ACC, 125, 128, 130 A/D-converter, 73, 74, 77, 86

Index
ACC, 125, 128, 130
A/D-converter, 73, 74, 77, 86
acoustic warning, 134
acoustical, 134
active implant, 141
active safety, 128, 136
active-pixel image sensors (APS), 21
adaptive cruise control, 126, 133
adaptive cruise control (ACC), 123
adaptive edge-based algorithm, 117–120
address, 40, 73
address generator, 74
age-related macular degeneration, 141
amplifier, 19, 21
amplitude, 212, 213, 216, 221
analog photography, 103
analog-to-digtal converter, 29
anchor, 156, 158
anchoring, 156
ANSI contrast, 212
antireflection coatings, 101
AOI, 74, 76, 84
aperture, 27, 30, 31
appearance, 31, 69, 147–152, 155
arithmetic, 29
arithmetic mean value, 43
artifacts halos, 163
ASIC, 77
asphere, 102–104
automotive, 125, 126, 130
average illumination, 142, 143
back light, 100
back lighting, 99
bad or weak pixels, 40
barrier, 21, 23
barrier height, 21
base layer, 171
BGA, 77
bidirectional reflectance distribution
function (BRDF), 196
bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function
(BSSRDF), 196
bilateral filter, 171, 172
Bilateral Filter Tone Mapping, 170
bilateral filtering, 155, 159, 160, 175
bionic, 1
bipolar cells, 141
bit, 16, 45, 46
blackening, 104
blinding, 1
blindness, 141
blinks, 27
block diagram, 26, 27, 30
blooming, 133
body, 14
bright histogram, 28
brightness, 66–69, 89, 148–150, 154,
155, 159, 160, 166
brightness range, 134
C-mount, 76, 79, 84
Camera Link, 83, 84
Camera LinkTM , 78, 79, 82
candidates, 118
234
Index
capacitance, 20, 48
CCD, 13
CCTV, 85–87
channel, 21
characteristic edges, 115
charge balance, 144
chip, 19, 21
chroma, 69
chromaticity, 70
CIELab, 66
CMOS technology, 19
coatings, 29
COB, 74, 77
collision avoidance, 123, 127, 130, 136
collision mitigation, 123, 127, 130, 136
color, 8, 10, 11, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 73, 84
color amplification factors, 71
color constancy, 1, 10
color management, 64, 68, 71
color saturation, 69, 71
color space, 180–182, 184, 187, 189, 190
color stimulus, 68
color-correction, 69
comet tail, 48, 52
compatibility, 183
compatible, 183, 211
compression, 16
cones, 150, 163, 164, 166
continuous mode, 49, 52
contour, 97
contour extraction, 8
contrast, 10, 64, 71, 157–162, 168
contrast compression, 161
contrast discrimination, 159, 160
contrast range, 100
contrast reduction, 147, 157
contrast sensitivity, 1, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11
contrast sensitivity function (CSF), 6
control loops, 27
controller, 73, 76, 77
conversion efficiency, 20
conversion transistor, 32
correction, 35, 37
correction parameters, 46
correction procedure, 46
correlation, 43
cortex, 141
cover glass, 101
crosstalk, 32
CSF, 7
current in weak inversion, 33
current source, 48
100% defect positions, 118
3 dB-point, 26, 29, 32, 33, 35–38, 45, 53
dark, 13, 57
dark charge, 20
dark current, 26, 28, 33, 43, 47
dark HDRC reset, 50
dark histogram, 28
dark noise, 172
dark reset, 49, 50
dark reset mode, 52
dark shot noise, 20
data fusion, 135
decade, 13–16, 18, 19, 26
decompose the luminance, 171
defect detection, 114, 116, 119, 120
degenerated, 141
densitometric, 68
densitometric HDRC color, 71
detail layer, 171
differences, 65–68, 71, 94
differences in lightness, 143
diffuse, 201
diffusely, 201
digital, 14
digital color management, 68
digital memory, 29
digital numbers (DN), 24
digital output, 14, 16, 55
digital processing power, 65
digital storage, 29, 47
display, 211–217, 221
distal, 139
distance warning, 123
distorted by, 102
distortions caused, 187
distraction, 132
distribution, 28
dodging and burning, 155
doping, 21
drain, 21, 23, 49, 50, 56
drain current, 21, 23, 33
drain electrode, 21
drain-source voltage, 23
Index
driver assistance, 122, 127, 128, 130,
135
Durand, 170, 172, 174
dynamic performance, 47
dynamic range, 1, 2, 5, 10
edge, 14
edge detection, 85, 87–90, 93, 96, 97,
138, 139
effect, 48
