FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide

FortiMail Administration Guide
Version 5.3.4
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
August 29, 2016
2nd Edition
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Table of contents
Concepts and workflow................................................................................... 6
Email protocols ........................................................................................................ 6
Client-server connections in SMTP ......................................................................... 8
The role of DNS in email delivery............................................................................. 9
How FortiMail processes email.............................................................................. 12
FortiMail operation modes ..................................................................................... 23
FortiMail high availability modes............................................................................ 24
FortiMail management methods ............................................................................ 24
Setting up the system .................................................................................... 26
Connecting to the Web UI or CLI........................................................................... 26
Choosing the operation mode ............................................................................... 30
Running the Quick Start Wizard ............................................................................ 35
Connecting to FortiGuard services ........................................................................ 46
Gateway mode deployment................................................................................... 51
Transparent mode deployment.............................................................................. 78
Server mode deployment .................................................................................... 100
Initial configuration in basic mode ....................................................................... 119
Testing the installation ......................................................................................... 156
Backing up the configuration............................................................................... 168
Monitoring the system ................................................................................. 170
Viewing overall system statuses .......................................................................... 170
Managing the deferred mail queue ...................................................................... 174
Managing the quarantines ................................................................................... 177
Viewing the greylist statuses ............................................................................... 183
Viewing the sender reputation statuses............................................................... 187
Viewing the endpoint reputation statuses ........................................................... 190
Managing archived email ..................................................................................... 192
Viewing log messages ......................................................................................... 194
Viewing generated reports................................................................................... 201
Maintaining the system................................................................................ 203
Backup and restore ............................................................................................. 203
Using the traffic capture ...................................................................................... 216
Configuring FortiGuard updates and antispam queries ...................................... 216
Downloading a trace file ...................................................................................... 226
Configuring system settings ....................................................................... 227
Configuring network settings............................................................................... 227
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Configuring system time, options, and other system options ............................. 245
Customizing GUI, replacement messages and email templates ......................... 255
Configuring administrator accounts and access profiles .................................... 268
Configuring RAID ................................................................................................. 276
Using high availability (HA) .................................................................................. 283
Managing certificates........................................................................................... 325
Configuring encryption settings ................................................................. 335
Configuring IBE encryption.................................................................................. 335
Configuring certificate bindings ........................................................................... 340
Configuring mail settings............................................................................. 344
Configuring the built-in MTA and mail server ...................................................... 344
Configuring protected domains ........................................................................... 358
Managing the address book (server mode only) ................................................. 381
Sharing calendars and address books (server mode only).................................. 386
Migrating email from other mail servers (server mode only)................................ 391
Configuring proxies (transparent mode only)....................................................... 393
Managing users ............................................................................................ 402
Configuring local user accounts (server mode only)............................................ 402
Configuring user preferences .............................................................................. 406
Configuring PKI authentication ............................................................................ 409
Configuring user groups ...................................................................................... 414
Configuring aliases .............................................................................................. 415
Configuring address mappings............................................................................ 418
Configuring IBE users .......................................................................................... 421
Configuring policies ..................................................................................... 427
What is a policy?.................................................................................................. 427
How to use policies ............................................................................................. 428
Controlling SMTP access and delivery ................................................................ 430
Controlling email based on recipient addresses.................................................. 442
Controlling email based on IP addresses ............................................................ 450
Configuring data loss prevention................................................................ 458
DLP configuration workflow................................................................................. 458
Defining the sensitive data................................................................................... 458
Configuring DLP rules.......................................................................................... 460
Configuring DLP profiles...................................................................................... 460
Configuring profiles...................................................................................... 462
Configuring session profiles ................................................................................ 462
Configuring antispam profiles and antispam action profiles ............................... 483
Configuring antivirus profiles and antivirus action profiles .................................. 501
Configuring content profiles and content action profiles..................................... 506
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Configuring resource profiles (server mode only) ................................................ 517
Workflow to enable and configure authentication of email users........................ 519
Configuring authentication profiles...................................................................... 520
Configuring LDAP profiles ................................................................................... 525
Configuring dictionary profiles............................................................................. 559
Configuring security profiles ................................................................................ 564
Configuring IP pools ............................................................................................ 570
Configuring email and IP groups ......................................................................... 572
Configuring notification profiles ........................................................................... 573
Configuring antispam settings .................................................................... 574
Configuring email quarantines and quarantine reports ....................................... 574
Configuring the block lists and safe lists ............................................................. 585
Configuring greylisting ......................................................................................... 595
Configuring the URL exempt list.......................................................................... 605
Configuring bounce verification and tagging....................................................... 605
Configuring endpoint reputation .......................................................................... 610
Training and maintaining the Bayesian databases .............................................. 614
Configuring antivirus settings ..................................................................... 625
Using FortiSandbox antivirus inspection ............................................................. 625
Adding file signatures .......................................................................................... 626
Archiving email ............................................................................................. 628
Email archiving workflow ..................................................................................... 628
Configuring email archiving accounts.................................................................. 628
Configuring email archiving policies .................................................................... 633
Configuring email archiving exemptions.............................................................. 634
Logs, reports and alerts............................................................................... 636
About FortiMail logging........................................................................................ 636
Configuring logging.............................................................................................. 643
Configuring report profiles and generating reports ............................................. 647
Configuring alert email ......................................................................................... 653
Installing firmware........................................................................................ 656
Testing firmware before installing it ..................................................................... 656
Installing firmware ................................................................................................ 658
Clean installing firmware...................................................................................... 664
Upgrading firmware on HA units ......................................................................... 666
Best practices and fine tuning .................................................................... 667
Network topology tuning ..................................................................................... 667
System security tuning ........................................................................................ 667
High availability (HA) tuning ................................................................................. 668
SMTP connectivity tuning .................................................................................... 669
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Antispam tuning ................................................................................................... 670
Policy tuning ........................................................................................................ 671
System maintenance tips .................................................................................... 671
Performance tuning ............................................................................................. 672
Troubleshooting ........................................................................................... 673
Establish a system baseline................................................................................. 673
Define the problem .............................................................................................. 674
Search for a known solution ................................................................................ 674
Create a troubleshooting plan ............................................................................. 675
Gather system information .................................................................................. 675
Troubleshoot hardware issues............................................................................. 676
Troubleshoot GUI and CLI connection issues ..................................................... 676
Troubleshoot FortiGuard connection issues........................................................ 677
Troubleshoot MTA issues .................................................................................... 679
Troubleshoot antispam issues ............................................................................. 682
Troubleshoot HA issues....................................................................................... 685
Troubleshoot resource issues.............................................................................. 685
Troubleshoot bootup issues ................................................................................ 686
Troubleshoot installation issues .......................................................................... 687
Contact Fortinet customer support for assistance .............................................. 687
Setup for email users ................................................................................... 689
Training Bayesian databases............................................................................... 689
Managing tagged spam ....................................................................................... 690
Accessing the personal quarantine and webmail ................................................ 690
Sending email from an email client (gateway and transparent mode)................. 694
Appendix A: Supported RFCs......................................................................
Appendix B: Maximum Values Matrix.........................................................
Appendix C: Port Numbers ..........................................................................
Appendix D: Regular expressions...............................................................
695
698
702
706
Special characters with regular expressions and wild cards............................... 706
Word boundary .................................................................................................... 706
Case sensitivity .................................................................................................... 706
Syntax .................................................................................................................. 706
Examples ............................................................................................................. 708
Appendix E: Working with TLS/SSL............................................................ 709
About TLS/SSL .................................................................................................... 709
How TLS/SSL works............................................................................................ 709
FortiMail support of TLS/SSL .............................................................................. 711
Troubleshooting FortiMail TLS issues ................................................................. 715
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Appendix F: PKI Authentication .................................................................. 719
Introduction to PKI authentication ....................................................................... 719
FortiMail PKI architecture .................................................................................... 720
Configuring PKI authentication on FortiMail ........................................................ 721
Index .............................................................................................................. 739
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Concepts and workflow
This section describes some basic email concepts, how FortiMail works in general, and the
tools that you can use to configure your FortiMail unit.
This section includes:
• Email protocols
• Client-server connections in SMTP
• The role of DNS in email delivery
• How FortiMail processes email
• FortiMail operation modes
• FortiMail high availability modes
• FortiMail management methods
Email protocols
There are multiple prevalent standard email protocols:
• SMTP
• POP3
• IMAP
• HTTP and HTTPS
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard protocol for sending email between:
• two mail transfer agents (MTA)
• a mail user agent (MUA) and an MTA
For definitions of MTA and MUA, see “Client-server connections in SMTP” on page 8.
SMTP communications typically occur on TCP port number 25.
When an email user sends an email, their MUA uses SMTP to send the email to an MTA, which
is often their email server. The MTA then uses SMTP to directly or indirectly deliver the email to
the destination email server that hosts email for the recipient email user.
When an MTA connects to the destination email server, it determines whether the recipient
exists on the destination email server. If the recipient email address is legitimate, then the MTA
delivers the email to the email server, from which email users can then use a protocol such as
POP3 or IMAP to retrieve the email. If the recipient email address does not exist, the MTA
typically sends a separate email message to the sender, notifying them of delivery failure.
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While the basic protocol of SMTP is simple, many SMTP servers support a number of protocol
extensions for features such as authentication, encryption, multipart messages and
attachments, and may be referred to as extended SMTP (ESMTP) servers.
FortiMail units can scan SMTP traffic for spam and viruses, and support several SMTP
extensions.
POP3
Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is a standard protocol used by email clients to retrieve
email that has been delivered to and stored on an email server.
POP3 communications typically occur on TCP port number 110.
Unlike IMAP, after a POP3 client downloads an email to the email user’s computer, a copy of the
email usually does not remain on the email server’s hard disk. The advantage of this is that it
frees hard disk space on the server. The disadvantage of this is that downloaded email usually
resides on only one personal computer. Unless all of their POP3 clients are always configured to
leave copies of email on the server, email users who use multiple computers to view email, such
as both a desktop and laptop, will not be able to view from one computer any of the email
previously downloaded to another computer.
FortiMail units do not scan POP3 traffic for spam and viruses, but may use POP3 when
operating in server mode, when an email user retrieves their email.
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a standard protocol used by email clients to
retrieve email that has been delivered to and stored on an email server.
IMAP communications typically occur on TCP port number 143.
Unless configured for offline availability, IMAP clients typically initially download only the
message header. They download the message body and attachments only when the email user
selects to read the email.
Unlike POP3, when an IMAP client downloads an email to the email user’s computer, a copy of
the email remains on the email server’s hard disk. The advantage of this is that it enables email
users to view email from more than one computer. This is especially useful in situations where
more than one person may need to view an inbox, such where all members of a department
monitor a collective inbox. The disadvantage of this is that, unless email users delete email,
IMAP may more rapidly consume the server’s hard disk space.
FortiMail units do not scan IMAP traffic for spam and viruses, but may use IMAP when
operating in server mode, when an email user retrieves their email.
HTTP and HTTPS
Secured and non-secured HyperText Transfer Protocols (HTTP/HTTPS), while not strictly for the
transport of email, are often used by webmail applications to view email that is stored remotely.
HTTP communications typically occur on TCP port number 80; HTTPS communications
typically occur on TCP port number 443.
FortiMail units do not scan HTTP or HTTPS traffic for spam or viruses, but use them to display
quarantines and, if the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode, FortiMail webmail.
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Client-server connections in SMTP
Client-server connections and connection directionality in SMTP differ from how you may be
familiar with them in other protocols.
For example, in the SMTP protocol, an SMTP client connects to an SMTP server. This seems
consistent with the traditional client-server model of communications. However, due to the
notion of relay in SMTP, the SMTP client may be either:
• an email application on a user’s personal computer
• another SMTP server that acts as a delivery agent for the email user, relaying the email to its
destination email server
The placement of clients and servers within your network topology may affect the operation
mode you choose when installing a FortiMail unit. If your FortiMail unit will be operating in
gateway mode or server mode, SMTP clients — including SMTP servers connecting as clients
— must be configured to connect to the FortiMail unit.
Terms such as MTA and MUA describe server and client relationships specific to email
protocols.
MTA
A Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) is an SMTP server that relays email messages to another SMTP
server.
FortiMail units operating in gateway mode function as an MTA. FortiMail units operating in
server mode function as an MTA and full (SMTP, IMAP, POP3, webmail) email server.
In order to deliver email, unless the email is incoming and the email server has no domain name
and is accessed by IP address only, MTAs must query a DNS server for the MX record and the
corresponding A record. For more information, see “The role of DNS in email delivery” on
page 9.
MUA
A Mail User Agent (MUA), or email client, is software such as Microsoft Outlook that enables
users to send and receive email.
FortiMail units support SMTP connections for sending of email by a MUA.
FortiMail units operating in server mode support POP3 and IMAP connections for retrieval of
email by a MUA. For email users that prefer to use their web browsers to send and retrieve
email instead of a traditional MUA, FortiMail units operating in server mode also provide
FortiMail webmail.
Incoming versus outgoing directionality
Many FortiMail features such as proxies and policies act upon the directionality of an SMTP
connection or email message. Rather than being based upon origin, incoming or outgoing
directionality is determined by whether the destination is a protected domain.
Incoming connections consist of those destined for the SMTP servers that are protected
domains of the FortiMail unit. For example, if the FortiMail unit is configured to protect the
SMTP server whose IP address is 192.168.0.1, the FortiMail unit treats all SMTP connections
destined for 192.168.0.1 as incoming.
Outgoing connections consist of those destined for SMTP servers that the FortiMail unit has not
been configured to protect. For example, if the FortiMail unit is not configured to protect the
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
SMTP server whose IP address is 10.0.0.1, all SMTP connections destined for 10.0.0.1 will be
treated as outgoing, regardless of their origin.
Figure 1: Incoming versus outgoing SMTP connections
Directionality at the connection level may be different than directionality at the level of email
messages contained by the connection. It is possible that an incoming connection could
contain an outgoing email message, and vice versa.
For example, in the above figure, connections from the internal mail relays to the internal mail
servers are outgoing connections, but they contain incoming email messages. Conversely,
connections from remote MUAs to the internal mail relays are incoming connections, but may
contain outgoing email messages if the recipients’ email addresses (RCPT TO:) are external.
Similarly to when determining the directionality of an SMTP connection, when determining the
directionality of an email message, FortiMail units examine the domain to which the recipient
belongs: if the domain to which the recipient email address belongs is a protected domain, the
email message is considered to be incoming; if the domain to which the recipient email address
belongs is not a protected domain, the email message is considered to be outgoing.
The role of DNS in email delivery
SMTP can be configured to operate without DNS, using IP addresses instead of domain names
for SMTP clients, SMTP servers, and recipient email addresses. However, this configuration is
rare.
SMTP as it is typically used relies upon DNS to determine the mail gateway server (MX) for a
domain name, and to resolve domain names into IP addresses. As such, you usually must
configure email servers and FortiMail units to be able to query a DNS server.
In addition, you may also be required to configure the DNS server with an MX record, an A
record, and a reverse DNS record for protected domain names and for the domain name of the
FortiMail unit itself.
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MX record
Mail Exchanger (MX) records are configured on a DNS server. MX records for a domain name
indicate designated email servers or email gateways that deliver email to that domain, and their
order of preference. In their most simple form, MX records use the following format:
example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com
where:
• example.com is the name of the domain
• IN indicates the Internet protocol class
• MX indicates that the DNS resource record is of the MX type
• 10 indicates the order of preference (greater values indicate lower preference)
• mail.example.com is the host name of an email server or gateway
When an email client sends an email, the sender’s MTA queries a DNS server for the MX record
of the domain name in the recipient’s email address. To resolve the host name of the MTA
referenced by the MX record, it then queries for the A record of the destination MTA. That A
record provides the IP address of the email server or gateway. The sender’s MTA then attempts
to deliver the email to that IP address.
For example, if the recipient email address is user1@example.com, in order to deliver the email,
the sender’s MTA would query the MX and A records to determine the IP address of the email
gateway of example.com.
Often, the domain name and/or IP address of the email domain is different from that of its email
server or gateway. The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of an email server or gateway may
be a subdomain or another domain name entirely, such as that of the MTA of an Internet service
provider (ISP). For example, the email gateways for the email domain example.com could be
mail1.example.com and mail2.example.com, or mail.isp.example.net.
If your FortiMail unit will operate in transparent mode, and you will configure it be fully
transparent at both the IP layer and in the SMTP envelope and message headers by enabling
“Hide this box from the mail server” in the session profile, “Hide the transparent box” in the
protected domain, and “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” for the proxies, no MX
record changes are required.
If your FortiMail unit will operate in gateway mode or server mode, or in transparent mode while
not configured to be fully transparent, you must configure the public DNS server for your
domain name with an MX record that refers to the FortiMail unit which will operate as the email
gateway, such as:
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
If your FortiMail unit will operate in gateway mode or server mode, or in transparent mode while
not fully transparent, configure the MX record to refer to the FortiMail unit, and remove other MX
records. If you do not configure the MX record to refer to the FortiMail unit, or if other MX
records exist that do not refer to the FortiMail unit, external MTAs may not be able to deliver
email to or through the FortiMail unit, or may be able to bypass the FortiMail unit. If you have
configured secondary MX records for failover reasons, consider configuring FortiMail high
availability (HA) instead. For details, see “FortiMail high availability modes” on page 24.
Exceptions include if you are configuring a private DNS server for use with the Use MX Record
option. In that case, rather than referencing the FortiMail unit as the mail gateway and being
used by external SMTP servers to route mail, the MX record references the protected SMTP
server and is used by the FortiMail unit to define the SMTP servers for the protected domain.
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A record
A records are configured on a DNS server. A records indicate the IP address to which a host
name resolves. In their most simple form, A records use the following format:
mail IN A 192.168.1.10
where:
• mail is the name of the host
• IN indicates the Internet protocol class
• A indicates that the DNS resource record is of the IPv4 address type
• 192.168.1.10 indicates the IP address that hosts the domain name
When an email client sends an email, the sender’s MTA queries a DNS server for the MX record
of the domain name in the recipient’s email address. To resolve the host name of the MTA
referenced by the MX record, it then queries for the A record of the destination MTA. That A
record provides the IP address of the email server or gateway. The sender’s MTA then attempts
to deliver the email to that IP address.
You must configure the public DNS server for your host names with an A record to resolve the
host names referenced in MX records, and the host name of the FortiMail unit, if any. For
example, if an MX record is:
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
the required A record in the example.com zone file might be:
fortimail IN A 192.168.1.15
Reverse DNS record
Because the SMTP protocol does not strictly require SMTP clients to use their own domain
name during the SMTP greeting, it is possible to spoof the origin domain. In an attempt to
bypass antispam measures against domain names known to be associated with spam,
spammers often exploit that aspect of SMTP by pretending to send email from legitimate
domains.
For example, the spammer spam.example.com might initiate an SMTP session with the
command:
EHLO nonspam.example.edu
To prevent this form of attack, many SMTP servers query reverse DNS records to verify that the
domain name provided in the SMTP greeting genuinely matches the IP address of the
connecting SMTP client.
You should configure the public DNS server for your protected domain names with a reverse
DNS record to resolve the IP addresses of your protected SMTP servers and/or FortiMail unit
into domain names.
For example, if the outgoing MTA for example.com is the FortiMail unit, fortimail.example.com,
and the public network IP address of the FortiMail unit is 10.10.10.1, a public DNS server’s
reverse DNS zone file for the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet might contain:
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.com.
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where fortimail.example.com is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit.
Reverse DNS records are required for FortiMail units operating in gateway mode or server
mode. However, they are also required for FortiMail units operating in transparent mode, unless
they have been configured to be completely transparent. For more information on transparency,
see “Configuring proxies (transparent mode only)” on page 393.
How FortiMail processes email
FortiMail units receive email for defined email domains and control relay of email to other
domains. Email passing through the FortiMail unit can be scanned for viruses and spam.
Policies and profiles govern how the FortiMail unit scans email and what it does with email
messages containing viruses or spam. For information about policies, see “Configuring
policies” on page 427. For information about profiles, see “Configuring profiles” on page 462.
In addition to policies and profiles, other configured items, such as email domains, may affect
how your FortiMail unit processes email.
Email domains
An email domain is a set of email accounts that reside on a particular email server. The email
domain name is the portion of the user’s email address following the “@” symbol.
FortiMail units can be configured to protect email domains (referred to as “protected domains”
in this Administration Guide) by defining policies and profiles to scan and relay email that is
incoming to or outbound from protected domains.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway mode or transparent mode, there is one local email
domain that represents the FortiMail unit itself. If the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode,
protected domains reside locally on the FortiMail unit’s built-in email server.
For information about creating protected domains, see “Configuring protected domains” on
page 358.
In transparent mode, each network interface includes a proxy and/or implicit MTA that receives
and relays email. By default, the proxy/implicit MTA responds to SMTP greetings (HELO/EHLO)
using the host name of the SMTP server of the protected domain. For information about
configuring the proxies, see “Configuring proxies (transparent mode only)” on page 393. For
information on configuring the SMTP greeting, see “Configuring protected domains” on
page 358.
Access control rules
The access control rules allow you to control how email messages move to, from, and through
the FortiMail unit. Using access control rules the FortiMail unit can analyze email messages and
take action based on the result. Messages can be examined according to the sender email
address, recipient email address, and the IP address or host name of the system delivering the
email message.
Each access control rule specifies an action to be taken for matching email.
For information about configuring access control rules, see “Configuring access control rules”
on page 430.
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Recipient address verification
Recipient address verification ensures that the FortiMail unit rejects email with invalid recipients
and does not scan or send them to the protected email server. This verification can reduce the
load on the FortiMail unit when a spammer tries to send messages to every possible recipient
name on the email server.
If you want to use recipient address verification, you need to verify email recipient addresses by
using either the email server or an LDAP server.
Usually you can use the email server to perform address verification. This works with most email
servers that provide a User unknown response to invalid addresses.
For instructions on configuring recipient address verification, see “Configuring protected
domains” on page 358.
Disclaimer messages and customized appearance
You can customize both the disclaimer and replacement messages, as well as the appearance
of the FortiMail unit interface.
The disclaimer message is attached to all email, generally warning the recipient the contents
may be confidential. See “Configuring global disclaimers” on page 352.
Replacement messages are messages recipients receive instead of their email. These can
include warnings about messages sent and incoming messages that are spam or infected with
a virus. See “Customizing replacement messages” on page 258.
You can customize the appearance of the FortiMail unit web pages visible to mail administrators
to better match a company look and feel. See “Customizing the GUI appearance” on page 255.
Advanced delivery features
Processing email takes time. That can cause delays that result in client and server timeouts. To
reduce this problem, you can:
• defer delivery to process oversized email at a time when traffic is expected to be light
• send delivery status notifications (DSN)
For detailed information, see “Configuring mail server settings” on page 344.
Antispam techniques
Spam detection is a key feature of the FortiMail unit. The feature is based on two tiers of spam
defense:
• FortiMail antispam techniques
• FortiGuard Antispam service
Each tier plays an important role in separating spam from legitimate email. FortiGuard Antispam
delivers a highly-tuned managed service for the classification of spam while the FortiMail unit
offers superior antispam detection and control technologies.
In addition to scanning incoming email messages, FortiMail units can also inspect the content
of outgoing email messages. This can help eliminate the possibility that an employee or a
compromised computer could send spam, resulting in the blocklisting of your organization’s
email servers.
For more information on FortiMail antispam techniques, see “Configuring profiles” on page 462
and “Configuring antispam settings” on page 574.
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FortiMail antispam techniques
The following table highlights some of the FortiMail antispam techniques. For information about
how these techniques are executed, see “Order of execution” on page 17.
Table 1: FortiMail antispam technique highlights
Greylist scanning
See “Configuring greylisting” on page 595.
DNSBL scanning
In addition to supporting Fortinet’s FortiGuard Antispam
DNSBL service, the FortiMail unit supports third-party DNS
Blocklist servers. See “Configuring SURBL options” on
page 489.
SURBL scanning
In addition to supporting Fortinet’s FortiGuard Antispam
SURBL service, the FortiMail unit supports third-party Spam
URI Realtime Block Lists servers. See “Configuring SURBL
options” on page 489.
Bayesian scanning
See “Training the Bayesian databases” on page 616.
Heuristic scanning
See “Configuring heuristic options” on page 488.
Image spam scanning
See “Configuring image spam options” on page 493.
PDF scanning
See “Configuring scan conditions” on page 495.
Block/safe lists
• For information on global block/safe lists, see “Configuring
the global block and safe list” on page 588.
• For information on domain-wide block/safe lists, see
“Configuring the per-domain block lists and safe lists” on
page 590.
• For information on personal block/safe lists, see
“Configuring the personal block lists and safe lists” on
page 592.
• For information on session block/safe lists, see “Click the
arrow to expand Lists.” on page 479.
Banned word scanning
See “Configuring banned word options” on page 491.
Safe list word scanning
See “Configuring safelist word options” on page 492.
Sender reputation
See “Viewing the sender reputation statuses” on page 187.
FortiGuard Antispam service
The FortiGuard Antispam service is a Fortinet-managed service that provides a three-element
approach to screening email messages.
• The first element is a DNS Block List (DNSBL) which is a “living” list of known spam origins.
• The second element is in-depth email screening based on a Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI) contained in the message body – commonly known as Spam URI Realtime Block Lists
(SURBLs).
• The third element is the FortiGuard Antispam Spam Checksum Blocklist (SHASH) feature.
Using SHASH, the FortiMail unit sends a hash of an email to the FortiGuard Antispam server
which compares the hash to hashes of known spam messages stored in the FortiGuard
Antispam database. If the hash results match, the email is flagged as spam.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
FortiGuard query results can be cached in memory to save network bandwidth. For information
on configuring caching and other FortiGuard Antispam services, see “Configuring FortiGuard
updates and antispam queries” on page 216.
FortiGuard Antispam DNSBL
To achieve up-to-date real-time identification, the FortiGuard Antispam service uses globally
distributed spam probes that receive over one million spam messages per day. The FortiGuard
Antispam service uses multiple layers of identification processes to produce an up-to-date list
of spam origins. To further enhance the service and streamline performance, the FortiGuard
Antispam service continuously retests each of the “known” identities in the list to determine the
state of the origin (active or inactive). If a known spam origin has been decommissioned, the
FortiGuard Antispam service removes the origin from the list, thus providing customers with
both accuracy and performance.
The FortiMail FortiGuard Antispam DNSBL scanning process works this way:
1. Incoming email (SMTP) connections are directed to the FortiMail unit.
2. Upon receiving the inbound SMTP connection request, the FortiMail unit extracts the source
information (sending server’s domain name and IP address).
3. The FortiMail unit transmits the extracted source information to Fortinet’s FortiGuard
Antispam service using a secure communication method.
4. The FortiGuard Antispam service checks the sender’s source information against its DNSBL
database of known spam sources and sends the results back to the FortiMail unit.
5. The results are cached on the FortiMail unit.
• If the results identify the source as a known spam source, the FortiMail unit acts
according to its configured policy.
• The cache on the FortiMail unit is checked for additional connection attempts from the
same source. The FortiMail unit does not need to contact the FortiGuard Antispam
service if the results of a previous connection attempt are cached.
• Additional connection requests from the same source do not need to be submitted to the
FortiGuard Antispam service again because the classification is stored in the system
cache.
Once the incoming connection has passed the first pass scan (DNSBL), and has not been
classified as spam, it will then go through a second pass scan (SURBL) if the administrator has
configured the service.
FortiGuard Antispam SURBL
To detect spam based on the message body URIs (usually web sites), Fortinet uses FortiGuard
Antispam SURBL technology. Complementing the DNSBL component, which blocks messages
based on spam origin, SURBL technology blocks messages that have spam hosts mentioned in
message bodies. By scanning the message body, SURBL is able to determine if the message is
a known spam message regardless of origin. This augments the DNSBL technology by
detecting spam messages from a spam source that may be dynamic, or a spam source that is
yet unknown to the DNSBL service. The combination of both technologies provides a superior
managed service with higher detection rates than traditional DNSBLs or SURBLs alone.
The FortiMail FortiGuard Antispam SURBL scanning process works this way:
1. After accepting an incoming SMTP connection (passed first-pass scan), the email message
is received.
2. After an incoming SMTP connection has passed the DNSBL scan, the FortiMail unit accepts
delivery of email messages.
3. The FortiMail unit generates a signature (URI) based on the contents of the received email
message.
4. The FortiMail unit transmits the signature to the FortiGuard Antispam service.
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5. The FortiGuard Antispam service checks the email signature against its SURBL database of
known signatures and sends the results back to the FortiMail unit.
6. The results are cached on the FortiMail unit.
• If the results identify the signature as known spam email content, the FortiMail unit acts
according to its configured policy.
• Additional connection requests with the same email signature do not need to be
re-classified by the FortiGuard Antispam service, and can be checked against the
classification in the system cache.
• Additional messages with the same signature do not need to be submitted to the
FortiGuard Antispam service again because the signature classification is stored in the
system cache.
Once the message has passed both elements (DNSBL and SURBL), it goes to the next layer of
defense; the FortiMail unit that includes additional spam classification technologies.
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Order of execution
FortiMail units perform each of the antispam scanning and other actions in the following
sequence, from the top of the table towards the bottom. Disabled scans are skipped. Note that
is this only a general sequence and the actions are taken based on the results of many factors.
This table does not include everything the FortiMail unit does when a client connects to deliver
email. Only the antispam techniques, and other functions having an effect on the antispam
techniques, are included. Other non-antispam functions may be running in parallel to the ones
in the table.
The PDF file type scan does not appear in this table. When enabled, the PDF file type converts
the first page of any PDF attachments into to a format the heuristic, banned word, and image
spam scanners can scan. If any of these scanners are enabled, they will scan the first page of
the PDF at the same time they examine the message body, according to the sequence in the
table below.
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Check
Check Involves
Action If Positive
Action If Negative
Client initiates communication with the FortiMail unit
Sender
reputation
Client IP address
If the client IP is in the sender
reputation database, check the
score and enable any appropriate
restrictions, if any.
Add the IP address
to the sender
reputation database
and keep a
reputation score
based on the email
received.
Proceed to the next
check.
FortiGuard
Client IP address
block IP check
Endpoint
reputation
If the “Check FortiGuard Block IP Proceed to the next
at connection phase” is enabled check.
in a session profile, FortiMail will
check the client IP address
against the FortiGuard block IP
list. If positive, FortiMail rejects
the email.
Client endpoint ID If the client endpoint ID is in the
sender reputation database,
check the score and enable any
appropriate restrictions, if any.
Add the IP address
to the endpoint
reputation database
and keep a
reputation score
based on the email
received.
Proceed to the next
check.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Sender rate
control per
connection
Client IP address
Apply any connection limitations
specified in the session profile.
Proceed to the next check.
In there are no
connection
limitations, or if no
session profile
applies, proceed to
the next check.
HELO/EHLO received from SMTP client
HELO/EHLO
Domain of the
HELO/EHLO
command
If invalid characters appear in the Proceed to the next
domain, reject the HELO/EHLO
check.
command. Session will not
continue until a proper
HELO/EHLO command is received.
MAIL FROM: and RCPT TO: commands received from SMTP client
Sender rate
control per
message
Client IP address
Apply any connection limitations
specified in the session profile.
Proceed to the next check.
Sender
domain check
Domain of
envelope sender
(MAIL FROM:)
Proceed to the next
If any of the domain checks (the
Check sender domain and Reject check.
empty domains checks listed in
Unauthenticated Session Settings
in the session profile) fail, an error
is returned to the SMTP client.
The error depends on which
particular check failed.
System safe
list
(Phase I)
Client IP address
and email
address/domain of
the envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
If the client IP or email
address/domain of the sender
appear in the system safe list,
deliver the email and cancel
remaining antispam checks (but
not the antivirus and content
checks).
System block
list
(Phase I)
Client IP address
and email
address/domain of
the envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
Proceed to the next
If the client IP or email
check.
address/domain of the sender
appear in the system block list,
invoke the block list action for the
email.
Session
sender
safe list
(Phase I)
Client IP address
and email
address/domain of
the envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
If the client IP or email
address/domain of the sender
appear in the session safe list,
deliver the message and cancel
remaining antispam checks (but
not the antivirus and content
checks).
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In there are no
connection
limitations, or if no
session profile
applies, proceed to
the next check.
Proceed to the next
check.
Proceed to the next
check.
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Session
sender block
list
(Phase I)
Client IP address
and email
address/domain of
the envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
Authentication Envelope sender
difference
(MAIL FROM:)
check
Bounce
Verification
If the client IP or email
Proceed to the next
address/domain of the sender
check.
appear in the session block list,
invoke the block list action for the
message.
Checks to see if the sender email Proceed to the next
check.
address in the SMTP envelope
matches the authenticated user
name. If not allowed in the
IP-based policy, the email will be
rejected.
Envelope recipient Apply actions specified in the
(RCPT TO:)
bounce verification settings.
Access control Client IP address,
rules
envelope sender
and recipient
(MAIL FROM:
and RCPT TO:)
Proceed to the next
check.
If the combination of client IP, the
domain/email address of the
sender, and the domain/email of
the recipient matches an access
control rule (Policy >
Access Control > Receive), the
FortiMail unit performs the action
selected in the access control
rule, which is one of the following:
If a matching access
control rule does not
exist, and if the
recipient is a
member of a
protected domain,
the default action is
RELAY; if the
recipient is not a
member of a
• Safe: Accept and relay the
protected domain,
email, skipping all subsequent
the default action is
antispam checks, except
REJECT.
greylisting, only if the
recipient belongs to a
For more
protected domain or the
information, see
sender is authenticated.
“Configuring access
• Safe & Relay: Accept and relay control rules” on
page 430.
the email, skipping all
subsequent antispam checks,
except greylisting.
• RELAY: Accept and relay the
email if it passes subsequent
antispam checks. Do not
apply greylisting.
• REJECT: Reject the email and
return SMTP reply code 550 to
the client.
• DISCARD: Accept the email,
but silently delete it instead of
delivering it. Neither the sender
nor the recipient are notified of
the deletion.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Recipient
domain check
Domain of
If any of the domain checks (the
Proceed to the next
envelope recipient Check recipient domain and
check.
(RCPT TO:)
Reject if recipient and helo
domain match but sender domain
is different checks listed in
Unauthenticated Session Settings
in the session profile) fail, an error
is returned to the SMTP client.
The error depends on which
check failed.
Session
recipient safe
list
Envelope recipient If the recipient appears in the
(RCPT TO:)
session recipient safe list, deliver
the message and cancel
remaining antispam checks (but
not the antivirus and content
checks).
Proceed to the next
check.
Session
Envelope recipient If the recipient appears in the
recipient block (RCPT TO:)
session recipient block list, reject
list
the message.
Proceed to the next
check.
Recipient
verification
Envelope recipient If the recipient is unknown, reject
(RCPT TO:)
the message.
Proceed to the next
check.
Greylist
Envelope sender
(MAIL FROM:),
envelope recipient
(RCPT TO:), and
client IP subnet
address
If the sender is not in
the greylist
database, a
temporary failure
code is returned to
the SMTP client.
If the sender is in the greylist
database or if the client IP subnet
appears in the greylist exempt list,
the message is passed to the next
check.
Note: This check is omitted if the
access control rule’s action is
RELAY.
DATA command received from SMTP client
System safe
list
(Phase II)
Message header
sender (From:)
If the email address/domain of the Proceed to the next
sender appears in the system safe check.
list, deliver the message and
cancel remaining antispam
checks (but not the antivirus and
content checks).
System block
list
(Phase II)
Message header
sender (From:)
If the email address/domain of the Proceed to the next
sender appears in the system
check.
block list, invoke the block list
action for the message.
Domain safe
list
Client IP, envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
and message
header sender
(From:)
If the client IP, email
address/domain of the sender
appears in the domain safe list,
deliver the message and cancel
remaining antispam checks (but
not the antivirus and content
checks).
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Proceed to the next
check.
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Domain block
list
Client IP, envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
and message
header sender
(From:)
If the client IP, email
Proceed to the next
address/domain of the sender
check.
appears in the domain block list,
invoke the block list action for the
message.
Session
sender safe
list
(Phase II)
Message header
sender (From:)
If the email address/domain of the Proceed to the next
check.
sender appears in the session
sender safe list, deliver the
message and cancel remaining
antispam checks (but not the
antivirus and content checks).
Session
sender block
list
(Phase II)
Message header
sender (From:)
If the email address/domain of the Proceed to the next
check.
sender appears in the session
sender block list, the block list
action is invoked.
Personal safe
list
Client IP, envelope
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
and message
header sender
(From:)
If the client IP, email
address/domain of the sender
appears in the personal safe list,
deliver the message and cancel
remaining antispam checks (but
not the antivirus and content
checks).
Personal block Client IP, envelope
list
sender
(MAIL FROM:)
and message
header sender
(From:)
Proceed to the next
check.
If the client IP, email
Proceed to the next
address/domain of the sender
check.
appears in the personal block list,
the message is discarded.
End of message (EOM) command received from SMTP client
Antivirus
Message body
and attachments
If an infected message is
Proceed to the next
detected, and the antispam profile check.
is configured to treat viruses as
spam, the default spam action will
be invoked on the infected
message.
Safe List Word Message subject
and/or body
If the safelisted word scanner
determines that the message is
not spam, deliver the message
and cancel remaining antispam
checks.
Proceed to the next
check.
FortiGuard
Antispam
If the FortiGuard scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
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Message header
and body
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Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
DMARC
Client IP address
DMARC performs email
authentication with SPF and
DKIM checking.
Proceed to the next
check.
If failed, treat the email as spam.
SPF check
Client IP address
This option compares the client IP Proceed to the next
address to the IP addresses of
check.
authorized senders in the DNS
record (RFC 4408).
If failed, treat the email as spam.
Spam
outbreak
protection
Message header
and body
If the FortiGuard scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Behavior
analysis
Message body
If the scanner determines the
message is spam, the configured
individual action is invoked. If the
individual action is set to default,
then the antispam profile default
action is used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Banned Word
Message subject
and/or body
If the banned word scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Dictionary
Message body
If the dictionary scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
DNSBL
Client IP address
If the DNSBL scanner determines Proceed to the next
that the message is spam, the
check.
configured individual action is
invoked. If the individual action is
set to default, then the antispam
profile default action is used.
SURBL
Every URI in the
message body
If the SURBL scanner determines Proceed to the next
that the message is spam, the
check.
configured individual action is
invoked. If the individual action is
set to default, then the antispam
profile default action is used.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 2: Execution sequence of antispam techniques
Heuristic
Message body
If the heuristic antispam scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Image Spam
Embedded images If the image spam scanner
determines that the message is
If Aggressive scan
spam, the configured individual
is enabled,
action is invoked. If the individual
attached images
action is set to default, then the
are also examined.
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Header
analysis
Message header
If the header analysis scan
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Bayesian
Message body
If the Bayesian scanner
determines that the message is
spam, the configured individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
Proceed to the next
check.
Suspicious
Newsletter
Message header
and body
If the newsletter scan determines Proceed to the next
that the message is a newsletter, check.
the configured individual action is
invoked. If the individual action is
set to default, then the antispam
profile default action is used.
Content
Attachments (for
content scan) and
message body (for
content monitor
scan)
If the content scanner determines Proceed to the next
that the message is spam or
check.
prohibited, the action configured
in the content profile individual
action is invoked. If the individual
action is set to default, then the
antispam profile default action is
used.
FortiMail operation modes
FortiMail units can run in one of three operation modes: gateway mode, transparent mode, and
server mode.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Gateway mode
• The FortiMail unit acts as a mail transfer agent (MTA), or email gateway, relaying email to
and from the email servers that it protects.
• Simple DNS MX record change redirects email to FortiMail for antispam and antivirus
scanning.
• FortiMail does not locally store email unless queued or quarantined.
Transparent mode
• The FortiMail unit transparently proxies or relays email traffic to and from the email
servers that it protects.
• Eliminates the need to change existing mail server network configuration.
• FortiMail does not locally store email unless queued or quarantined.
Server mode
• The FortiMail unit operates as a standalone, full-featured email server and MTA.
• The FortiMail unit locally stores email for delivery to its email users. Email users can
access their email using FortiMail webmail, POP3, or IMAP.
All operation modes can scan email traffic for viruses and spam, and can quarantine suspicious
email and attachments.
FortiMail high availability modes
FortiMail units can be configured to operate in high availability (HA) clusters. FortiMail HA has
two modes: active-passive and config-only.
• Active-passive HA: Two FortiMail units operate as an HA cluster, synchronizing both
configuration and data, providing failover protection.
• Config-only HA: Up to 25 FortiMail units use an identical configuration, but do not
synchronize data, and therefore operate as independent FortiMail units.
Fortinet recommends HA to achieve uninterrupted service.
For more information on HA, see “Using high availability (HA)” on page 283.
FortiMail management methods
After you install the FortiMail unit, you can configure and manage it with either of:
• the web-based manager
• and/or the command line interface (CLI)
The CLI is only available to administrator accounts whose Domain is System. It is not available
to domain (tiered) administrator accounts. For more information on domain administrators, see
“About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Depending on the FortiMail unit’s model number, you may also be able to reset the
configuration and to configure basic settings such as operation mode and IP addresses using
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
the buttons and LCD on the front panel. For details, see “Configuring system options” on
page 246.
This Administration Guide describes the web UI. For equivalent documentation of the CLI, see
the FortiMail CLI Reference.
Basic mode versus advanced mode
The web UI enables you to configure the FortiMail unit by connecting to the FortiMail unit
through a web browser. The web UI has two modes: basic mode and advanced mode.
• Basic mode
Provides easy navigation using a simplified set of menu options that allow for many, but not
all, typical FortiMail unit configurations. Less frequently used options are hidden, and some
configurations are simplified by providing you with pre-defined configuration sets.
Basic mode is only available to administrator accounts whose Domain is System. It is not
available to domain (tiered) administrator accounts. For more information on domain
administrators, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
• Advanced mode
Provides the full set of menu options which allows you to achieve more complex
configurations.
You can switch between the basic mode and advanced mode of the web UI at any time with no
configuration loss. If, for example, you prefer basic mode but need to configure an item
available only in advanced mode, you could switch to advanced mode, configure the item, then
switch back to basic mode. To switch between the two modes, click either Basic Mode >> or
Advanced Mode >>.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Setting up the system
These instructions in this chapter will guide you to the point where you have a simple, verifiably
working installation. From there, you can begin to use optional features and fine-tune your
configuration.
FortiMail initial setup involves the following steps:
• Connecting to the Web UI or CLI
• Choosing the operation mode
• Running the Quick Start Wizard
• Connecting to FortiGuard services
• Gateway mode deployment
• Transparent mode deployment
• Server mode deployment
• Initial configuration in basic mode
• Testing the installation
• Backing up the configuration
Connecting to the Web UI or CLI
To configure, maintain, and administer the FortiMail unit, you need to connect to it. There are
three methods for these tasks:
• using the web UI, a graphical user interface (GUI), from within a current web browser (see
“Connecting to the FortiMail web UI for the first time”)
• using the command line interface (CLI), a command line interface similar to DOS or UNIX
commands, from a Secure Shell (SSH) or Telnet terminal (see “Connecting to the FortiMail
CLI for the first time” on page 28)
• using the front panel’s LCD display and control buttons available on some models (see
“Using the front panel’s control buttons and LCD display” on page 30).
Connecting to the FortiMail web UI for the first time
To use the web UI for the initial configuration, you must have:
• a computer with an Ethernet port
• a supported web browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer 11, Firefox 21 to 26, Safari 5 to 7, and
Chrome 26 to 35)
• Adobe Flash Player 9 or higher plug-in to display statistic charts
• a crossover Ethernet cable
Table 3: Default settings for connecting to the web UI
Network Interface
port1
URL
https://192.168.1.99/admin
Page 26
Table 3: Default settings for connecting to the web UI
Administrator
Account
admin
Password
(none)
To connect to the web UI
1. Configure the management computer to be on the same subnet as the port 1 interface of the
FortiMail unit.
For example, in Microsoft Windows 7, from the Windows Start menu, go to Control Panel >
Network and Sharing Center > Change Adapter Settings > Local Area Connection Properties
> Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties and change the management computer
IP address to 192.168.1.2 and the netmask to 255.255.255.0.
2. Using the Ethernet cable, connect your computer’s Ethernet port to the FortiMail unit’s port1.
3. Start your web browser and enter the URL https://192.168.1.99/admin. (Remember to
include the “s” in https:// and “/admin” at the end of the URL.)
If you are connecting to FortiMail-VM with a trial license or to a LENC version of FortiMail, you
may not be able to see the logon page due to an SSL cipher error during the connection. In this
case, you must configure your browser to accept low encryption.
For example, in Mozilla Firefox, if you receive this error message:
ssl_error_no_cypher_overlap
you may need to enter about:config in the URL bar, then set
security.ssl3.rsa.rc4_40_md5 to true.
To support HTTPS authentication, the FortiMail unit ships with a self-signed security
certificate, which it presents to clients whenever they initiate an HTTPS connection to the
FortiMail unit. When you connect, depending on your web browser and prior access of the
FortiMail unit, your browser might display two security warnings related to this certificate:
• The certificate is not automatically trusted because it is self-signed, rather than being
signed by a valid certificate authority (CA). Self-signed certificates cannot be verified with
a proper CA, and therefore might be fraudulent. You must manually indicate whether or
not to trust the certificate.
• The certificate might belong to another web site. The common name (CN) field in the
certificate, which usually contains the host name of the web site, does not exactly match
the URL you requested. This could indicate server identity theft, but could also simply
indicate that the certificate contains a domain name while you have entered an IP
address. You must manually indicate whether this mismatch is normal or not.
Both warnings are normal for the default certificate.
4. Verify and accept the certificate, either permanently (the web browser will not display the
self-signing warning again) or temporarily. You cannot log in until you accept the certificate.
For details on accepting the certificate, see the documentation for your web browser.
The Login dialog appears.
5. In the Name field, type admin, then select Login. (In its default state, there is no password
for this account.)
Login credentials entered are encrypted before they are sent to the FortiMail unit. If your
login is successful, the web UI appears.
To log out from the web UI
• Click the Log Out button at the upper right corner of the web UI.
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Connecting to the FortiMail CLI for the first time
For the initial configuration, you can access the CLI from your management computer using
either of these two ways:
• a local serial console connection
• an SSH connection, either local or through the network
To connect to the CLI using a local serial console connection, you must have:
• a computer with a serial communications (COM) port
• the RJ-45-to-DB-9 serial or null modem cable included in your FortiMail package
• terminal emulation software, such as HyperTerminal for Microsoft Windows
To connect to the CLI using an SSH connection, you must have:
• a computer with an Ethernet port
• a crossover Ethernet cable
• an SSH client, such as PuTTY
Table 4: Default settings for connecting to the CLI by SSH
Network Interface
port1
IP Address
192.168.1.99
SSH Port Number
22
Administrator
Account
admin
Password
(none)
To connect to the CLI using a local serial console connection
The following procedure uses Microsoft HyperTerminal. Steps may vary with other terminal
emulators.
1. Using the RJ-45-to-DB-9 or null modem cable, connect your computer’s serial
communications (COM) port to the FortiMail unit’s console port.
2. Verify that the FortiMail unit is powered on.
3. On your management computer, start HyperTerminal.
4. On Connection Description, enter a Name for the connection, and select OK.
5. On Connect To, from Connect using, select the communications (COM) port where you
connected the FortiMail unit.
6. Select OK.
7. Select the following Port settings and select OK.
Setting up the system
Bits per second
9600
Data bits
8
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Parity
None
Stop bits
1
Flow control
None
8. Press Enter.
The terminal emulator connects to the CLI, and the CLI displays a login prompt.
9. Type admin and press Enter twice. (In its default state, there is no password for this
account.)
The CLI displays the following text:
Welcome!
Type ? for a list of commands.
You can now enter commands. For information about how to use the CLI, including how to
connect to the CLI using SSH or Telnet, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
To connect to the CLI using an SSH connection
The following procedure uses PuTTY. Steps may vary with other SSH clients.
1. On your management computer, configure the Ethernet port with the static IP address
192.168.1.2 with a netmask of 255.255.255.0.
2. Using the Ethernet cable, connect your computer’s Ethernet port to the FortiMail unit’s port1.
3. Verify that the FortiMail unit is powered on.
4. On your management computer, start your SSH client.
5. In Host Name (or IP Address), type 192.168.1.99.
6. In Port, type 22.
7. From Connection type, select SSH.
8. Select Open.
The SSH client connects to the FortiMail unit.
The SSH client may display a warning if this is the first time you are connecting to the
FortiMail unit and its SSH key is not yet recognized by your SSH client, or if you have
previously connected to the FortiMail unit but it used a different IP address or SSH key. If
your management computer is directly connected to the FortiMail unit with no network hosts
between them, this is normal.
9. Click Yes to verify the fingerprint and accept the FortiMail unit’s SSH key. You will not be able
to log in until you have accepted the key.
The CLI displays a login prompt.
10.Type admin and press Enter. (In its default state, there is no password for this account.)
The CLI displays the following text:
Type ? for a list of commands.
You can now enter commands. For information about how to use the CLI, including how to
connect to the CLI using SSH or Telnet, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
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To log out from the CLI console
• Enter the Exit command.
Using the front panel’s control buttons and LCD display
On some FortiMail models, you can use the front panel’s control buttons and LCD display to
configure:
• IP addresses and netmasks for each of the network interfaces
• the default gateway
• the operating mode
You can also use the front panel to reset the FortiMail unit to the default settings for its firmware
version.
After using the front panel to configure these basic settings, you must still connect to the web UI
to complete additional setup. To continue, see “Connecting to the FortiMail web UI for the first
time” on page 26.
Choosing the operation mode
Once the FortiMail unit is mounted and powered on, and you have completed initial
configuration, you can configure the operation mode of the FortiMail unit using the CLI or web
UI.
FortiMail units can run in one of three operation modes: gateway mode, transparent mode, or
server mode. Requirements of each operation mode vary.
Table 5: Comparison of gateway, transparent, and server mode of operation
Setting up the system
Gateway
Transparent
Server
SMTP role
MTA/relay
Transparent
proxy/relay
Server
FortiMail unit is hidden
No
Yes, if enabled
No
Email user accounts
Preferences and
per-recipient
quarantine only
Preferences and
per-recipient
quarantine only
Yes
Requires DNS record change Yes
No, if hidden with
no per-recipient
quarantines or
Bayesian scan
Yes
May require changes to
SMTP client configurations
or other infrastructure
No
Yes
Yes
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 5: Comparison of gateway, transparent, and server mode of operation
Requires FortiMail unit
located between external
MTAs and protected email
servers
No
Protected email servers
Separate
Yes
N/A
(FortiMail unit acts
as email server)
Separate
Integrated
(FortiMail unit acts
as email server)
In addition, some FortiMail features are specific to the operation mode. As a result, changing
the operation mode may reset your FortiMail configuration.
You will usually choose the operation mode that is appropriate for your topology and
requirements and configure the operation mode only once, just after physical installation and
initial configuration, and before using the Quick Start Wizard.
This section describes each operation mode, assisting you in choosing the mode that best suits
your requirements.
This section contains the following topics:
• Deployment guidelines
• Characteristics of gateway mode
• Characteristics of transparent mode
• Characteristics of server mode
• Changing the operation mode
Deployment guidelines
Generally speaking, gateway mode is suitable for most deployment environments. It is usually
easier to implement and better understood. Exceptions are situations where neither DNS MX
records nor IP addresses cannot be modified.
Transparent mode was developed for the purpose of implementing FortiMail in carrier
environments to combat outgoing spam. It is suitable for certain environments but needs more
careful routing handling and good understanding of network and application layer transparency.
Transparent mode is the best choice for combatting outgoing spam in carrier environments.
You use server mode to set up a standalone email server or to replace an existing email server.
After you set the operation mode, run the Quick Start Wizard to set up a basic system. Then
deploy your FortiMail unit. The details vary depending on the operation mode you chose. For
instructions, consult the applicable sections:
•
Gateway mode deployment
•
Transparent mode deployment
•
Server mode deployment
Characteristics of gateway mode
When operating in gateway mode, the FortiMail unit acts as a mail transfer agent (MTA),
sometimes known as an email gateway or relay. The FortiMail unit receives email messages,
scans for viruses and spam, then relays email to its destination email server for delivery.
External MTAs connect to the FortiMail unit, rather than directly to the protected email server.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
FortiMail units operating in gateway mode provide a web-based user interface from which email
users can access personal preferences and their per-recipient quarantined email. However,
FortiMail units operating in gateway mode do not locally host mailboxes such as each email
user’s inbox. Mailboxes are stored on the protected email servers.
Gateway mode requires some changes to an existing network. Requirements include MX
records on public DNS servers for each protected domain, which must refer to the FortiMail unit
instead of the protected email servers. You may also need to configure firewalls or routers to
direct SMTP traffic to the FortiMail unit rather than your email servers.
Figure 2: Example gateway mode topology
Local Email Users
Email Domain:
example.com
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
Switch
wan1
10.10.10.1
Internet
port1
172.16.1.5
Private DNS Server
example.com IN M 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10
Gateway Mode
Protected Domain:
example.com
DNS Server
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
For example, an Internet service provider (ISP) could deploy a FortiMail unit to protect their
customers’ email servers. For security reasons, customers do not want their email servers to be
directly visible to external MTAs. Therefore, the ISP installs the FortiMail unit in gateway mode,
and configures its network such that all email traffic must pass through the FortiMail unit before
reaching customers’ email servers.
For sample deployment scenarios, see “Gateway mode deployment” on page 51.
Characteristics of transparent mode
When operating in transparent mode, the FortiMail acts as either an implicit relay or a proxy. The
FortiMail unit intercepts email messages, scans for viruses and spam, then transmits email to its
destination email server for delivery. External MTAs connect through the FortiMail unit to the
protected email server.
Transparency at both the network and application layers is configurable, but not required. When
hiding, the FortiMail unit preserves the IP address and domain name of the SMTP client in IP
headers and the SMTP envelope and message headers, rather than replacing them with its
own.
FortiMail units operating in transparent mode provide a web-based user interface from which
email users can access personal preferences and email quarantined to their per-recipient
quarantine. However, FortiMail units operating in transparent mode do not locally host
mailboxes such as each email user’s inbox. These mailboxes are stored on the protected email
servers.
By default, FortiMail units operating in transparent mode are configured as a bridge, with all
network interfaces on the same subnet. You can configure out-of-bridge network interfaces if
you require them, such as if you have some protected email servers that are not located on the
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same subnet. If you set an interface to route mode, you must assign the interface a local IP
address that belongs to a different subnet from that of the management IP.
Port 1 is the only port permanently attached to the built-in bridge and thus cannot be set in
route mode.
Transparent mode usually requires no changes to an existing network. Requirements include
that the FortiMail unit must be physically inline between the protected email server and all
SMTP clients—unlike gateway mode. Because FortiMail units operating in transparent mode
are invisible, clients cannot be configured to route email directly to the FortiMail unit; so, it must
be physically placed where it can intercept the connection.
Figure 3: Example transparent mode topology
Local Email Users
External
Email Server
Protected Domain:
@example.com
Transparent Mode
Router
10.10.10.1
Internet
port2
Remote Email Users
port1
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Email Domain:
@example.com
Private DNS Server Public DNS Server
example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10 mail IN A 10.10.10.1
Do not connect two ports to the same VLAN on a switch or the same hub. Some Layer 2
switches become unstable when they detect the same media access control (MAC) address
originating on more than one network interface on the switch, or from more than one VLAN.
For example, a school might want to install a FortiMail unit to protect its mail server, but does
not want to make any changes to its existing DNS and SMTP client configurations or other
network topology. Therefore, the school installs the FortiMail unit in transparent mode.
For sample deployment scenarios, see “Transparent mode deployment” on page 78.
Characteristics of server mode
When operating in server mode, the FortiMail is a standalone email server. The FortiMail unit
receives email messages, scans for viruses and spam, and then delivers email to its email
users’ mailboxes. External MTAs connect to the FortiMail unit, which itself is also the protected
email server.
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FortiMail units operating in server mode provide a web-based user interface from which email
users can access:
• personal preferences
• email quarantined to their per-recipient quarantine
• their locally hosted mailboxes such as each email user’s inbox.
In addition, email users can retrieve email using POP3 or IMAP.
Server mode requires some changes to an existing network. Requirements include MX records
on public DNS servers for each protected domain. The records must refer to the FortiMail unit.
You may also need to configure firewalls or routers to direct SMTP traffic to the FortiMail unit.
Figure 4: Example server mode topology
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
wan1
Vitual IP 10.10.10.1:25
dmz
192.168.1.1mapped to 192.168.1.5:25
Internet
port1
192.168.1.5
Private DNS Server
Public DNS Server
Server Mode
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
Email Domain:
@example.com
For example, a company might be creating a network, and does not have an existing email
server. The company wants the convenience of managing both their email server and email
security on one network device. Therefore, the company deploys the FortiMail unit in server
mode.
For sample deployment scenarios, see “Server mode deployment” on page 100.
Changing the operation mode
By default, FortiMail units operate in gateway mode. If you do not want your FortiMail unit to
operate in gateway mode, before configuring the FortiMail unit or using the Quick Start Wizard,
select the operation mode.
The default mode is gateway. If that is your chosen mode, you can skip the following procedure.
To select the operation mode
1. Open the web UI. (See “Connecting to the FortiMail web UI for the first time”.)
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2. The dashboard appears on the System Status > Status tab.
3. In the System Information widget, select either Gateway, Server, or Transparent from the
Operation mode drop-down list.
A confirmation dialog appears, warning you that many settings will revert to their default
value for the version of your FortiMail unit’s firmware.
4. Select OK.
The FortiMail unit changes the operation mode and restarts. The Login dialog of the web UI
appears.
Do not change the operation mode once you have committed resources to configuring
FortiMail. Changing the operation mode resets most configurations to the factory defaults.
Running the Quick Start Wizard
The Quick Start Wizard leads you through required configuration steps, helping you to quickly
set up your FortiMail unit.
While al settings configured by the Quick Start Wizard can also be configured through the basic
and advanced modes of the web UI, the wizard presents each setting in the necessary order.
The wizard also provides descriptions to assist you in configuring each setting. These
descriptions are not available in the web UI.
Before running the Quick Start Wizard, select the operation mode of the FortiMail unit, such as
gateway mode, transparent mode, or server mode. Failure to select the operation mode before
running the Quick Start Wizard may require you to run the Quick Start Wizard again after
changing the operation mode, as changing the operation mode may reset or change part of the
configuration performed by the Quick Start Wizard. For more information on selecting the
operation mode, see “Choosing the operation mode” on page 30.
The following topics describe how to use the Quick Start Wizard:
• Starting the wizard
• Step 1: Changing the “admin” password
• Step 2: Configuring the network settings and system time
• Step 3: Configuring local host settings
• Step 4: Adding protected domains
• Step 5: Configuring incoming antispam and antivirus settings
• Step 6: Configuring access control rules and outgoing settings
• Step 7: Reviewing and saving the configuration
• Continuing the installation
Starting the wizard
Open the web UI in a browser.
In either basic mode or advanced mode, select Quick Start Wizard in the top-right button row of
the web UI.
Select Yes when prompted to continue. The first page of the wizard appears in a new window
over the web UI. You cannot access the web UI when the wizard is open.
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You can navigate through the wizard using the Next and Back buttons at the lower corners of
the window.
None of the settings you make on the wizard take effect until you click OK on the last step.
Step 1: Changing the “admin” password
Step 1 of the Quick Start Wizard configures the password of the default and most privileged
administrator account, admin. By default, it has no password. Adding a password is optional
for this account, but for security reasons, you should provide a password.
Failure to configure a strong administrator password could compromise the security of your
FortiMail unit.
To change the password
1. Select Change password.
2. Enter and confirm a new password.
3. Select Next to move to the next step.
Step 2: Configuring the network settings and system time
Step 2 of the Quick Start Wizard configures basic system time and network settings.
Available settings vary by whether or not the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode.
To configure network and time settings
1. Configure the following, as applicable to you operation mode.
Port1
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the port1 network interface,
such as 192.168.1.99.
This option does not appear if the FortiMail unit is
operating in transparent mode.
Netmask
Enter the netmask of the port1 network interface,
such as 255.255.255.0.
This option does not appear if the FortiMail unit is
operating in transparent mode.
Management
IP
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
IP Address
Enter the IP address which FortiMail administrators
will use to access the web UI and CLI through port1
and other bridging network interfaces, and which
the FortiMail unit will use when connecting to the
Fortinet Distribution Network (FDN), such as
192.168.1.99.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is
operating in transparent mode.
Netmask
Enter the netmask of the management IP address,
such as 255.255.255.0.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is
operating in transparent mode.
DNS
Primary DNS
Enter the IP address of the primary server to which
the FortiMail unit will make DNS queries.
Caution: Verify connectivity with the DNS servers.
Failure to verify connectivity could result in many
issues, including the inability of the FortiMail unit to
process email.
Secondary DNS
Enter the IP address of the secondary server to
which the FortiMail unit will make DNS queries.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the default gateway router.
Time Zone
Select the time zone of the FortiMail unit.
Set Time
Select to manually set the system time, then select
the:
Default
Gateway
Time Settings
• Second
• Minute
• Hour
• Date
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Automatically
Select to automatically set the system time by
synchronize system periodically synchronizing with an NTP server, then
time using the
configure the NTP Server Name/IP.
Network Time
Protocol (NTP)
server
NTP Server Name/IP If you have selected to automatically synchronize
the system time with an NTP server, enter the
domain name or IP address of an NTP server. For a
list of public NTP servers, see http://www.ntp.org/.
Note: Verify connectivity with the NTP server.
Failure to set the correct time could result in issues
such as inaccurate log message times and inability
to make secure connections, including downloading
FortiGuard Antivirus updates from the FDN.
2. When done, select Next to move to the next step.
Step 3: Configuring local host settings
Step 3 of the Quick Start Wizard configures the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the
FortiMail unit, its listening port numbers, and whether to use SSL/TLS with SMTP clients that
request secure connections.
You usually should configure the FortiMail unit with a local domain name that is different from
that of protected email servers, such as mail.example.com for the FortiMail unit and
server.mail.example.com for the protected email server. The local domain name of the FortiMail
unit will be used in many features such as email quarantine, Bayesian database training, spam
report, and delivery status notification (DSN) email messages, and if the FortiMail unit uses the
same domain name as your mail server, it may become difficult to distinguish email messages
that originate from the FortiMail unit.
The local domain name must be globally DNS-resolvable only if the FortiMail unit is used as a
relay server for outgoing email.
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To configure the local host
1. Configure the following.
Local Host
Host name
Enter the host name of the FortiMail unit.
You should use a different host name for each FortiMail unit,
especially when you are managing multiple FortiMail units of
the same model, or when configuring a FortiMail high
availability (HA) cluster. This will enable you to distinguish
between different members of the cluster. If the FortiMail unit is
in HA mode:
• when you connect to the web UI, your web browser will
display the host name of that cluster member in its status
bar.
• the FortiMail unit will add the host name to the subject line
of alert email messages.
Local domain
name
Enter the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit
belongs.The FortiMail unit’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
is in the format:
<Host Name>.<Local Domain Name>
This option does not appear if the FortiMail unit is operating in
server mode.
Note: The local domain name can be a subdomain of an
internal domain if the MX record for the domain on the DNS
server can direct the mail destined for the subdomain to the
intended FortiMail unit.
POP3 server port
number
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s POP3
server will listen for POP3 connections. The default port
number is 110.
SMTP server port Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s SMTP
number
server will listen for SMTP connections. The default port
number is 25.
SMTP over
SSL/TLS
Enable to allow SSL- and TLS-secured connections from
servers and clients requesting SSL/TLS.
When disabled, SMTP connections with the FortiMail unit’s
SMTP server will occur as clear text, unencrypted.
This option must be enabled to use SMTPS.
SMTPS server
port number
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s SMTP
server listens for secure SMTP connections. The default port
number is 465.
This option is unavailable if SMTP over SSL/TLS is disabled.
2. When done, select Next to move to the next step.
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Step 4: Adding protected domains
Step 4 of the Quick Start Wizard configures the protected domains.
Protected domains define connections and email messages for which the FortiMail unit can
perform protective email processing by describing both:
• the IP address of an SMTP server
• the domain name portion (the portion which follows the “@” symbol) of recipient email
addresses in the envelope
both of which the FortiMail unit compares to connections and email messages when looking for
traffic that involves the protected domain.
For example, if you wanted to scan email from email addresses such as user.one@example.com
that are hosted on the SMTP server 10.10.10.10, you would configure a protected domain of
example.com whose SMTP server is 10.10.10.10.
You usually must configure at least one protected domain. FortiMail units can be configured to
protect one or more email domains that are hosted on one or more email servers.
Exceptions include if you will not apply recipient-based policies or authentication profiles, such
as in “Example 3: FortiMail unit for an ISP or carrier” on page 89.
To add a protected domain
1. Select New.
A dialog appears that enables you to configure the protected domain. Its appearance varies
by the operating mode of the FortiMail unit.
2. Configure the following as applicable to your operation mode:
Domain name
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the protected domain.
For example, if you want to protect email addresses such as
user1@example.com, you would enter the protected domain name
example.com.
Use MX record
Select to enable the FortiMail unit to query the DNS server’s MX record
for the FQDN or IP address of the SMTP server for this domain name.
(transparent mode
and gateway mode Note: If enabled, you may also be required to configure the FortiMail
only)
unit to use a private DNS server whose MX and/or A records differ
from that of a public DNS server. Requirements vary by the topology of
your network and by the operating mode of the FortiMail unit. For
details, see “Configuring DNS records” on page 52 (gateway mode) or
“Configuring DNS records” on page 100 (transparent mode).
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SMTP server
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP address of the
primary SMTP server for this protected domain, then also configure
Port.
(transparent mode
and gateway mode
only)
If you have an internal mail relay that is located on a physically
separate server from your internal mail server, this could be your
internal mail relay, instead of your internal mail server. Consider your
network topology, directionality of the mail flow, and the operation
mode of the FortiMail unit.
Port
Enter the port number on which the SMTP server listens.
(transparent mode The default SMTP port number is 25.
and gateway mode
only)
3. Select Create.
4. Repeat the previous three steps for each domain that the FortiMail unit will protect.
5. To change a domain configuration, select it and click Edit. To delete one, select it and click
Delete.
6. When done, select Next to move to the next step.
Step 5: Configuring incoming antispam and antivirus settings
Step 5 of the Quick Start Wizard enables or disables antivirus scanning and configures the
intensity level of antispam scanning for email incoming to protected domains.
Each antispam level (Off, Low, Medium, and High) is a default antispam profile that groups
settings for many antispam features. After completing the Quick Start Wizard, if you want to
enable, disable, or differently configure those features, you can use the advanced mode of the
web UI to create and/or modify the antispam profiles.
To enable spam and virus checking for incoming mail
1. Select an antispam scan level for incoming email from the drop-down list.
• Off: No scanning
• Low: Good detection rate
• Medium: Better detection rate with a small impact on system performance
• High: Best detection rate with an additional impact on system performance
2. Select or clear Enable AntiVirus scan for incoming email. (For security reasons, leave this
option enabled.)
3. When done, select Next to move to the next step.
Step 6: Configuring access control rules and outgoing settings
Step 6 of the Quick Start Wizard enables or disables antivirus scanning and configures the
intensity level of antispam scanning for email outgoing from protected domains.
Step 6 also configures access control rules. Access control rules specify whether the FortiMail
unit will process and relay, reject, or discard email messages for SMTP sessions that are
initiated by SMTP clients.
Without any configured access control rules, the FortiMail unit’s access control prevents SMTP
clients from using your protected server or FortiMail unit as an open relay: senders can deliver
email incoming to protected domains, but cannot deliver email outgoing to unprotected
domains.
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Usually, you must configure at least one access control rule to allow SMTP clients such as your
email users or email servers to send email to unprotected domains.
Exceptions include if you have not configured any protected domains, such as in “Example 3:
FortiMail unit for an ISP or carrier” on page 89.
Access control rules can also match SMTP sessions based upon the use of TLS. To configure
access control rules with TLS, after using the Quick Start Wizard, use the advanced mode of
the web UI to create TLS profiles and select them in access control rules. For details, see
“Controlling SMTP access and delivery” on page 430.
To enable spam and virus checking for outgoing mail
1. Select an antispam scan level for incoming email from the drop-down list.
• Off: No scanning
• Low: Good detection rate
• Medium: Better detection rate with a small impact on system performance
• High: Best detection rate with an additional impact on system performance
2. Select or clear Enable AntiVirus scan. (For security reasons, leave this option enabled.)
To add an access control rule
1. Select New under Access Control for SMTP Relay.
A dialog appears, enabling you to create an access control rule.
For example, if your protected domain, example.com, contains email addresses in the
format of user1@example.com, user2@example.com, etc., and you want to allow those
email addresses to send email to any external domain as long as they authenticate their
identities, you might configure the following access control rule:
Table 6: Example access control rule
Sender Pattern
user*@example.com
Recipient Pattern
*
Sender IP/Netmask
0.0.0.0/0
Reverse DNS Pattern
*
Authentication Status
authenticated
Action
RELAY
2. Configure the following:
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Sender Pattern
Enter a complete or partial envelope sender (MAIL FROM:) email
address to match.
Wildcard characters allow you to enter partial patterns that can
match multiple sender email addresses. The asterisk (*) represents
one or more characters and the question mark (?) represents any
single character.
For example, the sender pattern ??@*.com will match messages
sent by any email user with a two letter email user name from any
“.com” domain name.
Regular
expression
Recipient Pattern
Mark this check box to use regular expression syntax instead of
wildcards to specify the sender pattern.
Enter a complete or partial envelope recipient (RCPT TO:) email
address to match.
Wildcard characters allow you to enter partial patterns that can
match multiple recipient email addresses. The asterisk (*)
represents one or more characters and the question mark (?)
represents any single character.
For example, the recipient pattern *@example.??? will match
messages sent to any email user at example.com, example.net,
example.org, or any other “example” domain ending with a
three-letter top-level domain name.
Regular
expression
Sender IP/Netmask
Mark this check box to use regular expression syntax instead of
wildcards to specify the recipient pattern.
Enter the IP address and netmask of the SMTP client attempting to
deliver the email message. Use the netmask, the portion after the
slash (/), to specify the matching subnet.
For example, enter 10.10.10.10/24 to match a 24-bit subnet, or
all addresses starting with 10.10.10. This will appear as
10.10.10.0/24 in the access control rule table, with the 0 indicating
that any value is matched in that position of the address.
Similarly, 10.10.10.10/32 will appear as 10.10.10.10/32 and
match only the 10.10.10.10 address.
To match any address, enter 0.0.0.0/0.
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Reverse DNS Pattern Enter a pattern to compare to the result of a reverse DNS look-up
of the IP address of the SMTP client delivering the email message.
Because domain names in the SMTP session are self-reported by
the connecting SMTP server and easy to fake, the FortiMail unit
does not trust the domain name that an SMTP server reports.
Instead, the FortiMail does a DNS lookup using the SMTP server’s
IP address. The resulting domain name is compared to the reverse
DNS pattern for a match. If the reverse DNS query fails, the access
control rule match will also fail. If no other access control rule
matches, the connection will be rejected with SMTP reply code 550
(Relaying denied).
Wildcard characters allow you to enter partial patterns that can
match multiple reverse DNS lookup results. An asterisk (*)
represents one or more characters; a question mark (?) represents
any single character.
For example, the recipient pattern mail*.com will match
messages delivered by an SMTP server whose domain name starts
with “mail” and ends with “.com”.
Note: Reverse DNS queries for access control rules require that the
domain name be a valid top level domain (TLD). For example, “.lab”
is not a valid top level domain name, and thus the FortiMail unit
cannot successfully perform a reverse DNS query for it.
Regular
expression
Setting up the system
Mark this check box to use regular expression syntax instead of
wildcards to specify the reverse DNS pattern.
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Authentication Status Select whether or not to match this access control rule based upon
client authentication.
• Any: Match or do not match this access control rule regardless
of whether the client has authenticated with the FortiMail unit.
• Authenticated: Match this access control rule only for clients
that have authenticated with the FortiMail unit.
• Not Authenticated: Clients do not need to authenticate with the
FortiMail unit.
Action
Select which action the FortiMail unit will perform for SMTP
sessions matching this access control rule.
• DISCARD: Accept the email, but silently delete it and do not
deliver it. Do not inform the SMTP client.
• RELAY: Relay or proxy, process, and deliver the email normally
if it passes all configured scans.
• REJECT: Reject delivery of the email and respond to the SMTP
client with SMTP reply code 550 (Relaying denied).
• SAFE: Relay or proxy and deliver the email, only if the recipient
belongs to a protected domain or the sender is authenticated.
All antispam profile processing will be skipped; but antivirus,
content, greylisting and other scans will still occur. If the email
recipient does not belong to any prectected domain, the email
will be rejected.
• SAFE & RELAY: Relay or proxy and deliver the email. All
antispam profile processing will be skipped; but antivirus,
content, greylisting and other scans will still occur.
3. Click OK.
When you click OK, a new access control rule appears at the bottom of the list of access
control rules. The FortiMail unit evaluates each new rule as a match for the SMTP session
only if no previous access control rule matches. If you want your new rule to be evaluated
before another rule, move your new access control rule to its intended position in the list.
4. Repeat the previous three steps step for any additional access control rules.
5. To change an access control rule, select it and click Edit. To delete one, select it and click
Delete.
6. When done, select Next to move to the last step.
Step 7: Reviewing and saving the configuration
Step 7 presents a list of all settings you have made in the wizard.
• Review the configuration.
• To change a setting, click Back until you reach the applicable step.
• If all settings are correct, select OK.
