Accepted Manuscript
Caffeic acid decomposition products: antioxidants or pro-oxidants?
Susana Andueza, Lara Manzocco, M. Paz de Peña, Concepción Cid, Cristina
Nicoli
PII:
DOI:
Reference:
S0963-9969(08)00176-2
10.1016/j.foodres.2008.08.006
FRIN 2765
To appear in:
Food Research International
Received Date:
Revised Date:
Accepted Date:
8 November 2007
7 August 2008
17 August 2008
Please cite this article as: Andueza, S., Manzocco, L., de Peña, M.P., Cid, C., Nicoli, C., Caffeic acid decomposition
products: antioxidants or pro-oxidants?,
(2008), doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.08.006
Food Research International
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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
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Caffeic acid decomposition products: antioxidants or pro-oxidants?
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Susana Anduezaa, Lara Manzoccob, M. Paz de Peñaa, Concepción Cida,* and
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Cristina Nicolib
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a
Departament of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, School of
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Pharmacy, University of Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Spain
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b
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Marangoni 97, 33100 Udine, Italy
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Udine, Via
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Corresponding author: Concepción Cid. Phone: +34 948 425600 (Ext. 6264). Fax:
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+34 948 425649. E-mail: ccid@unav.es
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ABSTRACT
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The potential of phenol antioxidants to suffer decomposition reactions leading to
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the formation of products exerting pro-oxidant activity was studied. A
4
hydroalcoholic solution containing caffeic acid was assessed for antioxidant and
5
pro-oxidant activity during heating at 90°C to simulate the heat maintenance of
6
the coffee brews in thermos. Decomposition products were also evaluated by
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HPLC analysis. In the early steps of caffeic acid decomposition, a decrease in
8
antioxidant capacity was detected, associated to a significant increase in pro-
9
oxidant activity because the development of pro-oxidant compounds. On further
10
heating, an increase in antioxidant activity associated to a decrease in pro-oxidant
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molecules previously formed and the formation of polymers with higher
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antioxidant activity was observed. A mechanistic route of caffeic acid
13
decomposition under thermal conditions according to the HPLC analysis was
14
proposed. This study clearly showed that caffeic acid, a well known antioxidant,
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may also act as pro-oxidant due to thermal decomposition.
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KEYWORDS
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pro-oxidant, antioxidant, caffeic acid, heat treatment
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INTRODUCTION
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Plant polyphenolic have been shown to act as strong antioxidants in various
3
systems and their multiple biological actions have been extensively reviewed
4
(Meskin, Bidlack, Davies, Lewis and Randolph, 2004; Shahidi and Naczk, 2004).
5
It is widely believed that polyphenols help maintaining human health by
6
decreasing oxidative damage to key biomolecules. This result is supported by a
7
number of cell culture studies examining the mechanisms behind oxidative stress
8
prevention by polyphenols. However, recent evidences on the effect of flavonoids
9
and other phenols in culture indicate the potential for artefact involving
10
interactions of polyphenols with components of the cell culture media (Halliwell,
11
2003). In the light of these findings, it has been suggested that the major benefits
12
of including dietary polyphenols in the meal can be related to their ability to
13
reduce the generation of lipid hydroperoxides in the gastric fluid during digestion
14
(Kanner & Lapidot, 2001; Halliwell, 2003). Dietary polyphenols would thus
15
prevent lipid peroxidation not only in the meal, but also in the stomach. However,
16
the enthusiasm based on the awareness that polyphenols exert powerful
17
antioxidant activities is now followed by a growing concern about their possible
18
pro-oxidant effects. In fact, it is noteworthy that polyphenols are easily
19
autoxidisable and able to reduce transition metal ions (Stadler, 2001; Halliwell,
20
2003). In addition, upon oxidation they easily beget decomposition products
21
which might be pro-oxidants. For instance, it is known that phenoxy radicals or
22
phenoxonium cations are involved in the oxidative polymerisation of phenols
23
(Fulcrand, Benabdeljalil, Rigaud, Cheynier & Mountounet, 1998; Kobayashi &
24
Higashimura, 2003). In addition, carbocation intermediates are expected to be
25
produced from their cleavage at high temperature (Britt, Buchanan, Thomas &
26
Lee, 1995).
