Surveyor FAQS
Navigation Safety Branch
MCA
2/30 Spring Place
105 Commercial Road
Southampton
SO15 1EG
Telephone: 023 80 329 146
Email: paul.townsend@mcga.gov.uk
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
Contents
1. VDR (including type approval and carriage requirements)
2. Radio
3. AIS installation: (a) SN/Circ.227
3. AIS installation: (b) AIS installation
3. (b)1: general
1.1 Survey
1.2 Documentation
3. (b) 2: AIS installation
2.1 Interference to the Ship’s VHF Radiotelephone
2.2 VHF Antenna Installation
2.3 GNSS Antenna installation
2.4 Power source
2.5 Synchronization
3. (b) 3: Bridge arrangement
3.1 Minimum Keyboard and Display
3.2 Pilot plug
3.3 Display system
3.4 Installation of the BIIT (Built-in Integrity Test) function
3. (b) 4: Dynamic data input
4.1 External Sensors
4.2 Position, COG and SOG
4.3 Heading
4.4 Rate of Turn
4.5 Navigational Status
3. (b) 5: Static Information
5.1 Entered at initial installation of AIS
5.2 Reference point of position
5.3 Ship’s dimensions
3. (b) 6: Long-Range function
3. (b )Annex 1: rate of turn
3. (b) Annex 2: type of ship table
3. (b) Annex 3: recommended IEC 61162 sentences
4. Draft instructions to surveyors: ship security alert system
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
VDR (including type approval and carriage requirements)
Acceptability of pre-Jul 2002 equipment
Following two appeals by MCA to the EC over Directive 2002/59/EC, the
Commission confirms that all ro-ro passenger vessels and HSCs must be equipped
with fully compliant VDRs.
The EC response reads: “Article 10 of this Directive abolishes, from 5 August 2002,
exemptions regarding “voyage data recording systems” (black boxes) granted to roro ferries or high speed passenger craft under Article 4(1)(d) of Council Directive
1999/35/EC.”
To this end, all vessels known to be fitted with non-compliant VDRs now have a plan
to replace them. For passenger vessels other than ro-ros, we have requested
operators to produce a replacement plan but this is less urgent because IMO
exemptions/equivalents have been applied for the short term.
Exemptions to requirement to interface to certain items of equipment
Technically, in accordance with the rejection of our appeal (as above), exemptions to
interfaces on ro-ro and HSCs cannot be granted. In practice, there will be a few
situations where interfacing is near to impossible. The EC has tacitly recognised this
and we may consider registering exceptional cases with them.
Retrofitting of VDR’s to existing vessels – Data Items to be recorded,
associated interfacing considerations and possible requirements for
exemption. (Note – depending on vessel class/size, some of the following
items may not be carriage requirement).
Acceptability of pre-Jul 2002 equipment
Following two appeals by MCA to the EC over Directive 2002/59/EC, the
Commission confirms that all ro-ro passenger vessels and HSCs must be equipped
with fully compliant VDRs.
The EC response reads: “Article 10 of this Directive abolishes, from 5 August 2002,
exemptions regarding “voyage data recording systems” (black boxes) granted to roro ferries or high speed passenger craft under Article 4(1)(d) of Council Directive
1999/35/EC.”
Items to be recorded - reference: IMO Assembly Resolution A861 (20) Clause
5.4
(This resolution/clause gives further detail of the requirement and should be read in
conjunction with this paper)
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
1. Date and Time – Available from GNSS receiver. No perceived grounds for
exemption.
2. Speed – Available in electronic format from SDME and/or GNSS receiver. No
perceived grounds for exemption.
3. Ship’s position – Available from GNSS receiver. No perceived grounds for
exemption.
4. Heading – Available electronically from gyrocompass or Transmitting Heading
Device (THD). No perceived grounds for exemption.
5. Bridge Audio – Microphones, amplifiers etc. form part of VDR fit. No perceived
grounds for exemption and should not be considered.
6. Communications Audio – Easily achieved with simple buffer amplifiers attached
to VHF transceiver. No perceived grounds for exemption.
