AWS Encryption SDK - Developer Guide

AWS Encryption SDK
Developer Guide
AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
AWS Encryption SDK: Developer Guide
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Table of Contents
What Is the AWS Encryption SDK? ....................................................................................................... 1
Where to find more information .................................................................................................. 2
How the SDK Works ................................................................................................................... 2
Symmetric Key Encryption .................................................................................................. 2
Envelope Encryption ........................................................................................................... 3
AWS Encryption SDK Encryption Workflows .......................................................................... 4
Concepts ................................................................................................................................... 5
Data Keys .......................................................................................................................... 6
Master key ........................................................................................................................ 6
Master key operations: Generate, Encrypt, Decrypt ................................................................. 6
Master key provider ............................................................................................................ 7
Cryptographic Materials Manager ......................................................................................... 7
Algorithm Suite ................................................................................................................. 7
Encryption Context ............................................................................................................. 8
Encrypted Message ............................................................................................................. 8
Getting Started .................................................................................................................................. 9
Supported Algorithm Suites .............................................................................................................. 10
Recommended: AES-GCM with Key Derivation and Signing ............................................................ 10
Other Supported Algorithm Suites ............................................................................................. 11
Programming Languages ................................................................................................................... 12
Java ........................................................................................................................................ 12
Prerequisites .................................................................................................................... 12
Installation ...................................................................................................................... 13
Example Code .................................................................................................................. 13
Python .................................................................................................................................... 20
Prerequisites .................................................................................................................... 20
Installation ...................................................................................................................... 20
Example Code .................................................................................................................. 21
Command Line Interface ........................................................................................................... 26
Installing the CLI .............................................................................................................. 27
How to Use the CLI .......................................................................................................... 29
Examples ......................................................................................................................... 36
Syntax and Parameter Reference ........................................................................................ 49
Data Key Caching ............................................................................................................................. 55
How to Implement Data Key Caching ......................................................................................... 55
Implement Data Key Caching: Step-by-Step ......................................................................... 56
Data Key Caching Example: Encrypt a String ........................................................................ 58
Setting Cache Security Thresholds .............................................................................................. 60
Data Key Caching Details .......................................................................................................... 61
How Data Key Caching Works ............................................................................................ 62
Creating a Cryptographic Materials Cache ............................................................................ 64
Creating a Caching Cryptographic Materials Manager ............................................................ 65
What Is in a Data Key Cache Entry? .................................................................................... 65
Encryption Context: How to Select Cache Entries ................................................................. 66
Data Key Caching Example ........................................................................................................ 66
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache Results ..................................................................................... 67
Java Example ................................................................................................................... 68
Python Example ............................................................................................................... 72
AWS CloudFormation Template .......................................................................................... 75
Frequently Asked Questions ............................................................................................................... 79
Reference ........................................................................................................................................ 82
Message Format Reference ........................................................................................................ 82
Header Structure .............................................................................................................. 83
Body Structure ................................................................................................................. 87
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Footer Structure ...............................................................................................................
Body AAD Reference .................................................................................................................
Message Format Examples .........................................................................................................
Non-Framed Data .............................................................................................................
Framed Data ....................................................................................................................
Algorithms Reference ................................................................................................................
Initialization Vector Reference ....................................................................................................
Document History ............................................................................................................................
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What Is the AWS Encryption SDK?
The AWS Encryption SDK is an encryption library that helps make it easier for you to implement
encryption best practices in your application. It enables you to focus on the core functionality of your
application, rather than on how to best encrypt and decrypt your data.
The AWS Encryption SDK answers questions like the following for you:
• Which encryption algorithm should I use?
• How, or in which mode, should I use that algorithm?
• How do I generate the encryption key?
• How do I protect the encryption key, and where should I store it?
• How can I make my encrypted data portable?
• How do I ensure that the intended recipient can read my encrypted data?
• How can I ensure my encrypted data is not modified between the time it is written and when it is read?
Without the AWS Encryption SDK, you might spend more effort on building an encryption solution
than on the core functionality of your application. The AWS Encryption SDK answers these questions by
providing the following things.
A Default Implementation that Adheres to Cryptography Best Practices
By default, the AWS Encryption SDK generates a unique data key for each data object that it
encrypts. This follows the cryptography best practice of using unique data keys for each encryption
operation.
The AWS Encryption SDK encrypts your data using a secure, authenticated, symmetric key algorithm.
For more information, see Supported Algorithm Suites (p. 10).
A Framework for Protecting Data Keys with Master Keys
The AWS Encryption SDK protects the data keys that encrypt your data by encrypting them under
one or more master keys. By providing a framework to encrypt data keys with more than one master
key, the AWS Encryption SDK helps make your encrypted data portable.
For example, you can encrypt data under multiple AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)
customer master keys (CMKs), each in a different AWS Region. Then you can copy the encrypted data
to any of the regions and use the CMK in that region to decrypt it. You can also encrypt data under
a CMK in AWS KMS and a master key in an on-premises HSM, enabling you to later decrypt the data
even if one of the options is unavailable.
A Formatted Message that Stores Encrypted Data Keys with the Encrypted Data
The AWS Encryption SDK stores the encrypted data and encrypted data key together in an
encrypted message (p. 8) that uses a defined data format. This means you don't need to keep
track of or protect the data keys that encrypt your data because the AWS Encryption SDK does it for
you.
With the AWS Encryption SDK, you define a master key provider (p. 7) that returns one or more
master keys (p. 6). Then you encrypt and decrypt your data using straightforward methods provided
by the AWS Encryption SDK. The AWS Encryption SDK does the rest.
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Where to find more information
Where to find more information
If you're looking for more information about the AWS Encryption SDK and client-side encryption, try
these sources.
• To get started quickly, see Getting Started (p. 9).
• For information about how this SDK works, see How the SDK Works (p. 2).
• For help with the terms and concepts used in this SDK, see Concepts in the AWS Encryption
SDK (p. 5).
• For detailed technical information, see the Reference (p. 82).
• For help with questions about using the AWS Encryption SDK, read and post on the AWS Key
Management Service (KMS) Discussion Forum that the AWS Encryption SDK shares with KMS.
For information about implementations of the AWS Encryption SDK in different programming languages.
• Java: See AWS Encryption SDK for Java (p. 12), the AWS Encryption SDK Javadocs, and the awsencryption-sdk-java repository on GitHub.
• Python: See AWS Encryption SDK for Python (p. 20), the AWS Encryption SDK Python
documentation, and the aws-encryption-sdk-python repository on GitHub.
• Command Line Interface: See AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 26), Read the Docs
for the AWS Encryption CLI, and the aws-encryption-sdk-cli repository on GitHub.
If you have questions or comments about this guide, let us know! Use the feedback links in the lower
right corner of this page.
The AWS Encryption SDK is provided for free under the Apache license.
How the AWS Encryption SDK Works
The AWS Encryption SDK uses envelope encryption to protect your data and the corresponding data keys.
For more information, see the following topics.
Topics
• Symmetric Key Encryption (p. 2)
• Envelope Encryption (p. 3)
• AWS Encryption SDK Encryption Workflows (p. 4)
Symmetric Key Encryption
To encrypt data, the AWS Encryption SDK provides raw data, known as plaintext data, and a data key
to an encryption algorithm. The encryption algorithm uses those inputs to encrypt the data. Then, the
AWS Encryption SDK returns an encrypted message (p. 8) that includes the encrypted data and an
encrypted copy of the data key.
To decrypt the encrypted message, the AWS Encryption SDK provides the encrypted message to a
decryption algorithm that uses those inputs to return the plaintext data.
Because the same data key is used to encrypt and decrypt the data, the operations are known as
symmetric key encryption and decryption. The following figure shows symmetric key encryption and
decryption in the AWS Encryption SDK.
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Envelope Encryption
Envelope Encryption
The security of your encrypted data depends on protecting the data key that can decrypt it. One
accepted best practice for protecting the data key is to encrypt it. To do this, you need another
encryption key, known as a master key (p. 6). This practice of using a master key to encrypt data keys
is known as envelope encryption. Some of the benefits of envelope encryption include the following.
Protecting Data Keys
When you encrypt a data key, you don't have to worry about where to store it because the data
key is inherently protected by encryption. You can safely store the encrypted data key with the
encrypted data. The AWS Encryption SDK does this for you. It saves the encrypted data and the
encrypted data key together in an encrypted message (p. 8).
Encrypting the Same Data Under Multiple Master Keys
Encryption operations can be time-consuming, particularly when the data being encrypted are large
objects. Instead of reencrypting raw data multiple times with different keys, you can reencrypt only
the data keys that protect the raw data.
Combining the Strengths of Multiple Algorithms
In general, symmetric key encryption algorithms are faster and produce smaller ciphertexts than
assymetric or public key encryption. But, public key algorithms provide inherent separation of roles
and easier key management. You might want to combine the strengths of each. For example, you
might encrypt raw data with symmetric key encryption, and then encrypt the data key with public
key encryption.
The AWS Encryption SDK uses envelope encryption. It encrypts your data with a data key. Then, it
encryptes the data key with a master key. The AWS Encryption SDK returns the encrypted data and the
encrypted data keys in a single encrypted message, as shown in the following diagram.
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AWS Encryption SDK Encryption Workflows
If you have multiple master keys, each of them can encrypt the plaintext data key. Then, the AWS
Encryption SDK returns an encrypted message that contains the encrypted data and the collection of
encrypted data keys. Any one of the master keys can decrypt one of the encrypted data keys, which can
then decrypt the data.
When you use envelope encryption, you must protect your master keys from unauthorized access. You
can do this in one of the following ways:
• Use a web service designed for this purpose, such as AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
• Use a hardware security module (HSM) such as those offered by AWS CloudHSM.
• Use your existing key management tools.
If you don't have a key management system, we recommend AWS KMS. The AWS Encryption SDK
integrates with AWS KMS to help you protect and use your master keys. You can also use the AWS
Encryption SDK with other master key providers, including custom ones that you define. Even if you
don't use AWS, you can still use this AWS Encryption SDK.
AWS Encryption SDK Encryption Workflows
The workflows in this section explain how the SDK encrypts data and decrypts encrypted
messages (p. 8). They show how the SDK uses the components that you create, including the
cryptographic materials manager (p. 7) (CMM), master key provider (p. 7), and master
key (p. 6), to respond to encryption and decryption requests from your application.
How the SDK Encrypts Data
The SDK provides methods that encrypt strings, byte arrays, and byte streams. For code examples
showing calls to encrypt and decrypt strings and byte streams in each supported programming
languages, see the examples in the Programming Languages (p. 12) section.
1. Your application passes plaintext data to one of the encryption methods.
To indicate the source of the data keys (p. 6) that you want to use to encrypt your data, your
request specifies a cryptographic materials manager (CMM) or a master key provider. (If you specify a
master key provider, the AWS Encryption SDK creates a default CMM that interacts with your chosen
master key provider.)
2. The encryption method asks the CMM for data keys (and related cryptographic material).
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Concepts
3. The CMM gets a master key (p. 6) from its master key provider.
Note
If you are using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS), the KMS master key object that is
returned identifies the CMK, but the actual CMK never leaves the AWS KMS service.
4. The CMM asks the master key to generate a data key. The master key returns two copies of the data
key, one in plaintext and one encrypted under the master key.
5. The CMM returns the plaintext and encrypted data keys to the encryption method.
6. The encryption method uses the plaintext data key to encrypt the data, and then discards the
plaintext data key.
7. The encryption method returns an encrypted message (p. 8) that contains the encrypted data and
the encrypted data key.
How the SDK Decrypts an Encrypted Message
The SDK provides methods that decrypt an encrypted message and return plaintext strings, byte arrays,
or byte streams. For code examples in each supported programming languages, see the examples in the
Programming Languages (p. 12) section.
1. Your application passes an encrypted message to a decryption method.
To indicate the source of the data keys (p. 6) that were used to encrypt your data, your request
specifies a cryptographic materials manager (CMM) or a master key provider. (If you specify a master
key provider, the AWS Encryption SDK creates a default CMM that interacts with the specified master
key provider.)
2. The decryption method extracts the encrypted data key from the encrypted message. Then, it asks the
cryptographic materials manager (CMM) for a data key to decrypt the encrypted data key.
3. The CMM asks its master key provider for a master key that can decrypt the encrypted data key.
4. The CMM uses the master key to decrypt the encrypted data key. Then, it returns the plaintext data
key to the decryption method.
5. The decryption method uses the plaintext data key to decrypt the data, then discards the plaintext
data key.
6. The decryption method returns the plaintext data.
Concepts in the AWS Encryption SDK
This section introduces the concepts used in the AWS Encryption SDK. The AWS Encryption SDK
is designed so that you can use the default implementations of the components without detailed
knowledge about their functionality. This section is provided as a glossary and reference.
Topics
• Data Keys (p. 6)
• Master key (p. 6)
• Master key operations: Generate, Encrypt, Decrypt (p. 6)
• Master key provider (p. 7)
• Cryptographic Materials Manager (p. 7)
• Algorithm Suite (p. 7)
• Encryption Context (p. 8)
• Encrypted Message (p. 8)
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Data Keys
Data Keys
A data key consists of cryptographic material. It is the secret key that protects the data that you encrypt.
Data keys are generated by master keys (p. 6). You do not need to implement or extend data keys
to use the AWS Encryption SDK. When a master key generates a data key, it returns two copies of the
data key; one in plaintext and one that is encrypted by the master key that generated it. The plaintext
data key can be encrypted by multiple master keys, each of which returns an encrypted copy of the data
key. Every encrypted data key is associated with the master key that encrypted it and the master key
provider (p. 7) that supplied the master key.
When you encrypt data in the AWS Encryption SDK, the encrypted data keys are stored in an encrypted
message (p. 8) along with the encrypted data.
In the AWS Encryption SDK, we distinguish data keys from data encryption keys. Several of the supported
algorithm suites (p. 7), including the default suite, use a key derivation function that prevents the
data key from hitting its cryptographic limits. The key derivation function takes the data key as input and
returns a data encryption key that is actually used to encrypt the data. For this reason, we often say that
data is encrypted "under" a data key rather than "by" the data key.
Master key
A master key encrypts, decrypts, and generates data keys (p. 2).
The AWS Encryption SDK represents master keys as abstract classes or interfaces so you can implement
the master key operations in the way that best meets the security requirements of your organization. For
example, although they are called "keys," master keys might not have their own cryptographic material.
Also, unlike data keys, whose use and algorithm suite (p. 7) are strictly defined by AWS Encryption
SDK, master keys can use any algorithm suite or implementation.
Master keys are instrumental to envelope encryption (p. 3). In envelope encryption, one master key
generates and encrypts a data key that is used to encrypt data. Other master keys then re-encrypt the
plaintext data key. As a result, any master key is sufficient to decrypt the data.
Each master key is associated with one master key provider (p. 7) that returns one or more master
keys to the caller.
The AWS Encryption SDK provides several commonly used master keys, such as AWS Key Management
Service (AWS KMS) customer master keys (CMKs), raw AES-GCM (Advanced Encryption Standard / Galois
Counter Mode) keys, and RSA keys. You can implement your own master keys for other cryptographic
algorithms and services. For example, you could implement master keys backed by implementations of
Elliptical Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES), Key Management Interoperability Program (KMIP),
tokenization services, or other proprietary systems.
Master key operations: Generate, Encrypt, Decrypt
Master keys in the AWS Encryption SDK generate, encrypt, and decrypt data keys (p. 6). You write
methods to perform these operations when you create a master key, but your application does not call
the methods directly. The SDK calls them when you ask it to encrypt or decrypt data.
You can implement the master key methods in the way that works best for your organization. For
example, when asked to generate a data key, a master key can create or return a key in any way that
fulfills the requirements of the algorithm suite that they use. Master keys can generate data keys locally
or remotely. They can derive the keys algorithmically, call a service that generates the cryptographic
material, or return previously-generated data keys. The SDK requires only that they return a valid data
key object.
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Master key provider
Also, although master keys must implement all three methods, you can create master keys that actually
perform only one or two of the three operations. Calls to the remaining methods just fail or return
errors. These limited master keys might be useful in a system with strict access controls that do not let
the same users encrypt and decrypt data.
All master key operations take an encryption context (p. 8) as input. For optimal security, master key
operations that encrypt data keys should cryptographically bind the encryption context to the encrypted
data so that changing any key or value in the encryption context invalidates the encryption. Master
key operations that decrypt should verify the encryption context and fail unless they include the same
encryption context used to encrypt. The encryption context is most useful when there are users who
have permission to decrypt, but not encrypt.
Master key provider
A master key provider returns objects that represent master keys. Each master key is associated with one
master key provider, but a master key provider typically provides multiple master keys.
The simplest master key provider always returns the same master key (p. 6). In fact, master keys are
implemented as master keys providers that only return themselves. More complex master key providers
might use key rotation, the encryption context, application permissions, and other factors to select
master keys from among the set they can provide.
Many master keys providers wrap or extend other master key providers to customize their behavior and
functionality. For example, a custom master key provider might select a master key provider from a
collection, delegate requests, and combine their results.
Cryptographic Materials Manager
The cryptographic materials manager (CMM) gets the cryptographic materials that are used to encrypt
and decrypt data. The cryptographic materials include plaintext and encrypted data keys, and an
optional message signing key. You can use the Default CMM that the AWS Encryption SDK provides
(DefaultCryptoMaterialsManager) or write a custom CMM.
Each Default CMM is associated with a master key provider (p. 7). When it gets a materials request,
the Default CMM gets master keys from its master key provider and uses them to generate the
requested cryptographic material. This might involve a call to a cryptographic service, such as AWS Key
Management Service (AWS KMS).
In each call to encrypt or decrypt data, you specify a CMM or a master key provider. This lets you choose
a particular set of master keys for the operation. You can create a CMM explicitly and specify its master
key provider, but that is not required. If you specify a master key provider in an encryption request, the
SDK creates a Default CMM for the master key provider.
Because the CMM acts as a liaison between the SDK and a master key provider, it is an ideal point for
customization and extension, such as support for policy enforcement and caching.
Algorithm Suite
The AWS Encryption SDK supports several (p. 12) algorithm suites (p. 10), all of which use
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as the primary algorithm, and combine it with other algorithm and
values.
The AWS Encryption SDK establishes a recommended algorithm suite as the default for all encryption
operations. The default might change as standards and best practices improve. You can specify an
alternate algorithm suite in requests to encrypt data or when creating a cryptographic materials
manager (CMM) (p. 7), but unless an alternate is required for your situation, it is best to use the
default. The current default is AES-GCM with an HMAC-based extract-and-expand key derivation
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Encryption Context
function (HKDF), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) signing, and a 256-bit encryption
key.
If you specify an algorithm suite, we recommend an algorithm suite that uses a key derivation function
and a message signing algorithm. Algorithm suites that have neither feature are supported only for
backward compatibility.
Encryption Context
To improve the security of your cryptographic operations, use an encryption context in all requests to
encrypt data. The encryption context is optional, but recommended.
An encryption context is a set of key–value pairs that contain arbitrary nonsecret data. The encryption
context can contain any data you choose, but it typically consists of data that is useful in logging and
tracking, such as data about the file type, purpose, or ownership.
In requests to encrypt data, you can include an encryption context along with the plaintext data and
a master key provider. The AWS Encryption SDK cryptographically binds the encryption context to the
encrypted data so that the same encryption context is required to decrypt the data. The AWS Encryption
SDK also includes the encryption context in the encrypted message (p. 8) that it returns, along with
the encrypted data and data keys. The encryption context in the encrypted message always includes the
encryption context that you specified in the encryption request, along with elements that the operation
might add, such as a public signing key.
To decrypt the data, you pass in the encrypted message. Because the AWS Encryption SDK can extract
the encryption context from the message, you do not need to pass it in separately. After decrypting
the data, the AWS Encryption SDK returns a result that includes that encryption context along with
the plaintext data. The functions in your application that decrypt data should always verify that the
encryption context in the decrypt result includes the values that you expect before it returns the
plaintext data.
When choosing an encryption context, remember that it is not a secret. The encryption context is
displayed in plaintext in the header of the encrypted message (p. 8) that the SDK returns. If you
are using AWS Key Management Service, the encryption context also might appear in plaintext in audit
records and logs, such as AWS CloudTrail.
Encrypted Message
Encrypt operations in the AWS Encryption SDK return an encrypted message and decrypt operations
take an encrypted message as input. An encrypted message, a formatted data structure (p. 82)
that includes the encrypted data along with encrypted copies of the data keys, the algorithm ID, and,
optionally, an encryption context and a message signature.
Combining the encrypted data and its encrypted data keys streamlines the decryption operation and
frees you from having to store and manage encrypted data keys independently of the data that they
encrypt.
For technical information about the encrypted message, see Encrypted Message Format (p. 82).
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Getting Started with the AWS
Encryption SDK
To use the AWS Encryption SDK, you need a master key provider (p. 7). If you don't have one, we
recommend using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Many of the code samples in the AWS
Encryption SDK require an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK).
To interact with AWS KMS, you need to use the AWS SDK for your preferred programming language, such
as the AWS SDK for Java or the AWS SDK for Python (Boto). The AWS Encryption SDK client library works
with the AWS SDKs to support master keys stored in AWS KMS.
To prepare to use the AWS Encryption SDK with AWS KMS
1.
2.
Create an AWS account. To learn how, see How do I create and activate a new Amazon Web Services
account? in the AWS Knowledge Center.
Create a customer master key (CMK) in AWS KMS. To learn how, see Creating Keys in the AWS Key
Management Service Developer Guide.
Tip
3.
To use the CMK programmatically, you will need the ID or Amazon Resource Name (ARN)
of the CMK. For help finding the ID or ARN of a CMK, see Viewing Keys in the AWS Key
Management Service Developer Guide.
Create an IAM user with an access key. To learn how, see Creating IAM Users in the IAM User Guide.
When you create the user, for Access type, choose Programmatic access. After you create the user,
choose Download.csv to save the AWS access key that represents your user credentials. Store the file
in a secure location.
We recommend that you use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) access keys instead of AWS
(root) account access keys. IAM lets you securely control access to AWS services and resources in your
AWS account. For detailed best practice guidance, see Best Practices for Managing AWS Access Keys
The Download.csv file contains an AWS access key ID and a secret access key that represents the
AWS credentials of the user that you created. When you write code without using an AWS SDK, you
use your access key to sign your requests to AWS. The signature assures AWS that the request came
from you unchanged. However, when you use an AWS SDK, such as the AWS SDK for Java, the SDK
signs all requests to AWS for you.
4.
5.
Set your AWS credentials using the instructions for Java or Python and the AWS access key in the
Download.csv file that you downloaded in Step 3.
This procedure allows AWS SDKs to sign requests to AWS for you. Code samples in the AWS
Encryption SDK that interact with AWS KMS assume that you have completed this step.
Download and install the AWS Encryption SDK. To learn how, see the installation instructions for the
programming language (p. 12) that you want to use.
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Recommended: AES-GCM with Key Derivation and Signing
Supported Algorithm Suites in the
AWS Encryption SDK
An algorithm suite is a collection of cryptographic algorithms and related values. Cryptographic systems
use the algorithm implemenation to generate the ciphertext message.
The AWS Encryption SDK algorithm suite uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm in
Galois/Counter Mode (GCM), known as AES-GCM, to encrypt raw data. The SDK supports 256-bit, 192bit, and 128-bit encryption keys. The length of the initialization vector (IV) is always 12 bytes; the length
of the authentication tag is always 16 bytes.