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For this reason, it is likely that molecules with pro-oxidant activity could be
2
formed as a consequence of food processing operations promoting phenol
3
polymerisation and/or degradation (e.g. food formulation, thermal treatment,
4
dehydration, storage) (Nicoli, Calligaris & Manzocco, 2000; Pinelo, Manzocco,
5
Nunez & Nicoli, 2004). In other words, reactions occurring during processing
6
may invert dietary polyphenols from antioxidants to pro-oxidants and
7
consequently favour lipid peroxidation and other oxidative reactions.
8
Although it is possible to find in the literature abundant studies about the
9
antioxidant behaviour of phenol compounds, only few works are focused on the
10
occurrence of pro-oxidant activity as a consequence of their thermal
11
decomposition (Stadler, Welti, Stämpfli, & Fay, 1996; Guillot, Malnoë & Stadler,
12
1996; Stadler, 2001). Indeed, the development of pro-oxidant activity is hardly
13
predictable on the basis of the antioxidant activity of the original phenolic
14
compound.
15
On the basis of these considerations, the aim of this work was to evaluate the
16
potential of polyphenols with recognised antioxidant activity to suffer
17
decomposition reactions leading to the formation of products exerting pro-oxidant
18
activity. Caffeic acid was chosen as an example of hydroxycinamic acid, which
19
mainly contributes to dietary polyphenols being commonly assumed through
20
coffee beverages (Rice-Evans, Miller & Paganga 1996; Clifford, 1999). Since full
21
characterisation of caffeic acid decomposition reactions has not been achieved yet,
22
model solutions constituted a simplified medium for their preliminary exploration.
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The works of Stadler and coworkers were focused on the pyrolisis of caffeic acid
24
to simulate the roasting process of coffee. However, the heat maintenance of
25
coffee brews in thermos (i.e. in a catering, or in the office) during hours is
26
becoming more common to have a hot coffee brew at once. For this reason, a
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hydroalcoholic model system containing caffeic acid was allowed to react at 90°C
2
for increasing time and assessed for antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The
3
hydroalcoholic solution was selected to simulate the aqueous medium with the
4
presence of organic compounds of the coffee brew. The antioxidant activity was
5
analysed by means of chain breaking activity and redox potential whilst pro-
6
oxidant activity was evaluated by a spectrophotometric method. Possible
7
attribution of pro-oxidant or antioxidant activity to specific caffeic acid
8
decomposition products detected by HPLC analysis was also discussed.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS
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Chemicals and reagents. The methanol used was of spectrophotometric grade
12
from Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). Pure reference standards of caffeic acid and 2,2-
13
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were obtained from Aldrich (Steinheim,
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Germany) and catechol was purchased from Acros Organics (Springfield, New
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Jersey, USA).
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Sample preparation. A solution containing 1% w/v of caffeic acid in ethanol-
17
water (1:4) was prepared. The pH of the solution was adjusted at 4.6 by addition
18
of 10N sodium hydroxide to simulate coffee brew pH. Aliquots of 10 mL of the
19
solution were placed in 20 mL capacity vials which were hermetically closed with
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butyl septa and metal caps. Samples were heated at 90ºC in an air circulating oven
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for increasing time up to 24 hours. After heat treatment samples were immediately
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cooled to room temperature in a water bath. Two independent experiments were
23
evaluated.
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Colour. Colour analyses were carried out using a tristimulus colorimeter
25
(Chromameter-2 Reflectance, Minolta, Osaka, Japan) equipped with a CR-200
26
measuring head. The instrument was standardised against a white tile before
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measurements. Colour was expressed in L* a* and b* Hunter scale parameters
2
(Clydesdale, 1978).
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Optical Density measurement. Samples were diluted with deionised water in
4
order to obtain absorbance in scale. The absorbance at 280 and 420 nm was
5
measured
6
spectrophotometer.
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Chain-Breaking Activity. The chain breaking activity was measured following
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the methodology described by Brand-Wiliams, Cuvelier and Berset (1995). In
9
particular, the bleaching rate of a stable free radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-
10
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), was monitored at a characteristic wavelength in the
11
presence of the sample. In its radical form, DPPH· absorbs at 515 nm, but upon
12
reduction by an antioxidant or a radical species its absorption decreases.