None of the settings you made on the wizard take effect until you click OK on the final page.
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The wizard and the dashboard disappear, and FortiMail prompts you to log in.
Continuing the installation
After using the Quick Start Wizard:
1. If you have multiple FortiMail units, and you want to configure them in high availability (HA)
mode, configure the HA settings before physically connecting the FortiMail units to your
network.
For instructions on configuring HA, see “Using high availability (HA)” on page 283
2. If you have subscribed to FortiGuard Antivirus or FortiGuard Antispam services, connect the
FortiMail unit to the Fortinet Distribution Network (FDN) to update related packages. For
details, see “Connecting to FortiGuard services” on page 46.
3. You may need to configure additional features that may be specific to your operation mode
and network topology, such as configuring your router or firewall, and records on your public
DNS server. For instructions applicable to your operation mode, see:
•
Gateway mode deployment
•
Transparent mode deployment
•
Server mode deployment
4. Expand your basic configuration using basic mode. See “Initial configuration in basic mode”
on page 119.
5. Verify that email clients can connect to or through the FortiMail unit. For details, see “Testing
the installation” on page 156.
Connecting to FortiGuard services
After the FortiMail unit is physically installed and configured to operate in your network, if you
have subscribed to FortiGuard Antivirus and/or FortiGuard Antispam services, connect the
FortiMail unit to the Fortinet Distribution Network (FDN).
Connecting your FortiMail unit to the FDN or override server ensures that your FortiMail unit
can:
• download the most recent FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard Antispam definitions and
engine packages
• query the FDN for blocklisted servers and other real-time information during FortiGuard
Antispam scans, if configured
This way, you scan email using the most up-to-date protection.
The FDN is a world-wide network of Fortinet Distribution Servers (FDS). When a FortiMail unit
connects to the FDN to download FortiGuard engine and definition updates, by default, it
connects to the nearest FDS based on the current time zone setting. You can override the FDS
to which the FortiMail unit connects.
Your FortiMail unit may be able to connect using the default settings. However, you should
confirm this by verifying connectivity.
FortiMail units use multiple connection types with the FDN. To completely verify connectivity,
you should test each connection type by performing both of the following procedures.
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You must first register the FortiMail unit with the Fortinet Technical Support web site,
https://support.fortinet.com/, to receive service from the FDN. The FortiMail unit must also have
a valid Fortinet Technical Support contract which includes service subscriptions, and be able to
connect to the FDN or the FDS that you will configure to override the default FDS addresses.
For port numbers required for license validation and update connections, see the FortiMail
Administration Guide.
Before performing the next procedure, if your FortiMail unit connects to the Internet using a
proxy, use the CLI command config system fortiguard antivirus to enable the
FortiMail unit to connect to the FDN through the proxy. For more information, see the FortiMail
CLI Reference.
To override the default FDS server
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. In the FortiGuard Update Options area, select Use override server address,
3. Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP address of the FDS.
4. Click Apply.
5. Click Refresh.
A dialog appears, notifying you that the process could take a few minutes.
The FortiMail unit tests the connection to the FDN and, if any, the override server. Time
required varies by the speed of the FortiMail unit’s network connection, and the number of
timeouts that occur before the connection attempt is successful or the FortiMail unit
determines that it cannot connect. When the connection test completes, the page refreshes.
Test results are displayed in the FortiGuard Distribution Network field.
• Available: The FortiMail unit successfully connected to the FDN or override server.
• Not available: The FortiMail unit could not connect to the FDN or override server, and
will not be able to download updates from it. For CLI commands that may be able to
assist you in troubleshooting, see “To verify rating query connectivity” on page 47.
6. When successful connectivity has been verified, continue by configuring the FortiMail unit to
receive engine and definition updates from the FDN or the override server using one or more
of the following methods:
• scheduled updates (see “Configuring scheduled updates” on page 49)
• push updates (see “Configuring push updates” on page 49)
• manually initiated updates (see “Manually requesting updates” on page 51)
7. Click Apply to save your settings.
To verify rating query connectivity
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > AntiSpam in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Make sure the Enable Service check box is marked. If it is not, mark it and click Apply.
If the FortiMail unit can reach the DNS server, but cannot successfully resolve the domain
name of the FDS, a message appears notifying you that a DNS error has occurred.
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Figure 5: DNS error when resolving the FortiGuard Antispam domain name
Verify that the DNS servers contain A records to resolve service.fortiguard.net and other FDN
servers. You may be able to obtain additional insight into the cause of the query failure by
manually performing a DNS query from the FortiMail unit using the following CLI command:
execute nslookup name service.fortiguard.net
If the FortiMail unit cannot successfully connect, or if your FortiGuard Antispam license does
not exist or is expired, a message appears notifying you that a connection error has
occurred.
Figure 6: Connection error when verifying FortiGuard Antispam rating query connectivity
Verify that:
• your FortiGuard Antispam license is valid and currently active
• the default route (located in System > Network > Routing) is correctly configured
• the FortiMail unit can connect to the DNS servers you configured during the Quick Start
Wizard (located in System > Network > DNS), and to the FDN servers
• firewalls between the FortiMail unit and the Internet or override server allow FDN traffic
(For configuration examples specific to your operation mode, see “Gateway mode
deployment” on page 51, “Transparent mode deployment” on page 78, or “Server mode
deployment” on page 100.)
Obtain additional insight into the point of the connection failure by tracing the connection
using the following CLI command:
execute traceroute <address_ipv4>
where <address_ipv4> is the IP address of the DNS server or FDN server.
When query connectivity is successful, antispam profiles can use the FortiGuard-AntiSpam
scan option.
If FortiGuard Antispam scanning is enabled, you can use the antispam log to analyze any
query connectivity interruptions caused because FortiMail cannot connect to the FDN
and/or its license is not valid. To enable the antispam log, go to Log and Report >
Log Settings > Local Log Settings in the advanced mode of the web UI. To view the
antispam log, go to Monitor > Log > AntiSpam, then mark the check box of a log file and
click View.
If FortiMail cannot connect with the FDN server, the log Message field contains:
FortiGuard-Antispam: No Answer from server.
Verify that the FortiGuard Antispam license is still valid, and that network connectivity has
not been disrupted for UDP port 53 traffic from the FortiMail unit to the Internet.
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Configuring scheduled updates
You can configure the FortiMail unit to periodically request FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard
Antispam engine and definition updates from the FDN or override server.
You can use push updates or manually initiate updates as alternatives or in conjunction with
scheduled updates. If protection from the latest viral threats is a high priority, you could
configure both scheduled updates and push updates, using scheduled updates as a failover
method to increase the likelihood that the FortiMail unit will still periodically retrieve updates if
connectivity is interrupted during a push notification. While using only scheduled updates could
potentially leave your network vulnerable to a new virus, it minimizes short disruptions to
antivirus scans that can occur if the FortiMail unit applies push updates during peak volume
times. For additional/alternative update methods, see “Configuring push updates” on page 49
and “Manually requesting updates” on page 51.
For example, you might schedule updates every night at 2 AM or weekly on Sunday, when email
traffic volume is light.
Before configuring scheduled updates, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN
or override server. For details, see “To override the default FDS server” on page 47.
To configure scheduled updates
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Enable Scheduled Update.
3. Select one of the following:
Every
Select to request updates once per interval, then configure the
number of hours and minutes between each request.
Daily
Select to request updates once a day, then configure the time of day.
Weekly
Select to request updates once a week, then configure the day of the
week and the time of day.
Updating FortiGuard Antivirus definitions can cause a short disruption in traffic currently being
scanned while the FortiMail unit applies the new signature database. To minimize disruptions,
update when traffic is light, such as during the night.
4. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit starts the next scheduled update according to the configured update
schedule. If you have enabled logging, when the FortiMail unit requests a scheduled update,
the event is recorded in the event log.
Configuring push updates
You can configure the FortiMail unit to receive push updates from the FDN or override server.
When push updates are configured, the FortiMail unit first notifies the FDN of its IP address, or
the IP address and port number override. (If your FortiMail unit’s IP address changes, including
if it is configured with DHCP, the FortiMail unit automatically notifies the FDN of the new IP
address.) As soon as new FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard Antispam packages become
available, the FDN sends an update availability notification to that IP address and port number.
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Within 60 seconds, the FortiMail unit then requests the package update as if it were a
scheduled or manually initiated update.
You can use scheduled updates or manually initiate updates as alternatives or in conjunction
with push updates. If protection from the latest viral threats is a high priority, you could
configure both scheduled updates and push updates, using scheduled updates as a failover
method to increase the likelihood that the FortiMail unit will still periodically retrieve updates if
connectivity is interrupted during a push notification. Using push updates, however, can
potentially cause short disruptions to antivirus scans that can occur if the FortiMail unit applies
push updates during peak volume times. For additional/alternative update methods, see
“Configuring scheduled updates” on page 49 and “Manually requesting updates” on page 51.
Before configuring push updates, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN or
override server. For details, see “To override the default FDS server” on page 47.
To configure push updates
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Enable Allow push update.
3. If the FortiMail unit is behind a firewall or router performing NAT, enable Use override push IP
and enter the external IP address and port number of the NAT device.
You must also configure the NAT device with port forwarding or a virtual IP to forward push
notifications (UDP port 9443) to the FortiMail unit.
For example, if the FortiMail unit is behind a FortiGate unit, configure the FortiGate unit with
a virtual IP that forwards push notifications from its external network interface to the private
network IP address of the FortiMail unit. Then, on the FortiMail unit, configure Use override
push IP with the IP address and port number of that virtual IP. For details on configuring
virtual IPs and/or port forwarding, see the documentation for the NAT device.
Push updates require that the external IP address of the NAT device is not dynamic (such as an
IP address automatically configured using DHCP). If dynamic, when the IP address changes,
the override push IP will become out-of-date, causing subsequent push updates to fail.
If you do not enable Use override push IP, the FDN will send push notifications to the IP
address of the FortiMail unit, which must be a public network IP address routable from the
Internet.
4. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit notifies the FDN of its IP address or, if configured, the override push IP.
When an update is available, the FDN will send push notifications to this IP address and port
number.
5. Click Refresh.
A dialog appears, notifying you that the process could take a few minutes.
The FDN tests the connection to the FortiMail unit. Time required varies by the speed of the
FortiMail unit’s network connection, and the number of timeouts that occur before the
connection attempt is successful or the FortiMail unit determines that it cannot connect.
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When the connection test completes, the page refreshes. Test results are displayed in the
Push Update field.
• Available: The FDN successfully connected to the FortiMail unit.
• Not available: The FDN could not connect to the FortiMail unit, and will not be able to
send push notifications to it. Verify that intermediary firewalls and routers do not block
push notification traffic (UDP port 9443). If the FortiMail unit is behind a NAT device, verify
that you have enabled and configured Use override push IP, and that the NAT device is
configured to forward push notifications to the FortiMail unit.
Manually requesting updates
You can manually trigger the FortiMail unit to connect to the FDN or override server to request
available updates for its FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard Antispam packages.
You can manually initiate updates as an alternative or in addition to other update methods. For
details, see “Configuring push updates” on page 49 and “Configuring scheduled updates” on
page 49.
To manually request updates
Before manually initiating an update, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN or
override server. For details, see “To override the default FDS server” on page 47.
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Click Update Now.
Updating FortiGuard Antivirus definitions can cause a short disruption in traffic currently being
scanned while the FortiMail unit applies the new signature database. To minimize disruptions,
update when traffic is light, such as during the night.
The web UI displays a message similar to the following:
Your update request has been sent. Your database will be updated in a
few minutes. Please check your update page for the status of the
update.
3. Click RETURN.
4. After a few minutes, select the Update tab to refresh the page, or go to Monitor >
System Status > Status.
If an update was available, new version numbers appear for the packages that were
updated. If you have enabled logging, messages are recorded to the event log indicating
whether the update was successful or not.
Gateway mode deployment
After completing the Quick Start Wizard, you may need to configure some items that are
specific to your network topology or the operation mode of your FortiMail unit.
This section contains examples of how to deploy a FortiMail unit operating in gateway mode.
Other sections discuss deployment in the other two modes.
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This section includes the following topics:
• Configuring DNS records
• Example 1: FortiMail unit behind a firewall
• Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of a firewall
• Example 3: FortiMail unit in DMZ
Configuring DNS records
You must configure public DNS records for the protected domains and for the FortiMail unit
itself.
If you are unfamiliar with configuring DNS and related MX and A records, first read “The role of
DNS in email delivery” on page 9.
For performance reasons, and to support some configuration options, you may also want to
provide a private DNS server for exclusive use by the FortiMail unit.
This section includes the following:
• Configuring DNS records for the protected domains
• Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
• Configuring a private DNS server
Configuring DNS records for the protected domains
Regardless of your private network topology, in order for external MTAs to deliver email through
the FortiMail unit, you must configure the public MX record for each protected domain to
indicate that the FortiMail unit is its email gateway.
For example, if the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail unit is
fortimail.example.com, and example.com is a protected domain, the MX record for
example.com would be:
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
If your FortiMail unit will operate in gateway mode, configure the MX record to refer to the
FortiMail unit, and remove other MX records. If you fail to do so, external MTAs may not be able
to deliver email to or through the FortiMail unit, or may be able to bypass the FortiMail unit by
using the other MX records. If you have configured secondary MX records for failover reasons,
consider configuring FortiMail high availability (HA) instead. For details, see “FortiMail high
availability modes” on page 24.
An A record must also exist to resolve the host name of the FortiMail unit into an IP address.
For example, if the MX record indicates that fortimail.example.com is the email gateway for a
domain, you must also configure an A record in the example.com zone file to resolve
fortimail.example.com into a public IP address:
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
where 10.10.10.1 is either the public IP address of the FortiMail unit, or a virtual IP address
on a firewall or router that maps to the private IP address of the FortiMail unit.
If your FortiMail unit will relay outgoing email, you should also configure the public reverse DNS
record. The public IP address of the FortiMail unit, or the virtual IP address on a firewall or router
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that maps to the private IP address of the FortiMail unit, should be globally resolvable into the
FortiMail unit’s FQDN. If it is not, reverse DNS lookups by external SMTP servers will fail.
For example, if the public network IP address of the FortiMail unit is 10.10.10.1, a public DNS
server’s reverse DNS zone file for the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet might contain:
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.com.
where fortimail.example.com is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit.
Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
In addition to that of protected domains, the FortiMail unit must be able to receive web
connections, and send and receive email, for its own domain name. Dependent features
include:
• delivery status notification (DSN) email
• spam reports
• email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantined mail
• FortiMail administrators’ access to the web UI by domain name
• alert email
• report generation notification email
For this reason, you should also configure public DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself.
Appropriate records vary by whether or not you configured Web release host name/IP (located
in AntiSpam > Quarantine > Quarantine Report in the advanced mode of the web UI).
See the following:
• Case 1: Web Release Host Name/IP is empty/default
• Case 2: Web Release Host Name/IP is configured
Case 1: Web Release Host Name/IP is empty/default
When Web release host name/IP is not configured (the default), the web release/delete links that
appear in spam reports use the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail unit.
For example, if the FortiMail unit’s host name is fortimail, and its local domain name is
example.net, resulting in the FQDN fortimail.example.net, a spam report’s default web
release link might look like (FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://fortimail.example.net/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40examp
le.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM2N
TkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
In the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you would
configure the following three records:
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs; in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
administrators’ access to the web UI, email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantines,
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to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record when email users send Bayesian and
quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit, and to resolve to the IP address of the FortiMail
unit for the purpose of the web release/delete hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Case 2: Web Release Host Name/IP is configured
You could configure Web release host name/IP to use an alternative fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) such as webrelease.example.info instead of the configured FQDN, resulting in the
following web release link (web release FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://webrelease.example.info/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40exa
mple.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM
2NTkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
Then, in the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you
would configure the following MX record, A records, and PTR record (unlike “Case 1: Web
Release Host Name/IP is empty/default” on page 53, in this case, two A records are required;
the difference is highlighted in bold):
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
webrelease IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs; in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
administrators’ access to the web UI and to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record
when email users send Bayesian and quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit
• webrelease is the web release host name; in the A record of the zone file for example.info,
it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of the web release/delete
hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Configuring a private DNS server
In addition to the public DNS server, consider providing a private DNS server on your local
network to improve performance with features that use DNS queries.
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Figure 7: Public and private DNS servers (gateway mode)
Local Email Users
Email Domain:
example.com
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
Switch
wan1
10.10.10.1
Internet
port1
172.16.1.5
Private DNS Server
example.com IN M 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10
Public DNS Server
Gateway Mode
Protected Domain:
example.com
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
In some situations, a private DNS server may be required. A private DNS server is required if you
enable the Use MX record option. Because gateway mode requires that public DNS servers
have an MX record that routes mail to the FortiMail unit, but Use MX record requires an MX
record that references the protected SMTP server, if you enable that option, you must configure
the records of the private DNS server and public DNS server differently.
For example, if both a FortiMail unit (fortimail.example.com) operating in gateway mode
and the SMTP server reside on your private network behind a router or firewall as illustrated in
Figure 7 on page 55, and the Use MX Record option is enabled, Table 8 on page 81 illustrates
differences between the public and private DNS servers for the authoritative DNS records of
example.com.
Table 7: Public versus private DNS records when “Use MX record” is enabled
Private DNS server
Public DNS server
example.com IN MX 10
mail.example.com
example.com IN MX 10
fortimail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.com
If you choose to add a private DNS server, to configure the FortiMail unit to use it, go to System
> Network > DNS in the advanced mode of the web UI.
Example 1: FortiMail unit behind a firewall
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in gateway mode, a protected email server, a private
DNS server, and email users’ computers are all positioned within a private network, behind a
firewall. Remote email users’ computers and external email servers are located on the Internet,
outside of the network protected by the firewall. The FortiMail unit protects accounts for email
addresses ending in “@example.com”, which are hosted on the local email server.
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Figure 8: FortiMail unit behind a NAT device
Email Domain:
example.com
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
Switch
wan1
10.10.10.1
Internet
port1
172.16.1.5
Private DNS Server
example.com IN M 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10
DNS Server
Gateway Mode
Protected Domain:
example.com
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
The private DNS server is configured to locally replicate records from public DNS servers for
most domains, with the exception of records for protected domains, which instead have been
configured differently locally in order to support the Use MX record option.
To deploy the FortiMail unit behind a NAT device such as a firewall or router, you must complete
the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 52.
Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit behind a FortiGate unit, you must configure firewall policies to allow
traffic between the internal network and the Internet.
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall address
• Configuring the service groups
• Configuring the virtual IPs
• Configuring the firewall policies
The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a
different firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar
configurations.
Setting up the system
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Configuring the firewall address
In order to create the outgoing firewall policy that governs the IP address of the FortiMail unit,
you must first define the IP address of the FortiMail unit by creating a firewall address entry.
To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following and then click OK.
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.16.1.5.
Interface
Select internal.
Configuring the service groups
In order to create firewall policies that govern only email and FortiMail-related traffic, you must
first create groups of services that define protocols and port numbers used in that traffic.
Because FortiGuard-related services for FortiMail units are not predefined, you must define
them before you can create a service group that contains those services.
For more information on protocols and port numbers used by FortiMail units, see the Fortinet
Knowledge Base article FortiMail Traffic Types and TCP/UDP Ports.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following and then click OK:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
Low
Enter 9443.
High
Enter 9443.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antispam rating queries
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following and then click OK.
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
Low
Enter 8889.
High
Enter 8889.
To add a service group for incoming FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_incoming_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antivirus push updates, FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for outgoing FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_outgoing_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select DNS, NTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antispam rating queries, FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for email user traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
PO3_IMAP_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select POP3 and IMAP, then select the right arrow to move
them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Configuring the virtual IPs
In order to create the firewall policy that forwards email-related traffic to the FortiMail unit, you
must first define a static NAT mapping from a public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the
private IP address of the FortiMail unit by creating a virtual IP entry.
Similarly, in order to create the firewall policy that forwards POP3/IMAP-related traffic to the
protected email server, you must first define a static NAT mapping from a public IP address on
the FortiGate unit to the private IP address of the protected email server by creating a virtual IP
entry.
To add virtual IPs, the FortiGate unit must be operating in NAT mode. For more information, see
the FortiGate Administration Guide.
To add a virtual IP for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following and then click OK.
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry, such as
FortiMail_VIP.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.5.
To add a virtual IP for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following and then click OK.
Setting up the system
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry, such as
protected_email_server_VIP.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.10.
Configuring the firewall policies
First, create a firewall policy that allows incoming FortiMail services that are received at the
virtual IP address, then applies a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP
address of the FortiMail unit.
Second, create a firewall policy that allows outgoing email and other FortiMail connections from
the FortiMail unit to the Internet.
Last, create a firewall policy that allows incoming POP3 and IMAP traffic that is received at the
virtual IP address, then applies a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP
address of the protected email server.
To add the Internet-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following and then click OK.
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select internal.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_VIP.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_incoming_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
To add the FortiMail-to-Internet policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Setting up the system
Select wan1.
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Destination Address
Name
Select all.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_outgoing_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the Internet-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following and then click OK.
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select internal.
Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select PO3_IMAP_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail (SMTP) server/MTA. For local email users, this is the private network IP address of
the FortiMail unit, 172.16.1.5; for remote email users, this is the virtual IP on the FortiGate unit
that maps to the FortiMail unit, 10.10.10.1 or fortimail.example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
delivered to your protected email server can be scanned, but email outgoing from your email
users cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of a firewall
In this example, a FortiMail unit operates in gateway mode within a private network, but is
separated from the protected email server and local email users’ computers by a firewall. The
protected email server is located on the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of the firewall. The local email
users are located on the internal network of the firewall. Remote email users’ computers and
external email servers are located on the Internet, outside of the private network. The FortiMail
unit protects accounts for email addresses ending in “@example.com,” which are hosted on the
local email server.
Figure 9: FortiMail unit in front of a NAT device
Local Email Users
Email Domain:
example.com
Internal Email Server
192.168.1.10
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
dmz
192.168.1.1
wan1
10.10.10.1
internal
172.16.1.1
(virtual IP:
172.16.1.2)
Switch
Internet
port1
10.10.10.5
DNS Server
Protected Domain:
example.com
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.5
To deploy the FortiMail unit in front of a NAT device such as a firewall or router, you must
complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 52.
Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit in front of a FortiGate unit, the internal network located behind the
FortiGate unit, and the protected email server located on the DMZ, you must configure firewall
policies to allow traffic:
• between the internal network and the FortiMail unit
• between the internal network and protected email server
• between the protected email server and the FortiMail unit
• between the protected email server and the Internet
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall addresses
• Configuring the service groups
• Configuring the virtual IPs
• Configuring the firewall policies
The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a
different firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar
configurations.
Configuring the firewall addresses
In order to create the firewall policies that governs traffic from the IP addresses of local email
users, the protected email server, and the IP address of the FortiMail unit, you must first define
the IP addresses of those hosts by creating firewall address entries.
To add a firewall address for local email users
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address
entry, such as
local_email_users_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.16.1.0/24.
Interface
Select internal.
5. Select OK.
To add a firewall address for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Setting up the system
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address
entry, such as
protected_email_server_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 192.168.1.10/32.
Interface
Select dmz.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
5. Select OK.
To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address
entry, such as FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 10.10.10.5/32.
Interface
Select wan1.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the service groups
In order to create firewall policies that governs email and FortiMail-related traffic, you must first
create service groups that contain services that define protocols and port numbers used in that
traffic.
To add a service group for internal email user and protected server traffic to the FortiMail
unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
SMTP_quar_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, and SMTP, then select the right arrow to
move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for POP3 and IMAP traffic to the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
PO3_IMAP_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select POP3 and IMAP, then select the right arrow to move
them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the virtual IPs
In order to create the firewall policies that forward from the FortiMail unit and local and remote
email users to the protected email server, you must first define static NAT mappings from a
public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the protected email server, and from
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
an internal IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the protected email server, by
creating virtual IP entries.
Note: To add virtual IPs, the FortiGate unit must be operating in NAT mode. For more information, see the
FortiGate Administration Guide.
To add a wan1 virtual IP for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as
protected_email_server_VIP_wan1.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.10.
5. Select OK.
To add an internal virtual IP for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as
protected_email_server_VIP_interna
l.
External Interface
Select internal.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.2.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.10.
5. Select OK.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Configuring the firewall policies
Create the following firewall policies:
• Allow SMTP connections from the protected email server to the FortiMail unit.
• Allow SMTP_quar_services from the local email users to the FortiMail unit.
• allow SMTP connections that are received at the wan1 virtual IP address from the FortiMail
unit, then apply a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP address of
the protected email server.
• Allow PO3_IMAP_services that are received at the internal virtual IP address, then apply a
static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP address of the protected
email server.
• Allow PO3_IMAP_services that are received at the wan1 virtual IP address, then apply a
static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP address of the protected
email server.
To add the email-server-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select dmz.
Source Address Name Select protected_email_server_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_address.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select SMTP.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the local-users-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select local_email_users_address.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_address.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select SMTP_quar_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the FortiMail-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP_wan1.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select SMTP.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the local-users-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select local_email_users_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Setting up the system
Select internal.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP_internal.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select PO3_IMAP_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the remote-users-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select dmz.
Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP_wan1.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select PO3_IMAP_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail (SMTP) server/MTA. For both local and remote email users, this is 10.10.10.5 or
fortimail.example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
delivered to your protected email server can be scanned, but email outgoing from your email
users cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
Setting up the system
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 3: FortiMail unit in DMZ
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in gateway mode, a protected email server, and email
users’ computers are all positioned within a private network, behind a firewall. However, the
FortiMail unit is located in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of the firewall, separated from the local
email users and the protected email server, which are located on the internal network of the
firewall. Remote email users’ computers and external email servers are located on the Internet,
outside of the network protected by the firewall. The FortiMail unit protects accounts for email
addresses ending in “@example.com”, which are hosted on the local email server.
Figure 10:FortiMail unit in DMZ
Local Email Users
Email Domain:
example.com
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Remote Email Users
internal
172.16.1.1
(virtual IP:
172.16.1.2)
Switch
dmz
192.168.1.1
(virtual IP:
192.168.1.2)
External
Email Server
wan1
10.10.10.1
port1
192.168.1.5
Internet
DNS Server
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
Protected Domain:
example.com
To deploy the FortiMail unit in the DMZ of a firewall, you must complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 52.
Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit in front of a FortiGate unit, and local email users and protected email
server located behind the FortiGate unit on its internal network, you must configure firewall
policies to allow traffic:
• between the internal network and the FortiMail unit
• between the protected email server and the Internet
• between the FortiMail unit and the Internet
Setting up the system
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall addresses
• Configuring the service groups
• Configuring the virtual IPs
• Configuring the firewall policies
The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a
different firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar
configurations.
Configuring the firewall addresses
In order to create the firewall policies that governs traffic from the IP addresses of local email
users and the protected email server, and the IP address of the FortiMail unit, you must first
define the IP addresses of those hosts by creating firewall address entries.
To add a firewall address for local email users
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address
entry, such as
local_email_users_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.16.1.0/24.
Interface
Select internal.
5. Select OK.
To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Setting up the system
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address
entry, such as FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 192.168.1.5/32.
Interface
Select dmz.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
5. Select OK.
Configuring the service groups
In order to create firewall policies that govern only email and FortiMail-related traffic, you must
first create groups of services that define protocols and port numbers used in that traffic.
Because FortiGuard-related services for FortiMail units are not predefined, you must define
them before you can create a service group that contains those services.
For more information on protocols and port numbers used by FortiMail units, see the Fortinet
Knowledge Base article FortiMail Traffic Types and TCP/UDP Ports.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
Low
Enter 9443.
High
Enter 9443.
5. Select OK.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antispam rating queries
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Low
Enter 8889.
High
Enter 8889.
5. Select OK.
To add a service group for remote incoming FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_incoming_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antivirus push updates, FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for outgoing FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_outgoing_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select DNS, NTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antispam rating queries, FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for internal email user traffic to the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
SMTP_quar_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, and SMTP, then select the right arrow to
move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for POP3 and IMAP traffic to the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
PO3_IMAP_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select POP3 and IMAP, then select the right arrow to move
them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Configuring the virtual IPs
In order to create the firewall policy that forwards email-related traffic to the FortiMail unit, you
must first define a static NAT mapping from a public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP
address of the FortiMail unit by creating a virtual IP entry.
You must also create virtual IPs to define static NAT mappings:
• from a public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the protected email server
• from an IP address on the internal network of the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the
FortiMail unit
• from an IP address on the DMZ of the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the protected email
server
To add virtual IPs, the FortiGate unit must be operating in NAT mode. For more information, see
the FortiGate Administration Guide.
To add a wan1 virtual IP for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as FortiMail_VIP_wan1.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.5.
5. Select OK.
To add a wan1 virtual IP for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Setting up the system
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as
protected_email_server_VIP_wan1.
External Interface
Select wan1.
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Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.10.
5. Select OK.
To add a internal virtual IP for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as FortiMail_VIP_internal.
External Interface
Select internal.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.2.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.5.
5. Select OK.
To add a dmz virtual IP for the protected email server
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as
protected_email_server_VIP_dmz.
External Interface
Select dmz.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.2.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.10.
5. Select OK.
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Configuring the firewall policies
Create the following firewall policies:
• Allow SMTP_quar_services that are received at the internal virtual IP address, then apply a
static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP address of the FortiMail unit.
• Allow FortiMail_incoming_services that are received at the wan1 virtual IP address that maps
to the FortiMail unit, then apply a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private
network IP address of the FortiMail unit.
• Allow FortiMail_outgoing_services from the FortiMail unit to the Internet.
• Allow SMTP traffic that is received at the DMZ virtual IP address, then apply a static NAT
when forwarding the traffic to the private network IP address of the protected email server.
• Allow PO3_IMAP_services that are received at the wan1 virtual IP address that maps to the
protected email server, then apply a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the private
network IP address of the protected email server.
To add the internal-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select internal_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select dmz.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_VIP_internal.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select SMTP_quar_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the Internet-to-FortiMail unit policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
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Destination
Interface/zone
Select dmz.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_VIP_wan1.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_incoming_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select OK.
To add the FortiMail-to-Internet policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select dmz.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select all.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_outgoing_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the FortiMail-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select dmz.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Setting up the system
Select internal.
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Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP_dmz.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select SMTP.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the remote-users-to-email-server policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select internal.
Destination Address
Name
Select protected_email_server_VIP_wan1.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select PO3_IMAP_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail (SMTP) server/MTA. For local email users, this is 172.16.1.2, the virtual IP on the
internal network interface of the FortiGate unit that is mapped to the IP address of the FortiMail
unit; for remote email users, this is 10.10.10.1 or fortimail.example.com, the virtual IP on the
wan1 network interface of the FortiGate unit that is mapped to the FortiMail unit.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
delivered to your protected email server can be scanned, but email outgoing from your email
users cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
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Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Transparent mode deployment
The following procedures and examples show you how to deploy the FortiMail unit in
transparent mode.
• Configuring DNS records
• Example 1: FortiMail unit in front of an email server
• Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of an email hub
• Example 3: FortiMail unit for an ISP or carrier
Configuring DNS records
If the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, in most cases, configuring DNS records for
protected domain names is not required. Proper DNS records for your protected domain names
are usually already in place. However, you usually must configure public DNS records for the
FortiMail unit itself.
If you are unfamiliar with configuring DNS and related MX and A records, first read “The role of
DNS in email delivery” on page 9.
For performance reasons, and to support some configuration options, you may also want to
provide a private DNS server for exclusive use by the FortiMail unit.
This section includes the following:
• Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
• Configuring a private DNS server
Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
In addition to that of protected domains, the FortiMail unit must be able to receive web
connections, and send and receive email, for its own domain name. Dependent features
include:
• delivery status notification (DSN) email
• spam reports
• email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantined mail
• FortiMail administrators’ access to the web UI by domain name
• alert email
• report generation notification email
For this reason, you should also configure public DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself.
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Appropriate records vary by whether or not Web release host name/IP (located in AntiSpam >
Quarantine > Quarantine Report in the advanced mode of the web UI) is configured:
• Case 1: Web Release Host Name/IP is empty/default
• Case 2: Web Release Host Name/IP is configured
Unless you have enabled both Hide the transparent box in each protected domain and Hide this
box from the mail server in each session profile, the FortiMail unit is not fully transparent in
SMTP sessions: the domain name and IP address of the FortiMail unit may be visible to SMTP
servers, and they might perform reverse lookups. For this reason, public DNS records for the
FortiMail unit usually should include reverse DNS (RDNS) records.
Case 1: Web Release Host Name/IP is empty/default
When Web release host name/IP is not configured (the default), the web release/delete links that
appear in spam reports use the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail unit.
For example, if the FortiMail unit’s host name is fortimail, and its local domain name is
example.net, resulting in the FQDN fortimail.example.net, a spam report’s default web
release link might look like (FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://fortimail.example.net/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40examp
le.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM2N
TkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
In the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you would
configure the following three records:
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs; in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
administrators’ access to the web UI, email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantines,
to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record when email users send Bayesian and
quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit, and to resolve to the IP address of the FortiMail
unit for the purpose of the web release/delete hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Case 2: Web Release Host Name/IP is configured
You could configure Web release host name/IP to use an alternative fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) such as webrelease.example.info instead of the configured FQDN, resulting in the
following web release link (web release FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://webrelease.example.info/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40exa
mple.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM
2NTkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
Then, in the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you
would configure the following MX record, A records, and PTR record (unlike “Case 1: Web
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Release Host Name/IP is empty/default” on page 53, in this case, two A records are required;
the difference is highlighted in bold):
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
webrelease IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs; in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
administrators’ access to the web UI and to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record
when email users send Bayesian and quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit
• webrelease is the web release host name; in the A record of the zone file for example.info,
it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of the web release/delete
hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Configuring a private DNS server
Consider providing a private DNS server on your local network to improve performance with
features that use DNS queries.
Figure 11:Public and private DNS servers (transparent mode)
Local Email Users
External
Email Server
Protected Domain:
@example.com
Transparent Mode
Router
10.10.10.1
Internet
port2
Remote Email Users
port1
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Email Domain:
@example.com
Private DNS Server Public DNS Server
example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10 mail IN A 10.10.10.1
In some situations, a private DNS server may be required. If:
• you configure the FortiMail unit to use a private DNS server, and
• both the FortiMail unit and the protected SMTP server reside on the internal network, with
private network IP addresses, and
• you enable the Use MX record option
you should configure the A records on the private DNS server and public DNS server differently:
the private DNS server must resolve to the domain names of the SMTP servers into private IP
addresses, while the public DNS server must resolve them into public IP addresses.
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For example, if both a FortiMail unit (fortimail.example.com) operating in transparent mode and
the SMTP server reside on your private network behind a router or firewall as illustrated in
Figure 7 on page 55, and the Use MX record option is enabled, Table 8 on page 81 illustrates
differences between the public and private DNS servers for the authoritative DNS records of
example.com.
Table 8: Public versus private DNS records when “Use MX Record” is enabled
Private DNS server
Public DNS server
example.com IN MX 10
mail.example.com
example.com IN MX 10
mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10
mail IN A 10.10.10.1
10 IN PTR fortimail.example.com
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.com
If you choose to add a private DNS server, to configure the FortiMail unit to use it, go to System
> Network > DNS in the advanced mode of the web UI.
Example 1: FortiMail unit in front of an email server
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in transparent mode is positioned in front of one email
server.
This example assumes that the FortiMail unit is protecting a single email server. If your FortiMail
unit is protecting multiple email servers and they are not on the same subnet, you must first
remove some network interfaces from the bridge and configure static routes. For an example of
configuring out-of-bridge network interfaces, see “Removing the network interfaces from the
bridge” on page 94.
Figure 12:Transparent mode deployment to protect an email server
Local Email Users
External
Email Server
Protected Domain:
@example.com
Transparent Mode
Router
10.10.10.1
Internet
port2
Remote Email Users
port1
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Email Domain:
@example.com
Setting up the system
Private DNS Server Public DNS Server
example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com example.com IN MX 10 mail.example.com
mail IN A 172.16.1.10 mail IN A 10.10.10.1
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To deploy the FortiMail unit in front of an email server, you must complete the following:
• Configuring the protected domains and session profiles
• Configuring the proxies and implicit relay
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard. For details, see
“Running the Quick Start Wizard” on page 35.
Configuring the protected domains and session profiles
When configuring the protected domain and session profiles, you can select transparent mode
options to hide the existence of the FortiMail unit.
To configure the transparent mode options of the protected domain
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Select the domain and then click Edit.
3. Configure the following:
Transparent Mode Options
This server is on
(transparent mode only)
Select the network interface (port) to which the protected
SMTP server is connected.
Note: Selecting the wrong network interface will result in
the FortiMail sending email traffic to the wrong network
interface.
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Hide the transparent
box
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client for incoming email messages in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) in the envelope and in
the Received: message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit to the
protected SMTP server.
Disable to replace the SMTP client’s IP address or domain
name with that of the FortiMail unit.
Note: If the protected SMTP server applies rate limiting
according to IP addresses, enabling this option can
improve performance. The rate limit will then be separate
for each client connecting to the protected SMTP server,
rather than shared among all connections handled by the
FortiMail unit.
Note: Unless you have enabled Take precedence over
recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, this
option has precedence over the Hide this box from the mail
server option in the session profile, and may prevent it from
applying to incoming email messages.
Use this domain’s SMTP Enable to allow SMTP clients to send outgoing email
server to deliver the
directly through the protected SMTP server.
mail
Disable to, instead of allowing a direct connection, proxy
(transparent mode only) the connection using the incoming proxy, which queues
email messages that are not immediately deliverable.
4. Select OK.
To configure the transparent mode options of the session profile
1. Go to Policy > Policies > IP Policies in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. In the Session column for an IP-based policy, select the name of the session profile to edit
the profile.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following:
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Connection Settings
Hide this box from the
mail server
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) and in the Received:
message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit.
Disable to replace the IP addresses or domain names with
that of the FortiMail unit.
Note: Unless you have enabled Take precedence over
recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, the
Hide the transparent box option in the protected domain
has precedence over this option, and may prevent it from
applying to incoming email messages.
4. Select OK.
5. Repeat the previous three steps for each IP-based policy.
Configuring the proxies and implicit relay
When operating in transparent mode, the FortiMail unit can use either transparent proxies or an
implicit relay to inspect SMTP connections. If connection pick-up is enabled for connections on
that network interface, the FortiMail unit can scan and process the connection. If not enabled,
the FortiMail unit can either block or permit the connection to pass through unmodified.
Exceptions to SMTP connections that can be proxied or relayed include SMTP connections
destined for the FortiMail unit itself. For those local connections, such as email messages from
email users requesting deletion or release of their quarantined email, you must choose to either
allow or block the connection.
You configure proxy/relay pick-up separately for incoming and outgoing connections.
For information on determining directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing directionality” on
page 8.
In this deployment example, incoming connections arriving on port2 must be scanned before
traveling to the main email server, and therefore are configured to be Proxy — that is, picked up
by the implicit relay.
Outgoing connections arriving on port1 will contain email that has already been scanned once,
during SMTP clients’ relay to the main email server. Scanning outgoing connections again using
either the outgoing proxy or the implicit relay would waste resources. Therefore outgoing
connections will be Pass through.
To configure SMTP proxy and implicit relay pick-up
1. Go to System > Network in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Edit SMTP proxy settings on both Port 1 and Port 2:
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Port 1
Incoming connections
Drop
Outgoing connections
Pass through
Local connections
Allow
Port 2
Incoming connections
Proxy
Outgoing connections
Drop
Local connections
Disallow
If Use client-specified SMTP server to send email is disabled under Mail Settings > Proxies, and
an SMTP client is configured to authenticate, you must configure and apply an authentication
profile. Without the profile, authentication with the built-in MTA will fail. Also, the mail server
must be explicitly configured to allow relay in this case.
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of an email hub
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in transparent mode is positioned between an email
gateway and other internal email servers.
When sending email with external recipients, the email servers (Relay A and Relay B) in each
WAN location are required to deliver through the main email server, which encrypts outgoing
SMTP connections. The firewall will only allow SMTP traffic from the main email server.
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Figure 13:Transparent mode deployment to protect an email hub
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
Router
WAN
Internet
port1
Main Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Email Domain:
@example.com
port2
Protected Domain:
@example.com
Internal SMTP
Relay A
Internal SMTP
Relay B
To deploy the FortiMail unit in front of one or more email servers, you must complete the
following:
• Configuring the protected domains and session profiles
• Configuring the proxies and implicit relay
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard. For details, see
“Running the Quick Start Wizard” on page 35.
Configuring the protected domains and session profiles
When configuring the protected domain and session profiles, you can select transparent mode
options to hide the existence of the FortiMail unit.
To configure the transparent mode options of the protected domain
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. In the row corresponding to the protected domain, select Edit.
3. Configure the following:
Transparent Mode Options
This server is on
(transparent mode only)
Select the network interface (port) to which the protected
SMTP server is connected.
Note: Selecting the wrong network interface will result in
the FortiMail sending email traffic to the wrong network
interface.
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Hide the transparent
box
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client for incoming email messages in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) in the envelope and in
the Received: message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit to the
protected SMTP server.
Disable to replace the SMTP client’s IP address or domain
name with that of the FortiMail unit.
Note: If the protected SMTP server applies rate limiting
according to IP addresses, enabling this option can
improve performance. The rate limit will then be separate
for each client connecting to the protected SMTP server,
rather than shared among all connections handled by the
FortiMail unit.
Note: Unless you have enabled Take precedence over
recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, this
option has precedence over the Hide this box from the mail
server option in the session profile, and may prevent it from
applying to incoming email messages.
Use this domain’s SMTP Enable to allow SMTP clients to send outgoing email
server to deliver the
directly through the protected SMTP server.
mail
Disable to, instead of allowing a direct connection, proxy
(transparent mode only) the connection using the incoming proxy, which queues
email messages that are not immediately deliverable.
4. Select OK.
To configure the transparent mode options of the session profile
1. Go to Policy > Policies > IP Policies in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. In the Session column for an IP-based policy, select the name of the session profile to edit
the profile.
3. Configure the following:
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Connection Settings
Hide this box from the
mail server
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) and in the Received:
message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit.
Disable to replace the IP addresses or domain names with
that of the FortiMail unit.
Note: Unless you have enabled Take precedence over
recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, the
Hide the transparent box option in the protected domain
has precedence over this option, and may prevent it from
applying to incoming email messages.
4. Select OK.
5. Repeat the previous three steps for each IP-based policy.
Configuring the proxies and implicit relay
When operating in transparent mode, the FortiMail unit can use either transparent proxies or an
implicit relay to inspect SMTP connections. If connection pick-up is enabled for connections on
that network interface, the FortiMail unit can scan and process the connection. If not enabled,
the FortiMail unit can either block or permit the connection to pass through unmodified.
Exceptions to SMTP connections that can be proxied or relayed include SMTP connections
destined for the FortiMail unit itself. For those local connections, such as email messages from
email users requesting deletion or release of their quarantined email, you must choose to either
allow or block the connection.
Proxy/relay pick-up is configured separately for incoming and outgoing connections.
For information on determining directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing directionality” on
page 8.
In this deployment example, incoming connections arriving on port2 must be scanned before
traveling to the main email server, and therefore are configured to be Proxy — that is, picked up
by the implicit relay.
Outgoing connections arriving on port1 will contain email that has already been scanned once,
during SMTP clients’ relay to the main email server. In addition, outgoing connections by the
main mail server will be encrypted using TLS. Encrypted connections cannot be scanned.
Therefore outgoing connections will be passed through, and neither proxied nor implicitly
relayed.
To configure SMTP proxy and implicit relay pick-up
1. Go to System > Network in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Edit SMTP proxy settings on both Port 1 and Port 2:
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Port 1
Incoming connections
Drop
Outgoing connections
Pass through
Local connections
Allow
Port 2
Incoming connections
Proxy
Outgoing connections
Drop
Local connections
Disallow
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 3: FortiMail unit for an ISP or carrier
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in transparent mode is positioned as an offshoot from
the backbone or other primary traffic flow between the internal and external network. A router
uses policy-based routes to redirect only SMTP connections to the FortiMail unit, which scans
the traffic before allowing legitimate connections to return the overall flow. The FortiMail unit
does not receive non-SMTP traffic. (This would result in unnecessary processing and resource
usage.)
For increased session-handling capacity, multiple FortiMail units could be clustered into a
config-only HA group and deployed behind a load balancer that is attached to the router.
Connections to the same source IP address would be handled by the same FortiMail unit to
avoid sessions split among multiple units, and to maintain the accuracy of IP statistics.
Otherwise, attach a single FortiMail unit to the router.
Service providers often fundamentally require transparent mode. Requiring subscribers to
explicitly configure a mail relay can be problematic, and in the case of 3G mobile subscribers,
impossible. Therefore gateway mode is not suitable. Transparent mode makes SMTP scanning
possible without configuration by the subscriber.
A dual-arm attachment is used. This provides natural isolation of traffic before and after
inspection, which can be useful if traffic requires further analysis such as packet traces by a
sniffer. (If you use a load balancer and it does not support the same session on two different
ports, deploy the FortiMail unit using a single-arm attachment instead. For example, Foundry
IronServer has been known to require single-arm attachment.)
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Figure 14:Transparent mode deployment at an ISP or carrier (with HA cluster)
Each network interface in the dual-arm attachment (port2 and port3) is removed from the
Layer 2 bridge, and is configured with its own IP address. This reduces the possibility of
Ethernet loops and improves compatibility with other filtering devices.
Because port1 cannot be removed from the bridge, and the management IP is accessible from
any bridging network interface, port1 is reserved for direct connections from the administrator's
computer. (If the administrator’s computer is not directly connected but is instead part of a
management LAN, a route must also be configured for port1.)
Network address translation (NAT) must not occur on any device between the FortiMail unit and
SMTP clients, such as subscribers and external MTAs. Antispam scans involving the SMTP
client’s IP address, such as sender reputation, carrier endpoint reputation, session rate limits,
and mail rate limits, require the ability to correctly identify each source of email by its unique IP
address in order to operate correctly. NAT would interfere with this requirement.
Full transparency is configured. Popular email services such as Microsoft Hotmail may rate limit
by an SMTP client’s IP address in order to reduce spam. If the FortiMail unit were not
transparent to those mail servers, all SMTP connections from your subscribers would appear to
come from the FortiMail unit. The result is that external mail servers could throttle the
connections of all subscribers behind the FortiMail unit. To prevent this, each individual SMTP
client’s IP address should be visible to external MTAs. NAT therefore would also interfere with
the requirement of transparency.
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Protected domains and access control rules (sometimes called access control lists or ACLs) are
not configured. Instead, administrators will configure ACLs on their own internal or external
MTAs.
You could configure ACLs to reject SMTP connections from specific IP addresses if required by
your security policy.However, in this example, because no protected domains are configured,
ACLs are not required. For connections to unprotected SMTP servers, the implicit ACL permits
the connection if no other ACL is configured.
To prevent SMTP clients’ access to open relays, the outgoing proxy will require all connections
to be authenticated using the SMTP AUTH command, but will not apply authentication profiles
on behalf of the SMTP servers, as no protected domains are configured. It will also not interfere
with command pipelining. However, the outgoing proxy will be configured to block TLS
connections, whose encryption would prevent the FortiMail unit from being able to scan the
connection.
The outgoing proxy is enabled. Unlike other transparent mode deployments, because no
protected domains are defined, all connections will be considered to be outgoing — that is,
destined for an SMTP server whose IP address is not configured in the SMTP server field in a
protected domain. As a result, all connections will be handled by the outgoing proxy. The
built-in MTA will never be implicitly used, and the incoming proxy will never be used. If a
destination SMTP server is unavailable, the outgoing proxy will refuse the connection. The
FortiMail unit will not queue undeliverable mail. Instead, each SMTP client will be responsible
for retrying its own delivery attempts.
Unlike other FortiMail deployments, because the ISP or carrier uses a RADIUS server to
authenticate and/or track the currently assigned IP addresses of subscribers, the FortiMail unit
can combat spam using the carrier endpoint reputation feature.
The FortiMail unit scans SMTP connections originating from both the internal and external
network.
• Scanning connections from the external network protects subscribers from viruses and
spam.
• Scanning connections from the internal network protects subscribers’ service levels and
reduces cost of operation to the ISP or carrier by preventing its public IP addresses from
being added to DNS block list (DNSBL) servers.
Why should you scan email originating from the internal network?
Spammers often use a subscriber account to send spam, either by purchasing temporary
Internet access or, increasingly, by infecting subscriber’s computers or phones. Infected
devices become part of a botnet that can be used to infect more devices, and to send spam.
Because many mail servers use DNSBL to combat spam, if a subscriber’s IP address is added
to a DNSBL, it can instantly cause email service interruption. If the subscriber’s IP address is
dynamic rather than static, when the spammer’s IP address is reassigned to another subscriber,
this can cause problems for an innocent subscriber. Even worse, if many subscribers on your
network share a single public IP address, if that single IP address is blocklisted, all of your
customers could be impacted.
Protecting the public range of IP addresses from being blocklisted is essential for service
providers to be able to guarantee a service level to subscribers.
In addition to jeopardizing customer retention, spam originating from your internal network can
also cost money and time. Spam consumes bandwidth and network resources. Tracking which
in your block of IPs is currently blocklisted, and paying to have them de-listed, can be a
significant recurring cost.
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By scanning email destined for the Internet, you can thereby reduce your own costs and
maximize customers’ satisfaction with your service levels.
To deploy the FortiMail unit at an ISP or carrier, you must complete the following:
• Configuring the connection with the RADIUS server
• Removing the network interfaces from the bridge
• Configuring the session profiles
• Configuring the IP-based policies
• Configuring the outgoing proxy
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard. For details, see
“Running the Quick Start Wizard” on page 35.
Configuring the connection with the RADIUS server
FortiMail units can use your RADIUS accounting records to combat spam and viruses. This
reduces spam and viruses originating from your network, and reduces the likelihood that your
public IP addresses will be blocklisted.
Unlike MTAs, computers in homes and small offices and mobile devices such as laptops and
cellular phones that send email may not have a static IP address. Cellular phones’ IP addresses
especially may change very frequently. After a device leaves the network or changes its IP
address, its dynamic IP address may be reused by another device. Because of this, a sender
reputation score that is directly associated with an SMTP client’s IP address may not function
well. A device sending spam could start again with a clean sender reputation score simply by
rejoining the network to get another IP address, and an innocent device could be accidentally
blocklisted when it receives an IP address that was previously used by a spammer.
To control spam from SMTP clients with dynamic IP addresses, you may be able to use the
endpoint reputation score method instead.
The endpoint reputation score method does not directly use the IP address as the SMTP client’s
unique identifier. Instead, it uses the subscriber ID, login ID, MSISDN, or other identifier. (An
MSISDN is the number associated with a mobile device, such as a SIM card on a cellular phone
network.) The IP address is only temporarily associated with this identifier while the device is
joined to the network.
When a device joins the network of its service provider, such as a cellular phone carrier or DSL
provider, it may use a protocol such as PPPoE or PPPoA which supports authentication. The
network access server (NAS) queries the remote authentication dial-in user (RADIUS) server for
authentication and access authorization. If successful, the RADIUS server then creates a record
which associates the device’s MSISDN, subscriber ID, or other identifier with its current IP
address.
The server, next acting as a RADIUS client, sends an accounting request with the mapping to
the FortiMail unit. (The FortiMail unit acts as an auxiliary accounting server if the endpoint
reputation daemon is enabled.) The FortiMail unit then stores the mappings, and uses them for
the endpoint reputation feature.
When the device leaves the network or changes its IP address, the RADIUS server acting as a
client requests that the FortiMail unit stop accounting (that is, remove its local record of the
IP-to-MSISDN/subscriber ID mapping). The FortiMail unit keeps the reputation score
associated with the MSISDN or subscriber ID, which will be re-mapped to the new IP address
upon the next time that the mobile device joins the network.
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The endpoint reputation feature can be used with traditional email, but it can also be used with
MMS text messages.
The multimedia messaging service (MMS) protocol transmits graphics, animations, audio, and
video between mobile phones. There are eight interfaces defined for the MMS standard,
referred to as MM1 through MM8. MM3 uses SMTP to transmit text messages to and from
mobile phones. Because it can be used to transmit content, spammers can also use MMS to
send spam.
You can blocklist MSISDNs or subscriber IDs to reduce MMS and email spam.
In addition to manually blocklisting or exempting MSISDNs and subscriber IDs, you can
configure automatic blocklisting based upon endpoint reputation scores. If a carrier end point
sends email or text messages that the FortiMail unit detects as spam, the endpoint reputation
score increases. You can configure session profiles to log or block, for a period of time, email
and text messages from carrier end points whose endpoint reputation score exceeds the
threshold during the automatic blocklisting window.
To configure your RADIUS server
1. On your RADIUS server, configure the FortiMail unit as an auxiliary RADIUS server, to which
it will send copies when its accounting records change.
2. Specify that it should send the Calling-Station-Id and Framed-IP-Address
attributes to the FortiMail unit.
The data type of the value of Calling-Station-Id may vary. For 3G subscribers, the
RADIUS server typically uses Calling-Station-Id to contain an MSISDN. For ADSL
subscribers, the RADIUS server typically uses to contain a login ID, such as an email
address.
3. Determine whether your RADIUS server sends the Framed-IP-Address attribute’s value in
network order (e.g. 192.168.1.10) or host order (e.g. 10.1.168.192).
4. Verify that routing and firewall policies permit RADIUS accounting records to reach the
FortiMail unit.
To enable the FortiMail unit to receive RADIUS records
1. Connect to the CLI.
This feature cannot be configured through the web UI. For instructions on how to connect to
the CLI, see “Connecting to the Web UI or CLI” on page 26.
2. Enter the following command to enable the FortiMail unit to receive RADIUS records by
starting the endpoint reputation daemon:
config antispam settings
set carrier-endpoint-status enable
end
3. Enter the following command to configure the RADIUS secret:
config antispam settings
set carrier-endpoint-acc-secret <secret_str>
end
where <secret_str> is the secret configured on the RADIUS server.
4. Enter the following command to configure whether to enable or disable the FortiMail unit to
validate RADIUS requests using the RADIUS secret:
config antispam settings
set carrier-endpoint-acc-validate <enable | disable>
end
where {enable | disable} indicates your choice.
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5. Enter the following command to configure whether or not the FortiMail unit will acknowledge
accounting records:
config antispam settings
set carrier-endpoint-acc-response {enable | disable}
end
where {enable | disable} indicates your choice.
6. Enter the following command to indicate that the RADIUS server will send the value of the
Framed-IP-Address attribute in network order:
config antispam settings
set carrier-endpoint-framed-ip-order {host-order | network-order}
end
where {host-order | network-order} indicates your choice. (Most RADIUS servers
use network order.)
Removing the network interfaces from the bridge
In transparent mode, by default, network interfaces are members of a Layer 2 bridge, and have
no IP addresses of their own. To connect to the web UI, administrators connect to any network
interface that is a member of the bridge, using the management IP.
In this deployment example, only port1 will remain a member of the bridge. Administrators will
directly connect their computer to that network interface in order to access the web UI or CLI.
The network interfaces through which SMTP traffic passes, port2 and port3, will have their own
IP addresses, and will not act as a Layer 2 bridge. As a result, the management IP will not be
accessible from port2 and port3. In addition, all administrative access protocols will be disabled
on port2 and port3 to prevent unauthorized administrative access attempts from the subscriber
and external networks.
Both port2 and port3 will be connected to the same router, and do not require additional static
routes.
To remove port2 and port3 from the bridge
1. Go to System > Network > Interface in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Double-click on port2 to edit it.
3. Select Do not associate with management IP.
The network interface will be removed from the bridge, and may be configured with its own
IP address.
4. In IP/Netmask, type the IP address and netmask of the network interface.
5. Next to Access, disable all administrative access protocols, including HTTPS, SSH, and
PING.
6. Next to Administrative status, select Up.
7. Select OK.
8. Repeat this procedure for port3.
Configuring the session profiles
When configuring the protected domain and session profiles, you can select transparency,
encryption, authentication, and antispam IP-based reputation settings that will be applied by an
IP-based policy.
In this deployment example, you configure two session profiles:
• a profile for connections from subscribers
• a profile for connections from SMTP clients on the external network
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FortiMail applies each profile in the IP-based policy that governs connections from either the
subsurface or external network.
In both profiles, TLS-encrypted connections are not allowed in order to prevent viruses from
entering or leaving the subscriber network, since encrypted connections cannot be scanned.
Authentication is required to prevent spammers from connecting to open relays. No protected
domains are configured, and so transparency will be configured through the session profiles
alone. This will hide the existence of the FortiMail unit to all SMTP clients.
Because subscribers use dynamic IP addresses, instead of sender reputation, endpoint
reputation is used in the subscribers’ session profile to score their trustworthiness. Endpoint
reputation scans use RADIUS accounting notices from your RADIUS server to map subscriber
end point identifiers or MSISDNs to their current IP address. Subscribers who have a reputation
for sending spam or viruses will be blocked, thereby reducing the risk that your public IP
addresses could be blocklisted by DNS block list (DNSBL) services.
Sender reputation, which functions best with static IP addresses and does not require a
RADIUS server, will be used in the external networks’ session profile to score SMTP clients on
external networks. This will help to prevent viruses and spam from reaching your subscribers.
To configure the session profile for connections from external SMTP clients
1. Go to Profile > Session in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Select New.
3. In Profile Name, type a name for the session profile, such as
external_session_profile.
4. Configure the following:
Connection Settings
Hide this box from the
mail server
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) and in the Received:
message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit.
Sender Reputation
Enable sender
reputation
Enable to accept or reject email based upon sender
reputation scores.
Throttle client at
Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail
unit will rate limit the number of email messages that can
be sent by this SMTP client.
The enforced rate limit is either Restrict number of email
per hour to n or Restrict email to n percent of the previous
hour, whichever value is greater.
Restrict number of
email per hour to
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Enter the maximum number of email messages per hour
that the FortiMail unit will accept from a throttled SMTP
client.
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Restrict email to n
Enter the maximum number of email messages per hour
percent of the previous that the FortiMail unit will accept from a throttled SMTP
hour
client, as a percentage of the number of email messages
that the SMTP client sent during the previous hour.
Temporarily fail client at Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail
unit will return a temporary failure error when the SMTP
client attempts to initiate a connection.
Reject client at
Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail
unit will return a permanent rejection error when the SMTP
client attempts to initiate a connection.
Session Settings
Prevent encryption of
the session
Enable to block STARTTLS/MD5 commands so that email
connections cannot be TLS-encrypted.
(transparent mode only)
Unauthenticated Session Settings
Prevent open relaying
(transparent mode only)
Enable to prevent clients from using open relays to send
email by blocking sessions that are unauthenticated.
(Unauthenticated sessions are assumed to be occurring to
an open relay.)
If you permit SMTP clients to use open relays to send
email, email from their domain could be blocklisted by
other SMTP servers.
5. Select Create.
To configure the session profile for connections from internal SMTP clients
1. Go to Profile > Session in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Select New.
3. In Profile Name, type a name for the session profile, such as
internal_session_profile.
4. Configure the following:
Connection Settings
Hide this box from the
mail server
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the
SMTP client in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) and in the Received:
message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit.
Do not let client connect Enable to prevent clients from connecting to SMTP servers
to blocklisted SMTP
that have been blocklisted in antispam profiles or, if
servers
enabled, the FortiGuard AntiSpam service.
(transparent mode only)
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Endpoint Reputation
Enable Endpoint
Reputation
Enable to accept, monitor, or reject email based upon
endpoint reputation scores.
This option is designed for use with SMTP clients with
dynamic IP addresses. It requires that your RADIUS server
provide mappings between dynamic IP addresses and
MSISDNs/subscriber IDs to the FortiMail unit.
Action
Select either:
• Reject: Reject email and MMS messages from
MSISDNs/subscriber IDs whose endpoint reputation
scores exceed Auto blocklist score trigger value.
• Monitor: Log, but do not reject, email and MMS
messages from MSISDNs/subscriber IDs whose
endpoint reputation scores exceed Auto blocklist score
trigger value. Log entries appear in the history log.
Auto blocklist score
trigger value
Enter the endpoint reputation score over which the
FortiMail unit will add the MSISDN/subscriber ID to the
automatic blocklist.
The trigger score is relative to the period of time configured
as the automatic blocklist window.
Auto blocklist duration
Enter the number of minutes that an MSISDN/subscriber ID
will be prevented from sending email or MMS messages
after they have been automatically blocklisted.
Session Settings
Prevent encryption of
the session
Enable to block STARTTLS/MD5 commands so that email
connections cannot be TLS-encrypted.
(transparent mode only)
Unauthenticated Session Settings
Prevent open relaying
(transparent mode only)
Enable to prevent clients from using open relays to send
email by blocking sessions that are unauthenticated.
(Unauthenticated sessions are assumed to be occurring to
an open relay.)
If you permit SMTP clients to use open relays to send
email, email from their domains could be blocklisted by
other SMTP servers.
Configuring the IP-based policies
Session profiles are applied to IP-based policies governing SMTP client connections.
In this deployment example, two IP-based policies are configured. The first policy governs
connections from the internal subscriber network. The second policy matches all other
connections that did not match the first policy, and will therefore govern connections from the
external network.
To configure the IP-based policy for connections from internal SMTP clients
1. Go to Policy > Policies > IP Policies in the advanced mode of the web UI.
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2. Select New.
3. In Source IP/Netmask, type the IP address and netmask of your subscriber network.
4. In Destination, type 0.0.0.0/0 to match all SMTP server IP addresses.
5. From Session, select internal_session_profile.
6. From AntiSpam, select the name of an antispam profile. When this profile detects spam, it
will affect the subscriber’s endpoint reputation score.
7. From AntiVirus, select the name of an antivirus profile. When this profile detects a virus, it will
affect the subscriber’s endpoint reputation score.
8. Select Create.
The internal network policy appears at the bottom of the list of IP-based policies. Policies
are evaluated in order until a policy is found that matches the connection.
Because the default IP-based policy (0.0.0.0/0 --> 0.0.0.0/0) matches all
connections, and because it is first in the list, in order for connections to be able to match
the new policy, you must move the new policy to an index number above the default policy.
To move a policy
1. Select the new IP policy and click Move.
A menu appears with four choices: Down, Up, after, Before.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select Up to move it one position in that direction and repeat the movement until the new
record is in the top position.
• Select Before. A dialog appears.
• In the field beside Move right before, enter 1.
• Click OK
Your new policy for internal SMTP clients should now appear above the default policy, in the
row whose index number is 1.
To configure the IP-based policy for connections from external SMTP clients
1. Go to Policy > Policies > IP Policies in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Select Edit for the default policy whose Match column contains
0.0.0.0/0 --> 0.0.0.0/0.
3. From Session, select external_session_profile.
4. From AntiSpam, select the name of an antispam profile. When this profile detects spam, it
will affect the SMTP client’s sender reputation score.
5. From AntiVirus, select the name of an antivirus profile. When this profile detects a virus, it will
affect the SMTP client’s sender reputation score.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the outgoing proxy
When operating in transparent mode, the FortiMail unit can use either transparent proxies or an
implicit relay to inspect SMTP connections. If connection pick-up is enabled for connections on
that network interface, the FortiMail unit can scan and process the connection. If not enabled,
the FortiMail unit can either block or permit the connection to pass through unmodified.
Exceptions to SMTP connections that can be proxied or relayed include SMTP connections
destined for the FortiMail unit itself. For those local connections, such as email messages from
email users requesting deletion or release of their quarantined email, you must choose to either
allow or block the connection.
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Proxy pick-up is configured separately for incoming and outgoing connections.
For information on determining directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing directionality” on
page 8.
In this deployment example, there are no protected domains; therefore, all connections are
outgoing. In addition, per-domain and per-recipient Bayesian databases and per-recipient
quarantines do not exist and, therefore, the FortiMail unit does not need to receive local SMTP
connections in order to train databases or delete or release a domain’s recipient’s quarantined
email.
The FortiMail unit must not expend resources to queue undeliverable email, nor reroute
connections, and therefore it must not implicitly use its built-in MTA. Instead, it must always use
its outgoing proxy by enabling Use client-specified SMTP server to send email under Mail
Settings > Proxies. Because port1 is used exclusively for administration, the outgoing proxy
must be configure to pick up outgoing connections only on port2 and port3.
To configure outgoing proxy pick-up
1. Go to Mail Settings > Proxies in the advanced mode of the web UI.
2. Enable Use client-specified SMTP server to send email.
3. Go to System > Network.
4. Edit SMTP proxy settings on both port 2 and port 3:
Port 2
Incoming connections
Drop
Outgoing connections
Proxy
Local connections
Disallow
Port 3
Incoming connections
Drop
Outgoing connections
Proxy
Local connections
Disallow
Configuring policy-based routes on the router
After you have configured the FortiMail settings, you must create policy routes on the router to
redirect the SMTP traffic (from and to the subscribers) to the FortiMail unit for scanning.
For example, you use a FortiGate unit as the router/firewall, you can go to Router > Policy Route
to create two routes: one for the external-to-subscribers SMTP traffic and one for the
subscribers-to-external SMTP traffic.
For details, see the FortiGate Handbook on http://docs.fortinet.com.
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Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Unlike other deployments, this deployment requires that SMTP clients be configured to use the
SMTP AUTH command, and not to use TLS. Before testing, you should verify that SMTP clients
that will connect for themselves through the FortiMail unit meet those requirements. If some
subscribers require TLS or do not use authentication, consider first making separate session
profiles and IP-based policies for those subscribers.
Server mode deployment
The following procedures and examples show you how to deploy the FortiMail unit in server
mode.
• Configuring DNS records
• Example 1: FortiMail unit behind a firewall
• Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of a firewall
• Example 3: FortiMail unit in DMZ
Configuring DNS records
You must configure public DNS records for the protected domains and for the FortiMail unit
itself.
If you are unfamiliar with configuring DNS and related MX and A records, first read “The role of
DNS in email delivery” on page 9.
For performance reasons, you may also want to provide a private DNS server for use exclusively
by the FortiMail unit.
This section includes the following:
• Configuring DNS records for protected domains
• Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
• Configuring a private DNS server
Configuring DNS records for protected domains
Regardless of your private network topology, in order for external MTAs to deliver email to the
FortiMail unit, you must configure the public MX record for each protected domain to indicate
that the FortiMail unit is its email server.
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For example, if the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail unit is
fortimail.example.com, and example.com is a protected domain, the MX record for
example.com would be:
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
If your FortiMail unit will operate in server mode, configure the MX record to refer to the
FortiMail unit, and remove other MX records. If you fail to do so, external MTAs may not be able
to deliver email to or through the FortiMail unit, or may be able to bypass the FortiMail unit by
using the other MX records. If you have configured secondary MX records for failover reasons,
consider configuring FortiMail high availability (HA) instead. For details, see “FortiMail high
availability modes” on page 24.
An A record must also exist to resolve the host name of the FortiMail unit into an IP address.
For example, if the MX record indicates that fortimail.example.com is the email gateway for a
domain, you must also configure an A record in the example.com zone file to resolve
fortimail.example.com into a public IP address:
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
where 10.10.10.1 is either the public IP address of the FortiMail unit, or a virtual IP address
on a firewall or router that maps to the private IP address of the FortiMail unit.
If your FortiMail unit will relay outgoing email, you should also configure the public reverse DNS
record. The public IP address of the FortiMail unit, or the virtual IP address on a firewall or router
that maps to the private IP address of the FortiMail unit, should be globally resolvable into the
FortiMail unit’s FQDN. If it is not, reverse DNS lookups by external SMTP servers will fail.
For example, if the public network IP address of the FortiMail unit is 10.10.10.1, a public DNS
server’s reverse DNS zone file for the 10.10.10.0/24 subnet might contain:
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.com.
where fortimail.example.com is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit.
Configuring DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself
In addition to that of protected domains, the FortiMail unit must be able to receive web
connections, and send and receive email, for its own domain name. Dependent features
include:
• delivery status notification (DSN) email
• spam reports
• email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantines
• FortiMail administrators’ access to the web UI by domain name
• alert email
• report generation notification email
For this reason, you should also configure public DNS records for the FortiMail unit itself.
Appropriate records vary by whether or not Web release host name/IP (located in AntiSpam >
Quarantine > Quarantine Report in the advanced mode of the web UI) is configured:
• Case 1: Web Release Host Name/IP is empty/default
• Case 2: Web Release Host Name/IP is configured
Case 1: Web release host name/IP is empty/default
If Web release host name/IP is not configured (the default), the web release/delete links that
appear in spam reports will use the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail unit.
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For example, if the FortiMail unit’s host name is fortimail, and its local domain name is
example.net, resulting in the FQDN fortimail.example.net, a spam report’s default web
release link might look like (FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://fortimail.example.net/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40examp
le.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM2N
TkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
In the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you would
configure the following three records:
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs; in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
administrators’ access to the web UI, email users’ access to their per-recipient quarantines,
to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record when email users send Bayesian and
quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit, and to resolve to the IP address of the FortiMail
unit for the purpose of the web release/delete hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Case 2: Web release host name/IP is configured
You could configure Web release host name/IP to use an alternative fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) such as webrelease.example.info instead of the configured FQDN, resulting in the
following web release link (web release FQDN highlighted in bold):
https://webrelease.example.info/releasecontrol?release=0%3Auser2%40exa
mple.com%3AMTIyMDUzOTQzOC43NDJfNjc0MzE1LkZvcnRpTWFpbC00MDAsI0YjUyM
2NTkjRSxVMzoyLA%3D%3D%3Abf3db63dab53a291ab53a291ab53a291
Then, in the DNS configuration to support this and the other DNS-dependent features, you
would configure the following MX record, A records, and PTR record (unlike “Case 1: Web
Release Host Name/IP is empty/default” on page 53, in this case, two A records are required;
the difference is highlighted in bold):
example.net IN MX 10 fortimail.example.net
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
webrelease IN A 10.10.10.1
1 IN PTR fortimail.example.net.
where:
• example.net is the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs in the MX
record, it is the local domain for which the FortiMail is the mail gateway
• fortimail.example.net is the FQDN of the FortiMail unit
• fortimail is the host name of the FortiMail unit; in the A record of the zone file for
example.net, it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of
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administrators’ access to the web UI and to resolve the FQDN referenced in the MX record
when email users send Bayesian and quarantine control email to the FortiMail unit
• webrelease is the web release host name; in the A record of the zone file for example.info,
it resolves to the IP address of the FortiMail unit for the purpose of the web release/delete
hyperlinks in the spam report
• 10.10.10.1 is the public IP address of the FortiMail unit
Configuring a private DNS server
In addition to the public DNS server, consider providing a private DNS server on your local
network to improve performance with features that use DNS queries.
Figure 15:Public and private DNS servers (server mode)
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
wan1
Virtual IP 10.10.10.1:25
dmz
192.168.1.1 mapped to 192.168.1.5:25
Private DNS Server
Internet
port1
192.168.1.5
Public DNS Server
Server Mode
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
Email Domain:
example.com
If the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode, the private DNS server should contain identical
records to a public DNS server.
If you choose to add a private DNS server, to configure the FortiMail unit to use it, go to System
> Network > DNS in the advanced mode of the web UI.
Example 1: FortiMail unit behind a firewall
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in server mode and email users’ computers are both
positioned within a private network, behind a firewall. Remote email users’ computers and
external email servers are located on the Internet, outside of the network protected by the
firewall. The FortiMail unit hosts and protects accounts for email addresses ending in
“@example.com”.
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Figure 16:Server mode deployment behind a NAT device
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
Switch
wan1
10.10.10.1
internal
172.16.1.1
Internet
port1
172.16.1.5
DNS Server
Email Domain:
example.com
example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
To deploy the FortiMail unit behind a NAT device such as a firewall or router, you must complete
the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the email user accounts
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 100.
Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit behind a FortiGate unit, you must configure policies to allow traffic:
• from the Internet to the FortiMail unit
• from the FortiMail unit to the Internet
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall address
• Configuring the service groups
• Configuring the virtual IPs
• Configuring the firewall policies
The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a
different firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar
configurations.
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Configuring the firewall address
In order to create the outgoing firewall policy that governs the IP address of the FortiMail unit,
you must first define the IP address of the FortiMail unit by creating a firewall address entry.
To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.16.1.5.
Interface
Select internal.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the service groups
In order to create firewall policies that govern only FortiMail-related traffic, you must first create
groups of services that define protocols and port numbers used in that traffic.
Because FortiGuard-related services for FortiMail units are not predefined, you must define
them before you can create a service group that contains those services.
For more information on protocols and port numbers used by FortiMail units, see the Fortinet
Knowledge Center article FortiMail Traffic Types and TCP/UDP Ports.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service
entry, such as
FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
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Low
Enter 9443.
High
Enter 9443.
5. Select OK.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antispam rating queries
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service
entry, such as
FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
Low
Enter 8889.
High
Enter 8889.
5. Select OK.
To add a service group for incoming FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_incoming_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, and your custom
service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates, FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates, then select
the right arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for outgoing FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_outgoing_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select DNS, NTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antispam rating queries, FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
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Configuring the virtual IPs
In order to create the firewall policy that forwards email-related traffic to the FortiMail unit, you
must first define a static NAT mapping from a public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP
address of the FortiMail unit by creating a virtual IP entry.
To add virtual IPs, the FortiGate unit must be operating in NAT mode. For more information, see
the FortiGate Administration Guide.
To add a virtual IP for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as FortiMail_VIP.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 172.16.1.5.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the firewall policies
First, create a firewall policy that allows incoming email and other FortiMail services that are
received at the virtual IP address, then applies a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the
private network IP address of the FortiMail unit.