The SDK implements AES-GCM in one of three ways. By default, the SDK uses AES-GCM with an HMACbased extract-and-expand key derivation function (HKDF), signing, and a 256-bit encryption key.
Recommended: AES-GCM with Key Derivation and
Signing
In the recommended algorithm suite, the SDK uses the data encryption key as an input to the HMACbased extract-and-expand key derivation function (HKDF) to derive the AES-GCM encryption key. The
SDK also adds an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) signature. By default, the SDK uses
this algorithm suite with a 256-bit encryption key.
The HKDF helps you avoid accidental reuse of a data encryption key.
This algorithm suite uses ECDSA and a message signing algorithm (SHA-384 or SHA-256). ECDSA is used
by default, even when it is not specified by the policy for the underlying master key. Message signing
verifies the identity of the message sender and adds message authenticity to the envelope encrypted
data. It is particularly useful when the authorization policy for a master key allows one set of users to
encrypt data and a different set of users to decrypt data.
The following table lists the variations of the recommended algorithm suites.
AWS Encryption SDK Algorithm Suites
Algorithm Name
Data Encryption
Key Length (in
bits)
Algorithm Mode
Key Derivation
Algorithm
Signature
Algorithm
AES
256
GCM
HKDF with
SHA-384
ECDSA with P-384
and SHA-384
AES
192
GCM
HKDF with
SHA-384
ECDSA with P-384
and SHA-384
AES
128
GCM
HKDF with
SHA-256
ECDSA with P-256
and SHA-256
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Other Supported Algorithm Suites
Other Supported Algorithm Suites
The AWS Encryption SDK supports the alternate algorithm suites for backward compatibility, although
we do not recommend them. If you cannot use an algorithm suite with HKDF and signing, we
recommend an algorithm suite with HKDF over one that lacks both elements.
AES-GCM with Key Derivation Only
This algorithm suite uses a key derivation function, but lacks the ECDSA signature that provides
authenticity and nonrepudiation. Use this suite when the users who encrypt data and those who
decrypt it are equally trusted.
AES-GCM without Key Derivation or Signing
This algorithm suite uses the data encryption key as the AES-GCM encryption key, instead of using a
key derivation function to derive a unique key. We discourage using this suite to generate ciphertext,
but the SDK supports it for compatibility reasons.
For more information about how these suites are represented and used in the library, see the section
called “Algorithms Reference” (p. 96).
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Java
AWS Encryption SDK Programming
Languages
The AWS Encryption SDK is available for the following programming languages. For more information,
see the corresponding topic.
Topics
• AWS Encryption SDK for Java (p. 12)
• AWS Encryption SDK for Python (p. 20)
• AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 26)
AWS Encryption SDK for Java
This topic explains how to install and use the AWS Encryption SDK for Java. For details about
programming with the SDK, see the aws-encryption-sdk-java repository on GitHub the Javadoc for the
AWS Encryption SDK.
Topics
• Prerequisites (p. 12)
• Installation (p. 13)
• AWS Encryption SDK for Java Example Code (p. 13)
Prerequisites
Before you install the AWS Encryption SDK for Java, be sure you have the following prerequisites.
A Java development environment
You will need Java 8 or later. On the Oracle website, go to Java SE Downloads, and then download
and install the Java SE Development Kit (JDK).
If you use the Oracle JDK, you must also download and install the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE)
Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files.
Bouncy Castle
Bouncy Castle provides a cryptography API for Java. If you don't have Bouncy Castle, go to Bouncy
Castle latest releases to download the provider file that corresponds to your JDK.
If you use Apache Maven, Bouncy Castle is available with the following dependency definition.
<dependency>
<groupId>org.bouncycastle</groupId>
<artifactId>bcprov-ext-jdk15on</artifactId>
<version>1.58</version>
</dependency>
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AWS SDK for Java (Optional)
Although you don't need the AWS SDK for Java to use the AWS Encryption SDK for Java, you do
need it to use AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) as a master key provider, and to use
some of the example Java code (p. 13) in this guide. For more information about installing and
configuring the AWS SDK for Java, see AWS SDK for Java.
Installation
You can install the AWS Encryption SDK for Java in the following ways.
Manually
To install the AWS Encryption SDK for Java, clone or download the aws-encryption-sdk-java GitHub
repository.
Using Apache Maven
The AWS Encryption SDK for Java is available through Apache Maven with the following dependency
definition.
<dependency>
<groupId>com.amazonaws</groupId>
<artifactId>aws-encryption-sdk-java</artifactId>
<version>1.3.1</version>
</dependency>
After you install the SDK, get started by looking at the example Java code (p. 13) in this guide and the
Javadoc on GitHub.
AWS Encryption SDK for Java Example Code
The following examples show you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK for Java to encrypt and decrypt
data.
Topics
• Encrypting and Decrypting Strings (p. 13)
• Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams (p. 15)
• Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams with Multiple Master Key Providers (p. 17)
Encrypting and Decrypting Strings
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt and decrypt strings.
This example uses an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer master key (CMK) as the
master key. For help creating a key, see Creating Keys in the AWS Key Management Service Developer
Guide.
To find the Amazon Resource name (ARN) of an existing CMK, go to the Encryption keys section of the
AWS Management Console, select the region, and then click the CMK alias. You can also use the AWS
KMS ListKeys operation. For details, see Viewing Keys in the AWS Key Management Service Developer
Guide.
/*
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Example Code
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
package com.amazonaws.crypto.examples;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Map;
import
import
import
import
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoResult;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKey;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKeyProvider;
/**
* <p>
* Encrypts and then decrypts a string under a KMS key
*
* <p>
* Arguments:
* <ol>
* <li>Key ARN: For help finding the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of your KMS customer
master
*
key (CMK), see 'Viewing Keys' at http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/
developerguide/viewing-keys.html
* <li>String to encrypt
* </ol>
*/
public class StringExample {
private static String keyArn;
private static String data;
public static void main(final String[] args) {
keyArn = args[0];
data = args[1];
// Instantiate the SDK
final AwsCrypto crypto = new AwsCrypto();
// Set up the KmsMasterKeyProvider backed by the default credentials
final KmsMasterKeyProvider prov = new KmsMasterKeyProvider(keyArn);
// Encrypt the data
//
// Most encrypted data should have an associated encryption context
// to protect integrity. This sample uses placeholder values.
//
// For more information see:
// blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/Tx2LZ6WBJJANTNW/How-to-Protect-the-Integrityof-Your-Encrypted-Data-by-Using-AWS-Key-Management
final Map<String, String> context = Collections.singletonMap("Example", "String");
final String ciphertext = crypto.encryptString(prov, data, context).getResult();
System.out.println("Ciphertext: " + ciphertext);
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// Decrypt the data
final CryptoResult<String, KmsMasterKey> decryptResult = crypto.decryptString(prov,
ciphertext);
// Before returning the plaintext, verify that the customer master key that
// was used in the encryption operation was the one supplied to the master key
provider.
if (!decryptResult.getMasterKeyIds().get(0).equals(keyArn)) {
throw new IllegalStateException("Wrong key ID!");
}
// Also, verify that the encryption context in the result contains the
// encryption context supplied to the encryptString method. Because the
// SDK can add values to the encryption context, don't require that
// the entire context matches.
for (final Map.Entry<String, String> e : context.entrySet()) {
if (!e.getValue().equals(decryptResult.getEncryptionContext().get(e.getKey())))
{
}
}
}
}
throw new IllegalStateException("Wrong Encryption Context!");
// Now we can return the plaintext data
System.out.println("Decrypted: " + decryptResult.getResult());
Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt and decrypt byte
streams. This example does not use AWS. It uses the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) to protect the
master key.
/*
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
package com.amazonaws.crypto.examples;
import
import
import
import
import
import
java.io.FileInputStream;
java.io.FileOutputStream;
java.io.IOException;
java.security.SecureRandom;
java.util.Collections;
java.util.Map;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;
import com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
import com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoInputStream;
import com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.MasterKey;
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import com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.jce.JceMasterKey;
import com.amazonaws.util.IOUtils;
/**
* <p>
* Encrypts and then decrypts a file under a random key.
*
* <p>
* Arguments:
* <ol>
* <li>Name of file containing plaintext data to encrypt
* </ol>
*
* <p>
* This program demonstrates using a standard Java {@link SecretKey} object as a {@link
MasterKey} to
* encrypt and decrypt streaming data.
*/
public class FileStreamingExample {
private static String srcFile;
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
srcFile = args[0];
// In this example, we generate a random key. In practice,
// you would get a key from an existing store
SecretKey cryptoKey = retrieveEncryptionKey();
// Create a JCE master key provider using the random key and an AES-GCM encryption
algorithm
JceMasterKey masterKey = JceMasterKey.getInstance(cryptoKey, "Example",
"RandomKey", "AES/GCM/NoPadding");
// Instantiate the SDK
AwsCrypto crypto = new AwsCrypto();
// Create an encryption context to identify this ciphertext
Map<String, String> context = Collections.singletonMap("Example", "FileStreaming");
// Because the file might be to large to load into memory, we stream the data,
instead of
//loading it all at once.
FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(srcFile);
CryptoInputStream<JceMasterKey> encryptingStream =
crypto.createEncryptingStream(masterKey, in, context);
FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(srcFile + ".encrypted");
IOUtils.copy(encryptingStream, out);
encryptingStream.close();
out.close();
// Decrypt the file. Verify the encryption context before returning the plaintext.
in = new FileInputStream(srcFile + ".encrypted");
CryptoInputStream<JceMasterKey> decryptingStream =
crypto.createDecryptingStream(masterKey, in);
// Does it contain the expected encryption context?
if
(!"FileStreaming".equals(decryptingStream.getCryptoResult().getEncryptionContext().get("Example")))
{
throw new IllegalStateException("Bad encryption context");
}
// Return the plaintext data
out = new FileOutputStream(srcFile + ".decrypted");
IOUtils.copy(decryptingStream, out);
decryptingStream.close();
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}
}
out.close();
/**
* In practice, this key would be saved in a secure location.
* For this demo, we generate a new random key for each operation.
*/
private static SecretKey retrieveEncryptionKey() {
SecureRandom rnd = new SecureRandom();
byte[] rawKey = new byte[16]; // 128 bits
rnd.nextBytes(rawKey);
return new SecretKeySpec(rawKey, "AES");
}
Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams with Multiple Master
Key Providers
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK with more than one master key
provider. Using more than one master key provider creates redundancy if one master key provider is
unavailable for decryption. This example uses a CMK in AWS KMS and an RSA key pair as the master keys.
/*
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
package com.amazonaws.crypto.examples;
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
java.io.FileInputStream;
java.io.FileOutputStream;
java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
java.security.KeyPair;
java.security.KeyPairGenerator;
java.security.PrivateKey;
java.security.PublicKey;
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoOutputStream;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.MasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.jce.JceMasterKey;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.multi.MultipleProviderFactory;
com.amazonaws.util.IOUtils;
/**
* <p>
* Encrypts a file using both KMS and an asymmetric key pair.
*
* <p>
* Arguments:
* <ol>
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
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* <li>Key ARN: For help finding the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of your KMS customer
master
*
key (CMK), see 'Viewing Keys' at http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/
developerguide/viewing-keys.html
* <li>Name of file containing plaintext data to encrypt
* </ol>
*
* You might use AWS Key Management Service (KMS) for most encryption and decryption
operations, but
* still want the option of decrypting your data offline independently of KMS. This sample
* demonstrates one way to do this.
*
* The sample encrypts data under both a KMS customer master key (CMK) and an "escrowed"
RSA key pair
* so that either key alone can decrypt it. You might commonly use the KMS CMK for
decryption. However,
* at any time, you can use the private RSA key to decrypt the ciphertext independent of
KMS.
*
* This sample uses the JCEMasterKey class to generate a RSA public-private key pair
* and saves the key pair in memory. In practice, you would store the private key in a
secure offline
* location, such as an offline HSM, and distribute the public key to your development
team.
*
*/
public class EscrowedEncryptExample {
private static PublicKey publicEscrowKey;
private static PrivateKey privateEscrowKey;
public static void main(final String[] args) throws Exception {
// This sample generates a new random key for each operation.
// In practice, you would distribute the public key and save the private key in
secure
// storage.
generateEscrowKeyPair();
final String kmsArn = args[0];
final String fileName = args[1];
standardEncrypt(kmsArn, fileName);
standardDecrypt(kmsArn, fileName);
}
escrowDecrypt(fileName);
private static void standardEncrypt(final String kmsArn, final String fileName) throws
Exception {
// Encrypt with the KMS CMK and the escrowed public key
// 1. Instantiate the SDK
final AwsCrypto crypto = new AwsCrypto();
// 2. Instantiate a KMS master key provider
final KmsMasterKeyProvider kms = new KmsMasterKeyProvider(kmsArn);
// 3. Instantiate a JCE master key provider
// Because the user does not have access to the private escrow key,
// they pass in "null" for the private key parameter.
final JceMasterKey escrowPub = JceMasterKey.getInstance(publicEscrowKey, null,
"Escrow", "Escrow",
"RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-512AndMGF1Padding");
// 4. Combine the providers into a single master key provider
final MasterKeyProvider<?> provider =
MultipleProviderFactory.buildMultiProvider(kms, escrowPub);
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always
// 5. Encrypt the file
// To simplify the code, we omit the encryption context. Production code should
// use an encryption context. For an example, see the other SDK samples.
final FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(fileName);
final FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(fileName + ".encrypted");
final CryptoOutputStream<?> encryptingStream =
crypto.createEncryptingStream(provider, out);
}
IOUtils.copy(in, encryptingStream);
in.close();
encryptingStream.close();
private static void standardDecrypt(final String kmsArn, final String fileName) throws
Exception {
// Decrypt with the KMS CMK and the escrow public key. You can use a combined
provider,
// as shown here, or just the KMS master key provider.
// 1. Instantiate the SDK
final AwsCrypto crypto = new AwsCrypto();
// 2. Instantiate a KMS master key provider
final KmsMasterKeyProvider kms = new KmsMasterKeyProvider(kmsArn);
// 3. Instantiate a JCE master key provider
// Because the user does not have access to the private escrow
// key, they pass in "null" for the private key parameter.
final JceMasterKey escrowPub = JceMasterKey.getInstance(publicEscrowKey, null,
"Escrow", "Escrow",
"RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-512AndMGF1Padding");
// 4. Combine the providers into a single master key provider
final MasterKeyProvider<?> provider =
MultipleProviderFactory.buildMultiProvider(kms, escrowPub);
always
// 5. Decrypt the file
// To simplify the code, we omit the encryption context. Production code should
// use an encryption context. For an example, see the other SDK samples.
final FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(fileName + ".encrypted");
final FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(fileName + ".decrypted");
final CryptoOutputStream<?> decryptingStream =
crypto.createDecryptingStream(provider, out);
IOUtils.copy(in, decryptingStream);
in.close();
decryptingStream.close();
}
private static void escrowDecrypt(final String fileName) throws Exception {
// You can decrypt the stream using only the private key.
// This method does not call KMS.
// 1. Instantiate the SDK
final AwsCrypto crypto = new AwsCrypto();
// 2. Instantiate a JCE master key
// This method call uses the escrowed private key, not null
final JceMasterKey escrowPriv = JceMasterKey.getInstance(publicEscrowKey,
privateEscrowKey, "Escrow", "Escrow",
"RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-512AndMGF1Padding");
always
// 3. Decrypt the file
// To simplify the code, we omit the encryption context. Production code should
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// use an encryption context. For an example, see the other SDK samples.
final FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(fileName + ".encrypted");
final FileOutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(fileName + ".deescrowed");
final CryptoOutputStream<?> decryptingStream =
crypto.createDecryptingStream(escrowPriv, out);
IOUtils.copy(in, decryptingStream);
in.close();
decryptingStream.close();
}
private static void generateEscrowKeyPair() throws GeneralSecurityException {
final KeyPairGenerator kg = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance("RSA");
kg.initialize(4096); // Escrow keys should be very strong
final KeyPair keyPair = kg.generateKeyPair();
publicEscrowKey = keyPair.getPublic();
privateEscrowKey = keyPair.getPrivate();
}
}
AWS Encryption SDK for Python
This topic explains how to install and use the AWS Encryption SDK for Python. For details about
programming with the SDK, see the aws-encryption-sdk-python repository on GitHub and the Python
documentation for the AWS Encryption SDK for Python.
Topics
• Prerequisites (p. 20)
• Installation (p. 20)
• AWS Encryption SDK for Python Example Code (p. 21)
Prerequisites
Before you install the AWS Encryption SDK for Python, be sure you have the following prerequisites.
A supported version of Python
To use this SDK, you need Python 2.7, or Python 3.3 or later. To download Python, see Python
downloads.
The pip installation tool for Python
If you have Python 2.7.9 or later, or Python 3.4 or later, you already have pip, although you might
want to upgrade it. For more information about upgrading or installing pip, see Installation in the
pip documentation.
Installation
Use pip to install the AWS Encryption SDK for Python, as shown in the following examples.
To install the latest version
pip install aws-encryption-sdk
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For more details about using pip to install and upgrade packages, see Installing Packages.
The SDK requires the cryptography library on all platforms. All versions of pip install and build the
cryptography library on Windows. pip 8.1 and later installs and builds cryptography on Linux. If you
are using an earlier version of pip and your Linux environment doesn't have the tools needed to build
the cryptography library, you need to install them. For more information, see Building cryptography on
Linux.
For the latest development version of this SDK, go to the aws-encryption-sdk-python GitHub repository.
After you install the SDK, get started by looking at the example Python code (p. 21) in this guide.
AWS Encryption SDK for Python Example Code
The following examples show you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK for Python to encrypt and
decrypt data.
Topics
• Encrypting and Decrypting Strings (p. 21)
• Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams (p. 22)
• Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams with Multiple Master Key Providers (p. 24)
Encrypting and Decrypting Strings
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt and decrypt strings.
This example uses a customer master key (CMK) in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) as the
master key.
"""
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file
except
in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
https://aws.amazon.com/apache-2-0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""
from __future__ import print_function
import aws_encryption_sdk
def cycle_string(key_arn, source_plaintext, botocore_session=None):
"""Encrypts and then decrypts a string using a KMS customer master key (CMK)
:param str key_arn: Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the KMS CMK
(http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developerguide/viewing-keys.html)
:param bytes source_plaintext: Data to encrypt
:param botocore_session: Existing Botocore session instance
:type botocore_session: botocore.session.Session
"""
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
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# Create a KMS master key provider
kms_kwargs = dict(key_ids=[key_arn])
if botocore_session is not None:
kms_kwargs['botocore_session'] = botocore_session
master_key_provider = aws_encryption_sdk.KMSMasterKeyProvider(**kms_kwargs)
# Encrypt the plaintext source data
ciphertext, encryptor_header = aws_encryption_sdk.encrypt(
source=source_plaintext,
key_provider=master_key_provider
)
print('Ciphertext: ', ciphertext)
# Decrypt the ciphertext
cycled_plaintext, decrypted_header = aws_encryption_sdk.decrypt(
source=ciphertext,
key_provider=master_key_provider
)
# Verify that the "cycled" (encrypted, then decrypted) plaintext is identical to the
source
# plaintext
assert cycled_plaintext == source_plaintext
# Verify that the encryption context used in the decrypt operation includes all key
pairs from
# the encrypt operation. (The SDK can add pairs, so don't require an exact match.)
#
# In production, always use a meaningful encryption context. In this sample, we omit
the
# encryption context (no key pairs).
assert all(
pair in decrypted_header.encryption_context.items()
for pair in encryptor_header.encryption_context.items()
)
print('Decrypted: ', cycled_plaintext)
Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt and decrypt byte
streams. This example doesn't use AWS. It uses a static, ephemeral master key provider.
"""
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file
except
in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
https://aws.amazon.com/apache-2-0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""
import filecmp
import os
import aws_encryption_sdk
22
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from aws_encryption_sdk.internal.crypto import WrappingKey
from aws_encryption_sdk.key_providers.raw import RawMasterKeyProvider
from aws_encryption_sdk.identifiers import WrappingAlgorithm, EncryptionKeyType
class StaticRandomMasterKeyProvider(RawMasterKeyProvider):
"""Randomly and consistently generates 256-bit keys for each unique key ID."""
provider_id = 'static-random'
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
self._static_keys = {}
def _get_raw_key(self, key_id):
"""Returns a static, randomly-generated symmetric key for the specified key ID.
:param str key_id: Key ID
:returns: Wrapping key that contains the specified static key
:rtype: :class:`aws_encryption_sdk.internal.crypto.WrappingKey`
"""
try:
static_key = self._static_keys[key_id]
except KeyError:
static_key = os.urandom(32)
self._static_keys[key_id] = static_key
return WrappingKey(
wrapping_algorithm=WrappingAlgorithm.AES_256_GCM_IV12_TAG16_NO_PADDING,
wrapping_key=static_key,
wrapping_key_type=EncryptionKeyType.SYMMETRIC
)
def cycle_file(source_plaintext_filename):
"""Encrypts and then decrypts a file under a custom static master key provider.
:param str source_plaintext_filename: Filename of file to encrypt
"""
# Create a static random master key provider
key_id = os.urandom(8)
master_key_provider = StaticRandomMasterKeyProvider()
master_key_provider.add_master_key(key_id)
ciphertext_filename = source_plaintext_filename + '.encrypted'
cycled_plaintext_filename = source_plaintext_filename + '.decrypted'
# Encrypt the plaintext source data
with open(source_plaintext_filename, 'rb') as plaintext, open(ciphertext_filename,
'wb') as ciphertext:
with aws_encryption_sdk.stream(
mode='e',
source=plaintext,
key_provider=master_key_provider
) as encryptor:
for chunk in encryptor:
ciphertext.write(chunk)
# Decrypt the ciphertext
with open(ciphertext_filename, 'rb') as ciphertext, open(cycled_plaintext_filename,
'wb') as plaintext:
with aws_encryption_sdk.stream(
mode='d',
source=ciphertext,
key_provider=master_key_provider
) as decryptor:
for chunk in decryptor:
plaintext.write(chunk)
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# Verify that the "cycled" (encrypted, then decrypted) plaintext is identical to the
source
# plaintext
assert filecmp.cmp(source_plaintext_filename, cycled_plaintext_filename)
# Verify that the encryption context used in the decrypt operation includes all key
pairs from
# the encrypt operation
#
# In production, always use a meaningful encryption context. In this sample, we omit
the
# encryption context (no key pairs).
assert all(
pair in decryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
for pair in encryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
)
return ciphertext_filename, cycled_plaintext_filename
Encrypting and Decrypting Byte Streams with Multiple Master
Key Providers
The following example shows you how to use the AWS Encryption SDK with more than one master key
provider. Using more than one master key provider creates redundancy if one master key provider is
unavailable for decryption. This example uses a CMK in AWS KMS and an RSA key pair as the master keys.
"""
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file
except
in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
https://aws.amazon.com/apache-2-0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""
import filecmp
import os
import aws_encryption_sdk
from aws_encryption_sdk.internal.crypto import WrappingKey
from aws_encryption_sdk.key_providers.raw import RawMasterKeyProvider
from aws_encryption_sdk.identifiers import WrappingAlgorithm, EncryptionKeyType
from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import serialization
from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import rsa
class StaticRandomMasterKeyProvider(RawMasterKeyProvider):
provider_id = 'static-random'
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
self._static_keys = {}
def _get_raw_key(self, key_id):
"""Returns a static, randomly generated, RSA key for the specified key ID.