7. Radar data, post-display selection –
a. All recently built radars should provide suitable interface.
b. Older radars may provide electronic output which may be converted/connected via
interface unit.
c. Radars with no electronic output are likely to be very old and require replacement
in near future.
d. Radars with manufacturer-specific digital coded outputs. Interfaces may need to
be designed/built for these.
(Note reference 7.c.and7.d. – In these cases, it may be necessary to consider
exemption for a limited period only. This is to give sufficient time to order and fit the
necessary equipment. A specific date must be agreed for replacement (and
connecting post-display radar to VDR). “By next survey” or “by 200X” is not
acceptable.)
8. Echo Sounder –
a. If any form of electrical/electronic output is available, should be connected.
b. If no electrical/electronic output is available, may be necessary to consider
exemption.
c. In all cases, any replacement equipment fitted in future must provide required
interface and be connected to VDR.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
(Note reference 8.b. – consideration to be given to restricting exemption to “home
route” and not beyond the next scheduled dry-docking. If the vessel is to sail a new
route, the exemption should be reviewed.)
9. Main alarms – All bridge indications will be electrical/electronic therefore
interfacing easily achievable. No perceived grounds for exemption.
10. Rudder Order and Response –
a. Electric/electronic systems should provide signals which may be interfaced via
suitable interface units therefore no grounds for exemption.
b. Purely mechanical systems may require exemption. However, any/all associated
electrical/electronic sensor (e.g. rudder angle sensor for autopilot) should be
interfaced.
11. Engine order and response –
a. Electric/electronic systems should provide signals which may be interfaced via
suitable interface units, therefore no grounds for exemption.
b. Purely mechanical systems may require exemption. However, any/all associated
electrical/electronic sensor (e.g. shaft/engine rpm indicator) should be interfaced.
c. Thrusters should be treated in same way as main engines.
12. Hull Opening Status - All bridge indications will be electrical/electronic therefore
interfacing easily achievable. No perceived grounds for exemption.
13. Watertight and fire door Status - All bridge indications will be
electrical/electronic therefore interfacing easily achievable. No perceived grounds for
exemption.
14. Acceleration and hull stresses – If fitted, any equipment will have
electrical/electronic readout. Signals will therefore be available which may be
interfaced via suitable interface units. No perceived grounds for exemption.
15. Wind speed and direction – If fitted, any equipment will have
electrical/electronic readout. Signals will therefore be available which may be
interfaced via suitable interface units. No perceived grounds for exemption.
In all cases, any replacement equipment fitted in future must provide required
interface and be connected to VDR.
Recording of General Alarm: Not specifically mentioned in Code of Alarms &
Indicators or VDR standards therefore not essential.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
Annual performance check and certification
Agreement has been reached with UK VDR manufacturers to use a standard
certificate form to which will be appended the print-out of 12 hours of data. The
certificate will confirm the full working condition of the VDR and include a log of any
remedial action taken.
October 2004 update: MGN 272 (M) VOYAGE DATA RECORDER’S (VDRs) –
PERFORMANCE TESTING has been published and requires that Voyage Data
Recorders (VDRs) should be tested after installation and then annually. The MGN
gives details of those competent to do this work and lists requirements for a 12-hour
print-out of data.
See also: MGN 272a (M)
VDR interfacing issues
Racal Decca ARPA 2690 BT X and S band radars use “4-bit digital code which is
impossible to be captured for recording” – Mick Williams Sperry 17.10.02.
However, possibility of using Litton Colour Decoder assembly to produce postdisplay
RGB.
Question:
Paragraph 3.3 of Annex 10 of Safety of Navigation SOLAS V states that: “The
responsibility issue remains complicated but the MCA would look to the authority
requesting surveyor certification (ship-owner, prime contractor or 'system integrator')
to take responsibility for proving / demonstrating all aspects of the VDR system to
the satisfaction of the surveyor."
Can you please clarify what is intended by "surveyor certification". Does this mean
that the MCA surveyor is to issue separate certification relating to the installation
tests of the VDR? Or, does the word "certification" refer to the statutory certificate
issued at the satisfactory completion of a survey for the issue of a Passenger
Certificate or a Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.
October 2004 update: See MGN 272 (M) and MGN 272a for further details.