Second, create a firewall policy that allows outgoing email and other connections from the
FortiMail unit to the Internet.
To add the Internet-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
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Destination
Interface/zone
Select internal.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_VIP.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_incoming_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select OK.
To add the FortiMail-to-Internet policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select all.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_outgoing_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the email user accounts
Create email user accounts for each protected domain on the FortiMail unit.
You may choose to create additional email user accounts later, but you should create at least
one email user account for each protected domain that you can use in order to verify
connectivity for the domain.
To add an email user
1. Go to User > User > User in the advanced mode of the web UI. (The User tab appears only
when FortiMail operates in server mode.)
2. From the Domain list, select example.com.
3. Either select New to add an email user, or double-click an email user you want to modify.
A dialog appears.
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4. In User name, enter the user name portion, such as user1, of the email address that will be
locally deliverable on the FortiMail unit (user1@example.com).
5. Select Password, then enter the password for this email account.
6. In Display Name, enter the name of the user as it should appear in a MUA, such as "Test
User 1".
7. Select Create for a new user or OK for an existing user.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail server (SMTP)/MTA. For local email users, this is the private network IP address of
the FortiMail unit, 172.16.1.5; for remote email users, this is the virtual IP on the FortiGate unit
that maps to the FortiMail unit, 10.10.10.1 or fortimail.example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
can be scanned, but outgoing email cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 2: FortiMail unit in front of a firewall
In this example, a FortiMail unit operating in server mode within a private network, but is
separated from local email users’ computers by a firewall. Remote email users’ computers and
external email servers are located on the Internet, outside of the private network. The FortiMail
unit hosts and protects accounts for email addresses ending in “@example.com”.
Figure 17:Server mode deployment in front of a NAT device
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
wan1
10.10.10.1
Switch
Internet
Router
port1
10.10.10.5
DNS Server
Email Domain:
example.com
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example.com IN M 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.5
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
To deploy the FortiMail unit in front of a NAT device such as a firewall or router, you must
complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the email user accounts
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 100.
Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit in front of a FortiGate unit which is between the FortiMail unit and local
email users, you must configure a policy to allow from local email users to the FortiMail unit.
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall addresses
• Configuring the service group
• Configuring the firewall policy
The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a
different firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar
configurations.
Configuring the firewall addresses
In order to create the outgoing firewall policy that governs traffic from the IP addresses of local
email users to the IP address of the FortiMail unit, you must first define the IP addresses of the
local email users and the FortiMail unit by creating firewall address entries.
To add a firewall address for local email users
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
local_email_users_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.16.1.0/24.
Interface
Select internal.
5. Select OK.
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To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 10.10.10.5/32.
Interface
Select wan1.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the service group
In order to create a firewall policy that governs only FortiMail-related traffic, you must first a
create service group that contains services that define protocols and port numbers used in that
traffic.
To add a service group for email user traffic to the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
local_email_users_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, and IMAP, then select the
right arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the firewall policy
Create a firewall policy that allows outgoing email and other FortiMail connections from the local
email users to the FortiMail unit.
To add the internal-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Setting up the system
Source
Interface/zone
Select internal.
Source Address
Name
Select local_email_users_address.
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Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination
Address Name
Select FortiMail_address.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select local_email_users_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
Configuring the email user accounts
Create email user accounts for each protected domain on the FortiMail unit.
You may choose to create additional email user accounts later, but you should create at least
one email user account for each protected domain in order to verify connectivity for the domain.
To add an email user
1. Go to User > User > User in the advanced mode of the web UI. (The User tab appears only
when FortiMail operates in server mode.)
2. From the Domain list, select example.com.
3. Either select New to add an email user, or double-click an email user you want to modify.
A dialog appears.
4. In User Name, enter the user name portion, such as user1, of the email address that will be
locally deliverable on the FortiMail unit (user1@example.com).
5. Select Password, then enter the password for this email account.
6. In Display Name, enter the name of the user as it should appear in a MUA, such as "Test
User 1".
7. Select Create for a new user or OK for an existing user.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail server (SMTP)/MTA. For local email users, this is the virtual IP address on the
FortiGate unit that maps to the FortiMail unit, 172.16.1.2; for remote email users, this is the
public IP address of the FortiMail unit, 10.10.10.5 or fortimail.example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
can be scanned, but outgoing email cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
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Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Example 3: FortiMail unit in DMZ
In this example, a FortiMail unit operates in server mode within the demilitarized zone (DMZ). It
is protected by a firewall but also separated from local email users’ computers by it. Remote
email users’ computers and external email servers are located on the Internet, outside of the
private network. The FortiMail unit hosts and protects accounts for email addresses ending in
“@example.com”.
Figure 18:Server mode deployment in a DMZ
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
wan1
Vitual IP 10.10.10.1:25
dmz
192.168.1.1mapped to 192.168.1.5:25
Internet
port1
192.168.1.5
Private DNS Server
Public DNS Server
Server Mode
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail IN A 10.10.10.1
Email Domain:
@example.com
To deploy the FortiMail unit in the DMZ of a NAT device such as a firewall or router, you must
complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall
• Configuring the email user accounts
• Configuring the MUAs
• Testing the installation
This example assumes you have already completed the Quick Start Wizard and configured
records on the DNS server for each protected domain. For details, see “Running the Quick Start
Wizard” on page 35 and “Configuring DNS records” on page 100.
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Configuring the firewall
With the FortiMail unit located in the DMZ of a FortiGate unit which is between the FortiMail unit
and local email users, you must configure policies to allow traffic:
• from local email users to the FortiMail unit
• from the FortiMail unit to the Internet
• from the Internet to the FortiMail unit
To create the required policies, complete the following:
• Configuring the firewall addresses
• Configuring the service groups
• Configuring the virtual IPs
• Configuring the firewall policies
Note: The following procedures use a FortiGate unit running FortiOS v3.0 MR7. If you are using a different
firewall appliance, consult the appliance’s documentation for completing similar configurations.
Configuring the firewall addresses
In order to create the firewall policies that govern traffic to and from the IP addresses of local
email users and the IP address of the FortiMail unit, you must first define the IP addresses of the
local email users and the IP address of the FortiMail unit by creating firewall address entries.
To add a firewall address for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
FortiMail_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 192.168.1.5.
Interface
Select dmz.
5. Select OK.
To add a firewall address for local email users
1. Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
2. Select Create New.
3. Complete the following:
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Name
Enter a name to identify the firewall address entry, such as
local_email_users_address.
Type
Select Subnet/IP Range.
Subnet /IP Range
Enter 172.168.1.0/24.
Interface
Select internal.
4. Select OK.
Configuring the service groups
In order to create firewall policies that govern only FortiMail-related traffic, you must first create
groups of services that define protocols and port numbers used in that traffic.
Because FortiGuard-related services for FortiMail units are not predefined, you must define
them before you can create a service group that contains those services.
For more information on protocols and port numbers used by FortiMail units, see the Fortinet
Knowledge Center article FortiMail Traffic Types and TCP/UDP Ports.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination
Port
Low
Enter 9443.
High
Enter 9443.
5. Select OK.
To add a custom service for FortiGuard Antispam rating queries
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
3. Select Create New.
4. Configure the following:
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Name
Enter a name to identify the custom service entry, such as
FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries.
Protocol Type
Select TCP/UDP.
Protocol
Select UDP.
Destination Port
Low
Enter 8889.
High
Enter 8889.
5. Select OK.
To add a service group for incoming FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_incoming_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, and your custom
service for FortiGuard Antivirus push updates, FortiMail_antivirus_push_updates, then select
the right arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for outgoing FortiMail traffic
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
FortiMail_outgoing_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select DNS, NTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and your custom service for
FortiGuard Antispam rating queries, FortiMail_antispam_rating_queries, then select the right
arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
To add a service group for email user traffic to the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
3. Select Create New.
4. In Group Name, enter a name to identify the service group entry, such as
local_email_users_services.
5. In the Available Services area, select HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, and IMAP, then select the
right arrow to move them to the Members area.
6. Select OK.
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Configuring the virtual IPs
In order to create the firewall policies that forward email-related traffic to the FortiMail unit from
the internal network and from the Internet, you must first define two static NAT mappings:
• from a public IP address on the FortiGate unit to the IP address of the FortiMail unit
• from a virtual IP address on the 172.16.1.* network to the IP address of the FortiMail unit
by creating a virtual IP entries.
To add a wan1 virtual IP for the FortiMail unit
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Virtual IP > Virtual IP.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Name
Enter a name to identify the virtual IP entry,
such as FortiMail_VIP_wan1.
External Interface
Select wan1.
Type
Select Static NAT.
External IP
Address/Range
Enter 10.10.10.1.
Mapped IP
Address/Range
Enter 192.168.1.5.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the firewall policies
First, create a firewall policy that allows incoming email and other FortiMail services that are
received at the virtual IP address, then applies a static NAT when forwarding the traffic to the
private network IP address of the FortiMail unit.
Second, create a firewall policy that allows outgoing email and other FortiMail connections from
the FortiMail unit to the Internet.
Last, create a firewall policy that allows outgoing email and other FortiMail connections from the
local email users to the FortiMail unit.
To add the Internet-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select wan1.
Source Address Name Select all.
Destination
Interface/zone
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Select dmz.
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Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_VIP_wan1.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_incoming_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select OK.
To add the FortiMail-to-Internet policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select dmz.
Source Address Name Select FortiMail_address.
Destination
Interface/zone
Select wan1.
Destination Address
Name
Select all.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
Service
Select FortiMail_outgoing_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select NAT.
6. Select OK.
To add the internal-to-FortiMail policy
1. Access FortiGate.
2. Go to Firewall > Policy > Policy.
3. Select Create New.
4. Complete the following:
Source Interface/zone Select internal.
Source Address Name Select local_email_users_address.
Setting up the system
Destination
Interface/zone
Select dmz.
Destination Address
Name
Select FortiMail_address.
Schedule
Select ALWAYS.
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Service
Select local_email_users_services.
Action
Select ACCEPT.
5. Select OK.
Configuring the email user accounts
Create email user accounts for each protected domain on the FortiMail unit.
You may choose to create additional email user accounts later, but you should create at least
one email user account for each protected domain in order to verify connectivity for the domain.
To add an email user
1. Go to User > User > User in the advanced mode of the web UI. (The User tab appears only
when FortiMail operates in server mode.)
2. From the Domain list, select example.com.
3. Either select New to add an email user, or double-click an email user you want to modify.
A dialog appears.
4. In User Name, enter the user name portion, such as user1, of the email address that will be
locally deliverable on the FortiMail unit (user1@example.com).
5. Select Password, then enter the password for this email account.
6. In Display Name, enter the name of the user as it should appear in a MUA, such as "Test
User 1".
7. Select Create for a new user or OK for an existing user.
Configuring the MUAs
Configure the email clients of local and remote email users to use the FortiMail unit as their
outgoing mail server (SMTP)/MTA. For local email users, this is the FortiMail address,
192.168.1.5; for remote email users, this is the virtual IP address on the wan1 network interface
of the FortiGate unit that maps to the FortiMail unit, 10.10.10.1 or fortimail.example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to send email through the FortiMail unit, incoming email
can be scanned, but outgoing email cannot.
Also configure email clients to authenticate with the email user’s user name and password for
outgoing mail. The user name is the email user’s entire email address, including the domain
name portion, such as user1@example.com.
If you do not configure the email clients to authenticate, email destined for other email users in
the protected domain may be accepted, but email outgoing to unprotected domains will be
denied by the access control rule.
Testing the installation
Basic configuration is now complete, and the installation may be tested. For testing
instructions, see “Testing the installation” on page 156.
Initial configuration in basic mode
FortiMail Web UI has two configuration mode: Basic mode and Advanced mode. This section
describes how to use the FortiMail unit’s web UI in basic configuration mode to adjust or
enhance your FortiMail configuration or to examine email information. Basic mode offers fewer
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menu selections than advanced mode but basic mode’s simplicity can make it easier for a new
administrator to get started.
This section assumes you have already configured your FortiMail unit using the Quick Start
Wizard and have set up the correct deployment for your operation mode.
To access the web UI, enter its URL in a supported browser. See “Connecting to the Web UI or
CLI” on page 26.
If you see Monitor instead of Management at the top of the web UI’s left-hand menu, it means
the web UI is in advanced mode. Click Basic on the top button bar to switch modes.
If there is no Basic button, it means your administrator access profile lacks permission to use that mode.
Log on as the “admin” administrator instead.
Click the Help button on the web UI at any time to get information on currently displayed
features.
This section includes:
• Managing mail queues and quarantines
• Configuring basic system and mail settings
• Configuring logs, reports and email alerts
Managing mail queues and quarantines
The Management menu provides information on your FortiMail system including its overall
health and resource usage, mail statistics, email queues, and quarantine lists.
Viewing system status and statistics
The dashboard always appears when you first start the web UI. To access it otherwise, go to
Management > System Status > Status.
The dashboard displays information in specialized widgets. The widgets provide system
information (such as the operation mode and firmware version) and the state of system
resources, plus statistics on spam and virus detection. Take time to review the dashboard for
obvious problems.
Buttons on the top-right side of each widget’s title bar let you expand/collapse it, refresh its
contents, or close it. To open a closed widget, select it from the Add Content list.
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Figure 19:Basic mode dashboard
You can change a widget’s position. Select its title bar and drag it to the new position. Other
widgets adjust their position automatically to accommodate the change.
Viewing mail statistics
Go to Management > System Status > Mail Statistics to view antispam history in a variety of
time slices--everything from by the minute to by the year. Click any down-arrow on the top-right
of a report’s title bar to open the report.
Viewing and managing mail queues
The Mail Queue menu item provides management access to the FortiMail unit’s two email
queues and the queue maintenance tools.
Managing delayed mail
Go to Management > Mail Queue > Mail Queue to see a list of undelivered email (called either
delayed mail or deferred mail), if any exists. Email deliver may be delayed for a variety of
reasons, such as network or server problems. FortiMail will periodically try to resend the mail in
this queue. You can manually resend or delete delayed mail.
After a set period of time in this queue, email moves to the dead mail queue. (See “Managing
dead mail” on page 122.) You can configure how long a message is held before it becomes
dead. See “Configuring mail servers” on page 136.
Figure 20:Mail queue display
You can manage delayed mail, modify the queue’s display and search for specific messages.
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The Mail Queue tab provides the following mail management features:
• To view a mail message, select it and click View, or double-click the message.
• To remove one or more mail messages from the queue, select their check boxes and click
Delete.
• To manually retry delivery of one or more mail message, select their check boxes and click
Resend.
Besides the common display features, the Mail Queue tab provides these additional features:
• The mail queue contains several different queue types (incoming, outgoing, slow, etc.). To
pick the queue to view, select it from the Type drop-down list.
• Search for a specific message in the current queue:
Managing dead mail
Go to Management > Mail Queue > Dead Mail to see a list of dead email messages. These are
messages that could not be sent successfully within a set period, usually because the recipient
address is invalid. The list also contains any related delivery status notification (DSN) messages.
Figure 21:Dead mail queue display
The Dead Mail Queue tab provides the following mail management features:
• To view a mail message, select it and click View, or double-click the message.
• To remove one or more messages from the queue, select their check boxes and click Delete.
Backing up and restoring mail queues
Go to Management > Mail Queue > Mail Queue Maintenance to backup or restore your mail.
• Click Backup queue to save the queue file on your management computer.
• Click Restore queue to reload a queue file from your management computer.
Viewing and managing quarantine lists
The Quarantine menu item provides management access to the FortiMail unit’s two quarantine
tabs: one for personal quarantines and another for system quarantines.
FortiMail can quarantine email messages if the email is spam or it contains a prohibited word or
phrase. (Prohibited words are set in advanced mode by going to Profile > Content > Content
and creating a content profile.) Quarantined messages are kept in folders.
The FortiMail unit directs messages to quarantine only if this feature is enabled for incoming
email. You can set whether the quarantined mail goes to the personal quarantine list or the
system quarantine list. See “Configuring incoming actions” on page 144.
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Managing the personal quarantine list
Go to Management > Quarantine > Personal Quarantine to see a list of recipient folders that
contain quarantined messages per user. FortiMail periodically sends quarantine reports to notify
recipients or their designated group owner that some of their messages were added to the
quarantine folder.
When user access is enabled, recipients can review the quarantine list and release their
messages that are false positives.
Figure 22:Personal quarantine list
The Personal Quarantine tab provides the following features to manage specific items in the
quarantine list:
• To remove one or more quarantine folders from the list, select their check boxes and click
Delete.
Caution: Per-recipient quarantine folders contain both the email user’s recipient quarantined
messages plus the email user’s preferences, and personal safe and block lists. Deleting a
quarantine folder will also delete that personal data. To avoid this, delete email inside the
quarantine folder, but not the quarantine folder itself. See “To view and manage quarantine
folders”.
• To compact one or more quarantine folders, select their check boxes and click Compact.
This reduces the disk space used to store the folder.
• Send a quarantine report to one or more users to tell them about their quarantined
messages. See “To send a quarantine report”.
• View and manage any quarantined message. See “To view and manage quarantine folders”.
To send a quarantine report
1. Select how many users will get the report. Either:
• limit the report to specific users by selecting the check boxes of applicable quarantine
folders
• include all users by selecting the Mailbox check box at the top of the list
2. Click Send quarantine report to and select either All users or Selected users from the list.
A dialog appears.
3. Enter the number of previous hours’ worth of quarantined message to include in the report.
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4. Click OK.
The report is sent.
To view and manage quarantine folders
1. Double-click a folder in the quarantine list.
A new list appears showing all quarantined messages in that folder.
Figure 23:Quarantine management list
2. To manage a message, do one or more of the following:
• To view the message, select it and click View.
• To remove the message, select it and click Delete.
• To release the message from quarantine, select it and click Release.
3. To return to the Personal Quarantine tab, click Back.
Besides the common display features, the Personal Quarantine tab provides these additional
features:
• Use the Domain drop-down list to select a different domain to examine for per-recipient
quarantined messages.
• The Personal Quarantine tab provides two ways to search quarantine folders:
To search the current quarantine list
1. Enter the user name in the Search user field. The name can include wild cards.
2. Click Search user.
The display now shows just the user or users that match the search criteria.
3. To return to the original full list, clear the field and click Search user.
To create a customized quarantine search
1. Click Search on the top row.
A new tab appears.
Figure 24:Personal Quarantine Search tab
2. Select the tab. The search form appears if no customized search exists; otherwise, select
New to create a new search task.
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Figure 25:Personal quarantine search form
3. Configure one or more of the following search criteria.
From
Enter the email address of the sender.
To
Enter the email address of the recipient.
Cc
Enter the carbon copy email addresses.
Subject
Enter the subject line.
Text
Enter text that appears on the message body.
Time
Select the range of time of email messages that you want to include in the
search results.
User
Enter the user name portion (also known as the local-part) of recipient email
addresses whose quarantine folders you want to search.
Domain
To select which protected domains’ per-recipient quarantines will be searched,
in the text area on the left, select the names of one or more protected
domains, then click the right arrow to move them into the text area on the
right.
You must select at least one protected domain to search.
Email messages must match all criteria that you configure in order to be included in the
search results. For example, if you configure From and Subject, only email messages
matching both From and Subject will be included in the search results. Leave fields you do
not need blank.
4. Click Create to execute and save the search task.
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5. The new search task appears on the Personal Quarantine Search tab. The task name is the
time the task was created. The right column shows the status of the search as follows:
• Done: FortiMail has finished the search.
• Pending: The search task is in the waiting list.
• Running: The search task is still running. You can choose to stop the task by clicking the
Stop button.
• Stopped: The search task is stopped. You can choose to resume the task by clicking the
Resume button.
6. To view the results of any completed search task, select it on the Personal Quarantine
Search tab and click View Search Result. It appears on the Search Summary tab.
Managing the system quarantine list
Go to Management > Quarantine > System Quarantine to view system-wide quarantined
messages.
You direct messages to the system quarantine for review. (See “Configuring incoming actions”
on page 144 for details.) They can be viewed only by administrators. In contrast, quarantined
messages on the personal quarantine list can be viewed by the owner of the related mailbox.
The System Quarantine tab provides the following features to manage the list:
• To remove one ore more quarantine folders from the list, select their check boxes and click
Delete.
• To compact one or more quarantine folders, select their check boxes and click Compact.
This reduces the disk space used to store the folder.
• View and manage a quarantine folder:
To view and manage a quarantined message
1. Double-click the quarantine folder in the quarantine list.
A new list appears showing all quarantined messages in the folder.
2. To manage a message, do one or more of the following:
• To view the message, select it and click View.
• To remove the message, select it and click Delete.
• To release the message from quarantine, select it and click Release.
• Click Search to search the current system quarantine folder. (The search form is similar to
the one provided for personal quarantine searches but with fewer fields. See “To create a
customized quarantine search” on page 124.)
3. To return to the System Quarantine tab, click Back.
Configuring basic system and mail settings
The Settings menu lets you view, edit and modify many settings you made using the Quick Start
Wizard. Further, it contains configuration options not found on the wizard.
Changing time settings and managing administrators
The Configuration menu item contains two tabs. One lets you change system time. The other
lets you create and edit administrator accounts.
Configuring time
You can change the time options you made with the wizard. Go to
Settings > Configuration > Time.
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Figure 26:Time settings dialog
This tab contains the same time options as the equivalent page in the wizard. You can change
the time zone, refresh the system time, set a specific date, or synchronize with an NTP server.
See “Step 2: Configuring the network settings and system time” on page 36 for details.
Configuring administrators
You can create and edit administrator accounts.
You cannot modify or delete the default administrator, admin.
To create a new administrator
1. Go to Settings > Configuration > Administrator.
This tab lets you create new administrators and assign them an access profile. The access
profile sets the administrators scope (domain-wide or system-wide) and permissions.
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Figure 27:Administrator tab
2. Click New to begin creating a new administrator.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following:
Administrator
Enter the name for this administrator account.
Domain
Select the entire FortiMail unit (System) or name of a protected domain,
such as example.com,to which this administrator account will be
assigned.
Note: If Domain names a protected domain (that is, System was not
selected), the administrator cannot use the CLI, nor basic mode of the
web UI.
Password
Confirm
password
For a new administrator, enter this account’s password twice.
The password can contain any character except spaces.
These fields do not appear if Auth type is not Local or RADIUS+Local.
Caution: Do not enter a FortiMail administrator password less than six
characters long. For better security, enter a longer password with a
complex combination of characters and numbers, and change the
password regularly. Failure to provide a strong password could
compromise the security of your FortiMail unit.
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Trusted Host #1 Enter an IP address or subnet from which this administrator can log in.
This is optional.
If you want the administrator to access the FortiMail unit from any IP
address, leave the default 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.
To limit access to a trusted host, enter the IP address and netmask in
dotted decimal format. For example, you might permit the administrator
to log in to the FortiMail unit from your private network by typing
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
Note: For additional security, restrict all trusted host entries to
administrative hosts on your trusted private network. For example, if
your FortiMail administrators log in only from the 10.10.10.10/26 subnet,
to prevent possibly fraudulent login attempts from unauthorized
locations, you could configure that subnet in the Trusted Host #1,
Trusted Host #2, and Trusted Host #3 fields.
Trusted Host #2 Enter an IP address or subnet from which this administrator can log in.
Trusted Host #3 Enter an IP address or subnet from which this administrator can log in.
Access profile
Select an existing access profile that determines which functional areas
the administrator account may view or affect. You can create and edit
profiles only in advanced mode.
Management
mode
Select which display mode, Basic or Advanced, the web UI will initially
display when this administrator logs in.
The administrator can switch the mode at any time.
Auth type
Select the local or remote type of authentication that the administrator
can use:
• Local
• RADIUS
• RADIUS+Local
• PKI
Note: RADIUS and PKI authentication require that you first configure a
RADIUS authentication profile or PKI user in advanced mode of the web
UI.
Select language Select this administrator account’s preference for the display language
of the web UI.
Select theme
Select which theme the web UI will initially display when this
administrator logs in.
The administrator can switch the theme at any time.
4. Click Create.
On this tab your can also:
• select an administrator and click Edit to change settings
• select an administrator and click Delete to remove it
You cannot modify or delete the default administrator.
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Configuring network settings
The Network menu item lets you configure or change settings for network interfaces (ports), set
or change the default gateway, and review and edit DNS settings. It is here that you can change
the IP address of the URL that you enter in a browser to access the web UI.
Configuring interfaces
The Interface tab displays the FortiMail unit’s four ports, which you can configure for various
purposes. Port1 is usually the interface used to access the FortiMail unit’s web UI.
To configure a port interface
1. Go to Settings > Network > Interface.
Figure 28:Interface tab
The table shows the available ports, with their IP/netmask, assigned access protocols and
up/down status.
2. To configure any port, do one of the following:
• select the port in the table and click Edit
• double-click a port
One of the following dialogs appears.
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Figure 29:Network interface for gateway and server mode
Figure 30: Network interface for transparent mode
3. Configure the following:
Addressing mode
Options in this area apply to gateway and server mode only.
Manual
Select to enter a static IP address, then enter the IP address and
netmask for the network interface in IP/Netmask.
DHCP
Select to retrieve a dynamic IP address using DHCP.
Retrieve default Enable to retrieve both the default gateway and DNS addresses
gateway and
from the DHCP server, replacing any manually configured values.
DNS from
Only available if DHCP is selected.
server
Connect to
server
Enable for the FortiMail unit to attempt to obtain DNS addressing
information from the DHCP server. Only available if DHCP is
selected.
Disable this option if you are configuring the network interface
offline, and do not want the unit to attempt to obtain addressing
information at this time.
The following options apply to all modes.
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IP/Netmask
Enter the IP address and netmask for the network interface. Only
available if Manual is selected.
Access
Enable protocols that this network interface should accept for
connections to the FortiMail unit itself. (These options do not
affect connections that will travel through the FortiMail unit.)
Caution: For security reasons, limit the access protocols to just a
few secure forms for the port used for administrative access.
Telnet connections are not secure, and can be intercepted by a
third party. If possible, enable this option only for network
interfaces connected to a trusted private network, or directly to
your management computer.
MTU
Override default
MTU value (1500).
Enable to change the maximum transmission unit (MTU) value,
then enter the maximum packet or Ethernet frame size in bytes.
If network devices between the FortiMail unit and its traffic
destinations require smaller or larger units of traffic, packets may
require additional processing at each node in the network to
fragment or defragment the units, resulting in reduced network
performance. Adjusting the MTU to match your network can
improve network performance.
The default value is 1500 bytes. The MTU size must be between
576 and 1500 bytes.
Administrative status
Select either:
• Up: Enable (that is, bring up) the network interface so that it
can send and receive traffic.
• Down: Disable (that is, bring down) the network interface so
that it cannot send or receive traffic.
4. Click OK.
Configuring routing settings
The Routing tab displays a list of routes. You can configure static routes and gateways used by
the FortiMail unit.
Static routes direct traffic exiting the FortiMail unit -- you can specify through which network
interface a packet will leave, and the IP address of a next-hop router that is reachable from that
network interface. The router is aware of which IP addresses are reachable through various
network pathways, and can forward those packets along pathways capable of reaching the
packets’ ultimate destinations.
A default route is a special type of static route. A default route matches all packets, and defines
a gateway router that can receive and route packets if no other, more specific static route is
defined for the packet’s destination IP address.
You should configure at least one static route, a default route, that points to your gateway.
However, you may configure multiple static routes if you have multiple gateway routers, each of
which should receive packets destined for a different subset of IP addresses.
To edit a routing entry
1. Go to Settings > Network > Routing.
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Figure 31:Routing tab
2. To configure an entry, do one of the following:
• select New for a new route
• select a route in the table and click Edit
• double-click a route to edit it
The following dialog appears.
Figure 32:Routing edit and create dialog
3. Configure the following:
Destination
IP/netmask
Enter the destination IP address and netmask of packets that will be subject
to this static route.
To create a default route that will match all packets, enter
0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.
Gateway
Type the IP address of the next-hop router to which the FortiMail unit will
forward packets subject to this static route. This router must know how to
route packets to the destination IP addresses that you have specified in
Destination IP/netmask. For an Internet connection, the next hop routing
gateway routes traffic to the Internet.
4. Click Create or OK.
Configuring DNS settings
The DNS tab enables you to configure the primary and secondary DNS servers that the
FortiMail unit will query to resolve domain names into IP addresses.
If you deployed the FortiMail unit for your chosen mode (gateway, server, or transparent), as
described in earlier chapters, do not change these settings unless your earlier deployment
settings are incorrect.
To edit a DNS entry
1. Go to Settings > Network > DNS.
Figure 33:DNS settings
2. Change one or both of the DNS entries, as required.
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3. Click Apply.
Configuring domains and mail servers
The Domains menu item lets you add and edit protected domain settings, and their related mail
server settings.
Configuring protected domains
The Domains tab displays the domains you created using the Quick Start Wizard. You can add,
edit or delete domains using this tab’s features.
To configure a domain
1. Go to Settings > Domains > Domains.
Figure 34:Domain tab showing a domain with associated domains
2. Either click New for a new domain, or select a domain and click Edit.
• For a FortiMail unit in server mode, a dialog with a single field appears where you enter a
fully qualified domain name.
• For a FortiMail unit in gateway or transparent mode, the following dialog appears.
Figure 35:New domain dialog for gateway and transparent modes
Configure the following:
The first option applies to all modes.
Domain name
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the protected domain,
such as example.com.
The following options apply to transparent and gateway modes.
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Relay type
Select one of the following to define which SMTP server will receive
email from the FortiMail unit that is destined for the protected domain:
• Host: Configure the connection to one protected SMTP server or a
fallback. Also configure SMTP server and Fallback SMTP server.
• MX Record (this domain): Query the DNS server’s MX record of
the protected domain name for the FQDN or IP address of the
SMTP server. If there are multiple MX records, the FortiMail unit will
load balance between them.
Note: For am MX record, you may also need to configure the FortiMail
unit to use a private DNS server whose MX and/or A records differ
from that of a public DNS server. Requirements vary by the topology of
your network and by the operating mode of the FortiMail unit.
See the applicable deployment chapter in this guide for your mode.
SMTP server
Fallback SMTP
server
For both servers, enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN)or IP
address of the primary SMTP server for this protected domain, then
also configure Port and Use SMTPS.
If you have an internal mail relay that is located on a physically
separate server from your internal mail server, this could be your
internal mail relay, instead of your internal mail server. Consider your
network topology, directionality of the mail flow, and the operation
mode of the FortiMail unit. For more information, see “Incoming versus
outgoing directionality” on page 8.
This field appears only if Relay type is Host.
Port
For both servers, enter the port number on which the SMTP server
listens.
If you enable Use SMTPS, Port automatically changes to the default
port number for SMTPS, but can still be customized.
The default SMTP port number is 25; the default SMTPS port number
is 465.
This field appears only if Relay type is Host.
Use SMTPS
For both servers, enable to use SMTPS for connections originating
from or destined for this protected server.
This field appears only if Relay type is Host.
Domain
Association
To expand this area, click the down-arrow beside the title.
Associated domains use the settings of the protected domain with
which they are associated, and do not have separate protected
domain settings of their own.
To add an association:
1 Enter a domain name in the text field at the bottom of the display area.
2 Click Create.
The domain name appears in the Members area.
3. Click Create or OK.
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Configuring mail servers
The Mail Server Settings tab lets you configure assorted settings that apply to the SMTP server
and webmail server that are built into the FortiMail unit.
To configure mail server settings
1. Go to Settings > Domains > Mail Server Settings.
A multisection dialog appears.
Figure 36:Mail server settings dialog
2. Click the down-arrows beside each section title and configure the following:
Local Host
Configure the local host and SMTP settings. See “Configuring the
local host” on page 137.
Relay Server
Configure the relay server. See “Configuring the relay server and
policy for oversized messages” on page 138.
Deferred oversize
message delivery
Specify how to handle oversized messages. See “Configuring the
relay server and policy for oversized messages” on page 138.
DSN
Specify if and how to manage delivery service notifications. See
“Configuring the use of DSN” on page 140.
Mail Queue
Set how long mail can remain in the delayed and dead mail queues.
See “Configuring the mail queues and ESMTP” on page 140.
Delivery Options
Enable or disable Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (ESMTP).
See “Configuring the mail queues and ESMTP” on page 140.
Domain Check
Enable to verify the existence of domains that have not been
configured as protected domains. See “Configuring an LDAP
connection” on page 141.
This option is not available in server mode.
3. Click Apply when done.
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Configuring the local host
Configure the mail server and SMTP connections.
Figure 37:Host settings
Local Host
Host name
Enter the host name of the FortiMail unit.
The FortiMail unit’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is in the
format:
<host-name>.<local-domain-name>
such as fortimail-400.example.com, where
fortimail-400 is the Host name and example.com is the
Local domain name.
Note: The FQDN of the FortiMail unit should be different from that
of protected SMTP servers.
Note: You should use a different host name for each FortiMail
unit.
Local domain
name
Enter the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs,
such as example.com.
Note: The IP address should be globally resolvable into the FQDN
of the FortiMail unit if it will relay outgoing email. If it is not
globally resolvable, reverse DNS lookups of the FortiMail unit’s
domain name by external SMTP servers will fail. For quarantine
reports, if the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode or
gateway mode, DNS records for the local domain name may
need to be globally resolvable to the IP address of the FortiMail
unit. If it is not globally resolvable, web and email release/delete
for the per-recipient quarantines may fail.
SMTP server port
number
Setting up the system
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s SMTP server
will listen for SMTP connections. The default port number is 25.
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SMTP over
SSL/TLS
Enable to allow SSL- and TLS-secured connections from SMTP
clients that request SSL/TLS.
When disabled, SMTP connections with the FortiMail unit’s
built-in MTA must occur as clear, unencrypted text.
Note: This option must be enabled to receive SMTPS
connections. However, it does not require them.
SMTPS server port Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s built-in MTA
number
listens for secure SMTP connections. The default port number is
465.
This option is unavailable if SMTP over SSL/TLS is disabled.
SMTP MSA service Enable to allow your email clients to use SMTP for message
submission on a separate TCP port number from deliveries or
mail relay by MTAs.
SMTP MSA port
number
Enter the TCP port number on which the FortiMail unit listens for
email clients to submit email for delivery. The default port number
is 587.
POP3 server port
number
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s POP3 server
will listen for POP3 connections. The default port number is 110.
This option is available only in server mode.
Default domain for If you set one domain as the default domain, users on the default
authentication
domain only need to enter their user names without the domain
part for webmail/SMTP/IMAP/POP3 authentication, such as
user1. Users on the non-default domains must enter both the
user name part and domain part to authentication, such as
user2@example.com.
Configuring the relay server and policy for oversized messages
Configure the relay server and specify how to handle very large messages.
Click the down-arrow beside each heading to expand the options.
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Figure 38:Relay server and oversized messages
Relay Server
Relay server name Enter the domain name of an SMTP relay, if any, to which the
FortiMail unit will relay outgoing email. This is typically provided
by your Internet service provider (ISP), but could be a mail relay
on your internal network.
This option is ignored in transparent mode.
Relay server port
Enter the TCP port number on which the SMTP relay listens.
This is typically provided by your Internet service provider (ISP).
Use SMTPs
Enable to initiate SSL- and TLS-secured connections to the SMTP
relay if it supports SSL/TLS.
When disabled, SMTP connections from the FortiMail unit’s
built-in MTA or proxy to the relay will occur as clear text,
unencrypted.
This option must be enabled to initiate SMTPS connections.
Authentication
Required
If the relay server requires use of the SMTP AUTH command,
enable this option, then click the arrow to expand and configure:
• User name: Enter the name of the FortiMail unit’s account on
the SMTP relay.
• Password: Enter the password for the FortiMail unit’s user
name.
• Authentication type: Available SMTP authentication types
include:
• AUTO (automatically detect and use the most secure SMTP
authentication type supported by the relay server)
• PLAIN
• LOGIN
• DIGEST-MD5
• CRAM-MD5
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Deferred message
delivery
To defer sending email messages that are larger than the limit
during certain periods, use Start delivering messages and Stop
delivering messages to configure the start and stop times.
Schedule delivery during times when email traffic volume is low,
such as nights and weekends.
Start delivering
messages at
Select the hour and minute of the day at which to begin delivering
oversized email messages.
Stop delivering
messages at
Select the hour and minute of the day at which to stop delivering
oversized email messages.
Configuring the use of DSN
If desired, enable delivery service notifications and set the display options.
Click the down-arrow beside the heading to expand the options.
DSN
DSN (NDR) email
generation
Enable to allow the FortiMail unit to send delivery status
notification (DSN) email messages sent by the FortiMail unit to
notify email users of delivery delays and/or failure.
Sender
displayname
The name of the sender, such as FortiMail administrator,
as it should appear in DSN.
If this field is empty, the FortiMail unit sends DSN from the default
name of postmaster.
Sender address
The sender email address in DSN.
If this field is empty, the FortiMail unit sends DSN from the default
sender email address of postmaster@<domain_str>, where
<domain_str> is the domain name of the FortiMail unit, such as
example.com.
Configuring the mail queues and ESMTP
The mail queue options affect what you will see on FortiMail’s two mail queues. See “Viewing
and managing mail queues” on page 121.
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Click the down-arrow beside a heading to expand the options.
Mail Queue
Maximum time for Select the maximum number of hours that deferred/delayed email
email in queue
messages can remain in the delayed mail queue.
After the maximum time passes, the FortiMail unit will send a final
delivery status notification (DSN) email message to notify the
sender that the email message was undeliverable.
Maximum time for Select the maximum number of days a delivery status notification
DSN email in
(DSN) message can remain in the mail queues. If the maximum
queue
time is set to zero (0) days, the FortiMail unit attempts to deliver
the DSN only once.
After the maximum time has been reached, the DSN email is
moved to the dead mail folder.
Time before delay
warning
Select the number of hours after an initial failure to deliver an
email message before the FortiMail unit sends the first delivery
status notification (DSN) email message to notify the sender that
the email message has been deferred.
After sending this initial DSN, the FortiMail unit will continue to
retry sending the email until reaching the limit configured in
Maximum time for email in queue.
Time interval for
retry
Select the number of minutes between delivery retries for email
messages in the deferred and spam mail queues.
The number of
Enter the number of days that undeliverable email and its
days a dead mail is associated DSN will be kept in the dead mail folder. After this
to be kept
amount of time, the dead email and its DSN is automatically
deleted.
Delivery Options
Disable ESMTP for Mark the check box to disable Extended Simple Mail Transfer
outgoing email
Protocol (ESMTP) for outgoing email.
By default, FortiMail units can use ESMTP commands. ESMTP
supports email messages with graphics, sound, video, and text in
various languages.
Configuring an LDAP connection
You can set up an LDAP connection for email address mappings and access to unprotected
domains. This is not available in server mode.
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Click the down-arrow beside the heading to expand the options.
Domain Check
These options apply to gateway and transparent mode only
Perform LDAP
Enable to verify the existence of domains that have not been
domain verification configured as protected domains. Also configure LDAP profile for
for unknown
domain check.
domains
To verify the existence of unknown domains, the FortiMail unit
queries an LDAP server for a user object that contains the email
address. If the user object exists, the verification is successful,
and:
• If Automatically create domain association for verified domain
is enabled, the FortiMail unit automatically adds the unknown
domain as a domain associated of the protected domain
selected in Internal domain to hold association.
• If Automatically create domain association for verified domain
is disabled, and the DNS lookup of the unknown domain
name is successful, the FortiMail unit routes the email to the IP
address resolved for the domain name during the DNS lookup.
Because the domain is not formally defined as a protected
domain, the email is considered to be outgoing, and outgoing
recipient-based policies are used to scan the email.
LDAP profile for
domain check
Select the LDAP profile to use when verifying existence of
unknown domains. The LADP query is configured under User
Query Options in an LDAP profile.
This option is available only if Perform LDAP domain verification
for unknown domains is enabled.
Automatically
create domain
association for
verified domain
Enable to automatically add unknown domains as domain
associations if they are successfully verified by the LDAP query.
This option is available only if Perform LDAP domain verification
for unknown domains is enabled.
Internal domain to Select the name of a protected domain with which to associate
hold domain
unknown domains, if they pass domain verification.
association
This option is available only if Automatically create domain
association for verified domain is enabled.
Configuring antispam settings
The AntiSpam menu item lets you configure the antispam and antivirus features of the FortiMail
unit to protect your SMTP servers and email users. You can configure antispam and antivirus
settings separately for incoming and outgoing email messages.
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Available FortiMail features and their behavior vary by whether the email is incoming or
outgoing. This is called directionality.
• Incoming email messages consist of messages sent to the SMTP servers that are protected
domains of the FortiMail unit.
• Outgoing email messages consist of messages sent to recipients on domains that the
FortiMail unit was not configured to protect.
For a more detailed explanation, see “Incoming versus outgoing directionality” on page 8.
Configuring incoming mail protection
The Incoming tab displays the antispam and antivirus settings for the protected domains, and
enables you to change the default settings.
To edit incoming antispam and antivirus settings
1. Go to Settings > AntiSpam > Incoming.
Figure 39:Antispam incoming tab
2. To change settings, do one of the following:
• select a domain in the table and click Edit
• double-click the domain
A dialogs appears.
Figure 40: Editing the antispam and antivirus settings
3. Select one of the following for the antispam level:
• Unknown: No setting
• Off: No scanning
• Low: Good detection rate
• Medium: Better detection rate with a small impact on system performance
• High: Best detection rate with an additional impact on system performance
4. Select one of the following for the antivirus level:
• Unknown: No setting
• Disabled: Virus checking is off
• Enabled: Virus checking is on
5. Click OK.
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Configuring incoming actions
The Incoming Action tab lets you to select what measures the FortiMail unit will take against
spam and virus-infected email coming into the domain. This tab also determines which
quarantine list to use: personal or system.
To configure incoming actions
1. Go to Settings > AntiSpam > Incoming Action.
2. Configure the following:
Figure 41: Editing incoming actions
AntiSpam Actions
Tag email’s Enable and then enter in the With value field the text that will
subject line appear in the subject line of the email, such as “[spam]”. The
FortiMail unit will prepend this text to the subject line of spam
before forwarding it to the recipient.
Many email clients can sort incoming email messages into
separate mailboxes, including a spam mailbox, based on text
appearing in parts of email messages, including the subject line.
For details, see the documentation for your email client.
Reject
Enable to reject the email and reply to the SMTP client with
SMTP reply code 550.
Discard
Enable to delete the message (instead of delivering the email)
without notifying the SMTP client
Quarantine
When enabled, FortiMail directs spam to the per-recipient
quarantine folder. For more information, see “Viewing and
managing quarantine lists” on page 122. Also configure:
• Delete messages after: Enter the number of days you want to
keep the quarantined email. Enter a small enough value that
will prevent the size of the quarantine from exceeding the
available disk space. If you enter 0 to prevent automatic
deletion of quarantined files, you must periodically manually
remove old files.
This option and Quarantine for review are mutually exclusive.
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Quarantine
to review
When enabled, FortiMail directs spam to the system quarantine
folder. Both quarantine options cannot be enabled at the same
time.
AntiVirus Actions
Virus
scanning
Scan email for virus infection and take actions defined in the
antivirus action profile.
3. Click Apply.
Configuring outgoing mail protection
After you create a protected domain, the FortiMail unit will apply default outgoing antispam and
antivirus settings to it. The Outgoing tab lets you change the defaults.
To edit outgoing antispam and antivirus settings
1. Go to Settings > AntiSpam > Outgoing.
Figure 42: Editing the antispam and antivirus settings
2. Select one of the following for the antispam level:
• Unknown: No setting
• Off: No scanning
• Low: Good detection rate
• Medium: Better detection rate with a small impact on system performance
• High: Best detection rate with an additional impact on system performance
3. Select one of the following for the antivirus level:
• Unknown: No setting
• Disabled: Virus checking is off
• Enabled: Virus checking is on
4. Optionally, view or edit the access control link. See “Configuring access control”.
5. Click Apply.
Configuring access control
Access control rules allow specific SMTP clients to send email from your protected domains.
These rules prevent your FortiMail unit from being an open relay. Open relays are often used by
spammers, which could cause your unit to be blocklisted by other mail servers.
Access control rules allow, discard, reject, or relay email based on the sender, recipient, IP
address, or a reverse DNS lookup of the domain name of the connecting SMTP server.
To configure access control
1. Go to Settings > AntiSpam > Outgoing.
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2. Click Access control link.
A new window appears. If you created an access control rule using the Quick Start Wizard, it
will appear on the list.
Figure 43:Access control window
3. Either click New to create a new rule, or select an existing rule and click Edit.
A dialog appears.
Figure 44:Access control rule dialog
4. Configure the access rule the same way as in the Quick Start Wizard. See “Step 6:
Configuring access control rules and outgoing settings” on page 41
5. Click Create or OK.
Outgoing Action tab
The Outgoing Action tab lets you to select what actions the FortiMail unit takes against spam
and virus-infected email going to a domain that is not protected by FortiMail.
To configure outgoing actions
1. Go to Settings > AntiSpam > Outgoing Action.
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Figure 45:Editing outgoing actions
2. Configure the following:
AntiSpam Actions
Tag email’s
subject line
Enable and then enter in the With value field the text that will
appear in the subject line of the email, such as “[spam]”. The
FortiMail unit will prepend this text to the subject line of spam it
forwards to the recipient.
Many email clients can sort incoming email messages into
separate mailboxes, including a spam mailbox, based on text
appearing in various parts of email messages, including the
subject line.
Reject
Enable to reject the email and reply to the SMTP client with
SMTP reply code 550.
Discard
Enable to delete the message (instead of delivering the email)
without notifying the SMTP client
AntiVirus Action s
Virus scanning Scan email for virus infection and take actions defined in the
antivirus action profile.
3. Click Apply.
Configuring logs, reports and email alerts
The Log and Report menu lets you:
• view logs
• create and view reports
• create email alerts
Viewing logs
The FortiMail unit provides easy access to four types of logs: history, events, antispam, and
antivirus. All four logs behave the same way and offer the same features.
To view log data
1. Go to Log and Report > Log and select one of the tabs.
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Figure 46:Event tab used as an example
Each available log appears on a separate line.
2. To view log contents, do one of the following:
• select a log and click Edit
• double-click the log
The log entry expands.
Figure 47:Expanded event log
3. Examine the log contents using these tools:
• To filter entries on their severity level, select a severity from the Level drop-down list:
Table 9: Log severity levels
Levels
Description
0 - Emergency
The system has become unusable.
1 - Alert
Immediate action is required.
2 - Critical
Functionality is affected.
3 - Error
An error condition exists and functionality could be affected.
4 - Warning
Functionality could be affected.
5 - Notification
Information about normal events.
6 - Information
General information about system operations.
• To filter by the type of problem (such as an administration, configuration or mail protocol
problem), select a type from the Subtype drop-down list.
• To go to a specific line number, enter the number next to Go to line and press Enter.
• Click Save View to retain the changes you made to the report view for the next time.
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4. Click Back to collapse the log report and return to the log listing.
5. To delete one or more logs, select their check boxes and click Delete.
6. To download a log, select it and click Download.
• Select one of the download formats.
• A file download dialog appears.
• Click Save and then browse to a location to save the file.
Searching log data
When viewing a list of logs or when you expand the log data to examine individual log entries,
you can use the log search facility to help locate the information you want by keyword,
message, date or other attributes.
To search log data
1. Click Search.
A dialog appears.
Figure 48:Log search dialog for events
2. Enter your search criteria. The fields vary with the type of log you are searching.
3. Click Apply.
The search results appear in a new tab named Search Result.
Creating and managing reports
The Report menu item provides a way to create reports of log information and to manage those
reports.
Managing reports
The Report tab lets you view, delete or download existing reports. If you have not yet created a
report profile and run it, the Report tab will be empty.
Go to Log and Report > Report > Report.
• To view a report, click the plus sign next to the report name to see all its components.
Double-click one of its component parts: the report opens in a new browser window.
• The delete a report and all its components, select the report’s check box and click Delete.
• To download a report, select the report’s check box and click Download. Select the format
option from the menu presented (PDF or HTML). Click Save when prompted. Browse to the
save location and click Save.
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Creating reports
You can configure a report profile, including its contents, design, output format, recipients, and
run schedule.
To configure a report profile
1. Go to Log and Report > Report > Configuration.
Figure 49:Report configuration tab
2. For a new report, click New. For an existing report, select it and click Edit.
A multisection dialog appears.
3. In Report name, enter a name for the report profile.
Report names cannot include spaces.
Figure 50:Report configuration dialog
4. Click the arrow next to each option, and configure the following:
Setting up the system
Time Period
Select the time span of log messages from which to generate the
report. For more information, see “Configuring the time period of a
report profile” on page 151.
Query Selection
Select one or more subject matters to include in the report. For more
information, see “Configuring the query selection of a report profile”
on page 151.
Schedule
Select to generate reports from this report profile either manually only
or automatically, according to a schedule. For more information, see
“Configuring a report profile schedule” on page 152.
Domain
Select the protected domains to include in the report. For more
information, see “Configuring the protected domain of a report
profile” on page 152.
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Incoming Outgoing Select whether to report upon incoming email, outgoing email, or
both. For more information, see “Configuring incoming or outgoing
directionality of a report profile” on page 153.
Email Notification
Select recipients to receive the report by email. This is optional. For
more information, see “Configuring email notification for a report
profile” on page 153.
5. Click Create or OK.
Configuring the time period of a report profile
When configuring a report profile, you can select the time span of log messages from which to
generate the report.
Figure 51:Time period
1. Select the down-arrow next to Time Period to expand the section.
2. Select which time span option you want. This sets the range of log data to include in the
report.
• Select the first option to chose a relative time, such as Today, Yesterday, Last n hours,
and so on. If you select an option with an unspecified “n” value, another field appears.
Enter the number of hours, days or weeks, as applicable.
• Select the second option to set a specific time range. Set the start date and hour, and
end date and hour.
Configuring the query selection of a report profile
When configuring a report profile, you can select one or more queries or query groups that
define the report’s contents. Each query group contains multiple individual queries, each of
which correspond to a chart that will appear in the generated report.
1. Select the down-arrow next to Query Selection to expand the section.
2. Select which query groups and individual queries you want to include in the report.
• To select all queries in a query group, select the check box next to the query group
heading.
• To select specific queries in a query group, expand the group heading. Select the check
boxes next to each query you want to include.
For example:
• If you want the report to include charts about spam, you might select both of the query
groups Spam by Sender and Spam by Recipient.
• If you want the report to specifically include only a chart about top virus senders by date,
you might expand the query group Virus by Sender, then select only the individual query
Top Virus Sender By Date.
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Configuring a report profile schedule
When configuring a report profile, you can select whether the FortiMail unit will generate the
report on demand or according to a schedule you configure.
1. Select the down-arrow next to Schedule to expand the section.
Figure 52:Schedule
Generating reports can be resource-intensive. To improve performance, generate reports during
times when traffic volume is low, such as at night or during weekends.
2. Choose your report scheduling options:
Not scheduled
Select if you do not want the FortiMail unit to generate the report
automatically according to a schedule.
If you select this option, you must generate the report manually.
Daily
Select to generate the report each day. Also configure At hour.
These days
Select to generate the report on specific days of each week,
then select those days. Also configure At hour.
These dates
Select to generate the report on specific days of each month,
then enter those date numbers. Separate date numbers with a
comma. Also configure At hour.
For example, to generate a report on the first and 15th day of
every month, enter 1,15.
At hour
Select the hour of the day to generate the report, according to a
24-hour clock.
This option does not apply if you select Not scheduled.
Configuring the protected domain of a report profile
When configuring a report profile, you can select one or more protected domains whose log
messages will be used as input to the report.
1. Select the down-arrow next to Domain to expand the section.
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Figure 53:Domain
2. Select a domain to include in the Available domains list.
The available domains are those configure on the Settings > Domains > Domains tab.
3. Click the move-right button (->) to move it to the Selected domains list.
4. Repeat the previous two steps for each domain you want included in the report.
Configuring incoming or outgoing directionality of a report profile
When configuring a report profile, you can select to report email messages based on their
directionality: incoming, outgoing, or both.
1. Select the down-arrow next to Incoming/Outgoing to expand the section.
Figure 54:Directionality selection
2. Select an option from the drop-down list.
• Incoming
• Outgoing
• Both
For an explanation of directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing directionality” on page 8.
Configuring email notification for a report profile
When configuring a report profile, you can configure the FortiMail unit to email a copy of the
generated report to designated recipients in either HTML or PDF format.
1. Select the down-arrow next to Email Notification to expand the section.
Figure 55:Email Notification
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2. Select an option next to Report format (HTML or PDF) to set the report output.
3. For each email address you want to receive the report, do the following:
• Enter the email address of a recipient under Email address.
• Click the move-right button (->) to move it to the All notification Email address list.
Generate an on-demand report
While some of your reports may execute on a schedule, you can manually run any report,
anytime, including non-scheduled reports.
To manually generate a report
1. Go to Log and Report > Report > Configuration.
2. Click to select the report profile to use when generating the report.
3. Click Generate.
The FortiMail unit immediately begins to generate a report. To view the resulting report, click
the Report tab. The report label is the name you gave the report plus a time stamp.
Creating email alerts
The Alert Email tab lets you define which problem categories to use as alerts and to specify
which email addresses should receive the alerts.
Configuring alert recipients
Use the Configuration tab to create and manage a list of alert recipients.
Go to Log and Report > Alert Email > Configuration.
Figure 56:Alert email Configuration tab
• You can send a test message to any recipient. Select the check box next to one or more
recipients and click Test.
• To remove alert recipients, select the check box next to one or more recipients and click
Delete.
• You can add a recipient to the list:
To add a recipient to the list
1. Click New.
A dialog appears.
Figure 57:New alert email dialog
2. Enter an email address and click Create.
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Selecting alert categories
Use the Categories tab to select the events for which the FortiMail unit will generate an alert.
1. Go to Log and Report > Alert Email > Categories.
Figure 58:Alert email categories
2. Select one or more alert categories.
Virus incidents
Send an alert message when the FortiMail unit detects a virus.
Critical events
Send an alert email message when the FortiMail unit detects a system
error that may affect its operation.
Disk is full
Send an alert email message when the FortiMail unit hard disk is full.
Remote
archiving/NAS
failures
Send an alert email message when the remote archiving feature
encounters one or more failures.
HA events
Send an alert email message when any high availability (HA) event
occurs.
When a FortiMail unit is operating in HA mode, the subject line of the
alert email includes the host name of the cluster member. If you have
configured a different host name for each member of the cluster, this
enables you to identify which FortiMail unit in the HA cluster sent the
alert email message.
Disk quota of an
account is
exceeded
Send an alert email message when an email user’s account exceeds
its quota of hard disk space.
Dictionary is
corrupted
Send an alert email message when a dictionary is corrupt.
This option is available only in server mode.
System quarantine Send an alert email message when the system quarantine reaches its
quota is full
quota of hard disk space.
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Deferred email #
over x, interval
time y minutes
Send an alert email message if the delayed email queue contains
greater than this number of email messages. Enter a number between
1 and 10 000 to define the alert threshold, then enter the interval of
time between each alert email message that the FortiMail unit will
send while the number of email messages in the deferred email queue
remains over this limit.
FortiGuard license Send an alert if the FortiGuard license is nearing expiry. Enter the
expiry time
number of days until expiry between 1 and 100.
Testing the installation
After completing the installation, test it by sending email between legitimate SMTP clients and
servers at various points within your network topology.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway mode or transparent mode, you may also wish to
test access of email users to their per-recipient quarantined email.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode, you may also wish to test access to FortiMail
webmail, POP3, and/or IMAP.
Figure 59:Connection test paths (gateway mode)
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
Internal
Email Server
SMTP
connection
test paths
External
Email Server
Switch
Internet
Quarantine
connection
test paths
Private
DNS Server
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Public DNS Server
Gateway Mode
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Figure 60:Connection test paths (transparent mode)
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
Private
DNS Server
SMTP
connection
test paths
External
Email Server
Switch
Internet
Quarantine
connection
test paths
Public DNS Server
Transparent Mode
Internal
Email Server
Figure 61:Connection test paths (server mode)
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
SMTP
connection
test paths
External
Email Server
Internet
Webmail
POP3/IMAP
connection
test paths
Private
DNS Server
Public DNS Server
Server Mode
To verify all SMTP connections to and from your FortiMail unit, consider both internal and
external recipient email addresses, as well as all possible internal and external SMTP clients
and servers that will interact with your FortiMail unit, and send email messages that test the
connections both to and from each of those clients and servers. For example:
1. Using an SMTP client on the local network whose MTA is the FortiMail unit or protected
email server, send an email from an internal sender to an internal recipient.
2. Using an SMTP client on the local network whose MTA is the FortiMail unit or protected
email server, send an email from an internal sender to an external recipient.
3. Send an email from an external sender to an internal recipient.
4. If you have remote SMTP clients such as mobile users or branch office SMTP servers, using
an SMTP client on the remote network whose MTA is the FortiMail unit or protected email
server, send an email from an internal sender to an internal recipient.
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5. If you have remote SMTP clients such as mobile users or branch office SMTP servers, using
an SMTP client on the remote network whose MTA is the FortiMail unit or protected email
server, send an email from an internal sender to an external recipient.
If you cannot connect, receive error messages while establishing the connection, or the
recipient does not receive the email message, verify your configuration, especially:
• routing and policy configuration of intermediary NAT devices such as firewalls or routers
• connectivity of the FortiMail unit with the Fortinet Distribution Network (FDN)
• external email servers’ connectivity with and the configuration of the public DNS server that
hosts the MX records, A records, and reverse DNS records for your domain names
• the FortiMail unit’s connectivity with and the configuration of the local private DNS server (if
any) that caches records for external domain names and, if the Use MX record option is
enabled, hosts private MX records that refer to your protected email servers
• access control rules on your FortiMail unit
• configuration of MUAs, including the IP address/domain name of the SMTP and POP3/IMAP
server, authentication, and encryption (such as SSL or TLS)
For information on tools that you can use to troubleshoot, see “Troubleshooting tools” on
page 158.
Troubleshooting tools
To locate network errors and other issues that may prevent email from passing to or through the
FortiMail unit, FortiMail units feature several troubleshooting tools. You may also be able to
perform additional tests from your management computer or the computers of SMTP clients
and servers.
This section includes:
• Ping and traceroute
• Nslookup
• Telnet connections to the SMTP port number
• Log messages
• Greylist and sender reputation displays
• Mail queues and quarantines
• Packet capture
Ping and traceroute
If your FortiMail unit cannot connect to other hosts, you may be able to use ICMP ping and
traceroute to determine if the host is reachable or locate the node of your network at which
connectivity fails, such as when static routes are incorrectly configured. You can do this from
the FortiMail unit using CLI commands.
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For example, you might use ICMP ping to determine that 172.16.1.10 is reachable (commands
that you would type are highlighted in bold; responses from the FortiMail unit are not bolded):
FortiMail-400 # execute ping 172.16.1.10
PING 172.16.1.10 (172.16.1.10): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 172.16.1.10: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=2.4
64 bytes from 172.16.1.10: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.4
64 bytes from 172.16.1.10: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.4
64 bytes from 172.16.1.10: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.8
64 bytes from 172.16.1.10: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=1.4
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
--- 172.20.120.167 ping statistics --5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0.8/1.4/2.4 ms
or that 192.168.1.10 is not reachable:
FortiMail-400 # execute ping 192.168.1.10
PING 192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10): 56 data bytes
Timeout ...
Timeout ...
Timeout ...
Timeout ...
Timeout ...
--- 192.168.1.10 ping statistics --5 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss
Both ping and traceroute require that network nodes respond to ICMP ping. If you have
disabled responses to ICMP on your network, hosts may appear to be unreachable to ping and
traceroute, even if connections using other protocols can succeed.
If the host is not reachable, you can use traceroute to determine the router hop or host at which
the connection fails:
FortiMail-400 # execute traceroute 192.168.1.10
traceroute to 192.168.1.10 (192.168.1.10), 32 hops max, 72 byte
packets
1 192.168.1.2 2 ms 0 ms 1 ms
2 * * *
For more information on CLI commands, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
Nslookup
It is critical that FortiMail has good access to DNS services to properly handle SMTP sessions
and apply antispam scans, including FortiGuard Antispam. If DNS queries fail, they will be
recorded in the event log.
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Figure 62:Event log when DNS queries fail
If a DNS query fails or resolves incorrectly, you may want to manually query your DNS server to
verify that the records are correctly configured. You can do this from the FortiMail unit using CLI
commands.
For example, you might query for the mail gateway of the domain example.com (commands
that you would type are highlighted in bold; responses from the FortiMail unit are not bolded):
FortiMail-400 # execute nslookup mx example.com
example.com mail exchanger = 10 mail.example.com.
or query to resolve mail.example.com and service.fortiguard.net (the domain name of a
FortiGuard Distribution Network server) into IP addresses:
FortiMail-400 # execute nslookup name mail.example.com
Name: mail.example.com
Address: 192.168.1.10
FortiMail-400 # execute nslookup name service.fortiguard.net
Name: service.fortiguard.net
Address: 212.95.252.120
Name: service.fortiguard.net
Address: 72.15.145.66
Name: service.fortiguard.net
Address: 69.90.198.55
For more information on CLI commands, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
Like verifying DNS connectivity and configuration from the FortiMail unit, you may also be able
to verify DNS connectivity and configuration from protected and external mail servers using
similar commands. This can be necessary if the devices are configured to use different DNS
servers. For details, see the documentation for those mail servers.
Telnet connections to the SMTP port number
Instead of using an SMTP client to verify SMTP connections, you can manually establish SMTP
connections by using a Telnet client. Especially if your SMTP client or SMTP server is unable to
establish a connection, manually attempting the connection may provide you with SMTP error
codes or other insight into why the connection is failing.
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Table 10:Some common SMTP error codes
SMTP error
Description
code number
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502
Command not implemented (such as for ESMTP and other
SMTP protocol extensions that are not enabled/installed on the
SMTP server)
503
Bad sequence of commands
If extended SMTP error codes are installed and enabled on the target SMTP server, a manual
Telnet connection may enable you to view additional error descriptions. For example, the
enhanced error code 4.3.2 Please Try Again Later may notify you that a temporary
condition exists preventing delivery, such as greylisting or service unavailability, and that the
SMTP client should try delivery again later.
How you should establish the connection depends on the origin and destination of the SMTP
connection that you want to test, either:
• From the FortiMail unit to an SMTP server
• To or through the FortiMail unit
From the FortiMail unit to an SMTP server
If you are not sure if the FortiMail unit can use SMTP to reach an SMTP server, you might use
the execute telnettest <fqdn_str>:<port_int> CLI command.
For example, to test SMTP connectivity with mail.example.com on the standard SMTP port
number, 25 (commands that you would type are highlighted in bold; responses from the
FortiMail unit are not bolded):
FortiMail-400 # execute telnettest mail.example.com:25
Connecting to remote host succeeded.
To or through the FortiMail unit
If you are not sure if a MUA can use SMTP to reach a FortiMail unit that is operating in gateway
mode or server mode, or not sure which SMTP commands the FortiMail unit was configured to
accept, from the email user’s computer or an external SMTP server, you might open a
command prompt and use the command line Telnet client.
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For example, to send a test email message (commands that you would type are highlighted in
bold; responses from the FortiMail unit are not bolded):
$ telnet fortimail.example.com 25
Trying fortimail.example.com...
Connected to fortimail.example.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 fortimail.example.com ESMTP Smtpd; Mon, 6 Oct 2008 14:47:32 -0400
EHLO mail.example.com
250-fortimail.example.com Hello [172.16.1.10], pleased to meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-PIPELINING
250-8BITMIME
250-SIZE 10485760
250-DSN
250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5
250-DELIVERBY
250 HELP
MAIL FROM: user1@internal.example.com
250 2.1.0 user1@example.com... Sender ok
RCPT TO: user2@external.example.net
250 2.1.5 user2@example.com... Recipient ok
DATA
354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
Subject: TEST
This is a test email message.
.
250 2.0.0 m96IlWkF001390 Message accepted for delivery
QUIT
221 2.0.0 fortimail.example.com closing connection
Connection closed by foreign host.
$
where:
• fortimail.example.com is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your FortiMail unit
• the FortiMail unit is listening for SMTP connections on the default SMTP port number, 25
• mail.example.com is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of a protected email server
from which you are connecting, whose domain name resolves to the IP address
172.16.1.10
• user1@internal.example.com is a email address of an sender that is internal to your
protected domain, internal.example.com
• user2@external.example.net is a email address of an recipient that is external to your
protected domain
Log messages
Log messages often contain clues that can aid you in determining the cause of a problem.
FortiMail units can record log messages when errors occur that cause failures, upon significant
changes, and upon processing events.
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Depending on the type, log messages may appear in either the history, event, antivirus, or
antispam logs. For example:
• To determine when and why an email was quarantined, you might examine the Classifier and
Disposition fields in the history log.
• To determine if an antiSpam scan query was able to reach the FDN, you might examine the
Message field in the antispam log.
During troubleshooting, you may find it useful to reduce the logging severity threshold for more
verbose logs, to include more information on less severe events.
For example, when the FortiMail unit cannot reach the FDN or override server for FortiGuard
Antispam queries, the associated log message in the antispam log has a severity level of
Notification. If your severity threshold is currently greater than Notification (such as Warning or
Error), the FortiMail unit will not record that log message, and you will not be notified of the error.
Often this error might occur due to temporary connectivity problems, and is not critical.
However, if you are frequently encountering this issue, you may want to lower the severity
threshold to determine how often the issue is occurring and whether the cause of the problem is
persistent.
Similar to how the FortiMail unit will not record log messages below the severity threshold, if the
FortiMail unit is not enabled to record event, history, antivirus, and antispam log messages, you
will not be able to analyze the log messages for events of that type. During troubleshooting, be
sure that log messages are enabled for the type of event that you want to analyze.
To configure the severity threshold, go to Log and Report > Log Setting and set the logging level
on one or both of the tabs. To enable logging of different types of events, select applicable
options under Logging Policy Configuration on either or both tabs.
If this menu path is not available, first select Advanced to switch to the advanced mode of the
web UI.
Greylist and sender reputation displays
If an SMTP client is unable to send email despite being able to initiate SMTP connections to or
through the FortiMail unit, and is receiving SMTP error codes that indicate temporary failure or
permanent rejection, verify that the SMTP client has not been temporarily blocked by the
greylist or sender reputation features.
To view the lists of SMTP clients and their statuses with those features, go to Monitor > Greylist
> Display and Monitor > Sender Reputation > Display, respectively.
If these menu paths are not available, first select Advanced >> to switch to the advanced mode
of the web UI.
Mail queues and quarantines
If email has not successfully passed to or through the FortiMail unit, but you have been able to
successfully initiate the SMTP connection and send the email and have not received any SMTP
error codes, verify that delivery has not been delayed and that the email message has not been
quarantined.
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To view the mail queues, go to Monitor> Mail Queue, then select a mail queue tab. To view the
per-recipient or system quarantine, go to Monitor > Quarantine, then select either the Personal
Quarantine or System Quarantine tab.
If these menu paths are not available, first select Advanced >> to switch to the advanced mode
of the web UI.
Packet capture
Packet capture, also known as sniffing, records some or all of the packets seen by a network
interface. By recording packets, you can trace connection states to the exact point at which
they fail, which may help you to diagnose some types of problems that are otherwise difficult to
detect.
FortiMail units have a built-in sniffer. To use the built-in sniffer, go to Maintenance > System >
Traffic Capture (see “Using the traffic capture” on page 216), or connect to the CLI and enter the
following command:
diagnose sniffer packet <interface_str> '<filter_str>'
<verbosity_level_int> <packet_count_int>
where:
• <interface_str> is the name of a network interface, such as port1,or enter any for all
interfaces.
• '<filter_str>' is the sniffer filter that specifies which protocols and port numbers that
you do or do not want to capture, such as 'tcp port 25',or enter none for no filters.
• <verbosity_level_int> is an integer indicating the depth of packet headers and
payloads to display.
• <packet_count_int> is the number of packets the sniffer reads before stopping. Packet
capture output is printed to your CLI display until you stop it by pressing Ctrl + C, or until it
reaches the number of packets that you have specified to capture.
Packet capture can be very resource intensive. To minimize the performance impact on your
FortiMail unit, use packet capture only during periods of minimal traffic, with a serial console
CLI connection rather than a Telnet or SSH CLI connection, and be sure to stop the command
when you are finished.
For example, you might selectively capture packets for FortiGuard Antispam queries occurring
through port1 (commands that you would type are highlighted in bold; responses from the
FortiMail unit are not bolded):
FortiMail-400 # diag sniffer packet port1 'udp port 8889' 3
2.685841 172.16.1.10.47319 -> 212.95.252.120.8889: udp 64
0x0000 0009 0f84 27fe 0009 0f15 02e8 0800 4500....'.........E.
0x0010 005c 0000 4000 4011 44ff ac14 78a5 d45f.\..@.@.D...x.._
0x0020 fc78 b8d7 22b9 0048 9232 6968 726a b3c5.x.."..H.2ihrj..
0x0030 776c 2d2f 5a5f 545e 4555 5b5f 425b 545fwl-/Z_T^EU[_B[T_
0x0040 4559 6b6a 776b 646e 776c 6b6a 772b 646eEYkjwkdnwlkjw+dn
0x0050 776c 6b6a 776b 646e 776c 6b6a 776b 86a9wlkjwkdnwlkjwk..
0x0060 db73 21e1 5622 c618 7d6c
.s!.V"..}l
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Instead of reading packet capture output directly in your CLI display, you usually should save
the output to a plain text file using your CLI client. Saving the output provides several
advantages. Packets can arrive more rapidly than you may be able to read them in the buffer of
your CLI display, and many protocols transfer data using encodings other than US-ASCII. It is
usually preferable to analyze the output by loading it into in a network protocol analyzer
application such as Wireshark (http://www.wireshark.org/).
For example, you could use PuTTY or Microsoft HyperTerminal to save the sniffer output.
Methods may vary. See the documentation for your CLI client.
Requirements
• terminal emulation software such as PuTTY
• a plain text editor such as Notepad
• a Perl interpreter
• network protocol analyzer software such as Wireshark
To view packet capture output using PuTTY and Wireshark
1. On your management computer, start PuTTY.
2. Use PuTTY to connect to the FortiMail appliance using either a local serial console, SSH, or
Telnet connection. For details, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
3. Type the packet capture command, such as:
diag sniffer packet port1 'tcp port 25' 3
but do not press Enter yet.
4. In the upper left corner of the window, click the PuTTY icon to open its drop-down menu,
then select Change Settings.
A dialog appears where you can configure PuTTY to save output to a plain text file.
5. In the Category tree on the left, go to Session > Logging.
6. In Session logging, select Printable output.
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7. In Log file name, click the Browse button, then choose a directory path and file name such
as C:\Users\MyAccount\packet_capture.txt to save the packet capture to a plain
text file. (You do not need to save it with the .log file extension.)
8. Click Apply.
9. Press Enter to send the CLI command to the FortiMail unit, beginning packet capture.
10.If you have not specified a number of packets to capture, when you have captured all
packets that you want to analyze, press Ctrl + C to stop the capture.
11.Close the PuTTY window.
12.Open the packet capture file using a plain text editor such as Notepad.
13.Delete the first and last lines, which look like this:
=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~= PuTTY log 2016.07.25 11:34:40
=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=
FortiMail-2000 #
These lines are a PuTTY timestamp and a command prompt, which are not part of the
packet capture. If you do not delete them, they could interfere with the script in the next
step.
14.Convert the plain text file to a format recognizable by your network protocol analyzer
application.
You can convert the plain text file to a format (.pcap) recognizable by Wireshark (formerly
called Ethereal) using the fgt2eth.pl Perl script. To download fgt2eth.pl, see the Fortinet
Knowledge Base article Using the FortiOS built-in packet sniffer.
The fgt2eth.pl script is provided as-is, without any implied warranty or technical support, and
requires that you first install a Perl module compatible with your operating system.
To use fgt2eth.pl, open a command prompt, then enter a command such as the following:
Methods to open a command prompt vary by operating system.
On Windows XP, go to Start > Run and enter cmd.
On Windows 7, click the Start (Windows logo) menu to open it, then enter cmd.
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fgt2eth.pl -in packet_capture.txt -out packet_capture.pcap
where:
• fgt2eth.pl is the name of the conversion script; include the path relative to the current
directory, which is indicated by the command prompt
• packet_capture.txt is the name of the packet capture’s output file; include the
directory path relative to your current directory
• packet_capture.pcap is the name of the conversion script’s output file; include the
directory path relative to your current directory where you want the converted output to
be saved
Figure 63:Converting sniffer output to .pcap format
15.Open the converted file in your network protocol analyzer application. For further
instructions, see the documentation for that application.
Figure 64:Viewing sniffer output in Wireshark
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For additional information on packet capture, see the Fortinet Knowledge Center article Using
the FortiOS built-in packet sniffer.
For more information on CLI commands, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
Backing up the configuration
Once you have tested your basic installation and verified that it functions correctly, create a
backup. This “clean” backup can be used to:
• troubleshoot a non-functional configuration by comparing it with this functional baseline
• rapidly restore your installation to a simple yet working point
The following procedures only produce a backup of the configuration file. If you have also
configured other settings such as block/safe lists, dictionaries, and the Bayesian databases,
you should back them up as well. For information on how to back up other configuration
settings and databases, see “Backup and restore” on page 203.
To back up the configuration file via the web UI
1. Log in to the web UI as the admin administrator.
Other administrator accounts do not have the required permissions.
2. Go to Maintenance > System > Configuraton in the advanced mode.
3. In the Backup Configuration area, select Local PC.
4. Select System Configuration (and User Configuration if you have already configured user
preferences).