electrolysis, 142, 144
embedded memory, 47
encoded in the scene-referred, 185
encoding, 68, 71
endoscopy, 137
enhance, 69
enhanced color saturation, 70
enhanced colors, 69
environment map, 199–201
environment map lighting, 201, 202
environment maps importance
sampling, 202
environmental sensor, 123
erroneous depth, 115
extended-range image sensors, 57
extracted, 92, 96
eye, 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 18, 26
eye movements, 141
eye’s, 10
eye’s OECF, 2
eye-off-road time, 132
f -stops, 30, 101
false alarm, 133
far infrared (FIR), 130
field of the driver’s view, 135
field of view, 132
film, 13
filter, 71, 104
filtering, 97
FIR filtering, 203
fixed pattern, 28, 46
fixed pattern correction, 32
fixed-pattern correction, 29, 32, 35, 46,
47
fixed-pattern correction (FPC), 28
fixed-pattern noise, 32, 35, 41, 43
fixed-pattern offset, 30
flash, 77
235
flat-field, 57, 63
flat-field illumination, 24, 27
flat-field noise, 59–62
flat-field shot-noise, 59
floating point format, 183
flood light, 100
fluctuations, 57
focal length, 101–105
foveal, 158
frame, 57, 58, 63
frame sequential contrast, 212
frameworks, 156–158
free-standing lens, 101, 104
frequency, 171
fully automated inspection, 121
fully automated surface inspection, 118,
121
fusion, 133
γ, 67
gain, 32, 33, 35–38, 43, 44, 47
gamma correction, 148, 187, 189, 190
gamma correction to HRD, 188
ganglion cells, 141
gate, 21, 23, 24, 33, 49, 52, 56
gate and drain voltages, 49
gate oxide, 21
gate source, 33, 48
gauss profile, 115
ghost, 101, 102
glare, 148, 152, 166, 168–170
glass–air surfaces, 101, 104
global, 73
global illuminance, 143
global illumination, 143
global operations, 71
global operators, 148, 154
global or local fluctuations in
brightness, 115
global shutter, 53, 55
glossy or specular surfaces, 196
gradient methods, 154, 158, 175
graphics processing units (GPUs), 175
gray, 89, 96, 97
gray charts, 66
gray opaque diffuse filter, 71
gray value profile, 115, 116
gray-scale plates, 100
grayish appearance, 69
236
Index
grey, 89
grey chart, 30, 31
grey-chart appearance, 31
half, 183
half-precision floating point, 184
halo artifacts, 154, 159
haptical, 134
HDRC pixel, 23, 26
HDRC sensors, 53
head-up display, 132
high definition (HD) television, 211
high-quality image acquisition, 28
histogram adjustment, 149, 152
histogram adjustment methods, 152
histogram equalization, 88, 159, 160
HMI, 129
hold capacitor, 53
home theatre, 212
human machine interface, 123, 135
human machine interface (HMI), 132
human visual system, 149, 166
human visual system (HVS), 2, 147, 149
HVS, 4, 8, 10
illuminance, 26, 29, 30, 48, 50, 66
illuminance equalization, 31
illuminant, 1, 10
illumination, 14, 15, 24, 26, 29, 31–33,
35, 38, 48, 52, 53, 137–139
image, 40
image errors, 101, 102, 105
image lag, 48, 50, 52, 53
image processing, 129, 130, 133, 134
image sensor, 13, 14, 17, 19, 27, 32, 39,
46
image synthesis, 197, 199
image-based acquisition methods, 196
image-based lighting, 193, 199, 200
image-based methods, 193
imagers, 32, 46
images, 40, 46
importance sampling, 202, 203
industrial image processing, 113, 117
industrial machine vision, 53
infrared cut-off, 74
inhomogeneous and/or structured
surface, 116
inspection for free shaped surfaces, 116
instantaneous response, 1
integrated-circuit, 19, 21
integration time, 26, 49, 53
intensity, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 32
intracorporeal videoprobe, 137
IR-filtered, 174
iris, 172
isolation, 19
JPEG HDR, 183, 184
JPEG HDR format, 184
just noticeable differences (JND), 188
kTC, 59
lambertian surfaces, 201, 202
lane departure warning, 123, 128, 131,
133–135
lane guidance, 131, 133, 135
LCC, 48, 75
LCD, 214–219, 222
LCD’s, 220
LDR display, 174
leakage, 19, 21
leakage current, 19, 26
lens, 29
lens aperture, 30
lens contrast, 99, 101
lens elements, 101
lenses, 98, 99, 101, 102, 105
LIDAR, 133, 135
light traps, 104
