Digital Photography Made Easy - Berkshire Museum Camera Club

Digital Photography Made Easy
OLLI
Six Wednesdays
January 20 through February 24, 2010
10:00 to 11:30 am at the Lenox Library
By Members of the
Berkshire Museum Camera Club
Digital Photography Made Easy
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January 20: How You and Your Camera Make a
Photograph by Steve Blanchard
January 27: Making the Most of Your Point-and-Shoot
Digital Camera by Arthur Gordon
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February 3: Critique Day with a Panel of BMCC Members
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February 10: Photographing People by Cesar Silva
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February 17: Travel Photography by Jill Jillson
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February 24: What Do I Do With All of These Photos? by
Sharon Lips
Digital Photography Made Easy
Wednesday, January 20, 2010
How You and Your Camera Make a Photograph
Steve Blanchard
How You and Your Camera Make a Photograph
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The Basics
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What Happens Inside the Camera
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Focus
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Exposure
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Aperture
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Shutter Speed
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ISO
Flash
How You and Your Camera Make a Photograph
The Basics
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Point at Your Subject
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Compose the Shot or Position For Focus
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Button Halfway Down to Focus
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Recompose if Necessary
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Button All the Way Down to Take the Picture
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View the Results
How You and Your Camera Make a Photograph
What Happens Inside the Camera
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Half Way Down:
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Camera Adjusts Lens for Best Focus
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Gives Indication of Success
All the Way down:
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Shutter Opens Briefly and Light Hits the Sensor
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Computer Reads Sensor and Processes Image
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Computer Stores Image, then Displays It
What is in a Camera
Focus
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Focus is similar in cameras, binoculars, and telescopes
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The lens is moved until the image is sharp
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Auto focus – lens is moved by a motor
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Manual focus – you do it by hand
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Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras focus quickly
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Point and Shoot cameras are slower
Focus
Focus
Focus
Focus
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A small part of the image area is used for
focusing
That spot is fixed in some cameras and
dynamic in others
Newer cameras find faces and focus on the
closest one
Focus
Focus
Focus
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Only part of the photo will be in focus
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Camera indicates where the focus point is
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The plane including the focus point is sharp
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Items in front of and behind the focus plane are
out of focus.
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This can be controlled by the aperture
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Called Depth of Field (DOF)
Depth of field
Shallow Depth of Field
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A shallow depth of field can isolate your subject
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Large aperture required
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(Large aperture = smaller f number)
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F number? We will get to that soon
Telephoto lenses have a shallow depth of field
Close-up photography has shallow depth of
field
Shallow Depth of Field
Shallow Depth of field
Shallow Depth of Field
Shallow Depth of Field
Large Depth of Field
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Use large depth of field to include both
foreground and background as subjects
Small aperture required
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(Small aperture = large f number)
Wide angle lenses have a large depth of field
Large Depth of Field
Large Depth of Field
Large Depth of Field
Large Depth of Field
Focus - Close-Up
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A lens that can focus on a subject very close is
called a macro lens
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Can add close-up filters to get close, too
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Small Depth of Field for close-up shots
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Point and Shoot cameras often have a macro
setting:
Focus - Close-Up
Exposure
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Three Factors Involved in Exposure
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Aperture – how much light is allowed in
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Shutter Speed – how long sensor is exposed
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ISO – how much light is needed
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These are inter-related
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(ISO = International Standards Organization)
Sunny day = f/16 with shutter speed = 1/ISO
Flash complicates things a bit
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We will discuss this later
Exposure
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f/16
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1/10 second
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ISO 100
Exposure
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f/4
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1/50 second
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ISO 100
Exposure
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f/4
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1/50 second
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ISO 400
Focal Length and f/stop
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f = Focal Length
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Small = wide angle
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Big = telephoto
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Aperture = f/stop
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f/stop = diameter of hole
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f/3.5 lens
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f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, …
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Each is half the area of previous