5. Click Backup.
If your browser prompts you, navigate to the folder where you want to save the configuration
file. Click Save.
Your browser downloads the configuration file. Time required varies by the size of the
configuration and the specifications of the appliance’s hardware as well as the speed of your
network connection.
To back up the configuration file via the CLI
1. Log in to the CLI as the admin administrator using either the local serial console, the CLI
Console widget in the web UI, or an SSH or Telnet connection.
Other administrator accounts do not have the required permissions.
2. Enter the following command:
execute backup full-config tftp <file-name_str> <server_ipv4>
[<backup-password_str>]
where the variables and options are as follows:
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Variable
Description
<file-name_str>
Type the file name of the backup.
<server_ipv4>
Type the IP address or domain name of the server.
[<backup-password_s Optional. Type the password that will be used to encrypt the
tr>]
backup file.
Caution: Do not lose this password. You will need to enter this
same password when restoring the backup file in order for the
appliance to successfully decrypt the file. If you cannot remember
the password, the backup cannot be used.
For example, the following command backs up a FortiMail-3000C’s configuration file to a file
named FortiMail-3000C.conf in the current directory on the TFTP server 172.16.1.10,
encrypting the backup file using the password P@ssw0rd1:
FortiMail-3000C # execute backup full-config tftp
FortiMail-3000c.conf 172.16.1.10 P@ssw0rd1
Time required varies by the size of the database and the specifications of the appliance’s
hardware, but could take several minutes.
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Monitoring the system
The Monitor menu displays system usage, mail queues, log messages, reports, and other
status-indicating items.
It also allows you to manage the contents of the mail queue and quarantines, and the sender
reputation and endpoint reputation scores.
This section includes:
• Viewing overall system statuses
• Managing the deferred mail queue
• Managing the quarantines
• Viewing the greylist statuses
• Viewing the sender reputation statuses
• Viewing the endpoint reputation statuses
• Managing archived email
• Viewing log messages
• Viewing generated reports
Viewing overall system statuses
Monitor > System Status displays system statuses, most of which pertain to the entire system,
such as CPU usage and current IP sessions. It also displays items that span multiple features,
such as email statistics.
This section includes:
• Viewing the dashboard
• Viewing the email statistics
• Viewing the list of current IP sessions
Viewing the dashboard
Monitor > System Status > Status displays first after you log in to the web UI. It contains a
dashboard with widgets that each indicate performance level or other statistics.
By default, widgets display the serial number and current system status of the FortiMail unit,
including uptime, system resource usage, alert messages, host name, firmware version, system
time, and email throughput.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the dashboard, go to Monitor > System Status > Status.
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Hiding, showing and moving widgets
The dashboard is customizable. You can select which widgets to display, where they are
located on the tab, and whether they are minimized or maximized.
To move a widget, position your mouse cursor on the widget’s title bar, then click and drag the
widget to its new location.
To show or hide a widget, in the upper left-hand corner, click Add Content, then mark the check
boxes of widgets that you want to show.
Options vary slightly from widget to widget, but always include options to close or
minimize/maximize the widget.
System Information widget
The System Information widget displays the serial number and basic system statuses such as
the firmware version, system time, and up time and high availability (HA) status.
In addition to displaying basic system information, the System Information widget lets you
configure the operation mode and to change the firmware.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
License Information widget
The License Information widget displays the last queried license statuses for
FortiGuard Antispam and FortiGuard Antivirus.
If you do not want to allow the FortiMail unit to automatically download antivirus definition
updates from the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN), you can also use the
License Information widget to manually upload an antivirus definitions update file. To upload the
file, first download the antivirus definition file to your management computer from the Fortinet
Technical Support web site, https://support.fortinet.com, then click Update.
If your update is a downgrade to a lower antivirus definition, you need to enable this function in
the CLI. For more information, see the diag debug autoupdate command in the FortiMail
CLI Reference.
Updating FortiGuard Antivirus definitions can cause a short disruption in the traffic currently
being scanned while the FortiMail unit applies the new signature database. To minimize
disruptions, update when traffic is light, such as during the night.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
System Resource widget
The System Resource widget displays the CPU, memory, and disk space usage. It also displays
the system load and current number of IP sessions.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
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The system resources history can also be viewed in this widget. The system resources history
contains four graphs. Each graph displays readings of one of the system resources: CPU,
memory, IP sessions, and network bandwidth usage. Each graph is divided by a grid.
• Horizontal axis: Indicates time, with each grid square representing approximately three
seconds. The most recent time is towards the right side of the graph.
• Vertical axis: Indicates the usage level, with each grid square representing one-fifth (20%) of
either the:
• maximum possible usage (CPU Usage History and Memory Usage History), or
• number of units currently in the upper left corner of the graph; this number of units is not
constant, but instead scales to more clearly show trends at higher or lower levels of
usage, such as scaling from 100 kilobits per second (Kbps) to 1 megabit (Mbps) (Session
History and Network Utilization History)
Greater usage levels are towards the top of the graph.
• Red line: Indicates the usage level of that resource over the previous 60 seconds.
If you do not initially see the red line in a graph, look at the bottom edge of the graph. If the
system resource usage is very low, such as when the CPU is idle, the red line may coincide with
the bottom edge of the graph.
To view the system resources history, go to Monitor > System Status > Status, then, in the
System Resource widget, click History >>. To return to the current system resources, click the
Refresh icon on the widget’s title bar.
System Command widget
The System Command widget lets you restart, shut down, or reload the configuration of the
FortiMail unit.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
Before rebooting or halting the FortiMail unit, consider notifying your email users, as it could
result in temporary interruptions to connectivity.
Statistics History widget
The Statistics History widget contains charts that can also be viewed on the Mail Statistics tab.
For details, see “Viewing the email statistics” on page 173.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
Statistics Summary widget
The Statistics Summary widget contains a table-format summary of charts that can also be
viewed on the Mail Statistics tab. For details, see “Viewing the email statistics” on page 173.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
Fortinet RSS Feed widget
The Fortinet RSS Feed widget provides a convenient display of the latest security advisories
and discovered threats from Fortinet.
To view the widget, go to Monitor > System Status > Status. If the widget is not currently shown,
click Add Content, and mark the check box for the widget.
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Viewing the email statistics
The Mail Statistics tab contains summaries of the numbers of email messages in each time
period that the FortiMail unit detected as containing viruses, spam, or neither.
For email messages classified as spam, mail statistics include which FortiMail feature classified
the email as spam, such as Bayesian antispam databases, access control rules, the
system-wide block list, or email user-configured block lists.
For email not classified as spam by any antispam scan, mail statistics label it as Not Spam.
In addition to viewing overall trends via the graph, you can also view details at each point in
time. To view these details, hover your mouse over a bar in the graph. A tool tip appears next to
that point on the graph, including the name of the antispam category, message count, and
percentage relative to the overall mail volume at that time.
To use the Mail Statistics tab, first configure your FortiMail unit to detect spam and/or viruses.
For more information, see “Configuring profiles” on page 462 and “Configuring policies” on
page 427.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view mail statistics, go to Monitor > System Status > Mail Statistics.
Viewing the list of current IP sessions
The Sessions tab displays information about the TCP sessions in established state, to and from
the FortiMail unit.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the session list, go to Monitor > System Status > Sessions.
Using the CLI Console
Go to Monitor > System Status > Console to access the CLI without exiting from the web UI.
You can click the Open in New Window button to move the CLI Console into a pop-up window
that you can resize and reposition.
For more information about CLI commands, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
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Managing the deferred mail queue
The FortiMail unit prioritizes the mail queue into two types:
• Regular mail queue
When the initial attempt to deliver an email fails, the FortiMail unit moves the email to the
regular mail queue.
• Slow mail queue
After another two failed delivery attempts, the FortiMail unit moves the email to the slow mail
queue. This allows the FortiMail unit to resend valid email quickly, instead of keep resending
invalid email (for example, email destined to an invalid MTA).
After the undelivered email remains in the deferred queue for five minutes, the mail appears
under Monitor > Mail Queue > Mail Queue. This also means that email staying in the deferred
queue for less than five minutes does not appear on the Mail Queue tab.
Delivery failure can be caused by temporary reasons such as interruptions to network
connectivity. FortiMail units will periodically retry delivery. (Administrators can also manually
initiate a retry.) If the email is subsequently sent successfully, the FortiMail unit simply removes
the email from the queue. It does not notify the sender. But if delivery continues to be deferred,
the FortiMail unit eventually sends an initial delivery status notification (DSN) email message to
notify the sender that delivery has not yet succeeded. Finally, if the FortiMail unit cannot send
the email message by the end of the time limit for delivery retries, the FortiMail unit sends a final
DSN to notify the sender about the delivery failure and deletes the email message from the
deferred queue. If the sender cannot receive this notification, such as if the sender’s SMTP
server is unreachable or if the sender address is invalid or empty, the FortiMail unit will save a
copy of the email in the dead mail folder. For more information, see “Managing undeliverable
mail” on page 175.
For information on configuring the delivery retry interval, maximum amount of time that an email
message can spend in a queue, and DSN timing, see “Configuring mail server settings” on
page 344.
When you delete a deferred email, the FortiMail unit sends an email message, with the deleted
email attached to it, to notify the sender.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view, delete, or resend an email in the deferred mail queue, go to Monitor > Mail Queue >
Mail Queue.
To reduce the amount of hard disk space consumed by quarantined mail, regularly release or
delete the contents of each recipient’s quarantine.
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Table 11:Managing the deferred mail queue
GUI item
Description
View (button)
Select a message and click View to see its contents.
Delete (button) Click to deleted the selected item.
Resend
(button)
Mark the check boxes of the rows corresponding to the email messages that
you want to immediately retry to send, then click Resend.
To determine if these retries succeeded, click Refresh. If a retry succeeds, the
email will no longer appear in either the deferred mail queue or the dead mail
folder. Otherwise, the retry has failed.
Type
Select the directionality and priority level of email to filter the mail queue
display. For details about email directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing
email messages” on page 428.
• Default: Displays all email in the regular mail queue.
• Incoming: Only displays the incoming email in the regular mail queue.
• Outgoing: Only displays the outgoing email in the regular mail queue.
• IBE: Only displays the IBE email in the regular mail queue. For information
about IBE email, see “Configuring IBE encryption” on page 335.
• Default-slow: Displays all email in the slow mail queue.
• Incoming-slow: Displays the incoming email in the slow mail queue.
• Outgoing-slow: Displays the outgoing email in the slow mail queue.
• IBE-slow: Displays the IBE email in the slow mail queue.
Search
(button)
Select to filter the mail queue display by entering criteria that email must
match in order to be visible.
Session ID
Lists the Session-Id: message header of the email.
Envelope
From
Lists the sender (MAIL FROM:) of the email.
Envelope To
Lists the recipient (RCPT TO:) of the email.
Subject
Lists the email subjects.
Reason
Lists the reasons why the email has been deferred, such as DNS lookup failure
or refused connections.
First
Processed
Lists the date and time that the FortiMail unit first tried to send the email.
Last
Processed
Lists the date and time that the FortiMail unit last tried to send the email.
Tries
Lists the number of times that the FortiMail unit has tried to send the email.
Managing undeliverable mail
The Dead Mail tab displays the list of email messages in the dead mail folder.
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Unlike the deferred mail queue, the dead mail folder contains copies of delivery status
notification (DSN) email messages, also called non-delivery reports (NDR).
DSN messages are sent from the FortiMail unit ("postmaster") to an email’s sender when the
email is considered to be more permanently undeliverable because all previous retry attempts of
the deferred email message have failed. These email messages from "postmaster" include a
copy of the original email message for which the DSN was generated.
If an email cannot be sent nor a DSN returned to the sender, it is usually because both the
recipient and sender addresses are invalid. Such email messages are often sent by spammers
who know the domain name of an SMTP server but not the names of its email users, and are
attempting to send spam by guessing at valid recipient email addresses.
The FortiMail unit can automatically delete old dead mail. For details, see “Configuring mail
queue setting” on page 348.
Alternatively, you can:
• To prevent dead mail to invalid recipients, enable recipient address verification to reject email
with invalid recipients. Rejecting email with invalid recipients also prevents quarantine
mailboxes for invalid recipients from consuming hard disk space. For details, see “Configuring
recipient address verification” on page 365.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view or delete undeliverable email, go to Monitor > Mail Queue > Dead Mail.
Viewing the FortiGuard outbreak protection mail queue
If you enabled spam outbreak protection in an antispam profile, FortiMail will temporarily hold
suspicious email for a certain period of time (configuragle with CLI command config system
fortiguard antispam set outbreak-protection-period) if the enabled FortiGuard
antispam check (block IP and/or URI filter) returns no result. After the specified time interval,
FortiMail will query the FortiGuard server for the second time. This provides an opportunity for
the FortiGuard antispam service to update its database in cases a spam outbreak occurs.
To view the email on hold, go to Monitor > Mail Queue > FortiGuard Outbreak Protection.
Viewing the FortiSandbox mail queue
The FortiSandbox unit is used for automated sample tracking, or sandboxing. You can send
suspicious email attachments to FortiSandbox for inspection when you configure antivirus
profiles (see “Managing antivirus profiles” on page 501). If the file exhibits risky behavior, or is
found to contain a virus, the result will be sent back to FortiMail and a new virus signature is
created and added to the FortiGuard antivirus signature database as well. For more information
about FortiSandbox, please visit Fortinet’s web site at http://www.fortinet.com.
To view the email waiting to be sent to FortiSandbox, go to Monitor > Mail Queue >
FortiSandbox.
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Managing the quarantines
You can quarantine email messages based on the message content, such as whether the email
is spam or contains a prohibited word or phrase. FortiMail units have two types of quarantine:
• Personal quarantine
Quarantines email messages into separate folders for each recipient address in each
protected domain. The FortiMail unit periodically sends quarantine reports to notify
recipients, their designated group owner, and/or another email address of the email
messages that were added to the quarantine folder for that recipient. See “Managing the
personal quarantines” on page 177.
• System quarantine
Quarantines email messages into a system-wide quarantine. Unlike the per-recipient
quarantine, the FortiMail unit does not send a quarantine report. The FortiMail administrator
should review the quarantined email messages to decide if they should be released or
deleted. See “Managing the system quarantine” on page 180.
To quarantine spam and/or email with prohibited content, you must select a quarantine action in
an antispam profile or content profile. For details, see “Configuring antispam profiles and
antispam action profiles” on page 483 and “Configuring content profiles and content action
profiles” on page 506.
All FortiMail models can be configured to remotely store their quarantined email messages in a
centralized quarantine hosted on a FortiMail-2000 model or greater. For more information, see
“Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
Managing the personal quarantines
The Personal Quarantine tab displays a list of personal quarantines, also called per-recipient
quarantines.
In advanced mode, when incoming email matches a policy that directs quarantined email to the
personal quarantine, the FortiMail unit will save the email to its hard drive and not deliver it to
the recipient. Instead, the FortiMail unit will periodically send a quarantine report to email users,
their designated group owner, or another recipient (if you have configured one using the
advanced mode of the web UI).
In basic mode, incoming quarantined email also is kept on the FortiMail unit’s hard drive.
The quarantine report, by default sent once a day at 9 AM, lists all email messages that were
withheld since the previous quarantine report. Using the quarantine report, email users can
review email message details and release any email messages that are false positives by
clicking the link associated with them. The email message will then be released from quarantine
and delivered to the email user’s inbox. Using the web UI, FortiMail administrators can also
manually release or delete quarantined email. For more information on deleting email that has
been quarantined to the per-recipient quarantine, see “Managing the personal quarantines” on
page 177. For information on configuring the schedule and recipients of the quarantine report,
see “Configuring global quarantine report settings” on page 575.
You can configure the FortiMail unit to send email to the per-recipient quarantine by selecting
Quarantine in action profiles, content profiles and antispam profiles. For more information, see
“Configuring antispam action profiles” on page 496 and “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
Unlike the system-wide quarantine, the per-recipient quarantine can be accessed remotely by
email users so that they can manage their own quarantined email. For information on
configuring remote per-recipient quarantine access, see “How to enable, configure, and use
personal quarantines” on page 178.
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To reduce the amount of hard disk space consumed by quarantined mail, regularly release or
delete the contents of each recipient’s quarantine.
Email users can also manage their own per-recipient quarantines through quarantine reports.
For more information, see “Releasing and deleting email via quarantine reports” on page 582.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have
Read-Write permission to the Quarantine category. For details, see “About administrator
account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the list of per-recipient quarantine folders for a protected domain
1. Go to Monitor > Quarantine > Personal Quarantine.
2. Select the name of a protected domain from Domain.
You can view, delete, and release email that has been quarantined to each personal quarantine
mailbox.
To reduce the amount of hard disk space consumed by quarantined mail, regularly release or
delete the contents of each recipient’s quarantine.
Email users can also manage their own per-recipient quarantines through quarantine reports.
For more information, see “Releasing and deleting email via quarantine reports” on page 582.
To view email messages inside a personal quarantine mailbox
1. Go to Monitor > Quarantine > Personal Quarantine.
2. Double-click the row corresponding to that mailbox.
3. To view an email in the mailbox, double-click it.
How to enable, configure, and use personal quarantines
In general, to use personal quarantines, you should complete the following:
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1. Configure the host name and mail queue of the FortiMail unit. For details, see “Configuring
mail server settings” on page 344.
If you want to specify an alternate FQDN that will be used only by web release/delete URLs
in HTML-formatted quarantine reports, see “Web release host name/IP” on page 577. This
FQDN should be globally resolvable.
2. Select the recipients, delivery schedule, and release methods of the quarantine report. For
details, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358 for quarantine report settings that
are domain-specific, or “Configuring global quarantine report settings” on page 575 for
quarantine report settings that are system-wide.
3. If email users will release/delete email from their quarantine by sending email, configure the
user name portion (also known as the local-part) for the quarantine control email addresses.
(The domain-part will be the local domain name of the FortiMail unit.) For details, see
“Configuring the quarantine control accounts” on page 585.
4. For gateway mode or transparent mode, configure authentication profiles that will allow
email users to authenticate when accessing their per-recipient quarantine. Alternatively, if
email users require only HTTP/HTTPS access, you may configure PKI user accounts.
For server mode, configure the email user accounts. Email users can authenticate using this
account to access their per-recipient quarantine.
For details, see “Workflow to enable and configure authentication of email users” on
page 519.
You can allow unauthenticated HTTP/HTTPS access to the per-recipient quarantine during a
limited period following the sending of the quarantine report. For details, see “Time limited
access without authentication” on page 576 and “Expiry period” on page 577.
5. Enable quarantine reports in each email user’s preferences. Both FortiMail administrators
and email users can do this. For details, see “Configuring user preferences” on page 406, or
the online help for FortiMail webmail and per-recipient quarantines.
6. If the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode and you want to enable web release/delete,
configure resource profiles in which “Webmail access” is enabled.
7. Enable the Personal quarantine and Send quarantine report option in incoming antispam
and/or content profiles. If you want to allow email users to release and/or delete email from
their quarantine by email or web release/delete, also enable Email release and Web release.
For details, see “Configuring antispam action profiles” on page 496 and/or “Configuring
content action profiles” on page 513.
8. Select the antispam and/or content profiles in incoming recipient-based policies. If you
configured a resource profile in step 6, also select the resource profile.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway or transparent mode and you want to enable web
release/delete, enable Allow quarantined email access through webmail in each incoming
recipient-based policy.
For details, see “Controlling email based on recipient addresses” on page 442.
9. Either email users or FortiMail administrators can manage email in the per-recipient
quarantines. For details, see “Managing the personal quarantines” on page 177 and
“Releasing and deleting email via quarantine reports” on page 582.
Searching email in the personal quarantine
You can search the personal quarantine for email messages based on their contents, senders,
recipients, and time frames, across any or all protected domains.
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The search action involves the following steps:
• Create a search task, where you can specify search criteria.
• Execute and view the search results.
See below for detailed instructions.
To search the personal quarantine
1. Go to Monitor > Quarantine > Personal Quarantine.
2. Click Search. The Personal Quarantine Search tab appears, displaying all search tasks, if
there are any.
3. Click New to add a search task.
A dialog appears.
4. Configure the search criteria.
Email messages must match all criteria that you configure to be included in the search
results. For example, if you configure From and Subject, only email messages matching
both From and Subject will be included in the search results.
5. Click Create to execute and save the task. The task name is the time when the task is
created. The Personal Quarantine Search tab displays the search tasks and their search
status as follows:
• Done: the FortiMail unit has finished the search. You can click the View Search Result
button to view the search results.
• Pending: the search task is in the waiting list.
• Running: the search task is still running. You can choose to stop the task by clicking the
Stop button.
• Stopped: the search task is stopped. You can choose to resume the task by clicking the
Resume button.
Managing the system quarantine
The System Quarantine tab displays the system quarantine.
Unlike the per-recipient quarantine, the system quarantine cannot be accessed remotely by
email users. Also, they do not receive quarantine reports for email held in the system quarantine
and cannot manage the system quarantine themselves. A FortiMail administrator should
periodically review the contents of the system quarantine. Alternatively, you can configure a
special-purpose system quarantine administrator for this task. For more information, see
“Configuring the system quarantine settings” on page 584.
To reduce the amount of hard disk space consumed by the system quarantine, regularly release
or delete items from the system quarantine.
By default, the system quarantine is not used until you configure the FortiMail unit to send
per-recipient quarantine to system quarantine by selecting System quarantine in antivirus action
profiles, content action profiles, and antispam action profiles. For more information, see
“Configuring antivirus action profiles” on page 503, “Configuring antispam action profiles” on
page 496 and “Configuring content action profiles” on page 513.
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To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Quarantine category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and manage system quarantine folders
1. Go to Monitor > Quarantine > System Quarantine.
2. From the Folder dropdown list, select which type of quarantined email you want to view:
• Content -- these are the email messages caught by content profiles.
• Virus -- these are the email messages caught by antivirus profiles.
• Bulk -- these are the email messages caught by antispam profiles.
GUI item
Description
Delete (button)
Click to delete the selected item.
Compact
(button)
Select the check boxes of each email user whose quarantine folder you
want to compact and click Compact.
For performance reasons, when you delete an email, it is marked for
deletion but not actually removed from the hard disk at that time, and so
still consumes some disk space. Compaction reclaims this hard disk
space.
Note: FortiMail updates folder sizes once an hour. The reduction in folder
size is not immediately reflected after compacting.
Mailbox
Lists the current mailbox, which is named Inbox. Older system quarantine
mailboxes, also called rotated folders, are named according to their
creation date and the rename date. For information on configuring rotation
of the system quarantine mailbox, see “Configuring the system quarantine
settings” on page 584.
To view email messages quarantined in that mailbox, double-click its row.
For more information, see “Managing the system quarantine” on
page 180.
Size
Lists the size of the quarantine folder in kilobytes (KB).
Note: Mailbox sizes are updated once an hour.
Message
Count
Lists the total number of quarantined messages in the mailbox.
You can also configure a system quarantine administrator account whose exclusive purpose is
to manage the system quarantine. For more information, see “Configuring the system
quarantine settings” on page 584.
3. Double-click a system quarantine mailbox.
You can view, delete, release, and forward email in the system quarantine.
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GUI item
Description
View (button)
To view a message, either double-click it, or mark its check box and
click View.
Delete (button)
Click to delete the selected item.
Release
(button)
To release all email messages in the current view, mark the top check
box and click Release.
To release individual email messages, mark their check boxes and
click Release.
In the pop-up window, you can select to release email to the original
recipient and/or to other recipients. If want to release email to other
recipients, enter the email addresses. You can add up to five email
addresses.
Back
(button)
Click to return to viewing the list of system quarantine folders.
Filter
User the filter to display the released or unreleased email only.
By default, FortiMail only displays the unreleased email.
Search
(button)
Click to search the system quarantine folder that you are currently
viewing. For details, see “Searching email in the system quarantine”
on page 183.
Subject
Lists the subject line of the email. Click to display the email message.
From
Lists the display name of the sender as it appears in the message
header, such as "User 1".
To
Lists the display name of the recipient as it appears in the message
header, such as "User 2".
Rcpt To
Lists the user name portion (also known as the local-part) of the
recipient email address (RCPT TO:) as it appears in the message
envelope, such as user2 where the full recipient email address is
user2@example.com.
Received
Lists the time that the email was received.
Size
Lists the size of the email message in kilobytes (KB).
4. Double-click an email message to open it.
The email message appears, including basic message headers such as the subject and
date.
5. Select the action that you want to perform on the quarantined email.
• To view additional message headers, click the + button, then click Detailed Header.
• To release the email message to its recipient, click Release.
• To download the email message from the quarantine, click Download.
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Searching email in the system quarantine
You can search a system quarantine folder (content, virus or bulk) for email messages based on
their message body content and message headers.
The search process is similar to the personal quarantine search. For details, see “Searching
email in the personal quarantine” on page 179.
Viewing the greylist statuses
The Greylist submenu lets you monitor automatic greylisting exemptions, and email currently
experiencing temporary failure of delivery due to greylisting.
Greylisting exploits the tendency of legitimate email servers to retry email delivery after an initial
temporary failure, while spammers will typically abandon further delivery attempts to maximize
spam throughput. The greylist scanner replies with a temporary failure for all email messages
whose combination of sender email address, recipient email address, and SMTP client IP
address is unknown. If an SMTP server retries to send the email message after the required
greylist delay but before expiry, the FortiMail unit accepts the email and adds the combination
of sender email address, recipient email address, and SMTP client IP address to the list of those
known by the greylist scanner. Subsequent known email messages are accepted. For details
on the greylisting mechanism, see “About greylisting” on page 595.
To use greylisting, you must enable the greylist scan in the antispam profile. For more
information, see “Managing antispam profiles” on page 483.
Enabling greylisting can improve performance by blocking most spam before it undergoes
other, more resource-intensive antispam scans.
Greylisting is bypassed if the SMTP client establishes an authenticated session (see
“Controlling email based on recipient addresses” on page 442, and “Controlling email based on
IP addresses” on page 450), or if the matching access control rule’s Action is RELAY (see
“Order of execution” on page 17).
You can configure the initial delay associated with greylisting, and manually exempt senders.
For details, see “Configuring the grey list TTL and initial delay” on page 599 and “Manually
exempting senders from greylisting” on page 601.
Viewing the pending and individual automatic greylist entries
The Display tab lets you view pending and individual automatic greylist entries.
• Pending greylist entries are those whose Status is not PASSTHROUGH. For email messages
matching pending greylist entries, the FortiMail unit will reply to delivery attempts with a
temporary failure code until the greylist delay period, indicated by Time to passthrough, has
elapsed.
• Individual greylist entries are those whose Status is PASSTHROUGH. For email messages
matching pending greylist entries, the greylist scanner will allow the delivery attempt, and
may create a consolidated automatic greylist entry. For information on consolidated entries,
see “Viewing the consolidated automatic greylist exemptions” on page 186.
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To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the greylist, go to Monitor > Greylist > Display.
Table 12:Viewing the list of pending and individual greylist entries
GUI item
Description
Search
(button)
Click to filter the displayed entries. For details, see “Filtering pending and
individual automatic greylist entries” on page 185.
IP
Lists the IP address of the SMTP client that delivered or attempted to
deliver the email message.
If the displayed entries are currently restricted by a search filter, a filter
icon appears in the column heading. To remove the search filter, click the
tab to refresh the display.
Sender
Lists the sender email address in the message envelope (MAIL FROM:),
such as user1@example.com.
If the displayed entries are currently restricted by a search filter, a filter
icon appears in the column heading. To remove the search filter, click the
tab to refresh the display.
Recipient
Lists the recipient email address in the message envelope (RCPT TO:),
such as user1@example.com.
If the displayed entries are currently restricted by a search filter, a filter
icon appears in the column heading. To remove the search filter, click the
tab to refresh the display.
Status
Lists the current action of the greylist scanner when the FortiMail unit
receives a delivery attempt for an email message matching the entry.
• TEMPFAIL: The greylisting delay period has not yet elapsed, and the
FortiMail unit currently replies to delivery attempts with a temporary
failure code. For information on configuring the greylist delay period,
see “Configuring the grey list TTL and initial delay” on page 599.
• PASSTHROUGH: The greylisting delay period has elapsed, and the
greylist scanner will allow delivery attempts.
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Table 12:Viewing the list of pending and individual greylist entries
Time to
passthrough
Lists the time and date when the greylisting delay period for a pending
entry is scheduled to elapse. Delivery attempts after this date and time
confirm the pending greylist entry, and the greylist scanner converts it to
an individual automatic greylist entry. The greylist scanner may also
consolidate individual greylist entries. For information on consolidated
entries, see “Viewing the consolidated automatic greylist exemptions” on
page 186.
N/A appears if the greylisting period has already elapsed.
Expire
Lists the time and date when the entry will expire. The greylist entry’s
expiry time is determined by the following two factors:
• Initial expiry period: After a greylist entry passes the greylist delay
period and its status is changed to PASSTHROUGH, the entry’s initial
expiry time is determined by the time you set with the CLI command
set greylist-init-expiry-period under config antispam
settings (for details, see the FortiMail CLI Reference). The default
initial expiry time is 4 hours. If the initial expiry time elapses without an
email message matching the automatic greylist entry, the entry
expires. But the entry will not be removed.
• TTL: Between the entry’s PASSTHROUGH time and initial expiry time,
if the entry is hit again (the sender retries to send the message again),
the entry’s expiry time will be reset by adding the TTL value (time to
live) to the message’s “Received” time. Each time an email message
matches the entry, the life of the entry is prolonged; in this way, entries
that are in active use do not expire. If the TTL elapses without an email
message matching the automatic greylist entry, the entry expires. But
the entry will not be removed. For information on configuring the TTL,
see “Configuring the grey list TTL and initial delay” on page 599.
Filtering pending and individual automatic greylist entries
You can filter the greylist entries on the Display tab based on sender email address, recipient
email address, and/or the IP address of the SMTP client.
To filter the greylist entries
1. Go to Monitor > Greylist > Display.
2. Click Search.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure one or more of the following:
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GUI item
Description
Field
Select one of the following columns in the greylist entries that you want
to use to filter the display.
• IP
• Sender
• Recipient
Operation
Select how the column’s contents will be matched, such as whether the
row must contain the Value.
Case Sensitive
Enable for case-sensitive filtering.
Value
Enter a pattern or exact value based on your selection in Field and
Operation.
• IP: Enter the IP address of the SMTP client, such as 172.16.1.10.
• Sender: Enter the complete sender email address in the message
envelope (MAIL FROM:), such as user1@example.com.
• Recipient: Enter the complete recipient email address in the
message envelope (RCPT TO:), such as user1@example.com.
Use an asterisk (*) to match multiple patterns, such as typing user* to match
user1@example.com, user2@example.net, and so forth. Blank fields match any value.
Regular expressions are not supported.
4. Click Search.
The Display tab appears again, but its contents are restricted to entries that match your filter
criteria. To remove the filter criteria and display all entries, click the Display tab to refresh its
view.
Viewing the consolidated automatic greylist exemptions
The Auto Exempt tab displays consolidated automatic greylist entries.
The FortiMail unit creates consolidated greylist entries from individual automatic greylist entries
that meet consolidation requirements. For more information on individual automatic greylist
entries, see “Viewing the pending and individual automatic greylist entries” on page 183. For
more information on consolidation requirements, see “Automatic greylist entries” on page 598.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the list of consolidated entries, go to Monitor > Greylist > Auto Exempt.
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Table 13:Auto Exempt tab options
GUI item
Description
Search
(button)
Click to filter the displayed entries.
IP
Lists the /24 subnet of the IP address of the SMTP client that delivered or
attempted to deliver the email message.
If the displayed entries are currently restricted by a search filter, a filter
icon appears in the column heading. To remove the search filter, click the
tab to refresh the display.
Sender
Lists the domain name portion of the sender email address in the
message envelope (MAIL FROM:), such as example.com.
If the displayed entries are currently restricted by a search filter, a filter
icon appears in the column heading. To remove the search filter, click the
tab to refresh the display.
Expire
Lists the time and date when the entry will expire, determined by adding
the TTL value to the time the last matching message was received. For
information on configuring the TTL, see “Configuring the grey list TTL and
initial delay” on page 599.
Viewing the sender reputation statuses
The FortiMail unit tracks SMTP client behavior to limit deliveries of those clients sending
excessive spam messages, infected email, or messages to invalid recipients. Should clients
continue delivering these types of messages, their connection attempts are temporarily or
permanently rejected. Sender reputation is managed by the FortiMail unit and requires no
administration.
Monitor > Sender Reputation > Display displays the sender reputation score for each SMTP
client.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
For more information on enabling sender reputation and configuring the score thresholds, see
“Configuring sender reputation options” on page 464.
To view the sender reputation scores, go to Monitor > Sender Reputation > Display.
Table 14:Viewing the sender reputation statuses
GUI item
Description
Search
Click to filter the displayed entries. For more information, see “Filtering
sender reputation score entries” on page 189.
(button)
IP
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The IP address of the SMTP client.
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Table 14:Viewing the sender reputation statuses
GUI item
Description
Score
The SMTP client’s current sender reputation score.
State
Lists the action that the sender reputation feature is currently performing for
delivery attempts from the SMTP client.
• Score controlled: The action is determined by comparing the current
Score value to the thresholds in the session profile.
Last Modified
Lists the time and date the sender reputation score was most recently
modified.
Sender reputation is a predominantly automatic antispam feature, requiring little or no
maintenance. For each connecting SMTP client (sometimes called a sender), the sender
reputation feature records the sender IP address and the number of good email and bad email
from the sender.
In this case, bad email is defined as:
• Spam
• Virus-infected
• Unknown recipients
• Invalid DKIM
• Failed SPF check
The sender reputation feature calculates the sender’s current reputation score using the ratio of
good email to bad email. and performs an action based on that score.
The FortiMail unit calculates the sender reputation score using statistics up to 12 hours old, with
more recent statistics influencing the score more than older statistics. The sender reputation
score decreases (improves) as time passes where the sender has not sent spam. The score
itself ranges from 0 to 100, with 0 representing a completely acceptable sender, and 100 being
a totally unacceptable sender.
To determine which action the FortiMail unit will perform after it calculates the sender reputation
score, the FortiMail unit compares the score to three score thresholds which you can configure
in the session profile:
1. Throttle client at: For scores less than this threshold, senders are allowed to deliver email
without restrictions. For scores greater than this threshold but less than the temporary fail
threshold, senders are rate-limited in the number of email messages that they can deliver per
hour, expressed as either an absolute number or as a percentage of the number sent during
the previous hour. If a sender exceeds the limit and keeps sending email, the FortiMail unit
will send temporary failure codes to the sender. See descriptions for Temporary fail in
“Configuring sender reputation options” on page 464.
2. Temporarily fail: For scores greater than this threshold but less than the reject threshold, the
FortiMail unit replies to senders with a temporary failure code, delaying delivery and
requiring senders to retry later when their score is reduced.
3. Reject: For scores greater than this threshold, the FortiMail unit replies to senders with a
rejection code.
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If the SMTP client does not attempt any email deliveries for more than 12 hours, the SMTP
client’s sender reputation entry is deleted, and a subsequent delivery attempt is regarded as a
new SMTP client by the sender reputation feature.
Although sender reputation entries are used for only 12 hours after last delivery attempt, the
entry may still appear in list of sender reputation scores.
Filtering sender reputation score entries
You can filter sender reputation score entries that appear on the Display tab based on the IP
address of the SMTP client, the score, state, and date/time of the last score modification.
To filter the sender reputation score entries
1. Go to Monitor > Sender Reputation > Display.
2. Click Search.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure one or more of the following:
GUI item
Description
Field
Select one of the following in the entries that you want to use to filter the
display.
• IP
• Score
• State
• Last Modified
Operation
Select how to match the field’s contents, such as whether the row must
contain the contents of Value.
Case Sensitive
Enable for case-sensitive filtering.
Value
Enter a pattern or exact value, based on your selection in Field and
Operation.
• IP: Enter the IP address of the SMTP client, such as 172.16.1.10,
for the entry that you want to display.
• Score: Enter the minimum and maximum of the range of scores of
entries that you want to display.
• State: Select the State of entries that you want to display.
• Last modified: Select the year, month, day, and/or hour before or
after the Last Modified value of entries that you want to display.
Blank fields match any value. Regular expressions and wild cards are not supported.
4. Click Search.
The Display tab appears again, but its contents are restricted to entries that match your filter
criteria. To remove the filter criteria and display all entries, click the Display tab to refresh its
view.
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Viewing the endpoint reputation statuses
Go to Monitor > Endpoint Reputation > Auto Blocklist to view the current list of carrier end
points (by their MSISDN, subscriber ID, or other identifier) that were caught by FortiMail for
sending spam. For general procedures about how to configure endpoint reputation, see
“Configuring endpoint reputation” on page 610.
If a carrier end point has attempted to deliver during the automatic blocklisting window a
number of spam text messages that is greater than the automatic endpoint blocklisting
threshold, FortiMail unit adds the carrier end point to the automatic endpoint block list for the
duration configured in the session profile. While the carrier end point is on the automatic block
list and it does not expire, all text messages or email messages from it will be rejected. For
information on configuring the automatic block list window, see “Configuring the endpoint
reputation score window” on page 614. For information on enabling the endpoint reputation
scan and configuring the automatic block list threshold in a session profile, see “Configuring
session profiles” on page 462.
You can alternatively blocklist MSISDNs/subscriber IDs manually. For more information, see
“Manually blocklisting endpoints” on page 612.
You can exempt MSISDNs/subscriber IDs from automatic blocklisting. For more information,
see “Exempting endpoints from endpoint reputation” on page 612.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Block/Safe List category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the automatic endpoint reputation block list, go to Monitor > Endpoint Reputation >
Auto Blocklist.
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Table 15:Auto Blocklist tab
GUI item
Description
Move
(button)
To move entries to the manual endpoint block list or safe list, in the check
box column, mark the check boxes of entries that you want to move, then
click Move.
Search
(button)
Click to filter the displayed entries. For more information, see “Filtering
automatic endpoint block list entries” on page 191.
Endpoint ID
Lists the mobile subscriber IDSN (MSISDN), subscriber ID, login ID, or
other unique identifier for the carrier end point.
Score
Lists the number of text messages or email messages that the FortiMail
has detected as spam or infected from the MSISDN/subscriber ID during
the automatic endpoint block list window.
Expire
Lists the time at which the automatic endpoint blocklisting entry expires
and is removed from the list.
N/A appears if the endpoint ID has not reached the threshold yet.
Filtering automatic endpoint block list entries
You can filter automatic endpoint block list entries that appear on the Auto Blocklist tab based
on the MSISDN, subscriber ID, or other sender identifier.
To filter the endpoint block list entries
1. Go to Monitor > Endpoint Reputation > Auto Blocklist.
2. Click Search.
GUI item
Description
Field
Displays one option: Endpoint ID.
Operation
Select how to match the field’s contents, such as whether the row must
contain the contents of Value.
Case Sensitive
Enable for case-sensitive filtering.
Value
Enter the identifier of the carrier end point, such as the subscriber ID or
MSISDN, for the entry that you want to display.
A blank field matches any value. Use an asterisk (*) to match multiple
patterns, such as typing 46* to match 46701123456, 46701123457,
and so forth. Regular expressions are not supported.
3. Click Search.
The Auto Blocklist tab appears again, but its contents are restricted to entries that match
your filter criteria. To remove the filter criteria and display all entries, click the Auto Blocklist
tab to refresh its view.
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Managing archived email
You can archive email according to criteria you specify. For details, see “Email archiving
workflow” on page 628.
You can view and search archived email through the web UI. You can also download them,
forward them to an email address, and use them to train the Bayesian databases.
For more information on Bayesian database training, see “Training the Bayesian databases” on
page 616.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view archived email
1. Go to Monitor > Archive > Archive Accounts.
2. Select the email archive account you want to view and click View. For details about email
archive accounts, see “Configuring email archiving accounts” on page 628.
3. From the Archive Folder drop-down list, select Inbox to view the good mail mailboxes, or
select Bulk to view the spam mailboxes.
4. Double-click the name of the email archive mailbox that you want to view.
A list of archived email appears.
GUI item
Description
View
To view the message, click its check box and click View. You can also
view the message by double-clicking the message.
(button)
Send
(button)
Select the check box of each email that you want to send to an email
address as a mailbox (.mbox) file, then click this button.
Export
(button)
Select the check box of email that you want to download and click
Export to download a mailbox (.mbox) file or an archive (.tar.gz) file
containing individual email (.eml) files.
Train Bayesian
Database
(button)
Mark the check box of each email message to use to train Bayesian
databases then click this button. For more information, see “To train
Bayesian databases with archived mail” on page 192.
Back (button)
Click to return to the list of archive mailboxes.
To train Bayesian databases with archived mail
1. Go to Monitor > Archive > Archive Accounts.
2. Select the email archive account you want to view and click View. For details about email
archive accounts, see “Configuring email archiving accounts” on page 628.
3. From the Archive Folder drop-down list, select Inbox to view the good mail mailboxes, or
select Bulk to view the spam mailboxes.
4. Double-click the name of the email archive mailbox that you want to use to train the
Bayesian databases.
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5. In the check box column, mark the check box of each email that you want to use to train the
Bayesian databases. To use all messages for training, select the check box above the first
message to mark the check boxes of all email on the current page.
6. Click Train Bayesian Database.
7. Select whether to use the messages as spam or non-spam (known as innocent messages)
email.
8. Select the database you want to train: global or per-domain (group).
• Global requires no further information.
• For per-domain database training, select the domain.
9. Click Apply.
Searching the archived email
You can search the email archive for email messages based on their contents, senders,
recipients, and time frames.
You can search archived email in both the current mailbox and rotated mailboxes, whether
email is archived on the local disk or remote host. However, you can view only the archived
email in the current mailbox on the local disk.
The search action involves two steps:
• Create a search task, where you can specify search criteria.
• Execute the search and view the results.
See below for detailed instructions.
To search the email archives
1. Go to Monitor > Archive > Archive Accounts.
2. Select the email archive account you want to search and click View. For details about email
archive accounts, see “Configuring email archiving accounts” on page 628.
3. From the Archive Folder drop-down list, select Inbox to search the good mail mailboxes, or
select Bulk to search the spam mailboxes.
4. Click Search button.
A new tab called Archived Email Search appears, displaying all search tasks if there are any.
5. Click New to add a search task.
6. Configure the search criteria.
7. Click Create to execute and save the task. The task name is the time when the task is
created. The Archived Email Search tab displays the search tasks and their search status as
follows:
• Done: The FortiMail unit has finished the search. Click View Search Result to see the
search results.
• Pending: The search task is in the waiting list.
• Running: The search task is still running. Click Stop to pause the search.
• Stopped: The search task has stopped. Click Resume to restart the task.
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Viewing log messages
The Log submenu displays locally stored log files. If you configured the FortiMail unit to store
log messages locally (that is, to the hard disk), you can view the log messages currently stored
in each log file.
You can also view history log messages from the History Log widget in Monitor >
System Status > Status.
Logs stored remotely cannot be viewed from the web UI of the FortiMail unit. If you require the
ability to view logs from the web UI, also enable local storage. For details, see “Configuring
logging to the hard disk” on page 643.
The Log submenu includes the following tabs, one for each log type:
• History: Where you can view the log of sent and undelivered SMTP email messages.
• Event: Where you can view the log of administrator activities and system events.
• AntiSpam: Where you can view the log of email detected as spam.
• AntiVirus: Where you can view the log of email detected as infected by a virus.
• Encryption: Where you can view the log of IBE encryption. For more information about using
IBE, see “Configuring IBE encryption” on page 335.
For more information on log types, see “FortiMail log types” on page 638.
Each tab contains a similar display.
The lists are sorted by the time range of the log messages contained in the log file, with the
most recent log files appearing near the top of the list.
For example, the current log file would appear at the top of the list, above a rolled log file whose
time might range from 2008-05-08 11:59:36 Thu to 2008-05-29 10:44:02 Thu.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the list of log files and their contents
1. Go to Monitor > Log.
2. Click the tab corresponding to the type of log file that you want to view (History, Event,
AntiVirus, AntiSpam, or Encryption).
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GUI item
Description
Download
Click to download the report in one of several formats:
(button)
• Normal Format for a log file that can be viewed with a plain text
editor such as Microsoft Notepad.
• CSV Format for a comma-separated value (.csv) file that can be
viewed in a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel or
OpenOffice Calc.
• Compressed Format for a plain text log file like Normal Format,
except that it is compressed and stored within a .gz archive.
Search
(button)
Click to search all log files of this type.
Start Time
Lists the beginning of the log file’s time range.
End Time
Lists the end of the log file’s time range.
Size
Lists the size of the log file in bytes.
Unlike the search when viewing the contents of an individual log file,
this search displays results regardless of which log file contains them.
For more information, see “Searching log messages” on page 198.
3. To view messages contained in logs:
• double-click a log file to display the file’s log messages
To view the current page’s worth of the log messages as an HTML table, right-click and select
Export to Table. The table appears in a new tab. To download the table, click and drag to select
the whole table, then copy and paste it into a rich text editor such as Microsoft Word or
OpenOffice Writer.
• click a row to select its log file, click Download, then select a format option
Alternatively, to display a set of log messages that may reside in multiple, separate log files:
• If the log files are of the same type (for example, all antispam logs), click Search. For
details, see “Searching log messages” on page 198.
• If the log messages are of different types but all caused by the same email session ID,
you can do a cross-search to find and display all correlating log messages. For details,
see “Cross-searching log messages” on page 200.
For descriptions of individual log messages, see the FortiMail Log Message Reference.
Log messages can appear in either raw or formatted views.
• Raw view displays log messages exactly as they appear in the plain text log file.
• Formatted view displays log messages in a columnar format. Each log field in a log message
appears in its own column, aligned with the same field in other log messages, for rapid visual
comparison. When displaying log messages in formatted view, you can customize the log
view by hiding, displaying and arranging columns and/or by filtering columns, refining your
view to include only those log messages and fields that you want to see.
By default, log messages always appear in columnar format, with one log field per column.
However, when viewing this columnar display, you can also view the log message in raw format
by hovering your mouse over the index number of the log message, in the # column.
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When hovering your mouse cursor over a log message, that row is temporarily highlighted;
however, this temporary highlight automatically follows the cursor, and will move to a different
row if you move your mouse. To create a row highlight that does not move when you move your
mouse, click anywhere in the row of the log message.
For information on individual log messages, see the FortiMail Log Message Reference.
Displaying and arranging log columns
When viewing logs, you can display, hide, sort and re-order columns.
For most columns, you can also filter data within the columns to include or exclude log
messages which contain your specified text in that column. For more information, see
“Searching log messages” on page 198.
By default, each page’s worth of log messages is listed with the log message with the lowest
index number towards the top.
To sort the page’s entries in ascending or descending order
1. Click the column heading by which you want to sort.
The log messages are sorted in ascending order.
2. To sort in descending order, click the column heading again.
Depending on your currently selected theme:
• the column heading may darken in color to indicate which column is being used to sort
the page
• a small upwards-or downwards-pointing arrow may appear in the column heading next to
its name to indicate the current sort order.
To display or hide columns
1. Go to Monitor > Log.
2. Click one of the log type tabs: History, Event, AntiVirus, AntiSpam, or Encryption.
3. Double-click the row corresponding to time period whose log messages you want to view.
4. Position your mouse cursor over a column heading to display the down arrow on its
right-hand side, move your cursor over Columns to display the list of available columns, then
mark the check boxes of columns that you want to display.
Figure 65:Hiding and showing log columns
Make visible
Make invisible
5. Click Save View.
To change the order of the columns
1. Go to Monitor > Log.
2. Click a log type tab, such as History.
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3. Double-click the row corresponding to time period whose log messages you want to view.
4. For each column whose order you want to change, click and drag its column heading to the
left or right.
Figure 66:Re-ordering log columns
While dragging the column heading within the heading row, two arrows follow the column,
jumping to the nearest border between columns, indicating where the column will be
inserted if you release the mouse button at that time.
5. Click Save View.
Using the right-click pop-up menus
When you right-click on a log message, a context menu appears.
Figure 67:Using the right-click menus on log reports
Right-click pop-up menus
Table 16:Log report right-click menu options
Monitoring the system
GUI item
Description
View Details
Select to view the log message in a pop-up window.
Select All
Select to select all log messages in the current page, so that you can
export all messages to a table.
Clear Selection
Select to deselect one or multiple log messages.
Export to Table
Select to export the selected log messages to a table format. A new tab
named Exported Table appears, displaying the exported information. The
table format allows you to copy the information and paste it elsewhere.
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Table 16:Log report right-click menu options
Cross Search
(Session)
Select to search for the log messages triggered by the same SMTP
session. This may result in multiple email messages if multiple messages
were sent in the same SMTP session.search log messages by session ID
and message ID. For details, see “Cross-searching log messages” on
page 200.
Cross Search
(Message)
Select to search for the log messages triggered by the same email
message. For details, see “Cross-searching log messages” on page 200.
View Quarantined When viewing quarantine logs on the History tab, select to view the
Message
quarantined email message. For details about quarantined email, see
“Managing the quarantines” on page 177.
Release
Quarantined
Message
When viewing quarantine logs on the History tab, select one or multiple log
entries of the “Quarantine to Review” or “Quarantine” messages, then
from the right-click popup menu, select the Release Quarantined Message
option to release the selected message/messages. For details about
quarantined email, see “Managing the quarantines” on page 177.
Searching log messages
You can search logs to quickly find specific log messages in a log file, rather than browsing the
entire contents of the log file.
Search appearance varies by the log type.
Some email processing such as mail routing and subject-line tagging modifies the recipient
email address, the sender email address, and/or the subject line of an email message. If you
search for log messages by these attributes, enter your search criteria using text exactly as it
appears in the log messages, not in the email message. For example, you might send an email
message from sender@example.com; however, if you have configured mail routing on the
FortiMail unit or other network devices, this address, at the time it was logged by the FortiMail
unit, may have been sender-1@example.com. In that case, you would search for
sender-1@example.com instead of sender@example.com.
To search log messages
1. Go to Monitor > Log.
2. Click one of the log type tabs: History, Event, AntiVirus, AntiSpam, or Encryption.
3. To search all log files of that type, click Search.
To search one of the log files, first double-click the name of a log file to display the contents
of the log file, then click Search.
4. Enter your search criteria by configuring one or more of the following:
GUI item
Description
Keyword
Enter any word or words to search for within the log messages.
For example, you might enter starting daemon to locate all log
messages containing that exact phrase in any log field.
Message
Enter all or part of the message log field.
This option does not appear for history log searches.
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GUI item
Description
Subject
Enter all or part of the subject line of the email message as it appears in
the log message.
This option appears only for history log searches.
From
Enter all or part of the sender’s email address as it appears in the log
message.
This option does not appear for event log searches.
To
Enter all or part of the recipient’s email address as it appears in the log
message.
This option does not appear for event log searches.
Session ID
Enter all or part of the session ID in the log message.
Log ID
Enter all or part of the log ID in the log message.
Client name
(History log
search only)
Enter all or part of the domain name or IP address of the SMTP client. For
email users connecting to send email, this is usually an IP address rather
than a domain name. For SMTP servers connecting to deliver mail, this
may often be a domain name.
Classifier
Enter the classifier in the log message.
The classifier field displays which FortiMail scanner applies to the email
message. For example, Banned Word means the email messages was
detected by the FortiMail banned word scanning.
For information about classifiers, see “Classifiers and dispositions in
history logs” on page 639.
Disposition
Enter the disposition in the log message.
The disposition field specifies the action taken by the FortiMail unit.
For information about dispositions, see “Classifiers and dispositions in
history logs” on page 639.
Match condition • Contain: searches for the exact match.
• Wildcard: supports wildcards in the entered search criteria.
Time
Select the time span of log messages to include in the search results.
For example, you might want to search only log messages that were
recorded during the last 10 days and 8 hours previous to the current
date. In that case, you would specify the current date, and also specify
the size of the span of time (10 days and 8 hours) before that date.
5. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit searches your currently selected log file for log messages that match your
search criteria, and displays any matching log messages. For example, if you are currently
viewing a history log file, the search locates all matching log messages located in that
specific history log file.
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Cross-searching log messages
Since different types of log files record different events/activities, the same SMTP session (with
one or more email messages sent during the session) or the same email message may be
logged in different types of log files. For example, if the FortiMail units detects a virus in an email
messages, this event will be logged in the following types of log files:
• History log: because the history log records the metadata of all sent and undelivered email
messages.
• AntiVirus log: because a virus is detected. The antivirus log has more descriptions of the
virus than the history log does.
• Event log: because the FortiMail system’s antivirus process has been started and stopped.
To find and display all log messages triggered by the same SMTP session or the same email
message, you can use the cross-search feature.
The cross-search searches log files recorded five minutes before and after the log entry (this
design is for performance purpose). Therefore, the search may cover multiple log files but may
not cover all the related log files if any log files are recorded out of the ten minutes interval.
Figure 68:Sample log message cross-search results
To do a cross-search of the log messages
1. Go to Monitor > Log.
2. When viewing a log message on the History, Even, AntiVirus, or AntiSpam tab, right-click the
log message that has a message ID. From the pop-up menu, select:
• Cross Search (Session) to search for the log messages triggered by the same SMTP
session. This may result in multiple email messages if multiple messages were sent in the
same SMTP session.
• Cross Search (Message) to search for the log messages triggered by the same email
message.
You can also click the session ID of the log message to search for the log messages
triggered by the same SMTP session. This is equivalent to the Cross Search (Session)
pop-up menu.
All correlating history, event, antivirus and antispam log messages will appear in a new tab.
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Viewing generated reports
The Report tab displays the list of reports generated from the report profiles. You can delete,
view, and/or download generated reports.
In addition to viewing full reports, you can also view summary email statistics. For more
information, see “Viewing the email statistics” on page 173.
FortiMail units can generate reports automatically, according to the schedule that you configure
in the report profile, or manually, when you select a report profile and click Generate. For more
information, see “Configuring report profiles and generating reports” on page 647.
To reduce the amount of hard disk space consumed by reports, regularly download then delete
generated reports from the FortiMail unit.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and generate reports
1. Go to Monitor > Report > Report.
GUI item
Description
Delete (button)
Click to delete the selected item.
Download
Click to create a PDF version of the report.
(button)
Report File Name
Lists the name of the generated report, and the date and time at
which it was generated.
For example, Report 1-2008-03-31-2112 is a report named
Report 1, generated on March 31, 2008 at 9:12 PM.
To view an individual section of the report in HTML format, click + next
to the report name to expand the list of HTML files that comprise the
report, then double-click one of the file names.
Last Access Time
Lists the date and time when the FortiMail unit completed the
generated report.
Size
Lists the file size of the report in HTML format, in bytes.
2. To view the report in PDF file format, mark the check box in the corresponding row and click
Download. On the pop-up menu, select Download PDF.
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3. To view the report in HTML file format, you can view all sections of the report together, or you
can view report sections individually.
• To view all report sections together, mark the check box in the row corresponding to the
report, such as treportprofile-2011-06-27-1039, then click Download and select
Download HTML. Your browser downloads a file with an archive (.tgz.gz) file extension to
your management computer. To view the report, first extract the report files from the
archive, then open the HTML files in your web browser.
• Each Query Selection in the report becomes a separate HTML file. You can view the
report as individual HTML files. In the row corresponding to the report that you want to
view, click + next to the report name to expand the list of sections, then double-click the
file name of the section that you want to view, such as Spam_Recipient.html. The
report appears in a new browser window.
Figure 69:Viewing a generated report (HTML file format, Mail by Sender)
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Maintaining the system
The Maintenance menu contains features for use during scheduled maintenance: updates,
backups, restoration, and centralized administration.
Also use it to configure FortiGuard Antispam query connectivity.
The Maintenance menu also lets you install firmware using one of the possible methods. For
information on this and other installation methods and preparation, see “Installing firmware” on
page 656.
This section includes:
• Backup and restore
• Using the traffic capture
• Configuring FortiGuard updates and antispam queries
Backup and restore
Before installing FortiMail firmware or making significant configuration changes, back up your
FortiMail configuration. Backups let you revert to your previous configuration if the new
configuration does not function correctly. Backups let you compare changes in configuration.
A complete configuration backup consists of several parts:
• core configuration file (fml.cfg), including the local certificates
• Bayesian databases
• mail queues
• system, per-domain, and per-user block/safe list databases
• email users’ address books
• images and language files for customized appearance of the web UI and webmail
To access those parts of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to all categories
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
In addition, although they are not part of the configuration, you may want to back up the
following data:
• email archives
• log files
• generated report files
• mailboxes
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To back up the configuration file
Although mailboxes and quarantines cannot be downloaded to your management computer,
you can configure the FortiMail unit to back up mail data by storing it externally, on a NAS
server. For details, see “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Configuration.
2. In the Backup Configuration area:
• Enable System configuration.
• Click Backup.
Your management computer downloads the configuration file. Time required varies by the size
of the file and the speed of your network connection. You can restore the backup configuration
later when required. For details, see “Restoring the configuration” on page 662.
To back up the Bayesian databases
1. Go to Maintenance > AntiSpam > Database Maintenance.
2. Click Backup Bayesian database.
Your management computer downloads the database file. Time required varies by the size of
the file and the speed of your network connection.
To back up the mail queues
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Mail Queue.
2. Click Backup Queue.
Your management computer downloads the database file. Time required varies by the size of
the file and the speed of your network connection.
To back up the block/safe list database
1. Go to Maintenance > AntiSpam > Block/Safe List Maintenance.
2. Click Export Block/Safe List.
The database will be saved on your management computer as a .fml file. This database file
contains the system-wide, per-domain and per-user block lists and safe lists.
To import the block/safe list database
1. Go to Maintenance > AntiSpam > Block/Safe List Maintenance.
2. Click Import Block/Safe List.
The file to be imported must be the .fml file that has been exported from FortiMail.
To back up email users’ accounts (server mode only)
1. Go to User > User > User.
2. Click Export .CSV.
Your management computer downloads the user account spreadsheet file. Time required
varies by the size of the file and the speed of your network connection.
To back up the global address book (server mode only)
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contacts.
2. Click Export.
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3. On the pop-up menu, select CSV.
You are prompted for a location to save the file. Follow the prompts and click Save.
Your management computer downloads the address book spreadsheet file. Time required
varies by the size of the file and the speed of your network connection.
To back up customized appearances of the web UI and webmail UI
1. Go to System > Customization > Appearance.
2. In Administration interface, for each image file, save the image to your management
computer.
Methods vary by web browser. For example, you might need to click and drag the images
into a folder on your management computer in order to save them to that folder. For
instructions, see your browser’s documentation.
3. Click the arrow to expand Webmail interface.
4. For each webmail language, click the name of the language to select it, then click Download.
Your management computer downloads the language file. Time required varies by the size of
the file and the speed of your network connection.
5. To back up email archivesGo to Maintenance > System > Mail Data.
In addition to downloading email archives to your management computer, you can configure
the FortiMail unit to store email archives on an SFTP or FTP server. For details, see “Managing
archived email” on page 192 and “Configuring email archiving accounts” on page 628.
6. Continue using the instructions in “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
Backing up your configuration using the CLI
If you only want to back up the core configuration file, you can perform this backup using the
CLI.
The core configuration file does not contain all configuration data. Failure to perform a complete
backup could result in data loss of items such as Bayesian databases, dictionary databases,
mail queues, and other items. For details on performing a complete backup, see “Backup and
restore” on page 203.
To back up the configuration file using the CLI, enter the following command:
execute backup config tftp <filename_str> <tftp_ipv4>
where:
• <filename_str> is the name of the file located in the TFTP server’s root directory
• <tftp_ipv4> is the IP address of the TFTP server
Scheduling configuration backup
Instead of backing up your configuration manually (see the previous sections), you can also
configure a schedule to back up the configuration automatically to the FortiMail local hard drive
or a remote FTP/SFTP server.
To schedule the configuration backup
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Configuration.
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2. Under Scheduled Backup, configure the schedule time and the maximum backup number.
When the maximum number is reached, the oldest version will be overwritten.
3. Enable Local backup if you want to back up locally.
4. Enable Remote backup and configure the FTP/SFTP server credentials if you want to back
up remotely.
5. Click Apply.
Restoring the configuration
In the Restore Configuration area under Maintenance > System > Configuration, you can restore
the backup FortiMail configuration from your local PC, For details, see “Restoring the
configuration” on page 662.
Restoring the firmware
In the Restore Firmware area under Maintenance > System > Configuration, you can install a
FortiMail firmware from your local PC. For details, see “Installing firmware” on page 658.
Backing up and restoring the mailboxes
The Maintenance > System > Mail Data tab lets you back and restore all mail data, including
system quarantine, email users’ personal quarantines, user preferences, archived email, and
server mode webmail mailboxes. (See also “Selecting the mail data storage location” on
page 353.) You can also monitor the status of any backup or restoration that is currently in
progress.
You can only back up mail data when you store the data locally on the FortiMail hard disk. If you
store the mail data on a NAS device, you cannot back up the data. For information about
selecting a storage device, see “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
This section contains the following topics:
• Viewing the mailbox backup/restoration status
• Configuring mailbox backups
• Restoring mailboxes from backups
Viewing the mailbox backup/restoration status
Go to Maintenance > System > Mail Data to view the progress if you are backing up or restoring
mail data.
If backup and restoration are enabled, the appearance of this tab varies by:
• whether the FortiMail unit is currently backing up or restoring mailboxes
• whether the FortiMail unit has previously backed up or restored any mailboxes
• whether the previous backup or restoration attempt was successful
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Figure 70:Backup or restoration status (idle; no previous restoration)
Figure 71:Backup or restoration status (backup in progress)
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Figure 72:Backup or restoration status (restoration in progress)
Table 17:Backing up and restoring mailboxes from Maintenance > System > Mail Data
GUI item
Description
Automatically refresh
interval
Select the interval in seconds to set how often the web UI
automatically refreshes its display of this tab.
Refresh
Click to manually refresh the tab’s display.
(button)
Status
Indicates the current activity of mailbox data backup or
restoration. If backup and restoration are currently disabled, the
Status area of the Mail Data tab displays the message:
Backup/Restore is currently disabled.
To enable mailbox backups, see “Configuring mailbox backups”
on page 211.
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Table 17:Backing up and restoring mailboxes from Maintenance > System > Mail Data
GUI item
Description
State
Displays he current mailbox backup or restoration status, one of:
• IDLE: No backup or restoration is currently occurring. To
begin a backup, at the bottom of the status section, click
Click here to start a backup. To begin a restoration, in the
Restore options section, click Restore.
• BACKING UP: The FortiMail unit is currently creating a
backup copy of the mailboxes to the backup media
configured in “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
• RESTORING: The FortiMail unit is currently restoring a
backup copy of the mailboxes from the backup media
configured in “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
• STOPPING: You have cancelled a backup or restoration that
was in progress, and the FortiMail unit is halting the backup
or restoration process.
• CHECKING: The FortiMail unit is currently checking the file
system integrity of the backup media. This state occurs only
if you have configured a block-level backup media (either a
USB disk or iSCSI server) in “Configuring mailbox backups”
on page 211.
• FORMATTING: The FortiMail unit is currently formatting the
file system of the backup media. This state occurs only if you
have configured a block-level backup media (either a USB
disk or iSCSI server) in “Configuring mailbox backups” on
page 211.
If after some time the progress remains at 0%, or eventually
silently reverts to an IDLE state without the backup or restoration
having finished, the operation has failed. Verify connectivity with
the backup media (this is especially true with NFS, SSH, and
iSCSI backup methods, where network connectivity issues can
cause the FortiMail’s attempt to mount the backup file system to
fail). Also verify that you have configured the backup media
correctly in “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211 and
configured the restoration item correctly in “Restoring mailboxes
from backups” on page 214.
Note: If a backup or restoration has failed, you may need to
reboot the FortiMail unit before you can try again.
Objects
Indicates the number of files transferred to or from the backup
Copied (Total) media so far, and the total amount that will be transferred when
the backup or restoration is complete.
Bytes Copied
(Total)
Maintaining the system
Indicates the number of bytes of data transferred to or from the
backup media so far, and the total amount that will be
transferred when the backup or restoration is complete.
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Table 17:Backing up and restoring mailboxes from Maintenance > System > Mail Data
GUI item
Description
Percentage
Complete
Indicates the percentage of bytes of data transferred to or from
the backup media so far.
If after some time the progress remains at 0%, or eventually
silently reverts to an IDLE state without the backup or restoration
having finished, the operation has failed. Verify connectivity with
the backup media (this is especially true with NFS, SSH, and
iSCSI backup methods, where network connectivity issues can
cause the FortiMail’s attempt to mount the backup file system to
fail). Also verify that you have configured the backup media
correctly in “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211 and
configured the restoration item correctly in “Restoring mailboxes
from backups” on page 214.
Status
Indicates the step of the backup or restoration that is currently
occurring, such as OK (stopping file systems).
Total number
of errors is
Indicates the number of errors that occurred during the previous
backup attempt. If any errors occurred, they may also be
individually listed.
For example, if the backup media is an NFS server, and the NFS
share could not be mounted, such as if the FortiMail unit could
not contact the NFS server or did not have permissions to
access the share, an error message similar to the following
would appear:
failed to mount archive filesystem
[protocol=nfs,host=192.168.1.10,port=2049,directory=/
home/fortimail]
stopped, waiting for requested shutdown
watch dog stopped, killing backup process
This field appears only if the previous backup attempt was not
successful.
Last Backup
Indicates the date and time of the previous backup attempt. If a
backup has not yet occurred, this field displays the message, No
backup has been run.
Last
Restore
Indicates the date and time of the previous restoration attempt.
If a restoration has not yet occurred, this field is empty.
Click here to start a
backup
Click to manually initiate an immediate mailbox backup to the
media configured in “Configuring mailbox backups” on
page 211. Time required to complete a backup varies by the size
of the backup and the speed of your network connection, and
also by whether the backup is a full or incremental backup.
Alternatively, you can schedule the FortiMail unit to
automatically back up the mailboxes. For details, see
“Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
This link does not appear if a backup or restoration is currently in
progress.
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Table 17:Backing up and restoring mailboxes from Maintenance > System > Mail Data
GUI item
Description
Click here to format
backup device
If you use a USB device for backup, use this link to format the
device for use with FortiMail.
Click here to check file
system on backup device
If you use a USB device for backup, use this link to determine if
the device is compatible for use with FortiMail.
Click here to stop the
current backup
Click to cancel a backup that is currently in progress.
Time required to cancel the backup varies by the backup media,
but may be up to 30 seconds.
This link appears only if a backup is currently in progress.
Click here to stop the
current restore
Click to cancel a restore that is currently in progress.
Time required to cancel the restore varies by the restore media,
but may be up to 30 seconds.
This link appears only if a restore is currently in progress.
Configuring mailbox backups
Use the Backup Options area of the Mail Data tab to configure which backup media to use when
you back up or restore email users’ mailboxes. You can also configure the schedule the
FortiMail unit uses to automatically perform backups.
You can only back up mail data when you store the data locally on the FortiMail hard disk. If you
store the mail data on a NAS device, you cannot back up the data. For information about
selecting a storage device, see “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
While a backup or restoration is occurring, you cannot change the configuration of this area,
and this area will display the message:
Backup/Restore is busy, no configuration changes can be made.
However, you can view the status of the backup or restoration to determine if there are any
errors. You can also manually initiate an immediate backup if the backup media was unavailable
at the time of a previously scheduled backup. For details, see “Backing up and restoring the
mailboxes” on page 206.
Before you can manually initiate a backup, or in order to configure automatic scheduled
backups, you must first enable backups and configure the backup media.
To configure backups
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Mail Data.
2. Configure the following in the Backup Options section:
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GUI item
Description
Enable
Mark this check box, configure all other options in this area,
then click Apply to enable backups and restoration of email
users’ mailboxes.
Copies to save
Select a number for both:
• Full: The total number of full backups to keep on the
backup device.
• Incremental: The number of incremental backups to make
between each full backup. Incremental backups can
reduce the amount of time and disk space required for
each backup, but may increase the amount of time
required to restore the backup, and depend on a previous
full backup, because incremental backups only contain the
differences since the previous full backup.
For the initial backup, whether manually or automatically
initiated, the FortiMail unit will make a full backup. For
subsequent backups, the FortiMail unit will make the number
of incremental backups that you set in Incremental, then make
another full backup, and repeat this until it reaches the
maximum number of full backups to keep on the backup
media, which you selected in Full. At that point, it will overwrite
the oldest full backup.
For example, if Full is 3 and Incremental is 4, the FortiMail unit
would make a full backup, then 4 incremental backups. It
would repeat this two more times for a total of 3 backup sets,
and then overwrite the oldest full backup when creating the
next backup.
Schedule
The Schedule options are disabled if Protocol is External USB
(auto detect).
Day
Select either:
• None: Disable scheduled backups.
• A day of the week: Enable scheduled backups, and select
which day of the week that the FortiMail unit will
automatically back up email users’ mailboxes to the
backup media. Also configure Hour.
To minimize performance impacts, consider scheduling
backups during a time of the day and day of the week when
email traffic volume is typically low, such as at night on the
weekend.
Regardless of whether or not scheduled backups are enabled,
you can manually initiate backups. For details, see “Backing
up and restoring the mailboxes” on page 206.
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GUI item
Description
Hour
Select which time on the day that you selected in Day that the
FortiMail unit will automatically back up email users’
mailboxes to the backup media.
To minimize performance impacts, consider scheduling
backups during a time of the day and day of the week when
email traffic volume is typically low, such as at night on the
weekend.
If the backup media is not available when the backup is
scheduled to occur, the FortiMail unit will re-attempt the
backup at the next scheduled time.
This option is not available if Day is None.
Device
Protocol
Select one of the following types of backup media:
• NFS: A network file system (NFS) server.
• SMB/Windows Server: A Windows-style file share.
• SSH File System: A server that supports secure shell (SSH)
connections.
• External USB Device: An external hard drive connected to
the FortiMail unit’s USB port.
• External USB Device (auto detect): An external disk
connected to the FortiMail unit’s USB port. Unlike the
previous option, this option only creates a backup when
you connect the USB disk, or when you manually initiate a
backup using “Backing up and restoring the mailboxes” on
page 206, rather than according to a schedule.
• ISCSI Server: An Internet SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface), also called iSCSI server.
The availability of the following options varies with the device chosen.
Maintaining the system
Username
Enter the user name of the FortiMail unit’s account on the
backup server.
Domain
If you choose SMB/Windows Server as the backup media
AND if the account name has a domain part, you must enter
the domain name as well.
Password
Enter the password of the FortiMail unit’s account on the
backup server.
Hostname/IP
address
Enter the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of
the NFS, Windows, SSH, or iSCSI server.
Port
Enter the TCP port number on which the backup server listens
for connections.
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GUI item
Description
Directory
Enter the path of the folder on the backup server where the
FortiMail unit will store the mailbox backups, such as:
/home/fortimail/mailboxbackups
Note: Do not use special characters such as a tilde ( ~ ).
Special characters will cause the backup to fail.
Share
Enter the path of the folder on the backup server where the
FortiMail unit will store the mailbox backups, such as:
FortiMailMailboxBackups
Note: Do NOT type / before the path name. FortiMail v5.0
release supports both forward slash (/) and backslash (\) in the
path name, while FortiMail v4.0 release only supports forward
slash (/).
Encryption
key
Enter the key that will be used to encrypt data stored on the
backup media. Valid key lengths are between 6 and 64
single-byte characters.
ISCSI ID
Enter the iSCSI identifier in the format expected by the iSCSI
server, such as an iSCSI Qualified Name (IQN), Extended
Unique Identifier (EUI), or T11 Network Address Authority
(NAA).
Restoring mailboxes from backups
The Restore Options area of the Mail Data tab lets you selectively restore email users’ mailboxes
from mailbox backups.
If a backup or restoration is currently in progress, this area will display the message:
Backup/Restore is busy, no restore can be started till it finishes.
If after some time the progress remains at 0%, or eventually silently reverts to an IDLE state
without the restoration having finished, the operation has failed. Verify connectivity with the
backup media (this is especially true with NFS, SSH, and iSCSI backup methods, where
network connectivity issues can cause the FortiMail’s attempt to mount the backup file system
to fail). Also verify that you have configured the backup media correctly in “Configuring mailbox
backups” on page 211.
To configure restoration
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Mail Data.
2. Configure the following in the Restore Options section:
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GUI item
Description
Created by this device
Select to restore mailboxes from backups identified by the
current fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of this FortiMail
unit.
If you changed the host name and/or local domain name of
the FortiMail unit, the backup files are still identified by the
previous FQDN. In this case, do not select this option.
Instead, use the Created by option.
Created by
Select to restore mailboxes from backups identified by
another FQDN or the FQDN of another FortiMail unit. Usually,
you should enter an FQDN of this FortiMail unit, but you may
enter the FQDN of another FortiMail unit if you want to import
that FortiMail unit’s mailbox backup.
For example, assume you are upgrading to a FortiMail-2000
from a FortiMail-400 and have used a USB disk to store a
backup of the mailboxes of the FortiMail-400, whose FQDN
was fortimail.example.com. Configure the FortiMail-2000 to
also use the USB disk as backup media. Then import the
FortiMail-400’s mailbox backup to the FortiMail-2000 by
entering fortimail.example.com in this field for the
FortiMail-2000.
For this domain
Mark this check box if you want to restore only the mailboxes
of a specific protected domain, then select the name of the
protected domain from the drop-down list.
If you want to restore only the mailbox of a specific email user
within this protected domain, also configure For this user.
For this user
Mark this check box if you want to restore only the mailbox of
a specific email user, then enter the name of the email user
account, such as user1.
This option is available only if For this domain is enabled.