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Example Code
:param str key_id: User-defined ID for the static key
:returns: Wrapping key that contains the specified static key
:rtype: :class:`aws_encryption_sdk.internal.crypto.WrappingKey`
"""
try:
static_key = self._static_keys[key_id]
except KeyError:
private_key = rsa.generate_private_key(
public_exponent=65537,
key_size=4096,
backend=default_backend()
)
static_key = private_key.private_bytes(
encoding=serialization.Encoding.PEM,
format=serialization.PrivateFormat.PKCS8,
encryption_algorithm=serialization.NoEncryption()
)
self._static_keys[key_id] = static_key
return WrappingKey(
wrapping_algorithm=WrappingAlgorithm.RSA_OAEP_SHA1_MGF1,
wrapping_key=static_key,
wrapping_key_type=EncryptionKeyType.PRIVATE
)
def cycle_file(key_arn, source_plaintext_filename, botocore_session=None):
"""Encrypts and then decrypts a file using a KMS master key provider and a custom
static master
key provider. Both master key providers are used to encrypt the plaintext file, so
either one alone
can decrypt it.
:param str key_arn: Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the KMS Customer Master Key (CMK)
(http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developerguide/viewing-keys.html)
:param str source_plaintext_filename: Filename of file to encrypt
:param botocore_session: existing botocore session instance
:type botocore_session: botocore.session.Session
"""
# "Cycled" means encrypted and then decrypted
ciphertext_filename = source_plaintext_filename + '.encrypted'
cycled_kms_plaintext_filename = source_plaintext_filename + '.kms.decrypted'
cycled_static_plaintext_filename = source_plaintext_filename + '.static.decrypted'
# Create a KMS master key provider
kms_kwargs = dict(key_ids=[key_arn])
if botocore_session is not None:
kms_kwargs['botocore_session'] = botocore_session
kms_master_key_provider = aws_encryption_sdk.KMSMasterKeyProvider(**kms_kwargs)
# Create a static master key provider and add a master key to it
static_key_id = os.urandom(8)
static_master_key_provider = StaticRandomMasterKeyProvider()
static_master_key_provider.add_master_key(static_key_id)
# Create a master key provider that includes the KMS and static master key providers
kms_master_key_provider.add_master_key_provider(static_master_key_provider)
# Encrypt plaintext with both KMS and static master keys
with open(source_plaintext_filename, 'rb') as plaintext, open(ciphertext_filename,
'wb') as ciphertext:
with aws_encryption_sdk.stream(
source=plaintext,
mode='e',
key_provider=kms_master_key_provider
) as encryptor:
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for chunk in encryptor:
ciphertext.write(chunk)
# Decrypt the ciphertext with only the KMS master key
with open(ciphertext_filename, 'rb') as ciphertext, open(cycled_kms_plaintext_filename,
'wb') as plaintext:
with aws_encryption_sdk.stream(
source=ciphertext,
mode='d',
key_provider=aws_encryption_sdk.KMSMasterKeyProvider(**kms_kwargs)
) as kms_decryptor:
for chunk in kms_decryptor:
plaintext.write(chunk)
# Decrypt the ciphertext with only the static master key
with open(ciphertext_filename, 'rb') as ciphertext,
open(cycled_static_plaintext_filename, 'wb') as plaintext:
with aws_encryption_sdk.stream(
source=ciphertext,
mode='d',
key_provider=static_master_key_provider
) as static_decryptor:
for chunk in static_decryptor:
plaintext.write(chunk)
# Verify that the "cycled" (encrypted, then decrypted) plaintext is identical to the
source
# plaintext
assert filecmp.cmp(source_plaintext_filename, cycled_kms_plaintext_filename)
assert filecmp.cmp(source_plaintext_filename, cycled_static_plaintext_filename)
# Verify that the encryption context in the decrypt operation includes all key pairs
from the
# encrypt operation.
#
# In production, always use a meaningful encryption context. In this sample, we omit
the
# encryption context (no key pairs).
assert all(
pair in kms_decryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
for pair in encryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
)
assert all(
pair in static_decryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
for pair in encryptor.header.encryption_context.items()
)
return ciphertext_filename, cycled_kms_plaintext_filename,
cycled_static_plaintext_filename
AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface
The AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (AWS Encryption CLI) enables you to use the AWS
Encryption SDK to encrypt and decrypt data interactively at the command line and in scripts. You don't
need cryptography or programming expertise.
Like all implementations of the AWS Encryption SDK, the AWS Encryption CLI offers advanced data
protection features. These include envelope encryption, additional authenticated data (AAD), and secure,
authenticated, symmetric key algorithm suites, such as 256-bit AES-GCM with key derivation and signing.
The AWS Encryption CLI is built on the AWS Encryption SDK for Python and is supported on Linux,
macOS, and Windows. You can run commands and scripts to encrypt and decrypt your data in your
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preferred shell on Linux or macOS, in a Command Prompt window (cmd.exe) on Windows, and in a
PowerShell console on any system.
All language-specific implementations of the AWS Encryption SDK, including the AWS Encryption CLI,
are interoperable. For example, you can encrypt data with the AWS Encryption SDK for Java (p. 12)
and decrypt it with the AWS Encryption CLI.
This topic introduces the AWS Encryption CLI, explains how to install and use it, and provides several
examples to help you get started. For a quick start, see How to Encrypt and Decrypt Your Data with the
AWS Encryption CLI in the AWS Security Blog. For more detailed information, see Read The Docs, and
join us in developing the AWS Encryption CLI in the aws-encryption-sdk-cli repository on GitHub.
Topics
• Installing the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 27)
• How to Use the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 29)
• Examples of the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 36)
• AWS Encryption SDK CLI Syntax and Parameter Reference (p. 49)
Installing the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line
Interface
This topic explains how to install the AWS Encryption CLI. For detailed information, see the awsencryption-sdk-cli repository on GitHub and Read the Docs.
Topics
• Installing the Prerequisites (p. 27)
• Installing the AWS Encryption CLI (p. 28)
Installing the Prerequisites
The AWS Encryption CLI is built on the AWS Encryption SDK for Python. To use the AWS Encryption CLI,
you need Python and pip, the Python package management tool. Python and pip are available on all
supported platforms.
Before you install the AWS Encryption CLI, be sure that you have the following prerequisites.
Python
The AWS Encryption CLI requires Python 2.7, or Python 3.4 or later. Python is included in most
Linux and macOS installations, although you might need to upgrade to one of the required versions.
However, you have to install Python on Windows, if it is not already installed. To download Python,
see Python downloads.
To determine whether Python is installed, at the command line, type:
python
To check the Python version, use the -V (uppercase V) parameter.
python -V
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On Windows, you need to install Python. Then, add the path to the Python.exe file to the value of
the Path environment variable.
By default, Python is installed in the all users directory or in a user profile directory ($home or
%userprofile%) in the AppData\Local\Programs\Python subdirectory. To find the location
of the Python.exe file on your system, check one of the following registry keys. You can use
PowerShell to search the registry.
PS C:\> dir HKLM:\Software\Python\PythonCore\version\InstallPath
# -orPS C:\> dir HKCU:\Software\Python\PythonCore\version\InstallPath
pip
pip is the Python package manager. To install the AWS Encryption CLI and its dependencies, you
need pip 8.1 or later.
For help installing or upgrading pip, see Installation in the pip documentation.
AWS Command Line Interface
The AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) is required only if you are using AWS Key Management
Service (AWS KMS) customer master keys (CMKs) with the AWS Encryption CLI. If you are using a
different master key provider (p. 7), the AWS CLI is not required.
To use AWS KMS CMKs with the AWS Encryption CLI, you need to install and configure the AWS CLI.
The configuration makes the credentials that you use to authenticate to AWS KMS available to the
AWS Encryption CLI.
Installing the AWS Encryption CLI
Use pip to install the AWS Encryption CLI and the Python cryptography library that it requires.
The AWS Encryption CLI requires the cryptography library on all platforms. All versions of pip install and
build the cryptography library on Windows and OS X.
On Linux, pip 8.1 and later installs and builds the cryptography library. If you are using an earlier version
of pip and your Linux environment doesn't have the tools needed to build the cryptography library, you
must install them. For more information, see Building cryptography on Linux.
To install the latest version
pip install aws-encryption-sdk-cli
To upgrade to the latest version
pip install --upgrade aws-encryption-sdk-cli
To find the version number of your AWS Encryption CLI and AWS Encryption SDK
aws-encryption-cli --version
aws-encryption-sdk-cli/1.1.0 aws-encryption-sdk/1.3.2
To install the version of the AWS Encryption CLI currently in development, see the aws-encryption-sdk-cli
repository on GitHub.
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For more details about using pip to install and upgrade Python packages, see the pip documentation.
How to Use the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line
Interface
This topic explains how to use the parameters in the AWS Encryption CLI. For examples, see Examples of
the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 36). For complete documentation, see Read the
Docs.
Topics
• How to Encrypt and Decrypt Data (p. 29)
• How to Specify a Master Key (p. 30)
• How to Provide Input (p. 32)
• How to Specify the Output Location (p. 32)
• How to Use an Encryption Context (p. 33)
• How to Store Parameters in a Configuration File (p. 34)
How to Encrypt and Decrypt Data
The AWS Encryption CLI uses the features of the AWS Encryption SDK to make it easy to encrypt and
decrypt data securely.
• When you encrypt data in the AWS Encryption CLI, you specify your plaintext data and a master
key (p. 6), such as an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer master key (CMK). If you are
using a custom master key provider, you need to specify the provider. You also specify output locations
for the encrypted message (p. 8) and for metadata about the encryption operation. An encryption
context (p. 8) is optional, but recommended.
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --input myPlaintextData \
--master-keys key=1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab \
--output myEncryptedMessage \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--encryption-context purpose=test
The AWS Encryption CLI gets a unique data key from the master key and encrypts your data. It returns
an encrypted message (p. 8) and metadata about the operation. The encrypted message contains your
encrypted data (ciphertext) and an encrypted copy of the data key. You don't have to worry about
storing, managing, or losing the data key.
• When you decrypt data, you pass in your encrypted message, the optional encryption context, and
location for the plaintext output and the metadata. If you are using a custom master key provider, you
also supply the master key. If you are using an AWS KMS CMK, AWS KMS derives the master key from
the encrypted message.
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input myEncryptedMessage \
--output myPlaintextData \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--encryption-context purpose=test
The AWS Encryption CLI uses the master key to decrypt the data key in the encrypted message. Then
it uses the data key to decrypt your data. It returns your plaintext data and metadata about the
operation.
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How to Specify a Master Key
When you encrypt data in the AWS Encryption CLI, you need to specify a master key (p. 6). You can use
an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK) or a master key from a custom master key provider (p. 7). The
custom master key provider can be any compatible Python master key provider.
To specify a master key, use the --master-keys parameter (-m). Its value is a collection of
attributes (p. 30) with the attribute=value format. The attributes that you use depend on the
master key provider and the command.
• AWS KMS. In encrypt commands, you must specify a --master-keys parameter with a key attribute.
The other attributes are optional. In decrypt commands, the --master-keys parameter is optional
and it can only have a profile attribute.
• Custom master key provider. You must specify the --master-keys parameter in every command.
The parameter value must have key and provider attributes.
You can include multiple --master-keys parameters (p. 31) in the same command.
Master Key Parameter Attributes
The value of the --master-keys parameter consists of the following attributes and their values.
If an attribute name or value includes spaces or special characters, enclose both the name and value in
quotation marks. For example, --master-keys key=12345 "provider=my cool provider".
Key: Specify a Master Key
Use the key attribute to identify a master key. The value can be any key identifier that the master
key provider recognizes.
--master-keys key=1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
In an encrypt command, each --master-keys parameter value must include at least one key
attribute and value. You can use multiple key attributes (p. 31) in each --master-keys
parameter value.
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --master-keys key=1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
key=1a2b3c4d-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6f1a2b3c4d
In encrypt commands that use AWS KMS CMKs, the value of key can be the CMK ID, its Amazon
Resource Name (ARN), an alias name, or alias ARN. For example, this encrypt command uses an alias
ARN in the value of the key attribute.
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --master-keys key=arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:alias/ExampleAlias
In decrypt commands that use a custom master key provider, key and provider attributes are
required. The key attribute is not permitted in decrypt commands that use an AWS KMS CMK.
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --master-keys provider='myProvider' key='100101'
Provider: Specify the Master Key Provider
The provider attribute identifies the master key provider (p. 7). The default value is aws-kms, which
represents AWS KMS. If you are using a different master key provider, the provider attribute is
required.
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--master-keys key=12345 provider=my_custom_provider
For more information about using custom (non-AWS KMS) master key providers, see the Advanced
Configuration topic in the README file for the AWS Encryption SDK CLI repository.
Region: Specify an AWS Region
Use the region attribute to specify the AWS Region of an AWS KMS CMK. This attribute is valid only
in encrypt commands and only when the master key provider is AWS KMS.
--encrypt --master-keys key=alias/primary-key region=us-east-2
AWS Encryption CLI commands use the AWS Region that is specified in the key attribute value if it
includes a region, such as an ARN. if the key value specifies a AWS Region, the region attribute is
ignored.
The region attribute takes precedence over other region specifications. If you don't use a region
attribute, AWS Encryption CLI commands uses the AWS Region specified in your AWS CLI named
profile, if any, or your default profile.
Profile: Specify a Named Profile
Use the profile attribute to specify an AWS CLI named profile. Named profiles can include
credentials and an AWS Region. This attribute is valid only when the master key provider is AWS
KMS.
--master-keys key=alias/primary-key profile=admin-1
You can use the profile attribute to specify alternate credentials in encrypt and decrypt commands.
In an encrypt command, the AWS Encryption CLI uses the AWS Region in the named profile
only when the key value does not include a region and there is no region attribute. In a decrypt
command, the AWS Region in the name profile is ignored.
How to Specify Multiple Master Keys
You can specify multiple master keys in each command.
If you specify more than one master key, the first master key generates (and encrypts) the data key that
is used to encrypt your data. The other master keys only encrypt the data key. The resulting encrypted
message (p. 8) contains the encrypted data ("ciphertext") and a collection of encrypted data keys, one
encrypted by each master key. Any of the master keys can decrypt one data key and then decrypt the
data.
There are two ways to specify multiple master keys:
• Include multiple key attributes in a --master-keys parameter value.
$cmk_oregon=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
$cmk_ohio=arn:aws:kms:us-east-2:111122223333:key/0987ab65-43cd-21ef-09ab-87654321cdef
--master-keys key=$cmk_oregon key=$cmk_ohio
• Include multiple --master-keys parameters in the same command. Use this syntax when the
attribute values that you specify do not apply to all of the master keys in the command.
--master-keys region=us-east-2 key=alias/primary_CMK \
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--master-keys region=us-west-1 key=alias/primary_CMK
How to Provide Input
The encrypt operation in the AWS Encryption CLI takes plaintext data as input and returns an encrypted
message (p. 8). The decrypt operation takes an encrypted message as input and returns plaintext data.
The --input parameter (-i) , which tells the AWS Encryption CLI where to find the input, is required in
all AWS Encryption CLI commands.
You can provide input in any of the following ways:
• Use a file.
--input myData.txt
• Use a file name pattern.
--input testdir/*.xml
• Use a directory or directory name pattern. When the input is a directory, the --recursive parameter
(-r, -R) is required.
--input testdir --recursive
• Pipe input to the command (stdin). Use a value of - for the --input parameter. (The --input
parameter is always required.)
echo 'Hello World' | aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --input -
How to Specify the Output Location
The --output parameter tells the AWS Encryption CLI where to write the results of the encryption or
decryption operation. It is required in every AWS Encryption CLI command. The AWS Encryption CLI
creates a new output file for every input file in the operation.
If an output file already exists, by default, the AWS Encryption CLI prints a warning, then overwrites the
file. To prevent overwriting, use the --interactive parameter, which prompts you for confirmation
before overwriting, or --no-overwrite, which skips the input if the output would cause an overwrite.
To suppress the overwrite warning, use --quiet. To capture errors and warnings from the AWS
Encryption CLI, use the 2>&1 redirection operator to write them to the output stream.
Note
Commands that overwrite output files begin by deleting the output file. If the command fails,
the output file might already be deleted.
You can the output location in several ways.
• Specify a file name. If you specify a path to the file, all directories in the path must exist before the
command runs.
--output myEncryptedData.txt
• Specify a directory. The output directory must exist before the command runs.
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If the input contains subdirectories, the command reproduces the subdirectories under the specified
directory.
--output Test
When the output location is a directory (without file names), the AWS Encryption CLI creates output
file names based on the input file names plus a suffix. Encrypt operations append .encrypted to
the input file name and the decrypt operations append .decrypted. To change the suffix, use the -suffix parameter.
For example, if you encrypt file.txt, the encrypt command creates file.txt.encrypted. If you
decrypt file.txt.encrypted, the decrypt command creates file.txt.encrypted.decrypted.
• Write to the command line (stdout). Enter a value of - for the --output parameter. You can use -output - to pipe output to another command or program.
--output -
How to Use an Encryption Context
The AWS Encryption CLI lets you provide an encryption context in encrypt and decrypt commands. It is
not required, but it is a cryptographic best practice that we recommend.
An encryption context is a type of arbitrary, non-secret additional authenticated data. In the AWS
Encryption CLI, the encryption context consists of a collection of name=value pairs. You can use any
content in the pairs, including information about the files, data that helps you to find the encryption
operation in logs, or data that your grants or policies require.
In an Encrypt Command
The encryption context that you specify in an encrypt command, along with any additional encryption
context that the encryption components add, is cryptographically bound to the encrypted data. It is also
included (in plaintext) in the encrypted message (p. 8) that the command returns. If you are using an
AWS KMS customer master key (CMK), the encryption context also might appear in plaintext in audit
records and logs, such as AWS CloudTrail.
The following example shows a encryption context with three name=value pairs.
--encryption-context purpose=test dept=IT class=confidential
In a Decrypt Command
In a decrypt command, the encryption context helps you to confirm that you are decrypting the right
encrypted message.
You are not required to provide an encryption context in a decrypt command, even if an encryption
context was used on encrypt. However, if you do, the AWS Encryption CLI verifies that every element in
the encryption context of the decrypt command matches an element in the encryption context of the
encrypted message. If any element does not match, the decrypt command fails.
For example, the following command decrypts the encrypted message only if its encryption context
includes dept=IT.
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aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context dept=IT ...
An encryption context is an important part of your security strategy. However, when choosing an
encryption context, remember that its values are not secret. Do not include any confidential data in the
encryption context.
To specify an encryption context:
• In an encrypt command, use the --encryption-context parameter with one or more name=value
pairs. Use a space to separate each pair.
--encryption-context name=value [name=value] ...
• In a decrypt command, the --encryption-context parameter value can include name=value pairs,
name elements (with no values), or a combination of both.
--encryption-context name[=value] [name] [name=value] ...
If the name or value in a name=value pair includes spaces or special characters, enclose the entire pair
in quotation marks.
--encryption-context "department=software engineering" "AWS Region=us-west-2"
For example, this encrypt command includes an encryption context with two pairs, purpose=test and
dept=23.
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --encryption-context purpose=test dept=23 ...
These decrypt command would succeed. The encryption context in each commands is a subset of the
original encryption context.
\\ Any one or both of the encryption context pairs
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context dept=23 ...
\\ Any one or both of the encryption context names
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context purpose ...
\\ Any combination of names and pairs
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context dept purpose=test ...
However, these decrypt commands would fail. The encryption context in the encrypted message does
not contain the specified elements.
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context dept=Finance ...
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --encryption-context scope ...
How to Store Parameters in a Configuration File
You can save time and avoid typing errors by saving frequently used AWS Encryption CLI parameters and
values in configuration files.
A configuration file is a text file that contains parameters and values for an AWS Encryption CLI
command. When you refer to a configuration file in a AWS Encryption CLI command, the reference is
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replaced by the parameters and values in the configuration file. The effect is the same is if you typed the
file content at the command line. A configuration file can have any name and it can be located in any
directory that the current user can access.
The following example configuration file, cmk.conf, specifies two AWS KMS CMKs in different regions.
--master-keys key=arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
--master-keys key=arn:aws:kms:useast-2:111122223333:key/0987ab65-43cd-21ef-09ab-87654321cdef
To use the configuration file in a command, prefix the file name with an at sign (@). In a PowerShell
console, use a backtick character to escape the at sign (`@).
This example command uses the cmk.conf file in an encrypt command.
Bash
$ aws-encryption-cli -e @cmk.conf -i hello.txt -o testdir
PowerShell
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli -e `@cmk.conf -i .\Hello.txt -o .\TestDir
Configuration File Rules
The rules for using configuration files are as follows:
• You can include multiple parameters in each configuration file and list them in any order. List each
parameter with its values (if any) on a separate line.
• Use # to add a comment to all or part of a line.
• You can include references to other configuration files. Do not use a backtick to escape the @ sign, even
in PowerShell.
• If you use quotes in a configuration file, the quoted text cannot span multiple lines.
For example, this is the contents of an example encrypt.conf file.
# Archive Files
--encrypt
--output /archive/logs
--recursive
--interactive
--encryption-context class=unclassified dept=IT
--suffix # No suffix
--metadata-output ~/metadata
@caching.conf # Use limited caching
You can also include multiple configuration files in a command. This example command uses both the
encrypt.conf and master-keys.conf configurations files.
Bash
$
aws-encryption-cli -i /usr/logs @encrypt.conf @master-keys.conf
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PowerShell
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli -i $home\Test\*.log `@encrypt.conf `@master-keys.conf
Next: Try the AWS Encryption CLI examples (p. 36)
Examples of the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line
Interface
Use the following examples to try the AWS Encryption CLI on the platform you prefer. For help
with master keys and other parameters, see How to Use the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line
Interface (p. 29). For a quick reference, see AWS Encryption SDK CLI Syntax and Parameter
Reference (p. 49).
Topics
• Encrypting a File (p. 36)
• Decrypting a File (p. 38)
• Encrypting All Files in a Directory (p. 39)
• Decrypting All Files in a Directory (p. 40)
• Encrypting and Decrypting on the Command Line (p. 42)
• Using Multiple Master Keys (p. 43)
• Encrypting and Decrypting in Scripts (p. 45)
• Using Data Key Caching (p. 47)
Encrypting a File
This example uses the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the contents of the hello.txt file, which
contains a "Hello World" string.
When you run an encrypt command on a file, the AWS Encryption CLI gets the contents of the file,
generates a unique data key (p. 6), encrypts the file contents under the data key, and then writes the
encrypted message (p. 8) to a new file.
The first command saves the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK)
in the $cmkArn variable.
The second command encrypts the file contents. The command uses the --encrypt parameter to
specify the operation and the --input parameter to indicate the file to encrypt. The --master-keys
parameter (p. 30), and its required key attribute, tell the command to use the master key represented
by the CMK ARN.
The command uses the --metadata-output parameter to specify a text file for the metadata
about the encryption operation. As a best practice, the command uses the --encryption-context
parameter to specify an encryption context (p. 33).
The value of the --output parameter, a dot (.), tells the command to write the output file to the current
directory.
Bash
\\ To run this example, replace the fictitious CMK ARN with a valid value.
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$ cmkArn=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
$ aws-encryption-cli --encrypt \
--input hello.txt \
--master-keys key=$cmkArn \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--encryption-context purpose=test \
--output .
PowerShell
# To run this example, replace the fictitious CMK ARN with a valid value.
PS C:\> $CmkArn = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input Hello.txt `
--master-keys key=$CmkArn `
--metadata-output $home\Metadata.txt `
--encryption-context purpose=test `
--output .
When the encrypt command succeeds, it does not return any output. To determine whether the
command succeeded, check the Boolean value in the $? variable. When the command succeeds, the
value of $? is 0 (Bash) or True (PowerShell). When the command fails, the value of $? is non-zero (Bash)
or False (PowerShell).
Bash
$ echo $?
0
PowerShell
PS C:\> $?
True
You can also use a directory listing command to see that the encrypt command created a new file,
hello.txt.encrypted. Because the encrypt command did not specify a file name for the output, the
AWS Encryption CLI wrote the output to a file with the same name as the input file plus a .encrypted
suffix. To use a different suffix, or suppress the suffix, use the --suffix parameter.
The hello.txt.encrypted file contains an encrypted message (p. 8) that includes the ciphertext
of the hello.txt file, an encrypted copy of the data key, and additional metadata, including the
encryption context.
Bash
$ ls
hello.txt
hello.txt.encrypted
PowerShell
PS C:\> dir
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Directory: C:\TestCLI
Mode
----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------9/15/2017
5:57 PM
9/17/2017
1:06 PM
Length
-----11
585
Name
---Hello.txt
Hello.txt.encrypted
Decrypting a File
This example uses the AWS Encryption CLI to decrypt the contents of the Hello.txt.encrypted file
that was encrypted in the previous example.
The decrypt command uses the --decrypt parameter to indicate the operation and --input
parameter to identify the file to decrypt. The value of the --output parameter is a dot that represents
the current directory.
This command does not have a --master-keys parameter. A --master-keys parameter is required in
decrypt commands only when you are using a custom master key provider. If you are using an AWS KMS
CMK, you cannot specify a master key, because AWS KMS derives it from the encrypted message.
The --encryption-context parameter is optional in the decrypt command, even when an encryption
context (p. 33) is provided in the encrypt command. In this case, the decrypt command uses the same
encryption context that was provided in the encrypt command. Before decrypting, the AWS Encryption
CLI verifies that the encryption context in the encrypted message includes a purpose=test pair. If it
does not, the decrypt command fails.
The --metadata-output parameter specifies a file for metadata about the decryption operation. The
value of the --output parameter, a dot (.), writes the output file to the current directory.
Bash
$ aws-encryption-cli --decrypt \
--input hello.txt.encrypted \
--encryption-context purpose=test \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--output .
PowerShell
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --decrypt `
--input Hello.txt.encrypted `
--encryption-context purpose=test `
--metadata-output $home\Metadata.txt `
--output .
When a decrypt command succeeds, it does not return any output. To determine whether the command
succeeded, get the value of the $? variable. You can also use a directory listing command to see that the
command created a new file with a .decrypted suffix. To see the plaintext content, use a command to
get the file content, such as cat or Get-Content.
Bash
$ ls
hello.txt
$
hello.txt.encrypted
hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
cat hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
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Hello World
PowerShell
PS C:\> dir
Directory: C:\TestCLI
Mode
----a----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------9/17/2017
1:01 PM
9/17/2017
1:06 PM
9/17/2017
1:08 PM
Length
-----11
585
11
Name
---Hello.txt
Hello.txt.encrypted
Hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
PS C:\> Get-Content Hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
Hello World
Encrypting All Files in a Directory
This example uses the AWS Encryption CLI to encrypt the contents of all of the files in a directory.
When a command affects multiple files, the AWS Encryption CLI processes each file individually. It gets
the file contents, gets a unique data key (p. 6) for the file from the master key, encrypts the file contents
under the data key, and writes the results to a new file in the output directory. As a result, you can
decrypt the output files independently.
This listing of the TestDir directory shows the plaintext files that we want to encrypt.
Bash
$ ls testdir
cool-new-thing.py
hello.txt
employees.csv
PowerShell
PS C:\> dir C:\TestDir
Directory: C:\TestDir
Mode
----a----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------9/12/2017
3:11 PM
9/15/2017
5:57 PM
9/17/2017
1:44 PM
Length
-----2139
11
46
Name
---cool-new-thing.py
Hello.txt
Employees.csv
The first command saves the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK)
in the $cmkArn variable.
The second command encrypts the content of files in the TestDir directory and writes the files of
encrypted content to the TestEnc directory. If the TestEnc directory doesn't exist, the command fails.
Because the input location is a directory, the --recursive parameter is required.
The --master-keys parameter (p. 30), and its required key attribute, specify the master key. The
encrypt command includes an encryption context (p. 33), dept=IT. When you specify an encryption
context in a command that encrypts multiple files, the same encryption context is used for all of the
files.
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The command also has a --metadata-output parameter to tell the AWS Encryption CLI where to write
the metadata about the encryption operations. The AWS Encryption CLI writes one metadata record for
each file that was encrypted.
When the command completes, the AWS Encryption CLI writes the encrypted files to the TestEnc
directory, but it does not return any output.
The final command lists the files in the TestEnc directory. There is one output file of encrypted content
for each input file of plaintext content. Because the command did not specify an alternate suffix, the
encrypt command appended .encrypted to each of the input file names.
Bash
# To run this example, replace the fictitious CMK ARN with a valid master key
identifier.
$ cmkArn=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
$ aws-encryption-cli --encrypt \
--input testdir --recursive\
--master-keys key=$cmkArn \
--encryption-context dept=IT \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--output testenc
$ ls testenc
cool-new-thing.py.encrypted
employees.csv.encrypted
hello.txt.encrypted
PowerShell
# To run this example, replace the fictitious CMK ARN with a valid master key
identifier.
PS C:\> $cmkArn = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input .\TestDir --recursive `
--master-keys key=$cmkArn `
--encryption-context dept=IT `
--metadata-output .\Metadata\Metadata.txt `
--output .\TestEnc
PS C:\> dir .\TestEnc
Directory: C:\TestEnc
Mode
----a----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------9/17/2017
2:32 PM
9/17/2017
2:32 PM
9/17/2017
2:32 PM
Length
-----2713
620
585
Name
---cool-new-thing.py.encrypted
Hello.txt.encrypted
Employees.csv.encrypted
Decrypting All Files in a Directory
This example decrypts all files in a directory. It starts with the files in the TestEnc directory that were
encrypted in the previous example.
Bash
$
ls testenc
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cool-new-thing.py.encrypted
hello.txt.encrypted
employees.csv.encrypted
PowerShell
PS C:\> dir C:\TestEnc
Directory: C:\TestEnc
Mode
----a----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------9/17/2017
2:32 PM
9/17/2017
2:32 PM
9/17/2017
2:32 PM
Length
-----2713
620
585
Name
---cool-new-thing.py.encrypted
Hello.txt.encrypted
Employees.csv.encrypted
This decrypt command decrypts all of the files in the TestEnc directory and writes the plaintext files to
the TestDec directory. Because the encrypted files were encrypted under an AWS KMS CMK, there is no
--master-keys parameter in the command. The command uses the --interactive parameter to tell
the AWS Encryption CLI to prompt you before overwriting a file with the same name.
This command also uses the encryption context that was provided when the files were encrypted. When
decrypting multiple files, the AWS Encryption CLI checks the encryption context of every file. If the
encryption context check on any file fails, the AWS Encryption CLI rejects the file, writes a warning,
records the failure in the metadata, and then continues checking the remaining files. If the AWS
Encryption CLI fails to decrypt a file for any other reason, the entire decrypt command fails immediately.
In this example, the encrypted messages in all of the input files contain the dept=IT encryption context
element. However, if you were decrypting messages with different encryption contexts, you might still
be able to verify part of the encryption context. For example, if some messages had an encryption
context of dept=finance and others had dept=IT, you could verify that the encryption context always
contains a dept name without specifying the value. If you wanted to be more specific, you could decrypt
the files in separate commands.
The decrypt command does not return any output, but you can use a directory listing command to see
that it created new files with the .decrypted suffix. To see the plaintext content, use a command to get
the file content.
Bash
$ aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input testenc --recursive \
--encryption-context dept=IT \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--output testdec --interactive
$ ls testdec
cool-new-thing.py.encrypted.decrypted
employees.csv.encrypted.decrypted
hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
PowerShell
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --decrypt `
--input C:\TestEnc --recursive `
--encryption-context dept=IT `
--metadata-output $home\Metadata.txt `
--output C:\TestDec --interactive
PS C:\> dir .\TestDec
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Mode
----a----a----a----
LastWriteTime
------------10/8/2017
4:57 PM
10/8/2017
4:57 PM
10/8/2017
4:57 PM
Length Name
------ ---2139 cool-new-thing.py.encrypted.decrypted
46 Employees.csv.encrypted.decrypted
11 Hello.txt.encrypted.decrypted
Encrypting and Decrypting on the Command Line
These examples show you how to pipe input to commands (stdin) and write output to the command
line (stdout). They explain how to represent stdin and stdout in a command and how to use the built-in
Base64 encoding tools to prevent the shell from misinterpreting non-ASCII characters.
This example pipes a plaintext string to an encrypt command and saves the encrypted message in a
variable. Then, it pipes the encrypted message in the variable to a decrypt command, which writes its
output to the pipeline (stdout).
The example consists of three commands:
• The first command saves the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of an AWS KMS customer master key
(CMK) in the $cmkArn variable.
Bash
$
cmkArn=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PowerShell
PS C:\> $cmkArn = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
• The second command pipes the Hello World string to the encrypt command and saves the result in
the $encrypted variable.
The --input and --output parameters are required in all AWS Encryption CLI commands. To
indicate that input is being piped to the command (stdin), use a hyphen (-) for the value of the -input parameter. To send the output to the command line (stdout), use a hyphen for the value of the
--output parameter.
The --encode parameter Base64-encodes the output before returning it. This prevents the shell from
misinterpreting the non-ASCII characters in the encrypted message.
Because this command is just a proof of concept, we omit the encryption context and suppress the
metadata (-S).
Bash
$ encrypted=$(echo 'Hello World' | aws-encryption-cli --encrypt -S \
--input - --output - --encode \
--master-keys key=$cmkArn )
PowerShell
PS C:\> $encrypted = 'Hello World' | aws-encryption-cli --encrypt -S `
--input - --output - --encode
`
--master-keys key=$cmkArn
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• The third command pipes the encrypted message in the $encrypted variable to the decrypt
command.
This decrypt command uses --input - to indicate that input is coming from the pipeline (stdin) and
--output - to send the output to the pipeline (stdout). (The input parameter takes the location of
the input, not the actual input bytes, so you cannot use the $encrypted variable as the value of the
--input parameter.)
Because the output was encrypted and then encoded, the decrypt command uses the --decode
parameter to decode Base64-encoded input before decrypting it. You can also use the --decode
parameter to decode Base64-encoded input before encrypting it.
Again, the command omits the encryption context and suppresses the metadata (-S).
Bash
$ echo $encrypted | aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input - --output - --decode -S
Hello World
PowerShell
PS C:\> $encrypted | aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input - --output - --decode -S
Hello World
You can also perform the encrypt and decrypt operations in a single command without the intervening
variable.
As in the previous example, the --input and --output parameters have a - value and the command
uses the --encode parameter to encode the output and the --decode parameter to decode the input.
Bash
$
cmkArn=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
$
echo 'Hello World' |
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --master-keys key=$cmkArn --input - --output --encode -S |
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input - --output - --decode -S
Hello World
PowerShell
PS C:\> $cmkArn = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PS C:\> 'Hello World' |
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --master-keys key=$cmkArn --input - -output - --encode -S |
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input - --output - --decode -S
Hello World
Using Multiple Master Keys
This example shows how to use multiple master keys when encrypting and decrypting data in the AWS
Encryption CLI.
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When you use multiple master keys to encrypt data, any one of the master keys can be used to
decrypt the data. This strategy assures that you can decrypt the data even if one of the master keys is
unavailable. If you are storing the encrypted data in multiple AWS Regions, this strategy lets you use a
master key in the same Region to decrypt the data.
When you encrypt with multiple master keys, the first master key plays a special role. It generates the
data key that is used to encrypt the data. The remaining master keys encrypt the plaintext data key. The
resulting encrypted message (p. 8) includes the encrypted data and a collection of encrypted data keys,
one for each master key. Although the first master key generated the data key, any of the master keys
can decrypt one of the data keys, which can be used to decrypt the data.
Encrypting with Three Master Keys
This example command uses three master keys to encrypt the Finance.log file, one in each of three
AWS Regions.
It writes the encrypted message to the Archive directory. The command uses the --suffix parameter
with no value to suppress the suffix, so the input and output files names will be the same.
The command uses the --master-keys parameter with three key attributes. You can also use multiple
--master-keys parameters in the same command.
To encrypt the log file, the AWS Encryption CLI asks the first master key in the list, $cmk1, to generate
the data key that it uses to encrypt the data. Then, it uses each of the other master keys to encrypt
the plaintext copy of the data key. The encrypted message in the output file includes all three of the
encrypted data keys.
Bash
$ cmk1=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
$ cmk2=arn:aws:kms:us-east-2:111122223333:key/0987ab65-43cd-21ef-09ab-87654321cdef
$ cmk3=arn:aws:kms:ap-southeast-1:111122223333:key/1a2b3c4d-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6f1a2b3c4d
$ aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --input /logs/finance.log \
--output /archive --suffix \
--encryption-context class=log \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--master-keys key=$cmk1 key=$cmk2 key=$cmk3
PowerShell
PS C:\> $cmk1 = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PS C:\> $cmk2 = arn:aws:kms:useast-2:111122223333:key/0987ab65-43cd-21ef-09ab-87654321cdef
PS C:\> $cmk3 = arn:aws:kms:apsoutheast-1:111122223333:key/1a2b3c4d-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6f1a2b3c4d
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --encrypt --input D:\Logs\Finance.log `
--output D:\Archive --suffix `
--encryption-context class=log `
--metadata-output $home\Metadata.txt `
--master-keys key=$cmk1 key=$cmk2 key=$cmk3
This command decrypts the encrypted copy of the Finance.log file and writes it to a
Finance.log.clear file in the Finance directory.
When you decrypt data that was encrypted under AWS KMS CMKs, you cannot tell AWS KMS to use a
particular CMK to decrypt the data. The key attribute of the --master-keys parameter is not valid in
a decrypt command with the aws-kms provider. The AWS Encryption CLI can use any of the CMKs that
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were used to encrypt the data, provided that the AWS credentials you are using have permission to call
the Decrypt API on the master key. For more information, see Authentication and Access Control for
AWS KMS.
Bash
$ aws-encryption-cli --decrypt --input /archive/finance.log \
--output /finance --suffix '.clear' \
--metadata-output ~/metadata \
--encryption-context class=log
PowerShell
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --decrypt `
--input D:\Archive\Finance.log `
--output D:\Finance --suffix '.clear' `
--metadata-output .\Metadata\Metadata.txt `
--encryption-context class=log
Encrypting and Decrypting in Scripts
This example shows how to use the AWS Encryption CLI in scripts. You can write scripts that just encrypt
and decrypt data, or scripts that encrypt or decrypt as part of a data management process.
In this example, the script gets a collection of log files, compresses them, encrypts them, and then copies
the encrypted files to an Amazon S3 bucket. This script processes each file separately, so that you can
decrypt and expand them independently.
When you compress and encrypt files, be sure to compress before you encrypt. Properly encrypted data
is not compressible.
Warning
Be careful when compressing data that includes both secrets and data that might be controlled
by a malicious actor. The final size of the compressed data might inadvertently reveal sensitive
information about its contents.
You can find the complete scripts in the Examples directory of the aws-encryption-sdk-cli repository in
GitHub.
PowerShell
#Requires -Modules AWSPowerShell, Microsoft.PowerShell.Archive
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[ValidateScript({Test-Path $_})]
[String[]]
$FilePath,
[Parameter()]
[Switch]
$Recurse,
[Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
[String]
$masterKeyID,
[Parameter()]
[String]
$masterKeyProvider = 'aws-kms',
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[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[ValidateScript({Test-Path $_})]
[String]
$ZipDirectory,
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[ValidateScript({Test-Path $_})]
[String]
$EncryptDirectory,
[Parameter()]
[String]
$EncryptionContext,
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[ValidateScript({Test-Path $_})]
[String]
$MetadataDirectory,
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[ValidateScript({Test-S3Bucket -BucketName $_})]
[String]
$S3Bucket,
)
[Parameter()]
[String]
$S3BucketFolder
BEGIN {}
PROCESS {
if ($files = dir $FilePath -Recurse:$Recurse)
{
# Step 1: Compress
foreach ($file in $files)
{
$fileName = $file.Name
try
{
Microsoft.PowerShell.Archive\Compress-Archive -Path $file.FullName DestinationPath $ZipDirectory\$filename.zip
}
catch
{
Write-Error "Zip failed on $file.FullName"
}
# Step 2: Encrypt
if (-not (Test-Path "$ZipDirectory\$filename.zip"))
{
Write-Error "Cannot find zipped file: $ZipDirectory\$filename.zip"
}
else
{
# 2>&1 captures command output
$err = (aws-encryption-cli -e -i "$ZipDirectory\$filename.zip" `
-o $EncryptDirectory `
-m key=$masterKeyID provider=
$masterKeyProvider `
-c $EncryptionContext `
--metadata-output $MetadataDirectory `
-v) 2>&1
# Check error status
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if ($? -eq $false)
{
# Write the error
$err
}
elseif (Test-Path "$EncryptDirectory\$fileName.zip.encrypted")
{
# Step 3: Write to S3 bucket
if ($S3BucketFolder)
{
Write-S3Object -BucketName $S3Bucket -File "$EncryptDirectory\
$fileName.zip.encrypted" -Key "$S3BucketFolder/$fileName.zip.encrypted"
}
else
{
Write-S3Object -BucketName $S3Bucket -File "$EncryptDirectory\
$fileName.zip.encrypted"
}
}
}
}
}
}
Using Data Key Caching
This example uses data key caching (p. 55) in a command that encrypts a large number of files.
By default, the AWS Encryption CLI (and other versions of the AWS Encryption SDK) generates a
unique data key for each file that it encrypts. Although using a unique data key for each operation is
a cryptographic best practice, limited reuse of data keys is acceptable for some situations. If you are
considering data key caching, consult with a security engineer to understand the security requirements
of your application and determine security thresholds that are right for you.
In this example, data key caching speeds up the encryption operation by reducing the frequency of
requests to the master key provider.
The command in this example encrypts a large directory with multiple subdirectories that contain a total
of approximately 800 small log files. The first command saves the ARN of the CMK in a cmkARN variable.
The second command encrypts all of the files in the input directory (recursively) and writes them to an
archive directory. The command uses the --suffix parameter to specify the .archive suffix.
The --caching parameter enables data key caching. The capacity attribute, which limits the number
of data keys in the cache, is set to 1, because serial file processing never uses more than one data key at
a time. The max_age attribute, which determines how long the cached data key can used, is set to 10
seconds.
The optional max_messages_encrypted attribute is set to 10 messages, so a single data key is never
used to encrypt more than 10 files. Limiting the number of files encrypted by each data key reduces the
number of files that would be affected in the unlikely event that a data key was compromised.
To run this command on log files that your operating system generates, you might need administrator
permissions (sudo in Linux; Run as Administrator in Windows).
Bash
$
cmkArn=arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
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$
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt \
--input /var/log/httpd --recursive \
--output ~/archive --suffix .archive \
--master-keys key=$cmkArn \
--encryption-context class=log \
--suppress-metadata \
--caching capacity=1 max_age=10 max_messages_encrypted=10
PowerShell
PS C:\> $cmkArn = arn:aws:kms:uswest-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab
PS C:\> aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input C:\Windows\Logs --recursive `
--output $home\Archive --suffix '.archive' `
--master-keys key=$cmkARN `
--encryption-context class=log `
--suppress-metadata `
--caching capacity=1 max_age=10 max_messages_encrypted=10
To test the effect of data key caching, this example uses the Measure-Command cmdlet in PowerShell.
When you run this example without data key caching, it takes about 25 seconds to complete. This
process generates a new data key for each file in the directory.
PS C:\> Measure-Command {aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input C:\Windows\Logs --recursive `
--output $home\Archive --suffix '.archive' `
--master-keys key=$cmkARN `
--encryption-context class=log `
--suppress-metadata }
Days
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Milliseconds
Ticks
TotalDays
TotalHours
TotalMinutes
TotalSeconds
TotalMilliseconds
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
0
25
453
254531202
0.000294596298611111
0.00707031116666667
0.42421867
25.4531202
25453.1202
Data key caching makes the process quicker, even when you limit each data key to a maximum of 10
files. The command now takes less than 12 seconds to complete and reduces the number of calls to the
master key provider to 1/10 of the original value.
PS C:\> Measure-Command {aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input C:\Windows\Logs --recursive `
--output $home\Archive --suffix '.archive' `
--master-keys key=$cmkARN `
--encryption-context class=log `
--suppress-metadata `
--caching capacity=1 max_age=10
max_messages_encrypted=10}
Days
Hours
: 0
: 0
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Syntax and Parameter Reference
Minutes
Seconds
Milliseconds
Ticks
TotalDays
TotalHours
TotalMinutes
TotalSeconds
TotalMilliseconds
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
11
813
118132640
0.000136727592592593
0.00328146222222222
0.196887733333333
11.813264
11813.264
If you eliminate the max_messages_encrypted restriction, all files are encrypted under the same
data key. This change increases the risk of reusing data keys without making the process much faster.
However, it reduces the number of calls to the master key provider to 1.
PS C:\> Measure-Command {aws-encryption-cli --encrypt `
--input C:\Windows\Logs --recursive `
--output $home\Archive --suffix '.archive' `
--master-keys key=$cmkARN `
--encryption-context class=log `
--suppress-metadata `
--caching capacity=1 max_age=10}
Days
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Milliseconds
Ticks
TotalDays
TotalHours
TotalMinutes
TotalSeconds
TotalMilliseconds
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
0
10
252
102523367
0.000118661304398148
0.00284787130555556
0.170872278333333
10.2523367
10252.3367
AWS Encryption SDK CLI Syntax and Parameter
Reference
This topic provides syntax diagrams and brief parameter descriptions to help you use the AWS
Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (CLI). For help with master keys and other parameters, see How
to Use the AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 29). For example, see Examples of the
AWS Encryption SDK Command Line Interface (p. 36). For complete documentation, see Read the
Docs.
Topics
• AWS Encryption CLI Syntax (p. 49)
• AWS Encryption CLI Command Line Parameters (p. 51)
• Advanced Parameters (p. 54)
AWS Encryption CLI Syntax
These AWS Encryption CLI syntax diagrams show the syntax for each task that you perform with the AWS
Encryption CLI.
Get Help
To get the full AWS Encryption CLI syntax with parameter descriptions, use --help or -h.
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aws-encryption-cli (--help | -h)
Get the Version
To get the version number of your AWS Encryption CLI installation, use --version. Be sure to
include the version when you ask questions, report problems, or share tips about using the AWS
Encryption CLI.
aws-encryption-cli --version
Encrypt Data
The following syntax diagram shows the parameters that an encrypt command uses.
aws-encryption-cli --encrypt
--input <input> [--recursive] [--decode]
--output <output> [--interactive] [--no-overwrite] [--suffix
[<suffix>]] [--encode]
--master-keys [--master-keys ...]
key=<keyID> [provider=<provider-name>] [region=<aws-region>]
[profile=<aws-profile>]
--metadata-output <location> [--overwrite-metadata] | --suppressmetadata
[--encryption-context <encryption_context> [<encryption_context>
...]]
[--algorithm <algorithm_suite>]
[--caching <attributes>]
[--frame-length <length>]
[-v | -vv | -vvv | -vvvv]
[--quiet]
Decrypt Data
The following syntax diagram shows the parameters that a decrypt command uses.
aws-encryption-cli --decrypt
--input <input> [--recursive] [--decode]
--output <output> [--interactive] [--no-overwrite] [--suffix
[<suffix>]] [--encode]
--metadata-output <location> [--overwrite-metadata] | --suppressmetadata
[--master-keys [--master-keys ...]
[key=<keyID>] [provider=<provider-name>] [region=<aws-region>]
[profile=<aws-profile>]]
[--encryption-context <encryption_context> [<encryption_context>
...]]
[--caching <attributes>]
[--max-length <length>]
[-v | -vv | -vvv | -vvvv]
[--quiet]
Use Configuration Files
You can refer to configuration files that contain parameters and their values. This is equivalent to
typing the parameters and values in the command. For an example, see How to Store Parameters in
a Configuration File (p. 34).
aws-encryption-cli @<configuration_file>
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# In a PowerShell console, use a backtick to escape the @.
aws-encryption-cli `@<configuration_file>
AWS Encryption CLI Command Line Parameters
This list provides a basic description of the AWS Encryption CLI command parameters. For a complete
description, see the aws-encryption-sdk-cli documentation.
--encrypt (-e)
Encrypts the input data. Every command must have an --encrypt or --decrypt parameter.
--decrypt (-d)
Decrypts the input data. Every command must have an --encrypt or --decrypt parameter.
--master-keys (-m)
Specifies the master keys (p. 6) used in encryption and decryption operations. You can use multiple
master keys parameters in each command.
The --master-keys parameter is required in encrypt commands. It is required in decrypt
commands only when you are using a custom master key provider.
Attributes: The value of the --master-keys parameter consists of the following attributes. The
format is attribute_name=value.
key
Identifies the master key. The format is a key=ID pair.
The key attribute is required in all encrypt commands. When you use an AWS KMS customer
master key (CMK) in an encrypt command, the value of the key attribute can be a CMK ID or
Amazon Resource Name (ARN), an alias, or an alias ARN.
The key attribute is required in decrypt commands when the master key provider is not AWS
KMS. The key attribute is not permitted in commands that decrypt data that was encrypted
under an AWS KMS CMK.
You can specify multiple key attributes in each --master-keys parameter value. However,
any provider, region, and profile attributes apply to all master keys in the parameter value. To
specify master keys with different attribute values, use multiple --master-keys parameters in
the command.
provider
Identifies the master key provider (p. 7). The format is a provider=ID pair. The default value,
aws-kms, represents AWS KMS. This attribute is required only when the master key provider is
not AWS KMS.
region
Identifies the AWS Region of an AWS KMS CMK. This attribute is valid only for AWS KMS CMKs. It
is used only when the key identifier does not specify a region; otherwise, it is ignored. When it is
used, it overrides the default region in the AWS CLI named profile.
profile
Identifies an AWS CLI named profile. This attribute is valid only for AWS KMS CMKs. The region
in the profile is used only when the key identifier does not specify a region and there is no
region attribute in the command.
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--input (-i)
Specifies the location of the data to encrypt or decrypt. This parameter is required. The value can be
a path to a file or directory, or a file name pattern. If you are piping input to the command (stdin),
use -.
If the input does not exist, the command completes successfully without error or warning.
--recursive (-r, -R)
Performs the operation on files in the input directory and its subdirectories. This parameter is
required when the value of --input is a directory.
--decode
Decodes Base64-encoded input.
If you are decrypting a message that was encrypted and then encoded, you must decode the
message before decrypting it. This parameter does that for you.
For example, if you used the --encode parameter in an encrypt command, use the --decode
parameter in the corresponding decrypt command. You can also use this parameter to decode
Base64-encoded input before you encrypt it.
--output (-o)
Specifies a destination for the output. This parameter is required. The value can be a file name, an
existing directory, or -, which writes output to the command line (stdout).
If the specified output directory does not exist, the command fails. If the input contains
subdirectories, the AWS Encryption CLI reproduces the subdirectories under the output directory
that you specify.
By default, the AWS Encryption CLI overwrites files with the same name. To change that behavior,
use the --interactive or --no-overwrite parameters. To suppress the overwrite warning, use
the --quiet parameter.
Note
If a command that would overwrite an output file fails, the output file is deleted.
--interactive
Prompts before overwriting the file.
--no-overwrite
Does not overwrite files. Instead, if the output file exists, the AWS Encryption CLI skips the
corresponding input.
--suffix
Specifies a custom file name suffix for files that the AWS Encryption CLI creates. To indicate no
suffix, use the parameter with no value (--suffix).
By default, when the --output parameter does not specify a file name, the output file name
has the same name as the input file name plus the suffix. The suffix for encrypt commands is
.encrypted. The suffix for decrypt commands is .decrypted.
--encode
Applies Base64 (binary to text) encoding to the output. Encoding prevents the shell host
program from misinterpreting non-ASCII characters in output text.
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Use this parameter when writing encrypted output to stdout (--output -), especially in a
PowerShell console, even when you are piping the output to another command or saving it in a
variable.
--metadata-output
Specifies a location for metadata about the cryptographic operations. Enter a path and file name. If
the directory does not exist, the command fails. To write the metadata to the command line (stdout),
use -.
You cannot write command output (--output) and metadata output (--metadata-output) to
stdout in the same command. Also, when the value of --input or --output is a directory (without
file names), you cannot write the metadata output to the same directory or to any subdirectory of
that directory.
If you specify an existing file, by default, the AWS Encryption CLI appends new metadata records to
any content in the file. This feature lets you create a single file that contains the metadata for all of
your cryptographic operations. To overwrite the content in an existing file, use the --overwritemetadata parameter.
The AWS Encryption CLI returns a JSON-formatted metadata record for each encryption or
decryption operation that the command performs. Each metadata record includes the full paths
to the input and output file, the encryption context, the algorithm suite, and other valuable
information that you can use to review the operation and verify that it meets your security
standards.
--overwrite-metadata
Overwrites the content in the metadata output file. By default, the --metadata-output
parameter appends metadata to any existing content in the file.
--suppress-metadata (-S)
Suppresses the metadata about the encryption or decryption operation.
--encryption-context (-c)
Specifies an encryption context (p. 33) for the operation. This parameter is not required, but it is
recommended.
• In an --encrypt command, enter one or more name=value pairs. Use spaces to separate the
pairs.
• In a decrypt command, enter name=value pairs, name elements with no values, or both.
If the name or value in a name=value pair includes spaces or special characters, enclose the
entire pair in quotation marks. For example, --encryption-context "department=software
development".
--help (-h)
Prints usage and syntax at the command line.
--version
Gets the version of the AWS Encryption CLI.
-v | -vv | -vvv | -vvvv
Displays verbose information, warning, and debugging messages. The detail in the output increases
with the number of vs in the parameter. The most detailed setting (-vvvv) returns debugging-level
data from the AWS Encryption CLI and all of the components that it uses.
--quiet (-q)
Suppresses warning messages, such as the message that appears when you overwrite an output file.
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Advanced Parameters
--algorithm
Specifies an alternate algorithm suite (p. 7). This parameter is optional and valid only in encrypt
commands. By default, the AWS Encryption CLI uses the default algorithm suite for the AWS
Encryption SDK, which is AES-GCM with an HKDF, an ECDSA signature, and a 256-bit encryption key.
This algorithm suite is recommended for most encryption operations. For a list of alternate values,
see Read the Docs.
--frame-length
Creates output with specified frame length. Enter a value in bytes. This parameter is optional and
valid only in encrypt commands.
--max-length
Indicates the maximum frame size (or maximum content length for non-framed messages) in bytes
to read from encrypted messages. This parameter is optional and valid only in decrypt commands. It
is designed to protect you from decrypting extremely large malicious ciphertext.
--caching
Enables the data key caching (p. 55) feature, which reuses data keys, instead of generating a new
data key for each input file. This parameter supports an advanced scenario. Be sure to read the Data
Key Caching (p. 55) documentation before using this feature.
The --caching parameter has the following attributes.
capacity (required)
Determines the maximum number of entries in the cache.
max_age (required)
Determine how long cache entries are used, beginning when they are added to the cache.
max_messages_encrypted
Determines the maximum number of messages that a cached entry can encrypt.
max_bytes_encrypted
Determines the maximum number of bytes that a cached entry can encrypt.
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How to Implement Data Key Caching
Data Key Caching
Data key caching stores data keys (p. 6) and related cryptographic material (p. 65) in a cache. When
you encrypt or decrypt data, the AWS Encryption SDK looks for a matching data key in the cache. If
it finds a match, it uses the cached data key rather than generating a new one. Data key caching can
improve performance, reduce cost, and help you stay within service limits as your application scales.
Your application can benefit from data key caching if:
• It can reuse data keys.
• It generates numerous data keys.
• Your cryptographic operations are unacceptably slow, expensive, limited, or resource-intensive.
Caching can reduce your use of cryptographic services, such as AWS Key Management Service (AWS
KMS). If you are hitting your AWS KMS requests-per-second limit, caching can help. Your application can
use cached keys to service some of your data key requests instead of calling AWS KMS. (You can also
create a case in the AWS Support Center to raise the limit for your account.)
The AWS Encryption SDK helps you to create and manage your data key cache. It provides a
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) and a caching cryptographic materials manager (p. 65) that
interacts with the cache and enforces security thresholds (p. 60) that you set. Working together, these
components help you to benefit from the efficiency of reusing data keys while maintaining the security
of your system.
Data key caching is an optional feature of the AWS Encryption SDK that you should use cautiously.
By default, the AWS Encryption SDK generates a new data key for every encryption operation. This
technique supports cryptographic best practices, which discourage excessive reuse of data keys. In
general, use data key caching only when it is required to meet your performance goals. Then, use the
data key caching security thresholds (p. 60) to ensure that you use the minimum amount of caching
required to meet your cost and performance goals.
For a detailed discussion of these security tradeoffs, see AWS Encryption SDK: How to Decide if Data Key
Caching is Right for Your Application in the AWS Security Blog.
Topics
• How to Implement Data Key Caching (p. 55)
• Setting Cache Security Thresholds (p. 60)
• Data Key Caching Details (p. 61)
• Data Key Caching Example (p. 66)
How to Implement Data Key Caching
This topic shows you how to implement data key caching in your application. It takes you through the
process step by step. Then, it combines the steps in a simple example that uses data key caching in an
operation to encrypt a string.
Topics
55
AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Implement Data Key Caching: Step-by-Step
• Implement Data Key Caching: Step-by-Step (p. 56)
• Data Key Caching Example: Encrypt a String (p. 58)
Implement Data Key Caching: Step-by-Step
These step-by-step instructions show you how to create the components that you need to implement
data key caching.
• Create a data key cache (p. 64), such as a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache.
Java
//Cache capacity (maximum number of entries) is required
int MAX_CACHE_SIZE = 10;
CryptoMaterialsCache cache = new LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(MAX_CACHE_SIZE);
Python
# Cache capacity (maximum number of entries) is required
MAX_CACHE_SIZE = 10
cache = LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(MAX_CACHE_SIZE)
• Create a master key provider (p. 7). This example uses an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)
master key provider.
Java
//Create a KMS master key provider
// The input is the Amazon Resource Name (ARN)
// of a KMS customer master key (CMK)
MasterKeyProvider<KmsMasterKey> keyProvider = new KmsMasterKeyProvider(kmsCmkArn);
Python
# Create a KMS master key provider
# The input is the Amazon Resource Name (ARN)
# of a KMS customer master key (CMK)
key_provider = aws_encryption_sdk.KMSMasterKeyProvider(key_ids=[kms_cmk_arn])
• Create a caching cryptographic materials manager (p. 65) (caching CMM).
Associate your caching CMM with your cache and master key provider. Then, set cache security
thresholds (p. 60) on the caching CMM.
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Implement Data Key Caching: Step-by-Step
Java
/*
* Security thresholds
*
Max entry age is required.
*
Max messages (and max bytes) per entry are optional
*/
int MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS = 60;
int MAX_ENTRY_MSGS = 10;
//Create a caching CMM
CryptoMaterialsManager cachingCmm =
CachingCryptoMaterialsManager.newBuilder().withMasterKeyProvider(keyProvider)
.withCache(cache)
.withMaxAge(MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
.withMessageUseLimit(MAX_ENTRY_MSGS)
.build();
Python
# Security thresholds
#
Max entry age is required.
#
Max messages (and max bytes) per entry are optional
#
MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS = 60.0
MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES = 10
# Create a caching CMM
caching_cmm = CachingCryptoMaterialsManager(
master_key_provider=key_provider,
cache=cache,
max_age=MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS,
max_messages_encrypted=MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES
)
That's all you need to do. Then, let the AWS Encryption SDK manage the cache for you, or add your own
cache management logic.
When you want to use data key caching in a call to encrypt or decrypt data, specify your caching CMM
instead of a master key provider or other CMM.
Note
If you are encrypting data streams, or any data of unknown size, be sure to specify the data size
in the request. The AWS Encryption SDK does not use data key caching when encrypting data of
unknown size.
Java
// When the call to encryptData specifies a caching CMM,
// the encryption operation uses the data key cache
//
final AwsCrypto encryptionSdk = new AwsCrypto();
byte[] message = new AwsCrypto().encryptData(cachingCmm, plaintext_source).getResult();
Python
# When the call to encrypt specifies a caching CMM,
# the encryption operation uses the data key cache
#
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Data Key Caching Example: Encrypt a String
encrypted_message, header = aws_encryption_sdk.encrypt(
source=plaintext_source,
materials_manager=caching_cmm
)
Data Key Caching Example: Encrypt a String
This simple code example uses data key caching when encrypting a string. It combines the code from the
step-by-step procedure (p. 56) into test code that you can run.
The example creates a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) and a master key provider (p. 7) for an AWS
KMS customer master key (CMK). Then, it uses the cache and master key provider to create a caching
CMM with appropriate security thresholds (p. 60). The encryption request specifies the caching CMM,
the plaintext data to encrypt, and an encryption context (p. 66).
To run the example, you need to supply the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of a KMS CMK. Be sure that
you have permission to use the CMK to generate a data key.
For more detailed, real-world examples of creating and using a data key cache, see Data Key Caching
Example in Java (p. 68) and Data Key Caching Example in Python (p. 72).
Java
/*
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS
IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
License for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
import
import
import
import
java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
java.util.Collections;
java.util.Map;
java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import javax.xml.bind.DatatypeConverter;
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoMaterialsManager;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.MasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.CachingCryptoMaterialsManager;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.CryptoMaterialsCache;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.LocalCryptoMaterialsCache;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKey;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKeyProvider;
/**
* <p>
* Encrypts a string using an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK) and data key caching
*
* <p>
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Data Key Caching Example: Encrypt a String
* Arguments:
* <ol>
* <li>KMS CMK ARN: To find the Amazon Resource Name of your AWS KMS customer master
key (CMK),
*
see 'Viewing Keys' at http://docs.aws.amazon.com/kms/latest/developerguide/
viewing-keys.html
* <li>Max entry age: Maximum time (in seconds) that a cached entry can be used
* <li>Cache capacity: Maximum number of entries in the cache
* </ol>
*/
public class SimpleDataKeyCachingExample {
/*
* Security thresholds
*
Max entry age is required.
*
Max messages (and max bytes) per data key are optional
*/
private static final int MAX_ENTRY_MSGS = 100;
public static byte[] encryptWithCaching(String kmsCmkArn, int maxEntryAge, int
cacheCapacity) {
// Plaintext data to be encrypted
byte[] myData = "My plaintext data".getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
// Encryption context
final Map<String, String> encryptionContext =
Collections.singletonMap("purpose", "test");
// Create a master key provider
MasterKeyProvider<KmsMasterKey> keyProvider = new
KmsMasterKeyProvider(kmsCmkArn);
// Create a cache
CryptoMaterialsCache cache = new LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(cacheCapacity);
// Create a caching CMM
CryptoMaterialsManager cachingCmm =
CachingCryptoMaterialsManager.newBuilder().withMasterKeyProvider(keyProvider)
.withCache(cache)
.withMaxAge(maxEntryAge, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
.withMessageUseLimit(MAX_ENTRY_MSGS)
.build();
// When the call to encryptData specifies a caching CMM,
// the encryption operation uses the data key cache
//
final AwsCrypto encryptionSdk = new AwsCrypto();
return encryptionSdk.encryptData(cachingCmm, myData,
encryptionContext).getResult();
}
Python
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You
may not use this file except in compliance with the License. A copy of
the License is located at
http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is
distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF
ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific
59
AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Setting Cache Security Thresholds
# language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""Example of basic configuration and use of data key caching."""
import aws_encryption_sdk
def encrypt_with_caching(kms_cmk_arn, max_age_in_cache, cache_capacity):
"""Encrypts a string using an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK) and data key
caching.
:param str kms_cmk_arn: Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the KMS customer master key
:param float max_age_in_cache: Maximum time in seconds that a cached entry can be
used
:param int cache_capacity: Maximum number of entries in the cache
"""
# Data to be encrypted
my_data = 'My plaintext data'
# Security thresholds
#
Max messages (and max bytes) per data key are optional
MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES = 100
# Create an encryption context.
encryption_context = {'purpose': 'test'}
# Create a master key provider for the KMS master key
key_provider = aws_encryption_sdk.KMSMasterKeyProvider(key_ids=[kms_cmk_arn])
# Create a cache
cache = aws_encryption_sdk.LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(cache_capacity)
# Create a caching CMM
caching_cmm = aws_encryption_sdk.CachingCryptoMaterialsManager(
master_key_provider=key_provider,
cache=cache,
max_age=max_age_in_cache,
max_messages_encrypted=MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES
)
# When the encrypt request specifies a caching CMM,
# the encryption operation uses the data key cache
encrypted_message, _header = aws_encryption_sdk.encrypt(
source=my_data,
materials_manager=caching_cmm,
encryption_context=encryption_context
)
return encrypted_message
Setting Cache Security Thresholds
When you implement data key caching, you need to configure the security thresholds that the caching
CMM (p. 65) enforces.
The security thresholds help you to limit how long each cached data key is used and how much data is
protected under each data key. The caching CMM returns cached data keys only when the cache entry
conforms to all of the security thresholds. If the cache entry exceeds any threshold, the entry is not used
for the current operation and it is evicted from the cache.
As a rule, use the minimum amount of caching that is required to meet your cost and performance goals.
The AWS Encryption SDK only caches data keys that are encrypted by using a key derivation function.
Also, it establishes upper limits for the threshold values. These restrictions ensure that data keys are
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Data Key Caching Details
not reused beyond their cryptographic limits. However, because your plaintext data keys are cached (in
memory, by default), try to minimize the time that the keys are saved . Also, try to limit the data that
might be exposed if a key is compromised.
For examples of setting cache security thresholds, see AWS Encryption SDK: How to Decide if Data Key
Caching is Right for Your Application in the AWS Security Blog.
Note
The caching CMM enforces all of the following thresholds. If you do not specify an optional
value, the caching CMM uses the default value.
To disable data key caching temporarily, do not set the cache capacity (p. 64) or security
thresholds to 0. Instead, use the null cryptographic materials cache (NullCryptoMaterialsCache)
that the AWS Encryption SDK provides. The NullCryptoMaterialsCache returns a miss for every
get request and does not respond to put requests. For more information, see the SDK for your
programming language (p. 12).
Maximum age (required)
Determines how long a cached entry can be used, beginning when it was added. This value is
required. Enter a value greater than 0. There is no maximum value.
The LocalCryptoMaterialsCache tries to evict cache entries as soon as possible after they reach the
maximum age value. Other conforming caches might perform differently.
Use the shortest interval that still allows your application to benefit from the cache. You can use
the maximum age threshold like a key rotation policy. Use it to limit reuse of data keys, minimize
exposure of cryptographic materials, and evict data keys whose policies might have changed while
they were cached.
Maximum messages encrypted (optional)
Specifies the maximum number of messages that a cached data key can encrypt. This value is
optional. Enter a value between 1 and 2^32 messages. The default value is 2^32 messages.
Set the number of messages protected by each cached key to be large enough to get value
from reuse, but small enough to limit the number of messages that might be exposed if a key is
compromised.
Maximum bytes encrypted (optional)
Specifies the maximum number of bytes that a cached data key can encrypt. This value is optional.
Enter a value between 0 and 2^63 - 1. The default value is 2^63 - 1. A value of 0 lets you encrypt
empty message strings.
The first use of each data key (before caching) is exempt from this threshold. Also, to enforce this
threshold, requests to encrypt data of unknown size, such as streamed data with no length specifier,
do not use the data key cache.
The bytes in the current request are included when evaluating this threshold. If the bytes processed,
plus current bytes, exceed the threshold, the cached data key is evicted from the cache, even though
it might have been used on a smaller request.
Data Key Caching Details
Most applications can use the default implementation of data key caching without writing custom code.
This section describes the default implementation and some details about options.
Topics
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
How Data Key Caching Works
• How Data Key Caching Works (p. 62)
• Creating a Cryptographic Materials Cache (p. 64)
• Creating a Caching Cryptographic Materials Manager (p. 65)
• What Is in a Data Key Cache Entry? (p. 65)
• Encryption Context: How to Select Cache Entries (p. 66)
How Data Key Caching Works
When you use data key caching in a request to encrypt or decrypt data, the AWS Encryption SDK first
searches the cache for a data key that matches the request. If it finds a valid match, it uses the cached
data key to encrypt the data. Otherwise, it generates a new data key, just as it would without the cache.
In addition to a cache, data key caching uses a caching cryptographic materials manager (p. 65)
(caching CMM). The caching CMM is a specialized cryptographic materials manager (CMM) (p. 7) that
interacts with a cache (p. 64) and an underlying CMM (p. 7) or master key provider (p. 7). The caching
CMM caches the data keys that its underlying CMM (or master key provider) returns. The caching CMM
also enforces cache security thresholds that you set.
To prevent the wrong data key from being selected from the cache, each caching CMM requires that
several properties of each cached data key match the materials request, as follows:
• For encryption material requests, the cached entry and the request must have the same algorithm
suite (p. 7), encryption context (p. 66) (even when empty), and partition name (a string that
identifies the caching CMM).
• For decryption material requests, the cached entry and the request must have the same algorithm
suite (p. 7), encryption context (p. 66) (even when empty), and partition name (a string that
identifies the caching CMM).
Note
The AWS Encryption SDK caches data keys only when the algorithm suite (p. 7) uses a key
derivation function.
Data key caching is not used for data of unknown size, such as streamed data. This allows
the caching CMM to properly enforce the maximum bytes threshold (p. 60). To avoid this
behavior, add the data length to the encryption request.
The following workflows show how a request to encrypt data is processed with and without data key
caching. They show how the caching components that you create, including the cache and the caching
CMM, are used in the process.
Encrypt Data without Caching
To generate a data key without caching:
1. An application asks the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt data.
The request specifies a cryptographic materials manager (CMM) or master key provider. If you specify
a master key provider, the AWS Encryption SDK creates a default CMM that interacts with the master
key provider you specified.
2. The AWS Encryption SDK asks the CMM for a data key to encrypt the data (get cryptographic
materials).
3. The CMM asks its master key provider for master keys (p. 6) (or objects that represent master
keys). Then, it uses the master keys to generate a new data key (p. 6). This might involve a call to a
cryptographic service, such as AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). The CMM returns plaintext
and encrypted copies of the data key to the AWS Encryption SDK.
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How Data Key Caching Works
4. The AWS Encryption SDK uses the plaintext data key to encrypt the data and it returns an encrypted
message (p. 8) to the user.
Encrypt Data with Caching
To generate a data key with data key caching:
1. An application asks the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt data.
The request specifies a caching cryptographic materials manager (caching CMM) (p. 65) that is
associated with a default cryptographic materials manager (CMM) or a master key provider. If you
specify a master key provider, the SDK creates a default CMM for you.
2. The SDK asks the specified caching CMM for a data key to encrypt the data (get cryptographic
materials).
3. The caching CMM requests a data key from the cache.
a. If the cache finds a match, it updates the age and use values of the matched cache entry, and
returns the cached data key to the caching CMM.
If the cache entry conforms to its security thresholds (p. 60), the caching CMM returns it to the
SDK. Otherwise, it tells the cache to evict the entry and proceeds as though there was no match.
b. If the cache cannot find a valid match, the caching CMM asks its underlying CMM to generate a new
data key.
The CMM gets master keys (or objects that represent master keys) from its master key provider and
it uses them to generate a new data key. This might involve a call to a service, such as AWS Key
Management Service. The CMM returns the plaintext and encrypted copies of the data key to the
caching CMM.
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Creating a Cryptographic Materials Cache
The caching CMM saves the new data key in the cache.
4. The caching CMM returns plaintext and encrypted copies of the data key to the AWS Encryption SDK.
5. The AWS Encryption SDK uses the data key to encrypt the data and it returns an encrypted
message (p. 8) to the user.
Creating a Cryptographic Materials Cache
The AWS Encryption SDK defines the requirements for a cryptographic materials cache used in data key
caching. It also provides LocalCryptoMaterialsCache, a configurable, in-memory, least recently used (LRU)
cache, and a null cryptographic materials cache for testing.
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache includes logic for basic cache management, including adding, evicting,
and matching cached entries, and maintaining the cache. You don't need to write any custom cache
management logic. You can use LocalCryptoMaterialsCache as is, customize it, or substitute any
compatible cache.
When you create a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache, you set its capacity, that is, the maximum number of
entries that the cache can hold. This setting helps you to design an efficient cache with limited data key
reuse.
The AWS Encryption SDK also provides a null cryptographic materials cache (NullCryptoMaterialsCache).
The NullCryptoMaterialsCache returns a miss for all get operations and does not respond to put
operations. You can use the NullCryptoMaterialsCache in testing or to temporarily disable caching in an
application that includes caching code.
In the AWS Encryption SDK, each cryptographic materials cache is associated with a caching
cryptographic materials manager (p. 65) (caching CMM). The caching CMM gets data keys from the
cache, puts data keys in the cache, and enforces security thresholds (p. 60) that you set. When you
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Creating a Caching Cryptographic Materials Manager
create a caching CMM, you specify the cache that it uses and the underlying CMM or master key provider
that generates the data keys that it caches.
Creating a Caching Cryptographic Materials Manager
To enable data key caching, you create a cache (p. 64) and a caching cryptographic materials manager
(caching CMM). Then, in your requests to encrypt or decrypt data, you specify a caching CMM, instead of
a standard cryptographic materials manager (CMM) (p. 7) or master key provider (p. 7) .
There are two types of CMMs. Both get data keys (and related cryptographic material), but in different
ways, as follows:
• A CMM is associated with a master key provider. When the SDK asks the CMM for data keys (get
encryption materials), the CMM gets master keys (or objects that represent master keys) from its
master key provider. Then, it uses the master keys to generate, encrypt, or decrypt the data keys.
• A caching CMM is associated with one cache, such as a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64), and a
CMM or master key provider. (If you specify a master key provider, the SDK creates a default CMM
for the master key provider.) When the SDK asks the caching CMM for data keys, the caching CMM
tries to get them from the cache. If it cannot find a valid, matching data key, the caching CMM asks its
underlying CMM for the data keys. Then, it caches those data keys before returning them to the caller.
The caching CMM also enforces security thresholds (p. 60) that you set for each cache entry. Because
the security thresholds are set in and enforced by the caching CMM, you can use any compatible cache,
even if the cache is not designed for sensitive material.
For details about creating and managing CMMs and caching CMMs in your application, see the SDK for
your programming language (p. 12).
What Is in a Data Key Cache Entry?
Data key caching stores data keys and related cryptographic materials in a cache. Each entry includes
the elements listed below. You might find this information useful when you're deciding whether to use
the data key caching feature, and when you're setting security thresholds on a caching cryptographic
materials manager (caching CMM).
Cached Entries for Encryption Requests
The entries that are added to a data key cache as a result of a encryption operation include the following
elements:
• Plaintext data key
• Encrypted data keys (one or more)
• Encryption context (p. 66)
• Message signing key (if one is used)
• Algorithm suite (p. 7)
• Metadata, including usage counters for enforcing security thresholds
Cached Entries for Decryption Requests
The entries that are added to a data key cache as a result of a decryption operation include the following
elements:
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Encryption Context: How to Select Cache Entries
• Plaintext data key
• Signature verification key (if one is used)
• Metadata, including usage counters for enforcing security thresholds
Encryption Context: How to Select Cache Entries
You can specify an encryption context in any request to encrypt data. However, the encryption context
plays a special role in data key caching. It lets you create subgroups of data keys in your cache, even
when the data keys originate from the same caching CMM.
An encryption context (p. 8) is a set of key-value pairs that contain arbitrary nonsecret data. During
encryption, the encryption context is cryptographically bound to the encrypted data so that the same
encryption context is required to decrypt the data. In the AWS Encryption SDK, the encryption context is
stored in the encrypted message (p. 8) along with the encrypted data and data keys.
When you use a data key cache, you can also use the encryption context to select particular cached data
keys for your encryption operations. The encryption context is saved in the cache entry with the data key
(it's part of the cache entry ID). Cached data keys are reused only when their encryption contexts match.
If you want to reuse certain data keys for an encryption request, specify the same encryption context. If
you want to avoid those data keys, specify a different encryption context.
The encryption context is always optional, but recommended. If you don't specify an encryption context
in your request, an empty encryption context is included in the cache entry identifier and matched to
each request.
Data Key Caching Example
This example uses data key caching (p. 55) with a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) to speed up an
application in which data generated by multiple devices is encrypted and stored in different regions.
In this scenario, multiple data producers generate data, encrypt it, and write to a Kinesis stream in
each region. AWS Lambda functions (consumers) decrypt the streams and write plaintext data to a
DynamoDB table in the region. Data producers and consumers use the AWS Encryption SDK and a
KMS master key provider (p. 7). To reduce calls to KMS, each producer and consumer has their own
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache.
You can find the source code for these examples in Java (p. 68) and Python (p. 72). The sample also
includes a AWS CloudFormation template that defines the resources for the samples.
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LocalCryptoMaterialsCache Results
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache Results
The following table shows that LocalCryptoMaterialsCache reduces the total calls to KMS (per second per
region) in this example to 1% of its original value.
Producer requests
No cache
Requests per second per client
Clients per
region
Average
requests per
second per
region
Generate data
key (us-west-2)
Encrypt data
key (eucentral-1)
Total (per
region)
1
1
1
500
500
1 rps / 100
uses
1 rps / 100
uses
500
5
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache
1 rps / 100
uses
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Consumer requests
No cache
Requests per second per client
Client per
region
Average
requests per
second per
region
Decrypt data
key
Producers
Total
1 rps per
producer
500
500
2
1,000
500
5
2
10
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache
1 rps per
producer / 100
uses
Data Key Caching Example in Java
This code sample creates a basic implementation of data key caching with a
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) in Java. For details about the Java implementation of the AWS
Encryption SDK, see AWS Encryption SDK for Java (p. 12).
The code creates two instances of a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache; one for data producers that are
encrypting data and another for data consumers (Lambda functions) that are decrypting data. For
implementation details, see the Javadoc for the AWS Encryption SDK.
Producer
The producer gets a map, converts it to JSON, uses the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt it, and pushes
the ciphertext record to a Kinesis stream in each region.
The code defines a caching cryptographic materials manager (p. 65) (caching CMM) and associates
it with a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) and an underlying KMS master key provider (p. 7). The
caching CMM caches the data keys (and related cryptographic materials (p. 65)) from the master key
provider. It also interacts with the cache on behalf of the SDK and enforces security thresholds that you
set.
Because the call to the encryptData method specifies a caching CMM, instead of a regular
cryptographic materials manager (CMM) (p. 7) or master key provider, the method will use data key
caching.
/*
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
package com.amazonaws.crypto.examples.kinesisdatakeycaching;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.util.ArrayList;
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import
import
import
import
import
java.util.HashMap;
java.util.List;
java.util.Map;
java.util.UUID;
java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
com.amazonaws.ClientConfiguration;
com.amazonaws.auth.DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoResult;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.MasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.CachingCryptoMaterialsManager;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.LocalCryptoMaterialsCache;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKey;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.multi.MultipleProviderFactory;
com.amazonaws.regions.Region;
com.amazonaws.services.kinesis.AmazonKinesis;
com.amazonaws.services.kinesis.AmazonKinesisClientBuilder;
com.amazonaws.util.json.Jackson;
/**
* Pushes data to Kinesis Streams in multiple regions.
*/
public class MultiRegionRecordPusher {
private static long MAX_ENTRY_AGE_MILLISECONDS = 300000;
private static long MAX_ENTRY_USES = 100;
private static int MAX_CACHE_ENTRIES = 100;
private final String streamName_;
private ArrayList<AmazonKinesis> kinesisClients_;
private CachingCryptoMaterialsManager cachingMaterialsManager_;
private AwsCrypto crypto_;
/**
* Creates an instance of this object with Kinesis clients for all target regions
* and a cached key provider containing KMS master keys in all target regions.
*/
public MultiRegionRecordPusher(final Region[] regions, final String kmsAliasName, final
String streamName){
streamName_ = streamName;
crypto_ = new AwsCrypto();
kinesisClients_ = new ArrayList<AmazonKinesis>();
DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain credentialsProvider = new
DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain();
ClientConfiguration clientConfig = new ClientConfiguration();
// Build KmsMasterKey and AmazonKinesisClient objects for each target region
List<KmsMasterKey> masterKeys = new ArrayList<KmsMasterKey>();
for (Region region : regions) {
kinesisClients_.add(AmazonKinesisClientBuilder.standard()
.withCredentials(credentialsProvider)
.withRegion(region.getName())
.build());
KmsMasterKey regionMasterKey = new KmsMasterKeyProvider(
credentialsProvider,
region,
clientConfig,
kmsAliasName
).getMasterKey(kmsAliasName);
}
masterKeys.add(regionMasterKey);
// Collect KmsMasterKey objects into single provider and add cache
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MasterKeyProvider<?> masterKeyProvider =
MultipleProviderFactory.buildMultiProvider(
KmsMasterKey.class,
masterKeys
);
}
cachingMaterialsManager_ = CachingCryptoMaterialsManager.newBuilder()
.withMasterKeyProvider(masterKeyProvider)
.withCache(new LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(MAX_CACHE_ENTRIES))
.withMaxAge(MAX_ENTRY_AGE_MILLISECONDS, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
.withMessageUseLimit(MAX_ENTRY_USES)
.build();
/**
* JSON serializes and encrypts the received record data and pushes it to all target
streams.
*/
public void putRecord(final Map<Object, Object> data){
String partitionKey = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
Map<String, String> encryptionContext = new HashMap<String, String>();
encryptionContext.put("stream", streamName_);
// JSON serialize data
String jsonData = Jackson.toJsonString(data);
// Encrypt data
CryptoResult<byte[], ?> result = crypto_.encryptData(
cachingMaterialsManager_,
jsonData.getBytes(),
encryptionContext
);
byte[] encryptedData = result.getResult();
}
}
// Put records to Kinesis stream in all regions
for (AmazonKinesis regionalKinesisClient : kinesisClients_) {
regionalKinesisClient.putRecord(
streamName_,
ByteBuffer.wrap(encryptedData),
partitionKey
);
}
Consumer
The data consumer is an AWS Lambda function that is triggered by Kinesis events. It decrypts and
deserializes each record, and writes the plaintext record to a DynamoDB table in the same region.
Like the producer code, the consumer code enables data key caching by using a caching cryptographic
materials manager (caching CMM) in calls to the decryptData method.
/*
* Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this
file except
* in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
*
* http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0
*
* or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
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* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
* specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
*/
package com.amazonaws.crypto.examples.kinesisdatakeycaching;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
import
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.AwsCrypto;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.CryptoResult;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.CachingCryptoMaterialsManager;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.caching.LocalCryptoMaterialsCache;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKey;
com.amazonaws.encryptionsdk.kms.KmsMasterKeyProvider;
com.amazonaws.services.dynamodbv2.AmazonDynamoDBClientBuilder;
com.amazonaws.services.dynamodbv2.document.DynamoDB;
com.amazonaws.services.dynamodbv2.document.Item;
com.amazonaws.services.dynamodbv2.document.Table;
com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.Context;
com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.KinesisEvent;
com.amazonaws.services.lambda.runtime.events.KinesisEvent.KinesisEventRecord;
com.amazonaws.util.BinaryUtils;
/**
* Decrypts all incoming Kinesis records and writes records to DynamoDB.
*/
public class LambdaDecryptAndWrite {
private static final long MAX_ENTRY_AGE_MILLISECONDS = 600000;
private static final int MAX_CACHE_ENTRIES = 100;
private CachingCryptoMaterialsManager cachingMaterialsManager_;
private AwsCrypto crypto_;
private Table table_;
/**
* Because the cache is used only for decryption, the code doesn't set
* the max bytes or max message security thresholds that are are enforced
* only on on data keys used for encryption.
*/
public LambdaDecryptAndWrite() {
String cmkArn = System.getenv("CMK_ARN");
cachingMaterialsManager_ = CachingCryptoMaterialsManager.newBuilder()
.withMasterKeyProvider(new KmsMasterKeyProvider(cmkArn))
.withCache(new LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(MAX_CACHE_ENTRIES))
.withMaxAge(MAX_ENTRY_AGE_MILLISECONDS, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
.build();
}
crypto_ = new AwsCrypto();
String tableName = System.getenv("TABLE_NAME");
DynamoDB dynamodb = new DynamoDB(AmazonDynamoDBClientBuilder.defaultClient());
table_ = dynamodb.getTable(tableName);
/**
*
* @param event
* @param context
*/
public void handleRequest(KinesisEvent event, Context context) throws
UnsupportedEncodingException{
for (KinesisEventRecord record : event.getRecords()) {
ByteBuffer ciphertextBuffer = record.getKinesis().getData();
byte[] ciphertext = BinaryUtils.copyAllBytesFrom(ciphertextBuffer);
// Decrypt and unpack record
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CryptoResult<byte[], ?> plaintextResult =
crypto_.decryptData(cachingMaterialsManager_, ciphertext);
// Verify the encryption context value
String streamArn = record.getEventSourceARN();
String streamName = streamArn.substring(streamArn.indexOf("/") + 1);
if (!streamName.equals(plaintextResult.getEncryptionContext().get("stream"))) {
throw new IllegalStateException("Wrong Encryption Context!");
}
}
}
}
// Write record to DynamoDB
String jsonItem = new String(plaintextResult.getResult(), "UTF-8");
System.out.println(jsonItem);
table_.putItem(Item.fromJSON(jsonItem));
Data Key Caching Example in Python
This code sample creates a basic implementation of data key caching with a
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) in Python. For details about the Python implementation of the
AWS Encryption SDK, see AWS Encryption SDK for Python (p. 20).
The code creates two instances of a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache; one for data producers that are
encrypting data and another for data consumers (Lambda functions) that are decrypting data. For
implementation details, see the Python documentation for the AWS Encryption SDK.
Producer
The producer gets a map, converts it to JSON, uses the AWS Encryption SDK to encrypt it, and pushes
the ciphertext record to an Kinesis stream in each region.
The code defines a caching cryptographic materials manager (p. 65) (caching CMM) and associates
it with a LocalCryptoMaterialsCache (p. 64) and an underlying KMS master key provider (p. 7). The
caching CMM caches the data keys (and related cryptographic materials (p. 65)) from the master key
provider. It also interacts with the cache on behalf of the SDK and enforces security thresholds that you
set.
Because the call to the encrypt method specifies a caching CMM, instead of a regular cryptographic
materials manager (CMM) (p. 7) or master key provider, the method will use data key caching.
"""
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file
except
in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
https://aws.amazon.com/apache-2-0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""
import json
import uuid
from aws_encryption_sdk import encrypt, KMSMasterKeyProvider,
CachingCryptoMaterialsManager, LocalCryptoMaterialsCache
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from aws_encryption_sdk.key_providers.kms import KMSMasterKey
import boto3
class MultiRegionRecordPusher(object):
"""Pushes data to Kinesis Streams in multiple regions."""
CACHE_CAPACITY = 100
MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS = 300.0
MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES_ENCRYPTED = 100
def __init__(self, regions, kms_alias_name, stream_name):
self._kinesis_clients = []
self._stream_name = stream_name
# Set up KMSMasterKeyProvider with cache
_key_provider = KMSMasterKeyProvider()
# Add MasterKey and Kinesis client for each region
for region in regions:
self._kinesis_clients.append(boto3.client('kinesis', region_name=region))
regional_master_key = KMSMasterKey(
client=boto3.client('kms', region_name=region),
key_id=kms_alias_name
)
_key_provider.add_master_key_provider(regional_master_key)
cache = LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(capacity=self.CACHE_CAPACITY)
self._materials_manager = CachingCryptoMaterialsManager(
master_key_provider=_key_provider,
cache=cache,
max_age=self.MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS,
max_messages_encrypted=self.MAX_ENTRY_MESSAGES_ENCRYPTED
)
def put_record(self, record_data):
"""JSON serializes and encrypts the received record data and pushes it to all
target streams.
:param dict record_data: Data to write to stream
"""
# Kinesis partition key to randomize write load across stream shards
partition_key = uuid.uuid4().hex
encryption_context = {'stream': self._stream_name}
# JSON serialize data
json_data = json.dumps(record_data)
# Encrypt data
encrypted_data, _header = encrypt(
source=json_data,
materials_manager=self._materials_manager,
encryption_context=encryption_context
)
# Put records to Kinesis stream in all regions
for client in self._kinesis_clients:
client.put_record(
StreamName=self._stream_name,
Data=encrypted_data,
PartitionKey=partition_key
)
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Consumer
The data consumer is an AWS Lambda function that is triggered by Kinesis events. It decrypts and
deserializes each record, and writes the plaintext record to a DynamoDB table in the same region.
Like the producer code, the consumer code enables data key caching by using a caching cryptographic
materials manager (caching CMM) in calls to the decrypt method.
"""
Copyright 2017 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file
except
in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at
https://aws.amazon.com/apache-2-0/
or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed on an "AS IS"
BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.
"""
import base64
import json
import logging
import os
from aws_encryption_sdk import decrypt, KMSMasterKeyProvider,
CachingCryptoMaterialsManager, LocalCryptoMaterialsCache
import boto3
_LOGGER = logging.getLogger(__name__)
_is_setup = False
CACHE_CAPACITY = 100
MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS = 600.0
def setup():
"""Sets up clients that should persist across Lambda invocations."""
global materials_manager
key_provider = KMSMasterKeyProvider()
cache = LocalCryptoMaterialsCache(capacity=CACHE_CAPACITY)
# Because the cache is used only for decryption, the code doesn't set
#
the max bytes or max message security thresholds that are are enforced
#
only on on data keys used for encryption.
materials_manager = CachingCryptoMaterialsManager(
master_key_provider=key_provider,
cache=cache,
max_age=MAX_ENTRY_AGE_SECONDS
)
global table
table_name = os.environ.get('TABLE_NAME')
table = boto3.resource('dynamodb').Table(table_name)
global _is_setup
_is_setup = True
def lambda_handler(event, context):
"""Decrypts all incoming Kinesis records and writes records to DynamoDB."""
_LOGGER.debug('New event:')
_LOGGER.debug(event)
if not _is_setup:
setup()
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with table.batch_writer() as batch:
for record in event.get('Records', []):
# Record data base64-encoded by Kinesis
ciphertext = base64.b64decode(record['kinesis']['data'])
# Decrypt and unpack record
plaintext, header = decrypt(
source=ciphertext,
materials_manager=materials_manager
)
item = json.loads(plaintext)
# Verify the encryption context value
stream_name = record['eventSourceARN'].split('/', 1)[1]
if stream_name != header.encryption_context['stream']:
raise ValueError('Wrong Encryption Context!')
# Write record to DynamoDB
batch.put_item(Item=item)
LocalCryptoMaterialsCache Example AWS
CloudFormation Template
This AWS CloudFormation template sets up all the necessary AWS resources to replicate this example.
Parameters:
SourceCodeBucket:
Type: String
Description: S3 bucket containing Lambda source code zip files
PythonLambdaS3Key:
Type: String
Description: S3 key containing Python Lambda source code zip file
PythonLambdaObjectVersionId:
Type: String
Description: S3 version id for S3 key containing Python Lambda source code zip file
JavaLambdaS3Key:
Type: String
Description: S3 key containing Python Lambda source code zip file
JavaLambdaObjectVersionId:
Type: String
Description: S3 version id for S3 key containing Python Lambda source code zip file
KeyAliasSuffix:
Type: String
Description: 'Suffix to use for KMS CMK Alias (ie: alias/<KeyAliasSuffix>)'
StreamName:
Type: String
Description: Name to use for Kinesis Stream
Resources:
InputStream:
Type: AWS::Kinesis::Stream
Properties:
Name: !Ref StreamName
ShardCount: 2
PythonLambdaOutputTable:
Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
Properties:
AttributeDefinitions:
AttributeName: id
AttributeType: S
KeySchema:
-
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AttributeName: id
KeyType: HASH
ProvisionedThroughput:
ReadCapacityUnits: 1
WriteCapacityUnits: 1
PythonLambdaRole:
Type: AWS::IAM::Role
Properties:
AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
Version: 2012-10-17
Statement:
Effect: Allow
Principal:
Service: lambda.amazonaws.com
Action: sts:AssumeRole
ManagedPolicyArns:
- arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/service-role/AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole
Policies:
PolicyName: PythonLambdaAccess
PolicyDocument:
Version: 2012-10-17
Statement:
Effect: Allow
Action:
- dynamodb:DescribeTable
- dynamodb:BatchWriteItem
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:dynamodb:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:table/${PythonLambdaOutputTable}
Effect: Allow
Action:
- dynamodb:PutItem
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:dynamodb:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:table/${PythonLambdaOutputTable}*
Effect: Allow
Action:
- kinesis:GetRecords
- kinesis:GetShardIterator
- kinesis:DescribeStream
- kinesis:ListStreams
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:kinesis:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:stream/${InputStream}
PythonLambdaFunction:
Type: AWS::Lambda::Function
Properties:
Description: Python consumer
Runtime: python2.7
MemorySize: 512
Timeout: 90
Role: !GetAtt PythonLambdaRole.Arn
Handler: aws_crypto_examples.kinesis_datakey_caching.consumer.lambda_handler
Code:
S3Bucket: !Ref SourceCodeBucket
S3Key: !Ref PythonLambdaS3Key
S3ObjectVersion: !Ref PythonLambdaObjectVersionId
Environment:
Variables:
TABLE_NAME: !Ref PythonLambdaOutputTable
PythonLambdaSourceMapping:
Type: AWS::Lambda::EventSourceMapping
Properties:
BatchSize: 1
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AWS CloudFormation Template
Enabled: true
EventSourceArn: !Sub arn:aws:kinesis:${AWS::Region}:${AWS::AccountId}:stream/
${InputStream}
FunctionName: !Ref PythonLambdaFunction
StartingPosition: TRIM_HORIZON
JavaLambdaOutputTable:
Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
Properties:
AttributeDefinitions:
AttributeName: id
AttributeType: S
KeySchema:
AttributeName: id
KeyType: HASH
ProvisionedThroughput:
ReadCapacityUnits: 1
WriteCapacityUnits: 1
JavaLambdaRole:
Type: AWS::IAM::Role
Properties:
AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
Version: 2012-10-17
Statement:
Effect: Allow
Principal:
Service: lambda.amazonaws.com
Action: sts:AssumeRole
ManagedPolicyArns:
- arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/service-role/AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole
Policies:
PolicyName: JavaLambdaAccess
PolicyDocument:
Version: 2012-10-17
Statement:
Effect: Allow
Action:
- dynamodb:DescribeTable
- dynamodb:BatchWriteItem
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:dynamodb:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:table/${JavaLambdaOutputTable}
Effect: Allow
Action:
- dynamodb:PutItem
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:dynamodb:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:table/${JavaLambdaOutputTable}*
Effect: Allow
Action:
- kinesis:GetRecords
- kinesis:GetShardIterator
- kinesis:DescribeStream
- kinesis:ListStreams
Resource: !Sub arn:aws:kinesis:${AWS::Region}:
${AWS::AccountId}:stream/${InputStream}
JavaLambdaFunction:
Type: AWS::Lambda::Function
Properties:
Description: Java consumer
Runtime: java8
MemorySize: 512
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AWS CloudFormation Template
Timeout: 90
Role: !GetAtt JavaLambdaRole.Arn
Handler:
com.amazonaws.crypto.examples.kinesisdatakeycaching.LambdaDecryptAndWrite::handleRequest
Code:
S3Bucket: !Ref SourceCodeBucket
S3Key: !Ref JavaLambdaS3Key
S3ObjectVersion: !Ref JavaLambdaObjectVersionId
Environment:
Variables:
TABLE_NAME: !Ref JavaLambdaOutputTable
CMK_ARN: !GetAtt RegionKinesisCMK.Arn
JavaLambdaSourceMapping:
Type: AWS::Lambda::EventSourceMapping
Properties:
BatchSize: 1
Enabled: true
EventSourceArn: !Sub arn:aws:kinesis:${AWS::Region}:${AWS::AccountId}:stream/
${InputStream}
FunctionName: !Ref JavaLambdaFunction
StartingPosition: TRIM_HORIZON
RegionKinesisCMK:
Type: AWS::KMS::Key
Properties:
Description: Used to encrypt data passing through Kinesis Stream in this region
Enabled: true
KeyPolicy:
Version: 2012-10-17
Statement:
Effect: Allow
Principal:
AWS: !Sub arn:aws:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:root
Action:
# Data plane actions
- kms:Encrypt
- kms:GenerateDataKey
# Control plane actions
- kms:CreateAlias
- kms:DeleteAlias
- kms:DescribeKey
- kms:DisableKey
- kms:EnableKey
- kms:PutKeyPolicy
- kms:ScheduleKeyDeletion
- kms:UpdateAlias
- kms:UpdateKeyDescription
Resource: '*'
Effect: Allow
Principal:
AWS:
- !GetAtt PythonLambdaRole.Arn
- !GetAtt JavaLambdaRole.Arn
Action: kms:Decrypt
Resource: '*'
RegionKinesisCMKAlias:
Type: AWS::KMS::Alias
Properties:
AliasName: !Sub alias/${KeyAliasSuffix}
TargetKeyId: !Ref RegionKinesisCMK
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Frequently Asked Questions
• How is the AWS Encryption SDK different from the AWS SDKs? (p. 79)
• How is the AWS Encryption SDK different from the Amazon S3 encryption client? (p. 79)
• Which cryptographic algorithms are supported by the AWS Encryption SDK, and which one is the
default? (p. 79)
• How is the initialization vector (IV) generated and where is it stored? (p. 80)
• How is each data key generated, encrypted, and decrypted? (p. 80)
• How do I keep track of the data keys that were used to encrypt my data? (p. 80)
• How does the AWS Encryption SDK store encrypted data keys with their encrypted data? (p. 80)
• How much overhead does the AWS Encryption SDK's message format add to my encrypted
data? (p. 80)
• Can I use my own master key provider? (p. 80)
• Can I encrypt data under more than one master key? (p. 80)
• Which data types can I encrypt with the AWS Encryption SDK? (p. 81)
• How does the AWS Encryption SDK encrypt and decrypt input/output (I/O) streams? (p. 81)
How is the AWS Encryption SDK different from the AWS SDKs?
The AWS SDKs provide libraries for interacting with Amazon Web Services (AWS). They integrate
with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) to generate, encrypt, and decrypt data keys.
However, in most cases you can't use them to directly encrypt or decrypt raw data.
The AWS Encryption SDK provides an encryption library that optionally integrates with AWS KMS as
a master key provider. The AWS Encryption SDK builds on the AWS SDKs to do the following things:
• Generate, encrypt, and decrypt data keys
• Use those data keys to encrypt and decrypt your raw data
• Store the encrypted data keys with the corresponding encrypted data in a single object
You can also use the AWS Encryption SDK with no AWS integration by defining a custom master key
provider.
How is the AWS Encryption SDK different from the Amazon S3 encryption client?
The Amazon S3 encryption client in the AWS SDK for Java, AWS SDK for Ruby, and AWS SDK
for .NET provides encryption and decryption for data that you store in Amazon Simple Storage
Service (Amazon S3). These clients are tightly coupled to Amazon S3 and are intended for use only
with data stored there.
The AWS Encryption SDK provides encryption and decryption for data that you can store anywhere.
The AWS Encryption SDK and the Amazon S3 encryption client are not compatible because they
produce ciphertexts with different data formats.
Which cryptographic algorithms are supported by the AWS Encryption SDK, and which one is the
default?
The AWS Encryption SDK uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm in Galois/Counter
Mode (GCM), known as AES-GCM. The SDK supports 256-bit, 192-bit, and 128-bit encryption keys.
In all cases, the length of the initialization vector (IV) is 12 bytes; the length of the authentication
tag is 16 bytes. By default, the SDK uses the data key as an input to the HMAC-based extract-andexpand key derivation function (HKDF) to derive the AES-GCM encryption key, and also adds an
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) signature.
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For information about choosing which algorithm to use, see Supported Algorithm Suites (p. 10).
For implementation details about the supported algorithms, see Algorithms Reference (p. 96).
How is the initialization vector (IV) generated and where is it stored?
In previous releases, the AWS Encryption SDK randomly generated a unique IV value for each
encryption operation. The SDK now uses a deterministic method to construct a different IV
value for each frame so that every IV is unique within its message. The SDK stores the IV in the
encrypted message that it returns. For more information, see AWS Encryption SDK Message Format
Reference (p. 82).
How is each data key generated, encrypted, and decrypted?
The method depends on the master key provider and the implementation of its master keys. When
AWS KMS is the master key provider, the SDK uses the AWS KMS GenerateDataKey API operation
to generate each data key in both plaintext and encrypted forms. It uses the Decrypt operation to
decrypt the data key. AWS KMS encrypts and decrypts the data key by using the customer master
key (CMK) that you specified when configuring the master key provider.
How do I keep track of the data keys that were used to encrypt my data?
The AWS Encryption SDK does this for you. When you encrypt data, the SDK encrypts the data key
and stores the encrypted key along with the encrypted data in the encrypted message (p. 8) that it
returns. When you decrypt data, the AWS Encryption SDK extracts the encrypted data key from the
encrypted method, decrypts it, and then uses it to decrypt the data.
How does the AWS Encryption SDK store encrypted data keys with their encrypted data?
The encryption operations in the AWS Encryption SDK return an encrypted message (p. 8), a single
data structure that contains the encrypted data and its encrypted data keys. The message format
consists of at least two parts: a header and a body. In some cases, the message format consists of a
third part known as a footer. The message header contains the encrypted data keys and information
about how the message body is formed. The message body contains the encrypted data. The
message footer contains a signature that authenticates the message header and message body. For
more information, see AWS Encryption SDK Message Format Reference (p. 82).
How much overhead does the AWS Encryption SDK's message format add to my encrypted data?
The amount of overhead added by the AWS Encryption SDK depends on several factors, including
the following:
• The size of the plaintext data
• Which of the supported algorithms is used
• Whether additional authenticated data (AAD) is provided, and the length of that AAD
• The number and type of master key providers
• The frame size (when framed data (p. 87) is used)
When you use the AWS Encryption SDK with its default configuration, with one CMK in AWS KMS as
the master key, with no AAD, and encrypt nonframed data, the overhead is approximately 600 bytes.
In general, you can reasonably assume that the AWS Encryption SDK adds overhead of 1 KB or less,
not including the provided AAD. For more information, see AWS Encryption SDK Message Format
Reference (p. 82).
Can I use my own master key provider?
Yes. The implementation details vary depending on which of the supported programming
languages (p. 12) you use. However, all supported languages allow you to define custom
cryptographic materials managers (CMMs) (p. 7), master key providers, and master keys.
Can I encrypt data under more than one master key?
Yes. You can encrypt the data key with additional master keys to add redundancy in case a master
key is in a different region or is unavailable for decryption.
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To encrypt data under multiple master keys, create a master key provider with multiple master keys.
You can see examples of this pattern in the example code for Java (p. 17) and Python (p. 24).
When you encrypt data by using a master key provider that returns multiple master keys, the AWS
Encryption SDK encrypts the data that you pass to the encryption methods with a data key and
encrypts that data key with the same master key. Then, it encrypts the data with the other master
keys that the master key provider returned. The resulting message includes the encrypted data and
one encrypted data key for each master key. The resulting message can be decrypted by using any
one of the master keys used in the encryption operation.
Which data types can I encrypt with the AWS Encryption SDK?
The AWS Encryption SDK can encrypt raw bytes (byte arrays), I/O streams (byte streams), and
strings. We provide example code for each of the supported programming languages (p. 12).
How does the AWS Encryption SDK encrypt and decrypt input/output (I/O) streams?
The AWS Encryption SDK creates an encrypting or decrypting stream that wraps an underlying I/O
stream. The encrypting or decrypting stream performs a cryptographic operation on a read or write
call. For example, it can read plaintext data on the underlying stream and encrypt it before returning
the result. Or it can read ciphertext from an underlying stream and decrypt it before returning the
result. We provide example code for encrypting and decrypting streams for each of the supported
programming languages (p. 12).
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Message Format Reference
AWS Encryption SDK Reference
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
The AWS Encryption SDK uses the supported algorithms (p. 10) to return a single data structure or
message that contains encrypted data and the corresponding encrypted data keys. The following topics
explain the algorithms and the data structure. Use this information to build libraries that can read and
write ciphertexts that are compatible with this SDK.
Topics
• AWS Encryption SDK Message Format Reference (p. 82)
• Body Additional Authenticated Data (AAD) Reference for the AWS Encryption SDK (p. 90)
• AWS Encryption SDK Message Format Examples (p. 91)
• AWS Encryption SDK Algorithms Reference (p. 96)
• AWS Encryption SDK Initialization Vector Reference (p. 98)
AWS Encryption SDK Message Format Reference
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
The encryption operations in the AWS Encryption SDK return a single data structure or message that
contains the encrypted data (ciphertext) and all encrypted data keys. To understand this data structure,
or to build libraries that read and write it, you need to understand the message format.
The message format consists of at least two parts: a header and a body. In some cases, the message
format consists of a third part, a footer. The message format defines an ordered sequence of bytes in
network byte order, also called big-endian format. The message format begins with the header, followed
by the body, followed by the footer (when there is one).
Topics
• Header Structure (p. 83)
• Body Structure (p. 87)
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Header Structure
• Footer Structure (p. 89)
Header Structure
The message header contains the encrypted data key and information about how the message body is
formed. The following table describes the fields that form the header. The bytes are appended in the
order shown.
Header Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Version (p. 83)
1
Type (p. 83)
1
Algorithm ID (p. 83)
2
Message ID (p. 83)
16
AAD Length (p. 84)
2
AAD (p. 84)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (AAD Length).
Encrypted Data Key Count (p. 85)
2
Encrypted Data Key(s) (p. 85)
Variable. Determined by the number of encrypted
data keys and the length of each.
Content Type (p. 86)
1
Reserved (p. 86)
4
IV Length (p. 86)
1
Frame Length (p. 86)
4
Header Authentication (p. 86)
Variable. Determined by the algorithm (p. 96)
that generated the message.
Version
The version of this message format. The current version is 1.0, encoded as the byte 01 in
hexadecimal notation.
Type
The type of this message format. The type indicates the kind of structure. The only supported type
is described as customer authenticated encrypted data. Its type value is 128, encoded as byte 80 in
hexadecimal notation.
Algorithm ID
An identifier for the algorithm used. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned integer. For
more information about the algorithms, see AWS Encryption SDK Algorithms Reference (p. 96).
Message ID
A randomly generated 128-bit value that identifies the message. The Message ID:
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Header Structure
• Uniquely identifies the encrypted message.
• Weakly binds the message header to the message body.
• Provides a mechanism to securely reuse a data key with multiple encrypted messages.
• Protects against accidental reuse of a data key or the wearing out of keys in the AWS Encryption
SDK.
AAD Length
The length of the additional authenticated data (AAD). It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit
unsigned integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the AAD.
AAD
The additional authenticated data. The AAD is an encoding of the encryption context, an array of
key-value pairs where each key and value is a string of UTF-8 encoded characters. The encryption
context is converted to a sequence of bytes and used for the AAD value.
When the algorithms with signing (p. 96) are used, the encryption context must contain the
key-value pair {'aws-crypto-public-key', Qtxt}. Qtxt represents the elliptic curve point Q
compressed according to SEC 1 version 2.0 and then base64-encoded. The encryption context can
contain additional values, but the maximum length of the constructed AAD is 2^16 - 1 bytes.
The following table describes the fields that form the AAD. Key-value pairs are sorted, by key, in
ascending order according to UTF-8 character code. The bytes are appended in the order shown.
AAD Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Key-Value Pair Count (p. 84)
2
Key Length (p. 84)
2
Key (p. 84)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Key Length).
Value Length (p. 84)
2
Value (p. 85)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Value Length).
Key-Value Pair Count
The number of key-value pairs in the AAD. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of key-value pairs in the AAD. The maximum number of keyvalue pairs in the AAD is 2^16 - 1.
Key Length
The length of the key for the key-value pair. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the key.
Key
The key for the key-value pair. It is a sequence of UTF-8 encoded bytes.
Value Length
The length of the value for the key-value pair. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit
unsigned integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the value.
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Header Structure
Value
The value for the key-value pair. It is a sequence of UTF-8 encoded bytes.
Encrypted Data Key Count
The number of encrypted data keys. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned integer that
specifies the number of encrypted data keys.
Encrypted Data Key(s)
A sequence of encrypted data keys. The length of the sequence is determined by the number of
encrypted data keys and the length of each. The sequence contains at least one encrypted data key.
The following table describes the fields that form each encrypted data key. The bytes are appended
in the order shown.
Encrypted Data Key Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Key Provider ID Length (p. 85)
2
Key Provider ID (p. 85)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Key Provider ID Length).
Key Provider Information Length (p. 85)
2
Key Provider Information (p. 85)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Key Provider Information
Length).
Encrypted Data Key Length (p. 86)
2
Encrypted Data Key (p. 86)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Encrypted Data Key Length).
Key Provider ID Length
The length of the key provider identifier. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the key provider ID.
Key Provider ID
The key provider identifier. It is used to indicate the provider of the encrypted data key and
intended to be extensible.
Key Provider Information Length
The length of the key provider information. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the key provider information.
Key Provider Information
The key provider information. It is determined by the key provider.
When AWS KMS is the key provider, the following are true:
• This value contains the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the AWS KMS customer master key
(CMK).
• This value is always the full CMK ARN, regardless of which key identifier (key ID, alias, etc.) was
specified when calling the master key provider.
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Header Structure
Encrypted Data Key Length
The length of the encrypted data key. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the encrypted data key.
Encrypted Data Key
The encrypted data key. It is the data encryption key encrypted by the key provider.
Content Type
The type of encrypted content, either non-framed or framed.
Non-framed content is not broken into parts; it is a single encrypted blob. Non-framed content is
type 1, encoded as the byte 01 in hexadecimal notation.
Framed content is broken into equal-length parts; each part is encrypted separately. Framed content
is type 2, encoded as the byte 02 in hexadecimal notation.
Reserved
A reserved sequence of 4 bytes. This value must be 0. It is encoded as the bytes 00 00 00 00 in
hexadecimal notation (that is, a 4-byte sequence of a 32-bit integer value equal to 0).
IV Length
The length of the initialization vector (IV). It is a 1-byte value interpreted as an 8-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the IV. This value is determined by the IV
bytes value of the algorithm (p. 96) that generated the message.
Frame Length
The length of each frame of framed content. It is a 4-byte value interpreted as a 32-bit unsigned
integer that specifies the number of bytes that form each frame. When the content is non-framed—
that is, when the value of the content type field is 1—this value must be 0.
Header Authentication
The header authentication is determined by the algorithm (p. 96) that generated the message.
The header authentication is calculated over the entire header. It consists of an IV and an
authentication tag. The bytes are appended in the order shown.
Header Authentication Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
IV (p. 86)
Variable. Determined by the IV bytes value of
the algorithm (p. 96) that generated the
message.
Authentication Tag (p. 86)
Variable. Determined by the authentication
tag bytes value of the algorithm (p. 96) that
generated the message.
IV
The initialization vector (IV) used to calculate the header authentication tag.
Authentication Tag
The authentication value for the header. It is used to authenticate the entire contents of the
header.
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Body Structure
Body Structure
The message body contains the encrypted data, called the ciphertext. The structure of the body depends
on the content type (non-framed or framed). The following sections describe the format of the message
body for each content type.
Topics
• Non-Framed Data (p. 87)
• Framed Data (p. 87)
Non-Framed Data
Non-framed data is encrypted in a single blob with a unique IV and body AAD (p. 90). The following
table describes the fields that form non-framed data. The bytes are appended in the order shown.
Non-Framed Body Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
IV (p. 87)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the IV
Length (p. 86) byte of the header.
Encrypted Content Length (p. 87)
8
Encrypted Content (p. 87)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 8 bytes (Encrypted Content Length).
Authentication Tag (p. 87)
Variable. Determined by the algorithm
implementation (p. 96) used.
IV
The initialization vector (IV) to use with the encryption algorithm (p. 96).
Encrypted Content Length
The length of the encrypted content, or ciphertext. It is an 8-byte value interpreted as a 64-bit
unsigned integer that specifies the number of bytes that contain the encrypted content.
Technically, the maximum allowed value is 2^63 - 1, or 8 exbibytes (8 EiB). However, in practice
the maximum value is 2^36 - 32, or 64 gibibytes (64 GiB), due to restrictions imposed by the
implemented algorithms (p. 96).
Note
The Java implementation of this SDK further restricts this value to 2^31 - 1, or 2 gibibytes
(2 GiB), due to restrictions in the language.
Encrypted Content
The encrypted content (ciphertext) as returned by the encryption algorithm (p. 96).
Authentication Tag
The authentication value for the body. It is used to authenticate the message body.
Framed Data
Framed data is divided into equal-length parts, except for the last part. Each frame is encrypted
separately with a unique IV and body AAD (p. 90).
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Body Structure
There are two kinds of frames: regular and final. A final frame is always used. When the length of the
data is an exact multiple of the frame length, the final frame contains no data—that is, it has a content
length of 0. When the length of the data is less than the frame length, only a final frame is written.
The following tables describe the fields that form the frames. The bytes are appended in the order
shown.
Framed Body Structure, Regular Frame
Field
Length, in bytes
Sequence Number (p. 88)
4
IV (p. 88)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the IV
Length (p. 86) byte of the header.
Encrypted Content (p. 88)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the Frame
Length (p. 86) of the header.
Authentication Tag (p. 88)
Variable. Determined by the algorithm used, as
specified in the Algorithm ID (p. 83) of the
header.
Sequence Number
The frame sequence number. It is an incremental counter number for the frame. It is a 4-byte value
interpreted as a 32-bit unsigned integer.
Framed data must start at sequence number 1. Subsequent frames must be in order and must
contain an increment of 1 of the previous frame. Otherwise, the decryption process stops and
reports an error.
IV
The initialization vector (IV) for the frame. The SDK uses a deterministic method to construct a
different IV for each frame in the message. Its length is specified by the algorithm suite (p. 96)
used.
Encrypted Content
The encrypted content (ciphertext) for the frame, as returned by the encryption algorithm (p. 96).
Authentication Tag
The authentication value for the frame. It is used to authenticate the entire frame.
Framed Body Structure, Final Frame
Field
Length, in bytes
Sequence Number End (p. 89)
4
Sequence Number (p. 89)
4
IV (p. 89)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the IV
Length (p. 86) byte of the header.
Encrypted Content Length (p. 89)
4
Encrypted Content (p. 89)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 4 bytes (Encrypted Content Length).
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Footer Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Authentication Tag (p. 89)
Variable. Determined by the algorithm used, as
specified in the Algorithm ID (p. 83) of the
header.
Sequence Number End
An indicator for the final frame. The value is encoded as the 4 bytes FF FF FF FF in hexadecimal
notation.
Sequence Number
The frame sequence number. It is an incremental counter number for the frame. It is a 4-byte value
interpreted as a 32-bit unsigned integer.
Framed data must start at sequence number 1. Subsequent frames must be in order and must
contain an increment of 1 of the previous frame. Otherwise, the decryption process stops and
reports an error.
IV
The initialization vector (IV) for the frame. The SDK uses a deterministic method to construct a
different IV for each frame in the message. The length of the IV length is specified by the algorithm
suite (p. 96).
Encrypted Content Length
The length of the encrypted content. It is a 4-byte value interpreted as a 32-bit unsigned integer
that specifies the number of bytes that contain the encrypted content for the frame.
Encrypted Content
The encrypted content (ciphertext) for the frame, as returned by the encryption algorithm (p. 96).
Authentication Tag
The authentication value for the frame. It is used to authenticate the entire frame.
Footer Structure
When the algorithms with signing (p. 96) are used, the message format contains a footer. The
message footer contains a signature calculated over the message header and body. The following table
describes the fields that form the footer. The bytes are appended in the order shown.
Footer Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Signature Length (p. 89)
2
Signature (p. 90)
Variable. Equal to the value specified in the
previous 2 bytes (Signature Length).
Signature Length
The length of the signature. It is a 2-byte value interpreted as a 16-bit unsigned integer that
specifies the number of bytes that contain the signature.
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Body AAD Reference
Signature
The signature. It is used to authenticate the header and body of the message.
Body Additional Authenticated Data (AAD)
Reference for the AWS Encryption SDK
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
Regardless of which type of body data (p. 87) is used to form the message body (non-framed or
framed), you must provide additional authenticated data (AAD) to the AES-GCM algorithm (p. 96) for
each cryptographic operation. For more information about AAD, see the definition section in the Galois/
Counter Mode of Operation (GCM) specification.
The following table describes the fields that form the body AAD. The bytes are appended in the order
shown.
Body AAD Structure
Field
Length, in bytes
Message ID (p. 90)
16
Body AAD Content (p. 90)
Variable. See Body AAD Content in the following
list.
Sequence Number (p. 90)
4
Content Length (p. 91)
8
Message ID
The same Message ID (p. 83) value set in the message header.
Body AAD Content
A UTF-8 encoded value determined by the type of body data used.
For non-framed data (p. 87), use the value AWSKMSEncryptionClient Single Block.
For regular frames in framed data (p. 87), use the value AWSKMSEncryptionClient Frame.
For the final frame in framed data (p. 87), use the value AWSKMSEncryptionClient Final
Frame.
Sequence Number
A 4-byte value interpreted as a 32-bit unsigned integer.
For framed data (p. 87), this is the frame sequence number.
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Message Format Examples
For non-framed data (p. 87), use the value 1, encoded as the 4 bytes 00 00 00 01 in
hexadecimal notation.
Content Length
The length, in bytes, of the plaintext data provided to the algorithm for encryption. It is an 8-byte
value interpreted as a 64-bit unsigned integer.
AWS Encryption SDK Message Format Examples
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
The following topics show examples of the AWS Encryption SDK message format. Each example shows
the raw bytes, in hexadecimal notation, followed by a description of what those bytes represent.
Topics
• Non-Framed Data (p. 91)
• Framed Data (p. 93)
Non-Framed Data
The following example shows the message format for non-framed data.
+--------+
| Header |
+--------+
01
Version (1.0)
80
Type (128, customer authenticated encrypted
data)
0378
Algorithm ID (see Algorithms Reference)
B8929B01 753D4A45 C0217F39 404F70FF
Message ID (random 128-bit value)
008E
AAD Length (142)
0004
AAD Key-Value Pair Count (4)
0005
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Key Length (5)
30746869 73
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Key ("0This")
0002
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Value Length (2)
6973
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Value ("is")
0003
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Key Length (3)
31616E
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Key ("1an")
000A
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Value Length (10)
656E6372 79774690 6F6E
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Value ("encryption")
0008
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Key Length (8)
32636F6E 74657874
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Key ("2context")
0007
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Value Length (7)
6578616D 706C65
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Value ("example")
0015
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Key Length (21)
6177732D 63727970 746F2D70 75626C69
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Key ("aws-crypto-publickey")
632D6B65 79
0044
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Value Length (68)
41734738 67473949 6E4C5075 3136594B
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Value
("AsG8gG9InLPu16YKlqXTOD+nykG8YqHAhqecj8aXfD2e5B4gtVE73dZkyClA+rAMOQ==")
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Non-Framed Data
6C715854 4F442B6E 796B4738 59714841
68716563 6A386158 66443265 35423467
74564537 33645A6B 79436C41 2B72414D
4F513D3D
0002
Encrypted Data Key Count (2)
0007
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider ID Length (7)
6177732D 6B6D73
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider ID ("awskms")
004B
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider Information
Length (75)
61726E3A 6177733A 6B6D733A 75732D77
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider Information
("arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/715c0818-5825-4245-a755-138a6d9a11e6")
6573742D 323A3131 31313232 32323333
33333A6B 65792F37 31356330 3831382D
35383235 2D343234 352D6137 35352D31
33386136 64396131 316536
00A7
Encrypted Data Key 1, Encrypted Data Key Length
(167)
01010200 7857A1C1 F7370545 4ECA7C83
Encrypted Data Key 1, Encrypted Data Key
956C4702 23DCE8D7 16C59679 973E3CED
02A4EF29 7F000000 7E307C06 092A8648
86F70D01 0706A06F 306D0201 00306806
092A8648 86F70D01 0701301E 06096086
48016503 04012E30 11040C28 4116449A
0F2A0383 659EF802 0110803B B23A8133
3A33605C 48840656 C38BCB1F 9CCE7369
E9A33EBE 33F46461 0591FECA 947262F3
418E1151 21311A75 E575ECC5 61A286E0
3E2DEBD5 CB005D
0007
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider ID Length (7)
6177732D 6B6D73
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider ID ("awskms")
004E
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider Information
Length (78)
61726E3A 6177733A 6B6D733A 63612D63
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider Information
("arn:aws:kms:ca-central-1:111122223333:key/9b13ca4b-afcc-46a8-aa47-be3435b423ff")
656E7472 616C2D31 3A313131 31323232
32333333 333A6B65 792F3962 31336361
34622D61 6663632D 34366138 2D616134
372D6265 33343335 62343233 6666
00A7
Encrypted Data Key 2, Encrypted Data Key Length
(167)
01010200 78FAFFFB D6DE06AF AC72F79B
Encrypted Data Key 2, Encrypted Data Key
0E57BD87 3F60F4E6 FD196144 5A002C94
AF787150 69000000 7E307C06 092A8648
86F70D01 0706A06F 306D0201 00306806
092A8648 86F70D01 0701301E 06096086
48016503 04012E30 11040CB2 A820D0CC
76616EF2 A6B30D02 0110803B 8073D0F1
FDD01BD9 B0979082 099FDBFC F7B13548
3CC686D7 F3CF7C7A CCC52639 122A1495
71F18A46 80E2C43F A34C0E58 11D05114
2A363C2A E11397
01
Content Type (1, non-framed data)
00000000
Reserved
0C
IV Length (12)
00000000
Frame Length (0, non-framed data)
734C1BBE 032F7025 84CDA9D0
IV
2C82BB23 4CBF4AAB 8F5C6002 622E886C
Authentication Tag
+------+
| Body |
+------+
D39DD3E5 915E0201 77A4AB11
IV
00000000 0000028E
Encrypted Content Length (654)
E8B6F955 B5F22FE4 FD890224 4E1D5155
Encrypted Content
5871BA4C 93F78436 1085E4F8 D61ECE28
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Framed Data
59455BD8 D76479DF
E4159DFE C8A944B6
6766ECD5 E3F54653
55FCDA5B 9F5318BC
C7D75BCC 10F05EA5
ECE10AA7 559AF633
95FE9C58 C65329D1
31E4F48A 9B1CC047
B48A2068 8060DF60
C9B21A10 371E6179
9D86E334 701E1442
54C0C231 AD43571A
B8178484 7EB73A4F
12B0000C 8429F504
A5BA804F 7F190927
A15D0551 DAEBA4AF
5E2034DB 4D19E7CD
46B2C979 AB84EE12
C2394012 AF20A97E
C6FFB914 FEFD4DE5
1BABBAE4 BE55325E
F3CB6B86 71666C06
B731839B CF711F6A
E3862DF6 338E02B5
6920AA76 0BF8E903
D4E5DF5C 491EE86B
6932E67C C64B3A26
63490741 3AB79D60
978A019C FE49EE0A
66DFF333 0E10226F
2C15100C 6A2AA3F1
9247EF61 3E7B7E0D
76E08E9B 9ADCDF8C
E24FDE26 3044C856
C4A46A1E B5AB72FE
2EAFD9CB B9EB8B83
1E3305D9 0C9E2294
6276C5F1 A3B7E51E
50715406 822D1682
65B2E942 24BEEA6E
+--------+
| Footer |
+--------+
0067
30650230 7229DDF5
CBE194F1 1CC0F8CF
BE84B355 3CED1721
1BEB8281 023100B2
1559963B 889F72C3
331F3614 BC407CEE
34CB7E4B 363A38
C28D2E0B
685643FC
DF205D30
F4265B06
0E2F2F40
9DE2C21B
377C4CD7
EE5A0719
B492A737
78FAFB0B
EA5DA288
B9071925
AAE46B26
936B2492
5D2DF651
2060D0D5
EEA6CF7E
202FD6DF
369BCBDA
88F5AFE1
4FB7E602
6BF74E1B
84CA95F5
C345CFF8
552C5A04
20C33FE1
B8988B25
D8AEFBE9
0E96BF0D
0A1B219C
88251874
29F3AD89
C886D4FD
BF08F051
096041F1
AE05885A
E8AD7E3B
422D365D
80B0F2E5
A513F918
BDB3D5D3
EA24122B
0081D2D8
2FE7C741
47A60344
12AC8087
EA103EC1
704211E5
21B0DB21
BAAEC3F4
64485077
609A4E59
F5B374B8
AAF47E94
B59D4C2F
CB1DA4E6
549C86AC
E7E3C09F
62459D3E
98488557
C1C04BEE
0F881F31
958D3B44
A31D54F3
917CCD11
5D21F0AD
CFA33E2B
2F48E25A
D6074DDB
BE54E4C2
FDC94F6B
FA14A29C
A69F6CB4
1ADAD329
F3F3571B
8F2D2793
8E4DEC96
E4C0259C
5C94
CCEC1DE3
B86A5B64
D27B7F8B
A0BE2A1B
0CB323EF
B15D1700
B86A66FA
54E4D627
F50658C0
8E3F449E
58A4ACE3
5FB26E61
CBF74D9E
Authentication Tag
Signature Length (103)
Signature
Framed Data
The following example shows the message format for framed data.
+--------+
| Header |
+--------+
01
80
data)
0378
Version (1.0)
Type (128, customer authenticated encrypted
Algorithm ID (see Algorithms Reference)
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AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Framed Data
6E7C0FBD 4DF4A999 717C22A2 DDFE1A27
Message ID (random 128-bit value)
008E
AAD Length (142)
0004
AAD Key-Value Pair Count (4)
0005
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Key Length (5)
30746869 73
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Key ("0This")
0002
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Value Length (2)
6973
AAD Key-Value Pair 1, Value ("is")
0003
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Key Length (3)
31616E
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Key ("1an")
000A
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Value Length (10)
656E6372 79774690 6F6E
AAD Key-Value Pair 2, Value ("encryption")
0008
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Key Length (8)
32636F6E 74657874
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Key ("2context")
0007
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Value Length (7)
6578616D 706C65
AAD Key-Value Pair 3, Value ("example")
0015
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Key Length (21)
6177732D 63727970 746F2D70 75626C69
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Key ("aws-crypto-publickey")
632D6B65 79
0044
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Value Length (68)
416A4173 7569326F 7430364C 4B77715A
AAD Key-Value Pair 4, Value
("AjAsui2ot06LKwqZXDJnU/Aqc2vD+0OkpOZ1cc8Tg2qd7rs5aLTg7lvfUEW/86+/5w==")
58444A6E 552F4171 63327644 2B304F6B
704F5A31 63633854 67327164 37727335
614C5467 376C7666 5545572F 38362B2F
35773D3D
0002
EncryptedDataKeyCount (2)
0007
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider ID Length (7)
6177732D 6B6D73
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider ID ("awskms")
004B
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider Information
Length (75)
61726E3A 6177733A 6B6D733A 75732D77
Encrypted Data Key 1, Key Provider Information
("arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/715c0818-5825-4245-a755-138a6d9a11e6")
6573742D 323A3131 31313232 32323333
33333A6B 65792F37 31356330 3831382D
35383235 2D343234 352D6137 35352D31
33386136 64396131 316536
00A7
Encrypted Data Key 1, Encrypted Data Key Length
(167)
01010200 7857A1C1 F7370545 4ECA7C83
Encrypted Data Key 1, Encrypted Data Key
956C4702 23DCE8D7 16C59679 973E3CED
02A4EF29 7F000000 7E307C06 092A8648
86F70D01 0706A06F 306D0201 00306806
092A8648 86F70D01 0701301E 06096086
48016503 04012E30 11040C3F F02C897B
7A12EB19 8BF2D802 0110803B 24003D1F
A5474FBC 392360B5 CB9997E0 6A17DE4C
A6BD7332 6BF86DAB 60D8CCB8 8295DBE9
4707E356 ADA3735A 7C52D778 B3135A47
9F224BF9 E67E87
0007
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider ID Length (7)
6177732D 6B6D73
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider ID ("awskms")
004E
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider Information
Length (78)
61726E3A 6177733A 6B6D733A 63612D63
Encrypted Data Key 2, Key Provider Information
("arn:aws:kms:ca-central-1:111122223333:key/9b13ca4b-afcc-46a8-aa47-be3435b423ff")
656E7472 616C2D31 3A313131 31323232
32333333 333A6B65 792F3962 31336361
34622D61 6663632D 34366138 2D616134
372D6265 33343335 62343233 6666
00A7
Encrypted Data Key 2, Encrypted Data Key Length
(167)
01010200 78FAFFFB D6DE06AF AC72F79B
Encrypted Data Key 2, Encrypted Data Key
0E57BD87 3F60F4E6 FD196144 5A002C94
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Framed Data
AF787150
86F70D01
092A8648
48016503
D218B674
E470AA27
57DCC69B
72EBAAFD
556FBD58
02
00000000
0C
00000100
4ECBD5C0
0B896144
+------+
| Body |
+------+
00000001
6BD3FE9C
1F6471E0
F5AFA33C
FBD9A0C3
BDEE43A8
A90DB923
201E3AD9
DEB7F372
CB80A167
A7D9D2CC
6D1E798B
0041BC78
BB732F27
57F2BB80
E866C042
A820055F
5262DB34
04EE3CC5
00000002
F1140984
216C7C6A
A1042608
A41455B4
A884C1E1
23DFEE28
7597C901
1FF787AB
778D7CEE
ED70B1F3
C8760D55
95941F7E
AC65B6EF
2A57F1FD
DF1172C2
3B16F868
FECDC4A4
A61F0A3B
FFFFFFFF
00000003
35F74F11
0000008E
F7A53D37
B965AD1F
BA9FA7C4
88859500
4A4E52A3
3A043180
69000000
0706A06F
86F70D01
04012E30
5BBC6102
DEAB660B
AAB1294F
E24E3ED8
9E621C
7E307C06
306D0201
0701301E
11040C36
0110803B
3E0CE8E0
21202C01
7168E0FA
092A8648
00306806
06096086
CD985E12
0320E3CD
8B1A89E4
9A50D323
DB40508F
Content Type (2, framed data)
Reserved
IV Length (12)
Frame Length (256)
IV
Authentication Tag
9899CA65 923D2347
0CA27950 CA571201 4DA58029
ADBCB213
A51AF310
7D2E8C6C
C6E3FB59
0F00F49E
699A1495
1EA6DA14
375ECB28
9C361C4B
5150D414
AEBA4CDB
3E5F2F41
D83DC36D
066971C2
E1382369
FB47E428
59F5D37E
379732B5
5B89E8F1
10FA9EF6
9C5D5175
C125DBF2
ACBBD8B2
C3B31B50
7F6496DB
9BF84B6D
5EC07438
AF75F509
AD009E5F
8AF157FD
CC9EBC05
DEEA062F
12E9926B
41876F14
76E46522
F56751FA
F0C76EDF
A212AF8E
89AC7939
1C785089
0A48A830
6BC104A4
2863889F
7A4822B4
FCE118BD
1A571B77
461E959A
00D87803
4F36255D
BA40E2FC
3B6261D9
E8213640
8E5F26AD
FF25F943
2234F395
8A8BCB3F
9A78BAC9
705FF696
E74B225A
65EF3502
2E38FD77
3C36625F
79729B47
7779520A
5CBAEAC8
08262D74
E7060503
FA63CF54
1BBC5E4D
8577F08B
A3E45A84
959BE514
F0D2D9B9
B58CF384
36E54E68
E540D297
732F2C0C
546575D4
125D129C
FF3A985C
E7D9B5FC
81D54F9B
CEC13B62
44670624
AC37E197
E6E2B9B6
0B6919B3
99D766A1
4D151493
304670BF
D72EC004
2709B7BD
446A8285
27C6BDA2
6D5EBF22
43D44B96
76F7D320
02FCE9F5
EC45219D
1464757D
A3657F7F
2F297A84
A86F582B
08D5ABCF
E5545670
63ECA38F
Frame 1, Sequence Number (1)
Frame 1, IV
Frame 1, Encrypted Content
25410F01 DD9E04BF
2F467237
A910AA5F
B25AF82E
7096FABB
8E41484D
DF25E5C5
6FBD0B57
5EFFFFF4
64A04E3A
3ACAD32A
270B7A0F
3676E449
D1DFE830
BC7D431C
A0915526
75CFED0C
ED61810C
0986557F
95
Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame
1,
2,
2,
2,
Authentication Tag
Sequence Number (2)
IV
Encrypted Content
Frame
Final
Final
Final
Final
Final
2, Authentication Tag
Frame, Sequence Number End
Frame, Sequence Number (3)
Frame, IV
Frame, Encrypted Content Length (142)
Frame, Encrypted Content
AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Algorithms Reference
C051AD55 A437F6BC
6ADC017D BA41CDA4
B66B6A5A 80FDB433
811234FD 8D589683
+--------+
| Footer |
+--------+
0066
30640230 085C1D3C
639AED00 F7624854
758B309F 5EFD9D5D
5208B133 02301DF7
3C6A7D5E 4F8B894E
7E06808D 0FE79002
A13762FF 844D
139E9E55
C9F17A83
8A48D6A4
51F6F39A
6199FD60
3823F9EC
21CB
040B3E3B
63424E15
F8CF2203
2E07AD0B
2DFC877A
83D98E7C
E24422B9
B2244448
D7198A28
467B8317
66838028
E350F424
98A0D130
Final Frame, Authentication Tag
Signature Length (102)
Signature
AWS Encryption SDK Algorithms Reference
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
To build your own library that can read and write ciphertexts that are compatible with the AWS
Encryption SDK, you should understand how the SDK implements the supported algorithms to encrypt
raw data. The SDK supports nine algorithm suites. An implementation specifies the encryption algorithm
and mode, encryption key length, key derivation algorithm (if one applies), and signature algorithm (if
one applies). The following table contains an overview of each implementation. By default, the SDK uses
the first implementation in the following table. The list that follows the table provides more information.
AWS Encryption SDK Algorithm Suites
Algorithm
ID (in 2byte hex)
Algorithm
Name
Data Key
Length (in
bits)
Algorithm
Mode
IV Length
(in bytes)
Authentication
Key
Tag
Derivation
Length (in Algorithm
bytes)
Signature
Algorithm
03 78
AES
256
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-384
ECDSA
with
P-384 and
SHA-384
03 46
AES
192
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-384
ECDSA
with
P-384 and
SHA-384
02 14
AES
128
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-256
ECDSA
with
P-256 and
SHA-256
01 78
AES
256
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-256
Not
applicable
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Algorithms Reference
Algorithm
ID (in 2byte hex)
Algorithm
Name
Data Key
Length (in
bits)
Algorithm
Mode
IV Length
(in bytes)
Authentication
Key
Tag
Derivation
Length (in Algorithm
bytes)
Signature
Algorithm
01 46
AES
192
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-256
Not
applicable
01 14
AES
128
GCM
12
16
HKDF with
SHA-256
Not
applicable
00 78
AES
256
GCM
12
16
Not
applicable
Not
applicable
00 46
AES
192
GCM
12
16
Not
applicable
Not
applicable
00 14
AES
128
GCM
12
16
Not
applicable
Not
applicable
Algorithm ID
A 2-byte value that uniquely identifies an algorithm's implementation. This value is stored in the
ciphertext's message header (p. 83).
Algorithm Name
The encryption algorithm used. For all algorithm suites, the SDK uses the Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES) encryption algorithm.
Data Key Length
The length of the data key. The SDK supports 256-bit, 192-bit, and 128-bit keys. The data key is
generated by a master key. For some implementations, this data key is used as input to an HMACbased extract-and-expand key derivation function (HKDF). The output of the HKDF is used as
the data encryption key in the encryption algorithm. For more information, see Key Derivation
Algorithm in this list.
Algorithm Mode
The mode used with the encryption algorithm. For all algorithm suites, the SDK uses Galois/Counter
Mode (GCM).
IV Length
The length of the initialization vector (IV) used with AES-GCM.
Authentication Tag Length
The length of the authentication tag used with AES-GCM.
Key Derivation Algorithm
The HMAC-based extract-and-expand key derivation function (HKDF) used to derive the data
encryption key. The SDK uses the HKDF defined in RFC 5869, with the following specifics:
• The hash function used is either SHA-384 or SHA-256, as specified by the algorithm ID.
• For the extract step:
• No salt is used. Per the RFC, this means that the salt is set to a string of zeros. The string length
is equal to the length of the hash function output; that is, 48 bytes for SHA-384 and 32 bytes
for SHA-256.
• The input keying material is the data key received from the master key provider.
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Initialization Vector Reference
• For the expand step:
• The input pseudorandom key is the output from the extract step.
• The input info is a concatenation of the algorithm ID followed by the message ID.
• The length of the output keying material is the Data Key Length described previously. This
output is used as the data encryption key in the encryption algorithm.
Signature Algorithm
The signature algorithm used to generate a signature over the ciphertext header and body. The SDK
uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) with the following specifics:
• The elliptic curve used is either the P-384 or P-256 curve, as specified by the algorithm ID. These
curves are defined in Digital Signature Standard (DSS) (FIPS PUB 186-4).
• The hash function used is SHA-384 (with the P-384 curve) or SHA-256 (with the P-256 curve).
AWS Encryption SDK Initialization Vector
Reference
The information on this page is a reference for building your own encryption library that is compatible
with the AWS Encryption SDK. If you are not building your own compatible encryption library, you
likely do not need this information.
To use the AWS Encryption SDK in one of the supported programming languages, see Programming
Languages (p. 12).
The AWS Encryption SDK supplies the initialization vectors (IVs) that are required by all supported
algorithm suites (p. 96). The SDK uses frame sequence numbers to construct an IV so that no two
frames in the same message can have the same IV.
Each IV is constructed from two big-endian byte arrays concatenated in the following order:
• 64 bytes: 0 (reserved for future use)
• 32 bytes: Frame sequence number. For the header authentication tag, this value is all zeroes.
Before the introduction of data key caching (p. 55), the AWS Encryption SDK always used a new
data key to encrypt each message, and it generated all IVs randomly. Randomly generated IVs were
cryptographically safe because data keys were never reused. When the SDK introduced data key caching,
which intentionally reuses data keys, we changed the way the SDK generates IVs.
Using deterministic IVs that cannot repeat within a message significantly increases the number of
invocations that can safely be executed under a single data key. In addition, data keys that are cached
always use an algorithm suite with a key derivation function. Using a deterministic IV with a pseudorandom key derivation function to derive encryption keys from a data key allows the AWS Encryption
SDK to encrypt 2^32 messages without exceeding cryptographic bounds.
98
AWS Encryption SDK Developer Guide
Document History for the AWS
Encryption SDK Developer Guide
The following table describes the significant changes to this documentation.
Latest documentation update: March 21, 2017
Change
Description
Date
New release
Added the Data Key
Caching (p. 55) chapter for the
new feature.
July 31, 2017
Added the the section
called “Initialization Vector
Reference” (p. 98) topic that
explains that the SDK changed
from generating random IVs to
constructing deterministic IVs.
Added the the section called
“Concepts” (p. 5) topic to
explain concepts, including the
new cryptographic materials
manager.
Update
Expanded the Message Format
Reference (p. 82) documentation
into a new AWS Encryption SDK
Reference (p. 82) section.
March 21, 2017
Added a section about the AWS
Encryption SDK's Supported
Algorithm Suites (p. 10).
New release
The AWS Encryption SDK now
supports the Python (p. 20)
programming language, in
addition to Java (p. 12).
March 21, 2017
Initial release
Initial release of the AWS
Encryption SDK and this
documentation.
March 22, 2016
99
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