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A volume of 1.85 mL of 6.1x10-5 M DPPH· methanol solution was used. The
14
reaction was started by adding 20 µL of each sample. After mixing, the
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absorbance was measured at 515 nm after exactly 1 min, and then every minute
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for 18 min (end reaction time). In all cases, the DPPH· bleaching rate was
17
proportional to the sample concentration added to the medium. Reaction rates
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were calculated using the equation proposed by Manzocco, Anese and Nicoli.
19
(1998):
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1/Abs3-1/Abso3=-3kt
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where k is the DPPH·bleaching rate, Abso is the initial absorbance value and Abs
22
is the absorbance at increasing time t. The chain-breaking activity was expressed
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as the slope obtained from the equation (-Abs –3 min-1) per gram of dry matter. All
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of the dry matter of the sample was assumed to possess antioxidant properties.
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Pro-oxidant Activity. The pro-oxidant activities were determined using crocin as
26
a radical quencher, according to the methodology described by Manzocco,
by
a
UVIKON
860
(Kontron
Instruments,
Milan,
Italy)
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Calligaris and Nicoli, (2002). Crocin was isolated from saffron (Sigma Chemical
2
Co, St. Louis, MO) by methanol extraction after repeated washings with ethyl
3
ether. The crocin solution was diluted with 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0
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(Sigma Chemical Co, Louis MO) in order to obtain a 1.35 x 10-5 M crocin solution
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(The absorption coefficient of crocin at 443 nm is 1.33 x 105 mol
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bleaching rate of crocin at 443 nm, in the presence of the sample, was monitored
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at 40 ºC by a Uvikon 860 (Kontron Instruments, Milan, Italy) spectrophotometer.
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The reaction was started by the addition of increasing amounts of sample (0-100
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µL) to 2 mL of crocin aqueous solution in a 3 mL capacity cuvette (1 cm length).
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The decrease in absorbance was determined every 30 s for 10 min. The pro-
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oxidant activity was expressed as the decrease in crocin absorbance at 443 nm
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after 5 min of reaction (∆OD 5min mg dm-1).
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Redox potential. The redox potential measurements of the coffee samples were
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assessed by a platinum indicating electrode and a Ag/AgCl, Cl-sat reference
15
electrode connected with a voltmeter (Crison, mod. 2002, Alella, Spain).
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Calibration was performed against redox standard solutions having redox
17
potential values of 220 and 465 mV (Reagecon, Shannon, Co. Clare, Ireland) at
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25ºC. Electrodes were placed in a 50 mL 3-neck flask containing a volume of 20
19
mL of sample. Prior to analysis, oxygen was removed from the system by
20
nitrogen flushing for 10 min. Data were recorded for at least 20 min at 25º C, until
21
a stable potential was reached. A stable potential was arbitrarily defined as a
22
change of less than 1 mV in a 3 min period.
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HPLC analysis. HPLC analysis was carried out with an analytical HPLC unit
24
(Varian Pro Star 230), equipped with a Rheodyne injector of 10 L loop and a
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diode-array detector (Varian Pro Star). A column Alltima C18 (5 m particle size,
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250 x 4.6 mm) was used (Alltech Associates, Inc., Deerfield, IL, USA). The
-1
cm -1). The
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mobile phase was 100 % solvent A (5% acetic acid in water) for 10 min and then
2
90 % solvent A / 10% methanol for the following 40 min at a flow of 0.7 mL/min.
3
Pertinent reaction products were identified by retention times with authentic
4
compounds in identical conditions and on-line UV spectra.
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Statistical analysis. Each analysis was made in duplicate. Analysis of variance
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(ANOVA) and a posteriori t-Tukey test with a level of signification of 95% were
7
applied. Pearson correlations were applied among all the parameters. All
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statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v.15.0 software package.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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Absorption at 280 nm and 420 nm of 1% (w/v) caffeic acid hydroalcoholic
12
solution heated at 90 ºC for increasing time is shown in Table 1. Unheated caffeic
13
acid solution was taken as reference. It can be observed that the absorbance at 280
14
nm decreased with the increase of heating time, mainly during the first 4-6 hours.