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Therefore each lets in half the light of the previous
Wide Angle Lens
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24mm
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f/2.8
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0.58 pounds
Telephoto Lens
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200mm
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f/2.0
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6.4 pounds
Big Guns
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Big Guns
Focal Length and f/stop
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f = Focal Length
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Small = wide angle
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Big = telephoto
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Aperture = f/stop
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f/stop = diameter of hole
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f/3.5 lens
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f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, …
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Each is half the area of previous
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Therefore each lets in half the light of the previous
Different Apertures (f/stops)
Aperture
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Focal length =
50mm
f/1.4 means
aperture =
50/1.4 mm =
35.7 mm
Aperture
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Focal length =
50mm
f/16 means
aperture = 50/16
= 3.125 mm
Equivalent exposures
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1/1000 second at f/2.8
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1/500 second at f/4
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1/250 second at f/5.6
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1/100 second at f/8
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1/50 second at f/11
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1/25 second at f/16
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1/10 second at f/22
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1/5 second at f/32
ISO
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ISO indicates the sensitivity of the sensor
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Same number was used to indicate speed of film
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Small numbers (50, 100, 200)
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Need more light
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Better quality image
Large numbers (400, 800, 1600, 3200, …)
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Need less light
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Often poor image quality (noise)
High ISO Noise
Exposure – Point and Shoot
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Auto: Automatic
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P: Programmed
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Tv or S: You set Time
(Shutter)
Av or A: You set
Aperture
M: Manual You set
both
Exposure – Point and Shoot
Portrait = small DOF
● Landscape = large DOF
● Night Scene = long exposure
w/flash
● Fast Shutter to stop action
● Slow Shutter to blur action
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Exposure for Shallow Depth of Field
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1/25 second
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f/2.5
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ISO 3200
Exposure for Shallow Depth of Field
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1/5000 sec
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f/2.8
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ISO 200
Exposure for Large Depth of Field
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1/400
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f/10
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ISO 200
Exposure for Blur - Panning
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1/6 sec
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f/4
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ISO 800
Flash
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Flash is a very short burst of light
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Typically 1/1000 second or shorter
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Camera will adjust duration as necessary
Shutter speed is not important for exposure of the subject, only
aperture and ISO
Shutter speed will determine exposure of background
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Use slow shutter speed or higher ISO to increase brightness
of background
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Flash also produces red-eye
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Bounce off ceiling if possible
Flash - Bad
Flash - Good
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1/30
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f/7.1
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ISO 800
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Bounced
Summary
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Focus
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Depth of Field
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Exposure
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Aperture
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Shutter Speed
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ISO
Flash
Berkshire Museum Camera Club
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The Berkshire Museum Camera Club membership is
open to all photographers.
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There is something for everyone from novice to
expert.
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Guest Speakers
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Competitions
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Workshops and Tutorials
Berkshire Museum Camera Club
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Meetings are held on the first and third Tuesdays at 7:00
p.m. at the Berkshire Museum on South Street, Pittsfield,
Massachusetts.
Competitions are open to all members. Visitors are always
welcome.
Membership Dues: Individual $35, Family $40, Student
$10.
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Half year: Individual $20, Family $25, Student $5.
www.BerkshireCameraClub.org
Berkshire Museum Camera Club
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Competitions
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Digital
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Color Prints
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Black and White Prints
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Slides
See www.BerkshireCameraClub.org for competition
rules
Berkshire Museum Camera club
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Feb 2: Competition #4: “People at Work”
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Feb 16: Competition #5: “General”
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Mar 2: Kevin Bubriski speaks on Documentary & Narrative
Photography
Mar 16: Competition #6: “Narrative”
Apr 6: Julie McCarthy will give a presentation of her
photos of Edna St. Vincent Millay's Steepletop
Apr 20: Competition #7 "Fire Stations of the Berkshires
and its Environs"
Questions
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