Restore
(button)
Click to restore mailboxes from the most recent full or
incremental backup stored on the backup media configured
on “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
Time required to complete a restoration varies by the size of
the backup and the speed of your network connection, and
also by whether the backup was a full or incremental backup.
Note: To restore from a specific full and incremental version of
backup, you can use the CLI command “execute
backup-restore old-restore <full_int>
<increments_int> domain <domain_str> user
<user_str>”.
Caution: Back up mailboxes before selecting this button.
Restoring mailboxes overwrites all mailboxes that currently
exist.
3. To manually initiate restoration of mail data, click Restore.
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Using the traffic capture
When troubleshooting networks, it helps to look inside the contents of the packets. This helps
to determine if the packets, route, and destination are all what you expect. Traffic capture can
also be called packet sniffing, a network tap, or logic analyzing.
Packet sniffing tells you what is happening on the network at a low level. This can be very useful
for troubleshooting problems, such as:
• finding missing traffic
• seeing if sessions are setting up properly
• locating ARP problems such as broadcast storm sources and causes
• confirming which address a computer is using on the network if they have multiple
addresses or are on multiple networks
• confirming routing is working as you expect
• intermittent missing PING packets.
If you are running a constant traffic application such as ping, packet sniffing can tell you if the
traffic is reaching the destination, how the port enters and exits the FortiRecorder unit, if the
ARP resolution is correct, and if the traffic is returning to the source as expected. You can also
use packet switching to verify that NAT or other configuration is translating addresses or routing
traffic the way that you want it to.
Before you start sniffing packets, you need to have a good idea of what you are looking for.
Sniffing is used to confirm or deny your ideas about what is happening on the network. If you try
sniffing without a plan to narrow your search, you could end up with too much data to effectively
analyze. On the other hand, you need to sniff enough packets to really understand all of the
patterns and behavior that you are looking for.
To capture the traffic
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Traffic Capture.
2. Click New.
3. Enter a description for the file generated from the captured traffic.
4. Enter the time period for performing the packet capture.
5. Specify which interface you want to capture.
6. If you want to limit the scope of traffic capture, in the IP/HOST field, enter a maximum of 3 IP
addresses or host names for which you want to capture.
7. Select the filter for the traffic capture:
• Use protocol: Only UDP or TCP traffic on the specified port number will be captured.
• Capture all: All network traffic will be captured.
8. For Exclusion, enter the IP addresses/host names and port numbers for which do not want
to capture.
9. Click Create.
Configuring FortiGuard updates and antispam queries
The Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update tab displays the most recent updates to
FortiGuard Antivirus engines, antivirus definitions, and FortiGuard antispam definitions
(antispam heuristic rules). You can also configure how the FortiMail unit will retrieve updates.
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FortiGuard AntiSpam packages for FortiMail units are not the same as those provided to
FortiGate units. To support FortiMail’s more full-featured antispam scans, FortiGuard AntiSpam
packages for FortiMail contain platform-specific additional updates.
For example, FortiGuard AntiSpam packages for FortiMail contain heuristic antispam rules used
by the a heuristic scan. Updates add to, remove from, and re-order the list of heuristic rules so
that the current most common methods spammers use are ranked highest in the list. As a
result, even if you configure a lower percentage of heuristic rules to be used by that scan, with
regular updates, the heuristic scan automatically adjusts to use whichever heuristic rules are
currently most effective. This helps to achieve an effective spam catch rate, while both reducing
administrative overhead and improving performance by using the least necessary amount of
FortiMail system resources.
FortiMail units receive updates from the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN), a world-wide
network of FortiGuard Distribution Servers (FDS). FortiMail units connect to the FDN by
connecting to the FDS nearest to the FortiMail unit by its configured time zone.
In addition to manual update requests, FortiMail units support two kinds of automatic update
mechanisms:
• scheduled updates, by which the FortiMail unit periodically polls the FDN to determine if
there are any available updates
• push updates, by which the FDN notifies FortiMail units when updates become available
For information on configuring scheduled updates, see “Configuring scheduled updates” on
page 223. For information on configuring push updates, see “Configuring push updates” on
page 224.
You may want to configure both scheduled and push updates. In this way, if the network
experiences temporary problems such as connectivity issues that interfere with either method,
the other method may still provide your FortiMail unit with updated protection. You can
alternatively manually update the FortiMail unit by uploading an update file. For more
information on uploading updates, see “License Information widget” on page 171.
For FortiGuard Antispam and FortiGuard Antivirus update connectivity requirements and
troubleshooting information, see “Troubleshoot FortiGuard connection issues” on page 677.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view or change the currently installed FortiGuard status
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update.
2. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
FortiGuard Service
Status
Maintaining the system
Name
The name of the updatable item, such as Anti Virus Definition.
Version
The version number of the item currently installed on the FortiMail
unit.
Expiry Date
The expiry date of the license for the item.
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GUI item
Description
Last Update
Attempt
The date and time when the FortiMail unit last attempted to
download an update.
Last Update
Status
The result of the last update attempt.
• No updates: Indicates the last update attempt was successful
but no new updates are available.
• Installed updates: Indicates the last update attempt was
successful and new updates were installed.
• Other messages, such as Network Error, indicate that the
FortiMail unit could not connect to the FDN, or other error
conditions. For more information, see “Troubleshoot FortiGuard
connection issues” on page 677.
Virus signatures
Displays the total number of the virus and spam signatures.
FortiGuard
distribution network
The result of the previous scheduled update (TCP 443) connection
attempt to the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN) or, if enabled
and configured, the override server.
• Available: Indicates that the FortiMail unit successfully
connected to the FDN.
• Unavailable: Indicates that the FortiMail unit could not connect
to the FDN. For more information, see “Verifying connectivity
with FortiGuard services” on page 220.
• Unknown: Indicates that the FortiMail unit has not yet attempted
to connect to the FDN.
To test the connection, click Refresh.
Push update
The result of the previous push update (UDP 9443) connection
attempt from the FDN.
• Available: Indicates that the FDN successfully connected to the
FortiMail unit to send push updates. For more information, see
“Configuring push updates” on page 224.
• Unavailable: Indicates that the FDN could not connect to the
FortiMail unit. For more information, see “Troubleshoot
FortiGuard connection issues” on page 677.
• Unknown: Indicates that the FortiMail unit has not yet attempted
to connect to the FDN.
To test the connection, click Refresh.
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GUI item
Description
Refresh
Click to test the scheduled (TCP 443) and push (UDP 9443) update
connection of the FortiMail unit to the FDN or, if enabled, the IP
address configured in Use override server address.
(button)
When the test completes, the tab refreshes and results beside
FortiGuard distribution network. Time required varies by the speed
of the FortiMail unit’s network connection, and the number of
timeouts that occur before the connection attempt is successful or
the FortiMail unit determines that it cannot connect.
Note: This does not test the connection for FortiGuard Antispam
rating queries, which occurs over a different connection and must
be tested separately. For details, see “Configuring FortiGuard
updates and antispam queries” on page 216.
Use override server
address
Enable to override the default FortiGuard Distribution Server (FDS)
to which the FortiMail unit connects for updates, then enter the IP
address of the override public or private FDS.
For more information, see “Verifying connectivity with FortiGuard
services” on page 220.
Allow push update
Enable to allow the FortiMail unit to accept push notifications
(UDP 9443). If the FortiMail unit is behind a NAT device, you may
also need to enable and configure Use override push IP. For details,
see “Configuring push updates” on page 224.
Push notifications only notify the FortiMail unit that an update is
available. They do not transmit the update itself. After receiving a
push notification, the FortiMail unit then initiates a separate TCP
443 connection, similar to scheduled updates, in order to the FDN
to download the update.
Use override push Enable to override the IP address and default port number to which
IP
the FDN sends push notifications.
• When enabled, the FortiMail unit notifies the FDN to send push
updates to the IP address and port number that you enter (for
example, a virtual IP/port forward on a NAT device that will
forward push notifications to the FortiMail unit).
• When disabled, the FortiMail unit notifies the FDN to send push
updates to the FortiMail unit’s IP address, using the default port
number (UDP 9443). This is useful only if the FortiMail unit has a
public network IP address.
For more information, see “Configuring push updates” on
page 224.
This option is available only if Allow push update is enabled.
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GUI item
Description
Scheduled update
Enable to perform updates according to a schedule, then select one
of the following as the frequency of update requests. When the
FortiMail unit requests an update at the scheduled time, results
appear in Last Update Status.
• Every: Select to request to update once every 1 to 23 hours,
then select the number of hours between each update request.
• Daily: Select to request to update once a day, then select the
hour of the day to check for updates.
• Weekly: Select to request to update once a week, then select the
day of the week, the hour, and the minute of the day to check for
updates.
If you select 00 minutes, the update request occurs at a
randomly determined time within the selected hour.
Apply
(button)
Update Now
(button)
Click to save configuration changes on this tab and, if you have
enabled Allow push update, notify the FDN of the destination IP
address and port number for push notifications to this FortiMail
unit.
Click to manually initiate a FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard
Antispam engine and definition update request. Results will appear
in Last Update Status. Time required varies by the availability of
updates, size of the updates, and speed of the FortiMail unit’s
network connection.
Verifying connectivity with FortiGuard services
If you subscribe to FortiGuard Antivirus and/or FortiGuard Antispam services, your FortiMail unit
needs to connect to the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN) in order to verify its license and
use the services.
Your FortiMail unit may be able to connect using the default settings; however, you should
confirm this by verifying connectivity.
FortiMail units use multiple connection types with the FDN. To completely verify connectivity,
you should test each connection type by performing both of the following procedures.
You must first register the FortiMail unit with the Fortinet Technical Support web site,
https://support.fortinet.com/, to receive service from the FDN. The FortiMail unit must also have
a valid Fortinet Technical Support contract which includes service subscriptions, and be able to
connect to the FDN or the FDS that you will configure to override the default FDS addresses.
For port numbers required for license validation and update connections, see the appendix in
the FortiMail Administration Guide.
Before performing the following procedure, if your FortiMail unit connects to the Internet using a
proxy, use the CLI command config system fortiguard antivirus to enable the
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FortiMail unit to connect to the FDN through the proxy. For more information, see the FortiMail
CLI Reference.
If the FortiMail unit connects to the Internet/FDN servers through a proxy, FortiMail can only get
updates for the antivirus engine, antivirus signatures, and heuristic antispam rules from the FDN
server. FortiMail cannot connect to the FDN server to perform realtime FortiGuard antispam
queries through the proxy. In this case, you can only use a FortiManager unit locally as the
override server.
To verify scheduled update connectivity
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update.
2. If you want your FortiMail unit to connect to a specific FDS other than the default for its time
zone, enable Use override server address, enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP
address of the FDS.
If you want to use a FortiManager unit as the override server, enter the FortiManager IP address
and port number (8890), such as 192.168.1.1:8890.
On the FortiManager side, use the following CLI command to enable FortiMail support. The
default setting is disable.
config fmupdate support-pre-fgt43
set status enable
end
3. Click Apply.
4. Click Refresh.
A dialog appears, notifying you that the process could take a few minutes.
5. Click OK.
The FortiMail unit tests the connection to the FDN and, if any, the override server. Time required
varies by the speed of the FortiMail unit’s network connection, and the number of timeouts that
occur before the connection attempt is successful or the FortiMail unit determines that it cannot
connect. When the connection test completes, the page refreshes. Test results are as follows:
• Available: The FortiMail unit successfully connected to the FDN or override server.
• Unavailable: The FortiMail unit could not connect to the FDN or override server, and
cannot download updates from it. For CLI commands that may assist you in
troubleshooting, see “To verify antispam rating query connectivity” on page 221.
6. When successful connectivity has been verified, continue by configuring the FortiMail unit to
receive engine and definition updates from the FDN or override server using one or more of
the following methods:
• scheduled updates (see “Configuring scheduled updates” on page 223)
• push updates (see “Configuring push updates” on page 224)
• manually initiated updates (see “Manually requesting updates” on page 225)
To verify antispam rating query connectivity
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > AntiSpam.
2. Verify that the Enable service is enabled. Also specify the FortiGuard server port (the default
number is 53).
3. Specify a spam outbreak protection level. Higher level means more strict filtering. This
feature temporarily hold email for a certain period of time (configurable with CLI command
config system fortiguard antispam set outbreak-protection-period) if the
enabled FortiGuard antispam check (block IP and/or URI filter) returns no result (see
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“Configuring FortiGuard options” on page 487). After the specified time interval, FortiMail will
query the FortiGuard server for the second time. This provides an opportunity for the
FortiGuard antispam service to update its database in cases a spam outbreak occurs.
4. If you want to use an override server, such as a local FortiManager unit, instead of the default
FDN server, specify it by enabling the option and entering the server address.
5. Optionally enable cache and specify the cache TTL time. Enabling cache can improve
performance.
6. For Query type under FortiGuard Query, select one of:
• IP and enter a valid IP
• URI and enter a valid URI
• Hash and use the hash value of a spam email that you can find in the log messages
7. Click Query.
If the query is successful, the Query result field will display if the IP/URI is spam or unknown
(not spam).
If the query is unsuccessful, the Query result field will display No response. In this case, you
can use the following tips to troubleshoot the issue.
If the FortiMail unit can reach the DNS server, but cannot successfully resolve the domain
name of the FDS, a message appears notifying you that a DNS error occurred.
Figure 73: DNS error when resolving the FortiGuard Antispam domain name
8. Verify that the DNS servers contain A records to resolve service.fortiguard.net and
other FDN servers. To try to obtain additional insight into the cause of the query failure,
manually perform a DNS query from the FortiMail unit using the following CLI command:
execute nslookup name service.fortiguard.net
If the FortiMail unit cannot successfully connect, or if your FortiGuard Antispam license does
not exist or has expired, a message appears notifying you that a connection error occurred.
Figure 74: Connection error when verifying FortiGuard Antispam connectivity
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9. Verify that:
• this is no proxy in between FortiMail and the FDN server.
• your FortiGuard Antispam license is valid and currently active
• the default route (located in System > Network > Routing) is correctly configured
• the FortiMail unit can connect to the DNS servers (located in System > Network > DNS)
and to the FDN servers
• firewalls between the FortiMail unit and the Internet or override server allow FortiGuard
Antispam rating query traffic.
The default port number for FortiGuard antispam query is UDP port 53 in v4.0. Prior to
v4.0, the port number was 8889.
10.To try to obtain additional insight into the point of the connection failure, trace the
connection using the following CLI command:
execute traceroute <address_ipv4>
where <address_ipv4> is the IP address of the DNS server or FDN server.
When query connectivity is successful, antispam profiles can use the FortiGuard option.
You can use the antispam log to monitor for subsequent query connectivity interruptions.
When sending email through the FortiMail unit that matches a policy and profile where the
FortiGuard option is enabled, if the FortiMail cannot connect to the FDN and/or its license is
not valid, and if Information-level logging is enabled, the FortiMail unit records a log
message in the antispam log (located in Monitor > Log > AntiSpam) whose Log Id field is
0300023472 and whose Message field is:
FortiGuard-Antispam: No Answer from server.
Figure 75: Antispam log when FortiGuard Antispam query fails
11.Verify that the FortiGuard Antispam license is still valid, and that network connectivity has
not been disrupted for UDP port 53 traffic from the FortiMail unit to the Internet.
Configuring scheduled updates
You can configure the FortiMail unit to periodically request updates from the FDN or override
servers for the FortiGuard Antivirus engine, antivirus definitions, and heuristic antispam rules
(antispam definitions).
You can use push updates or manually initiate updates as alternatives or in conjunction with
scheduled updates. If protection from the latest viral threats is a high priority, you could
configure both scheduled updates and push updates, using scheduled updates as a failover
method to increase the likelihood that the FortiMail unit always retrieves periodic updates if
connectivity is interrupted during a push notification. While using only scheduled updates could
potentially leave your network vulnerable to a new virus, it minimizes short disruptions to
antivirus scans that can occur if the FortiMail unit applies push updates during peak volume
times. For additional/alternative update methods, see “Configuring push updates” on page 224
and “Manually requesting updates” on page 225.
For example, you might schedule updates every night at 2 AM or weekly on Sunday, when email
traffic volume is light.
Before configuring scheduled updates, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN
or override server. For details, see “Verifying connectivity with FortiGuard services” on
page 220.
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To configure scheduled updates
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update.
2. Under FortiGuard Update Options, enable Scheduled update.
3. Select one of the following:
GUI item
Description
Every
Select to request updates once per interval, then configure the number of
hours and minutes between each request.
Daily
Select to request updates once a day, then configure the time of day.
Weekly
Select to request updates once a week, then configure the day of the week and
the time of day.
Updating FortiGuard Antivirus definitions can cause a short disruption in traffic currently being
scanned while the FortiMail unit applies the new signature database. To minimize disruptions,
update when traffic is light, such as during the night.
4. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit starts the next scheduled update according to the configured update
schedule. If you have enabled logging, when the FortiMail unit requests a scheduled update,
the event is recorded in the event log. For details, see “Logs, reports and alerts” on
page 636.
Configuring push updates
You can configure the FortiMail unit to receive push updates from the FDN or override server.
When push updates are configured, the FortiMail unit first notifies the FDN of its IP address, or
the IP address and port number override. (If your FortiMail unit’s IP address changes, including
if it is configured with DHCP, the FortiMail unit automatically notifies the FDN of the new IP
address.) As soon as new FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard Antispam packages become
available, the FDN sends an update availability notification to that IP address and port number.
Within 60 seconds, the FortiMail unit then requests the package update as if it was a scheduled
or manually initiated update.
You can use scheduled updates or manually initiate updates as alternatives or in conjunction
with push updates. If protection from the latest viral threats is a high priority, you could
configure both scheduled updates and push updates, using scheduled updates as a failover
method to increase the likelihood that the FortiMail unit will still periodically retrieve updates if
connectivity is interrupted during a push notification. Using push updates, however, can
potentially cause short disruptions to antivirus scans that can occur if the FortiMail unit applies
push updates during peak volume times. For additional/alternative update methods, see
“Configuring scheduled updates” on page 223 and “Manually requesting updates” on
page 225.
Before configuring push updates, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN or
override server. For details, see “Verifying connectivity with FortiGuard services” on page 220.
To configure push updates
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update.
2. Under FortiGuard Update Options, enable Allow push update.
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3. If the FortiMail unit is behind a firewall or router performing NAT, enable Use override push IP
and enter the external IP address and port number of the NAT device.
You must also configure the NAT device with port forwarding or a virtual IP to forward push
notifications (UDP port 9443) to the FortiMail unit. For example, if the FortiMail unit is behind
a FortiGate unit, configure the FortiGate unit with a virtual IP that forwards push notifications
from its external network interface to the private network IP address of the FortiMail unit.
Then, on the FortiMail unit, configure Use override push IP with the IP address and port
number of that virtual IP. For details on configuring virtual IPs and/or port forwarding, see the
documentation for the NAT device.
Push updates require that the external IP address of the NAT device is not dynamic (such as an
IP address automatically configured using DHCP). If dynamic, when the IP address changes,
the override push IP will become out-of-date, causing subsequent push updates to fail.
If you do not enable Use override push IP, the FDN will send push notifications to the IP
address of the FortiMail unit, which must be a public network IP address routable from the
Internet.
4. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit notifies the FDN of its IP address or, if configured, the override push IP.
When an update is available, the FDN will send push notifications to this IP address and port
number.
5. Click Refresh in the FortiGuard Service Status area.
A dialog appears, notifying you that the process could take a few minutes.
6. Click OK.
The FDN tests the connection to the FortiMail unit. Time required varies by the speed of the
FortiMail unit’s network connection, and the number of timeouts that occur before the
connection attempt is successful or the FortiMail unit determines that it cannot connect.
When the connection test completes, the page refreshes. Test results appear in the Push
update field.
• Available: The FDN successfully connected to the FortiMail unit.
• Unavailable: The FDN could not connect to the FortiMail unit, and cannot send push
notifications to it. Verify that intermediary firewalls and routers do not block push
notification traffic (UDP port 9443). If the FortiMail unit is behind a NAT device, verify that
you have enabled and configured Use override push IP, and that the NAT device is
configured to forward push notifications to the FortiMail unit.
Manually requesting updates
You can manually trigger the FortiMail unit to connect to the FDN or override server to request
available updates for its FortiGuard Antivirus and FortiGuard Antispam packages.
You can manually initiate updates as an alternative or in addition to other update methods. For
details, see “Configuring push updates” on page 224 and “Configuring scheduled updates” on
page 223.
To manually request updates
Before manually initiating an update, first verify that the FortiMail unit can connect to the FDN or
override server. For details, see “Verifying connectivity with FortiGuard services” on page 220.
1. Go to Maintenance > FortiGuard > Update.
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2. Under FortiGuard Update Options, click Update Now.
Updating FortiGuard Antivirus definitions can cause a short disruption in traffic currently being
scanned while the FortiMail unit applies the new signature database. To minimize disruptions,
update when traffic is light, such as during the night.
3. After a few minutes, click the Update tab to refresh the page, or go to Monitor >
System Status > Status.
If an update was available, new version numbers appear for the packages that were
updated. If you have enabled logging, messages are recorded to the event log indicating
whether the update was successful or not. For details, see “Logs, reports and alerts” on
page 636.
Downloading a trace file
If Fortinet Technical Support requests a trace log for system analysis purposes, you can
download one using the web UI.
Trace logs are compressed into an archive (.gz), and contain information that is supplementary
to debug-level log files.
To download a trace file
1. Go to Maintenance > System > Configuration.
2. At the bottom of the tab, click Download trace log.
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Configuring system settings
The System menu lets you administrator accounts, and configure network settings, system
time, SNMP, RAID, high availability (HA), certificates, and more.
This section includes:
• Configuring network settings
• Configuring system time, options, and other system options
• Customizing GUI, replacement messages and email templates
• Configuring administrator accounts and access profiles
• Configuring RAID
• Using high availability (HA)
• Managing certificates
Configuring network settings
The Network submenu provides options to configure network connectivity and administrative
access to the web UI or CLI of the FortiMail unit through each network interface.
This section includes:
• About IPv6 Support
• About the management IP
• About FortiMail logical interfaces
• Configuring the network interfaces
• Configuring link status monitoring
• Configuring static routes
• Configuring DNS
• Configuring port forwarding
• Scanning SMTP traffic redirected from FortiGate
About IPv6 Support
IP version 6 (IPv6) handles issues that weren't around decades ago when IPv4 was created
such as running out of IP addresses, fair distributing of IP addresses, built-in quality of service
(QoS) features, better multimedia support, and improved handling of fragmentation. A bigger
address space, bigger default packet size, and more optional header extensions provide these
features with flexibility to customize them to any needs.
IPv6 has 128-bit addresses compared to IPv4's 32-bit addresses, effectively eliminating
address exhaustion. This new very large address space will likely reduce the need for network
address translation (NAT) since IPv6 provides more than a billion IP addresses for each person
on Earth. All hardware and software network components must support this new address size,
an upgrade that may take a while to complete and will force IPv6 and IPv4 to work side-by-side
during the transition period.
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Starting from 4.3 release, FortiMail supports the following IPv6 features:
• Network interface
• Network routing
• High Availability
• DNS
• Admin access
• Webmail access
• Mail routing -- multiple combinations of IPv4/6 Server, IPv4/6 Remote Gateway
• Access Control Lists
• Grey list
• Local sender reputation
• IPv6 based policies
• Block/safe list
• LDAP
• IP pool (starting from 4.3.3 release)
FortiMail will support the following IPv6 feature in future releases:
• Port forwarding for IPv6
• FortiGuard antispam database populated with IPv6 addresses
About the management IP
When a FortiMail unit operates in transparent mode, you can configure one or more of its
network interfaces to act as a Layer 2 bridge, without IP addresses of their own. However, the
FortiMail unit must have an IP address for administrators to configure it through a network
connection rather than a local console. The management IP address enables administrators to
connect to the FortiMail unit through port1 or other network ports, even when they are currently
bridging.
By default, the management IP address is indirectly bound to port1 through the bridge. If other
network interfaces are also included in the bridge with port1, you can configure the FortiMail
unit to respond to connections to the management IP address that arrive on those other
network interfaces. For more information, see “Do not associate with management IP” on
page 236.
Unless you configured an override server IP address, FortiMail units uses this IP address to
connect to the FortiGuard Distribution Network (FDN). Depending on your network topology, the
management IP may be a private network address. In this case, it is not routable from the FDN
and is unsuitable for use as the destination IP address of push update connections from the
FDN. For push updates to function correctly, you must configure an override server. For details,
see “Configuring push updates” on page 224.
You can access the web UI, FortiMail webmail, and the per-recipient quarantines remotely using
the management IP address.
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About FortiMail logical interfaces
In addition to the FortiMail physical interfaces, you can create the following types of logical
interfaces on FortiMail:
• VLAN subinterfaces
• Redundant interfaces
• Loopback interfaces
VLAN subinterfaces
A Virtual LAN (VLAN) subinterface, also called a VLAN, is a virtual interface on a physical
interface. The subinterface allows routing of VLAN tagged packets using that physical interface,
but it is separate from any other traffic on the physical interface.
Virtual LANs (VLANs) use ID tags to logically separate devices on a network into smaller
broadcast domains. These smaller domains forward packets only to devices that are part of that
VLAN domain. This reduces traffic and increases network security.
One example of an application of VLANs is a company’s accounting department. Accounting
computers may be located at both main and branch offices. However, accounting computers
need to communicate with each other frequently and require increased security. VLANs allow
the accounting network traffic to be sent only to accounting computers and to connect
accounting computers in different locations as if they were on the same physical subnet.
For information about adding VLAN subinterfaces, see “Configuring the network interfaces” on
page 230.
Redundant interfaces
On the FortiMail unit, you can combine two or more physical interfaces to provide link
redundancy. This feature allows you to connect to two or more switches to ensure connectivity
in the event one physical interface or the equipment on that interface fails.
In a redundant interface, traffic is only going over one interface at any time. This differs from an
aggregated interface where traffic is going over all interfaces for increased bandwidth. This
difference means redundant interfaces can have more robust configurations with fewer possible
points of failure. This is important in a fully-meshed HA configuration.
A physical interface is available to be in a redundant interface if:
• it is a physical interface, not a VLAN interface
• it is not already part of a redundant interface
• it has no defined IP address and is not configured for DHCP
• it does not have any VLAN subinterfaces
• it is not monitored by HA
When a physical interface is included in a redundant interface, it is not listed on the System >
Network > Interface page. You cannot configure the interface anymore.
For information about adding redundant interfaces, see “Configuring the network interfaces” on
page 230.
Loopback interfaces
A loopback interface is a logical interface that is always up (no physical link dependency) and
the attached subnet is always present in the routing table.
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The FortiMail's loopback IP address does not depend on one specific external port, and is
therefore possible to access it through several physical or VLAN interfaces. In the current
release, you can only add one loopback interface on the FortiMail unit.
The loopback interface is useful when you use a layer 2 load balancer in front of several
FortiMail units. In this case, you can set the FortiMail loopback interface’s IP address the same
as the load balancer’s IP address and thus the FortiMail unit can pick up the traffic forwarded to
it from the load balancer.
For information about adding a loopback interface, see “Configuring the network interfaces” on
page 230.
Configuring the network interfaces
The System > Network > Interface tab displays the FortiMail unit’s network interfaces.
You must configure at least one network interface for the FortiMail unit to connect to your
network. Depending on your network topology and other considerations, you can connect the
FortiMail unit to your network using two or more of the network interfaces. You can configure
each network interface separately. You can also configure advanced interface options, including
VLAN subinterfaces, redundant interfaces, and loopback interfaces. For more information, see
“About FortiMail logical interfaces” on page 229, and “Editing network interfaces” on page 231.
If your FortiMail unit is not properly deployed and configured for the topology of your network,
including network interface connections, email may bypass the FortiMail unit.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the list of network interfaces, go to System > Network > Interface.
Figure 76:Interface tab (server and gateway mode)
Figure 77:Interface tab (transparent mode)
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GUI item
Description
Name
Displays the name of the network interface, such as port1.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, this column also indicates
that the management IP address is that of port1. For more information, see
“About the management IP” on page 228.
Type
Displays the interface type: physical, VLAN, redundant, or loopback. For details,
see “About FortiMail logical interfaces” on page 229.
Bridge
Member
In transparent mode, this column indicates if the port is on the same bridge as
the management IP. By default, all ports are on the bridge. See “Editing network
interfaces” on page 231 for information on bridged networks in transparent
mode.
IP/Netmask Displays the IP address and netmask of the network interface.
If the FortiMail unit is in transparent mode, IP/Netmask may alternatively display
bridging. This means that “Do not associate with management IP” on page 236
has been disabled, and the network interface is acting as a Layer 2 bridge. If high
availability (HA) is also enabled, IP and Netmask may alternatively display
bridged (isolated) while the effective HA operating mode is slave and therefore
the network interface is currently disconnected from the network, or bridging
(waiting for recovery) while the effective HA operating mode is failed and the
network interface is currently disconnected from the network but a failover may
soon occur, beginning connectivity. For more information, see “Effective
Operating Mode” on page 294 and “Virtual IP address” on page 307.
IPv6/Netma Displays the IPv6 address and netmask of the network interface. For more
sk
information about IPv6 support, see “About IPv6 Support” on page 227.
Access
Displays the administrative access and webmail access services that are
enabled on the network interface, such as HTTPS for the web UI.
Status
Indicates the up (available) or down (unavailable) administrative status for the
network interface.
• Green up arrow: The network interface is up and can receive traffic.
• Red down arrow: The network interface is down and cannot or receive traffic.
To change the administrative status (that is, bring up or down a network
interface), see “Editing network interfaces” on page 231.
Editing network interfaces
You can edit FortiMail’s physical network interfaces to change their IP addresses, netmasks,
administrative access protocols, and other settings. You can also create or edit logical
interfaces, such as VLANs, redundant interfaces and the loopback interface.
Enable administrative access only on network interfaces connected to trusted private networks
or directly to your management computer. If possible, enable only secure administrative access
protocols such as HTTPS or SSH. Failure to restrict administrative access could compromise
the security of your FortiMail unit.
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If your FortiMail unit operates in transparent mode and depending on your network topology,
you may need to configure the network interfaces of the FortiMail unit.
• If all email servers protected by the FortiMail unit are located on the same subnet, no
network interface configuration is necessary. Bridging is the default configuration for
network interfaces when the FortiMail unit operates in transparent mode, and the FortiMail
unit will bridge all connections occurring through it from the network to the protected email
servers.
• If email servers protected by the FortiMail unit are located on different subnets, you must
connect those email servers through separate physical ports on the FortiMail unit, and
configure the network interfaces associated with those ports, assigning IP addresses and
removing them from the bridge.
It is possible to configure a mixture of bridging and non-bridging network interfaces. For
example, if some email servers belong to the same subnet, network interfaces for those email
servers may remain in the bridge group; email servers belonging to other subnets may be
attached to network interfaces that are not associated with the bridge.
You can restrict which IP addresses are permitted to log in as a FortiMail administrator through
network interfaces. For details, see “Configuring administrator accounts” on page 273.
To create or edit a network interface
1. Go to System > Network > Interface.
2. Double-click a network interface to modify it or select the interface and click Edit. If you want
to create a logical interface, click New.
The Edit Interface dialog appears. Its appearance varies by:
• the operation mode of the FortiMail unit (gateway, transparent, or server)
• if the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, by whether the network interface is
port1, which is required to be configured as a Layer 2 bridge and associated with the
management IP, and therefore cannot be configured with its own IP and Netmask
3. For gateway mode or server mode, configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Interface Name
If you are editing an existing interface, this field displays the name
(such as port2) and media access control (MAC) address for this
network interface.
If you are creating a logical interface, enter a name for the
interface.
Type
VLAN
If you are creating a logical interface, select which type of
interface you want to create. For information about logical
interface types, see “About FortiMail logical interfaces” on
page 229.
If you want to create a VLAN subinterface, select the interface for
which you want to create the subinterface for.
Then specify a VLAN ID. Valid VLAN ID numbers are from 1 to
4094, while 0 is used for high priority frames, and 4095 is
reserved.
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GUI item
Description
Redundant
If you want to create a redundant interface, select the interface
members from the available interfaces. Usually, you need to
include two or more interfaces as the redundant interface
members.
Loopback
If you want to add a loopback interface, select the Loopback type
and the interface name will be automatically reset to “loopback”.
You can only add one loopback interface on FortiMail.
Addressing mode
Manual
IP/Netmask
Select to enter a static IP address, then enter the IP address and
netmask for the network interface.
Enter the IP address and netmask for the network interface. If the
FortiMail unit is operating in gateway mode or server mode, this
option is available only if Manual is selected.
Note: IP addresses of different interfaces cannot be on the same
subnet.
DHCP
Select to retrieve a dynamic IP address using DHCP.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is operating in
gateway mode or server mode.
Retrieve default Enable to retrieve both the default gateway and DNS addresses
from the DHCP server, replacing any manually configured values.
gateway and
DNS from
server
Connect to
server
Enable for the FortiMail unit to attempt to obtain DNS addressing
information from the DHCP server.
Disable this option if you are configuring the network interface
offline, and do not want the unit to attempt to obtain addressing
information at this time.
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GUI item
Description
Access
Enable protocols that this network interface should accept for
connections to the FortiMail unit itself. (These options do not
affect connections that will travel through the FortiMail unit.)
• HTTPS: Enable to allow secure HTTPS connections to the
web-based manager, webmail, and per-recipient quarantine
through this network interface.
• HTTP: Enable to allow HTTP connections to the web-based
manager, webmail, and per-recipient quarantine through this
network interface.
For information on redirecting HTTP requests for webmail and
per-recipient quarantines to HTTPS, see “Configuring global
quarantine report settings” on page 575.
• PING: Enable to allow ICMP ECHO (ping) responses from this
network interface.
For information on configuring the network interface from
which the FortiMail unit itself will send pings, see the FortiMail
CLI Reference.
• SSH: Enable to allow SSH connections to the CLI through this
network interface.
• SNMP: Enable to allow SNMP connections (queries) to this
network interface.
For information on further restricting access, or on configuring
the network interface that will be the source of traps, see
“Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
• TELNET: Enable to allow Telnet connections to the CLI
through this network interface.
Caution: HTTP and Telnet connections are not secure, and can
be intercepted by a third party. If possible, enable this option only
for network interfaces connected to a trusted private network, or
directly to your management computer. Failure to restrict
administrative access through this protocol could compromise
the security of your FortiMail unit. For information on further
restricting access of administrative connections, see “Configuring
administrator accounts” on page 273.
MTU
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GUI item
Override default
MTU value (1500)
Description
Enable to change the maximum transmission unit (MTU) value,
then enter the maximum packet or Ethernet frame size in bytes.
If network devices between the FortiMail unit and its traffic
destinations require smaller or larger units of traffic, packets may
require additional processing at each node in the network to
fragment or defragment the units, resulting in reduced network
performance. Adjusting the MTU to match your network can
improve network performance.
The default value is 1500 bytes. The MTU size must be between
576 and 1500 bytes. Change this if you need a lower value; for
example, RFC 2516 prescribes a value of 1492 for the PPPoE
protocol.
Administrative status
Select either:
• Up: Enable (that is, bring up) the network interface so that it
can send and receive traffic.
• Down: Disable (that is, bring down) the network interface so
that it cannot send or receive traffic.
4. If the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Interface Name
Displays the name (such as port2) and media access control
(MAC) address for this network interface.
If you are creating a logical interface, enter a name for the
interface.
Type
VLAN
If you are creating a logical interface, select which type of
interface you want to create. For information about logical
interface types, see “About FortiMail logical interfaces” on
page 229.
If you want to create a VLAN subinterface, select the interface for
which you want to create the subinterface for.
Then specify a VLAN ID. Valid VLAN ID numbers are from 1 to
4094, while 0 is used for high priority frames, and 4095 is
reserved.
Redundant
If you want to create a redundant interface, select the interface
members from the available interfaces. Usually, you need to
include two or more interfaces as the redundant interface
members.
Loopback
If you want to add a loopback interface, select the Loopback type
and the interface name will be automatically reset to “loopback”.
You can only add one loopback interface on FortiMail.
Addressing mode
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GUI item
Do not associate
with management
IP
Description
Enable to configure an IP address and netmask for this network
interface, separate from the management IP, then configure
“IP/Netmask” on page 231.
This option appears only if the network interface is not port1,
which is required to be a member of the bridge.
IP/Netmask
Access
Enter the IP address and netmask for the network interface. If the
FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, this option is
available only if “Do not associate with management IP” on
page 236 is enabled.
Enable protocols that this network interface should accept for
connections to the FortiMail unit itself. (These options do not
affect connections that will travel through the FortiMail unit.)
• HTTPS: Enable to allow secure HTTPS connections to the
web-based manager, webmail, and per-recipient quarantine
through this network interface.
• HTTP: Enable to allow HTTP connections to the web-based
manager, webmail, and per-recipient quarantine through this
network interface.
For information on redirecting HTTP requests for webmail and
per-recipient quarantines to HTTPS, see “Configuring global
quarantine report settings” on page 575.
• PING: Enable to allow ICMP ECHO (ping) responses from this
network interface.
For information on configuring the network interface from
which the FortiMail unit itself will send pings, see the FortiMail
CLI Reference.
• SSH: Enable to allow SSH connections to the CLI through this
network interface.
• SNMP: Enable to allow SNMP connections (queries) to this
network interface.
For information on further restricting access, or on configuring
the network interface that will be the source of traps, see
“Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
• TELNET: Enable to allow Telnet connections to the CLI through
this network interface.
Caution: HTTP and Telnet connections are not secure, and can
be intercepted by a third party. If possible, enable this option only
for network interfaces connected to a trusted private network, or
directly to your management computer. Failure to restrict
administrative access through this protocol could compromise
the security of your FortiMail unit. For information on further
restricting access of administrative connections, see “Configuring
administrator accounts” on page 273.
MTU
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GUI item
Override default
MTU value (1500)
Description
Enable to change the maximum transmission unit (MTU) value,
then enter the maximum packet or Ethernet frame size in bytes.
If network devices between the FortiMail unit and its traffic
destinations require smaller or larger units of traffic, packets may
require additional processing at each node in the network to
fragment or defragment the units, resulting in reduced network
performance. Adjusting the MTU to match your network can
improve network performance.
The default value is 1500 bytes. The MTU size must be between
576 and 1500 bytes. Change this if you need a lower value; for
example, RFC 2516 prescribes a value of 1492 for the PPPoE
protocol.
Administrative status
Select either:
• Up: Enable (that is, bring up) the network interface so that it
can send and receive traffic.
• Down: Disable (that is, bring down) the network interface so
that it cannot send or receive traffic.
SMTP Proxy
When operating in transparent mode, the FortiMail unit can use
either transparent proxies or an implicit relay to inspect SMTP
connections. If connection pick-up is enabled for connections on
that network interface, the FortiMail unit can scan and process
the connection. If not enabled, the FortiMail unit can either block
or permit the connection to pass through unmodified.
Exceptions to SMTP connections that can be proxied or relayed
include SMTP connections destined for the FortiMail unit itself.
For those local connections, such as email messages from email
users requesting deletion or release of their quarantined email,
you must choose to either allow or block the connection.
For more information about FortiMail transparent mode proxy and
implicit STMP relay, see “Configuring proxies (transparent mode
only)” on page 393.
Note: When a FortiMail unit proxies or relays traffic, whether the
email will be scanned or not depends on the policies you specify.
For more information about policies, see “Configuring policies”
on page 427.
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GUI item
Incoming
connections
Description
Select how the proxy or built-in MTA will handle SMTP
connections for that interface that are incoming to the IP
addresses of email servers belonging to a protected domain.
• Pass through: Permit connections but do not proxy or relay.
Because traffic is not proxied or relayed, no policies will be
applied.
• Drop: Drop connections.
• Proxy: Proxy or relay connections. Once intercepted, policies
determine any further scanning or logging actions. For more
information, see “Configuring policies” on page 427.
Note: Depending on your network topology, you may want to
verify that email is not being scanned twice. This could result if,
due to mail routing, an email would travel through the FortiMail
unit multiple times in order to reach its final destination, and you
have selected Proxy more than once on this page. For an
example, see “Avoiding scanning email twice” on page 396.
Outgoing
connections
Select how the proxy or built-in MTA will handle SMTP
connections for that interface that are outgoing to the IP
addresses of email servers that are not a protected domain.
• Pass through: Permit connections but do not proxy or relay.
Because traffic is not proxied or relayed, no policies will be
applied.
• Drop: Drop connections.
• Proxy: Proxy or relay connections. Once intercepted, policies
determine any further scanning or logging actions. For more
information, see “Configuring policies” on page 427.
Note: Depending on your network topology, you may want to
verify that email is not being scanned twice. This could result if,
due to mail routing, an email would travel through the FortiMail
unit multiple times in order to reach its final destination, and you
have selected Proxy more than once on this page. For an
example, see “Avoiding scanning email twice” on page 396.
Local connections
elect how the FortiMail unit will handle SMTP connections on
each network interface that are destined for the FortiMail unit
itself, such as quarantine release or delete messages and
Bayesian training messages.
• Allow: SMTP connections will be allowed.
• Disallow: SMTP connections will be blocked.
To configure a non-bridging network interface
1. Go to System > Network > Interface.
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2. Double-click the network interface to modify it or select the interface and click Edit.
port1 is required to be a member of the bridge and cannot be removed from it.
3. Enable Do not associate with management IP.
This option appears only when the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode and the
network interface is not port1, which is required to be a member of the bridge.
4. In IP/Netmask, enter the IP address and netmask of the network interface.
5. Click OK.
Repeat this procedure for each network interface that is connected to an email server on a
distinct subnet. When complete, configure static routes for those email servers. For details,
see “Configuring static routes”.
Configuring link status monitoring
Link status monitoring enables the FortiMail unit to track the status of its interfaces and to bring
an interface down or up based on the state of another associated interface.
Interface tracking
FortiMail units can process email before delivering it to your company’s internal mail server. In
this configuration, mail comes from an external interface into the FortiMail unit. Then the mail is
processed for spam, viruses and such. The mail is then forwarded over an internal interface to a
company internal mail server for internal distribution.
For redundancy, companies can configure a secondary FortiMail unit that is connected to a
secondary internal mail server. In this configuration the secondary FortiMail unit is normally not
active with all mail going through the primary FortiMail unit. The secondary system is activated
when the external interface on the primary FortiMail unit is unreachable. Mail is routed to the
secondary system until the primary unit is can be reached and then the mail is delivered to the
primary FortiMail unit once again. In this configuration the mail only goes to one FortiMail unit or
the other - it is never divided between the two.
If the internal mail server becomes unreachable from the primary FortiMail unit's internal
interface, the primary FortiMail unit needs to stop the incoming email or the email will continue
to accumulate and not be delivered.
The FortiMail unit can track the status of the internal interface. When interface tracking sees the
internal interface go down, it brings down the FortiMail external interface. This stops email from
accumulating on the primary FortiMail unit. If your company has the redundant secondary
FortiMail unit configured, email can be routed to it until the primary FortiMail unit can be
reached again. Interface tracking also brings the external interface up when the internal
interface comes back up.
With interface tracking, you can set which interfaces are associated. You can also set how often
interface tracking checks the status of the interfaces. This is the maximum delay before the
interfaces associated with the downed interface are brought down as well.
Configuring Link Status propagation
The Propegate Link Status to Ports section of the Link Status screen shows any interfaces
whose status is linked to this interface.
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Linking the state of an internal link to the external link prevents an accumulation of undeliverable
mail from building up on the FortiMail unit when the internal link goes down.
To configure Link Status propagation
1. Go to System > Network > Link Monitor.
2. Enter the number of seconds between checks of the Link Status. If this is set to zero, the
Link Status will not propagate to the other ports.
3. Enter the number of seconds to delay after a link state operation before checking the status.
4. Under Link Status, select the interface you want to propagate the status from, then click Edit
for the interface.
5. In the Link Status Settings popup window, specify the ports you want to propagate the
status to by moving the ports from the left box to the right box.
6. Click OK to confirm your selections and return to the Link Status screen.
Configuring static routes
The System > Network > Routing tab displays a list of routes and lets you configure static
routes and gateways used by the FortiMail unit.
Static routes direct traffic exiting the FortiMail unit. You can specify through which network
interface a packet will leave, and the IP address of a next-hop router that is reachable from that
network interface. The router is aware of which IP addresses are reachable through various
network pathways, and can forward those packets along pathways capable of reaching the
packets’ ultimate destinations.
A default route is a special type of static route. A default route matches all packets, and defines
a gateway router that can receive and route packets if no other, more specific static route is
defined for the packet’s destination IP address.
You should configure at least one static route, a default route, that points to your gateway.
However, you may configure multiple static routes if you have multiple gateway routers, each of
which should receive packets destined for a different subset of IP addresses.
To determine which route a packet will be subject to, the FortiMail unit compares the packet’s
destination IP address to those of the static routes and forward the packet to the route with the
largest prefix match.
For example, if an SMTP server is directly attached to one of the network interfaces, but all
other destinations, such as connecting clients, are located on distant networks such as the
Internet, you might need to add only one route: a default route for the gateway router through
which the FortiMail unit connects to the Internet.
When you add a static route through the web UI, the FortiMail unit evaluates the route to
determine if it represents a different route compared to any other route already present in the list
of static routes. If no route having the same destination exists in the list of static routes, the
FortiMail unit adds the static route.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure static routes
1. Go to System > Network > Routing.
2. Either click New to add a route or double-click a route to modify it.
A dialog appears.
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3. In Destination IP/netmask, enter the destination IP address and netmask of packets that will
be subject to this static route.
To create a default route that will match all packets, enter 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.
4. Select the interface that this route applies to.
5. In Gateway, type the IP address of the next-hop router to which the FortiMail unit will forward
packets subject to this static route. This router must know how to route packets to the
destination IP addresses that you have specified in Destination IP/netmask. For an Internet
connection, the next hop routing gateway routes traffic to the Internet.
6. Click Create.
Configuring DNS
FortiMail units require DNS servers for features such as reverse DNS lookups, FortiGuard
connectivity, and other aspects of email processing. Your ISP may supply IP addresses of DNS
servers, or you may want to use the IP addresses of your own DNS servers.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway mode, you must configure the MX record of the DNS
server for each protected domain to direct all email to this FortiMail unit instead of the protected
SMTP servers. Failure to update the records of your DNS server may enable email to
circumvent the FortiMail unit.
For improved FortiMail unit performance, use DNS servers on your local network.
Go to System > Network > DNS to configure the DNS servers that the FortiMail unit queries to
resolve domain names into IP addresses.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Configuring dynamic DNS
The System > Network > DDNS tab lets you configure the FortiMail unit to use a dynamic DNS
(DDNS) service.
If the FortiMail unit has a static domain name but a dynamic public IP address, you can use
DDNS to update DNS servers on the Internet when the public IP address for its fully qualified
domain name (FQDN) changes. For information on setting a dynamic public IP address, see the
DHCP option.)
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
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To view and configure dynamic DNS accounts
1. Go to System > Network > DDNS.
GUI item
Description
Server
Displays the name of your DDNS service provider.
User Name
Displays your user name for the DDNS service provider.
Host/Domain Name
A public host name or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that
should resolve to the public IP address of the FortiMail unit.
Its public DNS records are updated by the DDNS service provider
when the FortiMail unit sends its current public IP address. As such,
it might not be the same as the host name and local domain name
that you configured in “Host name” on page 346 and “Local domain
name” on page 346, which could be valid only for your internal
network.
Update Time
Displays the interval in hours that the FortiMail unit waits between
contacts to the DDNS service provider.
2. If you have not yet configured the dynamic DNS account that the FortiMail unit will use when
it connects to the DDNS service provider, click New.
A dialog appears.
GUI item
Description
Server
Select a DDNS service provider to which the FortiMail unit will
send DDNS updates.
User name
Enter the user name of your account with the DDNS service
provider. The FortiMail unit will provide this to authenticate itself
with the service when sending updates.
Password
Enter the password for the DDNS user name.
Update time
Enter the interval in hours between each time that the FortiMail
unit will query the DDNS service provider’s IP detection page if
“IP mode” on page 243 is Auto detect.
Caution: Do not exceed the recommended frequency published
by your DDNS service provider. Some DDNS service providers
consider excessive connections to be abusive, and may ignore
further queries from the FortiMail unit.
3. Click Create.
4. The tab returns to the list of dynamic DNS accounts, which should now include your new
account.
5. Double-click the row corresponding to the new DDNS account.
The Host/Domain Name Setting area is now visible.
6. In the Host/Domain Name Setting area, click Create New, or, to modify an existing
host/domain name, select its row and click Edit.
A dialog appears.
7. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Server
Displays the dynamic DNS service provider of this account.
Status
Enable to update the DDNS service provider when the FortiMail unit’s
public IP address changes.
Disable to notify the DDNS service provider that this FQDN should use its
offline redirect, if you configured any. If the FortiMail unit’s public IP
address changes, it will not notify the DDNS service provider.
Host name
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) whose records the DDNS
provider should update.
IP mode
Select which of the following ways the FortiMail unit should use to
determine its current publicly routable IP address.
• Auto detect: Periodically query the DDNS service provider’s IP address
detection web page to see if the FortiMail unit’s public IP address has
changed. The IP detection web page returns the apparent source IP
address of the query. If this IP address has changed, the FortiMail unit
then sends an update request to the DDNS service provider, causing it
to update DNS records for the FQDN in “Host name” on page 243.
This option is the most common choice. To configure the interval of
DDNS IP detection queries, see “Update time” on page 242.
Note: If this query occurs through a NAT device such as a router or
firewall, its apparent source IP address will not be the private network IP
address of any of the FortiMail unit’s network interfaces. Instead, it will be
the IP address of the NAT device’s externally facing network interface.
For example, a public virtual IP (VIP) on a FortiGate unit in NAT mode
might be used to route email from the Internet to a FortiMail unit. DDNS
updates are also routed out from the VIP to the DDNS service provider on
the Internet. From the DDNS service provider’s perspective, the DDNS
update connection appears to come from the VIP, and therefore it updates
the DNS records with the IP address of the VIP. The DDNS service provider
does not know the private network address of the FortiMail unit.
• Bind interface: Use the current IP address of one of the FortiMail unit’s
network interfaces. Choose this option only if the network interface has
an IP address that is routable from the Internet — that is, it is not an
RFC 1918 private network address.
• Static IP: Use an IP address that you configure. You must manually
update the accompanying field if the FortiMail unit’s public IP address
changes.
Type
Select one of the following:
• dynamic (this is the default)
• static
• custom
To verify your DDNS configuration and connectivity, do not query DNS servers: depending
on DNS caching, record propagation, and other effects, DNS queries may not be able to
determine whether the update actually reached your DDNS service provider.
Instead, log in to your DDNS service provider account and verify whether its host records
have been updated. You can also view the FortiMail event log. Log messages such as this
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indicate DDNS update failure:
DDNS daemon failed on update members.dyndns.org, domain fortimail.example.com, next
try at 1251752285\n
Configuring port forwarding
FortiMail port forwarding allows remote computers, for example, computers on the Internet, to
connect to a specific computer or service within a private local area network (LAN). Port
Forwarding is useful when FortiMail is deployed as a gateway and you want external users to
access an internal server via FortiMail.
For example, FortiMail port1 is connected to the Internet and its IP address 192.168.37.4, port
7000, is mapped to 10.10.10.42, port 8000, on a private network. Attempts to communicate
with 192.168.37.4, port 7000, from the Internet are translated and sent to 10.10.10.42, port
8000, by the FortiMail unit. The computers on the Internet are unaware of this translation and
see a single computer at 192.168.37.4, port 7000, rather than the 10.10.10.42 network behind
the FortiMail unit.
To view and configure port forwarding rules
1. Go to System > Network > Port Forwarding.
GUI item
Description
ID
Displays the ID number assigned by the FortiMail unit.
Protocol
Displays the type of protocol.
Host IP
Displays the mapped IP address.
Host Port
Displays the assigned port number on the host computer.
Destination IP
Displays the IP address being mapped to the host.
Destination Port Displays the assigned port number of the destination computer.
2. Select New to configure a new forwarding rule or double-click a rule to modify it.
A dialog appears.
3. In Protocol, specify the protocol that the rule will apply to: TCP, UDP, or Both.
4. In Host IP and Port, enter the IP address and port number that will be mapped. In most
cases, they are the IP address and port of the receiving FortiMail interface. In the above
example, they are 192.168.37.4 and 7000.
5. In Destination IP and Port, enter the IP address and port number that will be mapped to. In
most cases, they are the IP address and port of the system behind the FortiMail unit. In the
above example, they are 10.10.10.42 and 8000.
6. Click Create.
Scanning SMTP traffic redirected from FortiGate
FortiMail and FortiGate support Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP) to redirect SMTP
traffic from FortiGate to FortiMail. If the FortiGate unit is configured to redirect SMTP traffic to
FortiMail for antispam scanning (for details, see the FortiGate documentation), on the FortiMail
side, you must do corresponding configurations to accept the SMTP traffic from FortiGate.
To configure the WCCP communication with FortiGate
1. Go to System > Network > FortiGate.
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2. Configure the following settings:
GUI item
Description
Enabled
Enable WCCP communication with FortiGate.
Tunnel ID
Enter the WCCP tunnel ID assigned by FortiGate.
Local IP
Enter the IP address of the FortiMail interface that communicates with
FortiGate.
Remote IP
Enter the IP address of the FortiGate interface that communicate with
FortiMail.
Authentication
Enable if authentication is required on both sides.
Password
Enter the authentication password.
Configuring system time, options, and other system options
The System > Configuration submenu lets you configure the system time, various global
settings (such as idle timeout) of the web UI, and SNMP access.
This topic includes:
• Configuring the time and date
• Configuring system options
• Configuring SNMP queries and traps
Configuring the time and date
Go to System > Configuration > Time to configure the system time and date of the FortiMail
unit.
You can either manually set the FortiMail system time or configure the FortiMail unit to
automatically keep its system time correct by synchronizing with Network Time Protocol (NTP)
servers.
For many features to work, including scheduling, logging, and certificate-dependent features,
the FortiMail system time must be accurate.
FortiMail units support daylight savings time (DST), including recent changes in the USA,
Canada and Western Australia.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
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For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Configuring system options
The System > Configuration > Options tab lets you set the following global settings:
• system idle timeout
• LCD panel and button access restriction (for the models that have front LCD panel and
control buttons)
• login disclaimer
• password enforcement policy
• administration ports on the interfaces
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and configure the system options
1. Go to System > Configuration > Options.
2. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Idle timeout
Enter the amount of time that an administrator may be inactive
before the FortiMail unit automatically logs out the administrator.
Note: For better security, use a low idle timeout value.
LCD Panel (models with
LCD panels)
PIN Protection Enable to require administrators to first enter the PIN before
using the LCD display panel and control buttons on the FortiMail
unit, then enter the 6-digit PIN number.
This option appears only on FortiMail models whose hardware
includes an LCD panel.
Caution: For better security, always configure an LCD PIN;
otherwise, anyone with physical access can reconfigure the unit.
Login Disclaimer
Settings
The disclaimer message appears when an administrator or user
logs in to the FortiMail unit web-based manager, the FortiMail
Webmail, or the FortiMail unit to view the IBE encrypted email.
Login
disclaimer
You can use the default disclaimer text or customize it.
Reset To
Default
If you have customized the disclaimer text but want to use the
default text, select this button.
(button)
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GUI item
Apply to login
page
Description
Admin: Select to display the disclaimer message when the
administrator logs in to the FortiMail unit web-based manager.
Webmail: Select to display the disclaimer message when the
user logs into the FortiMail Webmail.
IBE: Select to display the disclaimer message when the user logs
into the FortiMail unit to view the IBE encrypted email.
Password Policy
Displays the password policy for administrators, FortiMail
Webmail users, and IBE encrypted email users.
Enable
Select to enable the password policy.
Minimum
password
length
Set the minimum acceptable length (8) for passwords.
Password
must contain
Select any of the following special character types to require in a
password. Each selected type must occur at least once in the
password.
Uppercase letters — A, B, C, ... Z
Lowercase letters — a, b, c, ... z
Number — 0 ... 9
Non alphanumeric character — punctuation marks, @,#, ... %
Apply
password
policy to
Select where to apply the password policy:
Administrators — Apply to administrator passwords. If any
password does not conform to the policy, require that
administrator to change the password at the next login.
Local mail users — Apply to FortiMail webmail users’ passwords.
If any password does not conform to the policy, require that user
to change the password at the next login.
IBE users — Apply to the passwords of the users who access the
FortiMail unit to view IBE encrypted email. If any password does
not conform to the policy, require that user to change the
password at the next login.
Administration Ports
Specify the TCP ports for administrative access on all interfaces.
Default port numbers:
• HTTP: 80
• HTTPS: 443
• SSH: 22
• TELNET: 23
Configuring SNMP queries and traps
Go to System > Configuration > SNMP to configure SNMP to monitor FortiMail system events
and thresholds, or a high availability (HA) cluster for failover messages.
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You can also use SNMP to monitor some models which have monitored power supplies and
RAID controllers. When a monitored power supply or a RAID controller is removed or added, the
FortiMail unit will send configured notification for those events by log messages, alert email
messages, and/or SNMP traps.
To monitor FortiMail system information and receive FortiMail traps, you must compile Fortinet
proprietary MIBs as well as Fortinet-supported standard MIBs into your SNMP manager. RFC
support includes support for most of RFC 2665 (Ethernet-like MIB) and most of RFC 1213 (MIB
II). For more information, see “FortiMail MIBs” on page 252. For information on HA-specific MIB
and trap MIB fields, see “Getting HA information using SNMP” on page 290.
The FortiMail SNMP implementation is read-only. SNMP v1, v2c, and v3 compliant SNMP
managers have read-only access to FortiMail system information and can receive FortiMail
traps.
The FortiMail SNMP v3 implementation includes support for queries, traps, authentication, and
privacy. Before you can use its SNMP queries, you must enable SNMP access on the network
interfaces that SNMP managers will use to access the FortiMail unit. For more information, see
“Editing network interfaces” on page 231.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
This section includes:
• Configuring an SNMP threshold
• Configuring an SNMP v1 and v2c community
• Configuring an SNMP v3 user
Configuring an SNMP threshold
Configure under what circumstances an event is triggered.
To set SNMP thresholds
1. Go System > Configuration > SNMP.
2. Click the arrow to expand the SNMP Threshold area.
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
SNMP agent
enable
Enable to activate the FortiMail SNMP agent. This must be enabled to
accept queries from SNMP managers or send traps from the FortiMail
unit.
Description
Enter a descriptive name for the FortiMail unit.
Location
Enter the location of the FortiMail unit.
Contact
Enter administrator contact information.
SNMP Threshold
To change a value in the four editable columns, select the value in any
row. It becomes editable. Change the value and click outside of the
field. A red triangle appears in the field’s corner and remains until you
click Apply.
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GUI item
Description
Trap Type
Displays the type of trap, such as CPU Usage.
Trigger
You can enter either the percent of the resource in use or the number
of times the trigger level must be reached before it is triggered.
For example, using the default value, if the mailbox disk is 90% or
more full, it will trigger.
Threshold
Sets the number of triggers that will result in an SNMP trap.
For example, if the CPU level exceeds the set trigger percentage once
before returning to a lower level, and the threshold is set to more than
one, an SNMP trap will not be generated until that minimum number
of triggers occurs during the sample period.
Sample
Period(s)
Sets the time period in seconds during which the FortiMail unit SNMP
agent counts the number of triggers that occurred.
This value should not be less than the Sample Freq(s) value.
Sample
Freq(s)
Sets the interval in seconds between measurements of the trap
condition. You will not receive traps faster than this rate, depending
on the selected sample period.
This value should be less than the Sample Period(s) value.
Community
Displays the list of SNMP communities (for SNMP v1 and v2c) added
to the FortiMail configuration. For information on configuring a
community, see either “Configuring an SNMP v1 and v2c community”
or “Configuring an SNMP v3 user” on page 251.
Name
Displays the name of the SNMP community. The SNMP Manager
must be configured with this name.
Status
A green check mark icon indicates that the community is enabled.
Queries
A green check mark icon indicates that queries are enabled.
Traps
A green check mark icon indicates that traps are enabled.
User
Displays the list of SNMP v3 users added to the FortiMail
configuration. For information on configuring a v3 user, see
“Configuring an SNMP v3 user” on page 251.
Name
Displays the name of the SNMP v3 user. The SNMP Manager must be
configured with this name.
Status
A green check mark icon indicates that the user is enabled.
Queries
A green check mark icon indicates that queries are enabled.
Traps
A green check mark icon indicates that traps are enabled.
Security level
Displays the security level.
Configuring an SNMP v1 and v2c community
An SNMP community is a grouping of equipment for SNMP-based network administration
purposes. You can add up to three SNMP communities so that SNMP managers can connect to
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the FortiMail unit to view system information and receive SNMP traps. You can configure each
community differently for SNMP traps and to monitor different events. You can add the IP
addresses of up to eight SNMP managers to each community.
To configure an SNMP community
1. Go to System > Configuration > SNMP.
2. Under Community, click New to add a community or select a community and click Edit.
The SNMP Community page appears.
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a name to identify the SNMP community. If you are editing an
existing community, you cannot change the name.
You can add up to 16 communities.
Enable
Enable to send traps to and allow queries from the community’s SNMP
managers.
Community
Hosts
Lists SNMP managers that can use the settings in this SNMP
community to monitor the FortiMail unit. Click Create to create a new
entry.
You can add up to 16 hosts.
IP Address Enter the IP address of an SNMP manager. By default, the IP address is
0.0.0.0, so that any SNMP manager can use this SNMP community.
Delete
(button)
Click to remove this SNMP manager.
Create
(button)
Click to add a new default entry to the Hosts list that you can edit as
needed.
Queries
Enter the Port number (161 by default) that the SNMP managers in this
community use for SNMP v1 and SNMP v2c queries to receive
configuration information from the FortiMail unit. Mark the Enable check
box to activate queries for each SNMP version.
Traps
Enter the Local Port and Remote Port numbers (162 local, 162 remote by
default) that the FortiMail unit uses to send SNMP v1 and SNMP v2c
traps to the SNMP managers in this community. Enable traps for each
SNMP version that the SNMP managers use.
SNMP Event
Enable each SNMP event for which the FortiMail unit should send traps
to the SNMP managers in this community.
Note: Since FortiMail checks its status in a scheduled interval, not all the
events will trigger traps. For example, FortiMail checks its hardware
status every 60 seconds. This means that if the power is off for a few
seconds but is back on before the next status check, no system event
trap will be sent.
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Configuring an SNMP v3 user
SNMP v3 adds more security by using authentication and privacy encryption. You can specify
an SNMP v3 user on FortiMail so that SNMP managers can connect to the FortiMail unit to view
system information and receive SNMP traps.
To configure an SNMP v3 user
1. Go to System > Configuration > SNMP.
2. Under Users, click New to add a user or select a user and click Edit.
The SNMPv3 User page appears.
You can add up to 16 users.
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
User name
Enter a name to identify the SNMP user. If you are editing an existing
user, you cannot change the name.
Enable
Enable to send traps to and allow queries from the user’s SNMP
managers.
Security level
Choose one of the three security levels:
• No authentication, no privacy: This option is similar to SNMP v1 and
v2.
• Authentication, no privacy: This option enables authentication only.
The SNMP manager needs to supply a password that matches the
password you specify on FortiMail. You must also specify the
authentication protocol (either SHA1 or MD5).
• Authentication, privacy: This option enables both authentication and
encryption. You must specify the protocols and passwords. Both the
protocols and passwords on the SNMP manager and FortiMail must
match.
Authenticatio For Security level, if you select either Authentication option, you must
n Protocol
specify the authentication protocol and password. Both the
authentication protocol and password on the SNMP manager and
FortiMail must match.
Privacy
protocol
Notification
Hosts
For Security level, if you select Privacy, you must specify the encryption
protocol and password. Both the encryption protocol and password on
the SNMP manager and FortiMail must match.
Lists the SNMP managers that FortiMail will send traps to. Click Create
to create a new entry. You can add up to 16 host.
IP Address Enter the IP address of an SNMP manager. By default, the IP address is
0.0.0.0, so that any SNMP manager can use this SNMP user.
Delete
Click to remove this SNMP manager.
(button)
Create
(button)
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Click to add a new default entry to the Hosts list that you can edit as
needed.
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GUI item
Description
Queries
Enter the Port number (161 by default) that the SNMP managers use for
SNMP v3 queries to receive configuration information from the FortiMail
unit. Select the Enable check box to activate queries.
Traps
Enter the Local Port and Remote Port numbers (162 local, 162 remote by
default) that the FortiMail unit uses to send SNMP v3 traps to the SNMP
managers. Select the Enable check box to activate traps.
SNMP Event
Enable each SNMP event for which the FortiMail unit should send traps
to the SNMP managers.
Note: Since FortiMail checks its status in a scheduled interval, not all the
events will trigger traps. For example, FortiMail checks its hardware
status every 60 seconds. This means that if the power is off for a few
seconds but is back on before the next status check, no system event
trap will be sent.
FortiMail MIBs
The FortiMail SNMP agent supports Fortinet proprietary MIBs as well as standard RFC 1213
and RFC 2665 MIBs. RFC support includes support for the parts of RFC 2665 (Ethernet-like
MIB) and the parts of RFC 1213 (MIB II) that apply to FortiMail unit configuration.
The FortiMail MIBs are listed in Table 18. You can obtain these MIB files from Fortinet technical
support. To communicate with the SNMP agent, you must compile these MIBs into your SNMP
manager.
Your SNMP manager may already include standard and private MIBs in a compiled database
that is ready to use. You must add the Fortinet proprietary MIB to this database. If the standard
MIBs used by the Fortinet SNMP agent are already compiled into your SNMP manager you do
not have to compile them again.
Table 18:FortiMail MIBs
MIB file name
Description
fortimail.mib
Displays the proprietary Fortinet MIB includes detailed FortiMail system
configuration information. Your SNMP manager requires this
information to monitor FortiMail configuration settings. For more
information, see “MIB fields” on page 253.
fortimail.trap.mib
Displays the proprietary Fortinet trap MIB includes FortiMail trap
information. Your SNMP manager requires this information to receive
traps from the FortiMail SNMP agent. For more information, see
“FortiMail traps” on page 252.
FortiMail traps
The FortiMail unit’s SNMP agent can send traps to SNMP managers that you have added to
SNMP communities. To receive traps, you must load and compile the FortMail trap MIB into the
SNMP manager.
All traps sent include the trap message as well as the FortiMail unit serial number and host
name.
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Trap
Description
fmlTrapCpuHighThreshold
Trap sent if CPU usage becomes too high.
fmlTrapMemLowThreshold
Trap sent if memory usage becomes too high.
fmlTrapLogDiskHighThreshold
Trap sent if log disk usage becomes too high.
fmlTrapMailDiskHighThreshold
Trap sent if mailbox disk usage becomes too high.
fmlTrapMailDeferredQueueHighThres Trap sent if the number of deferred email messages
hold
becomes too great.
fmlTrapAvThresholdEvent
Trap sent when the number of detected viruses
reaches the threshold.
fmlTrapSpamThresholdEvent
Trap sent when the number of spam email messages
reaches the threshold.
fmlTrapSystemEvent
Trap sent when system shuts down, reboots,
upgrades, etc.
fmlTrapRAIDEvent
Trap sent for RAID operations.
fmlTrapHAEvent
Trap sent when an HA event occurs.
fmlTrapArchiveEvent
Trap sent when remote archive event occurs.
fmlTrapIpChange
Trap sent when the IP address of the specified
interface has been changed.
MIB fields
The Fortinet MIB contains fields reporting current FortiMail unit status information. The tables
below list the names of the MIB fields and describe the status information available for each.
You can view more details about the information available from all Fortinet MIB fields by
compiling the MIB file into your SNMP manager and browsing the MIB fields.
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Table 19: MIB fields
MIB field
Description
fmlSysModel
FortiMail model number, such as 400 for the FortiMail-400.
fmlSysSerial
FortiMail unit serial number.
fmlSysVersion
The firmware version currently running on the FortiMail unit.
fmlSysVersionAv
The antivirus definition version installed on the FortiMail unit.
fmlSysOpMode
The operation mode (gateway, transparent, or server) of the FortiMail
unit.
fmlSysCpuUsage
The current CPU usage (%).
fmlSysMemUsage
The current memory utilization (%).
fmlSysLogDiskUsage The log disk usage (%).
fmlSysMailDiskUsage The mail disk usage (%).
fmlSysSesCount
The current IP session count.
fmlSysEventCode
System component events.
fmlRAIDCode
RAID system events.
fmlRAIDDevName
RAID device name.
fmlHAEventId
HA event type ID.
fmlHAUnitIp
Unit IP address where the event occurs.
fmlHAEventReason
The reason for the HA event.
fmlArchiveServerIp
IP address of the remote Archive Server.
fmlArchiveFilename
Archive mail file name.
Table 20:System options MIB field
MIB field
Description
fmlSysOptIdleTimeout Idle period after which the administrator is automatically logged out
off the system.
fmlSysOptAuthTimeout Authentication idle timeout value.
fmlSysOptsLan
Web administration language.
fmlSysOptsLcdProt
Whether LCD control buttons protection is enabled or disabled.
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Table 21:System session MIB fields
MIB field
Description
fmlIpSessTable
FortiMail IP sessions table.
fmlIpSessEntry
Particular IP session information.
fmlIpSessIndex
An index value that uniquely identifies an IP session.
fmlIpSessProto
The protocol of the connection.
fmlIpSessFromAddr The session source IP address,
fmlIpSessFromPort The session source port number.
fmlIpSessToAddr
The session destination IP address.
fmlIpSessToPort
The session destination port number.
fmlIpSessExp
Time (in seconds) until the session expires.
Table 22: Mail options MIB fields
MIB field
Description
fmlMailOptionsDeferQueu The current number of deferred email messages.
e
Customizing GUI, replacement messages and email templates
This section contains the following topics:
• Customizing the GUI appearance
• Customizing replacement messages
• Customizing email templates
Customizing the GUI appearance
The System > Customization > Appearance tab lets you customize the default appearance of
the web-based manager, per-recipient quarantine, and webmail pages with your own product
name, product logo, and corporate logo.
You can customize the webmail interface language. If your preferred language is not currently
installed, you can add it. You can also adjust the terms in existing language files. This can be
useful for localizing terms within a language. For example, you could adjust the English
language file to use spellings and terms specific to the locale of the United Kingdom, Australia,
or the USA if your email users are most familiar with terminologies popular in those areas.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
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To customize the GUI appearance
1. Go to System > Customization > Appearance.
2. Click the arrow to expand Administration Interface and Webmail interface.
3. Configure the following to change appearance:
GUI item
Description
Administration Interface section
Product name
Enter the name of the product. This name will precede
Administrator Login in the title on the login page of the web UI.
Product icon
Select Change to upload an icon that will be used as the favicon
of the FortiMail web UI. The default icon is the Fortinet company
icon.
Top logo
Select Change to upload a graphic that will appear at the top of
all pages in the web UI. The image’s dimensions must be 460
pixels wide by 36 pixels tall.
For best results, use an image with a transparent background.
Non-transparent backgrounds will not blend with the underlying
theme graphic, resulting in a visible rectangle around your logo
graphic.
Note: Uploading a graphic overwrites the current graphic. The
FortiMail unit does not retain previous or default graphics. If you
want to revert to the current graphic, use your web browser to
save a backup copy of the image to your management computer,
enabling you to upload it again at a later time.
Default language
Select the default language for the display of the web-based
manager.
You can configure a separate language preference for each
administrator account. For details, see “Configuring
administrator accounts” on page 273.
Webmail interface section
Webmail login
Enter a word or phrase that will appears on top of the webmail
login page, such as Webmail Login.
Login user name
hint
Enter a hint for the user name, such as Your Email Address. This
hint will appear as a mouse-over display on the login name field.
Webmail theme
Select a theme for the webmail GUI.
Allow user to
change theme
If selected, the webmail users will be able to customize the
theme by themselves.
Show online help
link
If selected, the Help button will appear on the webmail interface.
The default help contents are provided by Fortinet.
If you want to use your own organization’s help contents, you can
enable this option and enter the online help URL in the below
field.
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GUI item
Custom online
help URL
Description
Enter the URL if you want to use your own online help file,
instead of the default one that comes with FortiMail.
Webmail language Select the language in which webmail pages will be displayed. By
default, the FortiMail unit will use the same language as the web
UI. For web UI language settings, see “Configuring system
options” on page 246.
Webmail language Displays the list of languages installed on the FortiMail unit in
customization
English and in their own language.
• Create: Click to add a new language to the list. See “To add a
custom language” on page 257.
• Download: Select a language in the list, then click this button
to download the language’s resource file for that language.
You can then edit the resource files using an XML editor that
supports UTF-8.
• Upload: Select a language in the list, then click this button to
update the language’s resource file for this language from
your management computer to the FortiMail unit. In addition
to uploading new language resource files, you can also use
this button to update existing languages.
• Delete: Select a language in the list, then click this button to
remove the language. This option is available only for
non-default languages.
Web mail top logo Click Change to upload a graphic that will appear at the top of all
webmail pages. The image’s dimensions must be 314 pixels wide
by 36 pixels tall.
Note: Uploading a graphic overwrites the current graphic. The
FortiMail unit does not retain previous or default graphics. If you
want to revert to the current graphic, use your web browser to
save a backup copy of the image to your management computer,
enabling you to upload it again at a later time.
Custom login
Select this option then upload your own login page image to
create a custom login page.
4. Click Apply to save changes or Reset to return to the default settings.
To add a custom language
1. Go to System > Customization > Appearance.
2. Click the arrow to expand Webmail interface.
3. Underneath the list of language customizations, in Language name in English, enter the
name for the new language using English and US-ASCII encoding, such as Welsh.