15
Since caffeic acid is known to absorb at 280 nm and to decompose upon heating,
16
the decrease of absorbance at this wavelength clearly indicated its linear
17
progressive decomposition (r=-0.914, p<0.001). By contrast, the absorbance at
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420 nm increased with heating time (r=0.856, p<0.01), indicating a gradual
19
browning of the reacting solution. Absorbance data are in agreement with the
20
changes in L*, a* and b* Hunter parameters (Table 1). In fact, L* parameter
21
(lightness) slightly changed within the first 14 hour-heating but significantly
22
decreased when heat treatment was prolonged up to 24 hours. Parameter a* (red
23
colour) decreased progressively up to 4 hour-heating and then increased reaching
24
the highest value at 24 hours, but in all cases close to zero. On the contrary, the
25
parameter b* (yellow colour) increased progressively showing a significant
26
correlation with the browing increase (Abs 420nm) (r=0.908, p<0.01).
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The antioxidant capacity upon heating of the hydroalcoholic solution containing
2
caffeic acid was evaluated by analysing both the chain breaking activity and the
3
redox potential value because different and complementary information can be
4
obtained by their comparison. In fact, the redox potential gives indication on the
5
effective oxidation/reduction efficiency of all the antioxidants present, including
6
the “slow” ones, which can not be detected by kinetic methods (Anese & Nicoli,
7
2003).
8
The evolution of chain-breaking activity and redox potential during heat treatment
9
is shown in Figure 1. It can be observed that after one hour of heating a decrease
10
of chain-breaking activity was produced. A concomitant increase in the redox
11
potential value was detected, indicating that the overall reducing properties of the
12
sample were decreased. Upon further heating, the redox potential decreased (r=-
13
0.957, p<0.001) whilst a partial recovery was detected for chain-breaking activity.
14
However, no significant changes in this property were observed in the case of
15
samples heated for more than 6 hours.
16
These results clearly show that the oxidative properties of caffeic acid are greatly
17
affected by heat treatments. The complex evolution of both thermodynamic and
18
kinetic properties of the reacting solution indicates that caffeic acid degradation
19
products are characterised by different oxidative state. In particular, the early steps
20
of caffeic acid degradation are likely to be associated to the formation of
21
decomposition products presenting lower antioxidant capacity as compared to the
22
original molecule and/or to the development of novel compounds exerting pro-
23
oxidant activity. By contrast, the increase in antioxidant activity observed on
24
further heating can be accounted for by the formation of polymers with higher
25
antioxidant activity. However, the possible consumption, in the advanced steps of
9
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the reaction, of pro-oxidant molecules previously formed could also contribute to
2
explain the recovery in antioxidant properties.
3
In order to evaluate whether pro-oxidant species are formed during the early steps
4
of caffeic acid decomposition, samples heated for up to 6 hours were assessed for
5
their ability to exert pro-oxidant capacity by quenching a reference antioxidant
6
(Figure 2). It is interesting to note that unheated caffeic acid showed a significant
7
pro-oxidant activity. As known, most antioxidants present in foods (e.g. ascorbic
8
acid, α-tocopherols, flavonoids and catechins) are capable of exerting pro-oxidant
9
actions depending on the reaction conditions (Auroma, 1996). Thus, caffeic acid
10
exerts antioxidant activity towards DPPH· and pro-oxidant activity towards
11
crocin, according to their redox potential values (229, 199 and 120 mV
12
respectively for DPPH·, caffeic acid and crocin) (Anese & Nicoli, 2003). Figure 2
13
shows that the pro-oxidant activity of the caffeic acid solution increased after one
14
hour of heat treatment. This result confirms that the increase in redox potential
15
observed in the early steps of the reaction (Figure 1) could be attributed to the
16
formation of novel pro-oxidants. When heating was prolonged, the pro-oxidant
17
activity decreased probably due to the consumption of pro-oxidant molecules
18
which further react to form compounds with stronger antioxidant properties as
19
compared to original caffeic acid (Figures 1-2).