Reply:
Point 1: the text should read "... survey or certification ....” There is no intention to
issue or provide a separate certificate but the complete VDR system installation
should have been tested to the Surveyor's satisfaction before the Passenger
Certificate or Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate is issued.
Point 2: the surveyor may not be present throughout initial testing of the VDR but
would be expected to assure himself that all elements of the VDR system have been
tested after installation and that all data can be accurately recorded and reproduced.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
These tests should cover all elements of the system from the sensing element (e.g.
switch activated by the bow door) through to the ability to analyse and reproduce
recorded data. The owner/installer may wish to conduct a complete system trial (e.g.
open bow door/close bow door, record times and check that reproduced data reflects
these) or show evidence that the mandatory alarms have been tested as far as the
bridge and then that the status of lamps on the bridge is correctly
recorded/reproduced by the VDR itself.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
2. Radio
Radio installations comments
Under SOLAS V, can a Sat C internal GNSS rx (for example) be used to provide
position to other radio equipments? What about existing GPS receivers?
Answer
Would agree with interpretation for new (radio) installations "that any equipment with
an inbuilt GNSS rx is considered 'stand alone' and any other radio equipment should
have its own GNSS or be connected to the ship's GNSS rx". Pragmatically, if at the
fitting of a GNSS rx (by 1st survey after 2002) it is simple to provide the interface to
all radio equipment, this should be done.
Where existing radio equipment is satisfactorily interfaced to another inbuilt GNSS,
my view is that it would be beyond the intention of Reg 18 to force a change for that
reason alone. In the event of power failure to the Sat C, the back-up would be
"manually updating position at intervals not exceeding 4 hours".
For new installations, a simple check for the presence of a "Wheelmark" would be
appropriate.
Existing GNSS receivers should be treated pragmatically in that a patently "Mickey
Mouse" unit or installation should be brought up to standard - otherwise where the
set has national type-approval no action is necessary.
Radio equipment approvals: non-Directive fishing vessels
Document MCA 287 details a process for manufacturers to gain approval for radio
equipment for fitting to NDFVs. The following are approved as of 3.1.03:




Barrett 980E Integrated HF transceiver and Class ‘E’ Controller
Simrad RD 68 VHF/DSC Class ‘D’
ICOM IC M-503 + DS 100 VHF RT and DSC controller
Mc Murdo F1
Note: all type approved equipment is fully acceptable for NDFV – list retained in
CIB.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
3. AIS installation: (a) SN/Circ.227
Testing and Installation of shipborne AIS
To be read in association with IMO SN/Circ.227: Guidelines for the Installation of a
Shipborne AIS – see Para 3(b)
Live testing of shipborne equipment ashore (if required)
Ensure that the correct licence is held.
Ensure that the MMSI used is the one given on the licence.
Ensure that programmable data fields, especially Name and IMO number, are
always consistent with the MMSI in use.
Ensure that the positional data transmitted represents the true location of the
equipment (on land) and not a position where the transmissions could be confused
with those from a ship.
Physical installation
Ensure that entire system is installed in accordance with IMO guidelines.
Remember that the MKD is not just a display, it also contains operational controls
and means for entering voyage related data. It should therefore be positioned close
to the primary conning position and where it is easily accessible to the OOW.
Installation of a pilot plug is mandatory. It should be positioned close to a flat surface
large enough to support the pilot’s laptop computer and situated in a position from
which the pilot will have a clear view ahead out of the bridge windows. An adjacent
240v power supply point is highly desirable and compulsory if the vessel is to
operate in certain overseas waters/ports.
Programming
MMSI and Callsign:
a. Must always be correctly programmed on installation. If there is any doubt about
the actual number/callsign to use, consult the ship’s radio licence.
b. It would appear that some equipments store the MMSI in more than one
memory/file. If this is the case, ensure all memory locations are programmed
correctly so that there is no chance of the equipment reverting to a factory default
setting whilst onboard the ship.
Ship’s name and IMO number:
a. Ensure that this is entered correctly.
b. Do not precede the name with M/V, F/V, RMS, FPV or any other initials which are
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
not unique to that vessel. (Use of such initials causes considerable confusion when
received information is stored in a database ashore.)
c. If any doubt over spelling/no. exists, consult ship’s documentation.
