Voltage-Mode Multifunction Biquadratic Filter with One Input and Six

Hindawi Publishing Corporation
e Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 432570, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/432570
Research Article
Voltage-Mode Multifunction Biquadratic Filter with
One Input and Six Outputs Using Two ICCIIs
Hua-Pin Chen
Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taiwan
Correspondence should be addressed to Hua-Pin Chen; hpchen@mail.mcut.edu.tw
Received 7 February 2014; Revised 1 April 2014; Accepted 17 April 2014; Published 8 May 2014
Academic Editor: Soliman A. Mahmoud
Copyright © 2014 Hua-Pin Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A novel voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic filter with one input and six outputs is presented. The proposed circuit can realize
inverting and noninverting low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass filters, simultaneously, by using two inverting second-generation
current conveyors (ICCIIs), two grounded capacitors, and four resistors. Moreover, the proposed circuit offers the following
attractive advantages: no requirements for component matching conditions, the use of only grounded capacitors, and low active
and passive sensitivities. HSPICE and MATLAB simulations results are provided to demonstrate the theoretical analysis.
1. Introduction
There has been an increasing interest in the design of
multifunction biquadratic filters. This type of filters can be
used in some systems that employ more than one filter
function. Filters are widely used in many communications,
signal processing, automatic control, and instrumentation
systems. For example, two system block diagrams of the
receiver/transmitter part of a global system for mobile cellular telephone and crossover network used in a three-way
high-fidelity loudspeaker are introduced in [1, 2]. Circuits
simultaneously realizing low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass
filters find applications in crossover networks used in threeway high-fidelity loudspeakers and touch-tone telephone
systems [2]. In analog circuit design, current-mode active
devices have been increasingly used to realize active filters
and sinusoidal oscillators [1–21]. These current-mode active
devices exhibit higher accuracy, wider frequency response,
larger dynamic range, greater linearity, and lower power consumption over the operational amplifier-based circuits. As
a result, numerous voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic
filters using different types of current-mode active devices
have received significant attention in technical literature [2–
10]. However, none of these filters simultaneously realizes
both inverting and noninverting type of low-pass, bandpass,
and high-pass responses. The inverting second-generation
current conveyor (ICCII) was proposed by Awad and Soliman [11] and has been found useful in many applications [12–
15]. An interesting ICCII-based voltage-mode multifunction
biquadratic filter with single input and six outputs employing
two grounded capacitors and four resistors is proposed [16].
This filter simultaneously realizes inverting and noninverting
low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass filtering responses in
the same configuration. It also does not require passive
element matching conditions and has low active and passive
sensitivity performances. However, the  ports of the ICCIIs
in this circuit design are connected to capacitors and cannot
absorb the parasitic capacitances at the  or/and  terminals
of the ICCIIs. Because the ICCII has a nonnegligible output
parasitic resistance on port  ( ), when the  port of
ICCII is loaded by a capacitor, it leads to improper transfer
functions. Due to the effect of this parasitic resistance 
at the  port of ICCII, the circuits with  port loaded by a
capacitor do not exhibit good performance at high frequency
[15–17].
In this paper, a new voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic filter with single input and six outputs is presented.
The proposed circuit employs two ICCIIs, two grounded
capacitors, and four resistors. The inverting and noninverting
low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass filtering responses can
be obtained simultaneously. The proposed circuit does not
require passive element matching conditions and has low
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active and passive sensitivity performances. With respect to
the previous ICCII-based inverting and noninverting lowpass, bandpass, and high-pass multifunction biquadratic
filter in [16], the  ports of the ICCIIs in the proposed circuit
are connected to resistors. This design offers the feature of
a direct incorporation of the parasitic resistance at the 
ports of the ICCIIs  , as a part of the main resistance.
Moreover, the two external capacitors are grounded and can
absorb the parasitic capacitances at the  or/and  terminals
of the ICCIIs. To the best of the author’s knowledge, none of
the previous voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic filters
employing only two active components, however, are able to
realize inverting and noninverting low-pass, bandpass, and
high-pass filters simultaneously without imposing component choice except the circuit reported in [16]; this circuit on
the other hand and the two capacitors are connected to the 
terminals of the ICCII which limits the operating frequency
of the circuit [17].
IY
Z+
Y
DOICCII
IX
VX
Z−
X
IZ+
VZ+
IZ−
VZ−
Figure 1: Schematic symbol of DOICCII.
VDD
M5 M6
M7
M1
M2
M12
M8
M9
X
Z+
M10 M11
M4
M3
Y
M13
VB
2. Proposed Circuit
M14
M15 M16
Z−
M17 M18
VSS
Basically, the port relations of an ideal dual-output ICCII
(DOICCII), shown in Figure 1, can be given by the matrix
equation:

0
[  ] [−1
[ ]=[
[+ ] [ 0
[− ] [ 0
VY
0
0
1
−1
0
0
0
0
0

]
[
0]
] [  ] .
0] [+ ]
0] [− ]
5
−2 2
= 2
,
in
 1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1
(1)
It is considered to be a special case from the DVCC with
single  input only [13]. Various methods can be used to
implement CMOS DOICCII. One possible implementation
of the DOICCII is shown in Figure 2. The multiple current outputs can be easily implemented by simply adding
output branches. The proposed configuration is shown in
Figure 3. It employs two multioutput ICCIIs, two grounded
capacitors, and four resistors. The use of grounded capacitors
is attractive from a monolithic integration point of view
because grounded capacitor circuits can compensate for
the stray capacitances at their nodes [6]. Because each 
terminal of the ICCII in the proposed circuit of Figure 3
is directly connected to an external resistor, the effect of
parasitic resistance  can easily be absorbed as a part of
the main resistance. Straightforwardly analyzing the filter in
Figure 3, the following six filter voltage transfer functions can
be simultaneously derived as
1
2 2
= 2
,
in
 1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1
2
−1
= 2
,
in
 1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1

3
2 1 2 1 2
= − ( 3) 2
,
in
1  1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1
4

2 1 2 1 2
= ( 4) 2
,
in
1  1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1
Figure 2: The CMOS implementation of DOICCII.
6
1
= 2
.
in
 1 2 1 2 + 2 1 + 1
(2)
Clearly, the filter simultaneously realizes second order inverting and non-inverting low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass
filtering responses without requiring any passive component
matching condition. Since the input impedance of the proposed circuit is not high, voltage follower is needed while
cascading the proposed circuit to the next stages. It is also to
be noted that the output terminals of the proposed circuit are
not in low-output impedances. Voltage followers are needed
for the proposed circuit to drive low impedance loads or to
be directly connected to the next stages.
The resonance angular frequency ( ), the quality factor
(), and bandwidth (BW) are given by
 = √
1
,
1 2 1 2
=√
2 1
,
1 2
BW =
(3)

1
.
=

1 1
This shows that the proposed filter enjoys orthogonal control
of  and BW by tuning grounded resistor 2 for  first
and then resistor 1 for BW without disturbing parameter
 , but not vice versa. However, the technique to obtain the
noninteractive filter parameter control can be suggested as
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3
Vo6
Z11−
X
ICCII
(1)
R1
Z12+
Vo3
Z13−
Y
Vo4
Vin
R3
R4
Vo2
Vo1
C2
Z21+
Y
ICCII
(2)
Vo5
Z22+
C1
X
R2
Figure 3: The proposed ICCII-based voltage-mode inverting and noninverting low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass filter.
VY
VZ+
Y
RY
Z+
Ideal
DOICCII
Z−
X
CY
RX
VZ−
RZ−
RZ+
CZ+
CZ−
VX
Figure 4: The nonideal DOICCII model.
follows. For the fix-valued capacitors, the  can be adjusted
arbitrarily without disturbing  by simultaneously changing
1 and 2 and keeping the quotient 2 /1 constant. On
the other hand, the parameter  can be tuned arbitrarily
without disturbing  by increasing 1 and decreasing 2
(or decreasing 1 and increasing 2 ) simultaneously, while
keeping the produce 1 2 constant.
By taking into account the nonidealities of DOICCII,
the relationship of the terminal voltages and currents can be
rewritten as  = − , + =  , and − = − , where
 = 1 − V and V (|V | ≪ 1) denotes the voltage tracking error
from  terminal to  terminal of the DOICCII,  = 1− and
 (| | ≪ 1) is the current tracking error from  terminal
to + terminal of the DOICCII, and  = 1 −  and 
(| | ≪ 1) is the current tracking error from  terminal to 
terminal of the DOICCII. Reanalysis of the proposed circuit
in Figure 3 yields the denominator of the nonideal voltage
transfer functions as follows:
 () = 2 1 2 1 2 + 11 22 2 2 1 + 11 21 1 2 .
(4)
The filter parameters for the nonideal  and  are
obtained as
 = √
11 21 1 2
,
1 2 1 2
1 21 1 2 1
√
=
.
22 11 2 1 2
(5)
The active and passive sensitivities of  and  of the
proposed filter are