20
The mechanistic route of caffeic acid decomposition under acid or thermal
21
conditions is a reaction via decarboxilation and ciclysation of vinylcatechol
22
intermediate as described for styrene (Taylor, Keen, & Eisenbraun, 1977; Rizzi &
23
Boekley, 1992). In particular, caffeic acid has a proclivity to lose carbon dioxide
24
readily forming nucleophilic p-vinylcatechol which easily beget pro-oxidant
25
cations (Clarke & Macrae, 1983; Henrich & Baltes, 1987; Stadler, Welti, Stämpfli
26
& Fay, 1996). Although p-vinylpyrocatechol cations are extremely susceptible to
10
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oxidation, resulting in rapid polymerization, it can be inferred that their formation
2
can not be underestimated deeply affecting both the antioxidant status and the
3
reaction pathway.
4
Caffeic
5
dihydroxyphenyl)
6
phenylindan-type stereoisomers (Fulcrand, Cheminat, Brouillard & Cheynier,
7
1995; Stadler, Turesky, Muller, Markovic & Leong-Moergenthaler, 1994; Stadler,
8
Welti, Stämpfli & Fay, 1996). Structurally these tricyclic dimmers contain two o-
9
dihydroxy-benzyl moieties, common features found in compounds with good
10
reducing and antioxidant properties (Cuvelier, Richard & Berset, 1992, Guillot,
11
Malnoë & Stadler, 1996). Besides, two small compounds with antioxidant activity
12
(catechol, ethylcatechol) are also formed. The formation of phenylindans, catechol
13
and ethylcatechol exerting strong antioxidant properties could give reason of the
14
increase in antioxidant capacity (Figure 2) and the decrease in pro-oxidant activity
15
(Figure 2) observed in the advanced phases of the reaction.
16
Caffeic acid and its decomposition compounds were analysed by HPLC. Table 2
17
shows the area results of the seven peaks observed during the experiment. Caffeic
18
acid (peak 2) remains constant until 3-hour heating and then starts decreasing,
19
reaching the lowest value at 24 hours of heat treatment. It can be observed that
20
different compounds are formed whereas caffeic acid is consumed. In samples of
21
unheated and 1-hour heated caffeic acid a peak at 38 min was observed (peak 6).
22
The presence of this peak (38 minutes) could be related to the increase of redox
23
potential and pro-oxidant capacity (Figures 1 and 2), being potentially associated
24
to pro-oxidant molecules such as vinylcatechol formed by decarboxylation of
25
caffeic acid (Clarke & Macrae, 1983; Henrich & Baltes, 1987).
acid
polymerisation
produces
two
steroisomers
tetrahydrofuran-3,4-dicarboxylic
acid
and
of
a
2,5-(3’,4’range
of
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Table 2 shows that three peaks (peaks 4, 5 and 7) with retention time of 36, 37 and
2
42 min appeared after 2-hour heating of the caffeic acid solution. It must be noted
3
that these peaks significantly increased during heat treatment. Prolonging heating
4
time, a decrease in their area was detected so that a maximum value was observed
5
at 14 hour-heating. According to literature data, these peaks could reasonably be
6
associated to the phenylindan-type stereoisomers previously isolated and
7
identified as the major products of caffeic acid pyrolysis (Stadler, Turesky,
8
Muller, Markovic & Leong-Moergenthaler, 1994, Stadler, Welti, Stämpfli, & Fay,
9
1996). The formation of these antioxidant compounds, also in less extreme
10
thermal conditions, could give reason of the recovery in antioxidant capacity
11
observed after 2-hour heating (Figure 2) (Cuvelier, Richard & Berset, 1992).
12
Moreover, the found linear significant and positive correlations between each
13
three peaks (4, 5 and 7) and Absorbance at 420nm (0.715, p<0.05; 0.865, p<0.01;
14
and 0.739, p<0.05, respectively) and with b* (yellowish) colour parameter (0.800,
15
p<0.05; 0.860, p<0.01; and 0.714, p<0.05, respectively), and the negative
16
correlations between peak 6 and both polymers markers (-0.728, p<0.05 with
17
Abs420nm; and -0.796, p<0.05 with b*) are in agreement with this route of
18
polymerisation. The evolution of peaks 4, 5 and 7 indicates that, as the reaction
19
proceeds, phenylindan-type stereoisomers are formed to a minor extent or are
20
consumed in the reaction pathway. This hypothesis is supported by the occurrence
21
of two additional peaks in the advanced steps of the reaction. In particular, peak 1
22
and peak 3 were respectively observed starting from 3- and 14-hour heating. It
23
must be noted that peak 1 was identified as related to catechol formation. Both
24
peaks were very and significant negative correlated with redox potential (-0.926,
25
p<0.001 for peak 1 and -0.907, p<0.01 for peak 3). Taking into account these
26
results, it can be inferred that the increase in antioxidant activity due to the
12
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formation of phenylindans and catechols could be counterbalanced by the
2
consumption of caffeic acid, thus leading to slight changes in antioxidant
3
properties in the advanced steps of the reaction (Figure 1).
