Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real Time

ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846
ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(36), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i36/100910, September 2016
Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real
Time Applications in MANET
Mamata Rath1*, Binod Kumar Pattanayak2 and Bibudhendu Pati3
C. V. Raman Computer Academy, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India;
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India;
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, C. V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha,
Background/Objective: Real time data communication in Mobile Adhoc Network is a demanding issue due to the selfgoverning nature of mobile devices which are connected with each other by wireless links. Nodes frequently change their
position and location remaining connected to the network which is without any base or any infrastructure. Careful considerations have to be made during designing the protocols for real time data transmission which are highly sensitive
and time constrained. Common challenges faced by real time data transmission are efficient energy utilization, scalability of the network, optimized use of bandwidth, resource reservation, reducing chance of link failure, security, Quality
of Service (QoS) consideration, dynamically changing topology etc. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Here, we present
a cross layer communication centered quality of service platform with foundation of an energy optimized Ad hoc OnDemand distance Vector (AODV) protocol that uses a delay achieved and power efficient elevated routing algorithm at
the network layer as part of the QoS platform. Secondly enhanced method of resource reservation such as bandwidth
management, reduced power consumption with longevity of residual power of highly movable nodes has been implemented with co-ordination of data link layer for smooth transmission of real time packets over the network with minimum
queuing delay and propagation delay. Results: Simulation result produces better efficiency of our proposed architecture
in terms of better packet delivery ratio and improved network life time when compared with other similar approaches. Application: The proposed architecture provides efficient QoS aware routing with resource reservation in MANET.
Keywords: Ad hoc On-Demand distance Vector (AODV), Bandwidth, MANET, Resource Reservation, QoS
1. Introduction
There are numerous challenging issues in a Mobile Ad hoc
Network due to the special type of configuration among
the nodes as there is no possibility of creating physical
infrastructure. With the support of communication capability among the computing as well as mobile devices it
is very much necessary to consider the performance of
*Author for correspondence
routing protocols and Media Access Control (MAC) layer
protocols during the design of Quality of Service architecture.
To accomplish a more specialized network performance is the objective of QoS facility. In this way a
network can serve the nodes and stations in more sophisticated way as well as there will be improved utilization of
resources6. Depending on the category of application, the
Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real Time Applications in MANET
QoS parameters also differ. In multimedia application,
delay, bandwidth, jitter are required parameters whereas
in military and defense applications security plays vital
criteria. In general conference or complex logic processing task, power plays important factor, on the other hand
connectivity of network for long time is the essential factor in search and rescue operation. We have to take care
of saving the resources while utilizing them to lengthen
the life time of the network and successful transmission of
real time data from source to destination. Many innovative suggestions have been offered towards this direction
which are very competent and have been effectively simulated. Effective Routing in MANETs is one of the chief
responsibilities which offer the network functionality to
each device at any random location2. MANETs are technically special from other networks due to the fact that
they don’t have significant control machinery centrally to
guide them. In other hand, the nodes in MANET have
restricted battery power aptitude to maintain the information while progress them on systematic basis and to
handover information. In this paper, bandwidth as a QoS
factor has been discussed because here we use a complete
cross layer based architecture for real time data transmission. A reservation module in data link layer reserves the
bandwidth or multimedia and video file transmission. G.
Usha Devi and G. Kavitha have designed PRTMAC11 protocol that focuses on definite Quality of Service while real
time data transfer takes place. Arrangement of adequate
amount of resources and reserving them for long period of
time is a major challenging issue in MANET. Complexity
lies in formulating methods to support Quality of Service
for the specific applications. Paper4 presents a multiplehop resource slots protocol for MANETs that allocates the
channel resource in chronological manner so that data
transmission between a source and destination across
a path can be done easily without any interruption. By
sharing network information between multiple layers,
QoS can be achieved up to a greater extent. By combining network layer and MAC layer functionality, improved
QoS has been satisfied1,5. Paper2 titled “Review of quality
of service routing protocols for QOS routing”, presents a
wide-ranging review regarding QoS approaches implemented for resource reservation in efficient way. Time
Division Multiplexing based Improve protocol for
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
resource reservation in MANETs3 performs effectively for
Improved routing and resource reservation with
QoS7,8 priority has been developed that improves the network life time up to a greater extent. Paper12 presents a
precise survey on different real time protocols and challenging factors in development of MANET protocols
that annoyed to develop this vigorous protocol with QoS
planning in this paper are discussed13. In the same way
the thesis14 describes about importance and designing
of mobile based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for
MANET with its structure and functionality and a summary report on delay and power efficient Protocols in
MANET which motivated for further development of
QoS based architecture in MANET is well explained15.