Ship type:
In accordance with table in guidelines. If in any doubt, consult with ship’s master.
Length, beam and ship’s reference position:
a. Programme these using the parameters as described in guidelines/equipment
installation manual. Remember that there are two reference positions, one for the
EXTERNAL GNSS antenna (from which the position is normally taken) and one for
the INTERNAL GNSS antenna (which may be used if the external receiver fails).
b. Ensure that figures give a reference position which is onboard the ship.
On completion of installation
If at all possible, carry out an operational check with neighbouring ship or VTS centre
to establish that information is being transmitted and that values sent are correct.
Document all settings programmed into the equipment and leave a copy of this
onboard the ship for future reference.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
3. AIS installation: (b) draft guidelines for installation of shipborne
automatic identification system (AIS)
1 General
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) Class A is defined by IMO and has been
made a carriage requirement by the latest revision of SOLAS chapter V. AIS
provides information that may be used for the navigation of the ship. It is therefore
essential that the information provided by AIS be reliable.
The AIS itself has been standardised by the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and is subject to type
approval. In order to fulfil the reliability requirements of information exchange, care
should be taken to ensure the AIS is correctly installed.
This document contains guidelines for manufacturers, installers, yards, suppliers and
ship surveyors. It does not replace documentation supplied by the manufacturer.
The guidelines take into account the following conventions, regulations, instructions
and guidelines:
IMO resolution MSC.90(73) Annex 7, Adoption of amendments to the International
Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended.
IMO resolution MSC.74(69) Annex 3, Recommendation on performance standards
for AIS.
ITU Radio Regulations (RR).
IEC 60092 (series), Electrical Installations on Ships.
IEC 60533 Electrical and Electronic Installations in Ships – Electromagnetic
Compatibility.
1.1 Survey
Surveys on Convention ships should be carried out in accordance with the rules laid
down in resolution A.746(18)
"Survey Guidelines under the harmonised system of survey and certification", and
"Protocol of 1988 relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at
Sea, 1974, as amended."
1.2 Documentation
For the AIS installation the following drawings shall be submitted:
Antenna layout
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
AIS arrangement drawing
Block diagram (interconnection diagram)
An initial installation configuration report should be produced during installation and
kept on board.
2 AIS Installation
2.1 Interference to the Ship’s VHF Radiotelephone
The AIS shipborne equipment, like any other shipborne transceiver operating in the
VHF maritime band, may cause interference to a ship’s VHF radiotelephone.
Because AIS is a digital system, this interference may occur as a periodic (e.g. every
20 s) soft clicking sound on a ship’s radiotelephone.
This effect may become more noticeable when the VHF radiotelephone antenna is
located near the AIS VHF antenna, and when the radiotelephone is operating on
channels near the AIS operating channels (e.g. channels 27, 28 and 86).
Attention should be paid to the location and installation of different antennas in order
to obtain the best possible efficiency. Special attention should be paid to the
installation of mandatory antennas like the AIS antennas.
2.2 VHF Antenna Installation
2.2.1 Location
Location of the mandatory AIS VHF antenna should be carefully considered. Digital
communication is more sensitive than analogue/voice communication to interference
created by reflections in obstructions like masts and booms. It may be necessary to
relocate the VHF radiotelephone antenna to minimize interference effects.
To minimise interference effects, the following guidelines apply:
The AIS VHF antenna should have omnidirectional vertical polarisation.
The AIS VHF antenna should be placed in an elevated position that is as free as
possible with a minimum of 2 metres in horizontal direction from constructions made
of conductive materials. The antenna should not be installed close to any large
vertical obstruction. The objective for the AIS VHF antenna is to see the horizon
freely through 360°.
The AIS VHF antenna should be installed safely away from interfering high-power
energy sources like radar and other transmitting radio antennas, preferably at least 3
m away from and out of the transmitting beam.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
Ideally there should not be more than one antenna on the same level. The AIS VHF
antenna should be mounted directly above or below the ship’s primary VHF
radiotelephone antenna, with no horizontal separation and with a minimum of 2 m
vertical separation. If it is located on the same level as other antennas, the distance
apart should be at least 10 m.