  ,
11
21 ,1 ,2
1

= −1 ,2 ,1 ,2 = ,
2
1
21 ,1 = −11 ,2 = 2 ,1 = −1 ,2 = ,
2
(6)
22 = −1.
The active and passive of the sensitivities remain less than
or equal to one in magnitude.
3. Influence of Parasitic Elements
A nonideal DOICCII model is shown in Figure 4. It is
shown that the real DOICCII has a low-value parasitic serial
resistance at port  ( ) and high output impedances at
ports  ( // ) and  ( // ), respectively. Because each
 terminal of the ICCII in the proposed circuit of Figure 3
is directly connected to an external resistor, the effect of
parasitic resistance  can easily be absorbed as a part of
the main resistance. It is further noted that the proposed
circuit of Figure 3 employs external grounded capacitors 1
and 2 parallel connecting at the ports  and  of ICCIIs,
respectively. The effects of parasitic capacitances can also be
absorbed. Hence, in practical ICCIIs, the external resistors
can be chosen to be much smaller than that of the parasitic
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Table 1: Aspect ratios of the MOS in Figure 2.
 (m)
0.35
0.18
0.18
Transistors
M1–M4
M5–M11
M12–M18
 (m)
8.75
17.5
8.75
resistors at the  and  terminals of ICCIIs and much greater
than the parasitic resistors at the  terminals of ICCIIs, that
is,  ≪ 1 , 2 ≪  ,  . The external grounded capacitors
1 and 2 can be chosen to be much greater than the parasitic
capacitances at the  and  terminals of ICCIIs, that is
 ,  ≪ 1 , 2 . On reanalyzing the proposed voltagemode filter, taking into account the above parasitic effects, the
characteristic equation of Figure 3 becomes
 () = 2 + 
2
2 1
1
(1
+
+
)
2 1
1 2 2

 
1
+     (1 + 1 + 1 2 ) ,
1 2 1 2
2 1 2
(7)
where 1 = 1 + 2 + 11 , 2 = 2 + 1 + 21 , 1 =
2 //11 , 2 = 1 //21 , 1 = 1 + 1 , and 2 = 2 +
2 .
Assuming that max(1 , 2 ) ≪ (1 , 2 ) and 1 ≤ 2 ,
the effect of the parasitic impedance effects in (7) can be
reduced. Under these conditions, the parameters  and 
are changed to
 = √
=
1
,
1 2 1 2
 
