple use of verifying is rpm -V tree, which verifies that
all the files in the tree package are as they were when they were originally installed. For example:
• To verify a package containing a particular file:
rpm -Vf /usr/bin/tree
In this example, /usr/bin/tree is the absolute path to the file used to query a package.
• To verify ALL installed packages throughout the system (which will take some time):
rpm -Va
• To verify an installed package against an RPM package file:
rpm -Vp tree-1.5.2.2-4.fc17.x86_64.rpm
This command can be useful if you suspect that your RPM database is corrupt.
If everything verified properly, there is no output. If there are any discrepancies, they are displayed.
The format of the output is a string of eight characters (a "c" denotes a configuration file) and then the
file name. Each of the eight characters denotes the result of a comparison of one attribute of the file to
the value of that attribute recorded in the RPM database. A single period (.) means the test passed.
The following characters denote specific discrepancies:
• 5 — MD5 checksum
• S — file size
• L — symbolic link
• T — file modification time
• D — device
• U — user
• G — group
• M — mode (includes permissions and file type)
• ? — unreadable file (file permission errors, for example)
489
Appendix B. RPM
If you see any output, use your best judgment to determine if you should remove the package, reinstall
it, or fix the problem in another way.
B.3. Checking a Package's Signature
If you wish to verify that a package has not been corrupted or tampered with, you can examine just the
md5sum by entering this command at the shell prompt: (where <rpm_file> is the file name of the
RPM package):
rpm -K --nosignature <rpm_file>
The output <rpm_file>: rsa sha1 (md5) pgp md5 OK (specifically the OK part of it) indicates
that the file was not corrupted during download. To see a more verbose message, replace -K with Kvv in the command.
On the other hand, how trustworthy is the developer who created the package? If the package is
signed with the developer's GnuPG key, you know that the developer really is who they say they are.
An RPM package can be signed using Gnu Privacy Guard (or GnuPG), to help you make certain your
downloaded package is trustworthy.
GnuPG is a tool for secure communication; it is a complete and free replacement for the encryption
technology of PGP, an electronic privacy program. With GnuPG, you can authenticate the validity of
documents and encrypt/decrypt data to and from other recipients. GnuPG is capable of decrypting and
verifying PGP 5.x files as well.
During installation, GnuPG is installed by default, which enables you to immediately start using it to
verify any packages that you download from the Fedora Project. Before doing so, you first need to
import the correct Fedora key.
B.3.1. Importing Keys
Fedora GnuPG keys are located in the /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/ directory. To verify a Fedora Project
package, first import the correct key based on your processor architecture:
rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-x86_64
To display a list of all keys installed for RPM verification, execute the command:
rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*
For the Fedora Project key, the output states:
gpg-pubkey-57bbccba-4a6f97af
To display details about a specific key, use rpm -qi followed by the output from the previous
command:
rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-57bbccba-4a6f97af
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Verifying Signature of Packages
B.3.2. Verifying Signature of Packages
To check the GnuPG signature of an RPM file after importing the builder's GnuPG key, use the
following command (replace <rpm_file> with the file name of the RPM package):
rpm -K <rpm_file>
If all goes well, the following message is displayed: rsa sha1 (md5) pgp md5 OK. This means
that the signature of the package has been verified, that it is not corrupt, and is therefore safe to install
and use.
For more information, including a list of currently-used Fedora Project keys and their fingerprints, refer
to http://fedoraproject.org/en/keys.
B.4. Practical and Common Examples of RPM Usage
RPM is a useful tool for both managing your system and diagnosing and fixing problems. The best
way to make sense of all its options is to look at some examples.
• Perhaps you have deleted some files by accident, but you are not sure what you deleted. To verify
your entire system and see what might be missing, you could try the following command:
rpm -Va
If some files are missing or appear to have been corrupted, you should probably either re-install the
package or uninstall and then re-install the package.
• At some point, you might see a file that you do not recognize. To find out which package owns it,
enter:
rpm -qf /usr/bin/ghostscript
The output would look like the following:
ghostscript-8.70-1.fc17.x86_64
• We can combine the above two examples in the following scenario. Say you are having problems
with /usr/bin/paste. You would like to verify the package that owns that program, but you do not
know which package owns paste. Enter the following command,
rpm -Vf /usr/bin/paste
and the appropriate package is verified.
• Do you want to find out more information about a particular program? You can try the following
command to locate the documentation which came with the package that owns that program:
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Appendix B. RPM
rpm -qdf /usr/bin/free
The output would be similar to the following:
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/BUGS
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/FAQ
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/NEWS
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/TODO
/usr/share/man/man1/free.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/pgrep.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/pkill.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/pmap.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/ps.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/pwdx.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/skill.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/slabtop.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/snice.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/tload.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/top.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/uptime.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/w.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/watch.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/sysctl.conf.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/sysctl.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/vmstat.8.gz
• You may find a new RPM, but you do not know what it does. To find information about it, use the
following command:
rpm -qip crontabs-1.10-31.fc17.noarch.rpm
The output would be similar to the following:
Name
: crontabs
Relocations: (not relocatable)
Size
: 2486
License: Public Domain and GPLv2
Signature
: RSA/SHA1, Tue 11 Aug 2009 01:11:19 PM CEST, Key ID 9d1cc34857bbccba
Packager
: Fedora Project
Summary
: Root crontab files used to schedule the execution of programs
Description :
The crontabs package contains root crontab files and directories.
You will need to install cron daemon to run the jobs from the crontabs.
The cron daemon such as cronie or fcron checks the crontab files to
see when particular commands are scheduled to be executed. If commands
are scheduled, it executes them.
Crontabs handles a basic system function, so it should be installed on
your system.
• Perhaps you now want to see what files the crontabs RPM package installs. You would enter the
following:
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Additional Resources
rpm -qlp crontabs-1.10-31.fc17.noarch.rpm
The output is similar to the following:
/etc/cron.daily
/etc/cron.hourly
/etc/cron.monthly
/etc/cron.weekly
/etc/crontab
/usr/bin/run-parts
/usr/share/man/man4/crontabs.4.gz
These are just a few examples. As you use RPM, you may find more uses for it.
B.5. Additional Resources
RPM is an extremely complex utility with many options and methods for querying, installing,
upgrading, and removing packages. Refer to the following resources to learn more about RPM.
B.5.1. Installed Documentation
• rpm --help — This command displays a quick reference of RPM parameters.
• man rpm — The RPM man page gives more detail about RPM parameters than the rpm --help
command.
B.5.2. Useful Websites
• The RPM website — http://www.rpm.org/
• The RPM mailing list can be subscribed to, and its archives read from, here — https://lists.rpm.org/
1
mailman/listinfo/rpm-list
B.5.3. Related Books
Maximum RPM — http://www.rpm.org/max-rpm/
The Maximum RPM book, which you can read online, covers everything from general RPM usage
to building your own RPMs to programming with rpmlib.
1
http://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/rpm-list/
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Appendix C. The X Window System
While the heart of Fedora is the kernel, for many users, the face of the operating system is the
graphical environment provided by the X Window System, also called X.
Other windowing environments have existed in the UNIX world, including some that predate the
release of the X Window System in June 1984. Nonetheless, X has been the default graphic