2.2.2 Cabling
The cable should be kept as short as possible to minimise attenuation of the signal.
Double screened coaxial cables equal or better than RG214 are recommended.
All outdoor installed connectors on the coaxial cables should be waterproof by
design to protect against water penetration into the antenna cable.
Coaxial cables should be installed in separate signal cable channels/tubes and at
least 10 cm away from power supply cables. Crossing of cables should be done at
right angles (90°). Coaxial cables should not be exposed to sharp bends, which may
lead to change the characteristic impedance of the cable. The minimum bend radius
should be 5 times the cable's outside diameter.
2.2.3 Grounding
Coaxial down-leads should be used for all antennas, and the coaxial screen should
be connected to ground at one end.
2.3 GNSS Antenna installation
Class A AIS should be connected to a GNSS antenna.
2.3.1 Location
The GNSS antenna should be installed where it has a clear view of the sky. The
objective is to see the horizon freely through 360° with a vertical observation of 5 to
90° above the horizon. Small diameter obstructions, such as masts and booms, do
not seriously degrade signal reception, but such objects should not eclipse more
than a few degrees of any given bearing.
Locate the antenna at least three meters away from and out of the transmitting beam
of high-power transmitters (S-Band Radar and/or Inmarsat systems). This includes
the ship’s own AIS VHF antenna if it is designed and installed separately.
If a DGNSS system is included or connected to the AIS system, the installation of the
antenna should be in accordance with IEC 61108-4, Ed 1, annex D.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
2.3.2 Cabling
To achieve optimum performance, the gain of the antenna pre-amplifier should
match the cable attenuation. The resulting installation gain (pre-amplifier gain - cable
attenuation) should be within 0 to 10 dB.
The coaxial cable between the antenna and the AIS shipborne station connector
should be routed directly in order to reduce electromagnetic interference effects.
The cable should not be installed close to high-power lines, such as radar or radiotransmitter lines or the AIS VHF antenna cable. A separation of one meter or more is
recommended to avoid degradation due to RF-coupling. Crossing of antenna cables
should be done at 90° to minimise magnetic field coupling.
All outdoor installed connectors on the coaxial cables should be waterproof by
design to protect against water penetration into the antenna cable.
2.4 Power source
The AIS should be connected to an emergency power source.
2.5 Synchronization
After installation, the AIS should be synchronised properly on UTC and that position
information, if provided, should be correct and valid.
3 Bridge Arrangement
3.1 Minimum Keyboard and Display
The functionality of the Minimum Keyboard and Display (MKD) should be available to
the mariner at the position from which the ship is normally operated. This can be by
means of the AIS’ internal MKD (integrated or remote) or through the equivalent
functionality on a separate display system.
3.2 Pilot plug
A pilot input/output port is part of an AIS Class A station. A plug connected to this
port should be installed on the bridge near the pilot’s operating position so that a pilot
can connect a Personal Pilot Unit (PPU).
The pilot plug should be configured as follows:
AMP/Receptacle (Square Flanged (-1) or Free-Hanging (-2)), Shell size 11, 9-pin,
Std. Sex 206486-1/2 or equivalent with the following terminations:




TX A is connected to Pin 1
TX B is connected to Pin 4
RX A is connected to Pin 5
RX B is connected to Pin 6
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006

Shield is connected to Pin 9
3.3 Display system
If there is navigational equipment capable of processing and displaying AIS
information such as ECDIS, radar or an integrated system available on board the
ship, the AIS Class A mobile system may be connected to that system via the AIS
Presentation Interface (PI). The PI (input/output) should meet the requirements of
IEC 61162-2.
The display system can also include the functionality of an MKD, see 3.1.
3.4 Installation of the BIIT (Built-in Integrity Test) function
The AIS requires that an alarm output (relay) be connected to an audible alarm
device or the ships alarm system, if available.
Alternatively, the BIIT alarm system may use the alarm messages output on the PI,
provided its alarm system is AIS compatible.