4. In Language name, enter the name for the language using its own characters and UTF-8
encoding.
5. Click Create.
The new language appears at the bottom of the webmail languages list.
6. Select the new language’s row.
7. Click Download and select Download login page resource file from the pop-up menu.
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8. Click Download again and select Download webmail resource file.
Your web browser downloads both files.
9. Open both files in an XML editor or plain text editor that supports UTF-8 encoding.
10.For each value in the resource files, translate the word or phrase that is surrounded by
double quotes ( " ). It will appear in the location indicated by the key’s name.
For example:
<resource key="report_spam" value="Report Spam"/>
indicates by key="report_spam" that the text is a label for the button that corrects the
Bayesian scanner when it has not recognized an email that is spam. You could replace the
contents of value (that is, Report Spam) with any text in your language that indicates the
button’s function.
11.Save both files.
12.Return to the web UI.
13.Select the new language’s row.
14.Click Upload and select Upload login page resource file from the pop-up menu. Choose the
login page resource file that you translated, then click OK.
15.Click Upload again and select Upload webmail resource file from the pop-up menu. Choose
the login page resource file that you translated, then click OK.
16.Click Apply.
To verify your language, log in to FortiMail webmail and review the text that appears on each
button, field, and menu item. If the characters appear garbled, verify that your web browser
is interpreting the web page using the correct encoding.
Customizing replacement messages
Go to System > Customization > Custom Messages to view and reword replacement messages.
When the FortiMail unit detects a virus in an email attachment, it replaces the attachment with a
message that provides information about the virus and source of the email.
All the disclaimers, replacement messages, and IBE login page are customizable. When you
create email template on the System > Customization > Custom Email Template tab, you can
use many of the replacement messages.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Viewing the replacement messages list
To view the replacement message list, go to System > Customization > Custom Message.
The message list organizes replacement messages into a number of types (for example,
System, Reject, and so on). Use the expand arrow beside each type to display the replacement
messages for that category. Double-click each replacement message to customize that
message for your requirements.
You can reword existing messages or create new ones.
Modifying replacement messages
You can modify the text and HTML code within a replacement message to suit your
requirements.
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You can change the content of the replacement message by editing the text and HTML codes
and by working with replacement message variables. For descriptions of the default
replacement message variables, see “Default replacement message variables” on page 261.
All message groups can be edited to change text, or add text and variables.
To customize text replacement messages
1. Go to System > Customization > Custom Message.
2. To edit a message, double-click it or select it and click Edit.
3. In the Content area, enter the replacement message.
Some messages include a Subject and From area. You can edit their content too and add
variables.
4. There is a limit of 4000 characters for each replacement message.
5. If custom variables exist, you can add them to the text. To do so:
• Select Insert Variables. A pop-up window appears.
• Place your mouse cursor in the text message at the insertion point for the variable.
• Click the name of the variable to add. It appears at the insertion point.
• Click the Close (X) icon to close the window.
If no custom variables exist, the Insert Variables link does not appear. Some message types
include predefined variables. You can create variables. See “Creating variables” on
page 259.
6. Click OK, or click Reset To Default to revert the replacement message to its default text
Creating variables
In addition to the predefined variables, you can create new ones to customize replacement
messages and email templates. Typically, these variables represent messages that you will use
frequently. You can modify the variables that you create, but you cannot edit or delete the
predefined variables.
To create a new variable
1. To create new variables to be used in custom messages, go to System > Customization >
Custom Message. To create new variables to be used in email templates, go to System >
Customization > Custom Email Template
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Figure 78:Custom Messages tab
2. Select a replacement message or email template where you want to add a new variable, and
click Edit Variable.
The Edit Variable page appears.
Figure 79:Edit Variable page
3. .Click New.
A dialog appears.
Figure 80:Variable Edit dialog
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
4. Configure the following:
• In Name, enter the variable name to use in the replacement message. Its format is:
%%<variable_name>%%. For example, if you enter the word virus, this variable will
appear as %%virus%% in the replacement message if you select to insert it. This is
usually a simple and short form for a variable.
• In Display Name, enter words to describe the variable. For example, use virus name for
the variable virus. The display name appears in the variable list when you select Insert
Variables while customizing a message or creating a variable.
• In Content, enter the variable’s content. Click Insert Variables to include any other
existing variables, if needed. For example, you may enter
The file %%FILE%% is infected with the virus %%VIRUS%%, and has
been deleted
where %%FILE%% is the file name and %%VIRUS%% provides the virus name.
To add a color code, use HTML tags, such as <tr bgcolor="#3366ff">. You can
select a color code, such as "#3366ff" in the HTML tag, from the color palette after
selecting Insert Color Code.
5. Click Create.
Table 23: Default replacement message variables
Variable
Description
Found under
%%FILE%%
The name of the file that is
infected with a virus.
%%VIRUS%%
The name of the virus that has
infected the file.
System > Customization >
Custom Message >
Replacement > Virus
message
%%FILE%%
The name of the file that was
removed from the email.
System > Customization >
Custom Message >
Replacement > Suspicious
message
%%MESSAGE_ID%%
The ID of the quarantined email.
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Report > Quarantine
summary
%%QMSG_EMAIL_DELETE%% Under email actions in the
quarantine summary, the Delete
link that, if being clicked, sends an
email request to delete the
quarantined message.
%%QMSG_FROM%%
The email address of the sender of
the quarantined email
%%QMSG_WEB_DELETE%%
Under web actions in the
quarantine summary, the Delete
link that, if being clicked, sends a
HTTP or HTTPS request to delete
the quarantined message.
%%QUARANTINE_FROM%%
The start time of the quarantine
summary.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
Found under
%%QUARANTINE_TO%%
The end time of the quarantine
summary.
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Report > Quarantine
summary
%%SPAM_DELETE_ALL_EMA Under email actions in the
IL%%
quarantine summary, the Click
Here link that, if being clicked,
sends an email to delete all
quarantined messages.
%%SPAM_DELETE_ALL_URL Under spam web actions in the
%%
quarantine summary, the Click
Here link that, if being clicked,
sends a HTTP or HTTPS request
to delete all quarantined
messages.
%%SPAM_DELETE_SUBJECT The subject of the email that is
%%
sent to delete a quarantined
message when you click Delete
under email actions in the
quarantine summary.
%%SPAM_RELEASE_EMAIL% The email address, such as
%
release-ctrl@example.com,
used to release an email from the
recipient’s personal quarantine.
For details, see “Configuring the
quarantine control accounts” on
page 585.
%%QMSG_DATE%%
The date and time when a
message was quarantined.
%%QMSG_EMAIL_RELEASE% Under email actions in the
%
quarantine summary, the Release
link that, if being clicked, sends an
email to have a quarantined
message sent to you.
%%QMSG_SUBJECT%%
The subject of a quarantined
message.
%%QMSG_WEB_RELEASE%%
Under web actions in the
quarantine summary, the Release
link that, if being clicked, releases
the message to your inbox.
%%QUARANTINE_MESSAGES The number of quarantined
_
messages in this summary.
COUNT%%
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Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
%%SPAMREPORT_SENDER%% The email address, such as
release-ctrl-svr@example.
com, used to send quarantine
summaries.
%%SPAM_DELETE_ALL_
SUBJECT%%
Found under
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Report > Quarantine
summary
The subject of the email that is
sent to delete all quarantined
messages when you select Click
Here under email actions in the
quarantine summary.
%%SPAM_DELETE_EMAIL%% The email address, such as
delete-ctrl@example.com,
used to delete an email from the
recipient’s personal quarantine.
For details, see “Configuring the
quarantine control accounts” on
page 585.
%%SPAM_PREFERENCE%%
The Click Here link under Other in
the quarantine summary that, if
being clicked, opens your entire
quarantine inbox for you to
manage your preferences.
%%SPAM_RELEASE_
SUBJECT%%
The subject of the email that is
sent to release a quarantined
message when you click Release
under email actions in the
quarantine summary.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
Copyright information of the
secure message.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
The From, To, and Subject lines of System > Customization >
the secure message.
Custom Message > Secure
message > Secure
message header
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
%%LAST_NAME%%
The last name of the notification
receiver.
%%MONTH%%
The month when the link in the
notification to reset the account
will expire.
%%TIME%%
The time when the link in the
notification to reset the account
will expire.
Configuring system settings
Page 263
System > Customization >
Custom Message > Secure
message > Secure
message footer
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > Account
reset notification
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
Found under
%%DAY%%
The day when the link in the
notification to reset the account
will expire.
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > Account
reset notification
%%LINK_URI%%
The link in the notification that you
can click to complete the account
reset.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
Signature of the notification.
%%YEAR%%
The year when the link in the
notification to reset the account
will expire.
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
%%LAST_NAME%%
The last name of the notification
recipient.
%%RECIPIENT%%
The email address of the
notification recipient.
%%YEAR%%
The year when the notification was
sent.
%%DAY%%
The day when the notification was
sent.
%%MONTH%%
The month when the notification
was sent.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
Signature of the notification.
%%DAY%%
The day when the link in the
notification to reset the password
will expire.
%%LAST_NAME%%
The last name of the notification
recipient.
%%MONTH%%
The month when the link in the
notification to reset the password
will expire.
%%TIME%%
The time when the link in the
notification to reset the password
will expire.
%%URI_HELP%%
The Help link in the notification
about secure email.
%%FIRST_NAME%%
The first name of the notification
recipient.
Configuring system settings
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System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message >
Password reset notification
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
%%LINK_URI%%
The link in the notification that you System > Customization >
can click to complete the
Custom Email Template >
password reset.
Secure message >
Password reset notification
Signature of the notification.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
%%URI_ABOUT%%
The About link in the notification
about secure email.
%%YEAR%%
The year when the link in the
notification to reset the password
will expire.
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
%%LAST_NAME%%
The last name of the notification
recipient.
%%RECIPIENT%%
The email address of the
notification recipient.
%%YEAR%%
The year when the notification was
sent.
%%DAY%%
The day when the notification was
sent.
%%MONTH%%
The month when the notification
was sent.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
Signature of the notification.
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
%%SEMAIL_SUBJECT%%
The subject of the notification.
%%URI_HELP%%
The Help link in the notification
about secure email.
%%LINK_URI%%
The link in the notification that you
can click to open the secure
message.
%%URI_ABOUT%%
The About link in the notification
about secure email.
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
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Page 265
Found under
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > Secure
message notification - Pull
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > Secure
message notification - Push
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
Found under
%%URI_ABOUT%%
The About link in the notification
about secure email.
%%SEMAIL_SUBJECT%%
The subject of the notification.
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > Secure
message notification - Push
%%URI_HELP%%
The Help link in the notification
about secure email.
%%ADMIN_SENDER%%
The sender’s address of this
notification email.
%%LAST_NAME%%
The last name of the notification
recipient.
%%RECIPIENT%%
The email address of the
notification recipient.
%%YEAR%%
The year when the notification was
sent.
%%DAY%%
The day when the notification was
sent.
%%MONTH%%
The month when the notification
was sent.
%%SERVICE_NAME%%
Signature of the notification.
%%ATTENDEE_ACTION%%
The action (accept, tentative, or
reject) taken by the event
attendee.
%%CALENDAR_SENDER%%
The email address from where the
notification is sent.
%%CALENDAR_URL_NO%%
The event is rejected.
%%EVENT_FREQUENCY%%
The frequency of the event.
%%EVENT_ORGANIZER%%
the email address of the event
organizer.
%%EVENT_TYPE%%
The type of the event.
%%TIME_END%%
The ending time of the event.
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Secure message > User
registration notification
System > Customization >
Custom Email Template >
Notification > Calendar
event notification
%%CALENDAR_ATTENDEE%% The name of the person invited to
this event.
%%CALENDAR_URL_MAYBE% The event is set to tentative by the
%
attendee.
%%CALENDAR_URL_YES%%
Configuring system settings
The event is accepted by the
attendee.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 23: Default replacement message variables (continued)
Variable
Description
%%EVENT_LOCATION%%
The location where the event is to System > Customization >
be held.
Custom Email Template >
Notification > Calendar
The nature of the event. For
event notification
example, meeting or party.
%%EVENT_TITLE%%
%%TIME_BEGIN%%
Found under
The starting time of the event.
Customizing email templates
The FortiMail unit may send out notification email in the following cases:
• To send out quarantine reports (see “Configuring email quarantines and quarantine reports”
on page 574)
• To send out IBE-related email (see “FortiMail IBE configuration workflow” on page 336)
• To repackage virus-infected email with new email body (see “Configuring antivirus action
profiles” on page 503)
• To send out notification email to any mail recipient for any FortiMail actions (see “Configuring
notification profiles” on page 573)
FortiMail allows you to customize the email templates for all the above mentioned email/report
types.
To customize email templates
1. Go to System > Customization > Custom Email Template.
2. To edit a template, double-click it or select it and click Edit.
3. Enter the replacement message and click OK, or click Reset To Default to revert the
replacement message to its default text.
Figure 81:Editing a template with variables and color
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4. To format replacement messages in HTML, use HTML tags, such as <b>some bold
text</b>.
There is a limit of 250 characters for the Subject field, 60 characters for the From field, and
4000 characters for HTML and Text messages each in the Content field.
5. To add a variable:
• Select Insert Variables next to the area to insert a variable. A pop-up window appears.
• Place your mouse cursor in the text message at the insertion point for the variable.
• Click the name of the variable to add. It appears at the insertion point.
• To add another variable, click the message area first, then click the variable name.
• Click the Close (X) icon to close the window.
6. To insert a color:
• Click Insert Color Code. A pop-up window of color swaths appears.
• Place your mouse cursor in the text at the insertion point for the color code, or highlight
an existing color code to change.
• Click a color in the color swath.
For example, to replace the color code in the HTML tag <tr bgcolor="#3366ff">,
you can highlight "#3366ff", then select the color you want from the color palette.
To add a new color code, include it with HTML tags as applicable, such as <tr
bgcolor="#3366ff">.
7. To determine if you HTML and color changes are correct, click Preview. The replacement
message appears in HTML format.
Figure 82: Sample color code insertion
8. Click OK, or click Reset To Default to revert the replacement message to its default text
Configuring administrator accounts and access profiles
The Administrator submenu configures administrator accounts and access profiles.
This topic includes:
• About administrator account permissions and domains
• Configuring administrator accounts
• Configuring access profiles
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About administrator account permissions and domains
Depending on the account that you use to log in to the FortiMail unit, you may not have
complete access to all CLI commands or areas of the web UI.
Access profiles and domain assignments together control which commands and areas an
administrator account can access. Permissions result from an interaction of the two.
The domain to which an administrator is assigned is one of:
• System
The administrator can access areas regardless of whether an item pertains to the FortiMail
unit itself or to a protected domain. Every administrator’s permissions are restricted only by
their access profile.
• a protected domain
The administrator can only access areas that are specifically assigned to that protected
domain. With a few exceptions, the administrator cannot access system-wide settings, files
or statistics, nor most settings that can affect other protected domains, regardless of
whether access to those items would otherwise be allowed by the administrator’s access
profile. The administrator cannot access the CLI, nor the basic mode of the web UI. (For
more information on the display modes of the GUI, see “Basic mode versus advanced
mode” on page 25.)
There are exceptions. Domain administrators can configure IP-based policies, the global block
list, the global safe list, the blocklist action, and the global Bayesian database. If you do not
want to allow this, do not provide Read-Write permission to those categories in domain
administrators’ access profiles.
Table 24:Areas of the GUI that domain administrators cannot access
Maintenance
Monitor except for the Personal quarantine tab
System except for the Administrator tab
Mail Settings except for the domain, its subdomains, and associated domains
User > User > PKI User
Policy > Access Control > Receive
Policy > Access Control > Delivery
Profile > Authentication
AntiSpam except for AntiSpam > Bayesian > User and AntiSpam > Block/Safe List
Email Archiving
Log and Report
Access profiles assign either read, read/write, or no access to each area of the FortiMail
software. To view configurations, you must have read access. To make changes, you must have
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write access. For more information on configuring an administrator access profile, see
“Configuring access profiles” on page 275.
Table 25:Areas of control in access profiles
Access control area name
Grants access to
In the web UI
(For each config command, there is an equivalent
get/show command, unless otherwise noted.
In the CLI
config access requires write permission.
get/show access requires read permission.)
Block/Safe List
block-safe
-list
Monitor > Endpoint Reputation > Auto Blocklist
Maintenance > AntiSpam > Block/Safe List Maintenance
AntiSpam > Block/Safe List ...
N/A
Quarantine
quarantine
Monitor > Quarantine ...
AntiSpam > Quarantine > Quarantine Report
AntiSpam > Quarantine > System Quarantine Setting
AntiSpam > Quarantine > Control Account
config antispam quarantine-report
config mailsetting systemquarantine
Policy
policy
Monitor > Mail Queue ...
Monitor > Greylist ...
Monitor > Sender Reputation > Display
Mail Settings > Domains > Domains
Mail Settings > Proxies > Proxies
User > User ...
Policy ...
Profile ...
AntiSpam > Greylist ...
AntiSpam > Bounce Verification > Settings
AntiSpam > Endpoint Reputation ...
AntiSpam > Bayesian ...
config
config
config
config
config
config
config
config
Configuring system settings
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antispam greylist exempt
antispam bounce-verification key
antispam settings
domain
mailsetting proxy-smtp
policy ...
profile ...
user ...
FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
Table 25:Areas of control in access profiles
Archive
archive
Email Archiving
Monitor > Archive
config archive
Greylist
greylist
Monitor > Greylist ...
AntiSpam > Greylist ...
config antispam greylist...
get antispam greylist ...
Others
others
Monitor > System Status ...
Monitor > Archive > Email Archives
Monitor > Log ...
Monitor > Report ...
Maintenance ... except the Block/Safe List Maintenance
tab
System ...
Mail Settings > Settings ...
Mail Settings > Address Book > Address Book
User > User Alias > User Alias
User > Address Map > Address Map
Email Archiving ...
Log and Report ...
config archive ...
config log ...
config mailsetting relayserver
config mailsetting storage
config report
config system ...
config user alias
config user map
diagnose ...
execute ...
get system status
About the “admin” account
Unlike other administrator accounts whose access profile is super_admin_prof and domain is
System, the admin administrator account exists by default and cannot be deleted. The admin
administrator account is similar to a root administrator account. Its name, permissions, and
assignment to the System domain cannot be changed.
The admin administrator account always has full permission to view and change all FortiMail
configuration options, including viewing and changing all other administrator accounts. It is the
only administrator account that can reset another administrator’s password without having to
enter the existing password. As such, it is the only account that can reset another
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administrator’s password if the existing password is unknown or forgotten. (Other
administrators can change an administrator’s password if they know the current password.
About the “remote_wildcard” account
In previous FortiMail releases (older than v5.1), when you add remote RADIUS or LDAP
accounts to FortiMail for account authentication purpose, you must add them one by one on
FortiMail. Starting from FortiMail v5.1, you can use the wildcard to add RADIUS accounts all at
once. Starting from v5.2, you can also use the wildcard for LDAP accounts.
To achieve this, you can enable the preconfigured “remote_wildcard” account and specify
which RADIUS or LDAP profile to use. Then every account on the RADIUS or LDAP server will
be able to log on to FortiMail.
To add all accounts on a RADIUS or LDAP server to FortiMail
1. Go to System > Administrator > Administrator.
2. Double click the built-in “remote_wildcard” account.
3. Configure the following and click OK.
GUI item
Description
Enable
Select it to enable the wildcard account.
Administrator
The default name is remote_wildcard and it is not editable.
Domain
Select System for the entire FortiMail unit or the name of a protected
domain, such as example.com, to which this administrator account will be
assigned.
For more information on protected domain assignments, see “About
administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Note: If Domain is a protected domain, the administrator cannot use the
CLI, or the basic mode of the web UI.
Note: If you enable domain override in the RADIUS profile, this setting will
be overwritten by the value of the remote attribute returned from the
RADIUS server, if the returned value matches an existing protected
domain. For details, see “Configuring authentication profiles” on
page 520.
Access profile
Select the name of an access profile that determines which functional
areas the administrator account may view or affect.
Click New to create a new profile or Edit to modify the selected profile.
For details, see “Configuring access profiles” on page 275.
Note: If you enable remote access override in the RADIUS profile, this
access profile will be overwritten by the value of the remote attribute
returned from the RADIUS server, if the returned value matches an
existing access profile. For details, see “Configuring authentication
profiles” on page 520.
Authentication
type
Configuring system settings
Select RADIUS or LDAP. And then select the RADIUS or LDAP profile.
For details, see “Configuring authentication profiles” on page 520.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
GUI item
Description
Trusted hosts
Enter an IPv4 or IPv6 address or subnet from which this administrator can
log in. You can add up to 10 trusted hosts.
If you want the administrator to access the FortiMail unit from any IP
address, use 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.
Enter the IP address and netmask in dotted decimal format. For example,
you might permit the administrator to log in to the FortiMail unit from your
private network by typing 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
Note: For additional security, restrict all trusted host entries to
administrative hosts on your trusted private network.
Note: For information on restricting administrative access protocols that
can be used by these hosts, see “Editing network interfaces” on
page 231.
Language
Select this administrator account’s preference for the display language of
the web UI.
Theme
Select this administrator account’s preference for the display theme or
click Use Current to choose the theme currently in effect.
The administrator may switch the theme at any time during a session by
clicking Next Theme.
Configuring administrator accounts
The Administrator tab displays a list of the FortiMail unit’s administrator accounts and the
trusted host IP addresses administrators use to log in (if configured).
By default, FortiMail units have a single administrator account, admin. For more granular
control over administrative access, you can create additional administrator accounts that are
restricted to a specific protected domain and with restricted permissions. For more information,
see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Depending on the permission and assigned domain of your account, this list may not display all
administrator accounts. For more information, see “About administrator account permissions
and domains” on page 269.
If you configured a system quarantine administrator account, this account does not appear in
the list of standard FortiMail administrator accounts. For more information on the system
quarantine administrator account, see “Configuring the system quarantine settings” on
page 584.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Others category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure administrator accounts
1. Go to System > Administrator > Administrator.
2. Either click New to add an account or double-click an account to modify it.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following and then click Create:
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
GUI item
Description
Enable
Select it to enable the new account. If disabled, the account will not be
able to access FortiMail.
Administrator
Enter the name for this administrator account.
The name can contain numbers (0-9), uppercase and lowercase letters
(A-Z, a-z), hyphens ( - ), and underscores ( _ ). Other special characters
and spaces are not allowed.
Domain
Select System for the entire FortiMail unit or the name of a protected
domain, such as example.com, to which this administrator account will be
assigned.
For more information on protected domain assignments, see “About
administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Note: If Domain is a protected domain, the administrator cannot use the
CLI, or the basic mode of the web UI.
Access profile
Select the name of an access profile that determines which functional
areas the administrator account may view or affect.
Click New to create a new profile or Edit to modify the selected profile.
For details, see “Configuring access profiles” on page 275.
Authentication
type
Select the local or remote type of authentication that the administrator will
use:
• Local
• RADIUS
• PKI
• LDAP
Note: RADIUS, LDAP and PKI authentication require that you first
configure a RADIUS authentication profile, LDAP authentication profile, or
PKI user. For more information, see “Configuring authentication profiles”
on page 520 and “Configuring PKI authentication” on page 409.
Password
If you select Local as the authentication type, enter a secure password for
this administrator account.
The password can contain any character except spaces.
This field does not appear if Authentication type is not Local or
RADIUS+Local.
Confirm
password
Enter this account’s password again to confirm it.
LDAP profile
If you choose to use LDAP authentication, select an LDAP profile you
want to use.
This field does not appear if Authentication type is not Local or
RADIUS+Local.
RADIUS profile If you choose to use RADIUS or RADIUS + Local authentication, select a
RADIUS profile you want to use.
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FortiMail 5.3.4 Administration Guide
GUI item
Description
PKI profile
If you choose to use PKI authentication, select a PKI profile you want to
use.
Trusted hosts
Enter an IPv4 or IPv6 address or subnet from which this administrator can
log in. You can add up to 10 trusted hosts.
If you want the administrator to access the FortiMail unit from any IP
address, use 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0.
Enter the IP address and netmask in dotted decimal format. For example,
you might permit the administrator to log in to the FortiMail unit from your
private network by typing 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
Note: For additional security, restrict all trusted host entries to
administrative hosts on your trusted private network.
Note: For information on restricting administrative access protocols that
can be used by these hosts, see “Editing network interfaces” on
page 231.
Language
Select this administrator account’s preference for the display language of
the web UI.
Theme
Select this administrator account’s preference for the display theme or
click Use Current to choose the theme currently in effect.
The administrator may switch the theme at any time during a session by
clicking Next Theme.
Configuring access profiles
The Access Profile tab displays a list of access profiles.
Access profiles, in conjunction with the domain to which an administrator account is assigned,
govern which areas of the web UI and CLI that an administrator can access, and whether or not
they have the permissions necessary to change the configuration or otherwise modify items in
each area.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see About administrator account permissions and domains.
To view and configure administrator accounts
1. Go to System > Administrator > Access Profile.
GUI item
Configuring system settings
Description
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Name
Displays the name of the administrator access profile.
(Green dot in
column
heading.)
Indicates whether or not the profile is being used in one or more
administrator accounts. If so, a red dot appears in this column, and the
profile cannot be deleted.
Note: The access profile named super_admin_prof is always used by the
admin administrator account, and cannot be deleted. In this case, a grey
dot indicates only that the profile is not being used by any other
administrator account.
2. Either click New to add an account or double-click an access profile to modify it.
A dialog appears.
3. In Profile Name, enter the name for this access profile.
In the Access Control table, for each access control option, select the permissions to be
granted to administrator accounts associated with this access profile. For details, see About
administrator account permissions and domains.
• None
• Read Only
• Read/Write
4. Click Create.
Configuring RAID
Go to System > RAID to configure a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) for the
FortiMail hard disks that are used to store logs and email.
Most FortiMail models can be configured to use RAID with their hard disks. The default RAID
level should give good results, but you can modify the configuration to suit your individual
requirements for enhanced performance and reliability. For more information, see “Configuring
RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers” on page 277 or “Configuring RAID on
FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers” on page 279.
For some FortiMail models, you can configure the RAID levels for the local disk partitions used
for storing email files or log files, depending on your requirements for performance, resiliency,
and cost.
RAID events can be logged and reported with alert email. These events include disk full and
disk failure notices. For more information, see “About FortiMail logging” on page 636, and
“Configuring alert email” on page 653.
If your FortiMail model does not support RAID, the tab in the RAID menu displays the message,
RAID is not available on this system.
About RAID levels
Supported RAID levels vary by FortiMail model.
FortiMail 400B, 400C, and 5002B models use software RAID controllers which support RAID
levels 0 or 1. You can configure the log disk with a RAID level that is different from the email
disk.
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FortiMail 1000D, 2000B, 3000C, 3000D and 4000A models use hardware RAID controllers that
require that the log disk and mail disk use the same RAID level.
FortiMail 100C, 200D, and 5001A models do not support RAID.
The available RAID levels depend on the number of hard drives installed in the FortiMail unit and
different FortiMail models come with different number of factory-installed hard drives. You can
added more hard drives if required. For details, see “Replacing a RAID disk” on page 282.
The following tables describe RAID levels supported by each FortiMail model.
Table 26:FortiMail supported RAID levels
Number of Installed Hard
Drives
Available RAID Levels
Default RAID Level
1
0
0
2
0, 1
1
3
0, 1 + hot spare, 5
5
4
5 + hot spare, 10
10
5
5 + hot spare, 10 + hot spares
10 + hot spares
6
10, 50
10
7 or more
10, 10 + hot spares, 50, 50 +
hot spares
50 + hot spares
Hot spares
FortiMail models with a hardware RAID controller have a hot spare RAID option. This feature
consists of one or more disks that are pre-installed with the other disks in the unit. The hot
spare disk is idle until an active hard disk in the RAID fails. Then the RAID immediately puts the
hot spare disk into service and starts to rebuild the data from the failed disk onto it. This
rebuilding may take up to several hours depending on system load and amount of data stored
on the RAID, but the RAID continues without interruption during the process.
The hot spare feature has one or more extra hard disks installed with the RAID. A RAID 10
configuration requires two disks per RAID 1, and has only one hot spare disk. A RAID 50
configuration requires three disks per RAID 5, and can have up to two hot spare disks.
Configuring RAID for FortiMail models with software RAID controllers
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and configure RAID levels
1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
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Figure 83:RAID System tab (FortiMail-400)
GUI item
Description
Device
Displays the name of the RAID unit. This indicates whether it is used for log
message data or for mailboxes, mail queues, and other email-related data.
This is hard-coded and not configurable.
Unit
Displays the internal mount point of the RAID unit. This is hard-coded and
not configurable.
Level
Displays the RAID level that indicates whether it is configured for optimal
speed, failure tolerance, or both. For more information on RAID levels, see
“About RAID levels” on page 276.
Resync
Action
Displays the status of the RAID device.
• idle: The RAID is idle, with no data being written to or read from the RAID
disks.
• dirty: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to disk.
• clean: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the RAID
unit.
• errors: Errors were detected on the RAID unit.
• no-errors: No errors were detected on the RAID unit.
• dirty no-errors: Data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the
RAID unit, and there are currently no detected RAID errors. For a
FortiMail unit in active use, this is the expected setting.
• clean no-errors: No data is currently buffered, waiting to be written to the
RAID unit, and there are currently no RAID errors. For a FortiMail unit
with an unmounted array that is not in active use, this is the expected
setting.
Resync
Status
If the RAID unit is not synchronized and you have clicked Click here to
check array to cause it to rebuild itself, such as after a hard disk is replaced
in the RAID unit, a progress bar indicates rebuild progress.
The progress bar appears only when Click here to check array has been
clicked and the status of the RAID is not clean no-errors.
Speed
Configuring system settings
Displays the average speed in kilobytes (KB) per second of the data transfer
for the resynchronization. This is affected by the disk being in use during the
resynchronization.
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GUI item
Description
Apply
(button)
Click to save changes.
Refresh
Click to manually initiate the tab’s display to refresh itself with current
information.
(button)
ID/Port
Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID controller.
Part of Unit
Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.
To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a RAID
unit.
Status
Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.
Size
Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).
Delete
(button)
Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.
After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.
Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level
temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more
information on creating a backup, see “Backup and restore” on page 203.
2. In the Level column, click the row corresponding to the RAID device whose RAID level you
want to change.
The Level field changes to a drop-down menu.
3. Select RAID level 0 or 1.
4. Click Apply.
A warning message appears.
5. Click Yes to confirm the change.
Configuring RAID on FortiMail models with hardware RAID controllers
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure RAID
1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
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Figure 84:RAID System tab (FortiMail-2000A/2000B/3000C/4000A)
GUI item
Description
Model
Displays the model of the hardware RAID controller.
Driver
Displays the version of the RAID controller’s driver software.
Firmware
Displays the version of the RAID controller’s firmware.
Set RAID level
Select the RAID level, then click Change.
For more information about RAID levels, see “About RAID levels” on
page 276.
Change
Select the RAID style, then click this button to apply the RAID level.
(button)
Re-scan
(button)
Click to rebuild the RAID unit with disks that are currently a member
of it, or detect newly added hard disks, and start a diagnostic check.
List of RAID units in the array
Unit
Indicates the identifier of the RAID unit, such as u0.
Type
Indicates the RAID level currently in use.
For more information, see “About RAID levels” on page 276. To
change the RAID level, use Set RAID level.
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GUI item
Description
Status
Indicates the status of the RAID unit.
• OK: The RAID unit is operating normally.
• Warning: The RAID controller is currently performing a
background task (rebuilding, migrating, or initializing the RAID
unit).
Caution: Do not remove hard disks while this status is displayed.
Removing active hard disks can cause hardware damage.
• Error: The RAID unit is degraded or inoperable. Causes vary, such
as when too many hard disks in the unit fail and the RAID unit no
longer has the minimum number of disks required to operate in
your selected RAID level. To correct such a situation, replace the
failed hard disks.
• No Units: No RAID units are available.
Note: If both Error and Warning conditions exist, the status appears
as Error.
Size
Indicates the total disk space, in gigabytes (GB), available for the
RAID unit.
Available space varies by your RAID level selection. Due to some
space being consumed to store data required by RAID, available
storage space will not equal the sum of the capacities of hard disks
in the unit.
Ignore ECC
Click turn on to ignore the Error Correcting Code (ECC). This option
is off by default.
Ignoring the ECC can speed up building the RAID, but the RAID will
not be as fault-tolerant.
This option is not available on FortiMail-2000B/3000C models.
List of hard disks in the array
ID/Port
Indicates the identifier of each hard disk visible to the RAID
controller.
Part of Unit
Indicates the RAID unit to which the hard disk belongs, if any.
To be usable by the FortiMail unit, you must add the hard disk to a
RAID unit.
Status
Indicates the hardware viability of the hard disk.
• OK: The hard disk is operating normally.
• UNKNOWN: The viability of the hard disk is not known. Causes
vary, such as the hard disk not being a member of a RAID unit. In
such a case, the RAID controller does not monitor its current
status.
Size
Indicates the capacity of the hard disk, in gigabytes (GB).
Delete
(button)
Click to unmount a hard disk before swapping it.
Configuring system settings
After replacing the disk, add it to a RAID unit, then click Re-scan.
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To change RAID levels
Back up data on the disk before beginning this procedure. Changing the device’s RAID level
temporarily suspends all mail processing and erases all data on the hard disk. For more
information on creating a backup, see “Backup and restore” on page 203.
1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
2. From Set RAID level, select a RAID level.
3. Click Change.
The FortiMail unit changes the RAID level and reboots.
Replacing a RAID disk
When replacing a disk in the RAID array, the new disk must have the same or greater storage
capacity than the existing disks in the array. If the new disk has a larger capacity than the other
disks in the array, only the amount equal to the smallest hard disk will be used. For example, if
the RAID has 400 GB disks, and you replace one with a 500 GB disk, to be consistent with the
other disks, only 400 GB of the new disk will be used.
FortiMail units support hot swap; shutting down the FortiMail unit during hard disk replacement
is not required.
To replace a disk in the array
1. Go to System > RAID > RAID System.
2. In the row corresponding to the hard disk that you want to replace (for example, p4), select
the hard disk and click Delete.
The RAID controller removes the hard disk from the list.
3. Protect the FortiMail unit from static electricity by using measures such as applying an
antistatic wrist strap.
4. Physically remove the hard disk that corresponds to the one you removed in the web UI from
its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
On a FortiMail-2000A or FortiMail-4000A, press in the tab, then pull the drive handle to
remove the dive. On a FortiMail-2000B or FortiMail-3000C, press the button to eject the
drive.
To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000A, refer to the following
diagram.
Drive 1 (p0)
Drive 4 (p3)
Drive 2 (p1)
Drive 5 (p4)
Drive 3 (p2)
Drive 6 (p5)
To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-2000B or 3000C, refer to the
following diagram.
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Drive 1 (p0)
Drive 3 (p2)
Drive 5 (p4)
Drive 2 (p1)
Drive 4 (p3)
Drive 6 (p5)
To locate the correct hard disk to remove on a FortiMail-4000A, look for the failed disk. (Disk
drive locations vary by the RAID controller model.)
5. Replace the hard disk with a new hard disk, inserting it into its drive bay on the FortiMail unit.
6. Click Re-scan.
The RAID controller will scan for available hard disks and should locate the new hard disk.
Depending on the RAID level, the FortiMail unit may either automatically add the new hard
disk to the RAID unit or allocate it as a spare that will be automatically added to the array if
one of the hard disks in the array fails.
The FortiMail unit rebuilds the RAID array with the new hard disk. Time required varies by the
size of the array.
Using high availability (HA)
Go to System > High Availability to configure the FortiMail unit to act as a member of a high
availability (HA) cluster in order to increase processing capacity or availability.
For the general procedure of how to enable and configure HA, see “How to use HA” on
page 291.
This section contains the following topics:
• About high availability
• About the heartbeat and synchronization
• About logging, alert email and SNMP in HA
• How to use HA
• Monitoring the HA status
• Configuring the HA mode and group
• Configuring service-based failover
• Example: Failover scenarios
• Example: Active-passive HA group in gateway mode
About high availability
FortiMail units can operate in one of two HA modes, active-passive or config-only.
Table 27:Comparison of HA modes
Active-passive HA
Config-only HA
2 FortiMail units in the HA group
2-25 FortiMail units in the HA group
Typically deployed behind a switch
Typically deployed behind a load balancer
Both configuration* and data synchronized
Only configuration* synchronized
Only primary unit processes email
All units process email
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Table 27:Comparison of HA modes
No data loss when hardware fails
Data loss when hardware fails
Failover protection, but no increased
processing capacity
Increased processing capacity, but no
failover protection
* For exceptions to synchronized configuration items, see “Configuration settings that are not
synchronized” on page 287.
Figure 85:Active-passive HA group operating in gateway mode
Internal
network
Mail Server
Internet
Switch
Switch
Active-passive
HA Group
Figure 86:Config-only HA group operating in gateway mode
Internal
network
Mail Server
Internet
Load balancer
Config only mode HA Group
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If the config-only HA group is installed behind a load balancer, the load balancer stops sending
email to failed FortiMail units. All sessions being processed by the failed FortiMail unit must be
restarted and will be re-directed by the load balancer to other FortiMail units in the config-only
HA group.
You can mix different FortiMail models in the same HA group. However, all units in the HA group
must have the same firmware version.
When mixing FortiMail models, the HA group is limited by the capacity and configuration limits
of the least powerful model.
Communications between HA cluster members occur through the heartbeat and
synchronization connection. For details, see “About the heartbeat and synchronization” on
page 285.
To configure FortiMail units operating in HA mode, you usually connect only to the primary unit
(master). The primary unit’s configuration is almost entirely synchronized to secondary units
(slave), so that changes made to the primary unit are propagated to the secondary units.
Exceptions to this rule include connecting to a secondary unit in order to view log messages
recorded about the secondary unit itself on its own hard disk, and connecting to a secondary
unit to configure settings that are not synchronized. For details, see “Configuration settings that
are not synchronized” on page 287.
To use FortiGuard Antivirus or FortiGuard Antispam with HA, license all FortiMail units in the
cluster. If you license only the primary unit in an active-passive HA group, after a failover, the
secondary unit cannot connect to the FortiGuard Antispam service. For FortiMail units in a
config-only HA group, only the licensed unit can use the subscription services.
For instructions of how to enable and configure HA, see “How to use HA” on page 291.
About the heartbeat and synchronization
Heartbeat and synchronization traffic consists of TCP packets transmitted between the
FortiMail units in the HA group through the primary and secondary heartbeat interfaces.
Service monitoring traffic can also, for short periods, be used as a heartbeat. For details, see
“Remote services as heartbeat” on page 303.
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Heartbeat and synchronization traffic has three primary functions:
• to monitor the responsiveness of the HA group members
• to synchronize configuration changes from the primary unit to the secondary units
For exceptions to synchronized configuration items, see “Configuration settings that are not
synchronized” on page 287.
• to synchronize mail data from the primary unit to the secondary unit (active-passive only)
Mail data consists of the FortiMail system mail directory, user home directories, and mail
queue.
FortiGuard Antispam packages and FortiGuard Antivirus engines and definitions are not
synchronized between primary and secondary units.
When the primary unit’s configuration changes, it immediately synchronizes the change to the
secondary unit (or, in a config-only HA group, to the peer units) through the primary heartbeat
interface. If this fails, or if you have inadvertently de-synchronized the secondary unit’s
configuration, you can manually initiate synchronization. For details, see “click HERE to start a
configuration/data sync” on page 295. You can also use the CLI command diagnose system
ha sync on either the primary unit or the secondary unit to manually synchronize the
configuration. For details, see the FortiMail CLI Reference.
During normal operation, the secondary unit expects to constantly receive heartbeat traffic from
the primary unit. Loss of the heartbeat signal interrupts the HA group, and, if it is active-passive
in style, generally triggers a failover. For details, see “Failover scenario 1: Temporary failure of
the primary unit” on page 310.
Exceptions include system restarts and the execute reload CLI command. In case of a
system reboot or reload of the primary unit, the primary unit signals the secondary unit to wait
for the primary unit to complete the restart or reload. For details, see “Failover scenario 2:
System reboot or reload of the primary unit” on page 311.
Periodically, the secondary unit checks with the primary unit to see if there are any configuration
changes on the primary unit. If there are configuration changes, the secondary unit will pull the
configuration changes from the primary unit, generate a new configuration, and reload the new
configuration. In this case, both the primary and secondary units send alert email. For details,
see “Failover scenario 3: System reboot or reload of the secondary unit” on page 312.
Behavior varies by your HA mode when the heartbeat fails:
• Active-passive HA
A new primary unit is elected: the secondary unit becomes the new primary unit and
assumes the duty of processing of email. During the failover, no mail data or configuration
changes are lost, but some in-progress email deliveries may be interrupted. These
interrupted deliveries may need to be restarted, but most email clients and servers can
gracefully handle this. Additional failover behaviors may be configured. For details, see “On
failure” on page 301.
Maintain the heartbeat connection. If the heartbeat is accidentally interrupted for an
active-passive HA group, such as when a network cable is temporarily disconnected, the
secondary unit will assume that the primary unit has failed, and become the new primary unit. If
no failure has actually occurred, both FortiMail units will be operating as primary units
simultaneously. For details on correcting this, see “click HERE to restore configured operating
mode” on page 295.
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• Config-only HA
Each secondary unit continues to operate normally. However, with no primary unit, changes
to the configuration are no longer synchronized. You must manually configure one of the
secondary units to operate as the primary unit, synchronizing its changes to the remaining
secondary units.
For failover examples and steps required to restore normal operation of the HA group in each
case, see “Example: Failover scenarios” on page 309.
Configuration settings that are not synchronized
All configuration settings on the primary unit are synchronized to the secondary unit, except the
following:
Table 28:HA settings not synchronized
Operation mode
You must set the operation mode (gateway, transparent, or server) of
each HA group member before configuring HA.
Host name
The host name distinguishes members of the cluster. For details, see
“Host name” on page 346.
Static route
Static routes are not synchronized because the HA units may be in
different networks (see “Configuring static routes” on page 240).
Interface
configuration
Each FortiMail unit in the HA group must be configured with different
network interface settings for connectivity purposes. For details, see
“Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
(gateway and server
mode only)
Exceptions include some active-passive HA settings which affect the
interface configuration for failover purposes. These settings are
synchronized. For details, see “Virtual IP Address” on page 321.
Management IP
address
(transparent mode
only)
SNMP system
information
Each FortiMail unit in the HA group should be configured with different
management IP addresses for connectivity purposes. For details, see
“About the management IP” on page 228.
Each FortiMail unit in the HA group will have its own SNMP system
information, including the Description, Location, and Contact. For details,
see “Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
RAID configuration RAID settings are hardware-dependent and determined at boot time by
looking at the drives (for software RAID) or the controller (hardware
RAID), and are not stored in the system configuration. Therefore, they are
not synchronized.
Main HA
configuration
Configuring system settings
The main HA configuration, which includes the HA mode of operation
(such as master or slave), is not synchronized because this configuration
must be different on the primary and secondary units. For details, see
“Configuring the HA mode and group” on page 298.
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Table 28:HA settings not synchronized
HA Daemon
configuration
The following HA daemon settings are not synchronized:
• Shared password
• Backup mail data directories
• Backup MTA queue directories
You must add the shared HA password to each unit in the HA group. All
units in the HA group must use the same shared password to identify the
group.
Since the mail data and MTA queue backup settings are not
synchronized, to use this feature, you must enable it on both the master
and slave units. For information about now to enable this feature, see
“Configuring the backup options” on page 301.
Synchronized HA daemon options that are active-passive HA settings
affect how often the secondary unit tests the primary unit and how the
secondary unit synchronizes configuration and mail data. Because HA
daemon settings on the secondary unit control how the HA daemon
operates, in a functioning HA group you would change the HA daemon
configuration on the secondary unit to change how the HA daemon
operates. The HA daemon settings on the primary unit do not affect the
operation of the HA daemon.
HA service
monitoring
configuration
In active-passive HA, the HA service monitoring configuration is not
synchronized. The remote service monitoring configuration on the
secondary unit controls how the secondary unit checks the operation of
the primary unit. The local services configuration on the primary unit
controls how the primary unit tests the operation of the primary unit. For
details, see “Configuring service-based failover” on page 307.
Note: You might want to have a different service monitoring configuration
on the primary and secondary units. For example, after a failover you
may not want service monitoring to operate until you have fixed the
problems that caused the failover and have restarted normal operation of
the HA group.
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Table 28:HA settings not synchronized
Product name and The product names and icons under System > Customization >
icon
Appearance are not synchronized. All other appearance settings are
synchronized.
Config-only HA
In config-only HA, the following settings are not synchronized:
• the local domain name (see “Local domain name” on page 346)
• default certificate
• iSCSI initiator name
• iSCSI ID for remote storage
• SNMP settings
• IP pools (see “Configuring IP pools” on page 570)
• the quarantine report host name (see “Web release host name/IP” on
page 577)
• IBE settings of base URL, Help content URL, and About content URL
• Centralized quarantine client IP address
• Centralized IBE client IP address
• User-level block/safe lists. But system and domain-level block/safe
lists are synchronized. Note that before v5.0.2 release, domain-level
block/safe lists are not automatically synchronized either.
Synchronization of MTA queue directories after a failover
During normal operation, email messages are in one of three states:
• being received or sent by the primary unit
• waiting to be delivered in the mail queue
• stored on the primary unit’s mail data directories (email quarantines, email archives, and
email inboxes of server mode)
When normal operation of an active-passive HA group is interrupted and a failover occurs,
sending and receiving is interrupted. The delivery attempt fails, and the sender usually retries to
send the email message. However, stored messages remain in the primary unit’s mail data
directories.
You usually should configure HA to synchronize the stored mail data to prevent loss of email
messages, but you usually will not want to regularly synchronize the mail queue. This is
because, to prevent loss of email messages in the failed primary unit, FortiMail units in
active-passive HA use the following failover mechanism:
If the failed primary unit effective HA operating mode is failed, a sequence similar to the
following occurs automatically when the problem that caused the failure is corrected.
1. The secondary unit detects the failure of the primary unit, and becomes the new primary
unit.
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2. The former primary unit restarts, detects the new primary unit, and becomes a secondary
unit.
You may have to manually restart the failed primary unit.
3. The former primary unit pushes its mail queue to the new primary unit.
This synchronization occurs through the heartbeat link between the primary and secondary
units, and prevents duplicate email messages from forming in the primary unit’s mail queue.
4. The new primary unit delivers email in its mail queues, including email messages
synchronized from the new secondary unit.
As a result, as long as the failed primary unit can restart, no email is lost from the mail queue.
Even if you choose to synchronize the mail queue, because its contents change very rapidly and
synchronization is periodic, there is a chance that some email in these directories will not be
synchronized at the exact moment a failover occurs.
About logging, alert email and SNMP in HA
To configure logging and alert email, configure the primary unit and enable HA events. When the
configuration changes are synchronized to the secondary units, all FortiMail units in the HA
group record their own separate log messages and send separate alert email messages. Log
data is not synchronized. For details on configuring logging and viewing log messages, see
“Logs, reports and alerts” on page 636.
To distinguish alert email from each member of the HA cluster, configure a different host name
for each member. For details, see “Host name” on page 346.
To use SNMP, configure each cluster member separately and enable HA events for the
community. If you enable SNMP for all units, they can all send SNMP traps. Additionally, you
can use an SNMP server to monitor the primary and secondary units for HA settings, such as
the HA configured and effective mode of operation. For details on SNMP, see “Configuring the
network interfaces” on page 230.
To aid in quick discovery and diagnosis of network problems, consider configuring SNMP,
Syslog, and/or alert email to monitor the HA cluster for failover messages.
Getting HA information using SNMP
You can use an SNMP manager to get information about how FortiMail HA is operating. The
FortiMail MIB (fortimail.mib) and the FortiMail trap MIB (fortimail.trap.mib) include the HA fields
listed below.
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Table 29:FortiMail MIB fields
MIB Field
Description
fortimail.mib
fmlHAEventId
Provides the ID of the most recent HA event.
fmlHAUnitIp
Provides the IP address of the port1 interface of the FortiMail unit on
which an HA event occurred.
fmlHAEventReason
Provides the description of the reason for the HA event.
fmlHAMode
Provides the HA configured mode of operation that you configured the
FortiMail unit to operate in; one of operation master (primary unit) or
slave (secondary unit).
fmlHAEffectiveMode Provides the effective HA mode of operation (applies to active-passive
HA only), either as the primary unit or as the secondary unit. The
effective HA mode of operation matches the configured mode of
operation unless a failure has occurred.
fortimail.trap.mib
fmlTrapHAEvent
Provides the FortiMail HA trap that is sent when an HA event occurs.
This trap includes the contents of the fmlSysSerial,
fmlHAEventId, fmlHAUnitIp, and fmlHAEventReason MIB fields.
How to use HA
In general, to enable and configure HA, you should perform the following:
1. If the HA cluster will use FortiGuard Antivirus and/or FortiGuard Antispam services, license
all FortiMail units in the HA group for the FortiGuard Antispam and FortiGuard Antivirus
services, and register them with the Fortinet Technical Support web site,
https://support.fortinet.com/.
2. Physically connect the FortiMail units that will be members of the HA cluster.
You must connect at least one of their network interfaces for heartbeat and synchronization
traffic between members of the cluster. For reliability reasons, Fortinet recommends that you
connect both a primary and a secondary heartbeat interface, and that they be connected
directly or through a dedicated switch that is not connected to your overall network.
3. For config-only clusters, configure each member of the cluster to store mail data on a NAS
server that supports NFS connections. (Active-passive groups may also use a NAS server,
but do not require it.) For details, see “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
4. On each member of the cluster:
• Enable the HA mode that you want to use (either active-passive or config-only) and select
whether the individual member will act as a primary unit or secondary unit within the
cluster. For information about the differences between the HA modes, see “About high
availability” on page 283.
• Configure the local IP addresses of the primary and secondary heartbeat and
synchronization network interfaces.
• For active-passive clusters, configure the behavior on failover, and how the network
interfaces should be configured for whichever FortiMail unit is currently acting as the
primary unit. Additionally, if the FortiMail units store mail data on a NAS, disable mail data
synchronization between members.
• For config-only clusters, if the FortiMail unit is a primary unit, configure the IP addresses
of its secondary units; if the FortiMail unit is a secondary unit, configure the IP address of
its primary unit.
For details, see “Configuring the HA mode and group” on page 298.
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5. If the HA cluster is active-passive and you want to trigger failover when hardware or a
service fails, even if the heartbeat connection is still functioning, configure service
monitoring. For details, see “Configuring service-based failover” on page 307.
6. Monitor the status of each cluster member. For details, see “Monitoring the HA status” on
page 292. To monitor HA events through log messages and/or alert email, you must first
enable logging of HA activity events. For details, see “Logs, reports and alerts” on page 636.
Monitoring the HA status
The Status tab in the High Availability submenu shows the configured HA mode of operation of
a FortiMail unit in an HA group. You can also manually initiate synchronization and reset the HA
mode of operation. A reset may be required if a FortiMail unit’s effective HA mode of operation
differs from its configured HA mode of operation, such as after a failover when a configured
primary unit is currently acting as a secondary unit.
For FortiMail units operating as secondary units, the Status tab also lets you view the status and
schedule of the HA synchronization daemon.
Appearance of the Status tab varies by:
• whether the HA group is active-passive or config-only
• whether the FortiMail unit is configured as a primary unit or secondary unit
• whether a failover has occurred (active-passive only)
If HA is disabled, this tab displays:
HA mode is currently disabled
Before you can use the Status tab, you must first enable and configure HA. For details, see
“Configuring the HA mode and group” on page 298.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the HA mode of operation status, go System > High Availability > Status.
Figure 87:Active-passive HA status (primary unit)
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Figure 88:Config-only HA status (primary unit)
Figure 89:Active-passive HA status (primary unit after failover)
Table 30:Viewing HA status
GUI item
Description
Mode Status
Configured
Operating
Mode
Displays the HA operating mode that you configured, either:
• master: Configured to be the primary unit of an
active-passive group.
• slave: Configured to be the secondary unit of an
active-passive group.
• config master: Configured to be the primary unit of a
config-only group.
• config slave: Configured to be a secondary unit of a
config-only group.
For information on configuring the HA operating mode, see
“Mode of operation” on page 300.
After a failure, the FortiMail unit may not be acting in its
configured HA operating mode. For details, see “Effective
Operating Mode” on page 294.
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Table 30:Viewing HA status
GUI item
Description
Effective
Operating
Mode
Displays the mode that the unit is currently operating in, either:
• master: Acting as primary unit.
• slave: Acting as secondary unit.
• off: For primary units, this indicates that service/interface
monitoring has detected a failure and has taken the
primary unit offline, triggering failover. For secondary units,
this indicates that synchronization has failed once; a
subsequent failure will trigger failover. For details, see “On
failure” on page 301 and “click HERE to restart the HA
system” on page 296.
• failed: Service/network interface monitoring has detected a
failure and the diagnostic connection is currently
determining whether the problem has been corrected or
failover is required. For details, see “On failure” on
page 301.
The configured HA operating mode matches the effective
operating mode unless a failure has occurred.
For example, after a failover, a FortiMail unit configured to
operate as a secondary unit could be acting as a primary unit.
For explanations of combinations of configured and effective
HA modes of operation, see “Monitoring the HA status” on
page 292.
For information on restoring the FortiMail unit to an effective
HA operating mode that matches the configured operating
mode, see “click HERE to restore configured operating mode”
on page 295.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is a member of an
active-passive HA group.
Daemon Status
Monitor
Displays the time at which the secondary unit’s HA daemon
will check to make sure that the primary unit is operating
correctly, and, if monitoring has detected a failure, the number
of times that a failure has occurred.
Monitoring occurs through the heartbeat link between the
primary and secondary units. If the heartbeat link becomes
disconnected, the next time the secondary unit checks for the
primary unit, the primary unit will not respond. If the maximum
number of consecutive failures is reached, and no secondary
heartbeat or remote service monitoring heartbeat is available,
the secondary unit will change its effective HA operating mode
to become the new primary unit.
For details, see “HA base port” on page 303.
This option appears only for secondary units in active-passive
HA groups.
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Table 30:Viewing HA status
GUI item
Description
Configuration Displays the time at which the secondary unit’s HA daemon
will synchronize the FortiMail configuration from the primary
unit to the secondary unit.
The message slave unit is currently
synchronizing appears when the HA daemon is
synchronizing the configuration.
For information on items that are not synchronized, see
“Configuration settings that are not synchronized” on
page 287.
This option appears only for secondary units in active-passive
HA groups.
Data
Displays the time at which the secondary unit HA daemon will
synchronize mail data from the primary unit to the secondary
unit.
The message slave unit is currently
synchronizing appears when the HA daemon is
synchronizing data.
For details, see “Backup mail data directories” on page 302
and “Backup MTA queue directories” on page 302.
This option appears only for secondary units in active-passive
HA groups.
click HERE to start a
configuration/data sync
Click to manually initiate synchronization of the configuration
and, for active-passive groups, mail data. For information on
items that are not synchronized, see “Configuration settings
that are not synchronized” on page 287.
click HERE to restore
configured operating mode
Click to reset the FortiMail unit to an effective HA operating
mode that matches the FortiMail unit’s configured operating
mode.
For example, for a configured primary unit whose effective HA
operating mode is now slave, after correcting the cause of the
failover, you might click this option on the primary unit to
restore the configured primary unit to active duty, and restore
the secondary unit to its slave role.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is a member of an
active-passive HA group.
Note: Before selecting this option, if the effective HA operating
mode changed due to failover, you should resolve any issues
that caused the failover.
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Table 30:Viewing HA status
GUI item
Description
click HERE to switch to slave Click to manually switch the effective HA operating mode of
mode
the primary unit so that it becomes a secondary unit.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is currently
operating as a primary unit.
click HERE to restart the HA Click to restart HA processes after they have been halted due
system
to detection of a failure by service monitoring. For details, see
“On failure” on page 301, “Configuring service-based failover”
on page 307, and “Restarting the HA processes on a stopped
primary unit” on page 297.
This option appears only if the FortiMail unit is configured to
operate as the primary unit (master), but its effective HA
operating mode is off.
Table 31: Combinations of configured and effective HA modes of operation
Configured Effective Description
operating
operating
mode
mode
master
master
Normal for the primary unit of an active-passive HA group.
slave
slave
Normal for the secondary unit of an active-passive HA group.
master
off
The primary unit has experienced a failure, or the FortiMail unit is in
the process of switching to operating in HA mode.
HA processes and email processing are stopped.
slave
off
The secondary unit has detected a failure, or the FortiMail unit is in
the process of switching to operating in HA mode.
After the secondary unit starts up and connects with the primary unit
to form an HA group, the first configuration synchronization may fail
in special circumstances. To prevent both the secondary and
primary units from simultaneously acting as primary units, the
effective HA mode of operation becomes off.
If subsequent synchronization fails, the secondary unit’s effective
HA mode of operation becomes master.
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Table 31: Combinations of configured and effective HA modes of operation
Configured Effective Description
operating
operating
mode
mode
master
failed
The remote service monitoring or local network interface monitoring
on the primary unit has detected a failure, and will attempt to
connect to the other FortiMail unit. If the problem that caused the
failure has been corrected, the effective HA mode of operation
switches from failed to slave, or to match the configured HA mode of
operation, depending on the On failure setting.
Additionally, f the HA group is operating in transparent mode, and if
the effective HA mode of operation changes to failed, the network
interface IP/netmask on the secondary unit displays bridging
(waiting for recovery). For details, see “Configuring the network
interfaces” on page 230.
master
slave
The primary unit has experienced a failure but then returned to
operation. When the failure occurred, the unit configured to be the
secondary unit became the primary unit. When the unit configured
to be the primary unit restarted, it detected the new primary unit and
so switched to operating as the secondary unit.
slave
master
The secondary unit has detected that the FortiMail unit configured to
be the primary unit failed. When the failure occurred, the unit
configured to be the secondary unit became the primary unit.
config
master
N/A
Normal for the primary unit of a config-only HA group.
config slave N/A
Normal for the secondary unit of a config-only HA group.
Restarting the HA processes on a stopped primary unit
If you configured service monitoring on an active-passive HA group (see “Configuring
service-based failover” on page 307) and either the primary unit or the secondary unit detects a
service failure on the primary unit, the primary unit changes its effective HA mode of operation
to off, stops processing email, and halts all of its HA processes.
After resolving the problem that caused the failure, you can use the following steps to restart the
HA processes on the primary unit.
In this example, resolving this problem could be as simple as reconnecting the cable to the
port2 network interface. Once the problem is resolved, use the following steps to restart the
stopped primary unit.
To restart a stopped primary unit
1. Log in to the web-based manager of the primary unit.
2. Go to System > High Availability > Status.
3. Select click HERE to restart the HA system.
The primary unit restarts and rejoins the HA group.
If a failover has occurred due to processes being stopped on the primary unit, and the
secondary unit is currently acting as the primary unit, you can restore the primary and
secondary units to acting in their configured roles. For details, see “click HERE to restore
configured operating mode” on page 295.
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Configuring the HA mode and group
The Configuration tab in the System > High Availability submenu lets you configure the high
availability (HA) options, including:
• enabling HA
• selecting whether the HA group is active-passive or config-only in style (for information on
the differences, see Table 27 on page 283)
• whether this individual FortiMail unit will act as a primary unit or a secondary unit in the
cluster
• network interfaces that will be used for heartbeat and synchronization
• service monitor
For an explanation of active-passive and config-only, see “About high availability” on page 283.
HA settings, with the exception of Virtual IP Address settings, are not synchronized and must be
configured separately on each primary and secondary unit.
You must maintain the physical link between the heartbeat and synchronization network
interfaces. These connections enable cluster members to detect the responsiveness of other
members, and to synchronize data. If they are interrupted, normal operation will be interrupted
and, for active-passive HA groups, a failover will occur. For more information on heartbeat and
synchronization, see “About the heartbeat and synchronization” on page 285.
For an active-passive HA group, or a config-only HA group consisting of only two FortiMail
units, directly connect the heartbeat network interfaces using a crossover Ethernet cable. For a
config-only HA group consisting of more than two FortiMail units, connect the heartbeat
network interfaces through a switch, and do not connect this switch to your overall network.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure HA options
1. Go to System > High Availability > Configuration.
The appearance of sections and the options in them options vary greatly with your choice in
the Mode of operation drop-down-list.
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Figure 90:Active-passive HA (primary unit)
Figure 91:Config-only HA (primary unit with three secondary units)
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Figure 92:Config-only HA (secondary unit)
2. Configure the following sections, as applicable:
• “Configuring the primary HA options” on page 300
• “Configuring the master configuration IP” on page 301
• “Configuring the backup options” on page 301
• “Configuring the advanced options” on page 302
• “Configuring the slave system options” on page 303
• “Storing mail data on a NAS server” on page 304
• “Configuring interface monitoring” on page 304
• “Configuring service-based failover” on page 307
3. Click Apply.
Configuring the primary HA options
Go to System > High Availability > Configuration and click the arrow to expand the HA
configuration section, if needed. The options presented vary greatly depending on your choice
in the Mode of operation drop-down-list.
Table 32: HA main options
GUI item
Description
Mode of
operation
Enables or disables HA, selects active-passive or config-only HA, and selects
the initial configured role this FortiMail unit in the HA group.
• off: The FortiMail unit is not operating in HA mode.
• master: The FortiMail unit is the primary unit in an active-passive HA group.
• slave: The FortiMail unit is the secondary unit in an active-passive HA
group.
• config master: The FortiMail unit is the primary unit in a config-only HA
group.
• config slave: The FortiMail unit is a secondary unit in a config-only HA
group.
Caution: For config-only HA, if the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode,
you must store mail data externally, on a NAS server. Failure to store mail data
externally could result in mailboxes and other data scattered over multiple
FortiMail units. For details on configuring NAS, see “Storing mail data on a
NAS server” on page 304 and “Selecting the mail data storage location” on
page 353
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Table 32: HA main options
GUI item
Description
On failure
Select one of the following behaviors of the primary unit when it detects a
failure, such as on a power failure or from service/interface monitoring.
• switch off: Do not process email or join the HA group until you manually
select the effective operating mode (see “click HERE to restart the HA
system” on page 296 and “click HERE to restore configured operating
mode” on page 295).
• wait for recovery then restore original role: On recovery, the failed primary
unit‘s effective HA mode of operation resumes its configured master role.
This also means that the secondary unit needs to give back the master role
to the primary unit. This behavior may be useful if the cause of failure is
temporary and rare, but may cause problems if the cause of failure is
permanent or persistent.
• wait for recovery then restore slave role: On recovery, the failed primary
unit’s effective HA mode of operation becomes slave, and the secondary
unit continue to assume the master role. The primary unit then
synchronizes the content of its MTA queue directories with the current
master unit. The new master unit can then deliver email that existed in the
former primary unit’s MTA queue at the time of the failover. For information
on manually restoring the FortiMail unit to acting in its configured HA mode
of operation, see “click HERE to restore configured operating mode” on
page 295.
In most cases, you should select the wait for recovery then restore slave role
option.
For details on the effects of this option on the Effective Operating Mode, see
Table . For information on configuring service/interface monitoring, see
“Configuring service-based failover” on page 307.
This option appears only if “Mode of operation” on page 300 is master.
Shared
password
Enter an HA password for the HA group. You must configure the same Shared
password value on both the primary and secondary units.
Configuring the master configuration IP
If you are configuring the unit as the secondary unit in a config-only group, go to System > High
Availability > Configuration to configure the master IP address.
In the Master IP address field, enter the IP of the primary heartbeat network interface of the
primary unit. The secondary unit synchronizes only with this primary unit’s IP address.
Configuring the backup options
Go to System > High Availability > Configuration to configure backup options, which appear
only when the mode of operation is master or slave.
Because the backup settings are not synchronized, to use this feature, you must enable it on
both the master and slave units.
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Table 33:HA backup options
GUI item
Description
Backup mail
data
directories
Synchronize system quarantine, email archives, email users’ mailboxes (server
mode only), preferences, and per-recipient quarantines.
Unless the HA cluster stores its mail data on a NAS server, you should
configure the HA cluster to synchronize mail directories.
If mail data changes frequently, you can manually initiate a data
synchronization when significant changes are complete. For details, see “click
HERE to start a configuration/data sync” on page 295.
Backup MTA
queue
directories
Synchronize the mail queue of the FortiMail unit. For more information on the
mail queue, see “Managing the deferred mail queue” on page 174.
Caution: If the primary unit experiences a hardware failure and you cannot
restart it, and if this option is disabled, MTA queue directory data could be lost.
Note: Enabling this option can affect the FortiMail unit’s performance, because
periodic synchronization of the mail queue can be processor and
bandwidth-intensive. Additionally, because the content of the MTA queue
directories is very dynamic, periodically synchronizing MTA queue directories
between FortiMail units may not guarantee against loss of all email in those
directories. Even if MTA queue directory synchronization is disabled, after a
failover, a separate synchronization mechanism may successfully prevent loss
of MTA queue data. For details, see “Synchronization of MTA queue directories
after a failover” on page 289.
Configuring the advanced options
Go to System > High Availability > Configuration to configure the advanced options. For
config-only groups, just the HA base port option appears.
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Table 34:HA advanced options
GUI item
Description
HA base port Enter the first of four TCP port numbers that will be used for:
• the heartbeat signal
• synchronization control
• data synchronization
• configuration synchronization
Note: For active-passive groups, in addition to configuring the heartbeat, you
can configure service monitoring. For details, see “Configuring service-based
failover” on page 307.
Note: In addition to automatic immediate and periodic configuration
synchronization, you can also manually initiate synchronization. For details,
see “click HERE to start a configuration/data sync” on page 295.
Heartbeat lost Enter the total span of time, in seconds, for which the primary unit can be
threshold
unresponsive before it triggers a failover and the secondary unit assumes the
role of the primary unit.
The heartbeat will continue to check for availability once per second. To
prevent premature failover when the primary unit is simply experiencing very
heavy load, configure a total threshold of three (3) seconds or more to allow
the secondary unit enough time to confirm unresponsiveness by sending
additional heartbeat signals.
Note: If the failure detection time is too short, the secondary unit may falsely
detect a failure when during periods of high load.
Caution: If the failure detection time is too long the primary unit could fail and
a delay in detecting the failure could mean that email is delayed or lost.
Decrease the failure detection time if email is delayed or lost because of an HA
failover.
Remote
services as
heartbeat
Enable to use remote service monitoring as a secondary HA heartbeat. If
enabled and both the primary and secondary heartbeat links fail or become
disconnected, if remote service monitoring still detects that the primary unit is
available, a failover will not occur.
Note: The remote service check is only applicable for temporary heartbeat link
fails. If the HA process restarts due to system reboot or HA daemon reboot,
physical heartbeat connections will be checked first. If the physical
connections are not found, the remote service monitoring does not take effect
anymore.
Note: Using remote services as heartbeat provides HA heartbeat only, not
synchronization. To avoid synchronization problems, you should not use
remote service monitoring as a heartbeat for extended periods. This feature is
intended only as a temporary heartbeat solution that operates until you
reestablish a normal primary or secondary heartbeat link.
Configuring the slave system options
This section appears only when the mode of operations is set to config master under System >
High Availability > Configuration.
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Table 35:HA peer options
GUI item
Description
Slave IP
address
Double-click in order to modify, then enter the IP address of the primary
network interface on that secondary unit.
Create
Click to add a secondary unit to the list of Peer systems, then double-click its
IP address.
The primary unit synchronizes only with secondary units in the list of Peer
systems.
Delete
Click the row corresponding to a peer IP address, then click this button to
remove that secondary unit from the HA group.
Storing mail data on a NAS server
For FortiMail units operating in server mode as a config-only HA group, you must store mail
data on a NAS server instead of locally. If mail data is stored locally, email users’ messages and
other mail data could be scattered across multiple FortiMail units.
Even if your FortiMail units are not operating in server mode with config-only HA, however,
storing mail data on a NAS server may have a number of benefits for your organization. For
example, backing up your NAS server regularly can help prevent loss of mail data. Also, if your
FortiMail unit experiences a temporary failure, you can still access the mail data on the NAS
server. When the FortiMail unit restarts, it can usually continue to access and use the mail data
stored on the NAS server.
For config-only HA groups using a network attached storage (NAS) server, only the primary unit
sends quarantine reports to email users. The primary unit also acts as a proxy between email
users and the NAS server when email users use FortiMail webmail to access quarantined email
and to configure their own Bayesian filters.
For a active-passive HA groups, the primary unit reads and writes all mail data to and from the
NAS server in the same way as a standalone unit. If a failover occurs, the new primary unit uses
the same NAS server for mail data. The new primary unit can access all mail data that the
original primary unit stored on the NAS server. So if you are using a NAS server to store mail
data, after a failover, the new primary unit continues operating with no loss of mail data.
If the FortiMail unit is a member of an active-passive HA group, and the HA group stores mail
data on a remote NAS server, disable mail data synchronization to prevent duplicate mail data
traffic. For details, see “Backup mail data directories” on page 302.
For instructions on storing mail data on a NAS server, see “Selecting the mail data storage
location” on page 353.
Configuring interface monitoring
In active-passive HA mode, Interface monitor checks the local interfaces on the primary unit. If
a malfunctioning interface is detected, a failover will be triggered.
To configure interface monitoring
1. Go to System > High Availability > Configuration.
2. Select master or slave as the mode of operation.
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3. Expand the Interface area, if required.
4. Click on the port/interface name to configure the interface. For details, see “Configuring the
network interfaces” on page 230.
The interface IP address must be different from, but on the same subnet as, the IP addresses of
the other heartbeat network interfaces of other members in the HA group.
When configuring other FortiMail units in the HA group, use this value as the:
• Remote peer IP (for active-passive groups)
• Master configuration (for secondary units in config-only groups)
Peer systems (for the primary unit on config-only groups)
5. Select a row in the table and click Edit to configure the following HA settings on the
interface.
GUI item
Description
Port
Displays the interface name you’re configuring.
Enable port
monitor
Enable to monitor a network interface for failure. If the port fails, the primary
unit will trigger a failover.
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GUI item
Description
Heartbeat
status
Specify if this interface will be used for HA heartbeat and synchronization.
• Disable
Do not use this interface for HA heartbeat and synchronization.
• Primary
Select the primary network interface for heartbeat and synchronization
traffic. For more information, see “About the heartbeat and synchronization”
on page 285.
This network interface must be connected directly or through a switch to
the Primary heartbeat network interface of other members in the HA group.
• Secondary
Select the secondary network interface for heartbeat and synchronization
traffic. For more information, see “About the heartbeat and synchronization”
on page 285.
The secondary heartbeat interface is the backup heartbeat link between the
units in the HA group. If the primary heartbeat link is functioning, the
secondary heartbeat link is used for the HA heartbeat. If the primary
heartbeat link fails, the secondary link is used for the HA heartbeat and for
HA synchronization.
This network interface must be connected directly or through a switch to
the Secondary heartbeat network interfaces of other members in the HA
group.
Caution: Using the same network interface for both HA
synchronization/heartbeat traffic and other network traffic could result in
issues with heartbeat and synchronization during times of high traffic load,
and is not recommended.
Note: In general, you should isolate the network interfaces that are used for
heartbeat traffic from your overall network. Heartbeat and synchronization
packets contain sensitive configuration information, are latency-sensitive,
and can consume considerable network bandwidth.
Peer IP
address
Enter the IP address of the matching heartbeat network interface of the
other member of the HA group.
For example, if you are configuring the primary unit’s primary heartbeat
network interface, enter the IP address of the secondary unit’s primary
heartbeat network interface.
Similarly, for the secondary heartbeat network interface, enter the IP
address of the other unit’s secondary heartbeat network interface.
For information about configuration synchronization and what is not
synchronized, see “About the heartbeat and synchronization” on page 285.
This option appears only for active-passive HA.
Peer IPv6
address
Configuring system settings
Enter the peer IPv6 address in the active-passive HA group. For IPv6
support, see “About IPv6 Support” on page 227.
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GUI item
Description
Virtual IP
action
Select whether and how to configure the IP addresses and netmasks of the
FortiMail unit whose effective HA mode of operation is currently master.
For example, a primary unit might be configured to receive email traffic
through port1 and receive heartbeat and synchronization traffic through
port5 and port6. In that case, you would configure the primary unit to set
the IP addresses or add virtual IP addresses for port1 of the secondary unit
on failover in order to mimic that of the primary unit.
• Ignore: Do not change the network interface configuration on failover,
and do not monitor. For details on service monitoring for network
interfaces, see “Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
• Set: Add the specified virtual IP address and netmask to the network
interface on failover. Normally, you will configure your network (MX
records, firewall policies, routing and so on) so that clients and mail
services use the virtual IP address. Both originating and reply traffic uses
the virtual IP address. This option results in the network interface having
two IP Addresses: the actual and the virtual. For examples, see
“Example: Active-passive HA group in gateway mode” on page 316. In
v3.0 MR2 and older releases, the behavior is different -- the originating
traffic uses the actual IP address, instead of the virtual IP address. For
details, see the Fortinet Knowledge Base article at
http://kb.fortinet.com.
• Bridge: Include the network interface in the Layer 2 bridge. While the
effective HA mode of operation is slave, the interface is deactivated and
cannot process traffic, preventing Layer 2 loops. Then, when the
effective HA mode of operation becomes master, the interface is
activated again and can process traffic. This option appears only if the
FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode. This option is not
available for Port1 and the ports not in the bridge group. For information
on configuring bridging network interfaces, see “Editing network
interfaces” on page 231.