√ 2 1.
1 2
(8)
It is to be noted that the resistor of the proposed filter is
connected to the  terminals of multioutput ICCIIs and the
capacitor of the proposed filter is connected to the  and 
terminals. Thus, all the loading effects of the parasitics can be
accommodated.
4. Simulation Results
To verify the theoretical analysis, HSPICE simulations were
carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed
circuit. Based on TSMC 0.18 m CMOS process, Figure 3
is simulated by using Figure 2 for DOICCII. The multiple
current outputs of the ICCII are easily obtained by applying
current replicas. The supply voltages and biasing voltage
are given by  = − = 0.9 V, and  = −0.5 V,
respectively. The dimensions of MOS transistors used in
implementation of the DOICCII were given in Table 1. The
DC characteristic between the  and  terminals voltages is
shown in Figure 5. The output voltage  at  terminal is
the inversion of the input voltage source  at  terminal.
The linearity range extends from −0.65 V to 0.65 V. The DC
Table 2: Input and output noises against frequency for noninverting
bandpass response.
Frequency (Hz)
10 × 103
25.118 × 103
63.095 × 103
100 × 103
158.489 × 103
251.188 × 103
398.107 × 103
630.957 × 103
1.584 × 106
2.511 × 106
3.981 × 106
6.309 × 106
10 × 106
15.848 × 106
25.118 × 106
39.81 × 106
63.095 × 106
100 × 106
Input noise V/√Hz
4.368 × 10−6
1.74 × 10−6
695.784 × 10−9
442.379 × 10−9
284.392 × 10−9
187.531 × 10−9
130.269 × 10−9
98.618 × 10−9
75.453 × 10−9
72.36 × 10−9
71.092 × 10−9
70.58 × 10−9
70.376 × 10−9
70.294 × 10−9
70.262 × 10−9
70.249 × 10−9
70.244 × 10−9
70.242 × 10−9
Noise
Output noise V/√Hz
43.643 × 10−9
43.684 × 10−9
43.946 × 10−9
44.416 × 10−9
45.591 × 10−9
48.514 × 10−9
55.649 × 10−9
71.283 × 10−9
54.658 × 10−9
30.98 × 10−9
18.43 × 10−9
11.337 × 10−9
7.080 × 10−9
4.448 × 10−9
2.802 × 10−9
1.767 × 10−9
1.114 × 10−9
703.183 × 10−12
characteristic between the  and  terminals’ currents is
shown in Figure 6 by connecting a floating input current
source  at  terminal, while the voltage across  terminal
is set to zero. The linearity range extends from −67.3 A to
80 A. The passive component values of Figure 3 were chosen
as 1 = 2 = 15.9 pF, and 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 =
10 kΩ, leading to a center frequency of  = 1 MHz, and
quality factor  = 1. Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 show the
simulated results of noninverting bandpass (1 ), inverting
low-pass (2 ), inverting high-pass (3 ), noninverting highpass (4 ), inverting bandpass (5 ), and noninverting lowpass (6 ) frequency responses, respectively. The  terminal
of the ICCII(1) is connected to 22 + terminal of the ICCII(2);
hence, the parasitic capacitance (22 ) and resistance (22 )
affect the high frequency responses. This can explain why
Figure 12 has nonideal gain and phase responses. The large
signal behavior of the circuit in Figure 3 is also investigated.
Figure 13 shows the input and output signals of noninverting
bandpass response at 1 output terminal. It is observed that
1 MHz with 0.7 V peak to peak input voltage signal levels are
possible without signification distortion. Figure 14 shows the
input and output signals of inverting bandpass response at
5 output terminal. It is also observed that 1 MHz with 0.7 V
peak to peak input voltage signal levels is possible without
signification distortion. The noise behaviour of the filter was
simulated using the INOISE and ONOISE statements. Figure 15 shows the simulated input and output noise amplitude
responses for the noninverting bandpass filter with INOISE
and ONOISE. Equivalent input and output noises against
frequency are given for the noninverting bandpass response
in Table 2. The total equivalent input and output noise voltages were 827.09 V/√Hz and 103.36 V/√Hz, respectively.
5
800
600
Gain (dB)
200
0
−200
100
0
80
−5
60
−10
40
−15
20
−20
0
−25
−20
−30
−40
−35
−60
−400
−40
−80
−600
−45
104
105
−800
−800
−500
0
Input voltages (VY ) (m)
500
800
107
−100
108
Figure 7: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses
of noninverting bandpass filter at 1 (∘: simulated gain; ∗: simulated
phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
Figure 5: The DC characteristic between the  (blue line) and 
(red line) terminals voltages of the ICCII.
80
60
10
190
0
170
−10
150
130
110
−40
90
−50
70
−60
50
−70
30
−20
−80
10
−40
−90
104
Gain (dB)
−20
−30
40
Currents (A)
106
Frequency (Hz)
20
0
105
−60
−80
−80
−60
−40
−20
0
20
40
60
80
106
Frequency (Hz)
107
Phase (∘ )