lightness, 66, 67, 69, 70, 154, 156–158
lightness – color cone, 71
lightness perception, 155
lightness sensors, 67
linear sensor, 14
liquid crystal display (LCD), 213
local, 142
local illumination, 143
local lightness, 68, 69
local operators, 148, 161
localized contrast perception, 158, 159
log luminance, 70
log transistor, 24, 48–50, 53, 56
log-node, 26
log-node capacitance, 48
log-response, 13, 18, 26, 49
logarithmic compression, 1
Index
logarithmic contrast compression, 151
logarithmic space, 171, 172
logarithmically compressed, 158
logluv TIFF, 182
logLuv TIFF format, 189, 190
long-time adaptation, 1, 7
longitudinal or lateral control of the
vehicle, 123
low-luminance, 50
luma, 188–190
luminance, 18, 19, 50
luminance adaptation, 150, 163, 164
luminance distribution, 211, 212, 214,
218
LUT, 84, 87–90
macbeth chart, 8, 9, 69
mapping, 68
masking process, 40, 41
masticed multiple-lens, 105
matching, 92
matting, 104
mean values, 35
memory, 29, 41, 48
mesopic, 168
mesopic vision, 166
MetalDefectDetector, 118, 120, 121
microelectronic manufacturing, 19
min–max gamma, 88, 89
min–max stretch, 88, 89
miniature, 137
miniaturization, 137
minimal invasive surgery (MIS), 137
minimum detectable, 26
minimum detectable signal, 1, 7
mixed reality, 205, 206
MMR, 74, 76, 84
moon, 2
MOS transistor, 21
mosaic, 68
MPEG, 179, 187
MPEG video, 185
MPEG video compression, 184
MPEG-4 video compression, 184
multiexposure techniques, 194, 195, 200
multiplexers, 58
mux1, 24
237
nanotechnology, 104
natural scene, 40, 212
near infrared (NIR), 73
near infrared (NIR) light, 130
near-infrared, 135
neutrally gray background, 100
NF-mount, 76
night vision, 128, 130, 131, 133, 135
night vision warning, 132
night vision warning (NVW), 131
NIR, 73, 130
NMOS transistor, 21, 22
noise, 57, 58, 61–63
noise reduction, 134, 191
noise sources, 57, 59
nonuniformities, 57
not correlated, 28
NTSC, 73, 85, 87
object, 14, 29, 31, 53
object recognition and classification, 65
octaves, 4
OECF, 2, 6, 7, 10, 14–19, 21, 24–27, 29,
32, 33, 35, 40, 50, 53
offset, 30, 31, 33, 37, 43
offset correction, 30, 38, 40, 43, 47
on-resistance, 58
on/off contrast, 212
opaque diffuser filter, 71
Open Eye Module, 75
openEXR file format, 183
openEXR format, 183
optical axis, 101
optical intensities, 2
optical intensity, 15, 16, 29, 30
optical signals, 65
opto electronic conversion function
(OECF), 2, 5, 13, 194
output amplifier, 24
output-referred, 180
1-Point Offset Correction offsets, 43
1-parameter correction, 37
1-point offset or the multipoint
correction, 43
3-parameter correction, 37
3-parameter correction algorithm, 37,
43
p-substrate, 22, 23
238
Index
p-well, 22, 23
package, 138
PAL, 73, 85, 87
parameter extraction, 33
parameter variation, 35
parameterized correction algorithm, 38
parasitic current, 21
parking aids, 124
partially marked defects, 116
passive safety, 128
pedestrian, 130
pedestrian protection, 128
perception, 149, 156, 159, 164, 166, 167,
175
perception-based mapping, 68
perception-motivated HDR video tone
mapping, 71
perceptual, 147, 148, 154, 160, 163, 166,
167, 169, 170, 175
perceptually, 152, 155
pfstools, 191
photocurrent monitor, 47
photodiode, 7, 8, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 28,
29, 48
photodiode/pixel, 7
photometric calibration, 194
photometric units, 2
photon, 19, 21
photopic, 166, 168
photopic response, 19
photoreceptor, 1, 3, 11, 142, 143, 149
piecewise linear, 57
pixel, 1, 3, 6, 8–11, 13–15, 19, 26–28,
31, 48, 50, 53, 55
pixel buffer, 26, 78
pixel capacitance, 49
pixel characteristic, 35
pixel follower, 24
pixel signal, 53
pn junction, 19
predictive driver assistance, 124
preprocess, 174
preserving the details, 170
progressive scan, 27
prosthesis, 141
pseudodefects, 114, 116
pull up, 31, 48–50
pull-down, 145
quantization, 20
quantization errors, 182, 189, 190
quantization noise, 57, 60–62
quantum efficiency, 19, 20
radar, 123, 125, 126, 128, 133, 135
radiance HDR format, 190
radiometric measurement, 67
random access, 55
read-out electronics, 23
real time, 2, 3, 8–10
real world scene, 149, 150, 180
real-time electronic acquisition
system, 1
real-time environment maps acquisition,
200
real-time HDR video acquisition, 1
real-timealgorithms, 114
real-world scene, 8, 199, 200
real-world system, 16
receptor, 1, 7
red, green and blue, 68
reduces the contrast, 170
reference level, 49
reference pixel, 20, 24–26
reflectance, 29, 143
reflections, 99
refraction index at adjacent, 104
remission, 100
reset, 27, 48–50, 52, 53, 56
reset noise, 20
resistance, 21
response curve, 194
retina, 141, 142
retina implant, 144
retinal implant, 141, 145
retinitis pigmentosa, 141
RGB-Bayer color mosaic, 73
RGBE encoding, 182
robot, 118, 120, 121
rods, 150, 163, 164, 166–168
rolling-shutter, 53, 55
rotating fan, 55
rotating light spot, 52
3-sigma, 27, 41
S/N ratio, 60, 63
safety, 125, 127, 132
sample/hold stage, 73
Index
saturation, 62
saturation enhancement, 71
saturation enhancement factors, 69
saturation signal, 60
scene-referred encoding, 180
scene-referred representation, 180
scotopic vision, 166, 170
select transistor, 23
semi-log plot, 13
sense lightness, 67
sensitivity, 2, 6–8, 10
sensor, 1–10, 41, 137
sensor data fusion, 128, 133
sensor to a lightness, 69
separation (or disregard) of the
illuminant, 8
settling time, 48
shot noise, 7, 10, 58
shutter time, 27
sigma, 27, 41
signal, 13, 14, 30, 52, 57, 58
signal range, 16, 26, 50
signal-to-noise ratio, 60–62
signal-to-noise ratio S/N, 63
silicon, 19
silicon photodiode, 19–21
six-sigma, 41
slanted beams, 101, 104
smearing, 133
SMT, 77
snapshot, 53
sol–gel processes, 104
source, 21, 23, 33, 48, 50, 52, 53
source electrode, 23
source follower, 53
space domain, 57
spatial domain, 14
spectral sensitivity, 19, 20, 24, 29, 55
spherical harmonic, 202
spherical harmonics (SH), 201
SPI, 81
spontaneous sensitivity, 18, 26
spot light, 101
spotlight, 31
spotlight illumination, 31
standard deviation, 29
standard photographic objects, 100
stationary state, 48
step-function, 48
239
Stevens law, 66, 149
Stevens’ power-law, 149
stimulation, 141, 144
stimulation electrodes, 142
stimulus, 66, 68
stray light, 99, 101, 103, 105
stretch, 88
stretched, 67
studio, 9, 206
studio illumination, 31
sub-retinal implant, 140
sub-retinal implantation, 141
substrate, 22, 23
subthreshold slope, 33
subthreshold slope factor, 33
sunlight, 2
surface defects, 115
surface inspection, 113, 114
surface texture, 104
surround sensing, 124
taxonomy, 148
temperature dependence, 19, 41, 43–45
templates, 91
temporal coherence, 158
temporal incoherence, 159
testability, 138, 142
TFT, 132
thermal voltage, 21, 33
threshold visibility, 150
threshold voltage, 28, 33, 49
time domain, 14
tissue, 141, 142
to HDR, 189
tone mapping, 147–155, 157–159, 161,
162, 164, 165, 168, 169
tone mapping operator, 171, 174
tone reproduction curve, 154
tone reproduction curve (TRC), 148
tone-mapping, 84, 166
traffic sign recognition, 134, 135
transistor, 23, 24, 28, 49, 52, 53
transistor channel, 21
transistor well, 21
translucent objects, 196–198
transmittance, 29
transparent objects, 196
trilateral filtering, 172
tristimulus, 68
240
Index
ultrasonic sensor, 124, 125
uniform chromacity scale, 182, 188
uniformity, 65
unity-gain amplifiers, 24
useful dynamic range, 62
visual, 152
visual acuity, 150, 167–170
visualization, 137
vlog, transistor, 52
variance, 57, 58
video compression, 179, 181, 187, 191
video environment map, 199
video environment maps (VEM), 200
video streams, 172
videoprobe, 138
vision impaired, 140
wavelength – dependent sensitivity, 31
weak inversion, 32, 33
weber law, 149
weber-fechner law, 149
well, 221
white balance, 68
white reset, 50, 52
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Chaos, Complexity
and VLSI Processing
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