Note: Settings in this section are synchronizable. Configure the primary
unit, then synchronize it to the secondary unit. For details, see “click HERE
to start a configuration/data sync” on page 295.
Virtual IP
address
Enter the virtual IPv4 address for this interface.
Virtual IPv6
address
Enter the virtual IPv6 address for this interface. For IPv6 support, see
“About IPv6 Support” on page 227.
Configuring service-based failover
Go to System > High Availability > Configuration to configure remote service monitoring, local
network interface monitoring, and local hard drive monitoring.
Service monitoring is not available for config-only HA groups.
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HA service monitoring settings are not synchronized and must be configured separately on
each primary and secondary unit.
With remote service monitoring, the secondary unit confirms that it can connect to the primary
unit over the network using SMTP service, POP service (POP3), and Web service (HTTP)
connections. If you configure the HA pair in server mode, the IMAP service can also be
checked.
With local network interface monitoring and local hard drive monitoring, the primary unit
monitors its own network interfaces and hard drives.
If service monitoring detects a failure, the effective HA operating mode of the primary unit
switches to off or failed (depending on the On failure setting) and, if configured, the FortiMail
units send HA event alert email, record HA event log messages, and send HA event SNMP
traps.A failover then occurs, and the effective HA operating mode of the secondary unit
switches to master. For information on the On failure option, see “Configuring the HA mode and
group” on page 298. For information on the effective HA operating mode, see “Monitoring the
HA status” on page 292.
Remote service monitoring can be effective to configure in addition to, or sometimes as a
backup alternative to, the heartbeat. While the heartbeat tests for the general responsiveness of
the primary unit, it does not test for the failure of individual services which email users may be
using such as POP3 or webmail. The heartbeat also does not monitor for the failure of network
interfaces through which non-heartbeat traffic occurs. In this way, configuring remote service
monitoring provides more specific failover monitoring. Additionally, if the heartbeat link is briefly
disconnected, enabling HA services monitoring can prevent a false failover by acting as a
temporary secondary heartbeat. For information on treating service monitoring as a secondary
heartbeat, see “Remote services as heartbeat” on page 303.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure service monitoring
1. Go to System > High Availability > Configuration.
2. Select master or slave as the mode of operation.
3. Expand the service monitor area, if required.
4. Select a row in the table and click Edit to configure it.
5. For Remote SMTP, Remote IMAP, Remote POP, and Remote HTTP services, configure the
following:
GUI item
Description
Enable
Select to enable connection responsiveness tests for SMTP.
Name
Displays the service name.
Remote IP
Enter the peer IP address.
Port
Enter the port number of the peer SMTP service.
Timeout
Enter the timeout period for one connection test.
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GUI item
Description
Interval
Enter the frequency of the tests.
Retries
Enter the number of consecutively failed tests that are allowed before the
primary unit is deemed unresponsive and a failover occurs.
6. For interface monitoring and local hard drive monitoring, configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable
Enable local hard drive monitoring to check if the local hard drive is still
accessible, or if the mail data disk is almost full. If the hard disk is not
responsive, or if the mail data disk is 95 percent full, a failover will occur.
Interface monitoring is enabled when you configure interface monitoring.
See “Configuring interface monitoring” on page 304.
Network interface monitoring tests all active network interfaces whose:
• Virtual IP action setting is not Ignore
• Configuring interface monitoring setting is enabled
For details, see “Configuring interface monitoring” on page 304 and “Virtual
IP action” on page 307.
Interval
Enter the frequency of the test.
Retries
Specify the number of consecutively failed tests that are allowed before the
local interface or hard drive is deemed unresponsive and a failover occurs.
Example: Failover scenarios
This section describes basic FortiMail active-passive HA failover scenarios. For each scenario,
refer to the HA group shown in Figure 93. To simplify the descriptions of these scenarios, the
following abbreviations are used:
• P1 is the configured primary unit.
• S2 is the configured secondary unit.
Figure 93:Example active-passive HA group
Active-passive HA group
port1
172.16.5.10
(HA virtual IP: 172.16.5.2)
Primary unit (P1)
Switch
port6
Heartbeat link
Secondary unit (S2)
port1
172.16.5.11
This section contains the following HA failover scenarios:
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This topic includes:
• Failover scenario 1: Temporary failure of the primary unit
• Failover scenario 2: System reboot or reload of the primary unit
• Failover scenario 3: System reboot or reload of the secondary unit
• Failover scenario 4: System shutdown of the secondary unit
• Failover scenario 5: Primary heartbeat link fails
• Failover scenario 6: Network connection between primary and secondary units fails (remote
service monitoring detects a failure)
Failover scenario 1: Temporary failure of the primary unit
In this scenario, the primary unit (P1) fails because of a software failure or a recoverable
hardware failure (in this example, the P1 power cable is unplugged). HA logging and alert email
are configured for the HA group.
When the secondary unit (S2) detects that P1 has failed, S2 becomes the new primary unit and
continues processing email.
Here is what happens during this process:
1. The FortiMail HA group is operating normally.
2. The power is accidentally disconnected from P1.
3. S2’s primary heartbeat test detects that P1 has failed.
How soon this happens depends on the HA daemon configuration of S2.
4. The effective HA operating mode of S2 changes to master.
5. S2 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that S2 has determined that P1
has failed and that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘MASTER heartbeat disappeared’
The state changed from ‘SLAVE’ to ‘MASTER’
6. S2 records event log messages (among others) indicating that S2 has determined that P1
has failed and that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
Recovering from temporary failure of the primary unit
After P1 recovers from the hardware failure, what happens next to the HA group depends on
P1’s HA On failure settings under System > High Availability > Configuration.
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Figure 94:HA On Failure settings
• switch off
P1 will not process email or join the HA group until you manually select the effective HA
operating mode (see “click HERE to restart the HA system” on page 296 and “click HERE to
restore configured operating mode” on page 295).
• wait for recovery then restore original role
On recovery, P1’s effective HA operating mode resumes its configured master role. This also
means that S2 needs to give back the master role to P1. This behavior may be useful if the
cause of failure is temporary and rare, but may cause problems if the cause of failure is
permanent or persistent.
In the case, the S2 will send out another alert email similar to the following:
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘SLAVE asks us to switch roles (recovery after a restart)
The state changed from ‘MASTER’ to ‘SLAVE’
After recovery, P1 also sends out an alert email similar to the following:
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10.
The following critical event was detected
The system was shutdown!
• wait for recovery then restore slave role
On recovery, P1’s effective HA operating mode becomes slave, and S2 continues to assume
the master role. P1 then synchronizes the content of its MTA queue directories with the
current master unit, S2. S2 can then deliver email that existed in P1’s MTA queue directory at
the time of the failover. For information on manually restoring the FortiMail unit to acting in its
configured HA mode of operation, see “click HERE to restore configured operating mode”
on page 295.
Failover scenario 2: System reboot or reload of the primary unit
If you need to reboot or reload (not shut down) P1 for any reason, such as a firmware upgrade
or a process restart, by using the CLI commands execute reboot or execute reload
<httpd...>, or by clicking the Restart button under Monitor > System Status > Status on the
GUI:
• P1 will send a holdoff command to S2 so that S2 will not take over the master role during
P1’s reboot.
• P1 will also send out an alert email similar to the following:
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10.
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The following critical event was detected
The system is rebooting (or reloading)!
• S2 will hold off checking the services and heartbeat with P1. Note that S2 will only hold off
for about 15 minutes. In case P1 never boots up, S2 will take over the master role.
• S2 will send out an alert email, indicating that S2 received the holdoff command from P1.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘peer rebooting (or reloading)’
The state changed from ‘SLAVE’ to ‘HOLD_OFF’
After P1 is up again:
• P1 will send another command to S2 and ask S2 to change its state from holdoff to slave
and resume monitoring P1’s services and heartbeat.
• S2 will send out an alert email, indicating that S2 received instruction commands from P1.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘peer command appeared’
The state changed from ‘HOLD_OFF’ to ‘SLAVE’
• S2 logs the event in the HA logs.
Failover scenario 3: System reboot or reload of the secondary unit
If you need to reboot or reload (not shut down) S2 for any reason, such as a firmware upgrade
or a process restart, by using the CLI commands execute reboot or execute reload
<httpd...>, or by clicking the Restart button under Monitor > System Status > Status on the
GUI, the behavior of P1 and S2 is as follows:
For FortiMail v4.1 and newer releases:
• P1 will send out an alert email similar to the following, informing the administrator of the
heartbeat loss with S2.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10.
The following event has occurred
‘ha: SLAVE heartbeat disappeared’
• S2 will send out an alert email similar to the following:
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following critical event was detected
The system is rebooting (or reloading)!
• P1 will also log this event in the HA logs.
For FortiMail v4.0 releases:
• P1 will not send out the alert email.
• P1 will log the event in the HA logs.
Failover scenario 4: System shutdown of the secondary unit
If you shut down S2:
• No alert email is sent out from either P1 or S2.
• P1 will log this event in the HA logs.
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Failover scenario 5: Primary heartbeat link fails
If the primary heartbeat link fails, such as when the cable becomes accidentally disconnected,
and if you have not configured a secondary heartbeat link, the FortiMail units in the HA group
cannot verify that other units are operating and assume that the other has failed. As a result, the
secondary unit (S2) changes to operating as a primary unit, and both FortiMail units are acting
as primary units.
Two primary units connected to the same network may cause address conflicts on your network
because matching interfaces will have the same IP addresses. Additionally, because the
heartbeat link is interrupted, the FortiMail units in the HA group cannot synchronize
configuration changes or mail data changes.
Even after reconnecting the heartbeat link, both units will continue operating as primary units.
To return the HA group to normal operation, you must connect to the web-based manager of S2
to restore its effective HA operating mode to slave (secondary unit).
1. The FortiMail HA group is operating normally.
2. The heartbeat link Ethernet cable is accidently disconnected.
3. S2’s HA heartbeat test detects that the primary unit has failed.
How soon this happens depends on the HA daemon configuration of S2.
4. The effective HA operating mode of S2 changes to master.
5. S2 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that S2 has determined that P1
has failed and that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘MASTER heartbeat disappeared’
The state changed from ‘SLAVE’ to ‘MASTER’
6. S2 records event log messages (among others) indicating that S2 has determined that P1
has failed and that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
Recovering from a heartbeat link failure
Because the hardware failure is not permanent (that is, the failure of the heartbeat link was
caused by a disconnected cable, not a failed port on one of the FortiMail units), you may want
to return both FortiMail units to operating in their configured modes when rejoining the failed
primary unit to the HA group.
To return to normal operation after the heartbeat link fails
1. Reconnect the primary heartbeat interface by reconnecting the heartbeat link Ethernet
cable.
Even though the effective HA operating mode of S2 is master, S2 continues to attempt to
find the other primary unit. When the heartbeat link is reconnected, S2 finds P1 and
determines that P1 is also operating as a primary unit. So S2 sends a heartbeat signal to
notify P1 to stop operating as a primary unit. The effective HA operating mode of P1
changes to off.
2. P1 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that P1 has stopped operating as
the primary unit.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10
The following event has occurred
'SLAVE asks us to switch roles (user requested takeover)'
The state changed from 'MASTER' to 'OFF'
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3. P1 records event log messages (among others) indicating that P1 is switching to off mode.
The configured HA mode of operation of P1 is master and the effective HA operating mode
of P1 is off.
The configured HA mode of operation of S2 is slave and the effective HA operating mode of
S2 is master.
P1 synchronizes the content of its MTA queue directories to S2. Email in these directories
can now be delivered by S2.
4. Connect to the web-based manager of P1, go to System > High Availability > Status.
5. Check for synchronization messages.
Do not proceed to the next step until P1 has synchronized with S2.
6. Connect to the web-based manager of S2, go to System > High Availability > Status and
select click HERE to restore configured operating mode.
The HA group should return to normal operation. P1 records the event log message (among
others) indicating that S2 asked P1 to return to operating as the primary unit.
7. P1 and S2 synchronize their MTA queue directories. All email in these directories can now be
delivered by P1.
Failover scenario 6: Network connection between primary and secondary units
fails (remote service monitoring detects a failure)
Depending on your network configuration, the network connection between the primary and
secondary units can fail for a number of reasons. In the network configuration shown in
Figure 93 on page 309, the connection between port1 of primary unit (P1) and port1 of the
secondary unit (S2) can fail if a network cable is disconnected or if the switch between P1 and
S2 fails.
A more complex network configuration could include a number of network devices between the
primary and secondary unit’s non-heartbeat network interfaces. In any configuration, remote
service monitoring can only detect a communication failure. Remote service monitoring cannot
determine where the failure occurred or the reason for the failure.
In this scenario, remote service monitoring has been configured to make sure that S2 can
connect to P1. The On failure setting located in the HA main configuration section is wait for
recovery then restore slave role. For information on the On failure setting, see “On failure” on
page 301. For information about remote service monitoring, see “Configuring service-based
failover” on page 307.
The failure occurs when power to the switch that connects the P1 and S2 port1 interfaces is
disconnected. Remote service monitoring detects the failure of the network connection
between the primary and secondary units. Because of the On failure setting, P1 changes its
effective HA operating mode to failed.
When the failure is corrected, P1 detects the correction because while operating in failed mode
P1 has been attempting to connect to S2 using the port1 interface. When P1 can connect to S2,
the effective HA operating mode of P1 changes to slave and the mail data on P1 will be
synchronized to S2. S2 can now deliver this mail. The HA group continues to operate in this
manner until an administrator resets the effective HA modes of operation of the FortiMail units.
1. The FortiMail HA group is operating normally.
2. The power cable for the switch between P1 and S2 is accidently disconnected.
3. S2’s remote service monitoring cannot connect to the primary unit.
How soon this happens depends on the remote service monitoring configuration of S2.
4. Through the HA heartbeat link, S2 signals P1 to stop operating as the primary unit.
5. The effective HA operating mode of P1 changes to failed.
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6. The effective HA operating mode of S2 changes to master.
7. S2 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that S2 has determined that P1
has failed and that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.11.
The following event has occurred
‘MASTER remote service disappeared’
The state changed from ‘SLAVE’ to ‘MASTER’
8. S2 logs the event (among others) indicating that S2 has determined that P1 has failed and
that S2 is switching its effective HA operating mode to master.
9. P1 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that P1 has stopped operating in
HA mode.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10.
The following event has occurred
'SLAVE asks us to switch roles (user requested takeover)'
The state changed from 'MASTER' to 'FAILED'
10.P1 records the following log messages (among others) indicating that P1 is switching to
Failed mode.
Recovering from a network connection failure
Because the network connection failure was not caused by failure of either FortiMail unit, you
may want to return both FortiMail units to operating in their configured modes when rejoining
the failed primary unit to the HA group.
To return to normal operation after the heartbeat link fails
1. Reconnect power to the switch.
Because the effective HA operating mode of P1 is failed, P1 is using remote service
monitoring to attempt to connect to S2 through the switch.
2. When the switch resumes operating, P1 successfully connects to S2.
P1 has determined the S2 can connect to the network and process email.
3. The effective HA operating mode of P1 switches to slave.
4. P1 logs the event.
5. P1 sends an alert email similar to the following, indicating that P1 is switching its effective
HA operating mode to slave.
This is the HA machine at 172.16.5.10.
The following event has occurred
'SLAVE asks us to switch roles (user requested takeover)'
The state changed from 'FAILED' to 'SLAVE'
6. P1 synchronizes the content of its MTA queue directories to S2. S2 can now deliver all email
in these directories.
The HA group can continue to operate with S2 as the primary unit and P1 as the secondary
unit. However, you can use the following steps to restore each unit to its configured HA
mode of operation.
7. Connect to the web-based manager of P1 and go to System > High Availability > Status.
8. Check for synchronization messages.
Do not proceed to the next step until P1 has synchronized with S2.
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9. Connect to the web-based manager of S2, go to System > High Availability > Status and
select click HERE to restore configured operating mode.
10.Connect to the web-based manager of P1, go to System > High Availability > Status and
select click HERE to restore configured operating mode.
P1 should return to operating as the primary unit and S2 should return to operating as the
secondary unit.
11.P1 and S2 synchronize their MTA queue directories again. P1 can now deliver all email in
these directories.
Example: Active-passive HA group in gateway mode
In this example, two FortiMail-400 units are configured to operate in gateway mode as an
active-passive HA group.
The procedures in this example describe HA configuration necessary to achieve this scenario.
Before beginning, verify that both of the FortiMail units are already:
• physically connected according to Figure 95 on page 317
• operating in gateway mode
• configured with the IP addresses for their port3 and port1 network interfaces according to
Figure 95 on page 317, with the exception of the HA virtual IP address that will be configured
in this example (for details, see “Editing network interfaces” on page 231)
• allowing HTTPS administrative access through their port1 network interfaces according to
Figure 95 on page 317
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Figure 95:Virtual IP address for HA failover
Email Domain:
@example.com
Internal Email Server
172.16.1.10
Local Email Users
Remote Email Users
External
Email Server
internal
172.16.1.1
Switch
wan1
10.10.10.1
Internet
port3
172.16.1.5
(HA virtual IP: 172.16.1.2)
virtual IP transfers
upon failover
Switch
Primary
unit
port1
192.168.1.5
Heartbeat
link
DNS Server
example.com IN MX 10 fortimail.example.com
fortimail.example.com IN A 10.10.10.1
port6
10.0.0.2
port6
10.0.0.4
Switch
Administrator
port1
port3
172.16.1.6 Secondary 192.168.1.6
unit
Active-passive HA group
Gateway mode
Protected Domain:
@example.com
The active-passive HA group is located on a private network with email users and the protected
email server. All are behind a FortiGate unit which separates the private network from the
Internet. The DNS server, remote email users, and external SMTP servers are located on the
Internet.
For both FortiMail units:
port1
• connected to a switch which is connected only to the computer that the
FortiMail administrator uses to manage the HA group
• administrative access occurs through this port
port3
• connected to a switch which is connected to the private network and,
indirectly, the Internet
• email connections occur through this port
port6
• connected directly to each other using a crossover cable
• heartbeat and synchronization occurs through this port
The secondary unit will become the new primary unit when a failover occurs. In order for it to
receive the connections formerly destined for the failed primary unit, the new primary unit must
adopt the failed primary unit’s IP address. You will configure an HA virtual IP address on port3
for this purpose.
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While the configured primary unit is functional, the HA virtual IP address is associated with its
port3 network interface, which receives email connections. After a failover, the HA virtual IP
address becomes associated with the new primary unit’s port3. As a result, after a failover, the
new primary unit (originally the secondary unit) will then receive and process the email
connections.
This example contains the following topics:
• About standalone versus HA deployment
• Configuring the DNS and firewall settings
• Configuring the primary unit for HA operation
• Configuring the secondary unit for HA operation
• Administering an HA group
About standalone versus HA deployment
If you plan to convert a standalone FortiMail unit to a member of an HA group, first understand
the changes you need to make for HA deployment shown in Figure 95 on page 317 in the
context of its similarities and differences with a standalone deployment.
Examine the network interface configuration of a standalone FortiMail-400 unit in Table 36.
Table 36:Example standalone network interface configuration
Network
interface
IP address
Description
port1
192.168.1.5
Administrative connections to the FortiMail unit.
port2, port4
Default
Not connected.
port3
172.16.1.2
Email connections to the FortiMail unit; the target of your email
DNS A records. (No administrative access.)
port5
Default
Not connected.
port6
Default
Not connected.
Similarly, for the HA group, DNS A records should target the IP address of the port3 interface of
the primary FortiMail-400 unit. Additionally, administrators should administer each FortiMail unit
in the HA group by connecting to the IP address of each FortiMail unit’s port1.
If a failover occurs, the network must be able to direct traffic to port3 of the secondary unit
without reconfiguring the DNS A record target. The secondary unit must cleanly and
automatically substitute for the primary unit, as if they were a single, standalone unit.
Unlike the configuration of the standalone unit, for the HA group to accomplish that
substitution, all email connections must use an IP address that transfers between the primary
unit and the secondary unit according to which one’s effective HA operating mode is currently
master. This transferable IP address can be accomplished by configuring the HA group to
either:
• set the IP address of the current primary unit’s network interface
• add a virtual IP address to the current primary unit’s network interface
In this example, the HA group uses the method of adding a virtual IP address. Email
connections will not use the actual IP address of port3. Instead, all email connections will use
only the virtual IP address 172.16.1.2, which is used by port3 of whichever FortiMail unit’s
effective HA operating mode is currently master. During normal HA group operation, this IP
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address resides on the primary unit. Conversely, after a failover occurs, this IP address resides
on the former secondary unit (now the current primary unit).
Also unlike the configuration of the standalone unit, both port5 and port6 are configured for
each member of the HA group. The primary unit’s port5 is directly connected using a crossover
cable to the secondary unit’s port5; the primary unit’s port6 is directly connected to the
secondary unit’s port6. These links are used solely for heartbeat and synchronization traffic
between members of the HA group.
For comparison with the standalone unit, examine the network configuration of the primary unit
in Table 37.
Table 37:Example primary unit HA network interface configuration
Interface IP/Netmask Virtual IP address
Setting
Description
IP address
port1
192.168.1.5
Ignore
Administrative connections to this
FortiMail unit. (Because the IP address
does not follow the FortiMail unit whose
effective mode is currently master,
connections to this IP address are specific
to this physical unit. Administrators can
still connect to this FortiMail unit after
failover, which may be useful for diagnostic
purposes.)
port2,
port4
Default
Ignore
Not connected.
port3
172.16.1.5
Set
port5
10.0.1.2
Ignore
Secondary heartbeat and synchronization
interface.
port6
10.0.0.2
Ignore
Primary heartbeat and synchronization
interface.
172.16.1.2
Email connections to the FortiMail unit; the
target of your email DNS MX and A
records. Connections should not be
destined for the actual IP address, but
instead the virtual IP address (172.16.1.2)
which follows the FortiMail unit whose
effective HA operating mode is master. No
administrative access.
Because the “Virtual IP action” on page 307 settings are synchronized between the primary and
secondary units, you do not need to configure them separately on the secondary unit. However,
you must configure the secondary unit with other settings listed in Table 38.
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Table 38:Example secondary unit HA network interface configuration
Interfac IP/Netma
e
sk
Virtual IP Address
Setting
Description
IP address
port1
192.168.1. (synchronize (synchronize Administrative connections to this
6
d from
d from
FortiMail unit. (Because the IP address
primary unit) primary unit) does not follow the FortiMail unit whose
effective mode is currently master,
connections to this IP address are specific
to this physical unit. Administrators can
connect to this FortiMail unit even when it
is currently the secondary unit, which may
be useful for HA configuration and log
viewing.)
port2,
port4
Default
port3
172.16.1.6 (synchronize (synchronize Connections should not be destined for
d from
d from
the actual IP address, but instead the
primary unit) primary unit) virtual IP address (172.16.1.2) which
follows the FortiMail unit whose effective
HA operating mode is master. As a result,
no connections should be destined for this
network interface until a failover occurs,
causing the secondary unit to become the
new primary unit. No administrative
access.
port5
10.0.1.4
(synchronize (synchronize Secondary heartbeat and synchronization
d from
interface.
d from
primary unit) primary unit)
port6
10.0.0.4
(synchronize (synchronize Primary heartbeat and synchronization
d from
d from
interface.
primary unit) primary unit)
(synchronize (synchronize Not connected.
d from
d from
primary unit) primary unit)
Configuring the DNS and firewall settings
In the example shown in Figure 95 on page 317, SMTP clients will connect to the virtual IP
address of the primary unit. For SMTP clients on the Internet, this connection occurs through
the public network virtual IP on the FortiGate unit, whose policies allow the connections and
route them to the virtual IP on the current primary unit.
Because the FortiMail HA group is installed behind a firewall performing NAT, the DNS server
hosting records for the domain example.com must be configured to reflect the public IP
address of the FortiGate unit, rather than the private network IP address of the HA group.
The DNS server has been configured with:
• an MX record to indicate that the FortiMail unit is the email gateway for example.com
• an A record to resolve fortimail.example.com into the FortiGate unit’s public IP address
• a reverse DNS record to enable external email servers to resolve the public IP address of the
FortiGate unit into the domain name of the FortiMail unit
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Configuring the primary unit for HA operation
The following procedure describes how to prepare a FortiMail unit for HA operation as the
primary unit according to Figure 95 on page 317.
Before beginning this procedure, verify that you have completed the required preparations
described in “Example: Active-passive HA group in gateway mode” on page 316.
To configure the primary unit for HA operation
1. Connect to the web-based manager of the primary unit at https://192.168.1.5/admin.
2. Go to System > Network.
3. Configure port 6 to 10.0.0.2/255.255.255.0 and port 6 to 10.0.1.2/255.255.255.0.
4. Go to System > High Availability > Configuration.
5. Configure the following:
HA Configuration section
.
Mode of operation
master
On failure
wait for recovery then assume slave role
Shared password
change_me
Backup options section
See “Configuring the backup options”.
Backup mail data directories enabled
Backup MTA queue
directories
disabled
Advanced options section
See “Configuring the advanced options”.
HA base port
2000
Heartbeat lost threshold
15 seconds
Remote services as
heartbeat
disabled
Interface section
See “Configuring interface monitoring”.
Interface
port6
Enable port monitor
Enabled
Heartbeat status
Primary
Peer IP address
10.0.0.4
Interface
port5
Enable port monitor
Enabled
Heartbeat status
Secondary
Peer IP address
10.0.1.4
Virtual IP Address
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port1
Ignore
port2
Ignore
port3
Set
172.16.1.2/255.255.255.0
port4
Ignore
port5
Ignore
port6
Ignore
6. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit switches to active-passive HA mode, and, after determining that there is
no other primary unit, sets its effective HA operating mode to master. The virtual IP
172.16.1.2 is added to port3; if not already complete, configure DNS records and firewalls to
route email traffic to this virtual IP address, not the actual IP address of the port3 network
interface.
7. To confirm that the FortiMail unit is acting as the primary unit, go to System >
High Availability > Status and compare the Configured Operating Mode and Effective
Operating Mode. Both should be master.
If the effective HA operating mode is not master, the FortiMail unit is not acting as the
primary unit. Determine the cause of the failover, then restore the effective operating mode
to that matching its configured HA mode of operation.
Figure 96:Primary unit status
Configuring the secondary unit for HA operation
The following procedure describes how to prepare a FortiMail unit for HA operation as the
secondary unit according to Figure 95 on page 317.
Before beginning this procedure, verify that you have completed the required preparations
described in “Example: Active-passive HA group in gateway mode” on page 316. Also verify
that you configured the primary unit as described in “Configuring the primary unit for HA
operation” on page 321.
To configure the secondary unit for HA operation
1. Connect to the web-based manager of the secondary unit at https://192.168.1.6/admin.
2. Go to System > Network.
3. Configure port 6 to 10.0.0.4/255.255.255.0 and port 6 to 10.0.1.4/255.255.255.0.
4. Go to System > High Availability > Configuration.
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5. Configure the following:
Main Configuration section
See “Configuring the primary HA options”
Mode of operation
slave
On failure
wait for recovery then restore slave role
Shared password
change_me
Backup options section
See “Configuring the backup options”.
Backup mail data directories
enabled
Backup MTA queue
directories
disabled
Advanced options section
See “Configuring the advanced options”.
HA base port
2000
Heartbeat lost threshold
15 seconds
Remote services as heartbeat disabled
Interface section
See “Configuring interface monitoring”.
Interface
port6
Heartbeat status
primary
Peer IP address
10.0.0.2
Interface
port5
Heartbeat status
secondary
Peer IP address
10.0.1.2
(Configuration of the ports will be synchronized with
the primary unit, and are therefore not required to be
configured on the secondary unit.)
Virtual IP Address
port1
Ignore
port2
Ignore
port3
Set
172.16.1.2/255.255.255.0
port4
Ignore
port5
Ignore
port6
Ignore
6. Click Apply.
The FortiMail unit switches to active-passive HA mode, and, after determining that the
primary unit is available, sets its effective HA operating mode to slave.
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7. Go to System > High Availability > Status.
8. Select click HERE to start a configuration/data sync.
The secondary unit synchronizes its configuration with the primary unit, including “Virtual IP
action” on page 307 settings that configure the HA virtual IP that the secondary unit will
adopt on failover.
9. To confirm that the FortiMail unit is acting as the secondary unit, go to System >
High Availability > Status and compare the Configured Operating Mode and Effective
Operating Mode. Both should be slave.
If the effective HA operating mode is not slave, the FortiMail unit is not acting as the
secondary unit. Determine the cause of the failover, then restore the effective operating
mode to that matching its configured HA mode of operation.
If the heartbeat interfaces are not connected, the secondary unit cannot connect to the primary
unit, and so the secondary unit will operate as though the primary unit has failed and will switch
its effective HA operating mode to master.
Figure 97:Secondary unit status page (secondary unit not operating as a slave unit)
When both primary unit and the secondary unit are operating in their configured mode,
configuration of the active-passive HA group is complete. For information on managing both
members of the HA group, see “Administering an HA group” on page 324.
Administering an HA group
In most cases, you will an HA group by connecting to the primary unit as if it were a standalone
unit.
Table 39:Management tasks performed on each HA group member
Connect to...
For...
Primary unit
• synchronized configuration items, such as antispam settings
(192.168.1.5)
• primary unit HA management tasks, such as viewing its effective HA
operating mode and configuring its “Mode of operation” on page 300 and
“Shared password” on page 301
• viewing the log messages of the primary unit
Secondary
unit
(192.168.1.6)
• secondary unit HA management tasks, such as viewing its effective HA
operating mode and configuring its “Mode of operation” on page 300 and
“Shared password” on page 301
• viewing the log messages of the secondary unit
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If the initial configuration synchronization fails, such as if it is disrupted or the network cable is
loose, you should manually trigger synchronization after changing the configuration of the
primary unit. For information on manually triggering configuration synchronization, see “click
HERE to start a configuration/data sync” on page 295.
Some parts of the configuration are not synchronized, and must be configured separately on
each member of the HA group. For details, see “Configuration settings that are not
synchronized” on page 287.
Managing certificates
This section explains how to manage X.509 security certificates using the FortiMail web UI.
Using the Certificate submenu, you can generate certificate requests, install signed certificates,
import CA root certificates and certificate revocation lists, and back up and restore installed
certificates and private keys.
FortiMail uses certificates for PKI authentication in secure connections. PKI authentication is
the process of determining if a remote host can be trusted with access to network resources. To
establish its trustworthiness, the remote host must provide an acceptable authentication
certificate by obtaining a certificate from a certification authority (CA).
You can manage the following types of certificates on FortiMail:
Table 40:Certificate types
Certificate
type
Usage
CA certificates FortiMail uses CA certificates to authenticate the PKI users, including
administrators and web mail users. For details, see “Configuring PKI
authentication” on page 409 and “Managing certificate authority certificates”
on page 332.
Server
certificates
FortiMail must present its local server certificate for the following secure
connections:
• the web UI (HTTPS connections only)
• webmail (HTTPS connections only)
• secure email, such as SMTPS, IMAPS, and POP3S
For details, see “Managing local certificates” on page 326.
Personal
certificates
Mail users’ personal certificates are used for S/MIME encryption. For details,
see “Configuring certificate bindings” on page 340.
This section contains the following topics:
• Managing local certificates
• Managing certificate authority certificates
• Managing the certificate revocation list
• Managing OCSP server certificates
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Managing local certificates
System > Certificate > Local Certificate displays both the signed server certificates and
unsigned certificate requests.
On this tab, you can also generate certificate signing requests and import signed certificates in
order to install them for local use by the FortiMail unit.
FortiMail units require a local server certificate that it can present when clients request secure
connections, including:
• the web UI (HTTPS connections only)
• webmail (HTTPS connections only)
• secure email, such as SMTPS, IMAPS, and POP3S
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view local certificates
1. Go to System > Certificate > Local Certificate.
GUI item
Description
View
Select a certificate and click View to display its issuer, subject, and range of
dates within which the certificate is valid.
(button)
Delete
Removes the selected certificate.
(button)
Generate
(button)
Click to generate a local certificate request. For more information, see
“Generating a certificate signing request” on page 327.
Download
(button)
Click the row of a certificate file or certificate request file in order to select it,
then click this button and select either:
• Download: Download a certificate (.cer) or certificate request (.csr) file. You
can send the request to your certificate authority (CA) to obtain a signed
certificate for the FortiMail unit. For more information, see “Downloading a
certificate signing request” on page 329.
• Download PKCS12 File: Download a PKCS #12 (.p12) file. For details, see
“Downloading a PKCS #12 certificate” on page 332.
Set status
Click the row of a certificate in order to select it, then click this button to use it
as the “default” (that is, currently chosen for use) certificate. The Status
column changes to indicate that the certificate is the current (Default)
certificate.
This button is not available if the selected certificate is already the “default.”
Import
(button)
Click to import a signed certificate for local use. For more information, see
“Importing a certificate” on page 330.
Name
Displays the name of the certificate file or certificate request file.
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GUI item
Description
Subject
Displays the Distinguished Name (DN) located in the Subject field of the
certificate.
If the certificate has not yet been signed, this field is empty.
Status
Displays the status of the local certificates or certificate signing request.
• Default: Indicates that the certificate was successfully imported, and is
currently selected for use by the FortiMail unit.
• OK: Indicates that the certificate was successfully imported, but is not
selected as the certificate currently in use. To use the certificate, click the
row of the certificate in order to select it, then click Set status.
• Pending: Indicates that the certificate request has been generated, but
must be downloaded, signed, and imported before it can be used as a
local certificate. For details, see “Obtaining and installing a local
certificate” on page 327.
Obtaining and installing a local certificate
There are two methods to obtain and install a local certificate:
• If you already have a signed server certificate (a backup certificate, a certificate exported
from other devices, and so on), you can import the certificate into FortiMail. For details, see
“Importing a certificate” on page 330.
• Generate a certificate signing request on the FortiMail unit, get the request signed by a CA
,and import the signed certificate into FortiMail.
For the second method, follow these steps:
• Generating a certificate signing request
• Downloading a certificate signing request
• Submitting a certificate request to your CA for signing
• Importing a certificate
Generating a certificate signing request
You can generate a certificate request file, based on the information you enter to identify the
FortiMail unit. Certificate request files can then be submitted for verification and signing by a
certificate authority (CA).
For other related steps, see “Obtaining and installing a local certificate” on page 327.
To generate a certificate request
1. Go to System > Certificate > Local Certificate.
2. Click Generate.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Certification name
Enter a unique name for the certificate request, such as
fmlocal.
Subject Information
Information that the certificate is required to contain in order to
uniquely identify the FortiMail unit.
ID type
Select which type of identifier will be used in the certificate to
identify the FortiMail unit:
• Host IP
• Domain name
• E-mail
Which type you should select varies by whether or not your
FortiMail unit has a static IP address, a fully-qualified domain
name (FQDN), and by the primary intended use of the
certificate.
For example, if your FortiMail unit has both a static IP address
and a domain name, but you will primarily use the local
certificate for HTTPS connections to the web UI by the domain
name of the FortiMail unit, you might prefer to generate a
certificate based on the domain name of the FortiMail unit,
rather than its IP address.
• Host IP requires that the FortiMail unit have a static, public IP
address. It may be preferable if clients will be accessing the
FortiMail unit primarily by its IP address.
• Domain name requires that the FortiMail unit have a
fully-qualified domain name (FQDN). It may be preferable if
clients will be accessing the FortiMail unit primarily by its
domain name.
• E-mail does not require either a static IP address or a domain
name. It may be preferable if the FortiMail unit does not have
a domain name or public IP address.
IP
Enter the static IP address of the FortiMail unit.
This option appears only if ID Type is Host IP.
Domain name Type the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the FortiMail
unit.
The domain name may resolve to either a static or, if the
FortiMail unit is configured to use a dynamic DNS service, a
dynamic IP address. For more information, see “Configuring the
network interfaces” on page 230 and “Configuring dynamic
DNS” on page 241.
If a domain name is not available and the FortiMail unit
subscribes to a dynamic DNS service, an unable to verify
certificate message may appear in the user’s browser
whenever the public IP address of the FortiMail unit changes.
This option appears only if ID Type is Domain name.
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GUI item
Description
E-mail
Type the email address of the owner of the FortiMail unit.
This option appears only if ID type is E-mail.
Optional Information
Organization
unit
Information that you may include in the certificate, but which is
not required.
Type the name of your organizational unit, such as the name of
your department. (Optional.)
To enter more than one organizational unit name, click the +
icon, and enter each organizational unit separately in each field.
Organization
Type the legal name of your organization. (Optional.)
Locality(City)
Type the name of the city or town where the FortiMail unit is
located. (Optional.)
State/Province Type the name of the state or province where the FortiMail unit
is located. (Optional.)
Key type
Country
Select the name of the country where the FortiMail unit is
located. (Optional.)
E-mail
Type an email address that may be used for contact purposes.
(Optional.)
Displays the type of algorithm used to generate the key.
This option cannot be changed, but appears in order to indicate
that only RSA is currently supported.
Key size
Select a security key size of 1024 Bit, 1536 Bit or 2048 Bit.
Larger keys are slower to generate, but provide better security.
4. Click OK.
The certificate is generated, and can be downloaded to your management computer for
submission to a certificate authority (CA) for signing. For more information, see
“Downloading a certificate signing request” on page 329.
Downloading a certificate signing request
After you have generated a certificate request, you can download the request file to your
management computer in order to submit the request file to a certificate authority (CA) for
signing.
For other related steps, see “Obtaining and installing a local certificate” on page 327.
To download a certificate request
1. Go to System > Certificate > Local Certificate.
2. Click the row that corresponds to the certificate request in order to select it.
3. Click Download, then select Download from the pop-up menu.
Your web browser downloads the certificate request (.csr) file.
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Submitting a certificate request to your CA for signing
After you have download the certificate request file, you can submit the request to you CA for
signing.
For other related steps, see “Obtaining and installing a local certificate” on page 327.
To submit a certificate request
1. Using the web browser on the management computer, browse to the web site for your CA.
2. Follow your CA’s instructions to place a Base64-encoded PKCS #12 certificate request,
uploading your certificate request.
3. Follow your CA’s instructions to download their root certificate and Certificate Revocation
List (CRL), and then install the root certificate and CRL on each remote client.
4. When you receive the signed certificate from the CA, install the certificate on the FortiMail
unit. For more information, see “Importing a certificate” on page 330.
Importing a certificate
You can upload Base64-encoded certificates in either privacy-enhanced email (PEM) or public
key cryptography standard #12 (PKCS #12) format from your management computer to the
FortiMail unit.
DER encoding is not supported in FortiMail version 4.0 GA and MR1 releases.
Importing a certificate may be useful when:
• restoring a certificate backup
• installing a certificate that has been generated on another system
• installing a certificate, after the certificate request has been generated on the FortiMail unit
and signed by a certificate authority (CA)
If you generated the certificate request using the FortiMail unit, after you submit the certificate
request to CA, the CA will verify the information and register the contact information in a digital
certificate that contains a serial number, an expiration date, and the public key of the CA. The
CA will then sign the certificate and return it to you for installation on the FortiMail unit. To install
the certificate, you must import it. For other related steps, see “Obtaining and installing a local
certificate” on page 327.
If the FortiMail unit’s local certificate is signed by an intermediate CA rather than a root CA,
before clients will trust the FortiMail unit’s local certificate, you must demonstrate a link with
trusted root CAs, thereby proving that the FortiMail unit’s certificate is genuine. You can
demonstrate this chain of trust either by:
• installing each intermediate CA’s certificate in the client’s list of trusted CAs
• including a signing chain in the FortiMail unit’s local certificate
To include a signing chain, before importing the local certificate to the FortiMail unit, first open
the FortiMail unit’s local certificate file in a plain text editor, append the certificate of each
intermediate CA in order from the intermediate CA who signed the FortiMail unit’s certificate to
the intermediate CA whose certificate was signed directly by a trusted root CA, then save the
certificate. For example, a local certificate which includes a signing chain might use the
following structure:
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----Configuring system settings
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<FortiMail unit’s local server certificate>
-----END CERTIFICATE---------BEGIN CERTIFICATE----<certificate of intermediate CA 1, who signed the FortiMail
certificate>
-----END CERTIFICATE---------BEGIN CERTIFICATE----<certificate of intermediate CA 2, who signed the certificate of
intermediate CA 1 and whose certificate was signed by a trusted
root CA>
-----END CERTIFICATE----To import a local certificate
1. Go to System > Certificate > Local Certificate.
2. Click Import.
3. From Type, select the type of the import file or files:
• Local Certificate: Select this option if you are importing a signed certificate issued by your
CA. For other related steps, see “Obtaining and installing a local certificate” on page 327.
• PKCS12 Certificate: Select this option if you are importing an existing certificate whose
certificate file and private key are stored in a PKCS #12 (.p12) password-encrypted file.
• Certificate: Select this option if you are importing an existing certificate whose certificate
file (.cert) and key file (.key) are stored separately. The private key is password-encrypted.
The remaining fields vary by your selection in Type.
Figure 98:Uploading a local certificate
Figure 99:Uploading a PKCS12 certificate)
Figure 100:Uploading a certificate
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4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Certificate file
Enter the location of the previously .cert or .pem exported certificate
(or, for PKCS #12 certificates, the .p12 certificate-and-key file), or
click Browse to locate the file.
Key file
Enter the location of the previously exported key file, or click Browse
to locate the file.
This option appears only when Type is Certificate.
Password
Enter the password that was used to encrypt the file, enabling the
FortiMail unit to decrypt and install the certificate.
This option appears only when Type is PKCS12 certificate or
Certificate.
Downloading a PKCS #12 certificate
You can export certificates from the FortiMail unit to a PKCS #12 file for secure download and
import to another platform, or for backup purposes.
To download a PKCS #12 file
1. Go to System > Certificate > Local Certificate.
2. Click the row that corresponds to the certificate in order to select it.
3. Click Download, then select Download PKCS12 File on the pop-up menu.
A dialog appears.
4. In Password and Confirm password, enter the password that will be used to encrypt the
exported certificate file. The password must be at least four characters long.
5. Click Download.
6. If your browser prompts you for a location to save the file, select a location.
Your web browser downloads the PKCS #12 (.p12) file. For information on importing a PKCS
#12 file, see “Importing a certificate” on page 330.
Managing certificate authority certificates
Go to System > Certificates > CA Certificate to view and import certificates for certificate
authorities (CA).
Certificate authorities validate and sign other certificates in order to indicate to third parties that
those other certificates may be trusted to be authentic.
CA certificates are required by connections that use transport layer security (TLS), and by
S/MIME encryption. For more information, see “Configuring TLS security profiles” on page 565
and “Configuring certificate bindings” on page 340. Depending on the configuration of each PKI
user, CA certificates may also be required to authenticate PKI users. For more information, see
“Configuring PKI authentication” on page 409.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view a the list of CA certificates, go to System > Certificate > CA Certificate.
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Table 41:Managing CA certificates
GUI item
Description
View
Select a certificate and click View to display certificate details including
the certificate name, issuer, subject, and the range of dates within which
the certificate is valid.
(button)
Delete
Removes the selected certificate.
(button)
Download
(button)
Click the row of a certificate in order to select it, then click Download to
download a copy of the CA certificate (.cer).
Import
(button)
Click to import a CA certificate.
Name
Displays the name of the CA certificate.
Subject
Displays the Distinguished Name (DN) located in the Subject field of the
certificate.
Managing the certificate revocation list
The Certificate Revocation List tab lets you view and import certificate revocation lists.
To ensure that your FortiMail unit validates only valid (not revoked) certificates, you should
periodically upload a current certificate revocation list, which may be provided by certificate
authorities (CA). Alternatively, you can use online certificate status protocol (OCSP) to query for
certificate statuses. For more information, see “Managing OCSP server certificates” on
page 334.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view remote certificates, go to System > Certificate > Certificate Revocation List.
Table 42:Managing certificate revocation lists
GUI item
Description
Delete
Removes the selected list.
(button)
View
(button)
Select a certificate revocation list and click View to display details.
Download
(button)
Select a certificate revocation list and click Download to download a copy of the
CRL file (.cer).
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Table 42:Managing certificate revocation lists
Import
(button)
Click to import a certificate revocation list.
Name
Displays the name of the certificate revocation list.
Subject
Displays the Distinguished Name (DN) located in the Subject field of the
certificate revocation list.
Managing OCSP server certificates
Go to System > Certificate > Remote to view and import the certificates of the online certificate
status protocol (OCSP) servers of your certificate authority (CA).
OCSP lets you revoke or validate certificates by query, rather than by importing certificate
revocation lists (CRL). For information about importing CRLs, see “Managing the certificate
revocation list” on page 333.
Remote certificates are required if you enable OCSP for PKI users. For more information, see
“Configuring PKI authentication” on page 409.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view a the list of remote certificates, go to System > Certificate > Remote.
Table 43:Managing OCSP server certificates
GUI item
Description
Delete
Removes the selected certificate.
(button)
View
(button)
Select a certificate and click View to display certificate details
including the certificate name, issuer, subject, and the range of
dates within which the certificate is valid.
Download
(button)
Click the row of a certificate in order to select it, then click
Download to download a copy of the OCSP server certificate (.cer).
Import
(button)
Click to import an OCSP server certificate.
Name
Displays the name of the OCSP server certificate.
Subject
Displays the Distinguished Name (DN) located in the Subject field of
the certificate.
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Configuring encryption settings
Use the Encryption menu to configure IBE encryption settings and certificate binding for
S/MIME encryption.
This section includes:
• Configuring IBE encryption
• Configuring certificate bindings
Configuring IBE encryption
The System > Encryption > IBE Encryption submenu lets you configure the Identity Based
Encryption (IBE) service. With IBE, you can send secured email through the FortiMail unit.
This section contains the following topics:
• About IBE
• About FortiMail IBE
• FortiMail IBE configuration workflow
• Configuring IBE services
About IBE
IBE is a type of public-key encryption. IBE uses identities (such as email addresses) to calculate
encryption keys that can be used for encrypting and decrypting electronic messages.
Compared with traditional public-key cryptography, IBE greatly simplifies the encryption
process for both users and administrators. Another advantage is that a message recipient does
not need any certificate or key pre-enrollment or specialized software to access the email.
About FortiMail IBE
The FortiMail unit encrypts an email message using the public key generated with the recipient’s
email address. The email recipient does not need to install any software or generate a pair of
keys in order to access the email.
What happens is that when an email reaches the FortiMail unit, the FortiMail unit applies its
IP-based policies and recipient-based policies containing IBE-related content profiles as well as
the message delivery rules to the email. If a policy or rule match is found, the FortiMail unit
encrypts the email using the public key before sending a notification to the recipient. Figure 102
shows a sample notification.
The notification email contains an HTML attachment, which contains instructions and links
telling the recipient how to access the encrypted email.
If this is the first time the recipient receives such a notification, the recipient must follow the
instructions and links to register on the FortiMail unit before reading email.
If this is not the first time the recipient receives such a notification and the recipient has already
registered on the FortiMail unit, the recipient only needs to log in to the FortiMail unit to read
email.
When the recipient opens the mail on the FortiMail unit, the email is decrypted automatically.
Figure 101 shows how FortiMail IBE works:
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Figure 101:How FortiMail works with IBE
2. The FortiMail unit applies its IBE-related IP-based policies ,
recipient-based policies, and access control rules
to the email. If a policy or rule match is found,
the FortiMail unit encrypts the email using the public key
generated with Bob’s email address.
1. Alice sends an email to Bob
(Bob@example.com) via the
FortiMail unit.
Request for Bob’s Public key
Alice
Mail Server
Receive Bob’s public
key and encrypt the email
Key Generator
Request for Bob’s private key
Receive Bob’s private key
and decrypt the email
Internet
3. The FortiMail unit sends a
notification email to Bob with
a link to the the FortiMail unit.
4. Bob accesses the FortiMail unit
to obtain the private key for
decrypting and opening Alice’s
email.
Bob
Figure 102:Sample secure message notification
FortiMail IBE configuration workflow
Follow the general steps below to use the FortiMail IBE function:
• Configure and enable the IBE service. See “Configuring IBE services” on page 337.
• Manage IBE users. See “Configuring IBE users” on page 421.
• Configure an IBE encryption profile. See “Configuring encryption profiles” on page 567.
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If you want to encrypt email based on the email contents:
• Add the IBE encryption profile to the content action profile. See “Configuring content action
profiles” on page 513.
• Add the content action profile to the content profile and configure the scan criteria in the
content profile, such as attachment filtering, file type filtering, and content monitor and
filtering including the dictionary and action profiles. See “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
• Add the content profile to the IP-based and recipient-based policies to determine email that
needs to be encrypted with IBE. See “Controlling email based on recipient addresses” on
page 442, and “Controlling email based on IP addresses” on page 450.
For example, on the FortiMail unit, you have:
• configured a dictionary profile that contains a pattern called “Confidential”, and enabled
Search header (see “Configuring dictionary profiles” on page 559)
• added the dictionary profile to a content profile which also includes a content action
profile that has an encryption profile in it
• included the content profile to IP and recipient policies
You then notify your email users on how to mark the email subject line and header if they
want to send encrypted email.
For example, Alice wants to send an encrypted email to Bob through the FortiMail unit. She
can add “Confidential” in the email subject line, or “Confidential” in the header (in MS
Outlook, when compiling a new mail, go to Options > Message settings > Sensitivity, and
select Confidential in the list). The FortiMail unit will apply the policies you configured to the
email by checking the email’s subject line and header. If one of them matches the patterns
defined in the dictionary profile, the email will be encrypted.
• Configure IBE email storage. See “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
• Configure log settings for IBE encryption. See “Configuring logging” on page 643.
• View logs of IBE encryption. See “Viewing log messages” on page 194.
If you want to encrypt email using message delivery rules:
• Configure message delivery rules using encryption profiles to determine email that need to
be encrypted with IBE. See “Configuring delivery rules” on page 439.
• Configure IBE email storage. See “Selecting the mail data storage location” on page 353.
• Configure log settings for IBE encryption. See “Configuring logging” on page 643.
• View logs of IBE encryption. See “Viewing log messages” on page 194.
Configuring IBE services
You can configure, enable, or disable IBE services which control how secured mail recipients
use the FortiMail IBE function. For details about how to use IBE service, see “FortiMail IBE
configuration workflow” on page 336.
To configure IBE service
1. Go to Encryption > IBE > IBE Encryption.
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Figure 103:IBE encryption tab
2. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable IBE service Select to enable the IBE service you configured.
IBE service name
Enter the name for the IBE service. This is the name the secure mail
recipients will see once they access the FortiMail unit to view the mail.
User registration
expiry time (days)
Enter the number of days that the secure mail recipient has to register
on the FortiMail unit to view the mail before the registration expires.
The starting date is the date when the FortiMail unit sends out the first
notification to a mail recipient.
User inactivity
expiry time (days)
Enter the number of days the secure mail recipient can access the
FortiMail unit without registration.
For example, if you set the value to 30 days and if the mail recipient
did not access the FortiMail unit for 30 days after the user registers on
the unit, the recipient will need to register again if another secure mail
is sent to the user. If the recipient accessed the FortiMail unit on the
15th days, the 30-day limit will be recalculated from the 15th day
onwards.
Encrypted email
Enter the number of days that the secured mail will be saved on the
storage expiry time FortiMail unit.
(days)
Password reset
Enter the password reset expiry time in hours.
expiry time (hours)
This is for the recipients who have forgotten their login passwords and
request for new ones. The secured mail recipient must reset the
password within this time limit to access the FortiMail unit.
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GUI item
Description
Allow secure
replying
Select to allow the secure mail recipient to reply the email with
encryption.
Allow secure
forwarding
Select to allow the secure mail recipient to forward the email with
encryption.
Allow secure
composing
Select to allow the secure mail recipient to compose an email. The
FortiMail unit will use policies and mail delivery rules to determine if
this mail needs to be encrypted.
For encrypted email, the domain of the composed mail’s recipient
must be a protected one, otherwise an error message will appear and
the mail will not be delivered.
IBE base URL
Enter the FortiMail unit URL, for example, https://192.168.100.20, on
which a mail recipient can register or authenticate to access the
secure mail.
"Help" content
URL
You can create a help file on how to access the FortiMail secure email
and enter the URL for the file. The mail recipient can click the “Help”
link from the secure mail notification to view the file.
If you leave this field empty, a default help file link will be added to the
secure mail notification.
"About" content
URL
You can create a file about the FortiMail IBE encryption and enter the
URL for the file. The mail recipient can click the “About” link from the
secure mail notification to view the file.
If you leave this field empty, a link for a default file about the FortiMail
IBE encryption will be added to the secure mail notification.
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GUI item
Description
Allow custom user If your corporation has its own user authentication tools, enable this
control
option and enter the URL.
“Custom user control” URL: This is the URL where you can check
for user existence.
“Custom forgot password” URL: This is the URL where users get
authenticated.
Notification
Settings
You can choose to send notification to the sender or recipient when
the secure email is read or remains unread for a specified period of
time.
Click the Edit link to modify the email template. For details, see
“Customizing email templates” on page 267.
Depending on the IBE email access method (either PUSH or PULL)
you defined in “Configuring encryption profiles” on page 567, the
notification settings behave differently.
• If the IBE message is stored on FortiMail PULL access method),
the “read” notification will only be sent the first time the message
is read.
• If the IBE message is not stored on FortiMail (PUSH access
method), the “read” notification will be sent every time the
message is read, that is, after the user pushes the message to
FortiMail and FortiMail decrypts the message.
• There is no “unread” notification for IBE PUSH messages.
Configuring certificate bindings
Go to Encryption > S/MIME > Certificate Binding to create certificate binding profiles, which
establish the relationship between an email address and the certificate that:
• proves an individual’s identity
• provides their keys for use with encryption profiles
Use this relationship and that information for secure MIME (S/MIME) as per RFC 2634.
If an incoming email message is encrypted, FortiMail compares the recipient’s identity with the
list of certificate bindings to determine if it has a key that can decrypt the email. If it has a
matching private key, it will decrypt the email before delivering it. If it does not, it forwards the
still-encrypted email to the recipient.
If you have selected an encryption profile with encryption action in the message delivery rule
that applies to the session, the FortiMail unit compares the recipient’s identity with the list of
certificate bindings to determine if it has a certificate and public key. If it has a matching public
key, it will encrypt the email using the algorithm specified in the encryption profile (see
“Configuring encryption profiles” on page 567). If it does not, it performs the failure action
indicated in the encryption profile.
If an incoming email message is digitally signed, FortiMail will not verify the signature. Instead, it
will deliver the message unmodified. The email clients usually do the verification.
If you have selected an encryption profile with signing action in the message delivery rule that
applies to the session, the FortiMail unit compares the sender’s identity with the list of certificate
bindings to determine if it has a certificate and private key. If it has a matching private key, it will
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add a digital signature using the algorithm specified in the encryption profile (see “Configuring
encryption profiles” on page 567). If it does not, it performs the failure action indicated in the
encryption profile.
The FortiMail unit does not check if an outgoing email is already encrypted. Email clients can
apply their own additional layer of S/MIME encryption if they want to (such as if they require
non-repudiation) before they submit email for delivery through the FortiMail unit.
The destination of an S/MIME email can be another FortiMail unit, for gateway-to-gateway
S/MIME, but it could alternatively be any email gateway or server, as long as one of the
following supports S/MIME and possesses the sender’s certificate and public key:
• the destination’s MTA or mail server
• the recipient’s MUA
This is necessary to decrypt the email; otherwise, the recipient cannot read the email.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category. For details, see “About administrator account
permissions and domains” on page 269.
Before any personal certificate that you upload will be valid for use, you must upload the
certificate of its signing certificate authority (CA). For details, see “Managing certificate authority
certificates” on page 332.
To view and configure certificate binding
1. Go to Encryption > S/MIME > Certificate Binding.
GUI item
Description
Profile ID
Displays the name of the profile.
Address Pattern
Displays the email address or domain associated with the
identity represented by the personal or server certificate.
Key Usage
Displays if the key is for encryption, signing, or encryption and
signing.
Identity
Displays the identity, often a first and last name, included in the
common name (CN) field of the Subject line of the personal or
server certificate.
Private Key
Displays the private key associated with the identity, used to
decrypt and sign email from that identity.
Valid From
Displays the beginning date of the period of time during which
the certificate and its keys are valid for use by signing and
encryption.
Valid To
Displays the end date of the certificate’s period of validity. After
this date and time, the certificate expires, although the keys may
be retained for the purpose of decrypting and reading email that
was signed and encrypted previously.
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GUI item
Description
Status
Indicates whether the certificate is currently not yet valid, valid,
or expired, depending on the current system time and the
certificate’s validity period.
(Green dot in column
heading.)
Indicates whether or not the entry is currently referred to by
another item in the configuration. If another item is using this
entry, a red dot appears in this column, and the entry cannot be
deleted.
2. Either click New to add a profile or double-click a profile to modify it.
3. From Type, select whether the keys and certificate will be used for validating the signature of
and decrypting incoming email (External), or to sign and encrypt outgoing email (Internal).
Certificate import formats vary by this selection.
4. In Address Pattern, enter the email address or email domain that you want to use the
certificate in this binding.
For example, you might bind a personal certificate for User1 to the email address,
user1@example.com.
5. From Key type, select what kind of keys you want to upload. If you only have a public key,
you can only use it to encrypt email. If you have a public key and private key pair, you can
use them to encrypt email (with a public key), decrypt email (with a private key), or digitally
sign email (with a private key).
6. Select one of the following ways to either import and bind a personal certificate, or to bind
an existing server certificate:
• Import PKCS12 file: Upload and bind a personal certificate-and-key file that uses the
public key cryptography standard #12 (PKCS #12), stored in a password-protected file
format (.p12).
• Import PEM files: Upload and bind a pair of personal certificates and public and private
keys that use privacy-enhanced email (PEM), a password-protected file format (.pem).
• Choose from local certificate list: Bind a server certificate that you have previously
uploaded to the FortiMail unit. For details, see “Managing local certificates” on page 326.
Depending on your selection in Import key from, either upload the personal certificate files
and enter their password, or select the name of a local certificate from Select local certificate
list.
If a certificate import does not succeed and event logging is enabled, to determine the cause
of the failure, you can examine the event log messages. Log messages may indicate errors
such as an unsupported password-based encryption (PBE) algorithm:
PKCS12 Import: err=0x6074079: digital envelope routines / EVP_PBE_CipherInit / unknown
pbe algorithm
For best results, use 3DES with SHA1. RC2 is not supported.
7. Click Create.
Certificate bindings will be used automatically as needed for matching message delivery rules in
which you have selected an encryption profile. For details, see “Using S/MIME encryption” on
page 570, “Configuring encryption profiles” on page 567 and “Configuring delivery rules” on
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page 439. It will also be used in the content profile and then in the policies which use the
content profile.
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Configuring mail settings
The Mail Settings menu lets you configure the basic email settings of the FortiMail unit (such as
the port number of the FortiMail SMTP relay/proxy/server), plus how to handle connections and
how to manage the mail queues.
This section includes:
• Configuring the built-in MTA and mail server
• Configuring protected domains
• Managing the address book (server mode only)
• Sharing calendars and address books (server mode only)
• Migrating email from other mail servers (server mode only)
• Configuring proxies (transparent mode only)
Configuring the built-in MTA and mail server
Go to Mail Settings > Settings to configure assorted settings that apply to the SMTP server and
webmail server that are built into the FortiMail unit.
This section includes:
• Configuring mail server settings
• Configuring global disclaimers
• Configuring disclaimer exclusion list
• Selecting the mail data storage location
• Configuring action profile preferences
Configuring mail server settings
Use the mail server settings to configure SMTP server/relay settings of the System domain,
which is located on the local host (that is, your FortiMail unit).
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure local SMTP server settings
1. Go to Mail Settings > Settings > Mail Server Settings.
A multisection page appears.
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2. Configure the following sections as needed:
• “Configuring local host settings” on page 346
• “Configuring DSN options” on page 347
• “Configuring mail queue setting” on page 348
• “Configuring outgoing email options” on page 349
• “Configuring deferred message delivery” on page 349
• “Configuring domain check options” on page 350
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Configuring local host settings
Provide the name and SMTP information for the mail server.
GUI item
Description
Host name
Enter the host name of the FortiMail unit.
Displays the FortiMail unit’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is in the
format:
<host-name>.<local-domain-name>
such as fortimail-400.example.com, where fortimail-400 is the
“Host name” on page 346 and example.com is the “Local domain name”
on page 346.
Note: The FQDN of the FortiMail unit should be different from that of
protected SMTP servers. If the FortiMail unit uses the same FQDN as your
mail server, it may become difficult to distinguish the two devices during
troubleshooting.
Note: You should use a different host name for each FortiMail unit, especially
when you are managing multiple FortiMail units of the same model, or when
configuring a high availability (HA) cluster. This will let you to distinguish
between different members of the cluster. If the FortiMail unit is in HA mode,
the FortiMail unit will add the host name to the subject line of alert email
messages. For details, see “Configuring alert email” on page 653.
Local domain
name
Enter the local domain name to which the FortiMail unit belongs.
The local domain name is used in many features such as email quarantine,
Bayesian database training, quarantine report, and delivery status
notification (DSN) email messages.
Displays the FortiMail unit’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is in the
format:
<host-name>.<local-domain-name>
such as fortimail-400.example.com, where fortimail-400 is the
“Host name” on page 346 and example.com is the “Local domain name”
on page 346.
Note: The IP address should be globally resolvable into the FQDN of the
FortiMail unit if it will relay outgoing email. If it is not globally resolvable,
reverse DNS lookups of the FortiMail unit’s domain name by external SMTP
servers will fail. For quarantine reports, if the FortiMail unit is operating in
server mode or gateway mode, DNS records for the local domain name may
need to be globally resolvable to the IP address of the FortiMail unit. If it is
not globally resolvable, web and email release/delete for the per-recipient
quarantines may fail.
Note: The “Local domain name” on page 346 is not required to be different
from or identical to any protected domain. It can be a subdomain or different,
external domain.
For example, a FortiMail unit whose FQDN is fortimail.example.com could be
configured with the protected domains example.com and
accounting.example.net.
SMTP server
port number
Configuring mail settings
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s SMTP server will listen
for SMTP connections. The default port number is 25.
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GUI item
Description
SMTP over
SSL/TLS
Enable to allow SSL- and TLS-secured connections from SMTP clients that
request SSL/TLS.
When disabled, SMTP connections with the FortiMail unit’s built-in MTA
must occur as clear text, unencrypted.
Note: This option must be enabled to receive SMTPS connections. However,
it does not require them. To enforce client use of SMTPS, see “Configuring
access control rules” on page 430.
SMTPS server
port number
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s built-in MTA listens for
secure SMTP connections. The default port number is 465.
This option is unavailable if SMTP over SSL/TLS is disabled.
SMTP MSA
service
Enable let your email clients use SMTP for message submission on a
separate TCP port number from deliveries or mail relay by MTAs.
For details on message submission by email clients as distinct from SMTP
used by MTAs, see RFC 2476.
SMTP MSA port Enter the TCP port number on which the FortiMail unit listens for email
number
clients to submit email for delivery. The default port number is 587.
POP3 server
port number
Enter the port number on which the FortiMail unit’s POP3 server will listen for
POP3 connections. The default port number is 110.
This option is available only if the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode.
Default domain If you set one domain as the default domain, users on the default domain
for
only need to enter their user names without the domain part for
authentication webmail/SMTP/IMAP/POP3 authentication, such as user1. Users on the
non-default domains must enter both the user name part and domain part to
authentication, such as user2@example.com.
Webmail access Enable to redirect HTTP webmail access to HTTPS.
Configuring DSN options
Use this section to configure mail server delivery status notifications.
For information on failed deliveries, see “Managing the deferred mail queue” on page 174 and
“Managing undeliverable mail” on page 175.
GUI item
Description
DSN (NDR)
email
generation
Enable to allow the FortiMail unit to send DSN messages to notify email
users of delivery delays and/or failure.
Configuring mail settings
Note that if the email message triggers an antispam or antivirus profile, no
DSN message will be sent. If it triggers a content profile, a DSN message will
still be sent.
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GUI item
Description
Sender
displayname
Displays the name of the sender, such as FortiMail administrator, as
it should appear in DSN email.
If this field is empty, the FortiMail unit uses the default name of postmaster.
Sender address Displays the sender email address in DSN.
If this field is empty, the FortiMail unit uses the default sender email address
of postmaster@<domain_str>, where <domain_str> is the domain
name of the FortiMail unit, such as example.com.
Configuring mail queue setting
Use these sections to configure mail queues and the use of Extended Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (ESMTP).
For more information on the FortiMail mail queue, see “Managing the deferred mail queue” on
page 174 and “Managing undeliverable mail” on page 175.
GUI item
Description
Mail Queue section
Maximum time
for email in
queue
Select the maximum number of hours that deferred email messages
can remain in the deferred or quarantined email queue, during which
the FortiMail unit periodically retries to send the message.
After it reaches the maximum time, the FortiMail unit sends a final
delivery status notification (DSN) email message to notify the sender
that the email message was undeliverable.
Maximum time Select the maximum number of hours a delivery status notification
for DSN email in (DSN) message can remain in the mail queues. After it reaches the
queue
maximum, the FortiMail unit moves the DSN email to the dead mail
folder.
If set to zero (0), the FortiMail unit attempts to deliver the DSN only
once.
Time before
delay warning
Select the number of hours after an initial failure to deliver an email
message before the FortiMail unit sends the first delivery status
notification (DSN) message to notify the sender that the email
message was deferred.
After sending this initial DSN, the FortiMail unit continues trying to
sending the email until reaching the limit configured in “Maximum
time for email in queue” on page 348.
Time interval for Select the number of minutes between delivery retries for email
retry
messages in the deferred and spam mail queues.
Dead mail
Enter the number of days that undeliverable email and its associated
retention period DSN will be kept in the dead mail folder. After this time, the dead
email and its DSN are automatically deleted.
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Configuring outgoing email options
For outgoing email, you can specify to use an STMP relay, instead of the FortiMail built-in MTA,
to deliver email.
Under some circumstance, connections from certain relays may by blocked by other parties. If
you have other backup relays, you can use them instead.
For information about adding STMP relays, see “Configuring SMTP relay hosts” on page 351.
GUI item
Description
Deliver to relay host
Select a relay that you configured in “Configuring SMTP relay hosts”
on page 351.
Disable ESMTP
Mark the check box to disable (ESMTP) for outgoing email.
By default, FortiMail units can use ESMTP commands. ESMTP
supports email messages with graphics, sound, video, and text in
various languages. For more information on ESMTP, see RFC 1869.
Delivery Failure
Handling
Normal
When email delivery fails, you can choose to use the mail queue
settings (“Configuring mail queue setting” on page 348) to handle the
temporary or permanent failures. You can also try another relay that
you know might work.
Select this option if you want to queue the email and use the mail
queue settings.
Deliver to relay Select another relay (backup relay) that you want to use for failed
host
deliveries. Then specify how long the undelivered email should wait
in the normal queue before trying the backup relay.
You can also specify which types of failed connections the backup
relay should take over and retry:
• DNS failure: failed DNS lookups
• Network failure -- connection
• Network failure -- other
• Temporary failure from remote MTA (4XX reply code)
• Permanent failure from remote MTA (5XX reply code)
Configuring deferred message delivery
You can choose to defer delivery of two types of email to conserve bandwidth and improve
performance of the mail server:
• large email messages
• lower priority email from certain senders, for example, marketing campaign email and mass
mailing
Oversized message delivery can be resource-intensive. For improved FortiMail performance,
schedule delivery during times when email traffic volume is low, such as nights and weekends.
To set a deferral period, configure both of the following:
• In Start delivering messages at, select the hour and minute of the day at which to begin
delivering oversize email messages.
• In Stop delivering messages at, select the hour and minute of the day at which to stop
delivering oversize email messages.
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To configure the size limit or senders of deferred email, see “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
Configuring domain check options
Use this section for LDAP compatibility.
If the domain lookup option is also enabled in the LDAP profile (see “Configuring domain lookup
options” on page 540), the parent domain from the domain lookup query is used to hold domain
association.
GUI item
Description
Perform LDAP
domain
verification for
unknown
domains
Enable to verify the existence of domains that are not configured as
protected domains. Also configure “LDAP profile for domain check” on
page 350.
To verify the existence of unknown domains, the FortiMail unit queries an
LDAP server for a user object that contains the email address. If the user
object exists, the verification is successful, and:
• If “Automatically create domain association for verified domain” on
page 350 is enabled, the FortiMail unit automatically adds the unknown
domain as a domain associated of the protected domain selected in
Internal domain to hold association.
• If “Automatically create domain association for verified domain” on
page 350 is disabled, and the DNS lookup of the unknown domain name
is successful, the FortiMail unit routes the email to the IP address
resolved for the domain name during the DNS lookup. Because the
domain is not formally defined as a protected domain, the email is
considered to be outgoing, and outgoing recipient-based policies are
used to scan the email. For more information, see “Controlling email
based on recipient addresses” on page 442.
LDAP profile for Select the LDAP profile to use when verifying existence of unknown
domain check domains. The LDAP query is configured under User Query Options in an
LDAP profile. If you also enable the domain lookup option in the LDAP
profile, the option must be enabled for the domain.
This option is available only if “Perform LDAP domain verification for
unknown domains” on page 350 is enabled.
Automatically
Enable to automatically add unknown domains as domain associations if
create domain they are successfully verified by the LDAP query. See “Configuring domain
association for lookup options” on page 540.
verified domain
For more information about domain association, see “Domain Association”
on page 372.
This option is available only if Perform LDAP domain verification for unknown
domains is enabled.
Internal domain Select the name of a protected domain with which to associate unknown
to hold domain domains, if they pass domain verification. However, if the domain lookup
association
query (see “Configuring domain lookup options” on page 540) returned its
own parent domain, that parent domain is used.
This option is available only if “Automatically create domain association for
verified domain” on page 350 is enabled.
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Configuring SMTP relay hosts
Configure one or more SMTP relays, if needed, to which the FortiMail unit will relay outgoing
email. This is typically provided by your Internet service provider (ISP), but could be mail relays
on your internal network.
When you configure mail server settings (“Configuring outgoing email options” on page 349),
you can specify to use a relay host for outgoing email.
If the SMTP relay’s domain name resolves to more than one IP address, for each SMTP session,
the FortiMail unit will randomly select one of the IP addresses from the result of the DNS query,
effectively load balancing between the SMTP relays.
If you do not configure a relay, for outgoing email delivered by the built-in MTA, the FortiMail unit
will instead query the DNS server for the MX record of the mail domain in the recipient’s email
address (RCPT TO:), and relay the email directly to that mail gateway. For details, see “When
FortiMail uses the proxies instead of the built-in MTA” on page 393.
Server relay is ignored if the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, and “Use
client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400 (for outgoing connections) or “Use
this domain’s SMTP server to deliver the mail” on page 368 (for incoming connections
containing outgoing email messages) is enabled.
.
Server relay is ignored for email that matches an antispam or content profile where you have
enabled “Deliver to alternate host” on page 504.
To configure STMP relays
1. Go to Mail Settings > Settings > Relay Host List. You can configure a maximum of 5 relays.
2. Click New.
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this relay host.
Host name/IP
Enter the domain name or IP address of an SMTP relay.
Port
Enter the TCP port number on which the SMTP relay listens.
This is typically provided by your Internet service provider (ISP).
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GUI item
Description
Use SMTPS
Enable to initiate SSL- and TLS-secured connections to the SMTP relay if it
supports SSL/TLS.
When disabled, SMTP connections from the FortiMail unit’s built-in MTA or
proxy to the relay will occur as clear text, unencrypted.
This option must be enabled to initiate SMTPS connections.
Authentication
Required
If the relay server requires use of the SMTP AUTH command, enable this
option, click the arrow to expand the section and configure:
• User name: Enter the name of the FortiMail unit’s account on the SMTP
relay.
• Password: Enter the password for the FortiMail unit’s user name.
• Authentication type: Available SMTP authentication types include:
• AUTO (automatically detect and use the most secure SMTP
authentication type supported by the relay server)
• PLAIN (provides an unencrypted, scrambled password)
• LOGIN (provides an unencrypted, scrambled password)
• DIGEST-MD5 (provides an encrypted hash of the password)
• CRAM-MD5 (provides an encrypted hash of the password, with hash
replay prevention, combined with a challenge and response mechanism)
Configuring global disclaimers
The Mail Settings > Settings > Disclaimer tab lets you configure system-wide disclaimer
messages.A disclaimer message is text that is generally attached to email to warn the recipient
that the email contents may be confidential.
Disclaimers can be appended to both incoming and outgoing email. For an explanation of
directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing email messages” on page 428.
If “Allow per-domain settings” on page 353 is enabled, you can configure disclaimer messages
that are specific to each protected domain. For more information, see “Disclaimer for a domain”
on page 377.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure disclaimer messages
1. Go to Mail Settings > Settings > Disclaimer.
2. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Allow per-domain settings
Enable to allow protected domains to select from either the
system-wide disclaimer messages, configured below, or
their own separate disclaimer messages.
Disable to require that all protected domains use the
system-wide disclaimer messages.
If this option is disabled, domain-specific disclaimers
cannot be configured. For information on configuring
disclaimer messages specific to a protected domain, see
“Disclaimer for a domain” on page 377.
Outgoing (or Incoming)
Insert new header
Enable to insert a new header to the email and append a
disclaimer message to the new header, then enter the
disclaimer message. The maximum length is 256
characters.
Insert disclaimer at
Select to insert the disclaimer at the end or start of the
email and click Edit to author a disclaimer. This disclaimer
can be in HTML or text. The maximum length is 1024
characters.
Enable disclaimer exclusion If you do not want to insert disclaimers to the email
list
messages from certain senders or to certain recipients, you
can enable this option. For details about disclaimer
exclusion list, see “Configuring disclaimer exclusion list” on
page 353.