Designed principle in this architecture is based on the
leading network protocol with Cross Layer Design16.
2. The Proposed System
In Our Qos Platform we have developed an optimized
Routing Protocol called PDO AODV (Power and Delay
Optimized Ad hoc On-Demand distance Vector) that
calculates the probable threshold value of next hop node
before selecting it as a suitable station to forward the
packets in a load balanced path. Secondly to support this
improved protocol we have designed a new MAC scheme
at Data link layer that uses prioritized method for real
time and multimedia information such as voice and video
files with resource reservation facility and it sends a mini
packet containing critical information with regular interval of time including control information which helps the
router to find a suitable path intelligently during the routing process. Our QoS platform with optimized routing
uses an improved Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
protocol controlling system for resource reservation at
the transport layer, hence improving the throughput and
network life time to a great extent.
Figure 1 shows the basic architecture of our QoS platform with resource reservation mechanism and optimized
AODV protocol. At the transport layer an improved and
modified resource reservation module has been proposed
which is an important component of our QoS Platform.
We named it as PDO RSVP Module. This module is based
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Mamata Rath, Binod Kumar Pattanayak and Bibudhendu Pati
Figure 1. Architecture of QoS platform with resource
on RSVP10 which is a network control protocol that lets
the end user to receive data with reservation of resource in
order to achieve Quality of Service. The functional block
diagram of our proposed QoS Platform is as depicted in
Figure 2.
As explained in Figure 2 the QoS platform constitutes
a basic optimized AODV protocol called PDO AODV
that uses an intelligent routing mechanism by optimizing end-to-end delay constraint and power level of node.
It interacts with the data link layer through a cross layer
communication mechanism. At the network layer the
QoS design constitutes an IP Controller that controls the
PDO AODV activity, a Real time Scheduler that schedules multiple real time applications as per their deadlines
and the QoS Flow control module controls the real time
flow in the traffic. There are three components of the
PDO AODV, such as the channel sensing for receiving
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
the incoming packets from the channel from source,
mini database module stores the incoming packets information as well as neighboring node information during
last routing and the Routing Strategy module selects a
suitable path for forwarding the packets with load balancing routing. At the data link layer this QoS approach
presents a highly efficient resource reservation protocol
called PDO_RTMAC that is based on the RTMAC protocol11 and as Figure 2 indicates it incorporates a resource
reservation module with optimized collision avoidance
policy during multiple requests for bandwidth reservation by multiple real time applications using Carrier
Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/
CA) Collision Avoidance Method. With the design of
PDO_RTMAC at the MAC layer for bandwidth reservation as a part of QoS criteria, especially reserved tile
slots called excel time slots are allocated to hold back the
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real Time Applications in MANET
Figure 2. Functional block diagram of our proposed
QoS platform.
resource. These excel time slots are further decomposed
into excel frames. Excel frames travel with variable time
slots. With reservation condition for resources, a sending
node has to reserve the set of slots for reservation. As per
our proposed design, each node at its core routing engine
handles a reservation mini-table with key facts like sender
node’s identification number, receiver node’s identification numbers, begin time of reservation process end time
of reservation process that helps to calculate the total reservation time for the resources.
Multimedia applications are characterized with higher
rate of data transmission with more bandwidth consumption, sensitive packet delays with issues of both latency
and regular jitter and thirdly packet loss tolerant tolerance to packet losses. Our proposed QoS architecture
has support of both Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
and the transport layer protocol RTP Control Protocol
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
(RTCP)9 during transmission in the transport layer. RTP
is a real time transport protocol that is used frequently
on top of the UDP protocol and other related transport
layer protocols. Functionality of RTP consists of pay load
and its type identification, source identification and its
timestamp, and sequence numbers of the RTP packets.
The RTCP protocol presents feedback information to the
client about information of the network conditions. The
main functions of the RTCP are: Network capacity for
QoS conditions such as Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), permissible delay, uniform jitter, identification and timestamps
of sender and receiver identification and ip address of the
of the source sending the RTCP packets and estimation of
the conference size and scaling system. In this approach,
we have used the reservation controlled-access method
for resource reservation. In the reservation method, a
station needs to make a reservation before sending data.
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Mamata Rath, Binod Kumar Pattanayak and Bibudhendu Pati
Figure 3. Bandwidth reservation mechanism.
Time is divided into intervals. In each interval, a reservation frame precedes the data frames sent in that interval.
If there are N stations in the system, there are exactly N
reservation mini slots in the reservation frame. Each mini
slot belongs to a station. When a station needs to send a
data frame, it makes a reservation in its own mini slot.
The stations that have made reservations can send their
data frames after the reservation frame.
Figure 3 shows an example with five stations using
reservation mechanism in our approach. In the first
interval of time slot, station 1, 3 and 4 have reservation
requests. In the next interval of time slot, only station no.1
has requested a reservation.
cation of bandwidth to higher priority category does not
degrade the bandwidth allocation of low priority applications such as non-real time traffic. Primary objective of
the designed protocol in this proposed QoS architecture
is to allow power and delay AODV protocol at the network layer to control the route request messages during
path finding to select a path that contains wealthy nodes
with bandwidth satisfaction as per QoS requirement. The
desired QoS aware path is selected encircled by the constraints of bandwidth availability, minimum search time,
distance from current node and traffic density.
3. Support for Bandwidth and
Delay based QoS Applications
Our QoS platform has been simulated using NetSim Ver
8.3 because it is a discrete event simulator which has finite
state machine modeling strategy and an useful simulation
tool for designing of both wired and wireless networks
with wide variety of network and research applications. It
provides depth and flexibility of simulating various types
of applications. Table 1 describes various parameters
taken during the simulation process.
The following section shows the simulation results
and comparison results with other approaches.
Figure 4 shows the result of average end to end delay
between our proposed PDO_RTMAC QoS platform and
the PRTMAC and the previously proposed QoS platform
when the PDO_RTMAC was not used. This comparison
is based on the video traffic with heavy multimedia transmission. After considering the bandwidth, delay and jitter
Problem in bandwidth constrained applications is that
when video data gets transmitted over multi-hop route
in the MANET, every intermediate node may not transmit with same bandwidth configuration as its previous
and next nodes. Therefore approximately 1/3 rd of the
total bandwidth is efficiently usable in simple case of an
average video transmission. The proposed approach is
suitable to be used for multiple channels for video transmission as it reserves higher aggregate bandwidth as per
QoS requirement at every node and prevents interference
during transmission to improve network performance.
Packets of the bandwidth constrained applications are
mapped to the Video MAC Access Category so that allo-
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
4. Simulation and Results
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real Time Applications in MANET
Table 1. Simulation parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Value
Channel Type
Wireless Channel
Radio Propagation Model
Two Ray Ground
Network Interface Type
Wireless Phy
Type of Traffic
Simulation Time
30 mins
MAC Type
Max Speed
10-50 m/s
Network Size
1600 x 1600
Mobile Nodes
Packet Size
512 Kb
Interface queue Type
Figure 4. End to end delay comparison (video).
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Mamata Rath, Binod Kumar Pattanayak and Bibudhendu Pati
Figure 5. End to end delay comparison (audio).
Figure 6. PDR comparison (Audio stream).
constraint it was observed that in average our proposed
scheme shows better performance with lesser delay than
the other two approaches.
We can observe from Figure 5 that there is comparatively lesser delay measured in audio packets
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
transmission than the video stream transmission. When
compared between the video traffic used in three types of
QoS platform presence of resource reservation technique
in proposed QoS performs better in terms of minimum
delay and successful data transmission.
Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Resource Reservation and Improved QoS for Real Time Applications in MANET
Figure 7. PDR comparison (video stream).
Audio stream packet delivery ratio is higher than the
video stream as video stream has bandwidth, jitter and
delay constraints more as per their application types hence
we can observe in Figure 6 that the Packet delivery ratio
in our proposed approach is in an average 85 % which is
quite impressive than the other approach PRTMAC11.
Similarly when comparison was made between the
discussed three approaches (Figure 7), our proposed QoS
approach in presence of the resource reservation technique performs better than the normal QoS platform and
PRTMAC protocol with an increased PDR of about 82 %
in average.
work depends on the optimized network layer protocol for
load balanced routing and optimized MAC layer protocol
with resource reservation policy during channel access.
Simulation results shows that when packet delivery ratio
and delay comparison carried out in audio and video traffic using our proposed framework, it performs better than
other proposed approaches in terms of throughput and
delay for audio and video packets. In future work, the
behavior of PDO_RTMAC will be observed by varying
other network parameters.
5. Conclusion
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This paper presents the Resource Reservation Policy
implemented as a part of a QoS Platform for real time
transmission in Mobile Ad hoc Network. As it uses a
cross-layer approach, the overall functionality of the net-
Vol 9 (36) | September 2016 |
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Mamata Rath, Binod Kumar Pattanayak and Bibudhendu Pati
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Indian Journal of Science and Technology
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