4
5
CONCLUSIONS
6
Results obtained in this study clearly showed that caffeic acid, which is widely
7
recognised to exert antioxidant properties, may also act as pro-oxidant. In
8
addition, upon thermal treatment, it was shown to produce decomposition
9
products with significant pro-oxidant activity. In fact, highly reactive cations are
10
generated in the early phases of caffeic acid degradation, deeply affecting both the
11
oxidative status and the reaction pathway of the system. However, a partial
12
recovery in antioxidant activity was observed maybe due to cation coupling and
13
polymerisation reactions.
14
These results appear of considerable interest as regards the implications of food
15
processing operations and, in this case, the heat maintenance of coffee brews in
16
thermos, promoting phenol polymerisation and/or degradation. The latter may
17
actually invert dietary polyphenols from
18
consequently favouring lipid peroxidation not only in food but also in vivo during
19
digestion.
20
It can be concluded that both nature and extent of the reactions occurring in
21
phenol-containing foods and also other factors such as reaction media, matrix and
22
so on, can greatly influence the fate of polyphenols. The marked fluctuation in
23
their oxidative properties upon heat maintenance indicates that further research is
24
needed to determine those technological conditions able to minimise the
25
development of pro-oxidant activity and promote a gain in the antioxidant
26
capacity. Moreover, this raises the question if the increase in food nutritional
antioxidants to pro-oxidants,
13
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
1
value is really achievable through the addition of polyphenols. Although there is
2
no direct and compelling evidence that the common custom of fortification with
3
polyphenols is related to positive effects on the human health, a negative
4
synergism on antioxidant activity among phenols in food fortification has been
5
reported (Pinelo, Manzocco, Nunez & Nicoli, 2004). However, there is
6
considerable circumstantial evidence to suggest that caution should be used in
7
interpreting enthusiastic data relevant to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols.
8
9
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
10
We thank the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología Español for the grant given to S.
11
Andueza.
12
13
REFERENCES
14
Auroma, O. I. (1996). Assessment of potential pro-oxidant and antioxidant
15
16
17
actions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 73, 1617-1625.
Anese, M., & Nicoli, M. C. (2003). Antioxidant Properties of ready-to-drink
coffee brews. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 942-946.
18
Brand-Wiliams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical
19
method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und
20
Technologie, 28, 25-30.
21
Britt, P. F., Buchanan, A. C., Thomas, K. B., & Lee, S. K. (1995). Pyrolysis
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mechanisms of lignin: surface-immobilized model compound investigation of
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acid-catalyzed and free-radical reaction pathways. Journal of Analytical and
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Applied Pyrolysis, 33, 1-19.
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Clarke, R. J., & Macrae, R. (1983). Coffee Volume 1: Chemistry. London:
Applied Science.
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Clifford, M. N. (1999). Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates: nature,
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Agriculture, 79, 362-72.
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Clydesdale, F. M. (1978). Colorimetry methodology and applications. Critical
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Cuvelier, M. E., Richard, H., & Berset, C. (1992). Comparison of antioxidative
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Fulcrand, H., Cheminat, A., Brouillard, R., & Cheynier, V. (1995).
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A. Scalbert, Polyphenols 94. XVIIe Journeés Internationales Groupe
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Polyphenols, (pp.157-158). Paris: INRA.
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Fulcrand, H., Benabdeljalil, C., Rigaud, J., Cheynier, V., & Mountounet, M.
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(1998). A new class of wine pigments generated by reaction between pyruvic
15
acid and grape anthocyanins. Phytochemistry, 47, 1401-1407.
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Guillot, F.L., Malnoë, A. and Stadler, R.H. (1996). Antioxidant properties of
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nover
18
decomposition of caffeic acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44
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21
tetraoxygenated
phenylindan
isomers
formed
during
thermal
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FIGURE CAPTIONS
2
Figure 1. Chain-breaking activity and redox potential of a 1 % w/v caffeic acid
3
4
5
hydroalcoholic solution during heating at 90 ºC.
Figure 2. Pro-oxidant capacity of a 1 % w/v caffeic acid hydroalcoholic solution
during heating at 90 ºC.
18
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
1
Table 1. Absorbance and colour of samples of a 1 % w/v caffeic acid
2
hydroalcoholic solution heated at 90 ºC.
3
4
5
Time
(hours)
Abs 280 nm
(n=4)
Abs 420 nm
(n=4)
L*
(n=4)
a*
(n=4)
b*
(n=4)
0
0.703±0.001 h
0.000± 0.000 a
53.89±0.84 d
1.79 ±0.05 g
2.37 ±0.26 a
1
0.659±0.001 g
0.039±0.019 b
52.23±0.26 b
1.48 ±0.07 e
3.27 ±0.32 b
2
0.597±0.001 e
0.750±0.014 c
55.04±0.20 e
-0.29 ±0.14 d
10.23±0.57 c
3
0.622±0.001 f
1.380±0.010 d
54.33±0.38 d
-2.19±0.05 b
19.95±0.28 e
4
0.540± 0.001 d
1.894± 0.006 f
54.31±0.27 d
-3.04±0.02 a
24.25±0.52 g
6
0.438± 0.001 c
1.588± 0.005 e
54.27±0.28 d
-2.21±0.02 b
20.51±0.12 e
14
0.434±0.001 b
2.160± 0.018 g
52.85±0.03 c
-1.26±0.03 c
18.49±0.08 d
24
0.305± 0.001 a
2.893± 0.010 h
45.32±0.24 a
3.00±0.22 f
22.78±0.20 f
Results are shown as means ± standard deviations. In each column, different superscripts (letters a,
b, c) indicate significant difference (p<0.05) among samples. The same letter indicates that there is
no significant difference among samples in this parameter.
19
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Table 2. Compounds determined by HPLC (Results shown as area).
Time
(hours)
Peak 1
Catechol
Rt=8 min
Peak 2
Caffeic Acid
Rt=20min
Peak 3
Rt=33 min
Peak 4
Rt=36 min
Peak 5
Rt=37 min
0
n.d.
371±10cd
n.d.
n.d.
n.d.
11.0±0.4a
n.d.
1
n.d.
409±10d
n.d.
4.6±0.1a
n.d.
24.0±0.2b
n.d.
2
n.d.
370±40cd
n.d.
15.0±1.5b
20.0±0.1b
n.d.
5.0±0.1a
3
0.3±0.0a
407±66cd
n.d.
33.0±1.3d
17.0±0.2a
n.d.
5.0±0.2a
4
0.8 ±0.0b
292±10b
n.d.
44.0±1.5e
21.0±0.2c
n.d.
7.0±0.1c
6
1.0 ±0.1c
333±37ab
n.d.
54.0±1.2f
24.0±0.1d
n.d.
9.0±0.2d
14
4.6 ±0.1d
273±30ab
0.2±0.0a
62.0±2.0g
28.0±0.1e
n.d.
14.0±0.3e
24
4.5±0.0d
236±10a
0.4±0.0b
26.0±2.0c
24.0±0.2d
n.d.
6.0±0.1b
Peak 6
Peak 7
Rt=38 min Rt=42 min
Results are shown as means ± standard deviations. In each row, different letters indicate significant
difference (p<0.05) among different times of heat treatment.
The peak 3 could be the ethylcatechol.
The peaks 4, 5, 7 could be phenylindans.
The peak 6 could be the vinylcatechol.
n.d. Not detectable
20
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
1
Figure 1. Andueza, Manzocco, de Peña, Cid and Nicoli.
2
Chain breaking (-Abs^-3/3*g)
200
80000
150
100
40000
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
Time (hours)
Redox potential (m V)
250
120000
0
25
Chain-breaking activity
redox potential
3
4
5
Figure 2. Andueza, Manzocco, de Peña, Cid, and Nicoli.
D.O. 443nm 5min/mg
6
7
0,25
0.25
0,2
0.2
0,15
0.15
0.1
0,1
0,05
0.05
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Tim e (hours)
8
21
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