4 Dynamic data input
4.1 External Sensors
The AIS has interfaces (configurable as IEC 61162-1 or 61162-2) for position,
heading and rate of turn (ROT) sensors.
In general, sensors installed in compliance with other carriage requirements of
SOLAS Chapter V should be connected to the AIS.1 The sensor information
transmitted by AIS should be the same information being used for navigation of the
ship.
The interfaces should be configured as given in annex 3. Interfacing problems might
occur if the existing sensors found on board do not have serial (IEC 61162) outputs.
4.2 Position, COG and SOG
GNSS sensors normally have IEC 61162 outputs for position, COG and SOG
suitable for directly interfacing the AIS. However, it is important to note that:
The Geodetic Datum of the position data transmitted by the sensor is WGS 84 and
that an IEC 61162 DTM sentence is configured.
AIS is able to process two reference points for its antenna position, one for external
and one for an internal sensor. If more than one external reference point is used, the
appropriate information needs to be input to the AIS to adjust reference point
information.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
4.3 Heading
A compass providing heading information is a mandatory sensor input to the AIS. A
converter unit (e.g. stepper to NMEA) will be needed to connect AIS if the ship’s
compass does not provide an IEC 61162 output. Some ships of less than 500 gross
tonnage may not carry a compass providing heading information.
4.4 Rate of Turn
All ships may not carry a Rate-Of-Turn (ROT) Indicator according to resolution
A.526(13). However, if a rate-of-turn indicator is available and it includes an IEC
61162 interface, it should be connected to the AIS.
If ROT information is not available from a ROT indicator, the direction of turn may
(optionally) be derived from heading information through:



the compass itself
An external converter unit (see paragraph 4.3)
the AIS itself (see annex 1)
4.5 Navigational Status
A simple means should be provided for the operator to input the ship’s navigational
status (e.g. underway using engine, at anchor, not under command, restricted in
ability to manoeuvre, etc.) information into the AIS. The AIS may be connected to the
ship's navigational status lights.
5 Static Information
The AIS standards require that certain static, voyage-related, and dynamic
information be entered manually, normally by means of the MKD, or by means of
IEC 61162 sentences “SSD” and “VSD” via the presentation interface if such
provisions exist.
5.1 Entered at initial installation of AIS
Information that should be entered at the initial installation of the AIS includes:

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

Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) number
IMO vessel number
Radio call sign
Name of ship
Type of ship
Dimension/reference for position of the electronic position fixing device (EPFD)
antenna (see paragraph 5.2)
Access to MMSI, IMO number and other AIS controls (like power and channel
settings) will be controlled, e.g. by password.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
The Call Sign, Name of Ship and Type of Ship should be input to the AIS, either
manually using the MKD or by means of IEC 61162 sentences “SSD” and “VSD” via
the PI. Type of Ship information should be in accordance with the table given in
annex 2 (Table 18 from Rec. ITU-R M.1371-1).
For example, a cargo ship not carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances, or
marine pollutants; would use identifier “70”. Pleasure craft would use identifier “37”.
Note that those ships whose type identifier begins with a “3” should use the fourth
column of the table.
Depending on the vessel, cargo and/or the navigational conditions, this information
may be voyage related and would therefore need to be changed before beginning or
at some time during the voyage. This is defined by the “second digit” in the fourth
column of the table.
5.2 Reference point of position
The AIS stores one “external reference point” for the external GNSS antenna
position and one “internal reference point” if an internal GNSS is to be used as
fallback for position reporting. The locations of theses reference points have to be
set during installation using values A, B, C, D; as described in paragraph 5.3.
The external reference point may also be a calculated common reference position.
Additionally, the content of the Ship Static Data (“SSD”) sentence on the PI,
including the “reference point for position” is being processed by the AIS, and the
AIS’ memory for the “external reference point” is set in accordance with the content
of this “SSD” (e.g. used by an INS).
5.3 Ship’s dimensions
Ship’s dimensions should be entered using the overall length and width of the ship
indicated by the values A, B, C, and D in the following figure.
Ship’s dimensions (A+B and C+D) should be identical when entering internal and
external reference points.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
The dimension A should be in the
direction of the transmitted heading
information (bow)
Reference point of reported position not
available, but dimensions of ship are
available: A = C = 0 and B? 0 and D? 0.