Configuring disclaimer exclusion list
In some cases, you may not want to insert disclaimers to some email messages. For example,
you may not want to insert disclaimers to paging text or SMS text messages. To do this, you
add the specific senders, sender domains, recipients, or recipients domains to the exclusion
list, and when you configure the global disclaimer settings (see “Configuring global disclaimers”
on page 352), you can enable the exclusion list.
To create a disclaimer exclusion list
1. Go to Mail Settings > Settings > Disclaimer Exclusion List.
2. Click New to create or new list or double click on an existing one to edit it.
3. Enter a sender pattern and/or recipient pattern. For example, for sender pattern, if you add
*@example.com, all messages from example.com users will be exempted from disclaimer
insertion.
4. Click Create.
Selecting the mail data storage location
The Mail Settings > Settings > Storage tab lets you configure local or remote storage of mail
data such as the mail queues, email archives, email users’ mailboxes, quarantined email, and
IBE encrypted email.
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FortiMail units can store email either locally or remotely. FortiMail units support remote storage
by a centralized quarantine, and/or by a network attached storage (NAS) server using the
network file system (NFS) protocol.
NAS has the benefits of remote storage which include ease of backing up the mail data and
more flexible storage limits. Additionally, you can still access the mail data on the NAS server if
your FortiMail unit loses connectivity.
If the FortiMail unit is a member of an active-passive HA group, and the HA group stores mail
data on a remote NAS server, disable mail data synchronization to prevent duplicate mail data
traffic. For details, see “Configuring the HA mode and group” on page 298.
If you store the mail data on a remote NAS device, you cannot back up the data. You can only
back up the mail data stored locally on the FortiMail hard disk. For information about backing
up mail data, see “Configuring mailbox backups” on page 211.
Tested and Supported NFS servers
• Linux NAS (NFS v3/v4)
• Red Hat 5.5
• Fedora 16/17/18/19
• Ubuntu 11/12/13
• OpenSUSE 13.1
• FreeNAS
• Openfiler
• EMC VNXe3150 (version 2.4.2.21519(MR4 SP2))
• EMC Isilon S200 (OneFS 7.1.0.3)
Untested NFS servers
• Buffalo TeraStation
• Cisco Linksys NAS server
Non-Supported NFS Servers
• Windows 2003 R2 /Windows 2008 Service for NFS
If you do not need consolidated storage for the mail queue and email user inboxes, the larger
FortiMail models (FortiMail 1000D, 2000A, 2000B, VM04, 3000C, 3000D, VM08, 5001A, and
5002B) can act as a centralized quarantine server and IBE encrypted email storage server. If
applicable to your model, the Receive quarantined messages from clients option and the
Receive IBE messages from clients option appear on the Storage tab.
FortiMail 1000D, 2000A, 2000B, and VM04 model can host a maximum of 10 clients and
FortiMail 3000C and above models can host up to 20 clients. Any FortiMail model can be a
client.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Others category
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For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure mail data storage
1. Go to Mail Settings > Settings > Storage.
2. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
NAS section
Local
Select to store email on the FortiMail unit’s local disk or RAID.
NAS server
Select to store email on a remote network attached storage (NAS)
server.
Test
Click to verify the NAS server settings are correct and that the
FortiMail unit can access that location. The test action basically tries
to discover, login, mount, and unmount the remote device.
(button)
This button is available only when NAS server is selected.
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GUI item
Protocol
Description
Select a type of the NAS server:
• NFS: To configure a network file system (NFS) server. For this
option, enter the following information:
• Hostname/IP address: the IP address or fully qualified domain
name (FQDN) of the NFS server.
• Port: the TCP port number on which the NFS server listens for
connections.
• Directory: the directory path of the NFS export on the NAS
server where the FortiMail unit will store email.
• iSCSI Server: To configure an Internet SCSI (Small Computer
System Interface) server. For this option, enter the following
information:
• Username: the user name of the FortiMail unit’s account on
the iSCSI server.
• Password: the password of the FortiMail unit’s account on the
iSCSI server.
• Hostname/IP address: the IP address or fully qualified domain
name (FQDN) of the iSCSI server.
• Port: the TCP port number on which the iSCSI server listens
for connections.
• Encryption key: the key that will be used to encrypt data
stored on the iSCSI server. Valid key lengths are between 6
and 64 single-byte characters.
• iSCSI ID: the iSCSI identifier in the format expected by the
iSCSI server, such as an iSCSI Qualified Name (IQN),
Extended Unique Identifier (EUI), or T11 Network Address
Authority (NAA).
Status: When available. it indicates if the iSCSI share was
successfully mounted on the FortiMail unit’s file system. This field
appears only after you configure the iSCSI share and click Apply.
Status may take some time to appear if the iSCSI server is slow to
respond.
If Not mounted appears, the iSCSI share was not successfully
mounted. Verify that the iSCSI server is responding and the FortiMail
unit has both read and write permissions on the iSCSI server.
Refresh
(button)
Configuring mail settings
This button appears when you configure an iSCSI server. Click it to
update the information in the Status field.
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GUI item
Description
Click here to These two links appear when you configure an iSCSI server and click
format this Apply.
device
Click a link to initiate the described action (that is, format the device
or check its file system). A message appears saying the action is
Click here to
being executed. Click OK to close the message and click Refresh to
check file
see a Status update.
system on
this device
Note: If the ISCSI disk has never been formatted, FortiMail needs to
format it before it can be used. If the disk has been formatted before,
you do not need to format it again. unless you want to wipe out the
data on it.
Centralized Quarantine section
Disabled
Select to store the quarantines on the FortiMail unit’s local disk or
RAID.
Select to have this FortiMail unit act as a centralized quarantine
Receive
quarantined server, then enter the IP addresses of all valid clients.
messages
This option is available on FortiMail 1000D and above models.
from clients
For FortiMail 1000D, 2000A, 2000B, and VM04 models, you can
enter a maximum of 10 IP addresses as clients. For FortiMail 3000C
and above models, you can enter a maximum of 20 IP addresses.
Other FortiMail units acting as clients send all their quarantined email
to this FortiMail unit. This FortiMail unit only accepts a connection if
the client’s IP address matches an IP address on the list of clients
configured here.
Send
quarantined
messages to
remote
server
Select to have this FortiMail unit act as a centralized quarantine
client. All quarantined email is saved on a centralized quarantine
server, if available.
When selected, enter the following information:
• Over SSL: Select to send quarantined messages over SSL.
• Name: Enter a name to identify this client to the quarantine
server. This value must match the name of the client as it is
configured on the quarantine server. Otherwise, the connection
will fail.
• Host: Enter the IP address of the FortiMail unit that is acting as a
centralized quarantine server.
Centralized IBE
section
Disabled
Configuring mail settings
Select to store IBE encrypted email on the FortiMail unit’s local disk
or RAID.
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GUI item
Description
Receive IBE Select to have this FortiMail unit act as a centralized IBE mail storage
messages
server, then enter the IP addresses of all valid clients which are the
from clients FortiMail units that are configured to send IBE messages to this unit.
This option is available on FortiMail 1000D and above models.
For FortiMail 1000D, 2000A, 2000B, and VM04 models, you can
enter a maximum of 10 IP addresses as clients. For FortiMail 3000C
and above models, you can enter a maximum of 20 IP addresses.
Other FortiMail units acting as clients send all their IBE email to this
FortiMail unit. This FortiMail unit will only accept a connection if the
client’s IP address matches an IP address on the list of clients
configured here.
Note: The protected domains on the IBE mail server must match the
domains on the clients. Otherwise the secure mail recipients cannot
retrieve their secure email from the server.
Send IBE
messages to
remote
server over
SSL
Select to have this FortiMail unit act as a centralized IBE storage
client. All IBE email will be saved on the centralized IBE mail storage
server, if available.
When selected, enter the following information:
• Name: Enter a name to identify this client to the centralized IBE
mail storage server. This value must match the name of the client
as it is configured on the centralized IBE mail storage server.
Otherwise, the connection will fail.
• Host: Enter the IP address of the FortiMail unit that is acting as a
centralized IBE mail storage server.
Configuring action profile preferences
When you configure action profiles (see “Configuring antispam action profiles” on page 496,
“Configuring antivirus action profiles” on page 503, and “Configuring content action profiles” on
page 513), you may use the following actions:
• Deliver to alternate host
• Deliver to original host
• System quarantine
• Personal quarantine
For the above actions, you can choose to deliver or quarantine the original email or the modified
email. For example, when the HTML content is converted to text, if you choose to deliver the
unmodified copy, the HTML version will be delivered; if you choose to deliver the modified copy,
the plain text version will be delivered.
Configuring protected domains
The Domains tab displays the list of protected domains.
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Protected domains define connections and email messages for which the FortiMail unit can
perform protective email processing by describing both:
• the IP address of an SMTP server
• the domain name portion (the portion which follows the “@” symbol) of recipient email
addresses in the envelope
The FortiMail unit uses both parts to compare to connections and email messages when
looking for traffic that involves the protected domain.
For FortiMail units operating in server mode, protected domains list only the domain name, not
the IP address: the IP address of the SMTP server is the IP address of the FortiMail unit itself.
For example, if you wanted to scan email from email addresses such as user.one@example.com
hosted on the SMTP server 10.10.10.10, you would configure a protected domain of
example.com whose SMTP server is 10.10.10.10.
Aside from defining the domain, protected domains contain settings that apply specifically to all
email destined for that domain, such as mail routing and disclaimer messages.
Many FortiMail features require that you configure a protected domain. For example, when
applying recipient-based policies for email messages incoming to the protected domain, the
FortiMail unit compares the domain name of the protected domain to the domain name portion
of the recipient email addresses.
When FortiMail units operating in transparent mode are proxying email connections for a
protected domain, the FortiMail unit will pass, drop or intercept connections destined for the IP
address of an SMTP server associated with the protected domain, and can use the domain
name of the protected domain during the SMTP greeting.
For more information on how the domain name and mail exchanger (MX) IP address of
protected domains are used, see “Incoming versus outgoing SMTP connections” on page 395
and “Incoming versus outgoing email messages” on page 428.
Usually, you have already configured at least one protected domain during installation of your
FortiMail unit; however, some configurations may not require any protected domains. You can
add more domains or modify the settings of existing ones if necessary.
If you have many mail domains that will use identical settings, instead of creating many
protected domains, you may want to create one protected domain, and then configure the
others as associated domains. For details, see “Domain Association” on page 372.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway mode, you must change the MX entries for the DNS
records for your email domain, referring email to the FortiMail unit rather than to your email
servers. If you create additional protected domains, you must modify the MX records for each
additional email domain. Similarly, MX records must also refer to the FortiMail unit if it is
operating in server mode.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
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Before you begin, if the protected domain will use an IP pool profile, first configure the IP pool
profile. For details, see “Configuring IP pools” on page 570.
To view and configure protected domains
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
The tab varies with the operation mode.
Figure 104:Viewing the list of protected domains (transparent mode and gateway mode)
Figure 105:Viewing the list of protected domains (server mode)
GUI item
Description
Delete
Click Delete to remove the protected domain.
(button)
Caution: This also deletes all associated email user accounts and
preferences.
Domain FQDN
Displays the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the protected
domain.
If the protected domain is a subdomain or domain association, click the
+ next to a domain entry to expand the list of subdomains and domain
associations. To collapse the entry, click the -.
Relay Type
(transparent and
gateway mode
only)
SMTP Server
(transparent and
gateway mode
only)
Configuring mail settings
Indicates one of the methods by which the SMTP server will receive
email from the FortiMail unit for the protected domain: Host, MX Record
(this domain), MX Record (alternative domain), IP pool, LDAP Domain
Mail Host.
Displays the host name or IP address and port number of the mail
exchanger (MX) for this protected domain.
If “Relay Type” on page 360 is MX Record (this domain) or MX Record
(alternative domain), this information is determined dynamically by
querying the MX record of the DNS server, and this field will be empty.
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GUI item
Description
Sub
A green check mark indicates that the entry is a subdomain of a
protected domain.
(transparent and
gateway mode
only)
Association
(transparent and
gateway mode
only)
A green check nark indicates that the entry is a domain association. For
more information on domain associations, see “Domain Association” on
page 372.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
Figure 106: Creating a protected domain (gateway and gateway mode)
Figure 107: Creating a protected domain (server mode)
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3. Configure the general information as it applies to the current operation mode and your
choice for relay type:
GUI item
Description
Domain name
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the protected
domain.
For example, if you want to protect email addresses such as
user1@example.com, you would enter the protected domain name
example.com.
Generally, your protected domain will use a valid,
globally-resolvable top-level domain (TLD) such as .com.
Exceptions could include testing scenarios, where you have created
a .lab mail domain on your private network to prevent accidental
conflicts with live mail systems legitimately using their
globally-resolvable FQDN.
Relay type
(transparent and
gateway mode only)
Select from one of the following methods of defining which SMTP
server will receive email from the FortiMail unit that is destined for
the protected domain:
• Host: Configure the connection to one protected SMTP server or,
if any, one fallback. Also configure “SMTP server” on page 363
and “Fallback SMTP server” on page 363.
• MX Record (this domain): Query the DNS server’s MX record of
the protected domain name for the FQDN or IP address of the
SMTP server. If there are multiple MX records, the FortiMail unit
will load balance between them.
• MX Record (alternative domain): Query the DNS server’s MX
record of a domain name you specify for the FQDN or IP address
of the SMTP server. If there are multiple MX records, the
FortiMail unit will load balance between them. Also configure
“Alternative domain name” on page 364.
• IP pool: Configure the connection to rotate among one or many
protected SMTP servers for load balancing. Also configure the
“IP pool profile” on page 363 (also see “Configuring IP pools” on
page 570).
• LDAP Domain Mail Host: Query the LDAP server for the FQDN or
IP address of the SMTP server. Also configure the LDAP Profile
(see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525).
Note: If an MX option is used, you may also be required to configure
the FortiMail unit to use a private DNS server whose MX and/or A
records differ from that of a public DNS server. Requirements vary
by the topology of your network and by the operating mode of the
FortiMail unit.
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GUI item
Description
• In gateway mode, a private DNS server is required. On the
private DNS server, configure the MX record with the FQDN of
the SMTP server that you are protecting for this domain, causing
the FortiMail unit to route email to the protected SMTP server.
This is different from how a public DNS server should be
configured for that domain name, where the MX record usually
should contain the FQDN of the FortiMail unit itself, causing
external SMTP servers to route email through the FortiMail unit.
Additionally, if both the FortiMail unit and the SMTP server are
behind a NAT device such as a router or firewall, on the private
DNS server, configure the protected SMTP server’s A record with
its private IP address, while on the public DNS server, configure
the FortiMail unit’s A record with its public IP address.
• In transparent mode, a private DNS server is required if both the
FortiMail unit and the SMTP server are behind a NAT device such
as a router or firewall. On the private DNS server, configure the
protected SMTP server’s A record with its private IP address. On
the public DNS server, configure the protected SMTP server’s A
record with its public IP address. Do not modify the MX record.
• For performance reason, DNS lookups are skipped in gateway
and server mode unless the sending domain is blank.
SMTP server
(transparent and
gateway mode only)
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP address of the
primary SMTP server for this protected domain, then also configure
“Port” on page 364 and “Use SMTPS” on page 364.
If you have an internal mail relay that is located on a physically
separate server from your internal mail server, this could be your
internal mail relay, instead of your internal mail server. Consider your
network topology, directionality of the mail flow, and the operation
mode of the FortiMail unit. For more information, see “Incoming
versus outgoing SMTP connections” on page 395 and “Avoiding
scanning email twice” on page 396.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is Host.
Fallback SMTP
server
(transparent and
gateway mode only)
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP address of the
secondary SMTP server for this protected domain, then also
configure Port and Use SMTPS.
This SMTP server will be used if the primary SMTP server is
unreachable.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is Host.
IP pool profile
(transparent and
gateway mode only)
LDAP profile
(transparent mode
and gateway mode
only)
Configuring mail settings
Select the name of the IP pool profile that is the range of IP
addresses. Also configure Port and Use SMTPS.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is IP pool.
Select the name of the LDAP profile that has the FQDN or IP
address of the SMTP server you want to query. Also configure Port
and Use SMTPS.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is LDAP Domain
Mail Host.
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GUI item
Description
Port
Enter the port number on which the SMTP server listens.
If you enable “Use SMTPS” on page 364, “Port” on page 364
automatically changes to the default port number for SMTPS, but
can still be customized.
Displays the default SMTP port number is 25; the default SMTPS
port number is 465.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is Host, IP pool
or LDAP Domain Mail Host.
Use SMTPS Enable to use SMTPS for connections originating from or destined
for this protected server.
This field appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is Host, IP pool
or LDAP Domain Mail Host.
Alternative domain Enter the domain name to use when querying the DNS server for
MX records.
name
(transparent and
This option appears only if “Relay type” on page 362 is MX Record
gateway mode only)
(alternative domain name).
Is subdomain
Mark this check box to indicate the protected domain you are
creating is a subdomain of an existing protected domain, then also
configure “Main domain” on page 364.
Subdomains, like their parent protected domains, can be selected
when configuring policies specific to that subdomain. Unlike
top-level protected domains, however, subdomains will appear as
grouped under the parent protected domain when viewing the list of
protected domains.
This option is available only when another protected domain exists
to select as the parent domain.
Main
domain
Select the protected domain that is the parent of this subdomain.
For example, lab.example.com might be a subdomain of
example.com.
This option is available only when “Is subdomain” on page 364 is
enabled.
LDAP User Profile
(server mode only)
Configuring mail settings
Select the name of an LDAP profile in which you have configured
(see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525), enabling you to
authenticate email users and expand alias email addresses or
replace one email address with another by using an LDAP query to
retrieve alias members.
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4. Configure the following sections as needed:
• Configuring domain associations
• Configuring transparent mode options
• Configuring removal of invalid accounts
• Configuring advanced settings
• Configuring advanced scan settings
• Configuring domain level service settings (server mode only)
• Configuring mail migration settings (server mode only)
Configuring domain associations
This section does not apply to server mode.
Associated domains use the settings of the protected domain with which they are associated,
and do not have separate protected domain settings of their own. Exceptions include DKIM
keys, which will not be used for associated domains. For more information, see “Domain
Association” on page 372.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
3. Click the arrow to expand the domain associations section.
4. To add a domain name, enter a name in the lower text box and click Create. The domain
appears in the Members area. You can use wildcard, such as *.example.com.
5. To remove a domain name, in the Members area and click Delete.
Configuring recipient address verification
This section does not apply to server mode.
Select a method of confirming that the recipient email address in the message envelope (RCPT
TO:) corresponds to an email user account that actually exists on the protected email server. If
the recipient address is invalid, the FortiMail unit will reject the email. This prevents quarantine
email messages for non-existent accounts, thereby conserving quarantine hard disk space.
This feature can impact performance and be noticeable during peak traffic times. For a lesser
performance impact, you can alternatively periodically automatically remove quarantined email
messages for invalid email user accounts, rather than actively preventing them during each
email message.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
3. Click the arrow to expand the recipient address verification section.
4. Configure the following:
Configuring mail settings
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GUI item
Description
Disable
Do not verify that the recipient address is an email user account that
actually exists.
Use SMTP
server
Query the SMTP server using either the SMTP VRFY command or RCPT
command to verify that the recipient address is an email user account that
actually exists. RCPT is the default command.
If you want to query an SMTP server other than the one you have defined
as the protected SMTP server, also enable Use alternative server, then
enter the IP address or FQDN of the server in the field next to it. Also
configure Port with the TCP port number on which the SMTP server
listens, and enable Use SMTPS if you want to use SMTPS for recipient
address verification connections with the server.
Use LDAP
server
Query an LDAP server to verify that the recipient address is an email user
account that actually exists. Also select the LDAP profile that will be used
to query the LDAP server. For more information on configuring LDAP
profiles, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Configuring transparent mode options
This section appears only when the FortiMail unit operates in transparent mode.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
3. Click the arrow to expand the transparent mode settings section.
4. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
This server is
on
Select the network interface (a port) to which the protected SMTP server
is connected.
Note: Selecting the wrong network interface will result in the FortiMail
sending email traffic to the wrong network interface.
Hide the
transparent
box
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of the SMTP client for
incoming email messages in:
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) in the envelope and in the Received:
message headers of email messages
• the IP addresses in the IP header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit to the protected SMTP
server.
Disable to replace the SMTP client’s IP address or domain name with that
of the FortiMail unit.
For example, an external SMTP client might have the IP address
172.168.1.1, and the FortiMail unit might have the domain name
fortimail.example.com. If the option is enabled, the message header
would contain (difference highlighted in bold):
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GUI item
Description
Received: from 192.168.1.1 (EHLO 172.16.1.1)
(192.168.1.1) by smtp.external.example.com with
SMTP; Fri, 24 Jul 2008 07:12:40 -0800
Received: from smtpa ([172.16.1.2]) by [172.16.1.1]
with SMTP id kAOFESEN001901 for
<user1@external.example.com>; Fri, 24 Jul 2008
15:14:28 GMT
But if the option is disabled, the message headers would contain:
Received: from 192.168.1.1 (EHLO fortimail.example.com)
(192.168.1.1) by smtp.external.example.com with
SMTP; Fri, 24 Jul 2008 07:17:45 -0800
Received: from smtpa ([172.16.1.2]) by
fortimail.example.com with SMTP id kAOFJl4j002011
for <user1@external.example.com>; Fri, 24 Jul 2008
15:19:47 GMT
For more information on transparency, see “Transparency of the proxies
and built-in MTA” on page 396.
Note: If the protected SMTP server applies rate limiting according to IP
addresses, enabling this option can improve performance. The rate limit
will then be separate for each client connecting to the protected SMTP
server, rather than shared among all connections handled by the FortiMail
unit.
Note: Unless you have enabled “Take precedence over recipient based
policy match” on page 456 in the IP-based policy, this option supsersedes
the “Hide this box from the mail server” on page 464 option in the session
profile, and may prevent it from applying to incoming email messages.
Use this
domain’s
SMTP server
to deliver the
mail
Enable to use the protected SMTP server, instead of the FortiMail built-in
MTA, to deliver outgoing email messages from the SMTP clients whose
sending MTA is the protected SMTP server.
For example, if the protected domain example.com has the SMTP server
192.168.1.1, and an SMTP client for user1@example.com connects to it to
send email to user2@external.example.net, enabling this option would
cause the FortiMail unit to pass the mail message via its built-in MTA to
the protected SMTP server, which will deliver the message.
Disable to relay email using the built-in MTA to either the SMTP relay
defined in “Configuring SMTP relay hosts” on page 351, if any, or directly
to the MTA that is the mail exchanger (MX) for the recipient email
address’s (RCPT TO:) domain. The email may not actually travel through
the protected SMTP server, even though it was the relay originally
specified by the SMTP client.
This option does not affect incoming connections containing incoming
email messages, which will always be handled by the built-in MTA. For
details, see “When FortiMail uses the proxies instead of the built-in MTA”
on page 393.
Note: This option will be ignored for email that matches an antispam or
content action profile.
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Configuring removal of invalid accounts
This section does not apply to server mode.
Select a method by which to periodically remove quarantined spam for which an email user
account does not actually exist on the protected email server.
If you select either Use SMTP server or Use LDAP server, the FortiMail unit queries the server
daily (at 4:00 AM daily unless configured for another time in the CLI; see the FortiMail CLI
Reference) to verify the existence of email user accounts. If an email user account does not
currently exist, the FortiMail unit removes all spam quarantined for that email user account.
If you have also enabled Recipient Address Verification (see “Configuring recipient address
verification” on page 365), the FortiMail unit does not form quarantine accounts for email user
accounts that do not exist on the protected email server. In that case, invalid quarantine
accounts are never formed, and this option may not be necessary, except when you delete
email user accounts on the protected email server. If this is the case, you can improve the
performance of the FortiMail unit by disabling this option.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
3. Click the arrow to expand the section.
4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Disable
Do not verify that the recipient address is an email user account that
actually exists.
Use SMTP
server
Query the SMTP server to verify that the recipient address is an email user
account that actually exists.
Use LDAP
server:
Query an LDAP server to verify that the recipient address is an email user
account that actually exists. Also select the LDAP profile that will be used
to query the LDAP server. For more information on configuring LDAP
profiles, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Configuring advanced settings
Use this section to configure LDAP compatibility, quarantine reports and schedules, and other
advanced options.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
1. Click the arrow to expand the section.
2. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
LDAP user alias /
address mapping
profile
Select the name of an LDAP profile in which you have enabled and
configured, enabling you to expand alias email addresses or replace
one email address with another by using an LDAP query to retrieve
alias members and/or address mappings. For more information, see
“Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
(transparent and
gateway mode only)
Mail routing LDAP
profile
Enable to perform mail routing, then click the arrow to expand the
options and select the name of an LDAP profile in which you have
enabled and configured. For more information, see “Configuring
LDAP profiles” on page 525
Remove received
header of outgoing
email
Enable to remove the Received: message headers from email
whose:
• sender email address belongs to this protected domain
• recipient email address is outgoing (that is, does not belong to
this protected domain); if there are multiple recipients, only the
first recipient’s email address is used to determine whether an
email is outgoing
You can alternatively remove this header from any matching email
using session profiles. For details, see “Remove received header”
on page 479.
Webmail theme
Select either Use system settings, or the theme that the FortiMail
unit will use to display webmail and quarantine folder pages. By
default, the FortiMail unit uses the same theme as the web UI.
Webmail language
Select either Use system settings, or the language that the FortiMail
unit will use to display webmail and quarantine folder pages. By
default, the FortiMail unit uses the same language as the web UI.
For more information, see “Customizing the GUI appearance” on
page 255.
Maximum message
size(KB)
Enable then type the limit in kilobytes (KB) of the message size.
Email messages over the threshold size are rejected.
Note: When you configure session profile settings under Profile >
Session, you can also set the message size limit. Here is how the
two settings work together:
• For outgoing email (for information about email directions, see
“Incoming versus outgoing email messages” on page 428), only
the size limit in the session profile will be matched. If there is no
session profile defined or no IP-based policy matched, the
default size limit of 10 MB will be used.
• For incoming email, the size limits in both the session profile and
domain settings will be checked. If there is no session profile
defined or no IP-based policy matched, the default size limit of
10 MB will be compared with the size limit in the domain
settings. The smaller size will be used.
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GUI item
Description
IP pool
You can use a pool of IP addresses as the source IP address when
sending email from this domain, or as the destination IP address
when receiving email destined to this domain, or as both the source
and destination IP addresses.
• If you want to use the IP pool as the source IP address for this
protected domain, according to the sender’s email address in
the envelope (MAIL FROM:), select the IP pool to use and select
Delivering as the Direction.
• If you want to use the IP pool as the destination IP address
(virtual host) for this protected domain, according to the
recipient’s email address in the envelope (RCPT TO:), select the
IP pool to use and select Receiving as the Direction. You must
also configure the MX record to direct email to the IP pool
addresses as well.
This feature can be used to support multiple virtual hosts on a
single physical interface, so that different profiles can be applied
to different host and logging for each host can be separated as
well.
• If you want to use the IP pool as both the destination and source
IP address, select the IP pool to use and select Both as the
Direction
Note: IP pools are skipped for email delivery between protected
domains.
Each email that the FortiMail unit sends will use the next IP address
in the range. When the last IP address in the range is used, the next
email will use the first IP address.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, and you have
enabled “Hide the transparent box” on page 367 or “Use
client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400, you
cannot use IP pools.
For more information on IP pools, see “Configuring IP pools” on
page 570.
Quarantine Report
Setting
Send to
Click the arrow to expand the quarantine report section. For more
information, see “Quarantine Report Setting” on page 373. For
information on system-wide quarantine report settings, see
“Configuring global quarantine report settings” on page 575.
You can choose to send the report to the email original recipient,
other recipient, or the LDAP group owner. If you choose to send the
quarantine report to the LDAP group owner, you can also specify
the following conditions:
• Only when original recipient is group
• When group owner is found, do not send to original recipient
Schedule
Configuring mail settings
You can choose to use either the system settings or domain
settings. If you choose to use the domain settings, you can specify
the schedule here.
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GUI item
Description
Template
DKIM Setting
Choose the quarantine report template to use. For more information
about email templates, see “Customizing email templates” on
page 267.
This option appears only when you open an existing protected
domain for editing.
Click the arrow to expand the DKIM setting section. For more
information, see “DKIM Setting” on page 376.
To configure DKIM signing, create the protected domain, save it,
then double-click it to modify the protected domain.
Disclaimer
Click the arrow to expand the disclaimer section. For more
information, see “Disclaimer for a domain” on page 377.
Note: This option configures a per-domain disclaimer and is only
available after you enable Allow per-domain settings when you
configure system-wide disclaimer settings. For more information,
see “Allow per-domain settings” on page 353.
SMTP greeting
(EHLO/HELO)
Select how the FortiMail unit will identify itself during the HELO or
EHLO greeting of outgoing SMTP connections that it initiates.
• Use this domain name: The FortiMail unit will identify itself using
the domain name for this protected domain.
If the FortiMail unit will handle internal email messages (those for
which both the sender and recipient addresses in the envelope
contain the domain name of the protected domain), to use this
option, you must also configure your protected SMTP server to
use its host name for SMTP greetings. Failure to do this will
result in dropped SMTP sessions, as both the FortiMail unit and
the protected SMTP server will be using the same domain name
when greeting each other.
• Use system host name: The FortiMail unit will identify itself using
its own host name.
By default, the FortiMail unit uses the domain name of the protected
domain. If your FortiMail unit is protecting multiple domains and
using IP pool addresses, select Use system host name instead. This
setting does not apply if email is incoming, according to the sender
address in the envelope, from an unprotected domain.
Domain Association
The Domain Association section that appears when configuring a protected domain lets you
configure associated domains. An associated domain uses the settings of the protected domain
or subdomain with which it is associated.
This section does not appear in server mode.
Domain associations can be useful for saving time when you have multiple domains, and you
would otherwise need to configure multiple protected domains with identical settings.
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For example, if you have one SMTP server handling email for ten domains, you could:
• Create ten separate protected domains and configure each with identical settings.
• Create one protected domain and list the nine other domains as domain associations.
The advantage of using the second method is that you do not have to repeatedly configure the
same things when creating or modifying the protected domains. This saves time and reduces
chances for error. Changes to one protected domain automatically apply to all of its associated
domains.
Associated domains do not re-use DKIM keys and signing settings. Domain keys are by nature
tied to the exact protected domain only, and cannot be used for any other protected domain,
including associated domains.
The maximum number of domain associations that you can create is separate from the
maximum number of protected domains.
To configure domain associations
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Click New to create a protected domain or double-click a domain to modify it.
3. Click the arrow to expand Domain Association.
Figure 108: Domain Association
4. To create a domain association, in the small text box enter the fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) of a mail domain that will use the same settings as the same protected domain
5. Click Create.
The name of the associated domain appears in the Members area.
6. Repeat the previous steps for all domains that you want to associate with this protected
domain.
7. When done, click Create or OK.
Quarantine Report Setting
The Quarantine Report Setting section that appears when configuring a protected domain lets
you configure quarantine report settings. You can choose either to use the system-wide
quarantine report settings or to configure domain-wide settings.
Starting from FortiMail 4.1, domain-wide quarantine report settings are independent from the
system-wide quarantine report settings.
However, in older releases, domain-wide quarantine report settings are a subset of the
system-wide quarantine report settings. For example, if the system settings for schedule
include only Monday and Thursday, when you are setting the schedule for the quarantine
reports of the protected domain, you can select either Monday or Thursday.
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For information on system-wide quarantine report settings and quarantine reports in general,
see “Configuring global quarantine report settings” on page 575 and “Customizing GUI,
replacement messages and email templates” on page 255.
To configure per-domain quarantine report settings
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a protected domain or double-click a domain to modify it.
3. Click the arrow to expand Advanced Settings.
4. Click the arrow to expand Quarantine Report Setting.
5. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Send to
Original
recipient
Enable to send the quarantine report to all recipients. For more
information, see “Managing the personal quarantines” on
page 177.
Other
recipient
Select to send the quarantine report to a recipient other than the
individual recipients or group owner. For example, you might
delegate quarantine reports by sending them to an administrator
whose email address is not locally deliverable to the protected
domain, such as admin@lab.example.com.
LDAP group
owner based
on LDAP
profile
Enable to send the quarantine report to a group owner, rather than
individual recipients, then select the name of an LDAP profile in
which you have enabled and configured the group query options
(see “Configuring group query options” on page 529.
Also configure the following two options for more granular control:
• Only when original recipient is group
• When group owner is found, do not send to original recipient
Schedule
Setting
Click the arrow to expand the options.
Select the schedule to use when sending quarantine reports.
• Use system settings: Use the system-wide quarantine report
schedule. For more information, see “Configuring global
quarantine report settings” on page 575.
• Use domain settings: Use a quarantine report schedule that is
specific to this protected domain. Also configure “These Hours”
on page 375 and “These Days” on page 375.
These Hours Select which hours to send the quarantine report for this protected
domain.
This option is available only when “Setting” on page 375 is Use
domain settings.
These Days
Select which days to send the quarantine report for this protected
domain.
This option is available only when “Setting” on page 375 is Use
domain settings.
Template
Select an email template to use.
If you choose to use the system settings, you can view the template
but cannot edit from this page. But you can edit the system-wide
template by going to System > Customization > Custom Email
Template.
If you choose to use the domain settings, you can click Edit to
modify the template.
Replacement messages often include variables, such as the MIME type of the file that was
overwritten by the replacement message.
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Typically, you will customize text, but should not remove variables from the replacement
message. Removing variables may result in an error message and reduced functionality. For
example, removing %%SPAM_DELETE_URL%% would make users incapable of using the
quarantine report to delete email individually from their personal quarantines.
6. Click Create or OK.
DKIM Setting
The DKIM Setting section appears when configuring an existing protected domain; that is, it
does not appear when configuring a new domain. It lets you create domain keys for this
protected domain.
The FortiMail unit will sign outgoing email messages using the domain key for this protected
domain if you have selected it when configuring sender validation in the session profile. For
more information, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
Because domain keys are tied to the domain name for which they are generated, FortiMail units
will not use the domain key of a protected domain to sign email of an associated domain. If you
require DKIM signing for an associated domain, convert it to a standard protected domain and
then generate its own, separate domain key.
DKIM signing requires a public-private key pair. The private key is kept on and used by the
FortiMail unit to generate the DKIM signatures for the email messages; the public key is stored
on the DNS server in the DNS record for the domain name, and used by receiving parties to
verify the signature.
After you generate the key pair by creating a domain key selector, you can export the DNS
record that contains the public key. The following is a sample of the exported DNS record:
example_com._domainkey IN TXT "t=y; k=rsa;
p=MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQC5xvUazqp2sBovpfumPuR5xC+y
DvGbfndyHZuVQdSHhwdKAdsfiyOa03iPniCfQEbuM0d+4/AoPyTXHHPFBBnChMMHkW
gHYlRDm5UMjrH5J1zDT5OyFxUEur+NtfS6LF29Te+6vSS+D3asfZ85V6WJDHSI9JV0
504uwDeOOh/aewIDAQAB"
Then you can publish the public key by adding it to the DNS zone file as a text record for the
domain name on the DNS server. The recipient SMTP server, if enabled to use DKIM verification,
will use the public key to decrypt the signature and compare the hash values of the email
message in order to verify that the hash values match.
To configure a domain key pair
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Double-click to modify an existing protected domain.
Because information from the protected domain is used to generate the key pair, you cannot
create DKIM keys while initially creating the protected domain.
3. Click the arrow to expand Advanced Settings.
4. Click the arrow to expand DKIM Setting.
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Figure 109: DKIM Setting
5. In the text box to the left of Create, enter a selector to use for the DKIM key, such as
example_com2.
6. Click Create.
The selector name for the key pair appears in the list of domain key selectors. The key pair is
generated and public key can be exported for publication on a DNS server.
Only one key pair can be active at a time. If a new selector is generated, the FortiMail unit
always signs email messages with the most recently generated key pair. To use an older domain
key pair, you must delete all domain key pairs that have been more recently generated.
7. Click to select the domain key, then click Download.
Your web browser downloads the plain text file which contains the exported DNS record
(.dkim) file.
8. Publish the public key by inserting the exported DNS record into the DNS zone file of the
DNS server that resolves this domain name. For details, see the documentation for your DNS
server.
9. Click OK.
Disclaimer for a domain
The Disclaimer section that appears when configuring a protected domain lets you configure
disclaimer messages specific to this protected domain.
A disclaimer message is text that is generally attached to email to warn the recipient that the
email contents may be confidential. For disclaimers added to outgoing messages, you need to
configure an IP-based policy or an outgoing recipient-based policy.
Disclaimer messages can be appended for either or both incoming or outgoing email
messages. For information on determining the directionality of an email message, see
“Incoming versus outgoing email messages” on page 428.
If the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, to use disclaimers, you must enable
clients to send email using their specified SMTP server. For more information, see “Use
client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400.
To configure a per-domain disclaimer messages
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a protected domain or double-click a domain to modify it.
3. Click the arrow to expand Advanced Settings.
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4. Click the arrow to expand Disclaimer.
You cannot configure the domain disclaimer unless the Allow per-domain settings option is
enabled on the Mail Settings > Settings > Disclaimer tab.
5. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Disclaimer
Setting
Select which type of disclaimer message to append.
• Disable: Do not append disclaimer messages.
• Use system settings: Append the system-wide disclaimer
messages. For more information, see “Configuring global
disclaimers” on page 352.
• Use domain settings: Append the disclaimer messages
configured specifically for this protected domain. Also
configure the per-domain disclaimer messages in For
Incoming Messages and For Outgoing Messages.
This option is available only if you have enabled per-domain
disclaimer messages. For more information, see “Allow
per-domain settings” on page 353.
Disclaimer in
Enable to use append a disclaimer message to the message
incoming message header of incoming messages that is specific to this protected
header
domain, then enter the disclaimer message. The maximum
length is 256 characters.
This option is available only if “Setting” on page 378 is Use
domain settings.
Disclaimer in
Enable to use append a disclaimer message to the message
incoming message body of incoming messages that is specific to this protected
body
domain, then enter the disclaimer message. The maximum
length is 1024 characters.
This option is available only if “Setting” on page 378 is Use
domain settings.
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GUI item
Description
Disclaimer in
outgoing message
header
Enable to use append a disclaimer message to the message
header of outgoing messages that is specific to this protected
domain, then enter the disclaimer message. The maximum
length is 256 characters.
This option is available only if “Setting” on page 378 is Use
domain settings.
Disclaimer in
outgoing message
body
Enable to use append a disclaimer message to the message
body of outgoing messages that is specific to this protected
domain, then enter the disclaimer message. The maximum
length is 1024 characters.
This option is available only if “Setting” on page 378 is Use
domain settings.
Configuring advanced scan settings
The following procedure is part of the domain configuration process. For information about
domain configuration, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
A multisection dialog appears. Its options vary with the operation mode.
3. Click the arrow to expand the section.
4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable LDAP
scan override
Enable to query an LDAP server for an email user’s preferences to enable
or disable antispam, antivirus, and/or content processing for email
messages destined for them, then select the name of an LDAP profile in
which you have enabled and configured. For more information, see
“Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525
Use global
Bayesian
database
Enable to use the global Bayesian database instead of the Bayesian
database for this protected domain.
If you do not need the Bayesian database to be specific to the protected
domain, you may want to use the global Bayesian database instead in
order to simplify database maintenance and training.
Disable to use the per-domain Bayesian database.
Note: Train the global or per-domain Bayesian database before using it. If
you do not train it first, Bayesian scan results may be unreliable. For more
information on Bayesian database types and how to train them, see
“Types of Bayesian databases” on page 615 and “Training the Bayesian
databases” on page 616.
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Sender
address rate
control
For email users under this domain, you can configure the following rate
control settings:
• Maximum number of messages per half hour. The default value is 30.
• Maximum number of recipients per half hour. The default value is 60.
• Maximum data size per half hour (MB). The default value is 100 MB.
• Maximum number of spam messages per sender per half hour. The
default value is 5.
• Send email notification upon rate control violations and select a
notification profile (see “Configuring notification profiles” on page 573).
Bypass
bounce
verification
Mark this check box to disable bounce verification for this protected
domain.
This option appears only if bounce verification is enabled. For more
information, see “Configuring bounce verification and tagging” on
page 605.
Configuring domain level service settings (server mode only)
If you are a service provider (MSSP) which host multiple domains for multiple customers, for
billing purpose, the super admin may want to set limits on the usage of FortiMail resources. The
domain administrators are not allowed to modify these settings.
The following procedure is part of the domain configuration process. For information about
domain configuration, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Either click New to create a new protected domain, or click an row to modify it.
3. Click the arrow to expand the Service Settings section.
4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable domain Select to enable the domain level server controls.
level service
settings
Email account
limit
Specify the maximum number of email account are allowed on this
domain.
Max user quota Specify the maximum disk quota for each user.
(MB)
Mail access
Specify the allowed mail access protocol for the users: POP3, IMAP, or
Webmail.
For webmail access, if you select Limited Service, the users will be only
able to change their passwords and configure mail forwarding. All other
features will not be available.
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Configuring mail migration settings (server mode only)
If you enable the mail migration feature, this section will appear. For details, see “Migrating
email from other mail servers (server mode only)” on page 391.
Managing the address book (server mode only)
The Mail Settings > Address Book tab lets you create and maintain a global or domain-based
address book and contact groups, or to configure LDAP attribute mapping templates to retrieve
existing address books in your LDAP server.
This menu option appears only when the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Others category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
This section contains the following topics:
• Adding contacts (server mode only)
• Adding contact groups (server mode only)
• Configuring LDAP attribute mapping template (server mode only)
Adding contacts (server mode only)
Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contacts to add contacts to a global or domain-based
address book in server mod. You can also create contact groups using the contacts. For more
information, see “To add or remove users from contact groups” on page 383.
The address book contains the contacts you add, the contact groups created, and the contact
list retrieved from your LDAP server based on the LDAP mapping configuration. For information
on LDAP mapping configuration, see “Configuring LDAP attribute mapping template (server
mode only)” on page 385.
Individual FortiMail webmail users can access the global or domain-based address books for a
common set of contact information when composing email messages. For more information,
log in to FortiMail webmail and click Help.
To view and edit the address book
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contacts.
Figure 110:The server mode Contacts tab
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GUI item
Description
Export
Click to download a copy of the address book in comma-separated
value (.csv) or vCard (.vcf) file format.
(button)
Exporting the address book can be useful for backup purposes, or when
using a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel to make large
numbers of changes to the address book before importing it again.
Import
(button)
Click to select a comma-separated value (.csv) or vCard (.vcf) file format.
Then click Browse to import address book entries. Click OK to upload
the file.
Click and select LDAP allows you to import contacts from your LDAP
server. For details, see “To import contacts from the LDAP server” on
page 383.
Note: An LDAP attribute mapping template must be set up before you
can import contacts from the LDAP server. For details, see “Configuring
LDAP attribute mapping template (server mode only)” on page 385.
Importing the address book can be useful when restoring a backup of
the address book, or when importing large numbers of address book
entries.
Note: To replace existing entries, first delete those entries, then import
the address book file. The FortiMail unit compares the Webmail_ID
value of each entry in the address book file, and will not overwrite
existing address book entries.
Manage Group
(button)
Select a contact and click this button to add a contact to or remove a
contact from a contact group. To do so, you must first add contact
groups. For more information on managing groups, see “To add or
remove users from contact groups” on page 383. For more information
on adding group names, see “Adding contact groups (server mode
only)” on page 384.
Domain
Select System to display a contact in the global address book, or a
domain to display a contact in the domain address book. For
information on creating domains, see “Configuring protected domains”
on page 358.
(drop-down list)
Search
Enter a search value for a contact, such as the first name, last name, or
email address, and click this button to find the contact from the list.
Display Name
Displays the contacts display name.
First Name
Displays the first name of the contact.
Last Name
Displays the last name of the contact.
Email
Displays the email address of the contact.
2. Either click New to create a contact or double-click a contact to modify it.
A dialog appears.
3. Enter information for the contact.
You must enter an email address (Email). Other fields are optional.
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4. Click Create or OK.
5. To add additional contact information, click the Address, Custom, and Advanced tabs.
To import contacts from the LDAP server
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contacts.
2. Click Import and select LDAP.
A dialog appears.
GUI item
Description
Select LDAP
profile
Select an LDAP profile that contains the configuration for the LDAP
server from which you want to import the contacts. For information on
creating LDAP profiles, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Select LDAP
mapping
Select an LDAP attribute mapping template. The FortiMail unit will
import the contacts from the LDAP server based on this template. For
information on creating the template, see “Configuring LDAP attribute
mapping template (server mode only)” on page 385.
New
Click to create a new LDAP attribute mapping template. For details, see
“To view and configure an LDAP mapping list” on page 385.
(button)
Edit
(button)
Click to modify the LDAP attribute mapping template you selected in
the Select LDAP mapping field.
Overwrite
Select if you want to overwrite the same contacts in your current
existing contacts address book with the imported contact list. This is especially useful
when you want to update the imported list.
Delete
nonexistent
contacts
Select if you want to remove the contacts that were in a previous
imported list but are not available in the updated list. This is especially
useful when you want to update the imported list.
3. Select OK.
The FortiMail unit starts importing contacts from the LDAP server. When complete, a Status
field appears with information on whether the import was successful.
To add or remove users from contact groups
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contacts.
2. Select one or more contacts to add or delete from an existing group.
3. Click Manage Group and do one of the following:
• Select Add to Group from the pop-up menu to add users.
• Select Delete from Group from the pop-up menu to remove users.
In either case, a dialog appears. Only the title varies.
4. In Domain, select System to display all system-wide contact groups, or a domain name to
display all contact groups under that domain. For information on creating domains, see
“Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
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5. Whether adding or removing users, both dialogs work the same.
• To add the users to a group or groups, select one or more groups under Available
group(s) on the Add to Group dialog and click -> to move them to the Selected group(s)
field.
• To remove the users from a group or groups, select one or more groups under Available
group(s) on the Delete from Group dialog and click -> to move them to the Selected
group(s) field.
Users are not removed from the contacts list, just removed from a group.
6. Click OK.
Adding contact groups (server mode only)
Before you can add contacts to a contact group, you must first create a contact group.
Individual FortiMail webmail users can access the global or domain-based contact groups for a
common set of contact information when composing email messages. For more information,
log in to FortiMail webmail and click Help.
To view and add a contact groups
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contact Groups.
2. From the Domain drop-down list, select System to display a global contact group or a
domain to display a domain-based contact group. For information on creating domains, see
“Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
3. Click New to create a new group.
A dialog appears.
4. In Domain, select System to add a global contact group or a domain to add a domain-based
contact group.
5. Enter the name for the group.
6. Click Create.
To add a contact to a group
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > Contact Groups.
2. From the Domain drop-down list, select System to display a global contact group or a
domain to display a domain-based contact group.
3. Select a group and click Edit.
A new page appears.
4. Create a new contact or import contacts.
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GUI item
Description
Export
(button)
Click to download a copy of the contacts in this contact group in
comma-separated value (.csv) or vCard (.vcf) file format.
Exporting the contact group can be useful for backup purposes, or
when using a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel to make
large numbers of changes to the contact group before importing it
again.
Import
(button)
Click to import contacts. Select a comma-separated value (.csv) or
vCard (.vcf) file format. Then click Browse to import address book
entries. Click OK to upload the file.
Click and select LDAP allows you to import contacts from your LDAP
server. For details, see “To import contacts from the LDAP server” on
page 383.
Note: An LDAP attribute mapping template must be set up before you
can import contacts from the LDAP server. For details, see “Configuring
LDAP attribute mapping template (server mode only)” on page 385.
Click and select Existing Contacts displays the system or domain-based
address book, depending on your selection. Select one or more
contacts and click Add to Group.
Importing the address book can be useful when restoring a backup of
the address book, or when importing large numbers of address book
entries.
Note: To replace existing entries, first delete those entries, then import
the address book file. The FortiMail unit compares the Webmail_ID
value of each entry in the address book file, and will not overwrite
existing address book entries.
Back
Click to return to the Contact Groups tab.
Search
Enter a search value for a group member, such as the first name, last
name, or email address, and click this button to find the group member
from the list.
Configuring LDAP attribute mapping template (server mode only)
If you have an existing email address book in your LDAP server, you can configure the LDAP
attribute mapping template to retrieve the address book and add it to the contact list. Before
doing so, you must configure your LDAP server. For details, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on
page 525.
For information on retrieving the address book, see “Import” on page 382 and “To import
contacts from the LDAP server” on page 383.
To view and configure an LDAP mapping list
1. Go to Mail Settings > Address Book > LDAP Mapping.
2. Either click New to create a template or double-click an entry to modify it.
A mapping template appears.
3. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Mapping Name
Enter the name of the LDAP attribute mapping template.
Contact Field
Select the FortiMail attributes used for the contacts, such as First name,
Last name, or Mobile.
Note: The Email attribute must be entered.
LDAP Attribute
Enter the matching contact attributes used in the LDAP server. For
example, Name may be used to represent first name and Surname may
be used for last name.
LDAP query filter Specify the query filter.
Add
(button)
Click to add an attribute row in the Mapping content table.
Delete
(button)
Select an attribute row in the Mapping content table and click this
button to remove it.
4. Click Create.
Sharing calendars and address books (server mode only)
FortiMail v5.0 supports calendar sharing and LDAP-based address book sharing. The calendar,
meeting schedule, free-busy time, and resources like meeting rooms, projectors, and other
equipment usage are also supported.
To be specific, the following features are supported:
• FortiMail internal calendar sharing from/to FortiMail webmail users
• Internet calendar sharing from/to FortiMail webmail users
• Calendar sharing from/to Microsoft Outlook users using WebDAV (Outlook does not support
CalDAV)
• Calendar sharing from/to Mozilla Thunderbird users using WebDAV or CalDAV
• Address book query from Outlook using LDAP
• Address book query from Thunderbird using LDAP
Other email clients may also be supported if they support the standard WebDAV and CalDAV
protocols.
This section contains the following topics:
• Calendar sharing
• Address book sharing
Calendar sharing
To share calendars, you must first enable the service on FortiMail and then configure the
webmail or mail client settings.
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FortiMail calendar settings
To enable the WebDAV and CalDAV services
1. Go to Mail Settings > Calendar > Settings.
2. Select Enable WebDAV and Enable CalDAV.
3. Click Apply.
FortiMail calendar service supports resource management, such as meeting room and
equipment.
To create a calendar resource for sharing
1. Go to Mail Settings > Calendar > Resources.
2. Click New.
3. Fill out the information and click Create.
FortiMail webmail settings
FortiMail webmail users can perform calendar publishing, subscribing, and sharing operations
with other mail clients, such as Outlook and Thunderbird Lightning.
To access the WebDAV and CalDAV service URL
1. Log on to FortiMail webmail.
2. On the upper right corner, click the Settings dropdown list and select Preferences.
3. Under Account Settings > Service URL, click [View] to access the FortiMail WebDAV, CalDAV
and CardDAV service URLs.
Thunderbird settings
Thunderbird Lightning users can publish and subscribe calendars to/from the FortiMail WebDAV
server. They can also subscribe the shared calendar via the CalDAV protocol which facilitates
calendar sharing and synchronization between FortiMail and Thunderbird Lightning.
Thunderbird users can schedule an event or meeting based on the free/busy information shared
and stored on FortiMail WebDAV server. Before scheduling a meeting, the free/busy settings
must be configured.
To publish a calendar to FortiMail WebDAV service
1. In Thunderbird, go to Events and Tasks > Calendar.
2. Right-click on a calendar and select Publish Calendar.
3. For Publishing URL, enter the URL you get from the FortiMail webmail (see “FortiMail
webmail settings” on page 387).
4. Enter the user name and password required for FortiMail authentication.
5. Click Publish.
6. Enter the user name and password required for FortiMail authentication.
7. Click OK.
To subscribe a calendar from FortiMail CalDAV service
1. In Thunderbird, go to File > New > Calendar.
2. Select On the Network.
3. For Format, select CalDAV.
4. Enter the publicly shared calendar location you get from the FortiMail webmail (see
“FortiMail webmail settings” on page 387).
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5. Enter the display name and other settings, then click Next.
6. Enter the user name and password required for FortiMail authentication.
7. The new calendar will appear in the left calendar pane. And it can be synchronized with the
FortiMail CalDAV service automatically or manually.
To configure the free/busy settings in Thunderbird
1. Go to Tools > Free/Busy.
2. Click the Settings tab.
3. Enter the email address and the matching free/busy URL. Thunderbird users get the FB URL
from the FortiMail administrator, who gets the URL from the calendar settings on the
FortiMail web UI.
4. Create a new event and invite attendees.
5. Enter the email address of the attendees. The free/busy information will be retrieved from
FortiMail.
With the free/busy settings configured, Thunderbird users can schedule a meeting with the right
time.
To schedule a meeting in Thunderbird
1. Go to Events and Tasks > New Event.
2. Enter the event contents and click Invite Attendees.
3. Enter the email address of the attendees. Their free/busy information will be retrieved from
the FortiMail server and displayed in different colors.
Outlook settings
Outlook users can publish and subscribe calendars to/from FortiMail WebDAV service (Outlook
does not support CalDAV). They can also schedule meetings based on the free/busy
information shared and stored on the FortiMail WebDAV server.
Outlook users can schedule an event or meeting based on the free/busy information shared and
stored on FortiMail WebDAV server. Before scheduling a meeting, the free/busy settings must
be configured.
To publish a calendar to FortiMail WebDAV service
1. In Outlook, go to Go > Calendar.
2. Right-click on a calendar and select Publish to Internet.
3. Select Publish to WebDAV Server.
4. In the popup window, enter the URL you get from the FortiMail webmail (see “FortiMail
webmail settings” on page 387).
5. Specify a time span and permission.
6. Enter the user name and password required for FortiMail authentication.
7. Click OK.
8. Enter the user name and password required for FortiMail authentication.
9. Click OK.
To subscribe a calendar from FortiMail WebDAV service
1. In Outlook, go to Tools > Account Setting.
2. Click the Internet Calendars tab.
3. Click New.
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4. Enter the publicly shared calendar location you get from the FortiMail webmail (see
“FortiMail webmail settings” on page 387).
5. Specify the folder name and description.
6. Click OK.
To configure the free/busy settings in Outlook 2007
1. Go to Tools > Options.
2. Then go to Calendar Options > Free/Busy Options.
3. Enter free/busy URL. Outlook users get the FB URL from the FortiMail administrator, who
gets the URL from the calendar settings on the FortiMail web UI.
4. Not e that Publish at my location is not supported. Do not select this option.
5. Click OK.
With the free/busy settings configured, Outlook users can schedule a meeting with the right
time.
To schedule a meeting in Outlook 2007
1. Go to New > Meeting Request.
2. Click Scheduling.
3. Enter the email address of the attendees. Their free/busy information will be retrieved from
the FortiMail server and displayed in different colors.
4. Click Appointment to arrange and send the meeting request.
Address book sharing
With the LDAP service enabled, users can search and download address books stored in
FortiMail from within their mail clients, such Thunderbird and Outlook.
FortiMail settings
First, you need to enable the LDAP service on FortiMail.
To enable the LDAP service
1. Log on to FortiMail CLI console.
2. Enter the following commands:
config system global
set ldap-server-sys-status enable
end
By default, the LDAP service is enabled.
For the users to access the FortiMail address book from mail clients via LDAP, you must create
a resource profile and a policy to allow the access.
To create a policy
1. Go to Policy > Policies > Recipient Policies.
2. Click New.
3. Specify the sender and recipient patterns, and other settings.
4. For Resource profile, click New.
5. In the resource profile configuration, select Domain address book, Global address book, or
both.
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Thunderbird settings
Thunderbird users can access the address books stored on FortiMail via the LDAP protocol.
To configure the address book LDAP settings in Thunderbird
1. Open the address book in Thunderbird.
2. From File, select New LDAP Directory.
3. Select the General tab.
4. Enter a name.
5. Enter the hostname of FortiMail.
6. Enter the base DN.
7. Enter the port number. The default is 389.
8. Enter the Bind DN.
9. Click OK.
Note that SSL is not supported. Do not select Use secure connection.
To search contacts FortiMail address books
1. Go to Edit > Advanced address book search.
2. Specify the address book to be searched.
3. Enter the user name.
4. Click Search.
To download contacts from FortiMail address books
1. Open the address book in Thunderbird.
2. Click Properties of an address book.
3. Click Offline.
4. Click Download Now.
5. Enter the password of the binding user required for FortiMail authentication.
Outlook settings
Outlook users can access the address books stored on FortiMail via the LDAP protocol.
To configure the address book LDAP settings in Outlook 2007
1. Go to Tools > Account Setting.
2. Select Address Books.
3. Click New.
4. Enter the server name or IP address of FortiMail.
5. Enter the user name and password. For example, User name: cn=user1,ou=outlook,
ou=people, dc=example, dc=com, assuming your user name is user1, your domain name is
example.com. “ou=mozilla, ou=people” should be constant. Password: 123
6. Select More Settings.
7. Select the Connection tab.
8. Specify the display name and connection port.
9. Switch to the Search tab, and specify the Search Base to Custom: dc=example, dc=com.
10.Click OK.
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To access FortiMail address books
1. Open the address book in Outlook.
2. Select the target address book.
3. Enter the user name you want to find.
4. Click Go.
Migrating email from other mail servers (server mode only)
If you already have other mail servers, such as Exchange or FortiMail server, and you want to
consolidate the mail user and data into one FortiMail server, you can do so by migrating the
users and data to your FortiMail unit.
The email migration process involves the following procedures:
1. Preparation
a. Enable the mail migration feature using the following CLI commands.
config system global
set email-migration-status enable
end
By default, the email migration feature does not appear on the GUI until you enable it with the
above CLI commands.
b. Define the remote mail server settings. For details, see “Defining a remote mail server for
mail migration” on page 392.
c. Create a domain for the to-be-migrated users. In v5.0 release, the domain name must be
the same as the users’ domain on the remote mail server. Beginning from v5.0.1 release,
the domain name can be different. For details, see “Creating domains for mail migration”
on page 392.
2. User migration: Because FortiMail will act as an IMAP client on behalf of the users to get
their email from the remote mail server, you must import the user/password information first.
To do this, you can use one of the following methods:
• If you only need to migrate email for a few users and you know the users’ login
credentials, you can manually enter their user name/password information by going to
Mail Settings > Mail Migration > Migration Users and click New.
• If you can export the user name/non-encrypted password list into a CSV file, you can
import the CSV file by going to Mail Settings > Mail Migration > Migration Users and click
Action > Import > .CSV File.
• If the to-be-migrated users already have accounts on the FortiMail server, you can
import/copy the local user list to the migration user list by going to Mail Settings > Mail
Migration > Migration Users and click Action > Import > All Local Users.
• If the user passwords are encrypted, you have to collect their passwords through
FortiMail webmail login or SMTP client login. To do this:
i. First create an authentication profile that uses the remote mail server as the
authentication server. For details, see “Configuring authentication profiles” on
page 520.
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ii. Create a recipient-based policy that includes the migration users as senders and also
includes the authentication profile. For details, see the “Controlling email based on
recipient addresses” on page 442.
iii. Use one of the following two methods to collect user passwords:
a. Through FortiMail webmail login: Inform the users to log in to the FortiMail webmail
portal, using their email addresses of the remote domain (the domain part needs to
match proper authentication policy) and their passwords. Upon successful login, the
users will be shown an empty webmail mailbox. This is because the email data has
not been migrated yet and this step is only meant to collect user passwords.
b. Through SMTP client login: Inform the users to use the FortiMail host name as their
outgoing mail server.
After you have done the above, when the users try to send email, they will have to
authenticate through FortiMail. Then FortiMail will record the user names and passwords
into the migration user list under Mail Settings > Mail Migration > Migration Users.
3. Mail data migration: After you have migrated the users, you can start to migrate the their
mail boxes from the remote server. To do this:
i. Go to Mail Settings > Mail Migration > Migration Users.
ii. From the Action dropdown list, select Migrate > Selected Users or All Users.
iii. If needed, you can click the Stop and Start button to control the migration process.
iv. After the user’s mail data is successfully migrated, you can export the user to the local
user list by clicking Action > Export > Selected Users or All Users. The exported users
will appear as local users under User > User.
Defining a remote mail server for mail migration
This is one of the email migration procedures. For the entire procedures, see “Migrating email
from other mail servers (server mode only)” on page 391.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Mail Migration > Remote Mail Server.
2. Click New.
3. Enter a name for the remote server.
4. Enter the host name or IP address of the remote server.
5. For Protocol, select either IMAP or IMAPS, FortiMail will act as an IMAP client on the users’
behalf to get email from the remote server.
6. Enter the IMAP port number if different from the default one (port 993).
7. Click Create.
Creating domains for mail migration
This is one of the email migration procedures. For the entire procedures, see “Migrating email
from other mail servers (server mode only)” on page 391.
1. Go to Mail Settings > Domains > Domains.
2. Click New.
3. Configure the settings as described in “Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
In v5.0 release, the created domain name on FortiMail must be the same as the users’ domain
on the remote mail server. Beginning from v5.0.1 release, the domain names can be different.
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4. Since you have enabled mail migration, a new section called Mail Migration Settings appears
at the bottom of the domain settings page. Expand this section and configure the following
settings.
5. Check Enable mail migration.
6. Specify the remote mail server from the dropdown list. See “Defining a remote mail server for
mail migration” on page 392.
7. Click Create.
Configuring proxies (transparent mode only)
In addition to the proxy settings under each network interface settings, you can also go to Mail
Settings > Proxies to configure connection pick-up of the proxies and implicit relay.
Furthermore, the protected domains and session profiles also configure aspects of the proxies
and implicit relay, such as transparency. For details, see “Configuring protected domains” on
page 358 and “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
This section contains the following topics:
• About the transparent mode proxies
• Use client-specified SMTP server to send email
About the transparent mode proxies
FortiMail has two transparent proxies: an incoming proxy and an outgoing proxy. The proxies’
degree of transparency at the IP layer and at the SMTP layer varies by your configuration. Proxy
behaviors are configured separately based on whether the SMTP connection is considered to
be incoming or outgoing. Depending on your configuration, a FortiMail unit operating in
transparent mode may implicitly use its built-in MTA instead.
Depending on your network topology, verify that email is not being scanned twice.
• Incoming versus outgoing SMTP connections
• Transparency of the proxies and built-in MTA
• Avoiding scanning email twice
• Relaying using FortiMail’s built-in MTA versus unprotected SMTP servers
When FortiMail uses the proxies instead of the built-in MTA
When operating in transparent mode, a FortiMail unit has two ways of handling an SMTP
connection: to proxy, or to relay. A FortiMail unit will proxy a connection only if you have enabled
the proxy option applicable to the connection’s directionality, either:
• “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400 (for outgoing connections), or
• “Use this domain’s SMTP server to deliver the mail” on page 368 (for incoming connections
containing outgoing email messages)
This option is ignored for email that matches an antispam or content action profile where you
have enabled Deliver to alternate host.
Otherwise, it will use its built-in MTA instead.
Unlike in gateway mode, in transparent mode, the built-in MTA is used implicitly. SMTP clients
do not explicitly connect to it, but unless proxied, all connections traveling through the FortiMail
unit are implicitly handled by the built-in MTA. In this sense, while in transparent mode, the
built-in MTA may initially seem to be similar to the proxies, which are also used implicitly, and
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not specifically requested by the SMTP client. However, the proxies or the built-in MTA may
reroute connections to different destination IP addresses, and thereby may affect mail routing.
Because the outgoing proxy does not queue undeliverable email, while the built-in MTA and
incoming proxy do, whether a proxy or the built-in MTA handles a connection may also affect
the FortiMail unit’s mail queues.
Table 44:Mail routing in transparent mode
Destination
IP of
connection
RCPT TO: Configuration
Result
SMTP server
(incoming
connection)
A
protected
domain
(incoming
email)
N/A
Built-in MTA establishes session
with SMTP server
Not a
protected
domain
(outgoing
email)
Use this domain’s SMTP
server to deliver the mail is
enabled
Incoming queueing proxy
establishes session with SMTP
server
Not SMTP
server
(outgoing
connection)
N/A
Use this
domain’s
SMTP server
to deliver the
mail is
disabled
Relay
Server
section is
configured
Built-in MTA establishes session
with Relay Server section
Relay
Server
section is
not
configured
Built-in MTA performs MX lookup of
the domain in RCPT TO: and
establishes session with the
resulting MTA
Use client-specified SMTP
server to send email is
enabled
Outgoing non-queueing proxy
establishes session with the
unprotected MTA
Use
client-specifie
d SMTP
server to send
email is
disabled
Relay
Server
section is
configured
Built-in MTA establishes session
with Relay Server section
Relay
Server
section is
not
configured
Built-in MTA performs MX lookup of
the domain in RCPT TO: and
establishes session with the
resulting MTA
You can determine whether a connection was handled using the built-in MTA or one of the
proxies by viewing the Mailer column of the history log messages.
• mta: The connection was handled by the built-in MTA.
• proxy: The connection was handled by either the incoming proxy or the outgoing proxy.
For information on viewing the history log, see “Viewing log messages” on page 194.
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Incoming versus outgoing SMTP connections
At the network connection level, directionality is determined by the destination IP address.
• Incoming connections
The destination IP address matches a protected domain’s “SMTP server” on page 363 field.
• Outgoing connections
The destination IP address does not match any protected domain’s “SMTP server” on
page 363 field.
Connection level directionality does not consider a connection’s source IP address, nor whether
or not the recipient email address’s (RCPT TO:) mail domain is a protected domain.
Figure 111:Incoming versus outgoing SMTP connections
Directionality at the connection level may be different than directionality at the level of
email messages contained by the connection. It is possible that an incoming connection
could contain an outgoing email message, and vice versa.
For example, in Figure 111 on page 395, connections from the internal mail relays to the internal
mail servers are outgoing connections, but they contain incoming email messages. Conversely,
connections from remote MUAs to the internal mail relays are incoming connections, but may
contain outgoing email messages if the recipients’ email addresses (RCPT TO:) are external.
For information on the concept of incoming versus outgoing at the application layer, see
“Incoming versus outgoing email messages” on page 428.
When the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, directionality correlates with which
proxy will be used, if any.
For example, in Figure 111 on page 395, the protected domain is example.com. Mailboxes for
example.com are stored on servers located at the company’s headquarters, separate from the
mail relays, which are located at a branch office. All email is routed through the mail relays, and
so the FortiMail unit is deployed in front of the mail relays at the branch office.
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On the FortiMail unit, you have configured the protected domain’s “SMTP server” on page 363
to be 192.168.0.1, a mail relay, because all email must be routed through that mail relay. You
have also enabled “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400, so, for
outgoing connections, the outgoing proxy will be used instead of the built-in MTA. However, you
have not enabled “Use this domain’s SMTP server to deliver the mail” on page 368, so, for
incoming connections, the built-in MTA will be used, rather than the incoming proxy.
You can configure interception and transparency separately for each of the two proxies.
Regardless of which proxy is used, the proxy may not be fully transparent unless you have
configured it to be so. For details, see “Transparency of the proxies and built-in MTA” on
page 396.
Transparency of the proxies and built-in MTA
A FortiMail unit ‘s built-in MTA and proxies are not necessarily fully transparent, even if the
FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode.
If you want the FortiMail unit to behave truly transparently, you must:
• select the “Hide this box from the mail server” on page 464 option in each session profile
• select “Hide the transparent box” on page 367 in each protected domain
Otherwise, the source IP address of connection initiations, the destination IP address of reply
traffic, and the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) will contain either:
• the management IP address (for connections occurring through bridged network interfaces),
or
• the network interface’s IP address (for connections through out-of-bridge network
interfaces)
In addition to preserving the original IP addresses and domain names, for connections to
unprotected domains, to be hidden with regards to authentication, the FortiMail unit must pass
SMTP AUTH commands through to the SMTP server instead of applying an authentication
profile. To do this, you must enable “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” on
page 400 in order to use the outgoing proxy instead of the built-in MTA. The outgoing proxy will
transmit SMTP AUTH commands to the server, instead of applying the IP-based policy’s
authentication profile on behalf of the server.
Avoiding scanning email twice
Depending on your network topology, in transparent mode, you may need to verify that the
FortiMail unit is not scanning the same email twice.
Redundant scanning can result if all origins of outgoing email are not physically located on the
same network as the protected domain’s mail relay (“SMTP server” on page 363). This is
especially true if your internal relays and mail servers are physically located on separate servers,
and those servers are not located on the same network. Due to mail routing, an email could
travel through the FortiMail unit multiple times in order to reach its final destination. As a result,
if you have selected Proxy more than once in System > Network > Interface, it is possible that
an email could be scanned more than once, decreasing the performance of your email system
and unnecessarily increasing delivery time.
There are some topologies, however, when it is correct to select Proxy for multiple network
interfaces, or even for both incoming and outgoing connections on the same network interface.
It is important to understand the impact of the relevant configuration options in order to
configure transparent mode proxy/relay pick-up correctly.
The following two examples demonstrate correct configurations for their topology, and illustrate
the resulting mail routing.
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Example 1
All email must be routed through the internal mail relays. Internal mail servers, internal MUAs,
and remote MUAs all send mail through the mail relays, whether the recipient is a member of the
protected domain or not. Because of this, the FortiMail unit is deployed directly in front of the
internal mail relays, which are physically located on a network separate from the mail servers
that store email for retrieval by email users. For each protected domain, “SMTP server” on
page 363 is configured with the IP address of an internal mail relay.
Table 45 on page 397 shows the configuration options that result in correct mail routing for this
desired scenario. Figure 112 on page 397 shows the mail routing that would result from this
configuration, in this topology.
Figure 112:Avoiding scanning email twice: Example 1 topology
Table 45:Avoiding scanning email twice: Example 1 configuration
Setting
Value
MUAs’ SMTP server/MTA
the virtual IP on the FortiGate unit, or other public IP
address, that routes to 192.168.0.1 (the internal mail
relays)
each protected domain’s SMTP
server
192.168.0.1
each protected domain’s Use this
domain’s SMTP server to deliver
the mail
enabled
Use client-specified SMTP server
to send email
enabled
port1’s Incoming connections
Pass through or Drop
port1’s Outgoing connections
Pass through
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Table 45:Avoiding scanning email twice: Example 1 configuration
port2’s Incoming connections
Proxy proxy
port2’s Outgoing connections
Pass through or Drop
Because the FortiMail unit is deployed directly in front of the relays, which are not on the same
network as either the remote MUAs or the internal mail servers, if proxy/relay pick-up is not
configured correctly, outgoing email could be scanned twice: once as it travels from port2 to
port1, and again as it travels from port1 to port2. In addition, if proxying is not configured
correctly, email would be picked up by the built-in MTA instead of the proxy, and might never
reach the internal mail relays.
To solve this, do not configure the FortiMail unit to use its built-in MTA to intercept incoming
connections and deliver email messages. Instead, it should proxy the incoming connections,
allowing them to reach the internal mail relays. Because all email was already scanned during
the incoming connection, when the internal mail relay initiates the outgoing connection to either
an external MTA or to the internal mail server, the FortiMail unit does not need to scan the email
again. In addition, because the internal mail relays maintain the queues, the FortiMail unit does
not need to maintain queues for outgoing connections. It can instead use its outgoing proxy,
which does not queue, and will not reroute email. Finally, there should be no incoming
connections on port1, nor outgoing connections on port2; so, configure them either as Pass
through or Drop.
Example 2
All incoming email must be routed through the internal mail relays. The internal mail server also
routes outgoing email through the relays. Because of this, the FortiMail unit is deployed directly
in front of the internal mail relays, which are physically located on the same network as the mail
servers that store email for retrieval by email users. For each protected domain, “SMTP server”
on page 363 is configured with the IP address of an internal mail relay.
Remote MUAs’ outgoing email must not be routed through the internal mail relays.
Table 46 on page 399 shows the configuration options that result in correct mail routing for this
desired scenario. Figure 113 on page 398 shows the mail routing that would result from this
configuration, in this topology.
Figure 113:Avoiding scanning email twice: Example 2 topology
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Table 46:Avoiding scanning email twice: Example 2 configuration
Setting
Value
MUAs’ SMTP server/MTA
the virtual IP on the FortiGate unit, or other public
IP address, that routes to 192.168.0.2 (the internal
mail server, not the internal mail relays)
each protected domain’s SMTP server
192.168.0.1
each protected domain’s Use this
disabled
domain’s SMTP server to deliver the mail
Use client-specified SMTP server to send disabled
email
port1’s Incoming connections
Pass through
port1’s Outgoing connections
Proxy
port2’s Incoming connections
Proxy
port2’s Outgoing connections
Proxy
Relay Server section
not configured
MX record for each protected domain on
the internal DNS server
domain name resolving to 192.168.0.1 (the internal
mail relays)
Unlike external MTAs making incoming connections to the relays, remote MUAs instead make
outgoing connections through port2: their destination is the internal mail server, whose IP
address is not configured in the protected domain. (The protected domain’s “SMTP server” on
page 363 field is instead configured with the IP address of the internal mail relay.) As a result,
you can configure pick-up for these connections separately from those of external MTAs — they
pass through the same port, but are distinct in their directionality.
In this case, we want to intercept connections for both external MTAs and remote MUAs. To
solve this, we select Proxy for both “Incoming connections” on page 238 from external MTAs
and “Outgoing connections” on page 238 (from remote MUAs) on port 2. (If we wanted to block
remote MUAs only, we could simply select Drop for “Outgoing connections” on page 238 on
port2.)
However, the remote MUAs’ configuration also means that the directionality of remote MUAs’
connections coincides with that of the internal relays’ connections to external relays: both are
outgoing. