Extreme Networks EAS 200-24p Switch Software Manual

Extreme Networks EAS 200-24p Switch
Software Manual
Layer 2 Managed PoE Ethernet Switch
Release 1.00
Extreme Networks, Inc.
3585 Monroe Street
Santa Clara, California 95051
(888) 257-3000
(408) 579-2800
http://www.extremenetworks.com
Published: July 2011
Part number: 120708-00 Rev. 01
AccessAdapt, Alpine, Altitude, BlackDiamond, Direct Attach, EPICenter, ExtremeWorks Essentials, Ethernet
Everywhere, Extreme Enabled, Extreme Ethernet Everywhere, Extreme Networks, Extreme Standby Router
Protocol, Extreme Turbodrive, Extreme Velocity, ExtremeWare, ExtremeWorks, ExtremeXOS, Go Purple Extreme
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Unified Access Architecture, Unified Access RF Manager, UniStack, XNV, the Extreme Networks logo, the Alpine
logo, the BlackDiamond logo, the Extreme Turbodrive logo, the Summit logos, and the Powered by ExtremeXOS
logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Extreme Networks, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States
and/or other countries.
sFlow is the property of InMon Corporation.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All other registered trademarks, trademarks, and service marks are property of their respective owners.
© 2011 Extreme Networks, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Table of Contents
Preface Template Formats......................................................................................................................... 9
Intended Readers .....................................................................................................................................................9
Typographical Conventions ......................................................................................................................................9
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings................................................................................................................................9
Chapter 1: Web-based Switch Configuration ........................................................................................ 11
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................11
Login to the Web Manager .....................................................................................................................................11
Web-based User Interface .....................................................................................................................................12
Areas of the User Interface .............................................................................................................................13
Web Pages .............................................................................................................................................................13
Chapter 2: System Configuration ...........................................................................................................15
Device Information .................................................................................................................................................15
System Information Settings ..................................................................................................................................16
Port Configuration ..................................................................................................................................................16
Port Settings....................................................................................................................................................16
Port Description Settings.................................................................................................................................18
Port Error Disabled..........................................................................................................................................19
Jumbo Frame Settings ....................................................................................................................................20
PoE.........................................................................................................................................................................20
PoE System Settings ......................................................................................................................................22
PoE Port Settings ............................................................................................................................................23
Serial Port Settings.................................................................................................................................................24
Warning Temperature Settings...............................................................................................................................25
System Log configuration .......................................................................................................................................26
System Log Settings .......................................................................................................................................26
System Log Server Settings............................................................................................................................26
System Log .....................................................................................................................................................27
System Log & Trap Settings ...........................................................................................................................28
System Severity Settings ................................................................................................................................29
Time Range Settings ..............................................................................................................................................30
Port Group Settings ...............................................................................................................................................31
Time Settings .........................................................................................................................................................32
User Accounts Settings ..........................................................................................................................................32
Command Logging Settings ...................................................................................................................................33
Chapter 3: Management........................................................................................................................... 35
ARP ........................................................................................................................................................................35
Static ARP Settings .........................................................................................................................................35
Proxy ARP Settings ........................................................................................................................................36
ARP Table .......................................................................................................................................................36
Gratuitous ARP ......................................................................................................................................................37
Gratuitous ARP Global Settings ......................................................................................................................37
Gratuitous ARP Settings .................................................................................................................................38
IPv6 Neighbor Settings ..........................................................................................................................................39
IP Interface .............................................................................................................................................................41
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Table of Contents
System IP Address Settings............................................................................................................................41
Interface Settings ............................................................................................................................................42
Management Settings ............................................................................................................................................45
Session Table.........................................................................................................................................................47
SNMP Settings .......................................................................................................................................................47
SNMP Global Settings ....................................................................................................................................48
SNMP Traps Settings......................................................................................................................................49
SNMP Linkchange Traps Settings ..................................................................................................................49
SNMP View Table Settings .............................................................................................................................50
SNMP Community Table Settings...................................................................................................................51
SNMP Group Table Settings ...........................................................................................................................52
SNMP Engine ID Settings ...............................................................................................................................54
SNMP User Table Settings .............................................................................................................................54
SNMP Host Table Settings .............................................................................................................................55
SNMPv6 Host Table Settings .........................................................................................................................56
RMON Settings ...............................................................................................................................................57
Telnet Settings .......................................................................................................................................................58
Web Settings ..........................................................................................................................................................59
Chapter 4: L2 Features............................................................................................................................. 61
VLAN ......................................................................................................................................................................61
802.1Q VLAN Settings ....................................................................................................................................67
802.1v Protocol VLAN .....................................................................................................................................70
802.1v Protocol Group Settings ...............................................................................................................70
802.1v Protocol VLAN Settings................................................................................................................72
Asymmetric VLAN Settings .............................................................................................................................73
GVRP ..............................................................................................................................................................73
GVRP Global Settings .............................................................................................................................73
GVRP Port Settings .................................................................................................................................74
MAC-based VLAN Settings .............................................................................................................................75
Private VLAN Settings.....................................................................................................................................76
PVID Auto Assign Settings..............................................................................................................................78
Voice VLAN .....................................................................................................................................................79
Voice VLAN Global Settings ....................................................................................................................79
Voice VLAN Port Settings ........................................................................................................................80
Voice VLAN OUI Settings ........................................................................................................................80
Voice VLAN Device..................................................................................................................................81
VLAN Trunk Settings.......................................................................................................................................82
Browse VLAN ..................................................................................................................................................83
Show VLAN Ports ...........................................................................................................................................83
QinQ ......................................................................................................................................................................84
QinQ Settings ..................................................................................................................................................86
VLAN Translation Settings ..............................................................................................................................87
Spanning Tree ........................................................................................................................................................88
STP Bridge Global Settings ............................................................................................................................90
STP Port Settings............................................................................................................................................91
MST Configuration Identification .....................................................................................................................93
STP Instance Settings.....................................................................................................................................94
MSTP Port Information....................................................................................................................................95
Link Aggregation ....................................................................................................................................................96
Port Trunking Settings.....................................................................................................................................97
LACP Port Settings .........................................................................................................................................98
FDB ........................................................................................................................................................................99
Static FDB Settings .........................................................................................................................................99
Unicast Static FDB Settings .....................................................................................................................99
Multicast Static FDB Settings.................................................................................................................100
MAC Notification Settings .............................................................................................................................101
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MAC Address Aging Time Settings ...............................................................................................................102
MAC Address Table ......................................................................................................................................103
ARP & FDB Table .........................................................................................................................................104
L2 Multicast Control..............................................................................................................................................105
IGMP Snooping .............................................................................................................................................105
IGMP Snooping Settings........................................................................................................................105
IGMP Snooping Rate Limit Settings ......................................................................................................108
IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings...................................................................................................109
IGMP Router Port ..................................................................................................................................110
IGMP Snooping Group...........................................................................................................................111
IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table.........................................................................................................112
IGMP Snooping Counter ........................................................................................................................112
MLD Snooping ..............................................................................................................................................113
MLD Snooping Settings .........................................................................................................................115
MLD Snooping Rate Limit Settings ........................................................................................................118
MLD Snooping Static Group Settings ....................................................................................................118
MLD Router Port ....................................................................................................................................120
MLD Snooping Group ............................................................................................................................120
MLD Snooping Forwarding Table ..........................................................................................................121
MLD Snooping Counter .........................................................................................................................122
Multicast Filtering .................................................................................................................................................123
IPv4 Multicast Filtering ..................................................................................................................................123
IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings ...............................................................................................................123
IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings ..................................................................................................125
IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings ........................................................................................................126
IPv6 Multicast Filtering ..................................................................................................................................127
IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings ...............................................................................................................127
IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings ..................................................................................................128
IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings ........................................................................................................129
Multicast Filtering Mode ................................................................................................................................130
LLDP ....................................................................................................................................................................131
LLDP Global Settings ....................................................................................................................................131
LLDP Port Settings........................................................................................................................................133
LLDP Management Address List ..................................................................................................................134
LLDP Basic TLVs Settings ............................................................................................................................134
LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings .............................................................................................................................135
LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings .............................................................................................................................136
LLDP Statistic System...................................................................................................................................137
LLDP Local Port Information .........................................................................................................................138
LLDP Remote Port Information .....................................................................................................................139
NLB FDB Settings ................................................................................................................................................140
Chapter 5: L3 Features...........................................................................................................................143
IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings ......................................................................................................................143
IPv4 Route Table..................................................................................................................................................144
IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings ......................................................................................................................144
IP Forwarding Table .............................................................................................................................................146
Chapter 6: QoS .......................................................................................................................................147
802.1p Settings ....................................................................................................................................................149
802.1p Default Priority Settings.....................................................................................................................149
802.1p User Priority Settings ........................................................................................................................150
Bandwidth Control ................................................................................................................................................150
Bandwidth Control Settings ...........................................................................................................................150
Queue Bandwidth Control Settings ...............................................................................................................152
Traffic Control Settings .........................................................................................................................................153
DSCP ...................................................................................................................................................................154
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DSCP Trust Settings .....................................................................................................................................154
DSCP Map Settings ......................................................................................................................................155
HOL Blocking Prevention .....................................................................................................................................156
Scheduling Settings..............................................................................................................................................157
QoS Scheduling ............................................................................................................................................157
QoS Scheduling Mechanism .........................................................................................................................158
Chapter 7: ACL .......................................................................................................................................161
ACL Configuration Wizard ....................................................................................................................................161
Access Profile List ................................................................................................................................................162
Add an Ethernet ACL Profile .........................................................................................................................163
Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile...........................................................................................................................168
Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile...........................................................................................................................173
Adding a Packet Content ACL Profile ...........................................................................................................178
ACL Finder ...........................................................................................................................................................183
ACL Flow Meter....................................................................................................................................................183
Egress Access Profile List ...................................................................................................................................188
Add an Ethernet ACL Profile .........................................................................................................................189
Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile...........................................................................................................................193
Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile...........................................................................................................................198
Egress ACL Flow Meter .......................................................................................................................................202
Chapter 8: Security.................................................................................................................................207
802.1X ..................................................................................................................................................................207
802.1X Global Settings .................................................................................................................................211
802.1X Port Settings .....................................................................................................................................212
802.1X User Settings ....................................................................................................................................213
Guest VLAN Settings ....................................................................................................................................214
RADIUS ................................................................................................................................................................216
Authentication RADIUS Server Settings .......................................................................................................216
RADIUS Accounting Settings ........................................................................................................................217
RADIUS Authentication .................................................................................................................................218
RADIUS Account Client ................................................................................................................................220
MAC-based Access Control (MAC) ......................................................................................................................221
MAC-based Access Control Settings ............................................................................................................222
MAC-based Access Control Local Settings...................................................................................................223
MAC-based Access Control Authentication State .........................................................................................225
Web-based Access Control (WAC) ......................................................................................................................225
WAC Global Settings ....................................................................................................................................227
WAC User Settings .......................................................................................................................................228
WAC Port Settings ........................................................................................................................................229
WAC Authentication State.............................................................................................................................230
Compound Authentication ....................................................................................................................................231
Compound Authentication Settings ...............................................................................................................231
Port Security .........................................................................................................................................................232
Port Security Settings....................................................................................................................................232
Port Security VLAN Settings .........................................................................................................................234
Port Security Entries .....................................................................................................................................235
BPDU Attack Protection .......................................................................................................................................235
Loopback Detection Settings................................................................................................................................237
Traffic Segmentation Settings ..............................................................................................................................238
Access Authentication Control .............................................................................................................................238
Enable Admin ................................................................................................................................................240
Authentication Policy Settings .......................................................................................................................241
Application Authentication Settings ...............................................................................................................242
Authentication Server Group Settings ...........................................................................................................243
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Table of Contents
Authentication Server Settings ......................................................................................................................244
Login Method Lists Settings ..........................................................................................................................246
Enable Method Lists Settings........................................................................................................................247
Local Enable Password Settings...................................................................................................................249
SSL Settings.........................................................................................................................................................249
SSH ......................................................................................................................................................................252
SSH Settings .................................................................................................................................................253
SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings .....................................................................................254
SSH User Authentication List ........................................................................................................................256
Trusted Host Settings ...........................................................................................................................................257
Chapter 9: Network Application ............................................................................................................259
DHCP ...................................................................................................................................................................259
DHCP Relay ..................................................................................................................................................259
DHCP Relay Global Settings .................................................................................................................259
DHCP Relay VLAN Settings ..................................................................................................................262
DHCP Local Relay Settings ..........................................................................................................................262
SNTP ....................................................................................................................................................................263
SNTP Settings...............................................................................................................................................263
Time Zone Settings .......................................................................................................................................264
Flash File System Settings ...................................................................................................................................265
Chapter 10: OAM ....................................................................................................................................269
CFM......................................................................................................................................................................269
CFM Settings ................................................................................................................................................269
CFM Port Settings .........................................................................................................................................277
CFM MIPCCM Table .....................................................................................................................................278
CFM Loopback Settings ................................................................................................................................278
CFM Linktrace Settings .................................................................................................................................279
CFM Packet Counter.....................................................................................................................................280
CFM Fault Table ...........................................................................................................................................281
CFM MP Table ..............................................................................................................................................281
Ethernet OAM.......................................................................................................................................................282
Ethernet OAM Settings .................................................................................................................................282
Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings ...........................................................................................................283
Ethernet OAM Event Log ..............................................................................................................................284
Ethernet OAM Statistics ................................................................................................................................284
Cable Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................285
Chapter 11: Monitoring ..........................................................................................................................287
Utilization ..............................................................................................................................................................287
CPU Utilization ..............................................................................................................................................287
DRAM & Flash Utilization ..............................................................................................................................288
Port Utilization ...............................................................................................................................................288
Statistics ...............................................................................................................................................................290
Port Statistics ................................................................................................................................................290
Packets ..................................................................................................................................................290
Received (RX) ................................................................................................................................290
UMB_Cast (RX) ..............................................................................................................................292
Transmitted (TX) .............................................................................................................................294
Errors .....................................................................................................................................................296
Received (RX) ................................................................................................................................296
Transmitted (TX) .............................................................................................................................298
Packet Size ...................................................................................................................................................300
Mirror ....................................................................................................................................................................302
Port Mirror Settings .......................................................................................................................................302
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Table of Contents
RSPAN Settings ............................................................................................................................................303
sFlow ...................................................................................................................................................................304
sFlow Global Settings ...................................................................................................................................305
sFlow Analyzer Server Settings ....................................................................................................................305
sFlow Flow Sampler Settings ........................................................................................................................307
sFlow Counter Poller Settings .......................................................................................................................308
Ping Test ..............................................................................................................................................................308
Trace Route..........................................................................................................................................................310
Peripheral .............................................................................................................................................................311
Device Environment ......................................................................................................................................311
Chapter 12: Save and Tools ..................................................................................................................313
Save Configuration / Log ......................................................................................................................................313
Download firmware...............................................................................................................................................314
Download Firmware From TFTP ...................................................................................................................314
Download Firmware From HTTP...................................................................................................................315
Upload Firmware ..................................................................................................................................................315
Upload Firmware To TFTP............................................................................................................................315
Download Configuration .......................................................................................................................................316
Download Configuration From TFTP.............................................................................................................316
Download Configuration From HTTP ............................................................................................................317
Upload Configuration............................................................................................................................................317
Upload Configuration To TFTP .....................................................................................................................317
Upload Configuration To HTTP .....................................................................................................................318
Upload Log File ....................................................................................................................................................318
Upload Log To TFTP.....................................................................................................................................319
Upload Log To HTTP ....................................................................................................................................319
Reset ....................................................................................................................................................................320
Reboot System .....................................................................................................................................................321
Appendix A: System Log Entries..........................................................................................................323
Appendix B: Trap Log Entries...............................................................................................................337
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Preface Template Formats
Intended Readers
The EAS 200-24p Software Manual contains information for setup and management of the Switch. This
manual is intended for network managers familiar with network management concepts and
terminology.
Typographical Conventions
Convention
Description
[]
In a command line, square brackets indicate an optional entry.
For example: [copy filename] means that optionally you can type copy
followed by the name of the file. Do not type the brackets.
Bold font
Indicates a button, a toolbar icon, menu, or menu item.
For example: Click on the Apply button. Used for emphasis. May also indicate
system messages or prompts appearing on screen. For example: You have
mail. Bold font is also used to represent filenames, program names and
commands. For example: use the copy command.
Boldface Typewriter
Font
Indicates commands and responses to prompts that must be typed exactly as
printed in the manual.
Initial capital letter
Indicates a window name. Names of keys on the keyboard have initial
capitals.
For example: Click Enter.
Menu Name > Menu Option
Menu Name > Menu Option Indicates the menu structure.
Device > Port > Port Properties means the Port Properties menu option
under the Port menu option that is located under the Device menu.
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
NOTE
A NOTE indicates important information that helps make better use of the device.
CAUTION
A CAUTION indicates either potential damage to hardware or loss of data and tells how to avoid the
problem.
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Preface Template Formats
WARNING!
A WARNING indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or death.
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1
Web-based Switch
Configuration
CHAPTER
Introduction
All software functions of the EAS 200-24p switch can be managed, configured and monitored via the
embedded web-based (HTML) interface. Manage the Switch from remote stations anywhere on the
network through a standard browser. The browser acts as a universal access tool and can communicate
directly with the Switch using the HTTP protocol.
The Web-based management module and the Console program (and Telnet) are different ways to access
the same internal switching software and configure it. Thus, all settings encountered in web-based
management are the same as those found in the console program.
Login to the Web Manager
To begin managing the Switch, simply run the browser installed on your computer and point it to the IP
address you have defined for the device. The URL in the address bar should read something like: http:/
/192.168.69.123, where the numbers represent the IP address of the Switch.
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Chapter 1: Web-based Switch Configuration
This opens the management module's user authentication window, as seen below.
Figure 1: Enter Network Password window
Enter the Username and Password and click OK. This will open the Web-based user interface. The
Switch management features available in the web-based manager are explained below.
Web-based User Interface
The user interface provides access to various Switch configuration and management windows, allows
you to view performance statistics, and permits you to graphically monitor the system status.
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Web Pages
Areas of the User Interface
The figure below shows the user interface. Three distinct areas divide the user interface, as described in
the table.
Figure 2: Main Web-Manager page
Area Number
Function
Area 1
Select the menu or window to display. Open folders and click the hyperlinked menu
buttons and subfolders contained within them to display menus. Click the Extreme logo to
go to the Extreme website.
Area 2
Presents a graphical near real-time image of the front panel of the Switch. This area
displays the Switch's ports, console and management port, showing port activity.
Some management functions, including save, reboot, download and upload are accessible
here.
Area 3
Presents switch information based on user selection and the entry of configuration data.
Web Pages
When connecting to the management mode of the Switch with a web browser, a login screen is
displayed. Enter a user name and password to access the Switch's management mode.
Below is a list of the main folders available in the Web interface:
●
System Configuration - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the
Switch’s configuration.
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Chapter 1: Web-based Switch Configuration
●
Management - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s
management.
●
L2 Features - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Layer 2
functionality of the Switch.
●
L3 Features - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Layer 3
functionality of the Switch.
●
QoS - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Quality of Service
functionality of the Switch.
●
ACL - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Access Control List
functionality of the Switch.
●
Security - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s security.
●
Network Application - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding network
applications handled by the Switch.
●
OAM - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s operations,
administration and maintenance (OAM).
●
Monitoring - In this section the user will be able to monitor the Switch’s configuration and statistics.
NOTE
Be sure to configure the user name and password in the User Accounts menu before connecting the
Switch to the greater network.
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2
System Configuration
CHAPTER
Device Information
This window contains the main settings for all the major functions for the Switch. It appears
automatically when you log on to the Switch. To return to the Device Information window after
viewing other windows, click the EAS 200-24p link.
The Device Information window shows the Switch’s MAC Address (assigned by the factory and
unchangeable), the Boot PROM Version, Firmware Version, Hardware Version, and many other
important types of information. This is helpful to keep track of PROM and firmware updates and to
obtain the Switch’s MAC address for entry into another network device’s address table, if necessary. In
addition, this window displays the status of functions on the Switch to quickly assess their current
global status.
Many functions are hyper-linked for easy access to enable quick configuration from this window.
Figure 3: Device Information window
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
Click the Settings link to navigate to the appropriate feature page for configuration.
System Information Settings
The user can enter a System Name, System Location, and System Contact to aid in defining the
Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Information Settings, as show
below:
Figure 4: System Information Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Name
Enter a system name for the Switch, if so desired. This name will identify it in
the Switch network.
System Location
Enter the location of the Switch, if so desired.
System Contact
Enter a contact name for the Switch, if so desired.
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
Port Configuration
Port Settings
This page used to configure the details of the switch ports.
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Port Configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Settings, as
show below:
Figure 5: Port Settings window
To configure switch ports:
1 Choose the port or sequential range of ports using the From Port and To Port pull-down menus.
2 Use the remaining pull-down menus to configure the parameters described below:
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the appropriate port range used for the configuration here.
State
Toggle the State field to either enable or disable a given port or group of
ports.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
Parameter
Description
Speed/Duplex
Toggle the Speed/Duplex field to select the speed and full-duplex/half-duplex
state of the port. Auto denotes auto-negotiation among 10, 100 and 1000
Mbps devices, in full- or half-duplex (except 1000 Mbps which is always full
duplex). The Auto setting allows the port to automatically determine the fastest
settings the device the port is connected to can handle, and then to use those
settings. The other options are 10M Half, 10M Full, 100M Half, 100M Full,
1000M Full_Master, 1000M Full_Slave, and 1000M Full. There is no automatic
adjustment of port settings with any option other than Auto.
The Switch allows the user to configure three types of gigabit connections;
1000M Full_Master, 1000M Full_Slave, and 1000M Full. Gigabit connections
only support full duplex connections and take on certain characteristics that
are different from the other choices listed.
The 1000M Full_Master and 1000M Full_Slave parameters refer to
connections running a 1000BASE-T cable for connection between the Switch
port and other device capable of a gigabit connection. The master setting
(1000M Full_Master) will allow the port to advertise capabilities related to
duplex, speed and physical layer type. The master setting will also determine
the master and slave relationship between the two connected physical layers.
This relationship is necessary for establishing the timing control between the
two physical layers. The timing control is set on a master physical layer by a
local source. The slave setting (1000M Full_Slave) uses loop timing, where
the timing comes from a data stream received from the master. If one
connection is set for 1000M Full_Master, the other side of the connection must
be set for 1000M Full_Slave. Any other configuration will result in a link down
status for both ports.
Flow Control
Displays the flow control scheme used for the various port configurations.
Ports configured for full-duplex use 802.3x flow control, half-duplex ports use
backpressure flow control, and Auto ports use an automatic selection of the
two. The default is Disabled.
Connection
Here the current connection speed will be displayed.
MDIX
Auto - Select auto for auto sensing of the optimal type of cabling.
Normal - Select normal for normal cabling. If set to normal state, the port is in
MDI mode and can be connected to a PC NIC using a straight-through cable
or a port (in MDI mode) on another switch through a cross-over cable.
Cross - Select cross for cross cabling. If set to cross state, the port is in MDIX
mode, and can be connected to a port (in MDI mode) on another switch
through a straight cable.
Address Learning
Enable or disable MAC address learning for the selected ports. When
Enabled, destination and source MAC addresses are automatically listed in
the forwarding table. When address learning is Disabled, MAC addresses
must be manually entered into the forwarding table. This is sometimes done
for reasons of security or efficiency. See the section on Forwarding/Filtering
for information on entering MAC addresses into the forwarding table. The
default setting is Enabled.
Medium Type
If configuring the Combo ports, this defines the type of transport medium to be
used.
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display section of this page.
Port Description Settings
The Switch supports a port description feature where the user may name various ports.
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Port Configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Description
Settings, as show below:
Figure 6: Port Description Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the appropriate port range used for the configuration here.
Medium Type
Specify the medium type for the selected ports. If configuring the Combo
ports, the Medium Type defines the type of transport medium to be used,
whether Copper or Fiber.
Description
Users may then enter a description for the chosen port(s).
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
Port Error Disabled
The following window displays the information about ports that have been disconnected by the Switch
when a packet storm occurs or a loop was detected.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Error
Disabled, as show below:
Figure 7: Port Error Disabled
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
The fields that can be displayed are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Display the port that has been error disabled.
Port State
Describe the current running state of the port, whether enabled or disabled.
Connection Status
Display the uplink status of the individual ports, whether enabled or disabled.
Reason
Describe the reason why the port has been error-disabled, such as it has
become a shutdown port for storm control.
Jumbo Frame Settings
The Switch supports jumbo frames. Jumbo frames are Ethernet frames with more than 1,518 bytes of
payload. The Switch supports jumbo frames with a maximum frame size of up to 13312 bytes.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Jumbo Frame
Settings, as show below:
Figure 8: Jumbo Frame Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Jumbo Frame
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the Jumbo Frame function on the
Switch. The default is Disabled. When disabled, the maximum frame size is
1536 bytes. When enabled, the maximum frame size is 13312 bytes.
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
PoE
The EAS 200-24p Switch support Power over Ethernet (PoE) as defined by the IEEE 802.3af and 802.3at.
All ports can support PoE up to 30W. Ports 1-24 can supply about 48 VDC power to Powered Devices
(PDs) over Category 5 or Category 3 UTP Ethernet cables. The Switch follows the standard PSE (Power
Sourcing Equipment) pinout Alternative A, whereby power is sent out over pins 1, 2, 3 and 6. The
Switches work with all Extreme 802.3af capable devices.
The Switch includes the following PoE features:
●
Auto-discovery recognizes the connection of a PD (Powered Device) and automatically sends power
to it.
●
The Auto-disable feature occurs under two conditions: firstly, if the total power consumption
exceeds the system power limit; and secondly, if the per port power consumption exceeds the per
port power limit.
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PoE
●
Active circuit protection automatically disables the port if there is a short. Other ports will remain
active.
Based on 802.3af/at PDs receive power according to the following classification:
Class
Maximum power available to PD
0
15.4W
1
4.0W
2
7.0W
3
15.4W
4
15.4W
PSE provides power according to the following classification:
Class
Max power used by PSE
0
16.2W
1
4.2W
2
7.4W
3
16.2W
User define
31.2W
To configure the PoE features on the Switch, click System Configuration > PoE. The PoE System
Settings window is used to assign a power limit and power disconnect method for the whole PoE
system. To configure the Power Limit for the PoE system, enter a value between 1W and 370W for the
Switch in the Power Limit field. When the total consumed power exceeds the power limit, the PoE
controller (located in the PSE) disconnects the power to prevent overloading the power supply.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
PoE System Settings
To view the following window, click System Configuration > PoE > PoE System Settings, as show
below:
Figure 9: PoE System Settings window
The following parameters can be configured:
Parameter
Description
Power Limit (37-740)
Sets the limit of power to be used from the Switch’s power source to PoE
ports. The user may configure a Power Limit between 37W and 740W for the
Switch. The default setting is 740W.
Power Disconnect Method
The PoE controller uses either Deny Next Port or Deny Low Priority Port to
offset the power limit being exceeded and keeps the Switch’s power at a
usable level. Use the drop down menu to select a Power Disconnect
Method. The default Power Disconnect Method is Deny Next Port. Both
Power Disconnection Methods are described below:
Deny Next Port – After the power limit has been exceeded, the next port
attempting to power up is denied, regardless of its priority. If Power
Disconnection Method is set to Deny Next Port, the system cannot utilize out
of its maximum power capacity. The maximum unused watt is 19W.
Deny Low Priority Port – After the power limit has been exceeded, the next
port attempting to power up causes the port with the lowest priority to shut
down so as to allow the high-priority and critical priority ports to power up.
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PoE
Parameter
Description
Legacy PD
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable detecting legacy PDs signal.
Click Apply to implement changes made.
PoE Port Settings
To view the following window, click System Configuration > PoE > PoE Port Settings, as show below:
Figure 10: PoE Port Settings window
The following parameters can be configured:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports from the pull-down menus to be enabled or disabled
for PoE.
State
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable ports for PoE.
Time Range
Select a range of the time to the port set as POE. If Time Range is
configured, the power can only be supplied during the specified period of time.
Priority
Use the pull-down menu to select the priority of the PoE ports. Port priority
determines the priority which the system attempts to supply the power to the
ports. There are three levels of priority that can be selected, Critical, High, and
Low. When multiple ports happen to have the same level of priority, the port
ID will be used to determine the priority. The lower port ID has higher priority.
The setting of priority will affect the order of supplying power. Whether the
disconnect method is set to deny low priority port, the priority of each port will
be used by the system to manage the supply of power to ports.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
Parameter
Description
Power Limit
This function is used to configure the per-port power limit. If a port exceeds its
power limit, it will shut down.
Based on 802.3af/802.3at, there are different PD classes and power
consumption ranges;
•
Class 0 – 0.44~15.4W
•
Class 1 – 0.44~4.0W
•
Class 2 – 4~7.0W
•
Class 3 – 7~15.4W
•
Class 4 – 15.4W
The following is the power limit applied to the port for these five classes. For
each class, the power limit is a little more than the power consumption range
for that class. This takes into account any power loss on the cable. Thus, the
following are the typical values;
•
Class 0 – 16200mW
•
Class 1 – 4200mW
•
Class 2 – 7400mW
•
Class 3 – 16200mW
•
User Define – 35000mW
Click Apply to implement changes made. The port status of all PoE configured ports is displayed in the
table in the bottom half of the screen shown above.
Serial Port Settings
This window allows the user to adjust the Baud Rate and the Auto Logout values.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Serial Port Settings, as show below:
Figure 11: Serial Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Baud Rate
Specify the baud rate for the serial port on the Switch. There are four possible
baud rates to choose from, 9600, 19200, 38400 and 115200. For a connection
to the Switch using the console port, the baud rate must be set to 9600, which
is the default setting.
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Warning Temperature Settings
Parameter
Description
Auto Logout
Select the logout time used for the console interface. This automatically logs
the user out after an idle period of time, as defined. Choose from the following
options: 2, 5, 10, 15 minutes or Never. The default setting is 10 minutes.
Data Bits
Display the data bits used for the serial port connection.
Parity Bits
Display the parity bits used for the serial port connection.
Stop Bits
Display the stop bits used for the serial port connection.
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
Warning Temperature Settings
This window allows the user to configure the system warning temperature parameters.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Warning Temperature Settings, as show
below:
Figure 12: Warning Temperature Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
Log State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the log state option of the
warning temperature setting.
High Threshold
Enter the high threshold value of the warning temperature setting.
Low Threshold
Enter the low threshold value of the warning temperature setting.
Click the Apply button to implement changes made.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
System Log configuration
System Log Settings
The Switch allows users to choose a method for which to save the switch log to the flash memory of the
Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log
Settings, as show below:
Figure 13: System Log Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Log
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the system log settings. Click the
Apply button to accept the changes made.
Save Mode
Use the pull-down menu to choose the method for saving the switch log to the
flash memory. The user has three options:
On Demand – Users who choose this method will only save log files when
they manually tell the Switch to do so, either using the Save Log link in the
Save folder.
Time Interval – Users who choose this method can configure a time interval
by which the Switch will save the log files, in the box adjacent to this
configuration field. The user may set a time between 1 and 65535 minutes.
Log Trigger – Users who choose this method will have log files saved to the
Switch every time a log event occurs on the Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
System Log Server Settings
The Switch can send System log messages to up to four designated servers using the System Log Server.
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System Log configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log
Server Settings, as show below:
Figure 14: System Log Server Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Server ID
Syslog server settings index (1 to 4).
Server IPv4 Address
The IPv4 address of the Syslog server.
Server IPv6 Address
The IPv6 address of the Syslog server.
UDP Port
Type the UDP port number used for sending Syslog messages. The default is
514.
Severity
Use the drop-down menu to select the higher level of messages that will be
sent. All messages which level is higher than selecting level will be sent. The
options are Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational
and Debug.
Facility
Use the drop-down menu to select Local 0, Local 1, Local 2, Local 3, Local 4,
Local 5, Local 6, or Local 7.
Status
Choose Enabled or Disabled to activate or deactivate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Delete All button to remove all servers configured.
System Log
Users can view and delete the local history log as compiled by the Switch's management agent.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System
Log, as show below:
Figure 15: System Log window
The Switch can record event information in its own log. Click Go to go to the next page of the System
Log window.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Log Type
In the drop-down menu the user can select the log type that will be displayed.
Severity - When selecting Severity from the drop-down menu, a secondary tick
must be made. Secondary ticks are Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error,
Warning, Notice, Informational and Debug. To view all information in the
log, simply tick the All check box.
Module List - When selecting Module List, the module name must be manually
entered. Available modules are MSTP, ERPS, ERROR_LOG, and CFM_EXT.
Attack Log - When selecting Attack Log all attacks will be listed.
Index
A counter incremented whenever an entry to the Switch's history log is made.
The table displays the last entry (highest sequence number) first.
Time
Display the time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds since the Switch was
last restarted.
Level
Display the level of the log entry.
Log Text
Display text describing the event that triggered the history log entry.
Click the Find button to display the log in the display section according to the selection made.
Click the Clear Log button to clear the entries from the log in the display section.
Click the Clear Attack Log button to clear the entries from the attack log in the display section.
System Log & Trap Settings
The Switch allows users to configure the system log source IP interface addresses here.
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System Log configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log
& Trap Settings, as show below:
Figure 16: System Log & Trap Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the IP interface name used.
IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address used.
IPv6 Address
Enter the IPv6 address used.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
System Severity Settings
The Switch can be configured to allow alerts be logged or sent as a trap to an SNMP agent. The level at
which the alert triggers either a log entry or a trap message can be set as well. Use the System Severity
Settings window to set the criteria for alerts. The current settings are displayed below the System
Severity Table.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System
Severity Settings, as show below:
Figure 17: System Severity Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Severity
Choose how the alerts are used from the drop-down menu. Select Log to
send the alert of the Severity Type configured to the Switch’s log for analysis.
Severity Level
This drop-down menu allows you to select the level of messages that will be
sent. The options are Emergency (0), Alert (1), Critical (2), Error (3), Warning
(4), Notice (5), Information (6) and Debug (7).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Time Range Settings
Time range is a time period that the respective function will take an effect on, such as ACL. For
example, the administrator can configure the time-based ACL to allow users to surf the Internet on
every Saturday and every Sunday, meanwhile to deny users to surf the Internet on weekdays.
The user may enter up to 64 time range entries on the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Time Range Settings, as show below:
Figure 18: Time Range Settings window
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Port Group Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Range Name
Enter a name of no more than 32 alphanumeric characters that will be used to
identify this time range on the Switch. This range name will be used in the
Access Profile table to identify the access profile and associated rule to be
enabled during this time range.
Hours
This parameter is used to set the time in the day that this time range is to be
enabled using the following parameters:
Start Time - Use this parameter to identify the starting time of the time range,
in hours, minutes and seconds, based on the 24-hour time system.
End Time - Use this parameter to identify the ending time of the time range, in
hours, minutes and seconds, based on the 24-hour time system.
Weekdays
Use the check boxes to select the corresponding days of the week that this
time range is to be enabled. Tick the Select All Days check box to configure
this time range for every day of the week.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made. Current configured entries will be displayed in the
Time Range Information table in the bottom half of the window shown above.
Port Group Settings
This window is used to create port groups, and add or delete ports from the port groups.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 19: Port Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group Name
Enter the name of a port group.
Group ID (1-64)
Enter the ID of a port group
Port List
Enter a port or list of ports. Tick the All check box to apply to all ports.
Action
Use the drop-down menu to select Create Port Group, Add Ports or Delete
Ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
Time Settings
Users can configure the time settings for the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Time Settings, as show below:
Figure 20: Time Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Date (DD/MM/YYYY)
Enter the current day, month, and year to update the system clock.
Time (HH: MM: SS)
Enter the current time in hours, minutes, and seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
User Accounts Settings
The Switch allows the control of user privileges.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > User Accounts Settings, as show below:
Figure 21: User Accounts Settings window
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Command Logging Settings
To add a new user, type in a User Name and New Password and retype the same password in the
Confirm New Password field. Choose the level of privilege (Admin, Operator, Power User or User)
from the Access Right drop-down menu.
Management
Admin
Operator
Power User
User
Configuration
Read/Write
Read/Write–
partly
Read/Write–
partly
No
Network Monitoring
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read-only
Read-only
Community Strings and Trap Stations
Read/Write
Read-only
Read-only
Read-only
Update Firmware and Configuration Files Read/Write
No
No
No
System Utilities
Read/Write
Read-only
Read-only
Read-only
Factory Reset
Read/Write
No
No
No
Add/Update/Delete User Accounts
Read/Write
No
No
No
View User Accounts
Read/Write
No
No
No
User Account Management
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name
Enter a new user name for the Switch.
Password
Enter a new password for the Switch.
Confirm Password
Re-type in a new password for the Switch.
Access Right
Specify the access right for this user.
Encryption
Specifies that encryption will be applied to this account. Option to choose from
are Plain Text, and SHA-1.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
CAUTION
In case of lost passwords or password corruption, please refer to the appendix chapter entitled, “Password
Recovery Procedure,” which will guide you through the steps necessary to resolve this issue.
NOTE
The username and password should be less than 16 characters.
Command Logging Settings
This window is used to enable or disable the command logging settings.
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Chapter 2: System Configuration
To view this window, click System Configuration > Command Logging Settings, as shown below:
Figure 22: Command Logging Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Command Logging State
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the function.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
When the switch is under the booting procedure, all configuration commands will not be logged. When the
user uses AAA authentication to logged in, the user name should not be changed if the user has used the Enable
Admin function to replace its privilege.
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3
Management
CHAPTER
ARP
Static ARP Settings
The Address Resolution Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol that converts IP addresses into physical
addresses. This table allows network managers to view, define, modify, and delete ARP information for
specific devices. Static entries can be defined in the ARP table. When static entries are defined, a
permanent entry is entered and is used to translate IP addresses to MAC addresses.
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > Static ARP Settings, as show below:
Figure 23: Static ARP Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ARP Aging Time (0-65535)
The ARP entry age-out time, in minutes. The default is 20 minutes.
IP Address
The IP address of the ARP entry.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the ARP entry.
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Chapter 3: Management
Click the Apply button, located in the Global Settings section to accept the changes made in this
section.
Click the Apply button, located in the Add Static ARP Entry section to accept the changes made in this
section.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Proxy ARP Settings
The Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) feature of the Switch will allow the Switch to reply to
ARP requests destined for another device by faking its identity (IP and MAC Address) as the original
ARP responder. Therefore, the Switch can then route packets to the intended destination without
configuring static routing or a default gateway.
The host, usually a layer 3 switch, will respond to packets destined for another device. For example, if
hosts A and B are on different physical networks, B will not receive ARP broadcast requests from A and
therefore cannot respond. Yet, if the physical network of A is connected by a router or layer 3 switch to
B, the router or Layer 3 switch will see the ARP request from A.
This lovcal proxy ARP function allows the Switch to respond to the proxy ARP, if the source IP and
destination IP are in the same interface.
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > Proxy ARP Settings, as show below:
Figure 24: Proxy ARP Settings window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry and select the proxy ARP state of the IP interface.
By default, both the Proxy ARP State and Local Proxy ARP State are disabled.
ARP Table
Users can display current ARP entries on the Switch.
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Gratuitous ARP
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > ARP Table, as show below:
Figure 25: ARP Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter or view the Interface name used.
IP Address
Enter or view the IP Address used.
MAC Address
Enter or view the MAC Address used.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show Static button to display only the static entries in the display table.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
Gratuitous ARP
Gratuitous ARP Global Settings
The user can enable or disable the gratuitous ARP global settings here.
To view the following window, click Management > Gratuitous ARP > Gratuitous ARP Global
Settings, as show below:
Figure 26: Gratuitous ARP Global Settings Window
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Chapter 3: Management
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Send On IP Interface Status Up The command is used to enable/disable sending of gratuitous ARP request
packet while the IPIF interface become up. This is used to automatically
announce the interface’s IP address to other nodes. By default, the state is
disabled, and only one gratuitous ARP packet will be broadcast.
Send On Duplicate IP Detected
The command is used to enable/disable the sending of gratuitous ARP
request packet while a duplicate IP is detected. By default, the state is
disabled. For this command, the duplicate IP detected means that the system
received an ARP request packet that is sent by an IP address that match the
system’s own IP address. In this case, the system knows that somebody out
there uses an IP address that is conflict with the system. In order to reclaim
the correct host of this IP address, the system can send out the gratuitous
ARP request packets for this duplicate IP address.
Gratuitous ARP Learning
Normally, the system will only learn the ARP reply packet or a normal ARP
request packet that asks for the MAC address that corresponds to the
system’s IP address. The command is used to enable/disable learning of ARP
entry in ARP cache based on the received gratuitous ARP packet. The
gratuitous ARP packet is sent by a source IP address that is identical to the IP
that the packet is queries for. By default, the state is Disabled status.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
With the gratuitous ARP learning, the system will not learn new entry but only do the update on the ARP
table based on the received gratuitous ARP packet.
Gratuitous ARP Settings
The user can configure the IP interface’s gratuitous ARP parameter.
To view the following window, click Management > Gratuitous ARP > Gratuitous ARP Settings, as
show below:
Figure 27: Gratuitous ARP Settings window
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IPv6 Neighbor Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Log
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the logging option. By default
the event log is enabled.
Interface Name
Enter the interface name of the Layer 3 interface. Select All to enable or
disable gratuitous ARP trap or log on all interfaces.
Interval Time
Enter the periodically send gratuitous ARP interval time in seconds. 0 means
that gratuitous ARP request will not be sent periodically. By default the interval
time is 0.
Click the Apply button, located in the Gratuitous ARP Trap/Log section to accept the changes made in
this section.
Click the Apply button, located in the Gratuitous ARP Periodical Send Interval section to accept the
changes made in this section.
IPv6 Neighbor Settings
The user can configure the Switch’s IPv6 neighbor settings. The Switch’s current IPv6 neighbor settings
will be displayed in the table at the bottom of this window.
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Chapter 3: Management
To view the following window, click Management > IPv6 Neighbor Settings, as show below:
Figure 28: IPv6 Neighbor Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the interface name of the IPv6 neighbor.
Neighbor IPv6 Address
Enter the neighbor IPv6 address.
Link Layer MAC Address
Enter the link layer MAC address.
Interface Name
Enter the name of the IPv6 neighbor. Tick the All check box to search for all
current interfaces on the Switch.
State
Use the drop-down menu to select All, Address, Static, or Dynamic. When the
user selects address from the drop-down menu, the user will be able to enter
an IP address in the space provided next to the state option.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
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IP Interface
IP Interface
System IP Address Settings
The IP address may initially be set using the console interface prior to connecting to it through the
Ethernet. The Web manager will display the Switch’s current IP settings.
To view the following window, click Management > IP Interface > System IP Address Settings, as
show below:
Figure 29: System IP Address Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static
Allow the entry of an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway for the
Switch. These fields should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is
a number (represented in decimal form) between 0 and 255. This address
should be a unique address on the network assigned for use by the network
administrator.
DHCP
The Switch will send out a DHCP broadcast request when it is powered up.
The DHCP protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default
gateways to be assigned by a DHCP server. If this option is set, the Switch
will first look for a DHCP server to provide it with this information before using
the default or previously entered settings.
BOOTP
The Switch will send out a BOOTP broadcast request when it is powered up.
The BOOTP protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default
gateways to be assigned by a central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the
Switch will first look for a BOOTP server to provide it with this information
before using the default or previously entered settings.
The following table will describe the fields that are about the System Interface.
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Display the System interface name.
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Chapter 3: Management
Parameter
Description
Management VLAN Name
This allows the entry of a VLAN name from which a management station will
be allowed to manage the Switch using TCP/IP (in-band via Web manager or
Telnet). Management stations that are on VLANs other than the one entered
here will not be able to manage the Switch in-band unless their IP addresses
are entered in the Trusted Host window (Security > Trusted Host). If VLANs
have not yet been configured for the Switch, the default VLAN contains all of
the Switch’s ports. There are no entries in the Trusted Host table, by default,
so any management station that can connect to the Switch can access the
Switch until a management VLAN is specified or Management Station IP
addresses are assigned.
Interface Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the configuration on this
interface. If the state is disabled, the IP interface cannot be accessed.
IP Address
This field allows the entry of an IPv4 address to be assigned to this IP
interface.
Subnet Mask
A Bitmask that determines the extent of the subnet that the Switch is on.
Should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number
(represented in decimal) between 0 and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0
for a Class A network, 255.255.0.0 for a Class B network, and 255.255.255.0
for a Class C network, but custom subnet masks are allowed.
Gateway
IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside
the current subnet should be sent. This is usually the address of a router or a
host acting as an IP gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet, or you
do not want the Switch to be accessible outside your local network, you can
leave this field unchanged.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Interface Settings
Users can display the Switch’s current IP interface settings.
To view the following window, click Management > IP Interface > Interface Settings, as show below:
Figure 30: Interface Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the name of the IP interface to search for.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the IPv4 Edit button to edit the IPv4 settings for the specific entry.
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IP Interface
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the IPv6 Edit button to edit the IPv6 settings for the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE
To create IPv6 interfaces, the user has to create an IPv4 interface then edit it to IPv6.
Click the Add button to see the following window.
Figure 31: IPv4 Interface Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface Name
Enter the name of the IP interface being created.
IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address used.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IPv4 subnet mask used.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN Name used.
Interface Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
Secondary Interface
Tick the check box to use this Interface as a Secondary Interface. When the
primary IP is not available, the VLAN will switch to the secondary interface. It
will switch back when the primary IP was recovered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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Click the IPv4 Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 32: IPv4 Interface Settings – Edit window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Get IP From
Use the drop-down menu to specify the method that this Interface uses to
acquire an IP address.
Interface Name
Enter the name of the IP interface being configured.
IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address used.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IPv4 subnet mask used.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN Name used.
IPv4 State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable IPv4 State.
Interface Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the IPv6 Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 33: IPv6 Interface Settings window
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Management Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Here the IPv6 interface name is displayed
IPv6 State
Here the user can select to enable or disable IPv6 State.
Interface Admin State
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
IPv6 Network Address
Here the user can enter the neighbor’s global or local link address.
NS Retransmit Time
Enter the Neighbor solicitation’s retransmit timer in millisecond here. It has the
same value as the RA retransmit time in the config ipv6 nd ra command. If
this field is configured, it will duplicate the entry into the RA field.
Automatic Link Local Address
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Automatic Link Local
Address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the View All IPv6 Address link to view all the current IPv6 address.
Click the View All IPv6 Address link to see the following window.
Figure 34: IPv6 Interface Settings window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Management Settings
Users can stop the scrolling of multiple pages beyond the limits of the console when using the
Command Line Interface.
This window is also used to enable the DHCP auto configuration feature on the Switch. When enabled,
the Switch is instructed to receive a configuration file from a TFTP server, which will set the Switch to
become a DHCP client automatically on boot-up. To employ this method, the DHCP server must be set
up to deliver the TFTP server IP address and configuration file name information in the DHCP reply
packet. The TFTP server must be up and running and hold the necessary configuration file stored in its
base directory when the request is received from the Switch. For more information about loading a
configuration file for use by a client, see the DHCP server and/or TFTP server software instructions.
The user may also consult the Upload Log File window description located in the Tools section of this
manual.
If the Switch is unable to complete the DHCP auto configuration, the previously saved configuration file
present in the Switch’s memory will be used.
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Chapter 3: Management
This window also allows the user to implement the Switch’s built-in power saving feature. When power
saving is enabled, a port which has a link down status will be turned off to save power to the Switch.
This will not affect the port’s capabilities when the port status is link up.
Users can also configure Password Encryption on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Management Settings, as show below:
Figure 35: Management Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
CLI Paging State
Command Line Interface paging stops each page at the end of the console.
This allows you to stop the scrolling of multiple pages of text beyond the limits
of the console. CLI Paging is Enabled by default. To disable it, click the
Disabled radio button.
DHCP Auto Configuration State Enable or disable the Switch’s DHCP auto configuration feature. When
enabled, the Switch is instructed to receive a configuration file from a TFTP
server, which will set the Switch to become a DHCP client automatically on
boot-up. To employ this method, the DHCP server must be set up to deliver
the TFTP server IP address and configuration file name information in the
DHCP reply packet. The TFTP server must be up and running and hold the
necessary configuration file stored in its base directory when the request is
received from the Switch.
Power Saving State
Enable or disable the link down power saving mode of each physical port. The
switch port will go into sleep mode when a port is not connected.
Length Detection State
Enable or disable the length detection power saving mode on the physical
ports. The switch port will reduce the power feed for shorter cables.
Password Encryption State
Password encryption will encrypt the password configuration in configuration
files. Password encryption is Disabled by default. To enable password
encryption, click the Enabled radio button.
Running Configuration
Under the Password Recovery option, the running configuration can be
enabled or disable. Being enabled, will allow the user to perform a password
recovery of the running configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Session Table
Session Table
Users can display the management sessions since the Switch was last rebooted.
To view the following window, click Management > Session Table, as show below:
Figure 36: Session Table window
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed
specifically for managing and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management
stations to read and modify the settings of gateways, routers, switches, and other network devices. Use
SNMP to configure system features for proper operation, monitor performance and detect potential
problems in the Switch, switch group or network.
Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on
the device. A defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to
manage the device. These objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides
a standard presentation of the information controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both
the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information over the network.
The Switch supports the SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of
security provided between the management station and the network device.
In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using ‘community strings’, which function
like passwords. The remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same
community string. SNMP packets from any station that has not been authenticated are ignored
(dropped).
The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
●
public – Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects.
●
private – Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
SNMPv3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part
is to maintain a list of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second
part describes what each user on that list can do as an SNMP manager.
The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The
SNMP version may also be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of
SNMP managers that are allowed to view read-only information or receive traps using SNMPv1 while
assigning a higher level of security to another group, granting read/write privileges using SNMPv3.
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Using SNMPv3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be
restricted from performing specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted
are defined using the Object Identifier (OID) associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of
security is available for SNMPv3 in that SNMP messages may be encrypted. To read more about how to
configure SNMPv3 settings for the Switch read the next section.
Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be
as serious as a reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status
change. The Switch generates traps and sends them to the trap recipient (or network manager). Typical
traps include trap messages for Authentication Failure, Topology Change and Broadcast\Multicast
Storm.
MIBs
The Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB) stores management and counter information.
The Switch uses the standard MIB-II Management Information Base module. Consequently, values for
MIB objects can be retrieved from any SNMP-based network management software. In addition to the
standard MIB-II, the Switch also supports its own proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended
Management Information Base. Specifying the MIB Object Identifier may also retrieve the proprietary
MIB. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write.
The Switch incorporates a flexible SNMP management for the switching environment. SNMP
management can be customized to suit the needs of the networks and the preferences of the network
administrator. Use the SNMP V3 menus to select the SNMP version used for specific tasks.
The Switch supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) versions 1, 2c, and 3. The
administrator can specify the SNMP version used to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions
of SNMP vary in the level of security provided between the management station and the network
device.
SNMP settings are configured using the menus located on the SNMP V3 folder of the Web manager.
Workstations on the network that are allowed SNMP privileged access to the Switch can be restricted
with the Management Station IP Address menu.
SNMP Global Settings
SNMP global state settings can be enabled or disabled.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Global Settings, as show
below:
Figure 37: SNMP Global Settings window
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SNMP Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNMP State
Enable this option to use the SNMP feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SNMP Traps Settings
Users can enable and disable the SNMP trap support function of the switch and SNMP authentication
failure trap support, respectively.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Traps Settings, as show
below:
Figure 38: SNMP Traps Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNMP Traps
Enable this option to use the SNMP Traps feature.
SNMP Authentication Trap
Enable this option to use the SNMP Authentication Traps feature.
Linkchange Traps
Enable this option to use the SNMP Link Change Traps feature.
Coldstart Traps
Enable this option to use the SNMP Cold Start Traps feature.
Warmstart Traps
Enable this option to use the SNMP Warm Start Traps feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SNMP Linkchange Traps Settings
On this page the user can configure the SNMP link change trap settings.
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To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Linkchange Traps
Settings, as show below:
Figure 39: SNMP Linkchange Traps Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the starting and ending ports to use.
State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the SNMP link change Trap.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SNMP View Table Settings
Users can assign views to community strings that define which MIB objects can be accessed by a remote
SNMP manager. The SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP
User Table) to the views created in the previous window.
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SNMP Settings
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP View Table Settings, as
show below:
Figure 40: SNMP View Table Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify
the new SNMP view being created.
Subtree OID
Type the Object Identifier (OID) Subtree for the view. The OID identifies an
object tree (MIB tree) that will be included or excluded from access by an
SNMP manager.
View Type
Select Included to include this object in the list of objects that an SNMP
manager can access. Select Excluded to exclude this object from the list of
objects that an SNMP manager can access.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Community Table Settings
Users can create an SNMP community string to define the relationship between the SNMP manager and
an agent. The community string acts like a password to permit access to the agent on the Switch. One or
more of the following characteristics can be associated with the community string:
●
An Access List of IP addresses of SNMP managers that are permitted to use the community string to
gain access to the Switch’s SNMP agent.
●
Any MIB view that defines the subset of all MIB objects will be accessible to the SNMP community.
●
Read/write or read-only level permission for the MIB objects accessible to the SNMP community.
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To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Community Table
Settings, as show below:
Figure 41: SNMP community Table Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Community Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify
members of an SNMP community. This string is used like a password to give
remote SNMP managers access to MIB objects in the Switch’s SNMP agent.
View Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify the
group of MIB objects that a remote SNMP manager is allowed to access on
the Switch. The view name must exist in the SNMP View Table.
Access Right
Read Only – Specify that SNMP community members using the community
string created can only read the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
Read Write – Specify that SNMP community members using the community
string created can read from, and write to the contents of the MIBs on the
Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Group Table Settings
An SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the
views created in the previous window.
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SNMP Settings
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Group Table Settings, as
show below:
Figure 42: SNMP Group Table Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group Name
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify
the new SNMP group of SNMP users.
Read View Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP
messages.
Write View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that are allowed SNMP write privileges
to the Switch’s SNMP agent.
Notify View Name
Specify a SNMP group name for users that can receive SNMP trap messages
generated by the Switch’s SNMP agent.
User-based Security Model
SNMPv1 – Specify that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specify that SNMP version 2c will be used. The SNMPv2 supports
both centralized and distributed network management strategies. It includes
improvements in the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and adds
some security features.
SNMPv3 – Specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used. SNMPv3 provides
secure access to devices through a combination of authentication and
encrypting packets over the network.
Security Level
The Security Level settings only apply to SNMPv3.
NoAuthNoPriv – Specify that there will be no authorization and no encryption
of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager.
AuthNoPriv – Specify that authorization will be required, but there will be no
encryption of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager.
AuthPriv – Specify that authorization will be required, and that packets sent
between the Switch and a remote SNMP manger will be encrypted.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Engine ID Settings
The Engine ID is a unique identifier used for SNMP V3 implementations on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Engine ID Settings, as
show below:
Figure 43: SNMP Engine ID Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Engine ID
To change the Engine ID, type the new Engine ID value in the space
provided. The SNMP engine ID displays the identification of the SNMP engine
on the Switch. The default value is suggested in RFC2271. The very first bit is
1, and the first four octets are set to the binary equivalent of the agent’s
SNMP management private enterprise number as assigned by IANA (Extreme
is 171). The fifth octet is 03 to indicate the rest is the MAC address of this
device. The sixth to eleventh octets is the MAC address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
The Engine ID length is 10-64 and accepted characters can range from 0 to F.
SNMP User Table Settings
This window displays all of the SNMP User’s currently configured on the Switch.
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SNMP Settings
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP User Table Settings, as
show below:
Figure 44: SNMP User Table Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name
An alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the
SNMP users.
Group Name
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP
messages.
SNMP Version
V3 – Indicates that SNMP version 3 is in use.
SNMP V3 Encryption
Use the drop-down menu to enable encryption for SNMP V3. This is only
operable in SNMP V3 mode. The choices are None, Password, or Key.
Auth-Protocol
MD5 – Specify that the HMAC-MD5-96 authentication level will be used. This
field is only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the
Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a
password.
SHA – Specify that the HMAC-SHA authentication protocol will be used. This
field is only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the
Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a
password.
Priv-Protocol
None – Specify that no authorization protocol is in use.
DES – Specify that DES 56-bit encryption is in use, based on the CBC-DES
(DES-56) standard. This field is only operable when V3 is selected in the
SNMP Version field and the Encryption field has been checked. This field will
require the user to enter a password.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Host Table Settings
Users can set up SNMP trap recipients for IPv4.
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To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Host Table Settings, as
show below:
Figure 45: SNMP Host Table Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Host IP Address
Type the IP address of the remote management station that will serve as the
SNMP host for the Switch.
User-based Security Model
SNMPv1 – Specify that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specify that SNMP version 2 will be used.
SNMPv3 – Specify that SNMP version 3 will be used.
Security Level
NoAuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a
NoAuth-NoPriv security level.
AuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an AuthNoPriv security level.
AuthPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-Priv
security level.
Community String / SNMP V3
User Name
Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMPv6 Host Table Settings
Users can set up SNMP trap recipients for IPv6.
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SNMP Settings
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMPv6 Host Table Settings,
as show below:
Figure 46: SNMPv6 Host Table Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Host IPv6 Address
Type the IPv6 address of the remote management station that will serve as
the SNMP host for the Switch.
User-based Security Model
SNMPv1 – Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specifies that SNMP version 2 will be used.
SNMPv3 – Specifies that SNMP version 3 will be used.
Security Level
NoAuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a
NoAuth-NoPriv security level.
AuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an AuthNoPriv security level.
AuthPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-Priv
security level.
Community String / SNMP V3
User Name
Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
RMON Settings
On this page the user can enable or disable remote monitoring (RMON) for the rising and falling alarm
trap feature for the SNMP function on the Switch.
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To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > RMON Settings, as show
below:
Figure 47: RMON Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RMON Rising Alarm Trap
Enable this option to use the RMON Rising Alarm Trap Feature.
RMON Falling Alarm Trap
Enable this option to use the RMON Falling Alarm Trap Feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Telnet Settings
Users can configure Telnet Settings on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Telnet Settings, as show below:
Figure 48: Telnet Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Telnet State
Telnet configuration is Enabled by default. If you do not want to allow
configuration of the system through Telnet choose Disabled.
Port (1-65535)
The TCP port number used for Telnet management of the Switch. The “wellknown” TCP port for the Telnet protocol is 23.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Web Settings
Web Settings
Users can configure the Web settings on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Web Settings, as show below:
Figure 49: Web Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Web Status
Web-based management is Enabled by default. If you choose to disable this
by clicking Disabled, you will lose the ability to configure the system through
the web interface as soon as these settings are applied.
Port (1-65535)
The TCP port number used for web-based management of the Switch. The
“well-known” TCP port for the Web protocol is 80.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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4
L2 Features
CHAPTER
VLAN
Understanding IEEE 802.1p Priority
Priority tagging is a function defined by the IEEE 802.1p standard designed to provide a means of
managing traffic on a network where many different types of data may be transmitted simultaneously.
It is intended to alleviate problems associated with the delivery of time critical data over congested
networks. The quality of applications that are dependent on such time critical data, such as video
conferencing, can be severely and adversely affected by even very small delays in transmission.
Network devices that are in compliance with the IEEE 802.1p standard have the ability to recognize the
priority level of data packets. These devices can also assign a priority label or tag to packets. Compliant
devices can also strip priority tags from packets. This priority tag determines the packet’s degree of
expeditiousness and determines the queue to which it will be assigned.
Priority tags are given values from 0 to 7 with 0 being assigned to the lowest priority data and 7
assigned to the highest. The highest priority tag 7 is generally only used for data associated with video
or audio applications, which are sensitive to even slight delays, or for data from specified end users
whose data transmissions warrant special consideration.
The Switch allows you to further tailor how priority tagged data packets are handled on your network.
Using queues to manage priority tagged data allows you to specify its relative priority to suit the needs
of your network. There may be circumstances where it would be advantageous to group two or more
differently tagged packets into the same queue. Generally, however, it is recommended that the highest
priority queue, Queue 7, be reserved for data packets with a priority value of 7. Packets that have not
been given any priority value are placed in Queue 0 and thus given the lowest priority for delivery.
Strict mode and weighted round robin system are employed on the Switch to determine the rate at
which the queues are emptied of packets. The ratio used for clearing the queues is 4:1. This means that
the highest priority queue, Queue 7, will clear 4 packets for every 1 packet cleared from Queue 0.
Remember, the priority queue settings on the Switch are for all ports, and all devices connected to the
Switch will be affected. This priority queuing system will be especially beneficial if your network
employs switches with the capability of assigning priority tags.
VLAN Description
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a network topology configured according to a logical scheme
rather than the physical layout. VLANs can be used to combine any collection of LAN segments into an
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Chapter 4: L2 Features
autonomous user group that appears as a single LAN. VLANs also logically segment the network into
different broadcast domains so that packets are forwarded only between ports within the VLAN.
Typically, a VLAN corresponds to a particular subnet, although not necessarily.
VLANs can enhance performance by conserving bandwidth, and improve security by limiting traffic to
specific domains.
A VLAN is a collection of end nodes grouped by logic instead of physical location. End nodes that
frequently communicate with each other are assigned to the same VLAN, regardless of where they are
physically on the network. Logically, a VLAN can be equated to a broadcast domain, because broadcast
packets are forwarded to only members of the VLAN on which the broadcast was initiated.
Notes about VLANs on the Switch
●
No matter what basis is used to uniquely identify end nodes and assign these nodes VLAN
membership, packets cannot cross VLANs without a network device performing a routing function
between the VLANs.
●
The Switch supports IEEE 802.1Q VLANs. The port untagging function can be used to remove the
802.1Q tag from packet headers to maintain compatibility with devices that are tag-unaware.
●
The Switch’s default is to assign all ports to a single 802.1Q VLAN named “default.”
●
The “default” VLAN has a VID = 1.
●
The member ports of Port-based VLANs may overlap, if desired.
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Some relevant terms:
●
Tagging – The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into the header of a packet.
●
Untagging – The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information out of the packet header.
●
Ingress port – A port on a switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions
must be made.
●
Egress port – A port on a switch where packets are flowing out of the Switch, either to another
switch or to an end station, and tagging decisions must be made.
IEEE 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs are implemented on the Switch. 802.1Q VLANs require tagging, which
enables them to span the entire network (assuming all switches on the network are IEEE 802.1Qcompliant).
VLANs allow a network to be segmented in order to reduce the size of broadcast domains. All packets
entering a VLAN will only be forwarded to the stations (over IEEE 802.1Q enabled switches) that are
members of that VLAN, and this includes broadcast, multicast and unicast packets from unknown
sources.
VLANs can also provide a level of security to your network. IEEE 802.1Q VLANs will only deliver
packets between stations that are members of the VLAN.
Any port can be configured as either tagging or untagging. The untagging feature of IEEE 802.1Q
VLANs allows VLANs to work with legacy switches that don’t recognize VLAN tags in packet headers.
The tagging feature allows VLANs to span multiple 802.1Q-compliant switches through a single
physical connection and allows Spanning Tree to be enabled on all ports and work normally.
The IEEE 802.1Q standard restricts the forwarding of untagged packets to the VLAN the receiving port
is a member of.
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VLAN
The main characteristics of IEEE 802.1Q are as follows:
●
Assigns packets to VLANs by filtering.
●
Assumes the presence of a single global spanning tree.
●
Uses an explicit tagging scheme with one-level tagging.
●
802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding
●
Packet forwarding decisions are made based upon the following three types of rules:
●
Ingress rules – rules relevant to the classification of received frames belonging to a VLAN.
●
Forwarding rules between ports – decides whether to filter or forward the packet.
●
Egress rules – determines if the packet must be sent tagged or untagged.
Figure 50: IEEE 802.1Q Packet Forwarding
802.1Q VLAN Tags
The figure below shows the 802.1Q VLAN tag. There are four additional octets inserted after the source
MAC address. Their presence is indicated by a value of 0x8100 in the EtherType field. When a packet’s
EtherType field is equal to 0x8100, the packet carries the IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p tag. The tag is contained
in the following two octets and consists of 3 bits of user priority, 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier
(CFI – used for encapsulating Token Ring packets so they can be carried across Ethernet backbones),
and 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID). The 3 bits of user priority are used by 802.1p. The VID is the VLAN
identifier and is used by the 802.1Q standard. Because the VID is 12 bits long, 4094 unique VLANs can
be identified.
The tag is inserted into the packet header making the entire packet longer by 4 octets. All of the
information originally contained in the packet is retained.
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Figure 51: IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The EtherType and VLAN ID are inserted after the MAC source address, but before the original
EtherType/Length or Logical Link Control. Because the packet is now a bit longer than it was originally,
the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) must be recalculated.
Figure 52: Adding an IEEE 802.1Q Tag
Port VLAN ID
Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q
compliant network device to another with the VLAN information intact. This allows 802.1Q VLANs to
span network devices (and indeed, the entire network, if all network devices are 802.1Q compliant).
Unfortunately, not all network devices are 802.1Q compliant. These devices are referred to as tagunaware. 802.1Q devices are referred to as tag-aware.
Prior to the adoption of 802.1Q VLANs, port-based and MAC-based VLANs were in common use.
These VLANs relied upon a Port VLAN ID (PVID) to forward packets. A packet received on a given
port would be assigned that port’s PVID and then be forwarded to the port that corresponded to the
packet’s destination address (found in the Switch’s forwarding table). If the PVID of the port that
received the packet is different from the PVID of the port that is to transmit the packet, the Switch will
drop the packet.
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VLAN
Within the Switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs (remember that two VLANs cannot
communicate without an external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the PVIDs cannot create
VLANs that extend outside a given switch (or switch stack).
Every physical port on a switch has a PVID. 802.1Q ports are also assigned a PVID, for use within the
Switch. If no VLANs are defined on the Switch, all ports are then assigned to a default VLAN with a
PVID equal to 1. Untagged packets are assigned the PVID of the port on which they were received.
Forwarding decisions are based upon this PVID, in so far as VLANs are concerned. Tagged packets are
forwarded according to the VID contained within the tag. Tagged packets are also assigned a PVID, but
the PVID is not used to make packet-forwarding decisions, the VID is.
Tag-aware switches must keep a table to relate PVIDs within the Switch to VIDs on the network. The
Switch will compare the VID of a packet to be transmitted to the VID of the port that is to transmit the
packet. If the two VIDs are different, the Switch will drop the packet. Because of the existence of the
PVID for untagged packets and the VID for tagged packets, tag-aware and tag-unaware network
devices can coexist on the same network.
A switch port can have only one PVID, but can have as many VIDs as the Switch has memory in its
VLAN table to store them.
Because some devices on a network may be tag-unaware, a decision must be made at each port on a
tag-aware device before packets are transmitted – should the packet to be transmitted have a tag or not?
If the transmitting port is connected to a tag-unaware device, the packet should be untagged. If the
transmitting port is connected to a tag-aware device, the packet should be tagged.
Tagging and Untagging
Every port on an 802.1Q compliant switch can be configured as tagging or untagging.
Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority and other VLAN information into the
header of all packets that flow into and out of it.
If a packet has previously been tagged, the port will not alter the packet, thus keeping the VLAN
information intact. Other 802.1Q compliant devices on the network to make packet-forwarding
decisions can then use the VLAN information in the tag.
Ports with untagging enabled will strip the 802.1Q tag from all packets that flow into and out of those
ports. If the packet doesn’t have an 802.1Q VLAN tag, the port will not alter the packet. Thus, all
packets received by and forwarded by an untagging port will have no 802.1Q VLAN information.
(Remember that the PVID is only used internally within the Switch). Untagging is used to send packets
from an 802.1Q-compliant network device to a non-compliant network device.
Ingress Filtering
A port on a switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made is
referred to as an ingress port. If ingress filtering is enabled for a port, the Switch will examine the
VLAN information in the packet header (if present) and decide whether or not to forward the packet.
If the packet is tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will first determine if the ingress port
itself is a member of the tagged VLAN. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. If the ingress port is a
member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the Switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the
802.1Q VLAN. If it is not, the packet is dropped. If the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q
VLAN, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it to its attached network segment.
If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will tag the packet with its own
PVID as a VID (if the port is a tagging port). The switch then determines if the destination port is a
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member of the same VLAN (has the same VID) as the ingress port. If it does not, the packet is dropped.
If it has the same VID, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it on its attached
network segment.
This process is referred to as ingress filtering and is used to conserve bandwidth within the Switch by
dropping packets that are not on the same VLAN as the ingress port at the point of reception. This
eliminates the subsequent processing of packets that will just be dropped by the destination port.
Default VLANs
The Switch initially configures one VLAN, VID = 1, called “default.” The factory default setting assigns
all ports on the Switch to the “default.” As new VLANs are configured in Port-based mode, their
respective member ports are removed from the “default.”
Packets cannot cross VLANs. If a member of one VLAN wants to connect to another VLAN, the link
must be through an external router.
NOTE
If no VLANs are configured on the Switch, then all packets will be forwarded to any destination port.
Packets with unknown source addresses will be flooded to all ports. Broadcast and multicast packets will also be
flooded to all ports.
An example is presented below:
VLAN Name
VID
Switch Ports
System (default)
1
5, 6, 7
Engineering
2
9, 10
Sales
5
1, 2, 3, 4
Port-based VLANs
Port-based VLANs limit traffic that flows into and out of switch ports. Thus, all devices connected to a
port are members of the VLAN(s) the port belongs to, whether there is a single computer directly
connected to a switch, or an entire department.
On port-based VLANs, NICs do not need to be able to identify 802.1Q tags in packet headers. NICs
send and receive normal Ethernet packets. If the packet’s destination lies on the same segment,
communications take place using normal Ethernet protocols. Even though this is always the case, when
the destination for a packet lies on another switch port, VLAN considerations come into play to decide
if the packet gets dropped by the Switch or delivered.
VLAN Segmentation
Take for example a packet that is transmitted by a machine on Port 1 that is a member of VLAN 2. If the
destination lies on another port (found through a normal forwarding table lookup), the Switch then
looks to see if the other port (Port 10) is a member of VLAN 2 (and can therefore receive VLAN 2
packets). If Port 10 is not a member of VLAN 2, then the packet will be dropped by the Switch and will
not reach its destination. If Port 10 is a member of VLAN 2, the packet will go through. This selective
forwarding feature based on VLAN criteria is how VLANs segment networks. The key point being that
Port 1 will only transmit on VLAN 2.
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VLAN
802.1Q VLAN Settings
The VLAN List tab lists all previously configured VLANs by VLAN ID and VLAN Name.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1Q VLAN Settings, as show below:
Figure 53: 802.1Q VLAN Settings –VLAN List Tab window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
To create a new 802.1Q VLAN or modify an existing 802.1Q VLAN, click the Add/Edit VLAN tab.
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A new tab will appear, as shown below, to configure the port settings and to assign a unique name and
number to the new VLAN.
Figure 54: 802.1Q VLAN Settings – Add/Edit VLAN Tab window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID
Allow the entry of a VLAN ID or displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in
the Add/Edit VLAN tab. VLANs can be identified by either the VID or the
VLAN name.
VLAN Name
Allow the entry of a name for the new VLAN or for editing the VLAN name in
the Add/Edit VLAN tab.
Advertisement
Enable this function to allow the Switch sending out GVRP packets to outside
sources, notifying that they may join the existing VLAN.
Port
Display all ports of the Switch for the configuration option.
Tagged
Specify the port as 802.1Q tagging. Clicking the radio button will designate the
port as tagged. Click the All button to select all ports.
Untagged
Specify the port as 802.1Q untagged. Clicking the radio button will designate
the port as untagged. Click the All button to select all ports.
Forbidden
Click the radio button to specify the port as not being a member of the VLAN
and that the port is forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN
dynamically. Click the All button to select all ports.
Not Member
Click the radio button to allow an individual port to be specified as a nonVLAN member. Click the All button to select all ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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VLAN
To search for a VLAN, click the Find VLAN tab. A new tab will appear, as shown below.
Figure 55: 802.1Q VLAN Settings – Find VLAN Tab window
Enter the VLAN ID number in the field offered and then click the Find button. You will be redirected to
the VLAN List tab.
To create, delete and configure a VLAN Batch entry click the VLAN Batch Settings tab, as shown
below.
Figure 56: 802.1Q VLAN Settings – VLAN Batch Settings Tab window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
VID List
Enter a VLAN ID List that can be added, deleted or configured.
Advertisement
Enabling this function will allow the Switch to send out GVRP packets to
outside sources, notifying that they may join the existing VLAN.
Port List
Allows an individual port list to be added or deleted as a member of the
VLAN.
Tagged
Specify the port as 802.1Q tagged. Use the drop-down menu to designate the
port as tagged.
Untagged
Specify the port as 802.1Q untagged. Use the drop-down menu to designate
the port as untagged.
Forbidden
Specify the port as not being a member of the VLAN and that the port is
forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically. Use the dropdown menu to designate the port as forbidden.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
The Switch supports up to 4k static VLAN entries.
802.1v Protocol VLAN
802.1v Protocol Group Settings
The user can create Protocol VLAN groups and add protocols to that group. The 802.1v Protocol VLAN
Group Settings support multiple VLANs for each protocol and allows the user to configure the
untagged ports of different protocols on the same physical port. For example, it allows the user to
configure an 802.1Q and 802.1v untagged port on the same physical port. The lower half of the table
displays any previously created groups.
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VLAN
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1v protocol VLAN > 802.1v Protocol
Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 57: 802.1v Protocol Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
Group ID
Select an ID number for the group, between 1 and 16.
Group Name
This is used to identify the new Protocol VLAN group. Type an alphanumeric
string of up to 32 characters.
Protocol
This function maps packets to protocol-defined VLANs by examining the type
octet within the packet header to discover the type of protocol associated with
it. Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Ethernet II, IEEE802.3 SNAP,
and IEEE802.3 LLC.
Protocol Value
Enter a value for the Group. The protocol value is used to identify a protocol
of the frame type specified. The form of the input is 0x0 to 0xffff. Depending
on the frame type, the octet string will have one of the following values: For
Ethernet II, this is a 16-bit (2-octet) hex value. For example, IPv4 is 800, IPv6
is 86dd, ARP is 806, etc. For IEEE802.3 SNAP, this is a 16-bit (2-octet) hex
value. For IEEE802.3 LLC, this is a 2-octet IEEE 802.2 Link Service Access
Point (LSAP) pair. The first octet is for Destination Service Access Point
(DSAP) and the second octet is for Source.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete Settings button to remove the Protocol for the Protocol VLAN Group information for
the specific entry.
Click the Delete Group button to remove the entry completely.
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NOTE
The Group name value should be less than 33 characters
802.1v Protocol VLAN Settings
The user can configure Protocol VLAN settings. The lower half of the table displays any previously
created settings.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1v protocol VLAN > 802.1v Protocol
VLAN Settings, as show below:
Figure 58: 802.1v Protocol VLAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group ID
Select a previously configured Group ID from the drop-down menu.
Group Name
Select a previously configured Group Name from the drop-down menu.
VID (1-4094)
This is the VLAN ID that, along with the VLAN Name, identifies the VLAN the
user wishes to create.
VLAN Name
This is the VLAN Name that, along with the VLAN ID, identifies the VLAN the
user wishes to create.
802.1p Priority
This parameter is specified if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority
previously set in the Switch, which is used to determine the CoS queue to
which packets are forwarded to. Once this field is specified, packets accepted
by the Switch that match this priority are forwarded to the CoS queue
specified previously by the user.
Click the corresponding box if you want to set the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority (0-7) field, which meets the criteria
specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority rewritten to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
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VLAN
Parameter
Description
Port List
Select the specified ports you wish to configure by entering the port number in
this field, or tick the All Ports check box.
Search Port List
This function allows the user to search all previously configured port list
settings and display them on the lower half of the table. To search for a port
list enter the port number you wish to view and click Find. To display all
previously configured port lists on the bottom half of the screen click the Show
All button, to clear all previously configured lists click the Delete All button.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the Protocol VLANs configured.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Asymmetric VLAN Settings
Shared VLAN Learning is a primary example of the requirement for Asymmetric VLANs. Under
normal circumstances, a pair of devices communicating in a VLAN environment will both send and
receive using the same VLAN; however, there are some circumstances in which it is convenient to make
use of two distinct VLANs, one used for A to transmit to B and the other used for B to transmit to A in
these cases Asymmetric VLANs are needed. An example of when this type of configuration might be
required, would be if the client was on a distinct IP subnet, or if there was some confidentiality-related
need to segregate traffic between the clients.
To view this window click L2 Features > VLAN > Asymmetric VLAN Settings, as show below:
Figure 59: Asymmetric VLAN Settings window
Click Apply to implement changes.
GVRP
GVRP Global Settings
Users can determine whether the Switch will share its VLAN configuration information with other
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enabled switches. In addition, Ingress Checking can be used
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to limit traffic by filtering incoming packets whose PVID does not match the PVID of the port. Results
can be seen in the table under the configuration settings.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > GVRP > GVRP Global Settings, as show
below:
Figure 60: GVRP Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
GVRP State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the GVRP State.
Join Time
Enter the Join Time value in milliseconds.
Leave Time
Enter the Leave Time value in milliseconds.
Leave All Time
Enter the Leave All Time value in milliseconds.
NNI BPDU Address
Used to determine the BPDU protocol address for GVRP in service provide
site. It can use 802.1d GVRP address, 802.1ad service provider GVRP
address or a user defined multicast address. The range of the user defined
address is 0180C2000000 - 0180C2FFFFFF.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE
The Leave Time value should be greater than twice the Join Time value. The Leave All Time value
should be greater than the Leave Time value.
GVRP Port Settings
On this page the user can configure the GVRP port parameters.
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VLAN
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > GVRP > GVRP Port Settings, as show
below:
Figure 61: GVRP Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the starting and ending ports to use.
PVID
This field is used to manually assign a PVID to a VLAN. The Switch's default
is to assign all ports to the default VLAN with a VID of 1.The PVID is used by
the port to tag outgoing, untagged packets, and to make filtering decisions
about incoming packets. If the port is specified to accept only tagged frames as tagging, and an untagged packet is forwarded to the port for transmission,
the port will add an 802.1Q tag using the PVID to write the VID in the tag.
When the packet arrives at its destination, the receiving device will use the
PVID to make VLAN forwarding decisions. If the port receives a packet, and
Ingress filtering is Enabled, the port will compare the VID of the incoming
packet to its PVID. If the two are unequal, the port will drop the packet. If the
two are equal, the port will receive the packet.
GVRP
The GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enables the port to
dynamically become a member of a VLAN. GVRP is Disabled by default.
Ingress Checking
This drop-down menu allows the user to enable the port to compare the VID
tag of an incoming packet with the port VLAN membership. If enable ingress
checking and the reception port is not the member port of the frame’s VLAN,
the frame shall be discarded.
Acceptable Frame Type
This field denotes the type of frame that will be accepted by the port. The user
may choose between Tagged Only, which means only VLAN tagged frames
will be accepted, and All, which mean both tagged and untagged frames will
be accepted. All is enabled by default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MAC-based VLAN Settings
Users can create new MAC-based VLAN entries, search and delete existing entries. When a static MACbased VLAN entry is created for a user, the traffic from this user will be able to be serviced under the
specified VLAN regardless of the authentication function operating on this port.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > MAC-based VLAN Settings, as show
below:
Figure 62: MAC-based VLAN Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC Address
Specify the MAC address to be re-authenticated by entering it into the MAC
Address field.
VID
Select this option and enter the VLAN ID.
VLAN Name
Select this option and enter the VLAN name of a previously configured VLAN.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Private VLAN Settings
A private VLAN is comprised of a primary VLAN, up to one isolated VLAN, and a number of
community VLANs. A private VLAN ID is presented by the VLAN ID of the primary VLAN. The
command used to associate or de-associate a secondary VLAN with a primary VLAN.
A secondary VLAN cannot be associated with multiple primary VLANs. The untagged member port of
the primary VLAN is named as the promiscuous port. The tagged member port of the primary VLAN is
named as the trunk port. A promiscuous port of a private VLAN cannot be promiscuous port of other
private VLANs. The primary VLAN member port cannot be a secondary VLAN member at the same
time, or vice versa. A secondary VLAN can only have the untagged member port. The member port of
a secondary VLAN cannot be member port of other secondary VLAN at the same time. When a VLAN
is associated with a primary VLAN as the secondary VLAN, the promiscuous port of the primary
VLAN will behave as the untagged member of the secondary VLAN, and the trunk port of the primary
VLAN will behave as the tagged member of the secondary VLAN. A secondary VLAN cannot be
specified with advertisement. Only the primary VLAN can be configured as a layer 3 interface. The
private VLAN member port cannot be configured with the traffic segmentation function.
This window allows the user to configure the private VLAN parameters.
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VLAN
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Private VLAN Settings, as show below:
Figure 63: Private VLAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Enter a VLAN name.
VID (2-4094)
Enter a VID value.
VLAN List
Enter a list of VLAN ID.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to configure the secondary VLAN.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 64: Private VLAN Settings - Edit window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Secondary VLAN Type
Use the drop-down menu to select secondary VLAN type between Isolated or
Community.
Secondary VLAN Name
Enter a secondary VLAN name.
Secondary VLAN List
Enter a list of secondary VLAN ID.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View Private VLAN List link to view all the private VLAN.
Click the Delete to remove the specified entry.
PVID Auto Assign Settings
Users can enable or disable PVID Auto Assign Status. The default setting is enabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > PVID Auto Assign Settings, as show
below:
Figure 65: PVID Auto Assign Settings window
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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VLAN
Voice VLAN
Voice VLAN Global Settings
Voice VLAN is a VLAN used to carry voice traffic from IP phone. Because the sound quality of an IP
phone call will be deteriorated if the data is unevenly sent, the quality of service (QoS) for voice traffic
shall be configured to ensure the transmission priority of voice packet is higher than normal traffic.
The switches determine whether a received packet is a voice packet by checking its source MAC
address. If the source MAC addresses of packets comply with the organizationally unique identifier
(OUI) addresses configured by the system, the packets are determined as voice packets and transmitted
in voice VLAN.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Global
Settings, as show below:
Figure 66: Voice VLAN Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Voice VLAN State
The state of the voice VLAN.
Voice VLAN Name
The name of the voice VLAN.
Voice VID
The VLAN ID of the voice VLAN.
Priority
The priority of the voice VLAN, the range is 0 – 7. The default priority is 5.
Aging Time
The aging time to set, the range is 1 – 65535 minutes. The default value is
720 minutes. The aging time is used to remove a port from voice VLAN if the
port is an automatic VLAN member. When the last voice device stops sending
traffic and the MAC address of this voice device is aged out, the voice VLAN
aging timer will be started. The port will be removed from the voice VLAN after
expiration of voice VLAN aging timer. If the voice traffic resumes during the
aging time, the aging timer will be reset and stop.
Log State
Used to enable/disable sending of issue of voice VLAN log.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Voice VLAN Port Settings
This page is used to show the ports voice VLAN information.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Port Settings,
as show below:
Figure 67: Voice VLAN Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Here the user can select a range of port to display.
State
Here the user can configure the state of the port.
Mode
Here the user can configure the mode of the port.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Voice VLAN OUI Settings
This page is used to configure the user-defined voice traffic’s OUI. The OUI is used to identify the voice
traffic. There are a number of pre-defined OUIs. The user can further define the user-defined OUIs if
needed. The user-defined OUI cannot be the same as the pre-defined OUI.
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VLAN
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN OUI Settings,
as show below:
Figure 68: Voice VLAN OUI Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
OUI Address
User defined OUI MAC address.
Mask
User defined OUI MAC address mask.
Description
The description for the user defined OUI.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Voice VLAN Device
This page is used to show voice devices that are connected to the ports. The start time is the time when
the device is detected on this port, the activate time is the latest time saw the device sending the traffic.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Device, as
show below:
Figure 69: Voice VLAN Device window
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VLAN Trunk Settings
Enable VLAN on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass through that port.
This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices without having to configure the same
VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) on devices A and B. Without a VLAN
Trunk, you must first configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on all intermediary switches C, D and E;
otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN group tags. However, with VLAN Trunk enabled
on a port(s) in each intermediary switch, you only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A
and B). C, D and E automatically allow frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are
unknown to those switches) to pass through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Refer to the following figure for an illustrated example.
Figure 70: Example of VLAN Trunk
Users can combine a number of VLAN ports together to create VLAN trunks.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > VLAN Trunk Settings, as show below:
Figure 71: VLAN Trunk Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Trunk State
Enable or disable the VLAN trunking global state.
Ports
The ports to be configured. By clicking the Select All button, all the ports will
be included. By clicking the Clear All button, all the ports will not be included.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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VLAN
Browse VLAN
Users can display the VLAN status for each of the Switch's ports viewed by VLAN. Enter a VID (VLAN
ID) in the field at the top of the window and click the Find button.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Browse VLAN, as show below:
Figure 72: Browse VLAN window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
NOTE
The abbreviations used on this page are Tagged Port (T), Untagged Port (U) and Forbidden Port (F).
Show VLAN Ports
Users can display the VLAN ports of the Switch's viewed by VID. Enter a Port or a Port List in the field
at the top of the window and click the Find button.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Show VLAN Ports, as show below:
Figure 73: Show VLAN Ports window
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
QinQ
Double or Q-in-Q VLANs allow network providers to expand their VLAN configurations to place
customer VLANs within a larger inclusive VLAN, which adds a new layer to the VLAN configuration.
This basically lets large ISP's create L2 Virtual Private Networks and also create transparent LANs for
their customers, which will connect two or more customer LAN points without over-complicating
configurations on the client's side. Not only will over-complication be avoided, but also now the
administrator has over 4000 VLANs in which over 4000 VLANs can be placed, therefore greatly
expanding the VLAN network and enabling greater support of customers utilizing multiple VLANs on
the network.
Double VLANs are basically VLAN tags placed within existing IEEE 802.1Q VLANs which we will call
SPVIDs (Service Provider VLAN IDs). These VLANs are marked by a TPID (Tagged Protocol ID),
configured in hex form to be encapsulated within the VLAN tag of the packet. This identifies the packet
as double-tagged and segregates it from other VLANs on the network, therefore creating a hierarchy of
VLANs within a single packet.
Here is an example Double VLAN tagged packet.
Destination
Address
Source
Address
SPVLAN
(TPID +
Service
Provider VLAN
Tag)
802.1Q
CEVLAN Tag
(TPID +
Customer
VLAN Tag)
Ether Type
Payload
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Consider the example below:
Figure 74: QinQ example window
In this example, the Service Provider Access Network switch (Provider edge switch) is the device
creating and configuring Double VLANs. Both CEVLANs (Customer VLANs), 10 and 11, are tagged
with the SPVID 100 on the Service Provider Access Network and therefore belong to one VLAN on the
Service Provider’s network, thus being a member of two VLANs. In this way, the Customer can retain
its normal VLAN and the Service Provider can congregate multiple Customer VLANs within one
SPVLAN, thus greatly regulating traffic and routing on the Service Provider switch. This information is
then routed to the Service Provider’s main network and regarded there as one VLAN, with one set of
protocols and one routing behavior.
Regulations for Double VLANs
Some rules and regulations apply with the implementation of the Double VLAN procedure.
1 All ports must be configured for the SPVID and its corresponding TPID on the Service Provider’s
edge switch.
2 All ports must be configured as Access Ports or Uplink ports. Access ports can only be Ethernet
ports while Uplink ports must be Gigabit ports.
3 Provider Edge switches must allow frames of at least 1522 bytes or more, due to the addition of the
SPVID tag.
4 Access Ports must be an un-tagged port of the service provider VLANs. Uplink Ports must be a
tagged port of the service provider VLANs.
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5 The switch cannot have both double and normal VLANs co-existing. Once the change of VLAN is
made, all Access Control lists are cleared and must be reconfigured.
6 Once Double VLANs are enabled, GVRP must be disabled.
7 All packets sent from the CPU to the Access ports must be untagged.
8 The following functions will not operate when the switch is in Double VLAN mode:
●
Guest VLANs.
●
Web-based Access Control.
●
IP Multicast Routing.
●
GVRP.
●
All Regular 802.1Q VLAN functions.
QinQ Settings
On this page the user can configure the QinQ parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > QinQ Settings, as show below:
Figure 75: QinQ Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
QinQ State
Selecting this option enable the QinQ feature.
Inner TPID
Enter an Inner TPID in SP-VLAN tag here.
From Port – To Port
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
Role
Port role in QinQ mode, it can be UNI port or NNI port
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Parameter
Description
Missdrop
This option enables or disables C-VLAN based SP-VLAN assignment miss
drop. If Missdrop is enabled, the packet that does not match any assignment
rule in the QinQ profile will be dropped. If disabled, then the packet will be
forwarded and will be assigned to the PVID of the received port.
Outer TPID
Enter an Outer TPID in SP-VLAN tag here.
Add Inner Tag
Specifies that an Inner Tag will be added to the entry. By default the Disabled
option is selected.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
VLAN Translation Settings
This page can be used to add translation relationship between C-VLAN and SP-VLAN. On ingress at
UNI port, the C-VLAN tagged packets will be translated to SP-VLAN tagged packets by adding or
replacing according the configured rule. On egress at this port, the SP-VLAN tag will be recovered to CVLAN tag or be striped. The priority will be the priority in the SP-VLAN tag if the inner priority flag is
disabled for the receipt port.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > VLAN Translation Settings, as show below:
Figure 76: VLAN Translation Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
CVID
Here the user can enter the C-VLAN ID to match.
Action
The action indicates to add an S-tag before a C-tag or to replace the original
C-tag by an S-tag.
SVID
Here the user can enter the SP-VLAN ID.
Priority
Here the user can select the priority of the s-tag.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
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Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific entry.
Spanning Tree
This Switch supports three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol: 802.1D-1998 STP, 802.1D-2004 Rapid
STP, and 802.1Q-2005 MSTP. 802.1D-1998 STP will be familiar to most networking professionals.
However, since 802.1D-2004 RSTP and 802.1Q-2005 MSTP have been recently introduced to Extreme
managed Ethernet switches, a brief introduction to the technology is provided below followed by a
description of how to set up 802.1D-1998 STP, 802.1D-2004 RSTP, and 802.1Q-2005 MSTP.
802.1Q-2005 MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, or MSTP, is a standard defined by the IEEE community that allows
multiple VLANs to be mapped to a single spanning tree instance, which will provide multiple
pathways across the network. Therefore, these MSTP configurations will balance the traffic load,
preventing wide scale disruptions when a single spanning tree instance fails. This will allow for faster
convergences of new topologies for the failed instance. Frames designated for these VLANs will be
processed quickly and completely throughout interconnected bridges utilizing any of the three spanning
tree protocols (STP, RSTP or MSTP).
This protocol will also tag BPDU packets so receiving devices can distinguish spanning tree instances,
spanning tree regions and the VLANs associated with them. An MSTI ID will classify these instances.
MSTP will connect multiple spanning trees with a Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). The
CIST will automatically determine each MSTP region, its maximum possible extent and will appear as
one virtual bridge that runs a single spanning tree. Consequentially, frames assigned to different VLANs
will follow different data routes within administratively established regions on the network, continuing
to allow simple and full processing of frames, regardless of administrative errors in defining VLANs
and their respective spanning trees.
Each switch utilizing the MSTP on a network will have a single MSTP configuration that will have the
following three attributes:
1 A configuration name defined by an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters (defined in the MST
Configuration Identification window in the Configuration Name field).
2 A configuration revision number (named here as a Revision Level and found in the MST
Configuration Identification window) and;
3 A 4094-element table (defined here as a VID List in the MST Configuration Identification window),
which will associate each of the possible 4094 VLANs supported by the Switch for a given instance.
To utilize the MSTP function on the Switch, three steps need to be taken:
1 The Switch must be set to the MSTP setting (found in the STP Bridge Global Settings window in
the STP Version field)
2 The correct spanning tree priority for the MSTP instance must be entered (defined here as a Priority
in the MSTI Config Information window when configuring MSTI ID settings).
3 VLANs that will be shared must be added to the MSTP Instance ID (defined here as a VID List in
the MST Configuration Identification window when configuring an MSTI ID settings).
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802.1D-2004 Rapid Spanning Tree
The Switch implements three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol, the Multiple Spanning Tree
Protocol (MSTP) as defined by the IEEE 802.1Q-2005, the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) as
defined by the IEEE 802.1D-2004 specification and a version compatible with the IEEE 802.1D-1998 STP.
RSTP can operate with legacy equipment implementing IEEE 802.1D-1998; however the advantages of
using RSTP will be lost.
The IEEE 802.1D-2004 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) evolved from the 802.1D-1998 STP
standard. RSTP was developed in order to overcome some limitations of STP that impede the function
of some recent switching innovations, in particular, certain Layer 3 functions that are increasingly
handled by Ethernet switches. The basic function and much of the terminology is the same as STP. Most
of the settings configured for STP are also used for RSTP. This section introduces some new Spanning
Tree concepts and illustrates the main differences between the two protocols.
Port Transition States
An essential difference between the three protocols is in the way ports transition to a forwarding state
and in the way this transition relates to the role of the port (forwarding or not forwarding) in the
topology. MSTP and RSTP combine the transition states disabled, blocking and listening used in 802.1D1998 and creates a single state Discarding. In either case, ports do not forward packets. In the STP port
transition states disabled, blocking or listening or in the RSTP/MSTP port state discarding, there is no
functional difference, the port is not active in the network topology. Table 7-3 below compares how the
three protocols differ regarding the port state transition.
All three protocols calculate a stable topology in the same way. Every segment will have a single path to
the root bridge. All bridges listen for BPDU packets. However, BPDU packets are sent more frequently with every Hello packet. BPDU packets are sent even if a BPDU packet was not received. Therefore,
each link between bridges is sensitive to the status of the link. Ultimately this difference results in faster
detection of failed links, and thus faster topology adjustment. A drawback of 802.1D-1998 is this
absence of immediate feedback from adjacent bridges.
802.1Q-2005
MSTP
802.1D-2004 RSTP
802.1D-1998 STP
Forwarding
Learning
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Blocking
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Listening
No
No
Learning
Learning
Learning
No
Yes
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Yes
Yes
RSTP is capable of a more rapid transition to a forwarding state - it no longer relies on timer
configurations - RSTP compliant bridges are sensitive to feedback from other RSTP compliant bridge
links. Ports do not need to wait for the topology to stabilize before transitioning to a forwarding state.
In order to allow this rapid transition, the protocol introduces two new variables: the edge port and the
point-to-point (P2P) port.
Edge Port
The edge port is a configurable designation used for a port that is directly connected to a segment
where a loop cannot be created. An example would be a port connected directly to a single workstation.
Ports that are designated as edge ports transition to a forwarding state immediately without going
through the listening and learning states. An edge port loses its status if it receives a BPDU packet,
immediately becoming a normal spanning tree port.
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P2P Port
A P2P port is also capable of rapid transition. P2P ports may be used to connect to other bridges. Under
RSTP/MSTP, all ports operating in full-duplex mode are considered to be P2P ports, unless manually
overridden through configuration.
802.1D-1998/802.1D-2004/802.1Q-2005 Compatibility
MSTP or RSTP can interoperate with legacy equipment and is capable of automatically adjusting BPDU
packets to 802.1D-1998 format when necessary. However, any segment using 802.1D-1998 STP will not
benefit from the rapid transition and rapid topology change detection of MSTP or RSTP. The protocol
also provides for a variable used for migration in the event that legacy equipment on a segment is
updated to use RSTP or MSTP.
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) operates on two levels:
1 On the switch level, the settings are globally implemented.
2 On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per-user-defined group of ports basis.
STP Bridge Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the STP bridge global parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Bridge Global Settings, as
show below:
Figure 77: STP Bridge Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
STP Status
Use the radio button to globally enable or disable STP.
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Parameter
Description
STP Version
Use the pull-down menu to choose the desired version of STP:
STP - Select this parameter to set the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) globally
on the switch.
RSTP - Select this parameter to set the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
globally on the Switch.
MSTP - Select this parameter to set the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
(MSTP) globally on the Switch.
Forwarding BPDU
This field can be Enabled or Disabled. When Enabled, it allows the forwarding
of STP BPDU packets from other network devices. The default is Enabled.
Bridge Max Age (6 – 40)
The Max Age may be set to ensure that old information does not endlessly
circulate through redundant paths in the network, preventing the effective
propagation of the new information. Set by the Root Bridge, this value will aid
in determining that the Switch has spanning tree configuration values
consistent with other devices on the bridged LAN. The user may choose a
time between 6 and 40 seconds. The default value is 20 seconds.
Bridge Hello Time (1 – 2)
The Hello Time can be set from 1 to 2 seconds. This is the interval between
two transmissions of BPDU packets sent by the Root Bridge to tell all other
switches that it is indeed the Root Bridge. This field will only appear here
when STP or RSTP is selected for the STP Version. For MSTP, the Hello
Time must be set on a port per port basis. The default is 2 seconds.
Bridge Forward Delay (4 – 30)
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30 seconds. Any port on the Switch
spends this time in the listening state while moving from the blocking state to
the forwarding state. The default is 15 seconds
Tx Hold Count (1-10)
Used to set the maximum number of Hello packets transmitted per interval.
The count can be specified from 1 to 10. The default is 6.
Max Hops (6-40)
Used to set the number of hops between devices in a spanning tree region
before the BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) packet sent by the Switch will be
discarded. Each switch on the hop count will reduce the hop count by one
until the value reaches zero. The Switch will then discard the BDPU packet
and the information held for the port will age out. The user may set a hop
count from 6 to 40. The default is 20.
NNI BPDU Address
Used to determine the BPDU protocol address for GVRP in service provide
site. It can use 802.1d GVRP address, 802.1ad service provider GVRP
address or a user defined multicast address. The range of the user defined
address is 0180C2000000 - 0180C2FFFFFF.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE
The Bridge Hello Time cannot be longer than the Bridge Max Age. Otherwise, a configuration error will
occur. Observe the following formulas when setting the above parameters:
Bridge Max Age <= 2 x (Bridge Forward Delay - 1 second)
Bridge Max Age > 2 x (Bridge Hello Time + 1 second)
STP Port Settings
STP can be set up on a port per port basis.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Port Settings, as show below
Figure 78: STP Port Settings window:
It is advisable to define an STP Group to correspond to a VLAN group of ports.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the starting and ending ports to be configured.
External Cost (0=Auto)
This defines a metric that indicates the relative cost of forwarding packets to
the specified port list. Port cost can be set automatically or as a metric value.
The default value is 0 (auto). Setting 0 for the external cost will automatically
set the speed for forwarding packets to the specified port(s) in the list for
optimal efficiency. The default port cost for a 100Mbps port is 200000 and the
default port cost for a Gigabit port is 20000. Enter a value between 1 and
200000000 to determine the External Cost. The lower the number, the greater
the probability the port will be chosen to forward packets.
P2P
Choosing the True parameter indicates a point-to-point (P2P) shared link. P2P
ports are similar to edge ports; however they are restricted in that a P2P port
must operate in full duplex. Like edge ports, P2P ports transition to a
forwarding state rapidly thus benefiting from RSTP. A P2P value of False
indicates that the port cannot have P2P status. Auto allows the port to have
P2P status whenever possible and operate as if the P2P status were True. If
the port cannot maintain this status, (for example if the port is forced to halfduplex operation) the P2P status changes to operate as if the P2P value were
False. The default setting for this parameter is Auto.
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Parameter
Description
Restricted TCN
Topology Change Notification is a simple BPDU that a bridge sends out to its
root port to signal a topology change. Restricted TCN can be toggled between
True and False. If set to True, this stops the port from propagating received
topology change notifications and topology changes to other ports. The default
is False.
Migrate
When operating in RSTP mode, selecting Yes forces the port that has been
selected to transmit RSTP BPDUs.
Port STP
This drop-down menu allows you to enable or disable STP for the selected
group of ports. The default is Enabled.
Forward BPDU
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the flooding of BPDU packets
when STP is disabled.
Edge
Choosing the True parameter designates the port as an edge port. Edge ports
cannot create loops, however an edge port can lose edge port status if a
topology change creates a potential for a loop. An edge port normally should
not receive BPDU packets. If a BPDU packet is received, it automatically
loses edge port status. Choosing the False parameter indicates that the port
does not have edge port status. Alternatively, the Auto option is available.
Restricted Role
Use the drop-down menu to toggle Restricted Role between True and False. If
set to True, the port will never be selected to be the Root port. The default is
False.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MST Configuration Identification
This window allows the user to configure a MSTI instance on the Switch. These settings will uniquely
identify a multiple spanning tree instance set on the Switch. The Switch initially possesses one CIST, or
Common Internal Spanning Tree, of which the user may modify the parameters for but cannot change
the MSTI ID for, and cannot be deleted.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > MST Configuration Identification,
as show below:
Figure 79: MST Configuration Identification window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Configuration Name
This name uniquely identifies the MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance). If a
Configuration Name is not set, this field will show the MAC address to the
device running MSTP.
Revision Level
This value, along with the Configuration Name, identifies the MSTP region
configured on the Switch.
MSTI ID
Enter a number between 1 and 15 to set a new MSTI on the Switch.
Type
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI
settings. The user has two choices:
Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in conjunction
with the VID List parameter.
Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in
conjunction with the VID List parameter.
VID List
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the
Switch. Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
STP Instance Settings
This window displays MSTIs currently set on the Switch and allows users to change the Priority of the
MSTIs.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Instance Settings, as show
below:
Figure 80: STP Instance Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MSTI ID
Enter the MSTI ID in this field. An entry of 0 denotes the CIST (default MSTI).
Priority
Enter the priority in this field. The available range of values is from 0 to 61440.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
MSTP Port Information
This window displays the current MSTI configuration information and can be used to update the port
configuration for an MSTI ID. If a loop occurs, the MSTP function will use the port priority to select an
interface to put into the forwarding state. Set a higher priority value for interfaces to be selected for
forwarding first. In instances where the priority value is identical, the MSTP function will implement
the lowest MAC address into the forwarding state and other interfaces will be blocked. Remember that
lower priority values mean higher priorities for forwarding packets.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > MSTP Port Information, as show
below:
Figure 81: MSTP Port Information window
To view the MSTI settings for a particular port, use the drop-down menu to select the Port number. To
modify the settings for a particular MSTI instance, enter a value in the Instance ID field, an Internal
Path Cost, and use the drop-down menu to select a Priority.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Select the port you want to configure.
Instance ID
The MSTI ID of the instance to be configured. Enter a value between 0 and
15. An entry of 0 in this field denotes the CIST (default MSTI).
Internal Path Cost
This parameter is set to represent the relative cost of forwarding packets to
specified ports when an interface is selected within an STP instance. Selecting
this parameter with a value in the range of 1 to 200000000 will set the
quickest route when a loop occurs. A lower Internal cost represents a quicker
transmission. Selecting 0 (zero) for this parameter will set the quickest route
automatically and optimally for an interface.
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Parameter
Description
Priority
Enter a value between 0 and 240 to set the priority for the port interface. A
higher priority will designate the interface to forward packets first. A lower
number denotes a higher priority.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Link Aggregation
Understanding Port Trunk Groups
Port trunk groups are used to combine a number of ports together to make a single high-bandwidth
data pipeline. The Switch supports up to 12 port trunk groups with two to eight ports in each group. A
potential bit rate of 8000 Mbps can be achieved.
Figure 82: Example of Port Trunk Group
The Switch treats all ports in a trunk group as a single port. Data transmitted to a specific host
(destination address) will always be transmitted over the same port in a trunk group. This allows
packets in a data stream to arrive in the same order they were sent.
Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped together and to act as a single link. This gives a
bandwidth that is a multiple of a single link's bandwidth.
Link aggregation is most commonly used to link a bandwidth intensive network device or devices, such
as a server, to the backbone of a network.
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Link Aggregation
The Switch allows the creation of up to 12 link aggregation groups, each group consisting of 2 to 8 links
(ports). The (optional) Gigabit ports can only belong to a single link aggregation group.
All of the ports in the group must be members of the same VLAN, and their STP status, static multicast,
traffic control; traffic segmentation and 802.1p default priority configurations must be identical. Port
locking, port mirroring and 802.1X must not be enabled on the trunk group. Further, the LACP
aggregated links must all be of the same speed and should be configured as full duplex.
The Master Port of the group is to be configured by the user, and all configuration options, including
the VLAN configuration that can be applied to the Master Port, are applied to the entire link
aggregation group.
Load balancing is automatically applied to the ports in the aggregated group, and a link failure within
the group causes the network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the group.
The Spanning Tree Protocol will treat a link aggregation group as a single link, on the switch level. On
the port level, the STP will use the port parameters of the Master Port in the calculation of port cost and
in determining the state of the link aggregation group. If two redundant link aggregation groups are
configured on the Switch, STP will block one entire group; in the same way STP will block a single port
that has a redundant link.
NOTE
If any ports within the trunk group become disconnected, packets intended for the disconnected port will
be load shared among the other linked ports of the link aggregation group.
Port Trunking Settings
On this page the user can configure the port trunk settings for the switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Link Aggregation > Port Trunking Settings, as
show below:
Figure 83: Port Trunking Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Algorithm
This is the traffic hash algorithm among the ports of the link aggregation
group. Options to choose from are MAC Source Dest, IP Source Dest and
Lay4 Source Dest.
Group ID (1-12)
Select an ID number for the group, between 1 and 12.
Type
This pull-down menu allows users to select between Static and LACP (Link
Aggregation Control Protocol). LACP allows for the automatic detection of
links in a Port Trunking Group.
Master Port
Choose the Master Port for the trunk group using the drop-down menu.
State
Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Enabled and Disabled. This is
used to turn a port trunking group on or off. This is useful for diagnostics, to
quickly isolate a bandwidth intensive network device or to have an absolute
backup aggregation group that is not under automatic control.
Member Ports
Choose the members of a trunked group. Up to eight ports per group can be
assigned to a group.
Active Ports
Shows the ports that are currently forwarding packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear All button to clear out all the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
NOTE
The maximum number of ports that can be configured in one Static Trunk or LACP Group are 8 ports.
LACP Port Settings
In conjunction with the Trunking window, users can create port trunking groups on the Switch. Using
the following window, the user may set which ports will be active and passive in processing and
sending LACP control frames.
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FDB
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Link Aggregation > LACP Port Settings, as show
below:
Figure 84: LACP Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected
port.
Activity
Active - Active LACP ports are capable of processing and sending LACP
control frames. This allows LACP compliant devices to negotiate the
aggregated link so the group may be changed dynamically as needs require.
In order to utilize the ability to change an aggregated port group, that is, to
add or subtract ports from the group, at least one of the participating devices
must designate LACP ports as active. Both devices must support LACP.
Passive - LACP ports that are designated as passive cannot initially send
LACP control frames. In order to allow the linked port group to negotiate
adjustments and make changes dynamically, one end of the connection must
have "active" LACP ports (see above).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
FDB
Static FDB Settings
Unicast Static FDB Settings
Users can set up static unicast forwarding on the Switch.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > Static FDB Settings > Unicast Static FDB
Settings, as show below:
Figure 85: Unicast Static FDB Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN name of the VLAN on which the
associated unicast MAC address resides.
VLAN List
Click the radio button and enter a list of VLAN on which the associated
unicast MAC address resides.
MAC Address
The MAC address to which packets will be statically forwarded. This must be
a unicast MAC address.
Port/Drop
Allows the selection of the port number on which the MAC address entered
above resides This option could also drop the MAC address from the unicast
static FDB. When selecting Port, enter the port number in the field.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Multicast Static FDB Settings
Users can set up static multicast forwarding on the Switch.
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FDB
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > Static FDB Settings > Multicast Static FDB
Settings, as show below:
Figure 86: Multicast Static FDB Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the corresponding MAC address belongs to.
Multicast MAC Address
The static destination MAC address of the multicast packets. This must be a
multicast MAC address.
Port
Allows the selection of ports that will be members of the static multicast group
and ports that are either forbidden from joining dynamically, or that can join
the multicast group dynamically, using GMRP. The options are:
None - No restrictions on the port dynamically joining the multicast group.
When None is chosen, the port will not be a member of the Static Multicast
Group. Click the All button to select all the ports.
Egress - The port is a static member of the multicast group. Click the All
button to select all the ports.
Click the Clear All button to clear out all the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MAC Notification Settings
MAC Notification is used to monitor MAC addresses learned and entered into the forwarding database.
This window allows you to globally set MAC notification on the Switch. Users can set MAC notification
for individual ports on the Switch.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Notification Settings, as show below:
Figure 87: MAC Notification Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Enable or disable MAC notification globally on the Switch
Interval
The time in seconds between notifications. Value range to use is 1 to
2147483647.
History Size
The maximum number of entries listed in the history log used for notification.
Up to 500 entries can be specified.
From Port / To Port
Select the starting and ending ports for MAC notification.
State
Enable MAC Notification for the ports selected using the pull-down menu.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
MAC Address Aging Time Settings
Users can configure the MAC Address aging time on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Address Aging Time Settings, as show
below:
Figure 88: MAC Address Aging Time Settings window
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FDB
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC Address Aging Time
(10-1000000)
This field specify the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the
forwarding table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC
Address is allowed to remain idle). To change this option, type in a different
value representing the MAC address’ age-out time in seconds. The MAC
Address Aging Time can be set to any value between 10 and 1000000
seconds. The default setting is 300 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MAC Address Table
This allows the Switch's MAC address forwarding table to be viewed. When the Switch learns an
association between a MAC address, VLAN and a port number, it makes an entry into its forwarding
table. These entries are then used to forward packets through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Address Table, as show below:
Figure 89: MAC Address Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
The port to which the MAC address below corresponds.
VLAN Name
Enter a VLAN Name for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
MAC Address
Enter a MAC address for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear Dynamic Entries button to delete all dynamic entries of the address table.
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Click the View All Entries button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Entries button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Click the Add to Static MAC table button to add the specific entry to the Static MAC table.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
ARP & FDB Table
On this page the user can find the ARP and FDB table parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > ARP & FDB Table, as show below:
Figure 90: ARP & FDB Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Select the port number to use for this configuration.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address to use for this configuration.
IP Address
Enter the IP address the use for this configuration.
Click the Find by Port button to locate a specific entry based on the port number selected.
Click the Find by MAC button to locate a specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
Click the Find by IP Address button to locate a specific entry based on the IP address entered.
Click the View All Entries button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Add to IP MAC Port Binding Table to add the specific entry to the window.
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L2 Multicast Control
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping allows the Switch to recognize IGMP queries
and reports sent between network stations or devices and an IGMP host. When enabled for IGMP
snooping, the Switch can open or close a port to a specific device based on IGMP messages passing
through the Switch.
IGMP Snooping Settings
In order to use IGMP Snooping it must first be enabled for the entire Switch under IGMP Global
Settings at the top of the window. You may then fine-tune the settings for each VLAN by clicking the
corresponding Edit button. When enabled for IGMP snooping, the Switch can open or close a port to a
specific multicast group member based on IGMP messages sent from the device to the IGMP host or
vice versa. The Switch monitors IGMP messages and discontinues forwarding multicast packets when
there are no longer hosts requesting that they continue.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Settings, as show below:
Figure 91: IGMP Snooping Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IGMP Snooping State
Here the user can enable or disable the IGMP Snooping state.
Max Learning Entry Value
Here the user can enter the maximum learning entry value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to configure the IGMP Snooping Parameters Settings.
Click the Modify Router Port link to configure the IGMP Snooping Router Port Settings.
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After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 92: IGMP Snooping Parameters Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID
Specify the name of the VLAN ID.
VLAN Name
Specify the name of the VLAN for which IGMP snooping querier is to be
configured.
Rate Limit
Here is displayed the rate of IGMP control packets that the switch can process
on a specific port/VLAN. The rate is specified in packet per second. The
packets that exceed the limited rate will be dropped.
Querier IP
Displays the querier IP address
Querier Expiry Time
Displays the querier expiry time.
Query Interval
Specify the amount of time in seconds between general query transmissions.
The default setting is 125 seconds..
Max Response Time
Specify the maximum time in seconds to wait for reports from members. The
default setting is 10 seconds.
Robustness Value
Provides fine-tuning to allow for expected packet loss on a subnet. The value
of the robustness value is used in calculating the following IGMP message
intervals: By default, the robustness variable is set to 2.
Last Member Query Interval
Specify the maximum amount of time between group-specific query
messages, including those sent in response to leave-group messages. You
might lower this interval to reduce the amount of time it takes a router to
detect the loss of the last member of a group.
Data Drive Group Expiry Time
Specify the data driven group lifetime in seconds.
Querier State
Specify to enable or disable the querier state.
Fast Leave
Enable or disable the IGMP snooping fast leave function. If enabled, the
membership is immediately removed when the system receive the IGMP leave
message.
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Parameter
Description
State
If the state is enable, it allows the switch to be selected as a IGMP Querier
(sends IGMP query packets). It the state is disabled, then the switch can not
play the role as a querier.
NOTE: that if the Layer 3 router connected to the switch provides only the
IGMP proxy function but does not provide the multicast routing function, then
this state must be configured as disabled. Otherwise, if the Layer 3 router is
not selected as the querier, it will not send the IGMP query packet. Since it
will not also send the multicast-routing protocol packet, the port will be timed
out as a router port.
Report Suppression
When enabled, multiple IGMP reports or leave for a specific (S, G) will be
integrated into one report only before sending to the router port.
Data Driven Learning State
Specify to enable or disable the data driven learning state.
Data Drive Learning Aged Out
Specify to enable or disable the data drive learning aged out option.
Version
Specify the version of IGMP packet that will be sent by this port. If an IGMP
packet received by the interface has a version higher than the specified
version, this packet will be dropped.
Querier Role
Displays the querier role.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Modify Router Port link, the following page will appear:
Figure 93: IGMP Snooping Router Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static Router Port
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being connected to
multicast-enabled routers. This will ensure that all packets with such a router
as its destination will reach the multicast-enabled router regardless of the
protocol.
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Parameter
Description
Forbidden Router Port
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being not connected to
multicast-enabled routers. This ensures that the forbidden router port will not
propagate routing packets out.
Dynamic Router Port
Displays router ports that have been dynamically configured.
Ports
Select the appropriate ports individually to include them in the Router Port
configuration.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
IGMP Snooping Rate Limit Settings
On this page the user can configure the IGMP snooping rate limit parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Rate Limit Settings, as show below:
Figure 94: IGMP Snooping Rate Limit Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
v
Parameter
Description
Port List
Here the user can enter the port list used for this configuration.
VID List
Here the user can enter the VID list used for this configuration.
Rate Limit
Here the user can enter the IGMP snooping rate limit used. By selecting the
No Limit option, the rate limit for the entered port(s) will be ignored.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
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Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings
Users can view the Switch’s IGMP Snooping Group Table. IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read
the Multicast Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass
through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Static Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 95: IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List
The VID List or of the multicast group.
IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Create button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 96: IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings window
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
IGMP Router Port
Users can display which of the Switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports. A router port
configured by a user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static
router port, designated by S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the Switch is designated
by D, while a Forbidden port is designated by F.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Router Port, as show below:
Figure 97: IGMP Router Port window
Enter a VID (VLAN ID) in the field at the top of the window.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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NOTE
The abbreviations used on this page are Static Router Port (S), Dynamic Router Port (D) and
Forbidden Router Port (F).
IGMP Snooping Group
Users can view the Switch’s IGMP Snooping Group Table. IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read
the Multicast Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass
through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Group, as show below:
Figure 98: IGMP Snooping Group window
The user may search the IGMP Snooping Group Table by either VLAN Name or VID List by entering it
in the top left hand corner and clicking Find.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Port List
Specify the port number(s) used to find a multicast group.
Group IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address.
Data Driven
If Data Drive is selected, only data driven groups will be displayed.
Click the Clear Data Driven button to delete the specific IGMP snooping group which is learned by the
Data Driven feature of the specified VLAN.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Data Driven button to delete all IGMP snooping groups which is learned by the
Data Driven feature of specified VLANs.
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IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table
This page displays the switch’s current IGMP snooping forwarding table. It provides an easy way for
user to check the list of ports that the multicast group comes from and specific sources that it will be
forwarded to. The packet comes from the source VLAN. They will be forwarded to the forwarding
VLAN. The IGMP snooping further restricts the forwarding ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Forwarding Table, as show below:
Figure 99: IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
IGMP Snooping Counter
Users can view the switch’s IGMP Snooping counter table.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Snooping Counter, as show below:
Figure 100: IGMP Snooping Counter window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Port List
The Port List of the multicast group.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Packet Statistics link to view the IGMP Snooping Counter Table.
After clicking the Packet Statistics link, the following page will appear:
Figure 101: Browse IGMP Snooping Counter window
Click the Clear Counter button to clear all the information displayed in the fields.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new information will appear.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
MLD Snooping
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping is an IPv6 function used similarly to IGMP snooping in
IPv4. It is used to discover ports on a VLAN that are requesting multicast data. Instead of flooding all
ports on a selected VLAN with multicast traffic, MLD snooping will only forward multicast data to
ports that wish to receive this data through the use of queries and reports produced by the requesting
ports and the source of the multicast traffic.
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MLD snooping is accomplished through the examination of the layer 3 part of an MLD control packet
transferred between end nodes and a MLD router. When the Switch discovers that this route is
requesting multicast traffic, it adds the port directly attached to it into the correct IPv6 multicast table,
and begins the process of forwarding multicast traffic to that port. This entry in the multicast routing
table records the port, the VLAN ID, and the associated multicast IPv6 multicast group address, and
then considers this port to be an active listening port. The active listening ports are the only ones to
receive multicast group data.
MLD Control Messages
Three types of messages are transferred between devices using MLD snooping. These three messages
are all defined by four ICMPv6 packet headers, labeled 130, 131, 132, and 143.
1 Multicast Listener Query – Similar to the IGMPv2 Host Membership Query for IPv4, and labeled as
130 in the ICMPv6 packet header, this message is sent by the router to ask if any link is requesting
multicast data. There are two types of MLD query messages emitted by the router. The General
Query is used to advertise all multicast addresses that are ready to send multicast data to all
listening ports, and the Multicast Specific query, which advertises a specific multicast address that is
also ready. These two types of messages are distinguished by a multicast destination address located
in the IPv6 header and a multicast address in the Multicast Listener Query Message.
2 Multicast Listener Report, Version 1 – Comparable to the Host Membership Report in IGMPv2, and
labeled as 131 in the ICMP packet header, this message is sent by the listening port to the Switch
stating that it is interested in receiving multicast data from a multicast address in response to the
Multicast Listener Query message.
3 Multicast Listener Done – Akin to the Leave Group Message in IGMPv2, and labeled as 132 in the
ICMPv6 packet header, this message is sent by the multicast listening port stating that it is no longer
interested in receiving multicast data from a specific multicast group address, therefore stating that it
is “done” with the multicast data from this address. Once this message is received by the Switch, it
will no longer forward multicast traffic from a specific multicast group address to this listening port.
4 Multicast Listener Report, Version 2 - Comparable to the Host Membership Report in IGMPv3, and
labeled as 143 in the ICMP packet header, this message is sent by the listening port to the Switch
stating that it is interested in receiving multicast data from a multicast address in response to the
Multicast Listener Query message.
Data Driven Learning
The Switch allows you to implement data driven learning for MLD snooping groups. If data-driven
learning, also known as dynamic IP multicast learning, is enabled for a VLAN, when the Switch
receives IP multicast traffic on the VLAN, an MLD snooping group is created. Learning of an entry is
not activated by MLD membership registration, but activated by the traffic. For an ordinary MLD
snooping entry, the MLD protocol will take care of the aging out of the entry. For a data-driven entry,
the entry can be specified not to age out or to age out by a timer.
When the data driven learning State is enabled, the multicast filtering mode for all ports is ignored. This
means multicast packets will be flooded.
NOTE
If a data-driven group is created and MLD member ports are learned later, the entry will become an
ordinary MLD snooping entry. In other words, the aging out mechanism will follow the conditions of an ordinary
MLD snooping entry.
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Data driven learning is useful on a network which has video cameras connected to a Layer 2 switch that
is recording and sending IP multicast data. The switch needs to forward IP data to a data centre without
dropping or flooding any packets. Since video cameras do not have the capability to run MLD
protocols, the IP multicast data will be dropped with the original MLD snooping function.
MLD Snooping Settings
Users can configure the settings for MLD snooping.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Settings, as show below:
Figure 102: MLD Snooping Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MLD Snooping State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the MLD snooping state.
Max Learning Entry Value
Enter the maximum learning entry value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to configure the MLD Snooping Parameters Settings for a specific entry.
Click the Modify Router Port link to configure the MLD Snooping Router Port Settings for a specific
entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 103: MLD Snooping Parameters Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Query Interval
Specify the amount of time in seconds between general query transmissions.
The default setting is 125 seconds.
Max Response Time
The maximum time in seconds to wait for reports from listeners. The default
setting is 10 seconds.
Robustness Value
Provides fine-tuning to allow for expected packet loss on a subnet. The value
of the robustness variable is used in calculating the following MLD message
intervals:
Group listener interval - Amount of time that must pass before a multicast
router decides there are no more listeners of a group on a network.
Other Querier present interval - Amount of time that must pass before a
multicast router decides that there is no longer another multicast router that is
the Querier.
Last listener query count - Number of group-specific queries sent before the
router assumes there are no local listeners of a group. The default number is
the value of the robustness variable.
By default, the robustness variable is set to 2. You might want to increase this
value if you expect a subnet to be loosely.
Last Listener Query Interval
The maximum amount of time between group-specific query messages,
including those sent in response to done-group messages. You might lower
this interval to reduce the amount of time it takes a router to detect the loss of
the last listener of a group.
Data Driven Group Expiry Time Here the user can enter the data driven group expiry time value.
Querier State
This allows the switch to be specified as an MLD Querier (sends MLD query
packets) or a Non-Querier (does not send MLD query packets). Set to enable
or disable.
Fast Done
Here the user can enable or disable the fast done feature.
State
Used to enable or disable MLD snooping for the specified VLAN. This field is
Disabled by default.
Report Suppression
Here the user can enable or disable the report suppression features.
Data Driven Learning State
Enable or disable data driven learning of MLD snooping groups.
Data Driven Learning Aged Out Enable or disable the age out function for data driven entries.
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Parameter
Description
Version
Specify the version of MLD packet that will be sent by this port. If a MLD
packet received by the interface has a version higher than the specified
version, this packet will be dropped.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Modify Router Port link, the following page will appear:
Figure 104: MLD Snooping Router Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static Router Port
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being connected to
multicast-enabled routers. This will ensure that all packets with such a router
as its destination will reach the multicast-enabled router regardless of the
protocol.
Forbidden Router Port
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being not connected to
multicast-enabled routers. This ensures that the forbidden router port will not
propagate routing packets out.
Dynamic Router Port
Displays router ports that have been dynamically configured.
Ports
Select the appropriate ports individually to include them in the Router Port
configuration.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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MLD Snooping Rate Limit Settings
Users can configure the rate limit of the MLD control packet that the switch can process on a specific
port or VLAN in this page.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Rate Limit Settings, as show below:
Figure 105: MLD Snooping Rate Limit Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List
Enter the Port List here.
VID List
Enter the VID List value here.
Rate Limit
Configure the rate limit of MLD control packet that the switch can process on
a specific port/VLAN. The rate is specified in packet per second. The packet
that exceeds the limited rate will be dropped. Selecting the No Limit option
lifts the rate limit requirement.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
MLD Snooping Static Group Settings
This page used to configure the MLD snooping multicast group static members.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Static Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 106: MLD Snooping Static Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The name of the VLAN on which the static group resides.
VID List
The ID of the VLAN on which the static group resides.
IPv6 Address
Specify the multicast group IPv6 address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Create button to add a static group.
Click the Delete button to delete a static group.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 107: MLD Snooping Static Group Settings – Edit window
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
MLD Router Port
Users can display which of the Switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports in IPv6. A router
port configured by a user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a
static router port, designated by S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the Switch is
designated by D, while a Forbidden port is designated by F.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Router Port, as show below:
Figure 108: MLD Router Port window
Enter a VID (VLAN ID) in the field at the top of the window.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
NOTE
The abbreviations used on this page are Static Router Port (S), Dynamic Router Port (D) and
Forbidden Router Port (F).
MLD Snooping Group
Users can view MLD Snooping Groups present on the Switch. MLD Snooping is an IPv6 function
comparable to IGMP Snooping for IPv4.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Group, as show below:
Figure 109: MLD Snooping Group window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN name of the multicast group.
VID List
Click the radio button and enter a VLAN list of the multicast group.
Port List
Specify the port number(s) used to find a multicast group.
Group IPv6 Address
Enter the group IPv6 address used here. Select the Data Driven option to
enable the data driven feature for this MLD snooping group.
Data Driven
If Data Drive is selected, only data driven groups will be displayed.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear Data Driven button to delete the specific MLD snooping group which is learned by the
Data Driven feature of the specified VLAN.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Data Driven button to delete all MLD snooping groups which is learned by the
Data Driven feature of specified VLANs.
MLD Snooping Forwarding Table
This page displays the switch’s current MLD snooping forwarding table. It provides an easy way for
user to check the list of ports that the multicast group comes from and specific sources that it will be
forwarded to. The packet comes from the source VLAN. They will be forwarded to the forwarding
VLAN. The MLD snooping further restricts the forwarding ports.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Forwarding Table, as show below:
Figure 110: MLD Snooping Forwarding Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The name of the VLAN for which you want to view MLD snooping forwarding
table information.
VID List
The ID of the VLAN for which you want to view MLD snooping forwarding
table information.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
MLD Snooping Counter
This page displays the statistics counter for MLD protocol packets that are received by the switch since
MLD Snooping is enabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD
Snooping Counter, as show below:
Figure 111: MLD Snooping Counter window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Specify a VLAN name to be displayed.
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Parameter
Description
VID List
Specify a list of VLANs to be displayed.
Port List
Specify a list of ports to be displayed.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Packet Statistics link to view the MLD Snooping Counter Settings for the specific entry.
After clicking the Packet Statistics link, the following page will appear:
Figure 112: Browse MLD Snooping Counter window
Click the Clear Counter button to clear all the information displayed in the fields.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new information will appear.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Multicast Filtering
IPv4 Multicast Filtering
IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings
Users can add a profile to which multicast address(s) reports are to be received on specified ports on the
Switch. This function will therefore limit the number of reports received and the number of multicast
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groups configured on the Switch. The user may set an IPv4 Multicast address or range of IPv4 Multicast
addresses to accept reports (Permit) or deny reports (Deny) coming into the specified switch ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering >
IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings, as show below:
Figure 113: IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a Profile ID between 1 and 24.
Profile Name
Enter a name for the IP Multicast Profile.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Group List link to configure the multicast address group list settings for the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 114: Multicast Address Group List Settings window
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Multicast Filtering
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Display the profile ID.
Profile Name
Display the profile name.
Multicast Address List
Enter the multicast address list here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the Switch that will be involved in the Limited IPv4
Multicast Range. The user can configure the range of multicast ports that will be accepted by the source
ports to be forwarded to the receiver ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering >
IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings, as show below:
Figure 115: IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports / VID List
Select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration.
Access
Assign access permissions to the ports selected. Options listed are Permit
and Deny.
Profile ID / Profile Name:
Use the drop-down menu to select the profile ID or profile name used and
then assign Permit or Deny access to them.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the switch that will be a part of the maximum filter group,
up to a maximum of 1024.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering >
IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 116: IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports / VID List
Select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Max Group
If the checkbox Infinite is not selected, the user can enter a Max Group
value.
Infinite
Tick the check box to enable or disable the use of the Infinite value.
Action
Use the drop-down menu to select the appropriate action for this rule. The
user can select Drop to initiate the drop action or the user can select Replace
to initiate the replace action.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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IPv6 Multicast Filtering
IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings
Users can add a profile to which multicast address(s) reports are to be received on specified ports on the
Switch. This function will therefore limit the number of reports received and the number of multicast
groups configured on the Switch. The user may set an IPv6 Multicast address or range of IPv6 Multicast
addresses to accept reports (Permit) or deny reports (Deny) coming into the specified switch ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering >
IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings, as show below:
Figure 117: IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a Profile ID between 1 and 24.
Profile Name
Enter a name for the IP Multicast Profile.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Group List link to configure the multicast address group list settings for the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 118: Multicast Address Group List Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Display the profile ID.
Profile Name
Display the profile name.
Multicast Address List
Enter the multicast address list here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the Switch that will be involved in the Limited IPv6
Multicast Range. The user can configure the range of multicast ports that will be accepted by the source
ports to be forwarded to the receiver ports.
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Multicast Filtering
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering >
IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings, as show below:
Figure 119: IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports / VID List
Select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration.
Access
Assign access permissions to the ports selected. Options listed are Permit
and Deny.
Profile ID / Profile Name:
Use the drop-down menu to select the profile ID or profile name used and
then assign Permit or Deny access to them.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the switch that will be a part of the maximum filter group,
up to a maximum of 1024.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering >
IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings, as show below:
Figure 120: IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports / VID List
Select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Max Group
If the checkbox Infinite is not selected, the user can enter a Max Group
value.
Infinite
Tick the check box to enable or disable the use of the Infinite value.
Action
Use the drop-down menu to select the appropriate action for this rule. The
user can select Drop to initiate the drop action or the user can select Replace
to initiate the replace action.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
Multicast Filtering Mode
Users can configure the multicast filtering mode.
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LLDP
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > Multicast Filtering Mode, as
show below:
Figure 121: Multicast Filtering Mode window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name/VID List
The VLAN to which the specified filtering action applies. Tick the All check
box to apply this feature to all the VLANs.
Multicast Filtering Mode
This drop-down menu allows you to select the action the Switch will take when
it receives a multicast packet that requires forwarding to a port in the specified
VLAN.
Forward All Groups – This will instruct the Switch to forward all multicast
packets to the specified VLAN.
Forward Unregistered Groups – The multicast packets whose destination is an
unregistered multicast group will be forwarded within the range of ports
specified above.
Filter Unregistered Groups – The multicast packets whose destination is a
registered multicast group will be forwarded within the range of ports specified
above.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
LLDP
LLDP Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the LLDP global parameters.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Global Settings, as show below:
Figure 122: LLDP Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LLDP State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the LLDP feature.
LLDP Forward Message
When LLDP is disabled this function controls the LLDP packet forwarding
message based on individual ports. If LLDP is enabled on a port it will flood
the LLDP packet to all ports that have the same port VLAN and will advertise
to other stations attached to the same IEEE 802 LAN.
Message TX Interval
This interval controls how often active ports retransmit advertisements to their
neighbors. To change the packet transmission interval, enter a value in
seconds (5 to 32768).
Message TX Hold Multiplier
This function calculates the Time-to-Live for creating and transmitting the
LLDP advertisements to LLDP neighbors by changing the multiplier used by
an LLDP Switch. When the Time-to-Live for an advertisement expires the
advertised data is then deleted from the neighbor Switch’s MIB.
LLDP ReInit Delay
The LLDP re-initialization delay interval is the minimum time that an LLDP port
will wait before reinitializing after receiving an LLDP disable command. To
change the LLDP re-init delay, enter a value in seconds (1 to 10).
LLDP TX Delay
LLDP TX Delay allows the user to change the minimum time delay interval for
any LLDP port which will delay advertising any successive LLDP
advertisements due to change in the LLDP MIB content. To change the LLDP
TX Delay, enter a value in seconds (1 to 8192).
LLDP Notification interval
LLDP Notification Interval is used to send notifications to configured SNMP
trap receiver(s) when an LLDP change is detected in an advertisement
received on the port from an LLDP neighbor. To set the LLDP Notification
Interval, enter a value in seconds (5 to 3600).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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LLDP
LLDP Port Settings
On this page the user can configure the LLDP port parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Port Settings, as show below:
Figure 123: LLDP Port Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the ports used for this configuration.
Notification
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the status of the LLDP
notification. This function controls the SNMP trap however it cannot implement
traps on SNMP when the notification is disabled.
Admin Status
This function controls the local LLDP agent and allows it to send and receive
LLDP frames on the ports. This option contains TX, RX, TX And RX or
Disabled.
TX: the local LLDP agent can only transmit LLDP frames.
RX: the local LLDP agent can only receive LLDP frames.
TX And RX: the local LLDP agent can both transmit and receive LLDP frames.
Disabled: the local LLDP agent can neither transmit nor receive LLDP frames.
The default value is TX And RX.
Subtype
Use the drop-down menu to select the type of the IP address information will
be sent.
Action
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the action field.
Address
Enter the IP address that will be sent.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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NOTE
The IPv4 or IPv6 address entered here should be an existing LLDP management IP address.
LLDP Management Address List
On this page the user can view the LLDP management address list.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP management Address List, as show
below:
Figure 124: LLDP Management Address List window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4/IPv6
Use the drop-down menu to select either IPv4 or IPv6.
Address
Enter the management IP address or the IP address of the entity you wish to
advertise to. The IPv4 address is a management IP address, so the IP
information will be sent with the frame.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
LLDP Basic TLVs Settings
TLV stands for Type-length-value, which allows the specific sending information as a TLV element
within LLDP packets. This window is used to enable the settings for the Basic TLVs Settings. An active
LLDP port on the Switch always included mandatory data in its outbound advertisements. There are
four optional data types that can be configured for an individual port or group of ports to exclude one
or more of these data types from outbound LLDP advertisements. The mandatory data type includes
four basic types of information (end of LLDPDU TLV, chassis ID TLV, port ID TLV, and Time to Live
TLV). The mandatory data types cannot be disabled. There are also four data types which can be
optionally selected. These include Port Description, System Name, System Description and System
Capability.
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LLDP
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Basic TLVs Settings, as show below:
Figure 125: LLDP Basic TLVs Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the port range to use for this configuration.
Port Description
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the Port Description option.
System Name
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the System Name option.
System Description
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the System Description option.
System Capabilities
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the System Capabilities option.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings
LLDP Dot1 TLVs are organizationally specific TLVs which are defined in IEEE 802.1 and used to
configure an individual port or group of ports to exclude one or more of the IEEE 802.1 organizational
port VLAN ID TLV data types from outbound LLDP advertisements.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings, as show below:
Figure 126: LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port range to use for this configuration.
Dot1 TLV PVID
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable and configure the Dot1 TLV
PVID option.
Dot1 TLV Protocol VLAN
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable, and configure the Dot1 TLV
Protocol VLAN option. After enabling this option to the user can select to use
either VLAN Name, VID List or All in the next drop-down menu. After
selecting this, the user can enter either the VLAN Name or VID List value in
the space provided.
Dot1 TLV VLAN
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable, and configure the Dot1 TLV
VLAN option. After enabling this option to the user can select to use either
VLAN Name, VID List or All in the next drop-down menu. After selecting this,
the user can enter either the VLAN Name or VID List value in the space
provided.
Dot1 TLV Protocol Identity
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable, and configure the Dot1 TLV
Protocol Identity option. After enabling this option the user can select to either
use EAPOL, LACP, GVRP, STP, or All.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings
This window is used to configure an individual port or group of ports to exclude one or more IEEE
802.3 organizational specific TLV data type from outbound LLDP advertisements.
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LLDP
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings, as show below:
Figure 127: LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port range to use for this configuration.
MAC / PHY Configuration
Status
This TLV optional data type indicates that the LLDP agent should transmit the
MAC/PHY configuration/status TLV. This indicates it is possible for two ends
of an IEEE 802.3 link to be configured with different duplex and/or speed
settings and still establish some limited network connectivity. More precisely,
the information includes whether the port supports the auto-negotiation
function, whether the function is enabled, whether it has auto-negotiated
advertised capability, and what is the operational MAU type. The default state
is Disabled.
Link Aggregation
The Link Aggregation option indicates that LLDP agents should transmit 'Link
Aggregation TLV'. This indicates the current link aggregation status of IEEE
802.3 MACs. More precisely, the information should include whether the port
is capable of doing link aggregation, whether the port is aggregated in an
aggregated link, and what is the aggregated port ID. The default state is
Disabled.
Maximum Frame Size
The Maximum Frame Size indicates that LLDP agent should transmit
'Maximum-frame-size TLV. The default state is Disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Statistic System
The LLDP Statistics System page allows you an overview of the neighbor detection activity, LLDP
Statistics and the settings for individual ports on the Switch. Select a Port number from the drop-down
menu and click the Find button to view statistics for a certain port.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Statistic System, as show below:
Figure 128: LLDP Statistics System window
LLDP Local Port Information
The LLDP Local Port Information page displays the information on a per port basis currently available
for populating outbound LLDP advertisements in the local port brief table shown below.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Local Port Information, as show
below:
Figure 129: LLDP Local Port Information window
To view the normal LLDP Local Port information page per port, click the Show Normal button.
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LLDP
To view the brief LLDP Local Port information page per port, click the Show Brief button.
Figure 130: LLDP Local Port Information – Show Normal window
Select a Port number and click the Find button to locate a specific entry.
To view more details about, for example, the Management Address Count, click on the Show Detail
hyperlink.
Figure 131: LLDP Local Port Information – Show Detail window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
LLDP Remote Port Information
This page displays port information learned from the neighbors. The switch receives packets from a
remote station but is able to store the information as local.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP Remote Port Information, as show
below:
Figure 132: LLDP Remote Port Information window
Select a Port number and click the Find button to locate a specific entry.
To view the normal LLDP Remote Port information page per port, click the Show Normal button.
Figure 133: LLDP Remote Port Information – Show Normal window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
NLB FDB Settings
The Switch supports Network Load Balancing (NLB). This is a MAC forwarding control for supporting
the Microsoft server load balancing application where multiple servers can share the same IP address
and MAC address. The requests from clients will be forwarded to all servers, but will only be processed
by one of them. In multicast mode, the client uses a multicast MAC address as the destination MAC to
reach the server. Regardless of the mode, the destination MAC is the shared MAC. The server uses its
own MAC address (rather than the shared MAC) as the source MAC address of the reply packet. The
NLB multicast FDB entry will be mutually exclusive with the L2 multicast entry.
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NLB FDB Settings
To view this window, click L2 Features > NLB FDB Settings, as shown below.
Figure 134: NLB Multicast FDB Table window
The following fields can be set:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN of the NLB multicast FDB entry to
be created.
VID (1-4094)
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN by the VLAN ID.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the NLB multicast FDB entry to be created.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entered information in the fields.
Click the Edit button to update the information of the corresponding entry.
Click the Delete button to delete the corresponding entry.
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5
L3 Features
CHAPTER
IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings
The Switch supports static routing for IPv4 formatted addressing. Users can create up to 512 static route
entries for IPv4. For IPv4 static routes, once a static route has been set, the Switch will send an ARP
request packet to the next hop router that has been set by the user. Once an ARP response has been
retrieved by the switch from that next hop, the route becomes enabled. However, if the ARP entry
already exists, an ARP response will not be sent.
The Switch also supports a floating static route, which means that the user may create an alternative
static route to a different next hop. This secondary next hop device route is considered as a backup
static route for when the primary static route is down. If the primary route is lost, the backup route will
uplink and its status will become Active.
Entries into the Switch’s forwarding table can be made using both an IP address subnet mask and a
gateway.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings, as show below:
Figure 135: IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
This field allows the entry of an IPv4 address to be assigned to the Static or
Default route.
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Parameter
Description
Netmask
This field allows the entry of a subnet mask to be applied to the corresponding
subnet mask of the IP address.
Gateway
This field allows the entry of a Gateway IP Address to be applied to the
corresponding gateway of the IP address.
Metric
Represents the metric value of the IP interface entered into the table. This
field may read a number between 1 and 65535.
Backup State
Each IP address can only have one primary route, while other routes should
be assigned to the backup state. When the primary route failed, switch will try
the backup routes according to the order learnt by the routing table until route
success. The field represents the Backup state that the Static and Default
Route is configured for.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
IPv4 Route Table
The IP routing table stores all the external routes information of the switch. On this page the user can
view all the external route information on the switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv4 Route Table, as show below:
Figure 136: IPv4 Route Table window
IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings
A static entry of an IPv6 address can be entered into the Switch’s routing table for IPv6 formatted
addresses.
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IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings, as show below:
Figure 137: IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
The IP Interface where the static IPv6 route is created.
Nexthop Address
The corresponding IPv6 address for the next hop Gateway address in IPv6
format.
Metric
The metric of the IPv6 interface entered into the table representing the
number of routers between the Switch and the IPv6 address above. Metric
values allowed are between 1 and 65535.
Backup State
Each IP address can only have one primary route, while other routes should
be assigned to the backup state. When the primary route failed, the switch will
try the backup routes according to the order learnt by the routing table until
route success. This field represents the backup state for the IPv6 configured.
This field may be Primary or Backup.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
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IP Forwarding Table
The IP forwarding table stores all the direct connected IP information. On this page the user can view
all the direct connected IP information. To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP
Forwarding Table, as show below:
Figure 138: IP Forwarding Table
Click the IP Address, Interface Name or Port radio button, enter the information and click the Find
button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered. Enter a page number and click the
Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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6
QoS
CHAPTER
The Switch supports 802.1p priority queuing Quality of Service. The following section discusses the
implementation of QoS (Quality of Service) and benefits of using 802.1p priority queuing.
Advantages of QoS
QoS is an implementation of the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows network administrators a method of
reserving bandwidth for important functions that require a large bandwidth or have a high priority,
such as VoIP (voice-over Internet Protocol), web browsing applications, file server applications or video
conferencing. Not only can a larger bandwidth be created, but other less critical traffic can be limited, so
excessive bandwidth can be saved. The Switch has separate hardware queues on every physical port to
which packets from various applications can be mapped to, and, in turn prioritized. View the following
map to see how the Switch implements basic 802.1P priority queuing.
Figure 139: Mapping QoS on the Switch
The picture above shows the default priority setting for the Switch. Class-7 has the highest priority of
the seven priority classes of service on the Switch. In order to implement QoS, the user is required to
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instruct the Switch to examine the header of a packet to see if it has the proper identifying tag. Then the
user may forward these tagged packets to designated classes of service on the Switch where they will be
emptied, based on priority.
For example, let’s say a user wishes to have a video conference between two remotely set computers.
The administrator can add priority tags to the video packets being sent out, utilizing the Access Profile
commands. Then, on the receiving end, the administrator instructs the Switch to examine packets for
this tag, acquires the tagged packets and maps them to a class queue on the Switch. Then in turn, the
administrator will set a priority for this queue so that will be emptied before any other packet is
forwarded. This result in the end user receiving all packets sent as quickly as possible, thus prioritizing
the queue and allowing for an uninterrupted stream of packets, which optimizes the use of bandwidth
available for the video conference.
Understanding QoS
The Switch supports 802.1p priority queuing. The Switch has eight priority queues. These priority
queues are numbered from 7 (Class 7) — the highest priority queue — to 0 (Class 0) — the lowest
priority queue. The eight priority tags specified in IEEE 802.1p (p0 to p7) are mapped to the Switch’s
priority queues as follows:
●
Priority 0 is assigned to the Switch’s Q2 queue.
●
Priority 1 is assigned to the Switch’s Q0 queue.
●
Priority 2 is assigned to the Switch’s Q1 queue.
●
Priority 3 is assigned to the Switch’s Q3 queue.
●
Priority 4 is assigned to the Switch’s Q4 queue.
●
Priority 5 is assigned to the Switch’s Q5 queue.
●
Priority 6 is assigned to the Switch’s Q6 queue.
●
Priority 7 is assigned to the Switch’s Q7 queue.
For strict priority-based scheduling, any packets residing in the higher priority classes of service are
transmitted first. Multiple strict priority classes of service are emptied based on their priority tags. Only
when these classes are empty, are packets of lower priority transmitted.
For weighted round-robin queuing, the number of packets sent from each priority queue depends upon
the assigned weight. For a configuration of eight CoS queues, A~H with their respective weight value:
8~1, the packets are sent in the following sequence: A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1, A2, B2, C2, D2, E2,
F2, G2, A3, B3, C3, D3, E3, F3, A4, B4, C4, D4, E4, A5, B5, C5, D5, A6, B6, C6, A7, B7, A8, A1, B1, C1,
D1, E1, F1, G1, H1.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if each CoS queue has the same weight value, then each CoS queue
has an equal opportunity to send packets just like round-robin queuing.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if the weight for a CoS is set to 0, then it will continue processing
the packets from this CoS until there are no more packets for this CoS. The other CoS queues that have
been given a nonzero value, and depending upon the weight, will follow a common weighted roundrobin scheme.
Remember that the Switch has eight configurable priority queues (and eight Classes of Service) for each
port on the Switch.
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802.1p Settings
CAUTION
The Switch contains eight classes of service for each port on the Switch. One of these classes is reserved
for internal use on the Switch and is therefore not configurable. All references in the following section regarding
classes of service will refer to only the eight classes of service that may be used and configured by the
administrator.
802.1p Settings
802.1p Default Priority Settings
The Switch allows the assignment of a default 802.1p priority to each port on the Switch. This page
allows the user to assign a default 802.1p priority to any given port on the switch that will insert the
802.1p priority tag to untagged packets received. The priority and effective priority tags are numbered
from 0, the lowest priority, to 7, the highest priority. The effective priority indicates the actual priority
assigned by RADIUS. If the RADIUS assigned value exceeds the specified limit, the value will be set at
the default priority. For example, if the RADIUS assigns a limit of 8 and the default priority is 0, the
effective priority will be 0.
To view the following window, click QoS > 802.1p Settings > 802.1p Default Priority Settings, as show
below:
Figure 140: Default Priority Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select the starting and ending ports to use.
Priority
Use the drop-down menu to select a value from 0 to 7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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802.1p User Priority Settings
The Switch allows the assignment of a class of service to each of the 802.1p priorities.
To view the following window, click QoS > 802.1p Settings > 802.1p User Priority Settings, as show
below:
Figure 141: 802.1p User Priority Settings window
Once a priority has been assigned to the port groups on the Switch, then a Class may be assigned to
each of the eight levels of 802.1p priorities using the drop-down menus on this window. User priority
mapping is not only for the default priority configured in the last page, but also for all the incoming
tagged packets with 802.1p tag.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Bandwidth Control
The bandwidth control settings are used to place a ceiling on the transmitting and receiving data rates
for any selected port.
Bandwidth Control Settings
The Effective RX/TX Rate refers to the actual bandwidth of the switch port, if it does not match the
configured rate. This usually means that the bandwidth has been assigned by a higher priority resource,
such as a RADIUS server.
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Bandwidth Control
To view the following window, click QoS > Bandwidth Control > Bandwidth Control Settings, as
show below:
Figure 142: Bandwidth Control Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port range to use for this configuration.
Type
This drop-down menu allows a selection between RX (receive), TX (transmit),
and Both. This setting will determine whether the bandwidth ceiling is applied
to receiving, transmitting, or both receiving and transmitting packets.
No Limit
This drop-down menu allows the user to specify that the selected port will
have no bandwidth limit or not.
NOTE: If the configured number is larger than the port speed, it means no
bandwidth limit.
Rate (64-1024000)
This field allows the input of the data rate that will be the limit for the selected
port. The user may choose a rate between 64 and 1024000 Kbits per second.
Effective RX
If a RADIUS server has assigned the RX bandwidth, then it will be the
effective RX bandwidth. The authentication with the RADIUS sever can be per
port or per user. For per user authentication, there may be multiple RX
bandwidths assigned if there are multiple users attached to this specific port.
The final RX bandwidth will be the largest one among these multiple RX
bandwidths.
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Parameter
Description
Effective TX
If a RADIUS server has assigned the TX bandwidth, then it will be the
effective TX bandwidth. The authentication with the RADIUS sever can be per
port or per user. For per user authentication, there may be multiple TX
bandwidths assigned if there are multiple users attached to this specific port.
The final TX bandwidth will be the largest one among these multiple TX
bandwidths.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Queue Bandwidth Control Settings
To view this window, click QoS > Bandwidth Control > Queue Bandwidth Control Settings, as shown
below.
To view the following window, click QoS > Bandwidth Control > Queue Bandwidth Control Settings,
as show below:
Figure 143: Queue Bandwidth Control Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port range to use for this configuration.
From Queue / To Queue
Use the drop-down menu to select the queue range to use for this
configuration.
Min Rate
Specify the packet limit, in Kbps that the ports are allowed to receive. Tick the
No limit check box to have unlimited rate of packets received by the specified
queue.
Max Rate
Enter the maximum rate for the queue. For no limit select the No Limit option.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Traffic Control Settings
NOTE
The minimum granularity of queue bandwidth control is 64Kbit/sec. The system will adjust the number to
the multiple of 64 automatically.
Traffic Control Settings
On a computer network, packets such as Multicast packets and Broadcast packets continually flood the
network as normal procedure. At times, this traffic may increase due to a malicious end station on the
network or a malfunctioning device, such as a faulty network card. Thus, switch throughput problems
will arise and consequently affect the overall performance of the switch network. To help rectify this
packet storm, the Switch will monitor and control the situation.
Packet storms are monitored to determine if too many packets are flooding the network based on
threshold levels provided by the user. Once a packet storm has been detected, the Switch will drop
packets coming into the Switch until the storm has subsided. This method can be utilized by selecting
the Drop option of the Action parameter in the window below.
Use this window to enable or disable storm control and adjust the threshold for multicast and broadcast
storms.
To view the following window, click QoS > Traffic Control Settings, as show below:
Figure 144: Traffic Control Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port range to use for this configuration.
Action
Select the method of traffic control from the pull-down menu. The choices are:
Drop – Utilizes the hardware Traffic Control mechanism, which means the
Switch’s hardware will determine the Packet Storm based on the Threshold
value stated and drop packets until the issue is resolved.
Threshold (0-255000)
Specifies the maximum number of packets per second that will trigger the
Traffic Control function to commence. The configurable threshold range is
from 0-255000 with a default setting of 131072 packets per second.
Traffic Control Type
Specifies the desired Storm Control Type: None, Broadcast, Multicast,
Unknown Unicast, Broadcast + Multicast, Broadcast + Unknown Unicast,
Multicast + Unknown Unicast, and Broadcast + Multicast + Unknown Unicast.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE
Traffic Control cannot be implemented on ports that are set for Link Aggregation (Port Trunking).
NOTE
The minimum granularity of storm control on a GE port is 1pps
DSCP
DSCP Trust Settings
This page is to configure the DSCP trust state of ports. When ports are under the DSCP trust mode, the
switch will insert the priority tag to untagged packets by using the DSCP Map settings instead of the
default port priority.
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DSCP
To view the following window, click QoS > DSCP > DSCP Trust Settings, as show below:
Figure 145: DSCP Trust Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a range of port to configure.
State
Enable/disable to trust DSCP. By default, DSCP trust is disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DSCP Map Settings
The mapping of DSCP to queue will be used to determine the priority of the packet (which will be then
used to determine the scheduling queue) when the port is in DSCP trust state.
The DSCP-to-DSCP mapping is used in the swap of DSCP of the packet when the packet is ingresses to
the port. The remaining processing of the packet will base on the new DSCP. By default, the DSCP is
mapped to the same DSCP.
To view the following window, click QoS > DSCP > DSCP Map Settings, as show below:
Figure 146: DSCP Map Settings - DSCP Priority window
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To view the following window, click QoS > DSCP > DSCP Map Settings and select DSCP DSCP from
the DSCP Map drop-down menu, as show below:
Figure 147: DSCP Map Settings - DSCP DSCP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a range of port to configure.
DSCP Map
Use the drop-down menu to select one of two options:
DSCP Priority – Specifies a list of DSCP values to be mapped to a specific
priority.
DSCP DSCP – Specifies a list of DSCP value to be mapped to a specific
DSCP.
DSCP List
Enter a DSCP List value.
Priority
Use the drop-down menu to select a Priority value. This appears when
selecting DSCP Priority in the DSCP Map drop-down menu.
DSCP
Enter a DSCP value. This appears when selecting DSCP Priority in the
DSCP DSCP drop-down menu.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
HOL Blocking Prevention
HOL (Head of Line) Blocking happens when one of the destination ports of a broadcast or multicast
packet are busy. The switch will hold this packet in the buffer while the other destination port will not
transmit the packet even they are not busy.
The HOL Blocking Prevention will ignore the busy port and forward the packet directly to have lower
latency and better performance.
On this page the user can enable or disable HOL Blocking Prevention.
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Scheduling Settings
To view the following window, click QoS > HOL Blocking Prevention, as show below:
Figure 148: HOL blocking Prevention window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
HOL Blocking Prevention State
Click the radio buttons to enable of disable the HOL blocking prevention global
settings.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Scheduling Settings
QoS Scheduling
This window allows the user to configure the way the Switch will map an incoming packet per port
based on its 802.1p user priority, to one of the eight available hardware priority queues available on the
Switch.
To view this window, click QoS > Scheduling Settings > QoS Scheduling as shown below:
Figure 149: QoS Scheduling window
The following parameters can be configured:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Enter the port or port list you wish to configure.
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Parameter
Description
Class ID
Select the Class ID, from 0-7 to configure for the QoS parameters.
Scheduling Mechanism
Strict – The highest class of service is the first to process traffic. That is, the
highest class of service will finish before other queues empty.
Weight – Use the weighted round-robin (WRR) algorithm to handle packets in
an even distribution in priority classes of service.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
QoS Scheduling Mechanism
Changing the output scheduling used for the hardware queues in the Switch can customize QoS. As
with any changes to QoS implementation, careful consideration should be given to how network traffic
in lower priority queues are affected. Changes in scheduling may result in unacceptable levels of packet
loss or significant transmission delays. If you choose to customize this setting, it is important to monitor
network performance, especially during peak demand, as bottlenecks can quickly develop if the QoS
settings are not suitable.
To view this window, click QoS > Scheduling Settings > QoS Scheduling Mechanism as shown below:
Figure 150: QoS Scheduling Mechanism
The following parameters can be configured:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Enter the port or port list you wish to configure.
Scheduling Mechanism
Strict – The highest class of service is the first to process traffic. That is, the
highest class of service will finish before other queues empty.
Weighted Round Robin – Use the weighted round-robin algorithm to handle
packets in an even distribution in priority classes of service.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Scheduling Settings
NOTE
The settings you assign to the queues, numbers 0-7, represent the IEEE 802.1p priority tag number. Do
not confuse these settings with port numbers.
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7
ACL
CHAPTER
ACL Configuration Wizard
The ACL Configuration Wizard will aid the user in the creation of access profiles and ACL Rules
automatically by simply inputting the address or service type and the action needed. It saves
administrators a lot of time.
To view this window, click ACL > ACL Configuration Wizard as shown below:
Figure 151: ACL Configuration Wizard window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Type
Use the drop-down menu to select the general ACL Rule types:
Normal – Selecting this option will create a Normal ACL Rule.
Egress Selecting this option will create an Egress ACL Rule.
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Parameter
Description
Profile Name
After selecting to configure a Normal type rule, the user can enter the Profile
Name for the new rule here.
Profile ID
Enter the Profile ID for the new rule.
Access ID
Enter the Access ID for the new rule. Selecting the Auto Assign option will
allow the switch to automatically assign an unused access ID to this rule.
From / To
This rule can be created to apply to four different categories:
Any – Selecting this option will include any starting category to this rule.
MAC Address – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of
MAC addresses for this rule.
IPv4 Address – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of
IPv4 addresses for this rule.
IPv6 – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of IPv6
addresses for this rule.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored
to a port defined in the mirror port section. Port Mirroring must be enabled and
a target port must be set.
Option
After selecting the Permit action, the user can select one of the following
options:
Change 1p Priority – Here the user can enter the 1p priority value.
Replace DSCP – Here the user can enter the DSCP value.
Replace ToS Precedence – Here the user can enter the ToS Precedence
value.
Apply To
Use the drop-down menu to select and enter the information that this rule will
be applied to.
Ports – Enter a port number or a port range.
VLAN Name – Enter a VLAN name.
VLAN ID – Enter a VLAN ID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
The Switch will use one minimum mask to cover all the terms that user input, however, some extra bits
may also be masked at the same time. To optimize the ACL profile and rules, please use manual configuration.
Access Profile List
Access profiles allow you to establish criteria to determine whether the Switch will forward packets
based on the information contained in each packet's header.
To view Access Profile List window, click ACL > Access Profile List as shown below:
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Access Profile List
The Switch supports four Profile Types, Ethernet ACL, IPv4 ACL, IPv6 ACL, and Packet Content ACL.
Creating an access profile is divided into two basic parts. The first is to specify which part or parts of a
frame the Switch will examine, such as the MAC source address or the IP destination address. The
second part is entering the criteria the Switch will use to determine what to do with the frame. The
entire process is described below in two parts.
Users can display the currently configured Access Profiles on the Switch.
Figure 152: Access Profile List window
Click the Add ACL Profile button to add an entry to the Access Profile List.
Click the Delete All button to remove all access profiles from this table.
Click the Show Details button to display the information of the specific profile ID entry.
Click the Add/View Rules button to view or add ACL rules within the specified profile ID.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
There are four Add Access Profile windows;
●
one for Ethernet (or MAC address-based) profile configuration,
●
one for IPv6 address-based profile configuration,
●
one for IPv4 address-based profile configuration, and
●
one for packet content profile configuration.
Add an Ethernet ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for Ethernet. To use specific filtering masks
in this ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to
the mask.
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After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 153: Add ACL Profile window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 6.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address,
or packet content. This will change the window according to the requirements
for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
Select Packet Content to instruct the Switch to examine the packet content in
each frame’s header.
Source MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address, e.g. FF-FF-FF-FFFF-FF.
Destination MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC address, e.g. FF-FF-FFFF-FF-FF.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN
identifier of each packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for
forwarding.
802.1p
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1p priority value
of each packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for
forwarding.
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Access Profile List
Parameter
Description
Ethernet Type
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value in
each frame's header.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 154: Access Profile Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 155: Access Rule List window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 156: Add Access Rule window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-256)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 256.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored
to a port defined in the configure mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be
enabled and a target port must be set.
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Access Profile List
Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default
priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the
specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user
priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv4 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Replace ToS Precedence (0-7)
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the
new value. If used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default
traffic class.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 157: Access Rule Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for IPv4. To use specific filtering masks in
this ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the
mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 158: Add ACL Profile window (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 6.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address,
or packet content. This will change the window according to the requirements
for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
Select Packet Content to instruct the Switch to examine the packet content in
each frame’s header.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN
identifier of each packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for
forwarding.
IPv4 DSCP
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of
each packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 Source IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address, e.g. 255.255.255.255.
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Access Profile List
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Destination IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the destination IP address, e.g.
255.255.255.255.
Protocol
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in
each frame's header. Then the user must specify what protocol(s) to include
according to the following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type
value, or specify Code to further specify that the access profile will apply an
ICMP code value.
Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type
value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as
the forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires that you specify a source port
mask and/or a destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex
0x0-0xffff), which you wish to filter.
dst port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff) which you wish to filter.
flag bit - The user may also identify which flag bits to filter. Flag bits are parts
of a packet that determine what to do with the packet. The user may filter
packets by filtering certain flag bits within the packets, by checking the boxes
corresponding to the flag bits of the TCP field. The user may choose between
urg (urgent), ack (acknowledgement), psh (push), rst (reset), syn
(synchronize), fin (finish).
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as
the forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port
mask and/or a destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex
0x0-0xffff).
dst port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the destination port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
Select Protocol ID - Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet
header to mask. Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xff.
Protocol ID Mask - Specify that the rule applies to the IP protocol ID traffic.
User Define - Specify the Layer 4 part mask
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 159: Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 160: Access Rule List window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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Access Profile List
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 161: Add Access Rule (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-256)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 256.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored
to a port defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be
enabled and a target port must be set.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default
priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the
specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user
priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv4 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Replace ToS Precedence (0-7)
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the
new value. If used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default
TC.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Ticking the All Ports check box will denote all ports on the Switch.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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Access Profile List
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 162: Access Rule Detail Information (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for IPv6. To use specific filtering masks in
this ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the
mask.
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After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 163: Add ACL Profile window (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 6.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address,
or packet content. This will change the window according to the requirements
for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
Select Packet Content to instruct the Switch to examine the packet content in
each frame’s header.
IPv6 Class
Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to examine the class field of the
IPv6 header. This class field is a part of the packet header that is similar to
the Type of Service (ToS) or Precedence bits field in IPv4.
IPv6 Flow Label
Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to examine the flow label field of
the IPv6 header. This flow label field is used by a source to label sequences
of packets such as non-default quality of service or real time service packets.
IPv6 TCP
Source Port Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the range of TCP source
ports.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port range.
IPv6 UDP
Source Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP source port range.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port mask.
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Parameter
Description
ICMP
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) field in each frame's header.
IPv6 Source Mask
The user may specify an IP address mask for the source IPv6 address by
ticking the corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask.
IPv6 Destination Mask
The user may specify an IP address mask for the destination IPv6 address by
ticking the corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 164: Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 165: Access Rule List window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 166: Add Access Rule (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-256)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 256.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored
to a port defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be
enabled and a target port must be set.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria
specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority rewritten to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv6 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Replace ToS Precedence (0-7)
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the
new value. If used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default
TC.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Ticking the All Ports check box will denote all ports on the Switch.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 167: Access Rule Detail Information (IPv6 ACL)
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Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding a Packet Content ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for Packet Content: To use specific filtering
masks in this ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more
filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 168: Add ACL Profile (Packet Content ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 6.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address,
or packet content. This will change the window according to the requirements
for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
Select Packet Content to instruct the Switch to examine the packet content in
each frame’s header.
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Parameter
Description
Packet Content
Allows users to examine up to 4 specified offset_chunks within a packet at
one time and specifies the frame content offset and mask. There are 4 chunk
offsets and masks that can be configured. A chunk mask presents 4 bytes. 4
offset_chunks can be selected from a possible 32 predefined offset_chunks as
described below:
offset_chunk_1,
offset_chunk_2,
offset_chunk_3,
offset_chunk_4.
Example:
offset_chunk_1 0 0xffffffff will match packet byte offset 126,127,0,1
offset_chunk_1 0 0x0000ffff will match packet byte offset,0,1
With this advanced unique Packet Content Mask (also known as Packet
Content Access Control List - ACL), the Extreme xStack® switch family can
effectively mitigate some network attacks like the common ARP Spoofing
attack that is wide spread today. This is why the Packet Content ACL is able
to inspect any specified content of a packet in different protocol layers.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 169: Access Profile Detail Information (Packet Content ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
NOTE
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard for finding a host’s hardware address (MAC address).
However, ARP is vulnerable as it can be easily spoofed and utilized to attack a LAN (i.e. an ARP spoofing attack).
For a more detailed explanation on how ARP protocol works and how to employ Extreme’s unique Packet Content
ACL to prevent ARP spoofing attack, please see Appendix E at the end of this manual.
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After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 170: Access Rule List (Packet Content ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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Access Profile List
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 171: Add Access Rule (Packet Content ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-256)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 256.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored
to a port defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be
enabled and a target port must be set.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default
priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the
specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user
priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv4 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Replace ToS Precedence (0-7)
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the
new value. If used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default
TC.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Ticking the All Ports check box will denote all ports on the Switch.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 172: Access Rule Detail Information (Packet Content ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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ACL Finder
ACL Finder
The ACL rule finder helps you to identify any rules that have been assigned to a specific port and edit
existing rules quickly.
To view this window, click ACL > ACL Finder as shown below:
Figure 173: ACL Finder window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Use the drop-down menu to select the Profile ID for the ACL rule finder to
identify the rule.
Port
Enter the port number for the ACL rule finder to identify the rule.
State
Use the drop-down menu to select the state.
Normal Allow the user to find normal ACL rules.
CPU Allow the user to find CPU ACL rules.
Egress – Allow the user to find Egress ACL rules.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry selected.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
ACL Flow Meter
Before configuring the ACL Flow Meter, here is a list of acronyms and terms users will need to know.
●
trTCM – Two Rate Three Color Marker. This, along with the srTCM, are two methods available on
the switch for metering and marking packet flow. The trTCM meters and IP flow and marks it as a
color based on the flow’s surpassing of two rates, the CIR and the PIR.
●
CIR – Committed Information Rate. Common to both the trTCM and the srTCM, the CIR is
measured in bytes of IP packets. IP packet bytes are measured by taking the size of the IP header but
not the link specific headers. For the trTCM, the packet flow is marked green if it doesn’t exceed the
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CIR and yellow if it does. The configured rate of the CIR must not exceed that of the PIR. The CIR
can also be configured for unexpected packet bursts using the CBS and PBS fields.
●
CBS – Committed Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the CBS is associated with the CIR and is used to
identify packets that exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The CBS should be configured to
accept the biggest IP packet that is expected in the IP flow.
●
PIR – Peak Information Rate. This rate is measured in bytes of IP packets. IP packet bytes are
measured by taking the size of the IP header but not the link specific headers. If the packet flow
exceeds the PIR, that packet flow is marked red. The PIR must be configured to be equal or more
than that of the CIR.
●
PBS – Peak Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the PBS is associated with the PIR and is used to identify
packets that exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The PBS should be configured to accept
the biggest IP packet that is expected in the IP flow.
●
srTCM – Single Rate Three Color Marker. This, along with the trTCM, are two methods available on
the switch for metering and marking packet flow. The srTCM marks its IP packet flow based on the
configured CBS and EBS. A packet flow that does not reach the CBS is marked green, if it exceeds
the CBS but not the EBS its marked yellow, and if it exceeds the EBS its marked red.
●
CBS – Committed Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the CBS is associated with the CIR and is used to
identify packets that exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The CBS should be configured to
accept the biggest IP packet that is expected in the IP flow.
●
EBS – Excess Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the EBS is associated with the CIR and is used to
identify packets that exceed the boundaries of the CBS packet size. The EBS is to be configured for
an equal or larger rate than the CBS.
●
DSCP – Differentiated Services Code Point. The part of the packet header where the color will be
added. Users may change the DSCP field of incoming packets.
●
The ACL Flow Meter function will allow users to color code IP packet flows based on the rate of
incoming packets. Users have two types of Flow metering to choose from, trTCM and srTCM, as
explained previously. When a packet flow is placed in a color code, the user can choose what to do
with packets that have exceeded that color-coded rate.
●
Green – When an IP flow is in the green mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the
Conform field, where the packets can have their DSCP field changed. This is an acceptable flow rate
for the ACL Flow Meter function.
●
Yellow – When an IP flow is in the yellow mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the
Exceed field. Users may choose to either Permit or Drop exceeded packets. Users may also choose to
change the DSCP field of the packets.
●
Red – When an IP flow is in the red mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the Violate field.
Users may choose to either Permit or Drop exceeded packets. Users may also choose to change the
DSCP field of the packets.
Users may also choose to count exceeded packets by clicking the Counter check box. If the counter is
enabled, the counter setting in the access profile will be disabled. Users may only enable two counters
for one flow meter at any given time.
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ACL Flow Meter
To view this window, click ACL > ACL Flow Meter, as shown below:
Figure 174: ACL Flow Meter
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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After clicking the Add or Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 175: ACL Flow meter Configuration window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
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Parameter
Description
Mode
Rate – Specify the rate for single rate two color mode.
Rate – Specify the committed bandwidth in Kbps for the flow.
Burst Size – Specify the burst size for the single rate two color mode. The unit
is in kilobyte.
Rate Exceeded – Specify the action for packets that exceed the committed
rate in single rate two color mode. The action can be specified as one of the
following:
Drop Packet – Drop the packet immediately.
Remark DSCP – Mark the packet with a specified DSCP. The packet is set to
drop for packets with a high precedence.
trTCM – Specify the “two-rate three-color mode.”
CIR – Specify the Committed information Rate. The unit is Kbps. CIR should
always be equal or less than PIR.
PIR – Specify the Peak information Rate. The unit is Kbps. PIR should always
be equal to or greater than CIR.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
PBS – Specify the Peak Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
srTCM – Specify the “single-rate three-color mode”.
CIR – Specify the Committed Information Rate. The unit is in kilobyte.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
EBS – Specify the Excess Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
Action
Conform – This field denotes the green packet flow. Green packet flows may
have their DSCP field rewritten to a value stated in this field. Users may also
choose to count green packets by using counter parameter.
Replace DSCP – Packets that are in the green flow may have their DSCP
field rewritten using this parameter and entering the DSCP value to replace.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the green flow.
Exceed – This field denotes the yellow packet flow. Yellow packet flows may
have excess packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the
DSCP field of these packets by checking its radio button and entering a new
DSCP value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the yellow flow.
Violate – This field denotes the red packet flow. Red packet flows may have
excess packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the DSCP
field of these packets by checking its radio button and entering a new DSCP
value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the red flow.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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After clicking the View button, the following page will appear:
Figure 176: ACL Flow meter Display window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Egress Access Profile List
Egress ACL performs per-flow processing of packets when they egress the Switch. The Switch supports
three Profile Types, Ethernet ACL, IPv4 ACL, and IPv6 ACL.
To view this window, click ACL > Egress Access Profile List as shown below:
The Switch supports three Egress ACL Profile Types, Ethernet ACL, IPv4 ACL, and IPv6 ACL.
Creating an egress access profile is divided into two basic parts. The first is to specify which part or
parts of a frame the Switch will examine, such as the MAC source address or the IP destination address.
The second part is entering the criteria the Switch will use to determine what to do with the frame. The
entire process is described below in two parts.
Click the Add Egress ACL button to add an entry to the Egress Access Profile List.
Click the Delete All button to remove all egress access profiles from this table.
Click the Show Details button to display the information of the specific profile ID entry.
Click the Add/View Rules button to view or add ACL rules within the specified profile ID.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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Egress Access Profile List
There are four Add Egress Access Profile windows;
●
one for Ethernet (or MAC address-based) profile configuration,
●
one for IPv4 address-based profile configuration, and
●
one for IPv6 address-based profile configuration.
Add an Ethernet ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for Ethernet. To use specific filtering
masks in this egress ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add
more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 177: Add Egress ACL Profile window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 4.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6
address. This will change the window according to the requirements for the
type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
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Parameter
Description
Source MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC address.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN
identifier of each packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for
forwarding.
802.1p
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1p priority value
of each packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for
forwarding.
Ethernet Type
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value in
each frame's header.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 178: Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 179: Egress Access Rule List window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
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Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 180: Add Egress Access Rule window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-128)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 128.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Ethernet Type
Specify the Ethernet type.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default
priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the
specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user
priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see Chapter 6, “QoS.”
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv4 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Port
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Port Group ID
Specify the port group ID to apply to the access rule.
Port Group Name
Specify the port group name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 181: Egress Access Rule Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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Egress Access Profile List
Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for IPv4. To use specific filtering
masks in this egress ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add
more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 182: Add Egress ACL Profile window (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 4.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6
address. This will change the window according to the requirements for the
type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN
identifier of each packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for
forwarding.
IPv4 DSCP
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of
each packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 Source IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address.
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Parameter
Description
IPv4 Destination IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the destination IP address.
Protocol
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in
each frame's header. Then the user must specify what protocol(s) to include
according to the following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type
value, or specify Code to further specify that the access profile will apply an
ICMP code value.
Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type
value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as
the forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires that you specify a source port
mask and/or a destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex
0x0-0xffff), which you wish to filter.
dst port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff) which you wish to filter.
flag bit - The user may also identify which flag bits to filter. Flag bits are parts
of a packet that determine what to do with the packet. The user may filter
packets by filtering certain flag bits within the packets, by checking the boxes
corresponding to the flag bits of the TCP field. The user may choose between
urg (urgent), ack (acknowledgement), psh (push), rst (reset), syn
(synchronize), fin (finish).
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as
the forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port
mask and/or a destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex
0x0-0xffff).
dst port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the destination port in hex form
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
Select Protocol ID - Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet
header to mask. Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xff.
Protocol ID Mask - Specify that the rule applies to the IP protocol ID traffic.
User Define - Specify the Layer 4 part mask
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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Egress Access Profile List
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 183: Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 184: Egress Access Rule List window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 185: Add Egress Access Rule (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-128)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 128.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
DSCP
Specify the value of DSCP. The DSCP value ranges from 0 to 63.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default
priority of a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the
criteria specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the
specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user
priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv4 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Ticking the All Ports check box will denote all ports on the Switch.
Port Group ID
Specify the port group ID to apply to the access rule.
Port Group Name
Specify the port group name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 186: Egress Access Rule Detail Information (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for IPv6. To use specific filtering
masks in this egress ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add
more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 187: Add Egress ACL Profile window (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from
1 to 4.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6
address. This will change the window according to the requirements for the
type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each
packet header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each
frame's header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each
frame's header.
IPv6 Class
Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to examine the class field of the
IPv6 header. This class field is a part of the packet header that is similar to
the Type of Service (ToS) or Precedence bits field in IPv4.
IPv6 TCP
Source Port Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the range of TCP source
ports.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port range.
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Egress Access Profile List
Parameter
Description
IPv6 UDP
Source Port Mask – Specify the range of the UDP source port range.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the UDP destination port mask.
ICMP
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) field in each frame's header.
IPv6 Source Mask
The user may specify an IP address mask for the source IPv6 address by
ticking the corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask, e.g.
255.255.255.255.
IPv6 Destination Mask
The user may specify an IP address mask for the destination IPv6 address by
ticking the corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask, e.g.
255.255.255.255.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 188: Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 189: Egress Access Rule List window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
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Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 190: Add Egress Access Rule (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-128)
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from
1 to 128.
Auto Assign – Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to automatically
assign an Access ID for the rule being created.
Class
Specify the value of IPv6 class.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are
forwarded by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
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Parameter
Description
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria
specified previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified
CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority rewritten to its original value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p,
see the QoS section of this manual.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a
packet that meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent
field. When an ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an
IPv6 packet, only one of them can be modified due to a chip limitation.
Currently the priority is changed when both the priority and DSCP are set to
be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has
been previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set
specific times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the
administrator can see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
When a range of ports is to be configured, the Auto Assign check box MUST
be ticked in the Access ID field of this window. If not, the user will be
presented with an error message and the access rule will not be configured.
Ticking the All Ports check box will denote all ports on the Switch.
Port Group ID
Specify the port group ID to apply to the access rule.
Port Group Name
Specify the port group name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 191: Egress Access Rule Detail Information (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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Egress ACL Flow Meter
This window is used to configure the packet flow-based metering based on an egress access profile and
rule.
To view this window, click ACL > Egress ACL Flow Meter as shown below:
Figure 192: Egress ACL Flow Meter window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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Egress ACL Flow Meter
After clicking the Add or Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 193: Egress ACL Flow Meter Configuration window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
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Parameter
Description
Mode
Rate – Specify the rate for single rate two color mode.
Rate – Specify the committed bandwidth in Kbps for the flow.
Burst Size – Specify the burst size for the single rate two color mode. The unit
is in kilobyte.
Rate Exceeded – Specify the action for packets that exceed the committed
rate in single rate two color mode. The action can be specified as one of the
following:
Drop Packet – Drop the packet immediately.
Remark DSCP – Mark the packet with a specified DSCP. The packet is set to
drop for packets with a high precedence.
trTCM – Specify the “two-rate three-color mode.”
CIR – Specify the Committed information Rate. The unit is Kbps. CIR should
always be equal or less than PIR.
PIR – Specify the Peak information Rate. The unit is Kbps. PIR should always
be equal to or greater than CIR.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
PBS – Specify the Peak Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
srTCM – Specify the “single-rate three-color mode”.
CIR – Specify the Committed Information Rate. The unit is in kilobyte.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
EBS – Specify the Excess Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
Action
Conform – This field denotes the green packet flow. Green packet flows may
have their DSCP field rewritten to a value stated in this field. Users may also
choose to count green packets by using counter parameter.
Replace DSCP – Packets that are in the green flow may have their DSCP
field rewritten using this parameter and entering the DSCP value to replace.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the green flow.
Exceed – This field denotes the yellow packet flow. Yellow packet flows may
have excess packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the
DSCP field of these packets by checking its radio button and entering a new
DSCP value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the yellow flow.
Violate – This field denotes the red packet flow. Red packet flows may have
excess packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the DSCP
field of these packets by checking its radio button and entering a new DSCP
value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the
specified ACL entry in the red flow.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Egress ACL Flow Meter
After clicking the View button, the following page will appear:
Figure 194: Egress ACL Flow meter Display window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
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8
Security
CHAPTER
802.1X
802.1X (Port-Based and Host-Based Access Control)
The IEEE 802.1X standard is a security measure for authorizing and authenticating users to gain access
to various wired or wireless devices on a specified Local Area Network by using a Client and Server
based access control model. This is accomplished by using a RADIUS server to authenticate users trying
to access a network by relaying Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) packets between
the Client and the Server. The following figure represents a basic EAPOL packet:
Figure 195: The EAPOL Packet
Utilizing this method, unauthorized devices are restricted from connecting to a LAN through a port to
which the user is connected. EAPOL packets are the only traffic that can be transmitted through the
specific port until authorization is granted. The 802.1X Access Control method has three roles, each of
which are vital to creating and up keeping a stable and working Access Control security method.
Figure 196: The three roles of 802.1X
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The following section will explain the three roles of Client, Authenticator and Authentication Server in
greater detail.
Authentication Server
The Authentication Server is a remote device that is connected to the same network as the Client and
Authenticator, must be running a RADIUS Server program and must be configured properly on the
Authenticator (Switch). Clients connected to a port on the Switch must be authenticated by the
Authentication Server (RADIUS) before attaining any services offered by the Switch on the LAN. The
role of the Authentication Server is to certify the identity of the Client attempting to access the network
by exchanging secure information between the RADIUS server and the Client through EAPOL packets
and, in turn, informs the Switch whether or not the Client is granted access to the LAN and/or switches
services.
Figure 197: The Authentication Server
Authenticator
The Authenticator (the Switch) is an intermediary between the Authentication Server and the Client.
The Authenticator serves two purposes when utilizing the 802.1X function. The first purpose is to
request certification information from the Client through EAPOL packets, which is the only information
allowed to pass through the Authenticator before access is granted to the Client. The second purpose of
the Authenticator is to verify the information gathered from the Client with the Authentication Server,
and to then relay that information back to the Client.
Figure 198: The Authenticator
Three steps must be implemented on the Switch to properly configure the Authenticator.
1 The 802.1X State must be Enabled. (Security / 802.1X /802.1X Settings)
2 The 802.1X settings must be implemented by port (Security / 802.1X / 802.1X Settings)
3 A RADIUS server must be configured on the Switch. (Security / 802.1X / Authentic RADIUS
Server)
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802.1X
Client
The Client is simply the end station that wishes to gain access to the LAN or switch services. All end
stations must be running software that is compliant with the 802.1X protocol. For users running
Windows XP and Windows Vista, that software is included within the operating system. All other users
are required to attain 802.1X client software from an outside source. The Client will request access to the
LAN and or Switch through EAPOL packets and, in turn will respond to requests from the Switch.
Figure 199: The Client
Authentication Process
Utilizing the three roles stated above, the 802.1X protocol provides a stable and secure way of
authorizing and authenticating users attempting to access the network. Only EAPOL traffic is allowed
to pass through the specified port before a successful authentication is made. This port is “locked” until
the point when a Client with the correct username and password (and MAC address if 802.1X is
enabled by MAC address) is granted access and therefore successfully “unlocks” the port. Once
unlocked, normal traffic is allowed to pass through the port. The following figure displays a more
detailed explanation of how the authentication process is completed between the three roles stated
above.
Figure 200: The 802.1X Authentication Process
The Extreme implementation of 802.1X allows network administrators to choose between two types of
Access Control used on the Switch, which are:
1 Port-Based Access Control – This method requires only one user to be authenticated per port by a
remote RADIUS server to allow the remaining users on the same port access to the network.
2 Host-Based Access Control – Using this method, the Switch will automatically learn up to a
maximum of 448 MAC addresses by port and set them in a list. Each MAC address must be
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authenticated by the Switch using a remote RADIUS server before being allowed access to the
Network.
Understanding 802.1X Port-based and Host-based Network Access Control
The original intent behind the development of 802.1X was to leverage the characteristics of point-topoint in LANs. As any single LAN segment in such infrastructures has no more than two devices
attached to it, one of which is a Bridge Port. The Bridge Port detects events that indicate the attachment
of an active device at the remote end of the link, or an active device becoming inactive. These events
can be used to control the authorization state of the Port and initiate the process of authenticating the
attached device if the Port is unauthorized. This is the Port-Based Network Access Control.
Port-Based Network Access Control
Once the connected device has successfully been authenticated, the Port then becomes Authorized, and
all subsequent traffic on the Port is not subject to access control restriction until an event occurs that
causes the Port to become Unauthorized. Hence, if the Port is actually connected to a shared media
LAN segment with more than one attached device, successfully authenticating one of the attached
devices effectively provides access to the LAN for all devices on the shared segment. Clearly, the
security offered in this situation is open to attack.
Figure 201: Example of Typical Port-based Configuration
RADIUS
Se rv er
Eth ernet Swit ch
…
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
Net wo rk acc ess co ntro lled p ort
Ne twork a ccess u nco nt roll ed po rt
Host-Based Network Access Control
In order to successfully make use of 802.1X in a shared media LAN segment, it would be necessary to
create “logical” Ports, one for each attached device that required access to the LAN. The Switch would
regard the single physical Port connecting it to the shared media segment as consisting of a number of
distinct logical Ports, each logical Port being independently controlled from the point of view of EAPOL
exchanges and authorization state. The Switch learns each attached devices’ individual MAC addresses,
and effectively creates a logical Port that the attached device can then use to communicate with the
LAN via the Switch.
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802.1X
Figure 202: Example of Typical Host-based Configuration
RADIUS
Se rv er
E th ernet Switc h
…
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
802.1X
Client
Ne twork acc ess c on tro lle d p ort
Net wo rk a cce ss un co nt roll ed po rt
802.1X Global Settings
Users can configure the 802.1X global parameter.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X Global Settings as shown below:
Figure 203: 802.1X Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authentication Mode
Choose the 802.1X authenticator mode, Disabled, Port-based, or MAC-based.
Authentication Protocol
Choose the authenticator protocol, Local or RADIUS EAP.
Forward EAPOL PDU
This is a global setting to control the forwarding of EAPOL PDU. When 802.1X
functionality is disabled globally or for a port, and if 802.1X forward PDU is
enabled both globally and for the port, a received EAPOL packet on the port
will be flooded in the same VLAN to those ports for which 802.1X forward
PDU is enabled and 802.1X is disabled (globally or just for the port). The
default state is disabled.
Max Users
Specifies the maximum number of users. The limit on the maximum users is
448 users. This the No Limit check box to have unlimited users.