Neither reference point of reported
position nor dimensions of ship available:
A = B = C = D = 0 (=default)
For use in the message table, A = most
significant field, D = least significant field
The rare case of an EPFD antenna
installed in the portside corner of a
rectangular bow, the values A and C
would be zero. Should this be the case,
one of these values should be set to 1 in
order to avoid misinterpretation as “not
available” because A=C=0 is used for that
purpose.
Distance
(m)
A 0 – 511 ;
511 =511 m or greater
B 0 – 511 ;
511 = 511 m or greater
C 0 - 63 ;
63 = 63 m or greater
D 0 - 63 ;
63 = 63 m or greater
6 Long-range function
The AIS’ long-range function needs a compatible long-range communication system
(e.g. Inmarsat-C or MF/HF radio as part of the GMDSS).
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
If this is available, a connection between that communication system and the Class
A mobile unit can be made. This connection is needed to activate the LR function of
AIS. Its input/output port should meet the requirement of IEC 61162- 2.
1
Installation of the AIS does NOT establish a need to install additional sensors
above carriage requirements.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
4. Draft instructions to surveyors: ship security alert system
Requirement:
 ships on international voyages.
 new ships
 passenger ships and HSC passenger ships, not later than first survey of radio
installations after 1 July 2004.
 tankers, gas carriers and cargo HSC of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, not
later than first survey of radio installation after 1 July 2004.
 other cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards and MODUs, not later
than first survey of radio installation after 1 July 2006.
Performance Standards - Res MSC.136(76) and Res MSC.147(77)
Type approval and wheel marking are not required. However the Ship Security Alert
System should comply with the general requirements of A.694(17). There should be
evidence that the EMC requirements of IEC 60945 are complied with. There should
be evidence that the system will work in the environmental conditions likely to be
encountered. This may be shown by evidence that the environmental conditions of
IEC 60945 are complied with or that operation under the conditions likely to be
encountered on the ship can be satisfactorily achieved.
If the system utilises GMDSS radio equipment there should evidence that the
functionality of the GMDSS installation is not impaired. If the system uses other radio
equipment there should be evidence of an appropriate radio licence. If the system
works over telecommunication systems provided by third parties such as Inmarsat
there should be evidence of the provider’s approval.
Activation points
Two activation points are required, one on the bridge and the other elsewhere.
These may be fixed or portable telephone handsets, fixed or portable keypads or
fixed or portable buttons. The activation points should be protected against
inadvertent activation i.e. by a cover over a button. It should not be necessary
however to have to break any seals.
Automatic activation points, such as buttons, should not require any adjustments to a
radio to be necessary such as channel changing etc.
The alert
The system, when activated, should not send an alert to other ships or raise an
alarm on board the ship. The alert should be sent to Falmouth MRCC and contain
the following information:
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006




a clearly distinguishable header indicating that there is a security problem
(which should be distinguishable from a GMDSS alert)
the identity of the ship (name or MMSI or other number)
the location of the ship (lat/long or descriptive position together with time)
an indication of the type/make/model of the system used
Falmouth MRCC will not act on an alert which has not been confirmed and may be a
false activation. Confirmation should be achieved by the Company by methods such
as exchange of messages with the ship or monitoring of telemetry/video information.
The result of the confirmation should be sent to Falmouth MRCC.
Deactivation/Re-setting
There should be means to stop automatic repeats of alerts either on the ship or by
the Company. Falmouth MRCC should be notified when the security incident is
terminated.
Testing
It should be possible to test the system with Falmouth MRCC monthly. The alert
message should have an associated indication to indicate that the message is a test.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
AIS installation annex 1: rate of turn
The AIS provides the Rate of Turn (ROT) information to other ships in order to early
detect ships manoeuvres. There are two possible parameters indicating turning of a
ship derived from two different sensors (see Figure 3: ROT sensor input):


the heading from a GYRO or THD
the rotation rate itself from a Rate of Turn-indicator
If a Rate of Turn Indicator according to resolution A.526(13) is connected the AIS
should use this information to broadcast both direction and value of turn on the VDL.