Voltages (VX ) (m)
400
5
Phase (∘ )
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−10
108
Figure 8: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses
of inverting low-pass filter at 2 (∘: simulated gain; ∗: simulated
phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
Input currents (IX ) (A)
5. Conclusions
In this paper, a novel voltage-mode multifunction biquadratic
filter is proposed. The proposed circuit offers several advantages, such as no requirements for component matching
conditions, the simultaneous realization of inverting and
0
−15
−10
−35
−20
−55
−30
−75
−40
−95
−50
−115
−60
−135
−70
−155
Phase (∘ )
Gain (dB)
The output noise was extremely small and did not affect
the output signal. The total power dissipation is found to
be 0.834 mW. Note that simulation results demonstrated in
Figures 7–14 agree quite well with the theoretical ones as
expected. Nonetheless, the difference between the theoretical
and simulated responses mainly stems from the parasitic
impedance effects and nonideal gains of ICCIIs.
5
10
Figure 6: The DC characteristic between the  (blue line), + (red
line), and − (green line) terminals currents of the ICCII.
−80
−175
−90
104
−195
105
106
Frequency (Hz)
107
108
Figure 9: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses
of inverting high-pass filter at 3 (∘: simulated gain; ∗: simulated
phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
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190
0
170
−10
150
−20
130
−30
110
−40
90
−50
70
−60
50
−70
30
−80
10
105
106
Frequency (Hz)
107
200
0
−200
−400
96
96.5
97
Time (A)
97.5
98
400
Voltages (m)
−90
104
400
Voltages (m)
10
Phase (∘ )
Gain (dB)
6
−10
108
Figure 10: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses of noninverting high-pass filter at 4 (∘: simulated gain; ∗:
simulated phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
200
0
−200
−400
96
96.5
97
97.5
98
5
−80
0
−100
−5
−120
−10
−140
−15
−160
−20
−180
−200
−220
−35
−240
−40
−260
105
106
Frequency (Hz)
107
Voltages (m)
−25
−30
−45
104
Figure 13: The input (blue line) and output (red line) waveforms of
noninverting bandpass filter at 1 designed with 1 = 2 = 3 =
4 = 10 kΩ, 1 = 2 = 15.9 pF, for a 1 MHz sinusoidal input voltage
of 0.7 V (peak to peak).
Phase (∘ )
Gain (dB)
Time (A)
−280
108
20
15
10
−5
0
−25
−10
−45
−20
−65
−30
−85
−40
−105
−50
−125
−60
−145
−70
−165
−80
104
105
106
Frequency (Hz)
107
96
Phase (∘ )
Gain (dB)
Figure 11: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses of inverting bandpass filter at 5 (∘: simulated gain; ∗: simulated
phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
−50
−100
−150
−200
−250
−300
−350
−400
−185
108
Figure 12: Simulated gain-frequency and phase-frequency responses of noninverting low-pass filter at 6 (∘: simulated gain; ∗:
simulated phase; — and ---: theoretical curves).
96.5
97
Time (A)
97.5
98
Figure 14: The input (blue line) and output (red line) waveforms of
inverting bandpass filter at 5 designed with 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 =
10 kΩ, 1 = 2 = 15.9 pF, for a 1 MHz sinusoidal input voltage of
0.7 V (peak to peak).
noninverting low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass responses
from the same configuration, the use of only grounded capacitors, and low active and passive sensitivity performances. The
proposed circuit has the same advantages reported by [16]
using two ICCIIs, two grounded capacitors, and four resistors. Moreover, the proposed circuit has one more important
advantage of direct incorporation of the parasitic resistance at
the  terminal of the ICCII as a part of the main resistance.
The two external capacitors are grounded and can absorb
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7
10 p
1p
Noise (log)
100 f
10 f
1f
0.1 f
0.01 f
1e−18
10 K
100 K
1M
10 M
Frequency (log)(HZ)
100 M
Figure 15: Equivalent input (blue line) and output (red line) noise
of BP filter versus frequency.
the parasitic capacitances at the  or/and  terminals of the
ICCIIs. HSPICE simulations, using TSMC 0.18 m CMOS
process technology and supply voltages ±0.9 V, confirm the
theoretical predictions.
Conflict of Interests
The author declares that there is no conflict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
The author is thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their
suggestions to improve the paper. The author is also grateful
to Professor Soliman A. Mahmoud, Editor, for recommending this paper.
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