RADIUS Authorization
This option is used to enable or disable acceptation of authorized
configuration. When the authorization is enabled for 802.1X’s RADIUS, the
authorized data assigned by the RADIUS server will be accepted if the global
authorization network is enabled.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
802.1X Port Settings
Users can configure the 802.1X authenticator port settings.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X Port Settings as shown below:
Figure 204: 802.1X Port Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports you wish to configure.
QuietPeriod
This allows the user to set the number of seconds that the Switch remains in
the quiet state following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The
default setting is 60 seconds.
SuppTimeout
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the
Authenticator and the client. The default setting is 30 seconds. It is defined in
SuppTimeout, IEEE-802.1X-2001, page 47. The initialization value is used for
the awhile timer when timing out the Supplicant. Its default value is 30
seconds; however, if the type of challenge involved in the current exchange
demands a different value of timeout (for example, if the challenge requires an
action on the part of the user), then the timeout value is adjusted accordingly.
It can be set by management to any value in the range from 1 to 65535
seconds.
ServerTimeout
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the
Authenticator and the authentication server. The default setting is 30 seconds.
MaxReq
The maximum number of times that the Switch will retransmit an EAP Request
to the client before it times out of the authentication sessions. The default
setting is 2. It is defined in MaxReq, IEEE-802.1X-2001 page 47. The
maximum number of times that the state machine will retransmit an EAP
Request packet to the Supplicant before it times out the authentication
session. Its default value is 2; it can be set by management to any value in
the range from 1 to 10.
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Parameter
Description
TxPeriod
This sets the TxPeriod of time for the authenticator PAE state machine. This
value determines the period of an EAP Request/Identity packet transmitted to
the client. The default setting is 30 seconds.
ReAuthPeriod
A constant that defines a nonzero number of seconds between periodic reauthentication of the client. The default setting is 3600 seconds.
ReAuthentication
Determines whether regular re-authentication will take place on this port. The
default setting is Disabled.
Port Control
This allows the user to control the port authorization state.
Select ForceAuthorized to disable 802.1X and cause the port to transition to
the authorized state without any authentication exchange required. This
means the port transmits and receives normal traffic without 802.1X-based
authentication of the client.
If ForceUnauthorized is selected, the port will remain in the unauthorized
state, ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate. The Switch cannot
provide authentication services to the client through the interface.
If Auto is selected, it will enable 802.1X and cause the port to begin in the
unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be sent and received
through the port. The authentication process begins when the link state of the
port transitions from down to up, or when an EAPOL-start frame is received.
The Switch then requests the identity of the client and begins relaying
authentication messages between the client and the authentication server.
The default setting is Auto.
Capability
This allows the 802.1X Authenticator settings to be applied on a per-port
basis. Select Authenticator to apply the settings to the port. When the setting
is activated, a user must pass the authentication process to gain access to the
network. Select None disable 802.1X functions on the port.
Direction
Sets the administrative-controlled direction to Both or In. If Both is selected,
control is exerted over both incoming and outgoing traffic through the
controlled port selected in the first field. If In is selected, the control is only
exerted over incoming traffic through the port the user selected in the first
field.
Forward EAPOL PDU
This is a global setting to control the forwarding of EAPOL PDU. When 802.1X
functionality is disabled globally or for a port, and if 802.1X forward PDU is
enabled both globally and for the port, a received EAPOL packet on the port
will be flooded in the same VLAN to those ports for which 802.1X forward
PDU is enabled and 802.1X is disabled (globally or just for the port). The
default state is disabled.
Max Users
Specifies the maximum number of users. The maximum user limit is 448
users. The default is 16.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
802.1X User Settings
Users can set different 802.1X users in switch’s local database.
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To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X User Settings as shown below:
Figure 205: 802.1X User Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
802.1X User
The user can enter an 802.1X user’s username in here.
Password
The user can enter an 802.1X user’s password in here.
Confirm Password
The user can re-enter an 802.1X user’s password in here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE
The 802.1X User and Password values should be less than 16 characters.
Guest VLAN Settings
On 802.1X security-enabled networks, there is a need for non- 802.1X supported devices to gain limited
access to the network, due to lack of the proper 802.1X software or incompatible devices, such as
computers running Windows 98 or older operating systems, or the need for guests to gain access to the
network without full authorization or local authentication on the Switch. To supplement these
circumstances, this switch now implements 802.1X Guest VLANs. These VLANs should have limited
access rights and features separate from other VLANs on the network.
To implement 802.1X Guest VLANs, the user must first create a VLAN on the network with limited
rights and then enable it as an 802.1X guest VLAN. Then the administrator must configure the guest
accounts accessing the Switch to be placed in a Guest VLAN when trying to access the Switch. Upon
initial entry to the Switch, the client wishing services on the Switch will need to be authenticated by a
remote RADIUS Server or local authentication on the Switch to be placed in a fully operational VLAN.
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Figure 206: Guest VLAN Authentication Process
If authenticated and the authenticator possess the VLAN placement information, that client will be
accepted into the fully operational target VLAN and normal switch functions will be open to the client.
If the authenticator does not have target VLAN placement information, the client will be returned to its
originating VLAN. Yet, if the client is denied authentication by the authenticator, it will be placed in the
Guest VLAN where it has limited rights and access. The adjacent figure should give the user a better
understanding of the Guest VLAN process.
Limitations Using the Guest VLAN
1 Ports supporting Guest VLANs cannot be GVRP enabled and vice versa.
2 A port cannot be a member of a Guest VLAN and a static VLAN simultaneously.
3 Once a client has been accepted into the target VLAN, it can no longer access the Guest VLAN.
Remember, to set an 802.1X guest VLAN, the user must first configure a normal VLAN, which can be
enabled here for guest VLAN status. Only one VLAN may be assigned as the 802.1X guest VLAN.
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To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Guest VLAN Settings as shown below:
Figure 207: Guest VLAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Enter the pre-configured VLAN name to create as an 802.1X guest VLAN.
Port
Set the ports to be enabled for the 802.1X guest VLAN. Click the All button to
select all the ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
RADIUS
Authentication RADIUS Server Settings
The RADIUS feature of the Switch allows the user to facilitate centralized user administration as well as
providing protection against a sniffing, active hacker.
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To view this window, click Security > RADIUS > Authentication RADIUS Server Settings as shown
below:
Figure 208: Authentication RADIUS Server Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Index
Choose the desired RADIUS server to configure: 1, 2 or 3 and select the IPv4
Address.
Server IP
Set the RADIUS server IP address.
IPv4 Address
Set the RADIUS server IP address.
IPv6 Address
Set the RADIUS server IPv6 address.
Authentication Port
Set the RADIUS authentic server(s) UDP port which is used to transmit
RADIUS data between the Switch and the RADIUS server. The default port is
1812.
Accounting Port
Set the RADIUS account server(s) UDP port which is used to transmit
RADIUS accounting statistics between the Switch and the RADIUS server.
The default port is 1813.
Timeout
Set the RADIUS server age-out, in seconds.
Retransmit
Set the RADIUS server retransmit time, in times.
Key
Set the key the same as that of the RADIUS server.
Confirm Key
Confirm the key the same as that of the RADIUS server.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
RADIUS Accounting Settings
Users can configure the state of the specified RADIUS accounting service.
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To view this window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Accounting Settings as shown below:
Figure 209: RADIUS Accounting Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Network
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote
RADIUS server when 802.1X and WAC port access control events occur on
the Switch.
Shell
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote
RADIUS server when a user either logs in, logs out or times out on the
Switch, using the console, Telnet, or SSH.
System
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote
RADIUS server when system events occur on the Switch, such as a system
reset or system boot.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
RADIUS Authentication
Users can display information concerning the activity of the RADIUS authentication client on the client
side of the RADIUS authentication protocol.
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RADIUS
To view this window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Authentication as shown below:
Figure 210: RAIUS Authentication window
The user may also select the desired time interval to update the statistics, between 1s and 60s, where “s”
stands for seconds. The default value is one second.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
InvalidServerAddr
The number of RADIUS Access-Response packets received from unknown
addresses.
Identifier
The NAS-Identifier of the RADIUS authentication client.
ServerIndex
The identification number assigned to each RADIUS Authentication server that
the client shares a secret with.
AuthServerAddr
The (conceptual) table listing the RADIUS authentication servers with which
the client shares a secret.
ServerPortNumber
The UDP port the client is using to send requests to this server.
RoundTripTime
The time interval (in hundredths of a second) between the most recent
Access-Reply/Access-Challenge and the Access-Request that matched it from
this RADIUS authentication server.
AccessRequests
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets sent to this server. This
does not include retransmissions.
AccessRetrans
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets retransmitted to this
RADIUS authentication server.
AccessAccepts
The number of RADIUS Access-Accept packets (valid or invalid) received from
this server.
AccessRejects
The number of RADIUS Access-Reject packets (valid or invalid) received from
this server.
AccessChallenges
The number of RADIUS Access-Challenge packets (valid or invalid) received
from this server.
AccessResponses
The number of malformed RADIUS Access-Response packets received from
this server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length. Bad
authenticators or Signature attributes or known types are not included as
malformed access responses.
BadAuthenticators
The number of RADIUS Access-Response packets containing invalid
authenticators or Signature attributes received from this server.
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Parameter
Description
PendingRequests
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets destined for this server that
have not yet timed out or received a response. This variable is incremented
when an Access-Request is sent and decremented due to receipt of an
Access-Accept, Access-Reject or Access-Challenge, a timeout or
retransmission.
Timeouts
The number of authentication timeouts to this server. After a timeout the client
may retry to the same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to
the same server is counted as a retransmit as well as a timeout. A send to a
different server is counted as a Request as well as a timeout.
UnknownTypes
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from
this server on the authentication port
PacketsDropped
The number of RADIUS packets of which were received from this server on
the authentication port and dropped for some other reason.
Click the Clear button to clear the current statistics shown.
RADIUS Account Client
Users can display managed objects used for managing RADIUS accounting clients, and the current
statistics associated with them.
To view this window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Account Client as shown below:
Figure 211: RADIUS Account Client window
The user may also select the desired time interval to update the statistics, between 1s and 60s, where “s”
stands for seconds. The default value is one second.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ServerIndex
The identification number assigned to each RADIUS Accounting server that
the client shares a secret with.
InvalidServerAddr
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets received from
unknown addresses.
Identifier
The NAS-Identifier of the RADIUS accounting client.
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Parameter
Description
ServerAddr
The IP address of the RADIUS authentication server referred to in this table
entry.
ServerPortNumber
The UDP port the client is using to send requests to this server.
RoundTripTime
The time interval between the most recent Accounting-Response and the
Accounting-Request that matched it from this RADIUS accounting server.
Requests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent. This does not
include retransmissions.
Retransmissions
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets retransmitted to this
RADIUS accounting server. Retransmissions include retries where the
Identifier and Acct-Delay have been updated, as well as those in which they
remain the same.
Responses
The number of RADIUS packets received on the accounting port from this
server.
MalformedResponses
The number of malformed RADIUS Accounting-Response packets received
from this server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length.
Bad authenticators and unknown types are not included as malformed
accounting responses.
BadAuthenticators
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets, which contained
invalid authenticators, received from this server.
PendingRequests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent to this server that
have not yet timed out or received a response. This variable is incremented
when an Accounting-Request is sent and decremented due to receipt of an
Accounting-Response, a timeout or a retransmission.
Timeouts
The number of accounting timeouts to this server. After a timeout the client
may retry to the same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to
the same server is counted as a retransmit as well as a timeout. A send to a
different server is counted as an Accounting-Request as well as a timeout.
UnknownTypes
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from
this server on the accounting port.
PacketsDropped
The number of RADIUS packets, which were received from this server on the
accounting port and dropped for some other reason.
Click the Clear button to clear the current statistics shown.
MAC-based Access Control (MAC)
MAC-based access control is a method to authenticate and authorize access using either a port or host.
For port-based MAC-based access control, the method decides port access rights, while for host-based
MAC-based access control, the method determines the MAC access rights.
A MAC user must be authenticated before being granted access to a network. Both local authentication
and remote RADIUS server authentication methods are supported. In MAC-based access control, MAC
user information in a local database or a RADIUS server database is searched for authentication.
Following the authentication result, users achieve different levels of authorization.
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Notes about MAC-based Access Control
There are certain limitations and regulations regarding MAC-based access control:
1 Once this feature is enabled for a port, the Switch will clear the FDB of that port.
2 If a port is granted clearance for a MAC address in a VLAN that is not a Guest VLAN, other MAC
addresses on that port must be authenticated for access and otherwise will be blocked by the Switch.
3 Ports that have been enabled for Link Aggregation and Port Security cannot be enabled for MACbased Authentication.
4 Ports that have been enabled for GVRP cannot be enabled for Guest VLAN.
MAC-based Access Control Settings
This window is used to set the parameters for the MAC-based access control function on the Switch.
The user can set the running state, method of authentication, RADIUS password, view the Guest VLAN
configuration to be associated with the MAC-based access control function of the Switch, and configure
ports to be enabled or disabled for the MAC-based access control feature of the Switch. Please
remember, ports enabled for certain other features, listed previously, and cannot be enabled for MACbased access control.
To view this window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access
Control Settings as shown below:
Figure 212: MAC-based Access Control Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC-based Access Control
State
Toggle to globally enable or disable the MAC-based access control function
on the Switch.
Method
Use this drop-down menu to choose the type of authentication to be used
when authentication MAC addresses on a given port. The user may choose
between the following methods:
Local – Use this method to utilize the locally set MAC address database as
the authenticator for MAC-based access control. This MAC address list can be
configured in the MAC-based access control Local Database Settings window.
RADIUS – Use this method to utilize a remote RADIUS server as the
authenticator for MAC-based access control. Remember, the MAC list must be
previously set on the RADIUS server.
Password
Enter the password for the RADIUS server, which is to be used for packets
being sent requesting authentication. The default password is “default”.
RADIUS Authorization
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the use of RADIUS
Authorization.
Local Authorization
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the use of Local Authorization.
Log State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable log state.
Max User
Enter the maximum amount of users of the Switch.
VLAN Name
Enter the name of the previously configured Guest VLAN being used for this
function.
VID
Click the radio button and enter a Guest VLAN ID.
Member Ports
Enter the list of ports that have been configured for the Guest VLAN.
From Port
The beginning port of a range of ports to be configured for MAC-based access
control.
To Port
The ending port of a range of ports to be configured for MAC-based access
control.
State
Use this drop-down menu to enable or disable MAC-based access control on
the port or range of ports selected in the Port Settings section of this window.
Mode
Toggle between Port-based and Host-based.
Aging Time (1-1440)
Enter a value between 1 and 1440 minutes. The default is 1440. To set this
value to have no aging time, select the Infinite option.
Block Time (0-300)
Enter a value between 1 and 300 seconds. The default is 300.
Max User (1-1000)
Enter the maximum user used for this configuration. When No Limit is
selected, there will be no user limit applied to this rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
MAC-based Access Control Local Settings
Users can set a list of MAC addresses, along with their corresponding target VLAN, which will be
authenticated for the Switch. Once a queried MAC address is matched in this window, it will be placed
in the VLAN associated with it here. The Switch administrator may enter up to 128 MAC addresses to
be authenticated using the local method configured here.
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To view this window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access
Control Local Settings as shown below:
Figure 213: MAC-based Access Control Local Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC address
Enter the MAC address that will be added to the local authentication list here.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name of the corresponding MAC address here.
VID (1-4094)
Enter the VLAN ID of the corresponding MAC address here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete by MAC button to remove the specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
Click the Delete by VLAN button to remove the specific entry based on the VLAN name or ID entered.
Click the Find by MAC button to locate a specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
Click the Find by VLAN button to locate a specific entry based on the VLAN name or ID entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
To change the selected MAC address’ VLAN Name, the user can click the Edit by Name button.
Figure 214: MAC-based Access Control Local Settings – Edit by Name window
To change the selected MAC address’ VID value, the user can click the Edit by ID button.
Figure 215: MAC-based Access Control Local Settings – Edit by ID window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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Web-based Access Control (WAC)
MAC-based Access Control Authentication State
Users can display MAC-based access control Authentication State information.
To view this window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access
Control Authentication State as shown below:
Figure 216: MAC-based Access Control Authentication State window
To display MAC-based access control Authentication State information, enter a port number in the
space provided and then click the Find button.
Click the Clear by Port button to clear all the information linked to the port number entered.
Click the View All Hosts button to display all the existing hosts.
Click the Clear All hosts button to clear out all the existing hosts.
Web-based Access Control (WAC)
Web-based Authentication Login is a feature designed to authenticate a user when the user is trying to
access the Internet via the Switch. The authentication process uses the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. The
Switch enters the authenticating stage when users attempt to browse Web pages through a Web
browser. When the Switch detects HTTP or HTTPS packets and this port is un-authenticated, the Switch
will launch a pop-up user name and password window to query users. Users are not able to access the
Internet until the authentication process is passed.
The Switch can be the authentication server itself and do the authentication based on a local database,
or be a RADIUS client and perform the authentication process via the RADIUS protocol with a remote
RADIUS server. The client user initiates the authentication process of WAC by attempting to gain Web
access.
Extreme’s implementation of WAC uses a virtual IP that is exclusively used by the WAC function and is
not known by any other modules of the Switch. In fact, to avoid affecting a Switch’s other features,
WAC will only use a virtual IP address to communicate with hosts. Thus, all authentication requests
must be sent to a virtual IP address but not to the IP address of the Switch’s physical interface.
Virtual IP works like this, when a host PC communicates with the WAC Switch through a virtual IP, the
virtual IP is transformed into the physical IPIF (IP interface) address of the Switch to make the
communication possible. The host PC and other servers’ IP configurations do not depend on the virtual
IP of WAC. The virtual IP does not respond to any ICMP packets or ARP requests, which means it is
not allowed to configure a virtual IP on the same subnet as the Switch’s IPIF (IP interface) or the same
subnet as the host PCs’ subnet.
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As all packets to a virtual IP from authenticated and authenticating hosts will be trapped to the Switch’s
CPU, if the virtual IP is the same as other servers or PCs, the hosts on the WAC-enabled ports cannot
communicate with the server or PC which really own the IP address. If the hosts need to access the
server or PC, the virtual IP cannot be the same as the one of the server or PC. If a host PC uses a proxy
to access the Web, to make the authentication work properly the user of the PC should add the virtual
IP to the exception of the proxy configuration. Whether or not a virtual IP is specified, users can access
the WAC pages through the Switch’s system IP. When a virtual IP is not specified, the authenticating
Web request will be redirected to the Switch’s system IP.
The Switch’s implementation of WAC features a user-defined port number that allows the configuration
of the TCP port for either the HTTP or HTTPS protocols. This TCP port for HTTP or HTTPs is used to
identify the HTTP or HTTPs packets that will be trapped to the CPU for authentication processing, or to
access the login page. If not specified, the default port number for HTTP is 80 and the default port
number for HTTPS is 443. If no protocol is specified, the default protocol is HTTP.
The following diagram illustrates the basic six steps all parties go through in a successful Web
Authentication process:
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Conditions and Limitations
1 If the client is utilizing DHCP to attain an IP address, the authentication VLAN must provide a
DHCP server or a DHCP relay function so that client may obtain an IP address.
2 Certain functions exist on the Switch that will filter HTTP packets, such as the Access Profile
function. The user needs to be very careful when setting filter functions for the target VLAN, so that
these HTTP packets are not denied by the Switch.
3 If a RADIUS server is to be used for authentication, the user must first establish a RADIUS Server
with the appropriate parameters, including the target VLAN, before enabling Web Authentication on
the Switch.
WAC Global Settings
Users can configure the Switch for the Web-based access control function.
To view this window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Global Settings as
shown below:
Figure 217: WAC Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
WAC Global State
Use this selection menu to either enable or disable the Web Authentication on
the Switch.
Virtual IP
Enter a virtual IP address. This address is only used by WAC and is not
known by any other modules of the Switch.
Method
Use this drop-down menu to choose the authenticator for Web-based Access
Control. The user may choose:
Local – Choose this parameter to use the local authentication method of the
Switch as the authenticating method for users trying to access the network via
the switch. This is, in fact, the username and password to access the Switch
configured using the WAC User Settings window (Security > Web-based
Access Control > WAC User Settings) seen below.
RADIUS – Choose this parameter to use a remote RADIUS server as the
authenticating method for users trying to access the network via the switch.
This RADIUS server must have already been pre-assigned by the
administrator using the Authentication RADIUS Server Settings window
(Security > RADIUS > Authentication RADIUS Server Settings).
Redirection Path
Enter the URL of the website that authenticated users placed in the VLAN are
directed to once authenticated.
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Parameter
Description
Clear Redirection Path
The user can enable or disable this option to clear the redirection path.
RADIUS Authorization
The user can enable or disable this option to enable RADIUS Authorization or
not.
Local Authorization
The user can enable or disable this option to enable Local Authorization or
not.
HTTP(S) Port (1-65535)
Enter a HTTP port number. Port 80 is the default.
HTTP – Specifies that the TCP port will run the WAC HTTP protocol. The
default value is 80. HTTP port cannot run at TCP port 443.
HTTPS – Specifies that the TCP port will run the WAC HTTPS protocol. The
default value is 443. HTTPS cannot run at TCP port 80.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE
A successful authentication should direct the client to the stated web page. If the client does not reach this
web page, yet does not receive a Fail! Message, the client will already be authenticated and therefore should
refresh the current browser window or attempt to open a different web page.
WAC User Settings
Users can view and set local database user accounts for Web authentication.
To view this window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC User Settings as
shown below:
Figure 218: WAC User Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name
Enter the user name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters of the guest wishing
to access the Web through this process. This field is for administrators who
have selected Local as their Web-based authenticator.
VLAN Name
Click the button and enter a VLAN Name in this field.
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Parameter
Description
VID (1-4094)
Click the button and enter a VID in this field.
Password
Enter the password the administrator has chosen for the selected user. This
field is case-sensitive and must be a complete alphanumeric string. This field
is for administrators who have selected Local as their Web-based
authenticator.
Confirmation
Retype the password entered in the previous field.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit VLAN Name button to re-configure the specific entry’s VLAN Name.
Click the Edit VID button to re-configure the specific entry’s VLAN ID.
Click the Clear VLAN button to remove the VLAN information from the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
WAC Port Settings
Users can view and set port configurations for Web authentication.
To view this window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Port Settings as
shown below:
Figure 219: WAC Port Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port
Use this drop-down menu to select the beginning port of a range of ports to
be enabled as WAC ports.
To Port
Use this drop-down menu to select the ending port of a range of ports to be
enabled as WAC ports.
Aging Time (1-1440)
This parameter specifies the time period during which an authenticated host
will remain in the authenticated state. Enter a value between 1and 1440
minutes. Tick the Infinite check box to indicate the authenticated host will
never age out on the port. The default value is 1440 minutes (24 hours).
State
Use this drop-down menu to enable the configured ports as WAC ports.
Idle Time (1-1440)
If there is no traffic during the Idle Time parameter, the host will be moved
back to the unauthenticated state. Enter a value between 1 and 1440 minutes.
Tick the Infinite check box to indicate the Idle state of the authenticated host
on the port will never be checked. The default value is infinite.
Block Time (0-300)
This parameter is the period of time a host will be blocked if it fails to pass
authentication. Enter a value between 0 and 300 seconds. The default value is
60 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
WAC Authentication State
Users can view and delete the hosts for Web authentication.
To view this window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Authentication State
as shown below:
Figure 220: WAC Authentication State window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List
Enter the desired range of ports and tick the appropriate check box(s),
Authenticated, Authenticating, and Blocked.
Authenticated
Tick this check box to clear all authenticated users for a port.
Authenticating
Tick this check box to clear all authenticating users for a port.
Blocked
Tick this check box to clear all blocked users for a port.
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Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear by Port button to remove entry based on the port list entered.
Click the View All Hosts button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Hosts button to remove all the entries listed.
Compound Authentication
Compound Authentication settings allows for multiple authentication to be supported on the Switch.
Compound Authentication Settings
Users can configure Authorization Network State Settings and compound authentication methods for a
port or ports on the Switch.
To view this window, click Security > Compound Authentication > Compound Authentication
Settings as shown below:
Figure 221: Compound Authentication Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authorization Network State
Click the radio buttons to enable of disable the Authorization Network State.
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Parameter
Description
Authentication Server Failover
Click the radio buttons to configure the authentication server failover function.
Local. The switch will resort to using the local database to authenticate the
client. If the client fails on local authentication, the client is regarded as unauthenticated, otherwise, it authenticated.
Permit. The client is always regarded as authenticated. If guest VLAN is
enabled, clients will stay on the guest VLAN, otherwise, they will stay on the
original VLAN.
Block (default setting). The client is always regarded as un-authenticated.
From Port
Use this drop-down menu to select the beginning port of a range of ports to
be enabled as compound authentication ports.
To Port
Use this drop-down menu to select the ending port of a range of ports to be
enabled as compound authentication ports.
Authorized Mode
Toggle between Host-based and Port-based. When Port-based is selected, if
one of the attached hosts passes the authentication, all hosts on the same
port will be granted access to the network. If the user fails the authorization,
this port will keep trying the next authentication method. When Host-based is
selected, users are authenticated individually.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Port Security
Port Security Settings
A given port’s (or a range of ports') dynamic MAC address learning can be locked such that the current
source MAC addresses entered into the MAC address forwarding table cannot be changed once the port
lock is enabled. The port can be locked by changing the Admin State pull-down menu to Enabled and
clicking Apply.
Port Security is a security feature that prevents unauthorized computers (with source MAC addresses)
unknown to the Switch prior to locking the port (or ports) from connecting to the Switch's locked ports
and gaining access to the network.
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To view this window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security Settings as shown below:
Figure 222: Port Security Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port Security Log Settings
Use the radio button to enable or disable Port Security Logs on the Switch.
System Max Address
Enter the system maximum address.
From Port
The beginning port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
To Port
The ending port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
Admin State
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable Port Security (locked MAC
address table for the selected ports).
Lock Address Mode
This pull-down menu allows the option of how the MAC address table locking
will be implemented on the Switch, for the selected group of ports. The
options are:
Permanent – The locked addresses will only age out after the Switch has
been reset.
DeleteOnTimeout – The locked addresses will age out after the aging timer
expires.
DeleteOnReset – The locked addresses will not age out until the Switch has
been reset or rebooted.
Max Learning Address
Specify the maximum value of port security entries that can be learned on this
port.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View Detail button to display the information of the specific entry.
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After clicking the View Detail button, the following page will appear:
Figure 223: Port Security Port-VLAN Settings window
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Port Security VLAN Settings
Users can configure the maximum number of port-security entries that can be learned on a specific
VLAN.
To view this window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security VLAN Settings as shown below:
Figure 224: Port Security VLAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN Name.
VID List
Specify a list of the VLAN be VLAN ID.
Max Learning Address
Specify the maximum number of port-security entries that can be learned by
this VLAN.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Port Security Entries
Users can remove an entry from the port security entries learned by the Switch and entered into the
forwarding database.
To view this window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security Entries as shown below:
Figure 225: Port Security Entries window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
The VLAN Name of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been
permanently learned by the Switch.
VID List
The VLAN ID of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been
permanently learned by the Switch.
Port List
Enter the port number or list here to be used for the port security entry search.
When All is selected, all the ports configured will be displayed.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been
permanently learned by the Switch.
Lock Mode
The type of MAC address in the forwarding database table.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the entries based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
BPDU Attack Protection
This page is used to configure the BPDU protection function for the ports on the switch. In generally,
there are two states in BPDU protection function. One is normal state, and another is under attack state.
The under attack state have three modes: drop, block, and shutdown. A BPDU protection enabled port
will enter an under attack state when it receives one STP BPDU packet. And it will take action based on
the configuration. Thus, BPDU protection can only be enabled on the STP-disabled port.
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BPDU protection has a higher priority than the FBPDU setting configured by configure STP command
in the determination of BPDU handling. That is, when FBPDU is configured to forward STP BPDU but
BPDU protection is enabled, then the port will not forward STP BPDU.
BPDU protection also has a higher priority than the BPDU tunnel port setting in determination of BPDU
handling. That is, when a port is configured as BPDU tunnel port for STP, it will forward STP BPDU.
But if the port is BPDU protection enabled. Then the port will not forward STP BPDU.
To view this window, click Security > BPDU Attack Protection as shown below:
Figure 226: BPDU Attack Protection window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
BPDU Attack Protection State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the BPDU Attack Protection state.
Log State
Specify when a log entry will be sent. Options to choose from are None,
Attack Detected, Attack Cleared or Both.
Recover Time
Specify the BPDU protection Auto-Recovery timer. The default value of the
recovery timer is 60.
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports to use for this configuration.
State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the protection mode for a
specific port.
Mode
Specify the BPDU protection mode. The default mode is shutdown.
Drop – Drop all received BPDU packets when the port enters under attack
state.
Block – Drop all packets (include BPDU and normal packets) when the port
enters under attack state.
Shutdown – Shut down the port when the port enters under attack state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Loopback Detection Settings
Loopback Detection Settings
The Loopback Detection (LBD) function is used to detect the loop created by a specific port. This feature
is used to temporarily shut down a port on the Switch when a CTP (Configuration Testing Protocol)
packet has been looped back to the Switch. When the Switch detects CTP packets received from a port,
this signifies a loop on the network. The Switch will automatically block the port and send an alert to
the administrator. The Loopback Detection port will restart (change to normal state) when the Loopback
Detection Recover Time times out. The Loopback Detection function can be implemented on a range of
ports at a time. The user may enable or disable this function using the pull-down menu.
To view this window, click Security > Loopback Detection Settings as shown below:
Figure 227: Loopback Detection Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LBD State
Use the radio button to enable or disable loopback detection. The default is
Disabled.
Mode
Use the drop-down menu to select Port-based.
Log State
Specifies the state of the log for loopback detection.
Interval (1-32767)
The time interval (in seconds) that the device will transmit all the CTP
(Configuration Test Protocol) packets to detect a loop-back event. The valid
range is from 1 to 32767 seconds. The default setting is 10 seconds.
Recover Time (0 or 60-1000000) Time allowed (in seconds) for recovery when a Loopback is detected. The
Loop-detect Recover Time can be set at 0 seconds, or 60 to 1000000
seconds. Entering 0 will disable the Loop-detect Recover Time. The default is
60 seconds.
From Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a beginning port number.
To Port
Use the drop-down menu to select an ending port number.
State
Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Enabled and Disabled.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Traffic Segmentation Settings
Traffic segmentation is used to limit traffic flow from a single or group of ports, to a group of ports.
This method of segmenting the flow of traffic is similar to using VLANs to limit traffic, but is more
restrictive. It provides a method of directing traffic that does not increase the overhead of the master
switch CPU.
To view this window, click Security > Traffic Segmentation Settings as shown below:
Figure 228: Traffic Segmentation Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List
Here the user can select the ports to be included in the traffic segmentation
setup.
Forward Port List
Here the user can select the ports to be included in the traffic segmentation
setup by simply ticking the corresponding port’s tick box. Click the Clear All
button to un-select all the ports for the configuration. Click the Select All
button to select all the ports for the configuration.
Ports
Here the ports that have been selected to be included in the traffic
segmentation setup will be displayed.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Access Authentication Control
The TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS commands allow users to secure access to the
Switch using the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS protocols. When a user logs in to the
Switch or tries to access the administrator level privilege, he or she is prompted for a password. If
TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS authentication is enabled on the Switch, it will contact a
TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify the user. If the user is verified, he or she
is granted access to the Switch.
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There are currently three versions of the TACACS security protocol, each a separate entity. The Switch's
software supports the following versions of TACACS:
●
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) - Provides password checking and
authentication, and notification of user actions for security purposes utilizing via one or more
centralized TACACS servers, utilizing the UDP protocol for packet transmission.
●
Extended TACACS (XTACACS) - An extension of the TACACS protocol with the ability to provide
more types of authentication requests and more types of response codes than TACACS. This protocol
also uses UDP to transmit packets.
●
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System plus) - Provides detailed access
control for authentication for network devices. TACACS+ is facilitated through Authentication
commands via one or more centralized servers. The TACACS+ protocol encrypts all traffic between
the Switch and the TACACS+ daemon, using the TCP protocol to ensure reliable delivery
In order for the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS security function to work properly, a
TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server must be configured on a device other than the
Switch, called an Authentication Server Host and it must include usernames and passwords for
authentication. When the user is prompted by the Switch to enter usernames and passwords for
authentication, the Switch contacts the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify,
and the server will respond with one of three messages:
The server verifies the username and password, and the user is granted normal user privileges on the
Switch.
The server will not accept the username and password and the user is denied access to the Switch.
The server doesn't respond to the verification query. At this point, the Switch receives the timeout from
the server and then moves to the next method of verification configured in the method list.
The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups, one for each of the TACACS, XTACACS,
TACACS+ and RADIUS protocols. These built-in Authentication Server Groups are used to authenticate
users trying to access the Switch. The users will set Authentication Server Hosts in a preferable order in
the built-in Authentication Server Groups and when a user tries to gain access to the Switch, the Switch
will ask the first Authentication Server Hosts for authentication. If no authentication is made, the
second server host in the list will be queried, and so on. The built-in Authentication Server Groups can
only have hosts that are running the specified protocol. For example, the TACACS Authentication
Server Groups can only have TACACS Authentication Server Hosts.
The administrator for the Switch may set up six different authentication techniques per user-defined
method list (TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS / local / none) for authentication. These
techniques will be listed in an order preferable, and defined by the user for normal user authentication
on the Switch, and may contain up to eight authentication techniques. When a user attempts to access
the Switch, the Switch will select the first technique listed for authentication. If the first technique goes
through its Authentication Server Hosts and no authentication is returned, the Switch will then go to
the next technique listed in the server group for authentication, until the authentication has been
verified or denied, or the list is exhausted.
Users granted access to the Switch will be granted normal user privileges on the Switch. To gain access
to administrator level privileges, the user must access the Enable Admin window and then enter a
password, which was previously configured by the administrator of the Switch.
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NOTE
TACACS, XTACACS and TACACS+ are separate entities and are not compatible. The Switch and the
server must be configured exactly the same, using the same protocol. (For example, if the Switch is set up for
TACACS authentication, so must be the host server.
Enable Admin
Users who have logged on to the Switch on the normal user level and wish to be promoted to the
administrator level can use this window. After logging on to the Switch, users will have only user level
privileges. To gain access to administrator level privileges, the user will open this window and will
have to enter an authentication password. Possible authentication methods for this function include
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+/RADIUS, user defined server groups, local enable (local account on
the Switch), or no authentication (none). Because XTACACS and TACACS do not support the enable
function, the user must create a special account on the server host, which has the username "enable",
and a password configured by the administrator that will support the "enable" function. This function
becomes inoperable when the authentication policy is disabled.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Admin as shown
below:
Figure 229: Enable Admin window
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When this window appears, click the Enable Admin button revealing a window for the user to enter
authentication (password, username), as shown below. A successful entry will promote the user to
Administrator level privileges on the Switch.
Figure 230: Log-in Page
Authentication Policy Settings
Users can enable an administrator-defined authentication policy for users trying to access the Switch.
When enabled, the device will check the Login Method List and choose a technique for user
authentication upon login.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Policy Settings
as shown below:
Figure 231: Authentication Policy Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authentication Policy
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Authentication Policy on the
Switch.
Response Timeout (0-255)
This field will set the time the Switch will wait for a response of authentication
from the user. The user may set a time between 0 and 255 seconds. The
default setting is 30 seconds.
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Parameter
Description
User Attempts (1-255)
This command will configure the maximum number of times the Switch will
accept authentication attempts. Users failing to be authenticated after the set
amount of attempts will be denied access to the Switch and will be locked out
of further authentication attempts. Command line interface users will have to
wait 60 seconds before another authentication attempt. Telnet and web users
will be disconnected from the Switch. The user may set the number of
attempts from 1 to 255. The default setting is 3.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Application Authentication Settings
Users can configure Switch configuration applications (console, Telnet, SSH, web) for login at the user
level and at the administration level (Enable Admin) utilizing a previously configured method list.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Application Authentication
Settings as shown below:
Figure 232: Application Authentication Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Application
Lists the configuration applications on the Switch. The user may configure the
Login Method List and Enable Method List for authentication for users utilizing
the Console (Command Line Interface) application, the Telnet application,
SSH, and the Web (HTTP) application.
Login Method List
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application for normal login on the
user level, utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the
default Method List or other Method List configured by the user. See the Login
Method Lists window, in this section, for more information.
Enable Method List
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application to promote user level to
admin-level users utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may
use the default Method List or other Method List configured by the user. See
the Enable Method Lists window, in this section, for more information
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Authentication Server Group Settings
Users can set up Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. A server group is a technique used to
group TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+/RADIUS server hosts into user-defined categories for
authentication using method lists. The user may define the type of server group by protocol or by
previously defined server group. The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups that cannot
be removed but can be modified. Up to eight authentication server hosts may be added to any
particular group.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Group
Settings as shown below:
Figure 233: Authentication Server Group Settings – Server Group List window
This window displays the Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. The Switch has four built-in
Authentication Server Groups that cannot be removed but can be modified. To add a new Server Group,
enter a name in the Group Name field and then click the Add button. To modify a particular group,
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click the Edit button (or the Edit Server Group tab), which will then display the following Edit Server
Group tab:
Figure 234: Authentication Server Group Settings – Edit Server Group window
To add an Authentication Server Host to the list, enter its name in the Group Name field, IP address in
the IP Address field, use the drop-down menu to choose the Protocol associated with the IP address of
the Authentication Server Host, and then click Add to add this Authentication Server Host to the group.
The entry should appear in the Host List at the bottom of this tab.
NOTE
The user must configure Authentication Server Hosts using the Authentication Server Hosts window before
adding hosts to the list. Authentication Server Hosts must be configured for their specific protocol on a remote
centralized server before this function can work properly.
NOTE
The three built-in server groups can only have server hosts running the same TACACS daemon. TACACS/
XTACACS/TACACS+ protocols are separate entities and are not compatible with each other.
Authentication Server Settings
User-defined Authentication Server Hosts for the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS
security protocols can be set on the Switch. When a user attempts to access the Switch with
Authentication Policy enabled, the Switch will send authentication packets to a remote TACACS /
XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server host on a remote host. The TACACS / XTACACS /
TACACS+ / RADIUS server host will then verify or deny the request and return the appropriate
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message to the Switch. More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server
host but, remember that TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS are separate entities and are not
compatible with each other. The maximum supported number of server hosts is 16.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Settings
as shown below:
Figure 235: Authentication Server Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
The IP address of the remote server host to add.
Protocol
The protocol used by the server host. The user may choose one of the
following:
TACACS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS
protocol.
XTACACS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the XTACACS
protocol.
TACACS+ - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS+
protocol.
RADIUS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the RADIUS protocol.
Key
Authentication key to be shared with a configured TACACS+ or RADIUS
servers only. Specify an alphanumeric string up to 254 characters.
Port (1-65535)
Enter a number between 1 and 65535 to define the virtual port number of the
authentication protocol on a server host. The default port number is 49 for
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ servers and 1813 for RADIUS servers but the
user may set a unique port number for higher security.
Timeout (1-255 sec)
Enter the time in seconds the Switch will wait for the server host to reply to an
authentication request. The default value is 5 seconds.
Retransmit (1-255 times)
Enter the value in the retransmit field to change how many times the device
will resend an authentication request when the TACACS server does not
respond.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server host but, remember that
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ are separate entities and are not compatible with each other.
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Login Method Lists Settings
User-defined or default Login Method List of authentication techniques can be configured for users
logging on to the Switch. The sequence of techniques implemented in this command will affect the
authentication result. For example, if a user enters a sequence of techniques, for example TACACS XTACACS- local, the Switch will send an authentication request to the first TACACS host in the server
group. If no response comes from the server host, the Switch will send an authentication request to the
second TACACS host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch
will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no authentication takes
place using the XTACACS list, the local account database set in the Switch is used to authenticate the
user. When the local method is used, the privilege level will be dependent on the local account privilege
configured on the Switch.
Successful login using any of these techniques will give the user a "User" privilege only. If the user
wishes to upgrade his or her status to the administrator level, the user must use the Enable Admin
window, in which the user must enter a previously configured password, set by the administrator.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Login Method Lists Settings as
shown below:
Figure 236: Login Method Lists Settings window
The Switch contains one Method List that is set and cannot be removed, yet can be modified. To delete
a Login Method List defined by the user, click the Delete button corresponding to the entry desired to
be deleted. To modify a Login Method List, click on its corresponding Edit button.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
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Parameter
Description
Priority 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following
authentication methods to this method list:
tacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
xtacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the TACACS+ protocol from a remote TACACS+ server.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
local - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the local user account database on the Switch.
none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication needed to access
the Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enable Method Lists Settings
Users can set up Method Lists to promote users with user level privileges to Administrator (Admin)
level privileges using authentication methods on the Switch. Once a user acquires normal user level
privileges on the Switch, he or she must be authenticated by a method on the Switch to gain
administrator privileges on the Switch, which is defined by the Administrator. A maximum of eight
Enable Method Lists can be implemented on the Switch, one of which is a default Enable Method List.
This default Enable Method List cannot be deleted but can be configured.
The sequence of methods implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For
example, if a user enters a sequence of methods like TACACS - XTACACS - Local Enable, the Switch
will send an authentication request to the first TACACS host in the server group. If no verification is
found, the Switch will send an authentication request to the second TACACS host in the server group
and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch will restart the same sequence with the
following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no authentication takes place using the XTACACS list, the Local
Enable password set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user.
Successful authentication using any of these methods will give the user an "Admin" privilege.
NOTE
To set the Local Enable Password, see the next section, entitled Local Enable Password.
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To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable method Lists Settings
as shown below:
Figure 237: Enable method Lists Settings window
To delete an Enable Method List defined by the user, click the Delete button corresponding to the entry
desired to be deleted. To modify an Enable Method List, click on its corresponding Edit button.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Method List Name
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
Priority 1, 2, 3, 4
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following
authentication methods to this method list:
local_enable - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated
using the local enable password database on the Switch. The local enable
password must be set by the user in the next section entitled Local Enable
Password.
none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication needed to access
the Switch.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the RADIUS protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
tacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
xtacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using
the TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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SSL Settings
Local Enable Password Settings
Users can configure the locally enabled password for Enable Admin. When a user chooses the
"local_enable" method to promote user level privileges to administrator privileges, he or she will be
prompted to enter the password configured here that is locally set on the Switch.
To view this window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Local Enable Password
Settings as shown below:
Figure 238: Local Enable Password Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Old Local Enable Password
If a password was previously configured for this entry, enter it here in order to
change it to a new password
New Local Enable Password
Enter the new password that you wish to set on the Switch to authenticate
users attempting to access Administrator Level privileges on the Switch. The
user may set a password of up to 15 characters.
Confirm Local Enable Password Confirm the new password entered above. Entering a different password here
from the one set in the New Local Enabled field will result in a fail message.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SSL Settings
Secure Sockets Layer, or SSL, is a security feature that will provide a secure communication path
between a host and client through the use of authentication, digital signatures and encryption. These
security functions are implemented through the use of a cipher suite, which is a security string that
determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption algorithms and key sizes to be used
for an authentication session and consists of three levels:
1 Key Exchange: The first part of the Cipher suite string specifies the public key algorithm to be used.
This switch utilizes the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) public key algorithm and the Digital
Signature Algorithm (DSA), specified here as the DHE DSS Diffie-Hellman (DHE) public key
algorithm. This is the first authentication process between client and host as they “exchange keys” in
looking for a match and therefore authentication to be accepted to negotiate encryptions on the
following level.
2 Encryption: The second part of the cipher suite that includes the encryption used for encrypting the
messages sent between client and host. The Switch supports two types of cryptology algorithms:
Stream Ciphers – There are two types of stream ciphers on the Switch, RC4 with 40-bit keys and RC4
with 128-bit keys. These keys are used to encrypt messages and need to be consistent between client
and host for optimal use.
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CBC Block Ciphers – CBC refers to Cipher Block Chaining, which means that a portion of the
previously encrypted block of encrypted text is used in the encryption of the current block. The
Switch supports the 3DES EDE encryption code defined by the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to
create the encrypted text.
3 Hash Algorithm: This part of the cipher suite allows the user to choose a message digest function
which will determine a Message Authentication Code. This Message Authentication Code will be
encrypted with a sent message to provide integrity and prevent against replay attacks. The Switch
supports two hash algorithms, MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm).
These three parameters are uniquely assembled in four choices on the Switch to create a three-layered
encryption code for secure communication between the server and the host. The user may implement
any one or combination of the cipher suites available, yet different cipher suites will affect the security
level and the performance of the secured connection. The information included in the cipher suites is
not included with the Switch and requires downloading from a third source in a file form called a
certificate. This function of the Switch cannot be executed without the presence and implementation of
the certificate file and can be downloaded to the Switch by utilizing a TFTP server. The Switch supports
SSLv3. Other versions of SSL may not be compatible with this Switch and may cause problems upon
authentication and transfer of messages from client to host.
The SSL Settings window located on the next page will allow the user to enable SSL on the Switch and
implement any one or combination of listed cipher suites on the Switch. A cipher suite is a security
string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption algorithms and key sizes
to be used for an authentication session. The Switch possesses four possible cipher suites for the SSL
function, which are all enabled by default. To utilize a particular cipher suite, disable the unwanted
cipher suites, leaving the desired one for authentication.
When the SSL function has been enabled, the web will become disabled. To manage the Switch through
the web based management while utilizing the SSL function, the web browser must support SSL
encryption and the header of the URL must begin with https://. (Ex. https://xx.xx.xx.xx) Any other
method will result in an error and no access can be authorized for the web-based management.
Users can download a certificate file for the SSL function on the Switch from a TFTP server. The
certificate file is a data record used for authenticating devices on the network. It contains information on
the owner, keys for authentication and digital signatures. Both the server and the client must have
consistent certificate files for optimal use of the SSL function. The Switch only supports certificate files
with .der file extensions. Currently, the Switch comes with a certificate pre-loaded though the user may
need to download more, depending on user circumstances.
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SSL Settings
To view this window, click Security > SSL Settings as shown below:
Figure 239: SSL Settings window
To set up the SSL function on the Switch, configure the parameters in the SSL Settings section described.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SSL Status
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the SSL status on the Switch. The
default is Disabled.
Cache Timeout (60-86400)
This field will set the time between a new key exchange between a client and
a host using the SSL function. A new SSL session is established every time
the client and host go through a key exchange. Specifying a longer timeout
will allow the SSL session to reuse the master key on future connections with
that particular host, therefore speeding up the negotiation process. The default
setting is 600 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
To set up the SSL cipher suite function on the Switch, configure the parameters in the SSL Cipher suite
Settings section described below:
Parameter
Description
RSA with RC4_128_MD5
This cipher suite combines the RSA key exchange, stream cipher RC4
encryption with 128-bit keys and the MD5 Hash Algorithm. Use the radio
buttons to enable or disable this cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
RSA with 3DES EDE CBC SHA
This cipher suite combines the RSA key exchange, CBC Block Cipher
3DES_EDE encryption and the SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the radio buttons to
enable or disable this cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
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Parameter
Description
DHS DSS with 3DES EDE
CBC SHA
This cipher suite combines the DSA Diffie Hellman key exchange, CBC Block
Cipher 3DES_EDE encryption and SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the radio buttons
to enable or disable this cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
RSA EXPORT with RC4 40
MD5
This cipher suite combines the RSA Export key exchange and stream cipher
RC4 encryption with 40-bit keys. Use the radio buttons to enable or disable
this cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
To download SSL certificates, configure the parameters in the SSL Certificate Download section
described below.
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address
Enter the IPv4 address of the TFTP server where the certificate files are
located.
Certificate File Name
Enter the path and the filename of the certificate file to download. This file
must have a .der extension. (Ex. c:/cert.der)
Key File Nam
Enter the path and the filename of the key file to download. This file must
have a .der extension (Ex. c:/pkey.der)
Click the Download button to download the SSL certificate based on the information entered.
NOTE
Certain implementations concerning the function and configuration of SSL are not available on the webbased management of this Switch and need to be configured using the command line interface.
NOTE
Enabling the SSL command will disable the web-based switch management. To log on to the Switch again,
the header of the URL must begin with https://. Entering anything else into the address field of the web browser will
result in an error and no authentication will be granted.
SSH
SSH is an abbreviation of Secure Shell, which is a program allowing secure remote login and secure
network services over an insecure network. It allows a secure login to remote host computers, a safe
method of executing commands on a remote end node, and will provide secure encrypted and
authenticated communication between two non-trusted hosts. SSH, with its array of unmatched security
features is an essential tool in today’s networking environment. It is a powerful guardian against
numerous existing security hazards that now threaten network communications.
The steps required to use the SSH protocol for secure communication between a remote PC (the SSH
client) and the Switch (the SSH server) are as follows:
1 Create a user account with admin-level access using the User Accounts window. This is identical to
creating any other admin-level User Account on the Switch, including specifying a password. This
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SSH
password is used to logon to the Switch, once a secure communication path has been established
using the SSH protocol.
2 Configure the User Account to use a specified authorization method to identify users that are
allowed to establish SSH connections with the Switch using the SSH User Authentication Mode
window. There are three choices as to the method SSH will use to authorize the user, which are Host
Based, Password, and Public Key.
3 Configure the encryption algorithm that SSH will use to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between
the SSH client and the SSH server, using the SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings
window.
4 Finally, enable SSH on the Switch using the SSH Configuration window.
After completing the preceding steps, a SSH Client on a remote PC can be configured to manage the
Switch using a secure, in band connection.
SSH Settings
Users can configure and view settings for the SSH server.
To view this window, click Security > SSH > SSH Settings as shown below:
Figure 240: SSH Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SSH Server State
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable SSH on the Switch. The default is
Disabled.
Max. Session
Enter a value between 1 and 8 to set the number of users that may
simultaneously access the Switch. The default setting is 8.
Connection Timeout
Allows the user to set the connection timeout. The user may set a time
between 120 and 600 seconds. The default setting is 120 seconds.
Authfail Attempts
Allows the Administrator to set the maximum number of attempts that a user
may try to log on to the SSH Server utilizing the SSH authentication. After the
maximum number of attempts has been exceeded, the Switch will be
disconnected and the user must reconnect to the Switch to attempt another
login. The number of maximum attempts may be set between 2 and 20. The
default setting is 2.
Rekey Timeout
This field is used to set the time period that the Switch will change the security
shell encryptions by using the pull-down menu. The available options are
Never, 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min. The default setting is Never.
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Parameter
Description
TCP Port Number
Here the user can enter the TCP Port Number used for SSH. The default
value is 22.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings
Users can configure the desired types of SSH algorithms used for authentication encryption. There are
three categories of algorithms listed and specific algorithms of each may be enabled or disabled by
ticking their corresponding check boxes. All algorithms are enabled by default.
To view this window, click Security > SSH > SSH Authentication method and Algorithm Settings as
shown below:
Figure 241: SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings window
The fields that can be configured for SSH Authentication Mode are described below:
Parameter
Description
Password
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use
a locally configured password for authentication on the Switch. This parameter
is enabled by default.
Public Key
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use
a public key configuration set on a SSH server, for authentication. This
parameter is enabled by default.
Host-based
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use
a host computer for authentication. This parameter is intended for Linux users
requiring SSH authentication techniques and the host computer is running the
Linux operating system with a SSH program previously installed. This
parameter is enabled by default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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SSH
The fields that can be configured for the Encryption Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
3DES-CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Triple Data Encryption Standard
encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
Blow-fish CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Blowfish encryption algorithm with
Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
AES128-CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES128 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is
enabled.
AES192-CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES192 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is
enabled.
AES256-CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard
AES-256 encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is
enabled.
ARC4
Use the check box to enable or disable the Arcfour encryption algorithm with
Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
Cast128-CBC
Use the check box to enable or disable the Cast128 encryption algorithm with
Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
Twofish128
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish128 encryption algorithm.
The default is enabled.
Twofish192
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish192 encryption algorithm.
The default is enabled.
Twofish256
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish256 encryption algorithm.
The default is enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The fields that can be configured for the Data Integrity Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
HMAC-SHA1
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Secure Hash algorithm. The
default is enabled.
HMAC-MD5
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the MD5 Message Digest encryption
algorithm. The default is enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The fields that can be configured for the Public Key Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
HMAC-RSA
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the RSA encryption algorithm. The
default is enabled.
HMAC-DSA
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message
Authentication Code) mechanism utilizing the Digital Signature Algorithm
(DSA) encryption. The default is enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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SSH User Authentication List
Users can configure parameters for users attempting to access the Switch through SSH. In the window
above, the User Account “username” has been previously set using the User Accounts window in the
Configuration folder. A User Account MUST be set in order to set the parameters for the SSH user.
To view this window, click Security > SSH > SSH User Authentication List as shown below:
Figure 242: SSH User Authentication List window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name
A name of no more than 15 characters to identify the SSH user. This User
Name must be a previously configured user account on the Switch.
Authentication Method
The administrator may choose one of the following to set the authorization for
users attempting to access the Switch.
Host Based – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to
use a remote SSH server for authentication purposes. Choosing this
parameter requires the user to input the following information to identify the
SSH user.
Password – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to
use an administrator-defined password for authentication. Upon entry of this
parameter, the Switch will prompt the administrator for a password, and then
to re-type the password for confirmation.
Public Key – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to
use the public key on a SSH server for authentication.
Host Name
Enter an alphanumeric string of no more than 32 characters to identify the
remote SSH user. This parameter is only used in conjunction with the Host
Based choice in the Auth. Mode field.
Host IP
Enter the corresponding IP address of the SSH user. This parameter is only
used in conjunction with the Host Based choice in the Auth. Mode field.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
To set the SSH User Authentication Mode parameters on the Switch, a User Account must be previously
configured.
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Trusted Host Settings
Trusted Host Settings
Up to thirty trusted host secure IP addresses or ranges may be configured and used for remote Switch
management. It should be noted that if one or more trusted hosts are enabled, the Switch will
immediately accept remote instructions from only the specified IP address or addresses. If you enable
this feature, be sure to first enter the IP address of the station you are currently using.
To view this window, click Security > Trusted Host Settings as shown below:
Figure 243: Trusted Host window
When the user clicks the Edit button, one will be able to edit the service allowed to the selected host.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Address
Enter an IPv4 address to add to the trusted host list.
IPv6 Address
Enter an IPv6 address to add to the trusted host list.
Net Mask
Enter a Net Mask address to add to the trusted host list.
Access Interface
Tick the check boxes to select services that will be allowed to the trusted host.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
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Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
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9
Network Application
CHAPTER
DHCP
DHCP Relay
DHCP Relay Global Settings
Users can enable and configure DHCP Relay Global Settings. The relay hops count limit allows the
maximum number of hops (routers) that the DHCP messages can be relayed through to be set. If a
packet’s hop count is more than the hop count limit, the packet is dropped. The range is between 1 and
16 hops, with a default value of 4. The relay time threshold sets the minimum time (in seconds) that the
Switch will wait before forwarding a BOOTREQUEST packet. If the value in the seconds’ field of the
packet is less than the relay time threshold, the packet will be dropped. The range is between 0 and
65,535 seconds, with a default value of 0 seconds.
To view this window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Global
Settings as shown below:
Figure 244: DHCP Relay Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Relay State
This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull-down
menu. It is used to enable or disable the DHCP Relay service on the Switch.
The default is Disabled.
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Parameter
Description
DHCP Relay Hops Count Limit
(1-16)
This field allows an entry between 1 and 16 to define the maximum number of
router hops DHCP messages can be forwarded. The default hop count is 4.
DHCP Relay Time Threshold
(0-65535)
Allows an entry between 0 and 65535 seconds, and defines the maximum
time limit for routing a DHCP packet. If a value of 0 is entered, the Switch will
not process the value in the seconds’ field of the DHCP packet. If a non-zero
value is entered, the Switch will use that value, along with the hop count to
determine whether to forward a given DHCP packet.
DHCP Relay Option 82 State
This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull-down
menu. It is used to enable or disable the DHCP Relay Agent Information
Option 82 on the Switch. The default is Disabled.
Enabled –When this field is toggled to Enabled, the relay agent will insert and
remove DHCP relay information (option 82 field) in messages between DHCP
servers and clients. When the relay agent receives the DHCP request, it adds
the option 82 information, and the IP address of the relay agent (if the relay
agent is configured), to the packet. Once the option 82 information has been
added to the packet it is sent on to the DHCP server. When the DHCP server
receives the packet, if the server is capable of option 82, it can implement
policies like restricting the number of IP addresses that can be assigned to a
single remote ID or circuit ID. Then the DHCP server echoes the option 82
field in the DHCP reply. The DHCP server unicasts the reply back to the relay
agent if the request was relayed to the server by the relay agent. The switch
verifies that it originally inserted the option 82 data. Finally, the relay agent
removes the option 82 field and forwards the packet to the switch port that
connects to the DHCP client that sent the DHCP request.
Disabled- When the field is toggled to Disabled, the relay agent will not insert
and remove DHCP relay information (option 82 field) in messages between
DHCP servers and clients, and the check and policy settings will have no
effect.
DHCP Relay Agent Information
Option 82 Policy
This field can be toggled between Replace, Drop, and Keep by using the pulldown menu. It is used to set the Switches policy for handling packets when
the DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82 Check is set to
Disabled. The default is Replace.
Replace – The option 82 field will be replaced if the option 82 field already
exists in the packet received from the DHCP client.
Drop – The packet will be dropped if the option 82 field already exists in the
packet received from the DHCP client.
Keep – The option 82 field will be retained if the option 82 field already exists
in the packet received from the DHCP client.
DHCP Relay Agent Information
Option 82 Remote ID
Here the user can view the DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82 Remote
ID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE
If the Switch receives a packet that contains the option 82 field from a DHCP client and the informationchecking feature is enabled, the Switch drops the packet because it is invalid. However, in some instances, users
may configure a client with the option 82 field. In this situation, disable the information check feature so that the
Switch does not remove the option 82 field from the packet. Users may configure the action that the Switch takes
when it receives a packet with existing option 82 information by configuring the DHCP Agent Information Option 82
Policy.
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DHCP
The Implementation of DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82
The DHCP Relay Option 82 command configures the DHCP relay agent information option 82 setting
of the Switch. The formats for the circuit ID sub-option and the remote ID sub-option are as follows:
NOTE
For the circuit ID sub-option of a standalone switch, the module field is always zero.
Circuit ID sub-option format:
Figure 245: Circuit ID Sub-option Format
1 Sub-option type
2 Length
3 Circuit ID type
4 Length
5 VLAN: The incoming VLAN ID of DHCP client packet.
6 Module: For a standalone switch, the Module is always 0; for a stackable switch, the Module is the
Unit ID.
7 Port: The incoming port number of the DHCP client packet, the port number starts from 1.
Remote ID sub-option format:
Figure 246: Remote ID Sub-option Format
1 Sub-option type
2 Length
3 Remote ID type
4 Length
5 MAC address: The Switch’s system MAC address.
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DHCP Relay VLAN Settings
This page allows the user to configure an IP address as a destination to forward (relay) DHCP/BOOTP
packets. If there is an IP interface in the VLAN and it has configured a DHCP server at the interface
level, then the configuration at the interface level has higher priority. In this case, the DHCP server
configured on the VLAN will not be used to forward the DHCP packets.
To view this window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay VLAN
Settings as shown below:
Figure 247: DHCP Relay VLAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID List
Enter the VLAN ID list used for this configuration here.
Server IP Address
Enter the DHCP/BOOTP server IP address used here.
Click the Add button to add an entry.
Click the Delete button to remove an entry.
DHCP Local Relay Settings
The DHCP local relay settings allows the user to add option 82 into DHCP request packets when the
DHCP client gets an IP address from the same VLAN. If the DHCP local relay settings are not
configured, the Switch will flood the packets to the VLAN. In order to add option 82 into the DHCP
request packets, the DHCP local relay settings and the state of the Global VLAN need to be enabled.
To view this window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Local Relay Settings as shown
below:
Figure 248: DHCP Local Relay Settings window
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SNTP
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Local Relay Global State Enable or disable the DHCP Local Relay Global State. The default is
Disabled.
VLAN Name
This is the VLAN Name that identifies the VLAN the user wishes to apply the
DHCP Local Relay operation.
State
Enable or disable the configure DHCP Local Relay for VLAN state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
SNTP
The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is a protocol for synchronizing computer clocks through the
Internet. It provides comprehensive mechanisms to access national time and frequency dissemination
services, organize the SNTP subnet of servers and clients, and adjust the system clock in each
participant.
SNTP Settings
Users can configure the time settings for the Switch.
To view this window, click Network Application > SNTP > SNTP Settings as shown below:
Figure 249: SNTP Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNTP State
Use this radio button to enable or disable SNTP.
Current Time
Displays the Current Time.
Time Source
Displays the time source for the system.
SNTP First Server
The IP address of the primary server from which the SNTP information will be
taken.
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Parameter
Description
SNTP Second Server
The IP address of the secondary server from which the SNTP information will
be taken.
SNTP Poll Interval In Seconds
(30-99999)
The interval, in seconds, between requests for updated SNTP information.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Time Zone Settings
Users can configure time zones and Daylight Savings Time settings for SNTP.
To view this window, click Network Application > SNTP > Time Zone Settings as shown below:
Figure 250: Time Zone Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Daylight Saving Time State
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable the DST Settings.
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Flash File System Settings
Parameter
Description
Daylight Saving Time Offset In
Minutes
Use this pull-down menu to specify the amount of time that will constitute your
local DST offset – 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes.
Time Zone Offset From GMT In
+/- HH:MM
Use these pull-down menus to specify your local time zone’s offset from
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT.)
Parameter
Description
DST Repeating Settings
Using repeating mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Repeating
mode requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified using a
formula. For example, specify to begin DST on Saturday during the second
week of April and end DST on Sunday during the last week of October.
From: Which Week Of The
Month
Enter the week of the month that DST will start.
From: Day Of Week
Enter the day of the week that DST will start on.
From: Month
Enter the month DST will start on.
From: Time In HH:MM
Enter the time of day that DST will start on.
To: Which Week Of The Month
Enter the week of the month the DST will end.
To: Day Of Week
Enter the day of the week that DST will end.
To: Month
Enter the month that DST will end.
To: Time In HH:MM
Enter the time DST will end.
Parameter
Description
DST Annual Settings
Using annual mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Annual mode
requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified concisely. For
example, specify to begin DST on April 3 and end DST on October 14.
From: Month
Enter the month DST will start on, each year.
From: Day
Enter the day of the month DST will start on, each year.
From: Time In HH:MM
Enter the time of day DST will start on, each year.
To: Month
Enter the month DST will end on, each year.
To: Day
Enter the day of the month DST will end on, each year.
To: Time In HH:MM
Enter the time of day that DST will end on, each year.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Flash File System Settings
Why use flash file system:
In old switch system, the firmware, configuration and log information are saved in a flash with fixed
addresses and size. This means that the maximum configuration file can only be 2Mb, and even if the
current configuration is only 40Kb, it will still take up 2Mb of flash storage space. The configuration file
number and firmware numbers are also fixed. A compatible issue will occur in the event that the
configuration file or firmware size exceeds the originally designed size.
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Flash File System in our system:
The Flash File System is used to provide the user with flexible file operation on the Flash. All the
firmware, configuration information and system log information are stored in the Flash as files. This
means that the Flash space taken up by all the files are not fixed, it is the real file size. If the Flash space
is enough, the user could download more configuration files or firmware files and use commands to
display Flash file information, rename file names, and delete it. Furthermore, the user can also configure
the boot up runtime image or the running configuration file if needed.
In case the file system gets corrupted, Z-modem can be used to download the backup files directly to
the system.
To view this window, click Network Application > Flash File System Settings as shown below:
Figure 251: Flash File System Settings window
Enter the Current Path string and click the Go button to navigate to the path entered.
Click the C: link to navigate the C: drive
After clicking the C: link button, the following page will appear:
Figure 252: Flash File System Setting – Search for Drive window
Click the Previous button to return to the previous page.
Click the Create Directory to create a new directory within the file system of the switch.
Click the Copy button to copy a specific file to the switch.
Click the Move button to move a specific file within the switch.
Tick the List Boot Up Files Only option to display only the boot up files.
Click the Active button to set a specific config file as the active runtime configuration.
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Click the Boot Up button to set a specific runtime image as the boot up image.
Click the Rename button to rename a specific file’s name.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific file from the file system.
After clicking the Copy button, the following page will appear:
Figure 253: Flash File System Settings – Copy window
When copying a file to the file system of this switch, the user must enter the Source and Destination
path.
Click the Apply button to initiate the copy.
Click the Cancel button the discard the process.
After clicking the Move button, the following page will appear:
Figure 254: Flash File System Settings – Move window
When moving a file to another place, the user must enter the Source and Destination path.
Click the Apply button to initiate the copy.
Click the Cancel button the discard the process.
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10
OAM
CHAPTER
CFM
CFM Settings
On this page the user can configure the CFM parameters.
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Settings, as shown below:
Figure 255: CFM Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
CFM State
Here the user can enable or disable the CFM feature.
All MPs Reply LTRs
Here the user can enable or disable all MPs to reply LTRs.
MD
Here the user can enter the maintenance domain name.
MD Index
Specifies the maintenance domain index used.
Level
Here the user can select the maintenance domain level.
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Parameter
Description
MIP
This is the control creations of MIPs.
None – Don’t create MIPs. This is the default value.
Auto – MIPs can always be created on any ports in this MD, if that port is not
configured with a MEP of this MD. For the intermediate switch in a MA, the
setting must be auto in order for the MIPs to be created on this device.
Explicit – MIPs can be created on any ports in this MD, only if the next
existent lower level has a MEP configured on that port, and that port is not
configured with a MEP of this MD.
SenderID TLV
This is the control transmission of the SenderID TLV.
None – Don’t transmit sender ID TLV. This is the default value.
Chassis – Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information.
Manage – Transmit sender ID TLV with managed address information.
Chassis Manage – Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information and
manage address information.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE
The MD Name value should be less than 22 characters.
To add a maintenance association (MA), click on the Add MA button.
After clicking the Add MA button, the following page will appear:
Figure 256: CFM MA Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MA
Here the user can enter the maintenance association name.
MA Index
Here the user can enter the maintenance association index.
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Parameter
Description
VID
VLAN Identifier. Different MA must be associated with different VLANs.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the MIP Port Table button to view the CFM MIP Table.
Click the Add MEP button to add a Maintenance End Point entry.
After click in the Edit button the following window appears:
Figure 257: CFM MA Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MIP
This is the control creation of MIPs.
None - Don’t create MIPs.
Auto - MIPs can always be created on any ports in this MA, if that port is not
configured with a MEP of that MA.
Explicit - MIP can be created on any ports in this MA, only if the next existent
lower level has a MEP configured on that port, and that port is not configured
with a MEP of this MA.
Defer - Inherit the setting configured for the maintenance domain that this MA
is associated with. This is the default value.
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Parameter
Description
SenderID
This is the control transmission of the sender ID TLV.
None - Don’t transmit sender ID TLV. This is the default value.
Chassis - Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information.
Manage - Transmit sender ID TLV with manage address information.
Chassis Manage - Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information and
manage address information.
Defer - Inherit the setting configured for the maintenance domain that this MA
is associated with. This is the default value.
CCM
This is the CCM interval.
10ms - 10 milliseconds. Not recommended. For test purpose.
100ms - 100 milliseconds. Not recommended. For test purpose.
1sec - One second.
10sec - Ten seconds. This is the default value.
1min - One minute.
10min - Ten minutes.
MEP ID(s)
This is to specify the MEP IDs contained in the maintenance association. The
range of the MEP ID is 1-8191.
Add - Add MEP ID(s).
Delete - Delete MEP ID(s).
By default, there is no MEP ID in a newly created maintenance association.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the MIP Port Table button, the following page will appear:
Figure 258: CFM MIP Port Table Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
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After clicking the Add MEP button, the following page will appear:
Figure 259: CFM MEP Settings (Add) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name
MEP name. It is unique among all MEPs configured on the device.
MEP ID
MEP MEPID. It should be configured in the MA’s MEP ID list.
Port
Port number. This port should be a member of the MA’s associated VLAN.
MEP Direction
This is the MEP direction.
Inward - Inward facing (up) MEP.
Outward - Outward facing (down) MEP.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the View Detail link to view more information regarding the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE
The MEP Name value should be less than 32 characters.
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After clicking the View Detail link, the following page will appear:
Figure 260: CFM MEP Information Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 261: CFM MEP Information (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP State
This is the MEP administrative state.
Enable - MEP is enabled.
Disable - MEP is disabled. This is the default value.
CCM State
This is the CCM transmission state.
Enable - CCM transmission enabled.
Disable - CCM transmission disabled. This is the default value.
PDU Priority
The 802.1p priority is set in the CCMs and the LTMs messages transmitted by
the MEP. The default value is 7.
Fault Alarm
This is the control types of the fault alarms sent by the MEP.
All - All types of fault alarms will be sent.
MAC Status - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than
“Some Remote MEP MAC Status Error” are sent.
Remote CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than
“Some Remote MEP Down” are sent.
Errors CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than
“Error CCM Received” are sent.
Xcon CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than
“Cross-connect CCM Received” are sent.
None - No fault alarm is sent. This is the default value.
Alarm Time
This is the time that a defect must exceed before the fault alarm can be sent.
The unit is in centiseconds, the range is 250-1000. The default value is 250.
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Parameter
Description
Alarm Reset Time
This is the dormant duration time before a defect is triggered before the fault
can be re-alarmed. The unit is in centiseconds, the range is 250-1000. The
default value is 1000
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit AIS button to configure the AIS settings.
Click the Edit LCK button to configure the LCK settings.
After clicking the Edit AIS button, the following window will appear:
Figure 262: CFM Extension AIS (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Specifies to enable or disable the AIS function.
Period
The transmitting interval of AIS PDU. The default period is 1 second. Options
to choose from are:
1sec - Specifies that the transmitting interval will be set to 1 second.
1min - Specifies that the transmitting interval will be set to 1 minute.
Level
The client level ID to which the MEP sends AIS PDU. The default client MD
level is MD level at which the most immediate client layer MIPs and MEPs
exist. Options to choose from are values between 0-7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After click the Edit LCK button, the following window will appear:
Figure 263: CFM Extension LCK Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Specifies to enable or disable the LCK function.
Period
The transmitting interval of LCK PDU. The default period is 1 second. Options
to choose from are:
1sec - Specifies that the transmitting interval will be set to 1 second.
1min - Specifies that the transmitting interval will be set to 1 minute.
Level
The client level ID to which the MEP sends LCK PDU. The default client MD
level is MD level at which the most immediate client layer MIPs and MEPs
exist. Options to choose from are values between 0-7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
CFM Port Settings
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 264: CFM Port Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port ~ To Port
Here the user can select the port range used for this configuration.
State
Here the user can enable or disable the state of specific port regarding the
CFM configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
CFM MIPCCM Table
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM MIPCCM Table, as shown below:
Figure 265: CFM MIPCCM Table Window
CFM Loopback Settings
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Loopback Settings, as shown below:
Figure 266: CFM Loopback Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name
Select and enter the Maintenance End Point name used.
MEP ID
Select and enter the Maintenance End Point ID used.
MD Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain name used.
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Parameter
Description
MD Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain index used.
MA Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Association name used.
MA Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Association index used.
MAC Address
Enter the destination MAC address used here.
LBMs Number
Number of LBMs to be sent. The default value is 4.
LBM Payload Length
The payload length of LBM to be sent. The default is 0.
LBM Payload Pattern
An arbitrary amount of data to be included in a Data TLV, along with an
indication whether the Data TLV is to be included.
LBMs Priority
The 802.1p priority to be set in the transmitted LBMs. If not specified, it uses
the same priority as CCMs and LTMs sent by the MA.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
CFM Linktrace Settings
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Linktrace Settings, as shown below:
Figure 267: CFM Linktrace Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name
Select and enter the Maintenance End Point name used.
MEP ID
Select and enter the Maintenance End Point ID used.
MD Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain name used.
MD Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain index used.
MA Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Association name used.
MA Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Association index used.
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Parameter
Description
MAC Address
Here the user can enter the destination MAC address.
TTL
Link-trace message TTL value. The default value is 64.
PDU Priority
The 802.1p priority to be set in the transmitted LTM. If not specified, it uses
the same priority as CCMs sent by the MA.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
CFM Packet Counter
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Packet Counter, as shown below:
Figure 268: CFM Packet Counter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List
Which ports’ counter to show. If not specified, all ports will be shown.
All Ports
Select this option to include all the port in this configuration.
Type
Transmit – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets transmitted.
Receive – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets received.
CCM – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets transmitted and
received.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
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CFM Fault Table
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Fault Table, as shown below:
Figure 269: CFM Fault Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MD Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain name used.
MD Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Domain index used.
MA Name
Select and enter the Maintenance Association name used.
MA Index
Select and enter the Maintenance Association index used.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
CFM MP Table
To view this window, click OAM > CFM > CFM MP Table, as shown below:
Figure 270: CFM MP Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Here the user can select the port number to view.
Level
Here the user can enter the level to view.
Direction
Here the user can enter the direction to view.
Inward - Inward facing (up) MP.
Outward - Outward facing (down) MP.
VID
Here the user can enter the VID to view.
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Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Ethernet OAM
Ethernet OAM Settings
This window is used to configure the Ethernet OAM settings.
To view this window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Settings, as shown below:
Figure 271: Ethernet OAM Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports you wish to configure.
Mode
Use the drop-down menu to select to operate in either Active or Passive. The
default mode is Active.
State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the OAM function.
Remote Loopback
Use the drop-down menu to select Ethernet OAM remote loopback.
None – Select to disable the remote loopback.
Start – Select to request the peer to change to the remote loopback mode.
Stop Select to request the peer to change to the normal operation mode.
Received Remote Loopback
Use the drop-down menu to configure the client to process or to ignore the
received Ethernet OAM remote loopback command.
Process – Select to process the received Ethernet OAM remote loopback
command.
Ignore Select to ignore the received Ethernet OAM remote loopback
command.
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Ethernet OAM
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings
This window is used to configure Ethernet OAM configuration settings.
To view this window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 272: Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports you wish to configure.
Link Event
Use the drop-down menu to select the link events, Link Monitor or Critical Link
Event.
Link Monitor
Use the drop-down menu to select link monitor. Available options are Error
Symbol, Error Frame, Error Frame Period, and Error Frame Seconds.
Critical Link Event
Use the drop-down menu to select between Dying Gasp and Critical Event.
Threshold
Enter the number of error frame or symbol in the period is required to be
equal to or greater than in order for the event to be generated.
Window
Enter the period of error frame or symbol in milliseconds summary event.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Ethernet OAM Event Log
The window is used to show ports Ethernet OAM event log information.
To view this window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Event Log, as shown below:
Figure 273: Ethernet OAM Event Log window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port number to view.
Port List
Enter a list of ports. Tick the All Ports check box to select all ports.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Ethernet OAM Statistics
The window is used to show ports Ethernet OAM statistics information.
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Cable Diagnostics
To view this window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Statistics, as shown below:
Figure 274: Ethernet OAM Statistics window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the port number to view.
Port List
Enter a list of ports. Tick the All Ports check box to select all ports.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Cable Diagnostics
The cable diagnostics feature is designed primarily for administrators or customer service
representatives to verify and test copper cables; it can rapidly determine the quality of the cables and
the types of error.
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To view this window, click OAM > Cable Diagnostics as shown below:
Figure 275: Cable Diagnostics window
To view the cable diagnostics for a particular port, use the drop-down menu to choose the port and
click Test The information will be displayed in this window.
NOTE
Cable diagnostic function limitations. Cable length detection is only supported on GE ports. Ports must be
linked up and running at 1000M speed. Cross-talk errors detection is not supported on FE ports.
NOTE
The available cable diagnosis length is from 5 to 120 meters.
NOTE
The deviation of cable length detection is +/- 5M for GE ports.
Fault messages:
●
Open - This pair is left open.
●
Short - Two lines of this pair is shorted.
●
CrossTalk - Lines of this pair is short with lines in other pairs.
●
Unknown - The diagnosis does not obtain the cable status, please try again.
●
NA - No cable was found, maybe it's because cable is out of diagnosis specification or the quality is
too bad.
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Monitoring
CHAPTER
Utilization
CPU Utilization
Users can display the percentage of the CPU being used, expressed as an integer percentage and
calculated as a simple average by time interval.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Utilization > CPU Utilization as shown below:
Figure 276: CPU Utilization window
To view the CPU utilization by port, use the real-time graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the
top of the web page by simply clicking on a port. Click Apply to implement the configured settings.
The window will automatically refresh with new updated statistics.
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Five Seconds, One Minute, and Five Minutes.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DRAM & Flash Utilization
On this page the user can view information regarding the DRAM and Flash utilization.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Utilization > DRAM & Flash Utilization as shown below:
Figure 277: DRAM & Flash Utilization window
Port Utilization
Users can display the percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port.
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Utilization
To view this window, click Monitoring > Utilization > Port Utilization as shown below:
Figure 278: Port Utilization window
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user
may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Port Util.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Statistics
Port Statistics
Packets
The Web manager allows various packet statistics to be viewed as either a line graph or a table. Six
windows are offered.
Received (RX). To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down
menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply
clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Port Statistics > Packets > Received (RX) as
shown below:
Figure 279: Received (RX) window (for Bytes and Packets)
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 280: RX Packets Analysis Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
Bytes
Counts the number of bytes received on the port.
Packets
Counts the number of packets received on the port.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast
address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast
address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast
address.
Show/Hide
Check whether to display Bytes and Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
UMB_Cast (RX). To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down
menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply
clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Port Statistics > Packets > UMB_Cast (RX) as
shown below:
Figure 281: UMB_cast (RX) window (for Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Packets)
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 282: RX Packets Analysis window (table for Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Packets)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast
address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast
address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast
address.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Multicast, Broadcast, and Unicast Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Transmitted (TX). To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pulldown menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by
simply clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Port Statistics > Packets > Transmitted (TX) as
shown below:
Figure 283: Transmitted (TX) window (for Bytes and Packets)
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 284: TX Packets Analysis window (table for Bytes and Packets)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
Bytes
Counts the number of bytes successfully sent on the port.
Packets
Counts the number of packets successfully sent on the port.
Unicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a unicast
address.
Multicast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a multicast
address.
Broadcast
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a broadcast
address.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display Bytes and Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Errors
The Web manager allows port error statistics compiled by the Switch's management agent to be viewed
as either a line graph or a table. Four windows are offered.
Received (RX). To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down
menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply
clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Port Statistics > Errors > Received (RX) as shown
below:
Figure 285: Received (RX) window (for errors)
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 286: RX Error Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
CRCError
Counts otherwise valid packets that did not end on a byte (octet) boundary.
UnderSize
The number of packets detected that are less than the minimum permitted
packets size of 64 bytes and have a good CRC. Undersize packets usually
indicate collision fragments, a normal network occurrence.
OverSize
Counts valid packets received that were longer than 1518 octets and less than
the MAX_PKT_LEN. Internally, MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to 1536.
Fragment
The number of packets less than 64 bytes with either bad framing or an
invalid CRC. These are normally the result of collisions.
Jabber
Counts invalid packets received that were longer than 1518 octets and less
than the MAX_PKT_LEN. Internally, MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to 1536.
Drop
The number of packets that are dropped by this port since the last Switch
reboot.
Symbol
Counts the number of packets received that have errors received in the
symbol on the physical labor.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display CRCError, UnderSize, OverSize, Fragment,
Jabber, Drop, and SymbolErr errors.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Transmitted (TX). To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pulldown menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by
simply clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Port Statistics > Errors > Transmitted (TX) as
shown below:
Figure 287: Transmitted (TX) window (for errors)
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 288: TX Error Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
ExDefer
Counts the number of packets for which the first transmission attempt on a
particular interface was delayed because the medium was busy.
CRC Error
Counts otherwise valid packets that did not end on a byte (octet) boundary.
LateColl
Counts the number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
ExColl
Excessive Collisions. The number of packets for which transmission failed due
to excessive collisions.
SingColl
Single Collision Frames. The number of successfully transmitted packets for
which transmission is inhibited by more than one collision.
Collision
An estimate of the total number of collisions on this network segment.
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display ExDefer, CRCError, LateColl, ExColl,
SingColl, and Collision errors.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Packet Size
Users can display packets received by the Switch, arranged in six groups and classed by size, as either a
line graph or a table. Two windows are offered. To select a port to view these statistics for, select the
port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at
the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Size as shown below:
Figure 289: Packet Size window
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Statistics
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 290: RX Size Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds.
The default value is one second.
Record Number
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The
default value is 200.
64
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64
octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
128-255
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
256-511
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
512-1023
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
1024-1518
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Show/Hide
Check whether or not to display 64, 65-127, 128-255, 256-511, 512-1023, and
1024-1518 packets received.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Mirror
The Switch allows you to copy frames transmitted and received on a port and redirect the copies to
another port. You can attach a monitoring device to the mirrored port, such as a sniffer or an RMON
probe, to view details about the packets passing through the first port. This is useful for network
monitoring and troubleshooting purposes.
Port Mirror Settings
To view this window, click Monitoring > Mirror > Port Mirror Settings as shown below:
Figure 291: Port Mirror Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the Port Mirroring feature.
Target Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the Target Port used for Port Mirroring.
TX (Egress)
Click the radio buttons to select whether the port should include outgoing
traffic.
RX (Ingress)
Click the radio buttons to select whether the port should include incoming
traffic.
Both
Click the radio buttons to select whether the port should include both incoming
and outgoing traffic.
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Mirror
Parameter
Description
None
Click the radio buttons to select whether the port should not include any traffic.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE
You cannot mirror a fast port onto a slower port. For example, if you try to mirror the traffic from a 100
Mbps port onto a 10 Mbps port, this can cause throughput problems. The port you are copying frames from should
always support an equal or lower speed than the port to which you are sending the copies. Please note a target
port and a source port cannot be the same port.
RSPAN Settings
This page controls the RSPAN function. The purpose of the RSPAN function is to mirror packets to a
remote switch. A packet travels from the switch where the monitored packet is received, passing
through the intermediate switch, and then to the switch where the sniffer is attached. The first switch is
also named the source switch.
To make the RSPAN function work, the RSPAN VLAN source setting must be configured on the source
switch. For the intermediate and the last switch, the RSPAN VLAN redirect setting must be configured.
NOTE
RSPAN VLAN mirroring will only work when RSPAN is enabled (when one RSPAN VLAN has been
configured with a source port). The RSPAN redirect function will work when RSPAN is enabled and at least one
RSPAN VLAN has been configured with redirect ports.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Mirror > RSPAN Settings as shown below:
Figure 292: RSPAN Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RSPAN State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the RSPAN feature.
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Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Create the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN name.
VID
Create the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN ID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 293: RSPAN Settings – Modify window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID
Displays the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN ID.
VLAN Name
Displays the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN name.
Source Ports
If the ports are not specified by option, the source of RSPAN will come from
the source specified by the mirror command or the flow-based source
specified by an ACL. If no parameter is specified for source, it deletes the
configured source parameters.
Select RX, TX or Both to specify in which direction the packets will be
monitored. Tick Add or Delete to add or delete source ports.
Redirect Port List
Specify the output port list for the RSPAN VLAN packets. If the redirect port is
a Link Aggregation port, the Link Aggregation behavior will apply to the
RSPAN packets. Tick Add or Delete to add or delete redirect ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
sFlow
sFlow (RFC3176) is a technology for monitoring traffic in data networks containing switches and
routers. The sFlow monitoring system consists of an sFlow Agent (embedded in a switch or router or in
a standalone probe) and a central sFlow Collector. The architecture and sampling techniques used in the
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sFlow
sFlow monitoring system were designed for providing continuous site-wide (and enterprise-wide)
traffic monitoring of high speed switched and routed networks.
sFlow Global Settings
This window is used to enable or disable the sFlow feature.
To view this window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Global Settings as shown below:
Figure 294: sFlow Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
sFlow State
Here the user can enable or disable the sFlow feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
sFlow Analyzer Server Settings
The Switch can support 4 different Analyzer Servers at the same time and each sampler or poller can
select a collector to send the samples. We can send different samples from different samplers or pollers
to different collectors.
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To view this window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Analyzer Server Settings as shown below:
Figure 295: sFlow Analyzer Server Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Analyzer Server ID
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet
will be forwarded.
Owner Name
The entity making use of this sFlow analyzer server. When owner is set or
modified, the timeout value will become 400 automatically.
Timeout
The length of time before the server times out. When the analyzer server
times out, all of the flow samplers and counter pollers associated with this
analyzer server will be deleted. If not specified, its default value is 400.
Collector Address
The IP address of the analyzer server. If not specified or set a 0 address, the
entry will be inactive.
Collector Port
The destination UDP port for sending the sFlow datagrams. If not specified,
the default value is 6343.
Max Datagram Size
The maximum number of data bytes that can be packed in a single sample
datagram. If not specified, the default value is 1400.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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sFlow
sFlow Flow Sampler Settings
On this page the user can configure the sFlow flow sampler parameters. By configuring the sampling
function for a port, a sample packet received by this port will be encapsulated and forwarded to the
analyzer server at the specified interval.
NOTE
If the user wants the change the analyze server ID, he needs to delete the flow sampler and creates a new
one.
Figure 296: sFlow Flow Sampler Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menus to specify the list of ports to be configured.
Analyzer Server ID
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet
will be forwarded.
Rate
The sampling rate for packet Rx sampling. The configured rate value
multiplied by 256 is the actual rate. For example, if the rate is 20, the actual
rate 5120. One packet will be sampled from every 5120 packets. If set to 0,
the sampler is disabled. If the rate is not specified, its default value is 0.
The sampling rate for packet Tx sampling. The configured rate value multiplied
by 256 is the actual rate. For example, if the rate is 20, the actual rate 5120.
One packet will be sampled from every 5120 packets. If set to 0, the sampler
is disabled. If the rate is not specified, its default value is 0.
MAX Header Size
The maximum number of leading bytes in the packet which has been sampled
that will be encapsulated and forwarded to the server. If not specified, the
default value is 128.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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sFlow Counter Poller Settings
On this page the user can configure the sFlow counter poller parameters. If the user wants to change
the analyzer server ID, he needs to delete the counter poller and create a new one.
Figure 297: sFlow Counter Poller Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menus to specify the list of ports to be configured.
Analyzer Server ID
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet
will be forwarded.
Interval
The maximum number of seconds between successive samples of the
counters.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Ping Test
Ping is a small program that sends ICMP Echo packets to the IP address you specify. The destination
node then responds to or “echoes” the packets sent from the Switch. This is very useful to verify
connectivity between the Switch and other nodes on the network.
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Ping Test
To view this window, click Monitoring > Ping Test as shown below:
Figure 298: Ping Test window
The user may click the Infinite times radio button, in the Repeat Pinging for field, which will tell the
ping program to keep sending ICMP Echo packets to the specified IP address until the program is
stopped. The user may opt to choose a specific number of times to ping the Target IP Address by
clicking its radio button and entering a number between 1 and 255.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Target IP Address
Enter an IP address to be pinged.
Repeat Pinging for
Enter the number of times desired to attempt to Ping either the IPv4 address
or the IPv6 address configured in this window. Users may enter a number of
times between 1 and 255.
Size
For IPv6 only, enter a value between 1 and 6000. The default is 100.
Timeout
Select a timeout period between 1 and 99 seconds for this Ping message to
reach its destination. If the packet fails to find the IP address in this specified
time, the Ping packet will be dropped.
Click the Start button to initiate the Ping Test.
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After clicking the Start button, the following page will appear:
Figure 299: Ping Test Result window
Click the Stop button to halt the Ping Test.
Click the Resume button to resume the Ping Test.
Trace Route
The trace route page allows the user to trace a route between the switch and a given host on the
network.
To view this window, click Monitoring > Trace Route as shown below:
Figure 300: Trace Route window
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Peripheral
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Address / IPv6 Address
IP address of the destination station.
TTL
The time to live value of the trace route request. This is the maximum
number of routers that a trace route packet can pass. The trace route option
will cross while seeking the network path between two devices.
The range for the TTL is 1 to 60 hops.
Port
The port number. The value range is from 30000 to 64900.
Timeout
Defines the timeout period while waiting for a response from the remote
device. A value of 1 to 65535 seconds can be specified. The default is 5
seconds.
Probe
The number of probing. The range is from 1 to 9. If unspecified, the default
value is 1.
Click the Start button to initiate the Trace Route.
After clicking the Start button, the following page will appear:
Figure 301: Trace Route Result window
Click the Stop button to halt the Trace Route.
Click the Resume button to resume the Trace Route.
Peripheral
Device Environment
The device environment feature displays the Switch internal temperature status.
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To view this window, click Monitoring > Peripheral > Device Environment as shown below:
Figure 302: Device Environment window
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
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12
Save and Tools
CHAPTER
Save Configuration / Log
To view this window, click Save > Save Configuration / Log, as shown below.
Save Configuration allows the user to backup the configuration of the switch to a folder on the
computer. Select Configuration from the Type drop-down menu and enter the File Path in the space
provided and click Apply.
Figure 303: Save – Configuration window
Save Log allows the user to backup the log file of the switch. Select Log from the Type drop-down
menu and click Apply.
Figure 304: Save – Log window
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Save All allows the user to permanently save changes made to the configuration. This option will allow
the changes to be kept after the switch has rebooted. Select All from the Type drop-down menu and
click Apply.
Figure 305: Save – All window
Download firmware
The following window is used to download firmware for the Switch.
Download Firmware From TFTP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a TFTP Server to the Switch and updates the
switch.
Figure 306: Download Firmware – TFTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP
Enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv4
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv6
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IPv6 address used.
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
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Upload Firmware
Download Firmware From HTTP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a computer to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 307: Download Firmware – HTTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination File
Enter the location of the Destination File.
Source File
Enter the location of the Source File or click the Browse button to navigate to
the firmware file for the download.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Upload Firmware
The following window is used to upload firmware from the Switch.
Upload Firmware To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload firmware from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
Figure 308: Upload Firmware – TFTP window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP
Enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv4
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv6
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IPv6 address used.
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Download Configuration
The following window is used to download the configuration file for the Switch.
Download Configuration From TFTP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a TFTP Server to the Switch and
updates the switch.
Figure 309: Download Configuration – TFTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP
Enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv4
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv6
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IPv6 address used.
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
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Upload Configuration
Download Configuration From HTTP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a computer to the Switch and
updates the switch.
Figure 310: Download Configuration – HTTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File, or click the Browse button to
navigate to the configuration file for the download.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Upload Configuration
The following window is used to upload the configuration file from the Switch.
Upload Configuration To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
Figure 311: Upload Configuration – TFTP window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP
Enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv4
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv6
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IPv6 address used.
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File.
Filter
Use the drop-down menu to include, begin or exclude a filter like SNMP,
VLAN or STP. Select the appropriate Filter action and enter the service name
in the space provided.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Configuration To HTTP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a computer.
Figure 312: Upload Configuration – HTTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Parameter
Description
Source File
Enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log File
The following window is used to upload the log file from the Switch.
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Upload Log File
Upload Log To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
Figure 313: Upload Log – TFTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP
Enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv4
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IP address used.
IPv6
Click the radio button to enter the TFTP server IPv6 address used.
Destination File
Enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Log Type
Select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the Common Log option
here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the Attack Log option here
will upload the log concerning attacks.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log To HTTP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a computer.
Figure 314: Upload Log – HTTP window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Log Type
Here the user can select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the
Common Log option here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the
Attack Log option here will upload the log concerning attacks.
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Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Reset
The Reset function has several options when resetting the Switch. Some of the current configuration
parameters can be retained while resetting all other configuration parameters to their factory defaults.
NOTE
Only the Reset System option will enter the factory default parameters into the Switch's non-volatile RAM,
and then restart the Switch. All other options enter the factory defaults into the current configuration, but do not
save this configuration. Reset System will return the Switch's configuration to the state it was when it left the factor.
Reset gives the option of retaining the Switch's User Accounts and History Log while resetting all other
configuration parameters to their factory defaults. If the Switch is reset using this window, and Save
Changes is not executed, the Switch will return to the last saved configuration when rebooted.
Figure 315: Reset System window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Reset
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch but not the IP Address, User
Accounts and the Banner.
Reset Config
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch but not perform a Reboot.
Reset System
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch and perform a Reboot.
Click the Apply button to initiate the Reset action.
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Reboot System
Reboot System
The following window is used to restart the Switch.
Figure 316: Reboot System Window
Selecting the Yes radio button will instruct the Switch to save the current configuration to non-volatile
RAM before restarting the Switch.
Selecting the No radio button instructs the Switch not to save the current configuration before restarting
the Switch. All of the configuration information entered from the last time Save Changes was executed
will be lost.
Click the Reboot button to restart the Switch.
Figure 317: System Rebooting window
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A
System Log Entries
APPENDIX
The following table lists all possible entries and their corresponding meanings that will appear in the
System Log of this Switch.
Category
System
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Remark
System started up
System started up
Critical
System warm start
System warm start
Critical
System cold start
System cold start
Critical
Configuration saved to flash
Configuration saved to flash
by console(Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
System log saved to flash
System log saved to flash by
console(Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Configuration and log saved to Configuration and log saved
flash
to flash by
console(Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Internal Power failed
Critical
Internal Power failed
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
Up/Download
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Internal Power is recovered
Internal Power is recovered
Critical
Remark
Redundant Power failed
Redundant Power failed
Critical
Redundant Power is working
Redundant Power is working
Critical
Side Fan failed
Side Fan failed
Critical
Side Fan recovered
Side Fan recovered
Critical
Firmware upgraded
successfully
Firmware upgraded by
console successfully
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
Firmware upgrade was
unsuccessful
Firmware upgrade by console Warning
was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Configuration successfully
downloaded
Configuration successfully
downloaded by
console(Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Configuration download was
unsuccessful
Configuration download by
console was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Warning
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
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Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Remark
Configuration successfully
uploaded
Configuration successfully
uploaded by console
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Configuration upload was
unsuccessful
Configuration upload by
console was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Warning
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Log message successfully
uploaded
Log message successfully
uploaded by console
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Log message upload was
unsuccessful
Log message upload by
console was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Warning
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Firmware successfully
uploaded
Firmware successfully
uploaded by console
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
Interface
Console
Web
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Remark
Firmware upload was
unsuccessful
Firmware upload by console
was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Warning
"by console"
and "IP:
<ipaddr>" are
XOR shown in
log string, which
means if user
login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Port link up
Port <portNum> link up, <link
state>
Informational
link state, for
ex: , 100Mbps
FULL duplex
Port link down
Port <portNum> link down
Informational
Successful login through
Console
Successful login through
Console (Username:
<username>)
Informational
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Login failed through Console
Login failed through Console
(Username: <username>)
Warning
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Logout through Console
Logout through Console
(Username: <username>)
Informational
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Console session timed out
Console session timed out
(Username: <username>)
Informational
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Successful login through Web
Successful login through Web Informational
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Login failed through Web
Login failed through Web
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Warning
Logout through Web
Logout through Web
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
Web session timed out
Web session timed out
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
Successful login through
Web(SSL)
Successful login through
Web(SSL) (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
Login failed through
Web(SSL)
Login failed through
Web(SSL) (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr> )
Warning
Logout through Web(SSL)
Logout through Web(SSL)
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Informational
Web(SSL) session timed out
Web(SSL) session timed out
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
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Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Telnet
Successful login through
Telnet
Successful login through
Telnet (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>)
Informational
Login failed through Telnet
Login failed through Telnet
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Warning
Logout through Telnet
Logout through Telnet
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Informational
Telnet session timed out
Telnet session timed out
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Informational
SNMP
SNMP request received with
invalid community string
SNMP request received from
<ipAddress> with invalid
community string!
Informational
STP
Topology changed
Topology changed
(Instance:<InstanceID>
,Port:<portNum>,MAC:<maca
ddr>)
Informational
New Root selected
[CIST | CIST Regional | MSTI Informational
Regional] New Root bridge
selected( [Instance:
<InstanceID> ]MAC:
<macaddr> Priority :<value>)
Spanning Tree Protocol is
enabled
Spanning Tree Protocol is
enabled
Informational
Spanning Tree Protocol is
disabled
Spanning Tree Protocol is
disabled
Informational
New root port
New root port selected
(Instance:<InstanceID>,
port:<portNum>)
Notice
Spanning Tree port status
changed
Notice
Spanning Tree port status
change
(Instance:<InstanceID> ,
Port:<portNum>) <old_status>
-> <new_status>
Spanning Tree port role
changed
Spanning Tree port role
change
(Instance:<InstanceID> ,
Port:<portNum>) <old_role>
-> <new_role>
Informational
Spannnig Tree instance
created
Spanning Tree instance
created
(Instance:<InstanceID>)
Informational
Spannnig Tree instance
deleted
Spanning Tree instance
deleted
(Instance:<InstanceID>)
Informational
Spanning Tree Version
changed
Spanning Tree version
change (new
version:<new_version>)
Informational
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID name and
revision level changed
Informational
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID name and
revision level change
(name:<name> ,revision level
<revision_level>).
Remark
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
SSH
AAA
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID VLAN
mapping table deleted
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID VLAN
mapping table change
(instance: <InstanceID>
delete vlan <startvlanid> [<endvlanid>])
Informational
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID VLAN
mapping table added
Spanning Tree MST
configuration ID VLAN
mapping table change
(instance: <InstanceID> add
vlan <startvlanid> [<endvlanid>])
Informational
Successful login through SSH
Successful login through SSH Informational
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Login failed through SSH
Login failed through SSH
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>, )
Warning
Logout through SSH
Logout through SSH
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr> )
Informational
SSH session timed out
SSH session timed out
(Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Informational
SSH server is enabled
SSH server is enabled
Informational
SSH server is disabled
SSH server is disabled
Informational
Authentication Policy is
enabled
Authentication Policy is
enabled (Module: AAA)
Informational
Authentication Policy is
disabled
Authentication Policy is
disabled (Module: AAA)
Informational
Successful login through
Successful login through
Console authenticated by AAA Console authenticated by
local method
AAA local method
(Username: <username>)
Informational
Login failed through Console
authenticated by AAA local
method
Login failed through Console
authenticated by AAA local
method (Username:
<username>)
Warning
Successful login through Web
authenticated by AAA local
method
Successful login through Web Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA local method
(Username: <username> )
Login failed through Web
authenticated by AAA local
method
Login failed failed through
Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA local
method (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Successful login through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA local method
Successful login through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA local
method (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Remark
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Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Login failed through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA local method
Login failed through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA local
method (Username:
<username>)
Warning
Successful login through
Telnet authenticated by AAA
local method
Successful login through
Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA local
method (Username:
<username>, )
Informational
Login failed through Telnet
authenticated by AAA local
method
Login failed through Telnet
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA local method
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Successful login through SSH
authenticated by AAA local
method
Successful login through SSH Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA local method
(Username: <username> )
Login failed through SSH
authenticated by AAA local
method
Login failed through SSH
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA local method
(Username: <username>)
Successful login through
Successful login through
Console authenticated by AAA Console authenticated by
none method
AAA none method
(Username: <username>)
Remark
Warning
Informational
Successful login through Web
authenticated by AAA none
method
Successful login through Web Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA none method
(Username: <username> )
Successful login through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA none method
Successful login through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA none
method (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Successful login through
Telnet authenticated by AAA
none method
Successful login through
Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA none
method (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Successful login through SSH
authenticated by AAA none
method
Successful login through SSH Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA none method
(Username: <username> )
Successful login through
Successful login through
Console authenticated by AAA Console authenticated by
server
AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username>)
Informational
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Login failed through Console
authenticated by AAA server
Login failed through Console
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username>)
Warning
There are no IP
and MAC if
login by
console.
Login failed through Console
due to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
Login failed through Console
due to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username>)
Warning
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Successful login through Web
authenticated by AAA server
Successful login through Web Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username>)
Login failed through Web
authenticated by AAA server
Login failed through Web
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Login failed through Web due
to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
Login failed through Web
from <userIP> due to AAA
server timeout or improper
configuration (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Successful login through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA server
Successful login through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Login failed through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA server
Login failed through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Login failed through
Web(SSL) due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Warning
Login failed through
Web(SSL) from <userIP> due
to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username> )
Successful login through
Telnet authenticated by AAA
server
Successful login through
Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Login failed through Telnet
authenticated by AAA server
Login failed through Telnet
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Login failed through Telnet
due to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
Login failed through Telnet
from <userIP> due to AAA
server timeout or improper
configuration (Username:
<username>)
Warning
Successful login through SSH
authenticated by AAA server
Successful login through SSH Informational
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username> )
Login failed through SSH
authenticated by AAA server
Login failed through SSH
from <userIP> authenticated
by AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Login failed through SSH due
to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
Login failed through SSH
from <userIP> due to AAA
server timeout or improper
configuration (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Remark
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Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Successful Enable Admin
Successful Enable Admin
through Console authenticated through Console
by AAA local_enable method authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username>)
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Enable Admin failed through
Console authenticated by AAA Console authenticated by
local_enable method
AAA local_enable method
(Username: <username>)
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through Web authenticated by
AAA local_enable method
Successful Enable Admin
through Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Web authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
Enable Admin failed through
Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username>)
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL)
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL) from
<userIP> authenticated by
AAA local_enable method
(Username: <username>, )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA local_enable method
Enable Admin failed through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet authenticated
by AAA local_enable method
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH authenticated by
AAA local_enable method
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
SSH authenticated by AAA
local_enable method
Enable Admin failed through Warning
<Telnet or Web or SSH> from
<userIP> authenticated by
AAA local_enable method
(Username: <username> )
Successful Enable Admin
Successful Enable Admin
through Console authenticated through Console
authenticated by AAA none
by AAA none method
method (Username:
<username>)
Remark
Informational
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Successful Enable Admin
through Web authenticated by
AAA none method
Successful Enable Admin
through Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA none
method (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL)
authenticated by AAA none
method
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL) from
<userIP> authenticated by
AAA none method
(Username: <username>)
Informational
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet authenticated
by AAA none method
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA none
method (Username:
<username>)
Informational
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH authenticated by
AAA none method
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA none
method (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Successful Enable Admin
Successful Enable Admin
through Console authenticated through Console
by AAA server
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username>)
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Enable Admin failed through
Console authenticated by AAA Console authenticated by
server
AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username>)
Warning
Enable Admin failed through
Console due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Enable Admin failed through
Console due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration (Username:
<username>)
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through Web authenticated by
AAA server
Successful Enable Admin
through Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Web authenticated by AAA
server
Enable Admin failed through
Web from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Enable Admin failed through
Web due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Enable Admin failed through
Web from <userIP> due to
AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username>)
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL)
authenticated by AAA server
Successful Enable Admin
through Web(SSL) from
<userIP> authenticated by
AAA server <serverIP>
(Username: <username> )
Informational
Remark
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Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Remark
Enable Admin failed through
Web(SSL) authenticated by
AAA server
Enable Admin failed through
Web(SSL) from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Enable Admin failed through
Web(SSL) due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Enable Admin failed through Warning
Web(SSL) from <userIP> due
to AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username>)
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet authenticated
by AAA server
Successful Enable Admin
through Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username>)
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet authenticated by AAA
server
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Enable Admin failed through
Telnet from <userIP> due to
AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username>)
Warning
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH authenticated by
AAA server
Successful Enable Admin
through SSH from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Informational
Enable Admin failed through
SSH authenticated by AAA
server
Enable Admin failed through
SSH from <userIP>
authenticated by AAA server
<serverIP> (Username:
<username> )
Warning
Enable Admin failed through
SSH due to AAA server
timeout or improper
configuration
Enable Admin failed through
SSH from <userIP> due to
AAA server timeout or
improper configuration
(Username: <username> )
Warning
Port Security
port security is exceeded to its Port security violation (MAC
maximum learning size and
address: <macaddr> on port:
will not learn any new address <portNum>)
Warning
MBAC
A host fails to pass the
authentication
MAC-based Access Control
unauthenticated host(MAC:
<macaddr>, Port <portNum>,
VID: <vid>)
Critical
The authorized user number
on a port reaches the max
user limit.
Port <portNum> enters
MAC-based Access Control
stop learning state.
Warning
per port
The authorized user number
on a port is below the max
user limit in a time
interval(interval is project
depended).
Port <portNum> recovers
from MAC-based Access
Control stop learning state.
Warning
per port
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
WAC
IP and
Password
Changed
Loop Back
Detection
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Remark
The authorized user number
on whole device reaches the
max user limit.
MAC-based Access Control
enters stop learning state.
Warning
per system
The authorized user number
on whole device is below the
max user limit in a time
interval(interval is project
depended).
MAC-based Access Control
recovers from stop learning
state.
Warning
per system
A host passes the
authentication
MAC-based Access Control
Informational
host login successful (MAC:
<macaddr>, port: <portNum>,
VID: <vid>)
A host is aged out
MAC-based Access Control
Informational
host aged out (MAC:
<macaddr>, port: <portNum>,
VID: <vid>)
A user fails to pass the
authentication
WAC unauthenticated user
(Username: <string>, IP:
<ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>,
Port: <portNum>)
Warning
A user passes the
authentication
WAC authenticated user
(Username: <string>, IP:
<ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>,
Port: <portNum>)
Warning
The authorized user number
on whole device reaches the
max user limit.
WAC enters stop learning
state.
Warning
per system
The authorized user number
on whole device is below the
max user limit in a time
interval(interval is project
depended).
WAC recovers from stop
learning state.
Warning
per system
IP Address change activity
Management IP address was
changed by
console(Username:
<username>,IP:<ipaddr>)
Informational
"console" and
"IP: <ipaddr>"
are XOR shown
in log string,
which means if
user login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Password change activity
Password was changed by
console (Username:
<username>,IP:<ipaddr> )
Informational
"console" and
"IP: <ipaddr>"
are XOR shown
in log string,
which means if
user login by
console, there
will no IP
information for
logging.
Port loop occurred
Port <portNum> LBD loop
occurred. Port blocked
Critical
Port loop detection restarted
after interval time
Port <portNum> LBD port
recovered. Loop detection
restarted
Informational
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334
Category
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
Gratuitous
ARP
Gratuitous ARP detected
duplicate IP.
Conflict IP was detected with
this device (IP: <ipaddr>,
MAC: <macaddr>, Port
<portNum>, Interface:
<ipif_name>).
Warning
BPDU
Protection
BPDU attack happened
Port <portNum> enter BPDU
under attacking state (mode:
drop / block / shutdown)
Informational
BPDU attack automatically
recover
Port <portNum> recover from
BPDU under attacking state
automatically
Informational
BPDU attack manually recover Port <portNum> recover from
BPDU under attacking state
manually
Informational
Monitor
CFM
CFM
Extension
Temperature exceeds
confidence level
Temperature Sensor
Warning
<sensorID> enter alarm state.
(current temperature:
<temperature>)
Temperature recovers to
normal.
Temperature Sensor
<sensorID> recovers to
normal state. (current
temperature: <temperature>)
Informational
Cross-connect is detected
CFM cross-connect.
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(MD
Level:<mdlevel>, Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>)
Remote(MEPID:<mepid>,
MAC:<macaddr>)
Critical
Error CFM CCM packet is
detected
CFM error ccm. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>)
Remote(MEPID:<mepid>,
MAC:<macaddr>)
Warning
Can not receive remote MEP's CFM remote down. MD
CCM packet
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>)
Warning
Remote MEP's MAC reports
an error status
CFM remote MAC error. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>)
Warning
Remote MEP detects CFM
defects
CFM remote detects a defect. Informational
MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>)
AIS condition detected
AIS condition detected. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Remark
Notice
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Appendix A: System Log Entries
Category
Voice VLAN
Command
Logging
Event Description
Log Information
Severity
AIS condition cleared
AIS condition cleared. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Notice
LCK condition detected
LCK condition detected. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Notice
LCK condition cleared
LCK condition cleared. MD
Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>,
Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Notice
When a new voice device is
detected in the port
Informational
New voice device detected
(MAC:<macaddr>,Port:<portN
um>)
While the port join to the voice Port <portNum> add into
VLAN while the port is auto
voice VLAN <vid >
voice VLAN mode
Informational
While the port withdraws from Port <portNum> remove from
the voice VLAN while there is voice VLAN <vid >
no more voice device detected
in the aging interval.
Informational
Command Logging
Informational
<username>: execute
command "<string>".
Remark
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B
Trap Log Entries
APPENDIX
This table lists the trap logs found on the Switch.
Trap Name
Trap Description
OID
coldStart
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity, acting in 1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
an agent role, is reinitializing itself and that its
configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity, acting
in an agent role, is reinitializing itself such that its
configuration is unaltered.
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
linkDown
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in
an agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus object
for one of its communication links is about to enter the
down state from some other state (but not from the
notPresent state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus.
Binding 1: ifIndex
2: ifAdminStatus
3: ifOperStatus
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
linkUp
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an
agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus object for
one of its communication links left the down state and
transitioned into some other state (but not into the
notPresent state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus.
Binding 1: ifIndex
2: ifAdminStatus
3: ifOperStatus
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
authenticationFailure
An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the SNMPv2
entity, acting in an agent role, has received a protocol
message that is not properly authenticated. While all
implementations of the SNMPv2 must be capable of
generating this trap, the snmpEnableAuthenTraps object
indicates whether this trap will be generated.
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
risingAlarm
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
crosses its rising threshold and generates an event that is
configured for sending SNMP traps.
Binding 1: alarmIndex
2: alarmVariable
3: alarmSampleType
4: alarmValue
5: alarmRisingThreshold
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Appendix B: Trap Log Entries
Trap Name
Trap Description
OID
fallingAlarm
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry
crosses its falling threshold and generates an event that
is configured for sending SNMP traps.
Binding 1: alarmIndex
2: alarmVariable
3: alarmSampleType
4: alarmValue
5: alarmFallingThreshold
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
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