If valid ROT or HDG data is available from other external sources (Gyro, INS,...), the
AIS should use this information to broadcast the direction of turn on the VDL, if
greater than 5° in 30 s (might also be implemented as 2.5° in 15 s by configuration);
the AIS may also derive ROT information from HDG internally for that purpose.
If no ROT information is available, the AIS should transmit default values
indicating “not available”. ROT data should not be derived from COG
information.
If a ship is not required to carry Turn-Indicator or if external sensor fails, the
AIS should react according to following priorities:
ROT sensor fallback conditions
Affected data in msg
1, 2, 3/
Priority
contents of ROT field
Position Sensor
status
1.
Rate of Turn Indicator 0..+ 126 = turning right at up to 708° per minute or
in use1
higher;
0..- 126 = turning left at up to 708° per minute or
higher
Values between 0 and 708°/min should be coded
by
ROTAIS=4.733 SQRT(ROTsensor)
degrees/min
where ROTsensor is the Rate of Turn as input by
the external Rate of Turn Indicator (TI).
Values of 709° per minute and above should be
limited to 708° per min.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
2.
other ROT source in 2 + 127 = turning right at more than 5°/30s (No TI
available)
0 no turn
- 127 = turning Left at more than 5°/30s (No TI
available)
3.
no valid ROT
information available
–128 (80 hex) indicates no turn information
available (default)
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
Rate of Turn sensor input overview
1
Rate of Turn Indicator according to resolution A.526(13); determined by talker ID
2
i.e. based on HDG information
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
AIS installation annex 2: type of ship table
Identifiers to be used by ships to report their type
Identifier
No.
Special craft
50
Pilot vessel
51
Search and rescue vessels
52
Tugs
53
Port tenders
54
Vessels with anti-pollution facilities or equipment
55
Law enforcement vessels
56
Spare – for assignments to local vessels
57
Spare – for assignments to local vessels
58
Medical transports (as defined in the 1949 Geneva Convention and
Additional Protocols)
59
Ships according to Resolution No 18 (Mob-83)
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
Other ships
First digit (*)
Second digit (*)
First digit (*) Second digit (*)
1 - reserved for 0 – All ships of this type
future use
-
0 – Fishing
2 – WIG
1 – Carrying DG, HS, or
MP IMO hazard or
pollutant category A
-
1 – Towing
3 - see right
column
2 – Carrying DG, HS, or
MP IMO hazard or
pollutant category B
3 – Vessel
2 – Towing and length of
the tow exceeds 200 m or
breadth exceeds 25 m
4 – HSC
3 – Carrying DG, HS, or
MP IMO hazard or
pollutant category C
-
3 – Engaged in dredging
or underwater operations
5 – see above
4 – Carrying DG, HS, or
MP IMO hazard or
pollutant category D
-
4 – Engaged in diving
operations
5 – reserved for future
use
-
5 – Engaged in military
operations
6 – Passenger
ships
6 – reserved for future
use
-
6 – Sailing
7 – Cargo
ships
7 –reserved for future
use
-
7 – Pleasure Craft
8 – Tanker(s)
8 – reserved for future
use
-
8 – reserved for future use
-
9 – reserved for future use
9 – Other types 9 – No additional
of ship
information
DG: Dangerous Goods.
HS: Harmful Substances.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
MP: Marine Pollutants.
(*) NOTE: the identifier should be constructed by selecting the appropriate first and
second digits.
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
AIS installation annex 3: recommended IEC 61162 sentences
To connect external sensors it is recommended to configure the following sentences
as indicated below.
Preferred IEC 61162-1 sensor sentences
Data
IEC 61162-1 preferred IEC 61162-1 optional
Reference datum
DTM
Positioning system:
Time of position
Latitude / Longitude
Position accuracy
GNS
GLL
GGA, RMC
Speed Over Ground (SOG) VBW
VTG, OSD, RMC
Course Over Ground (COG) RMC
VTG, OSD
Heading
HDT
OSD
RAIM indicator
GBS
Rate Of Turn (ROT)
ROT
Instructions for the guidance of surveyors: surveyor FAQs, May 2006
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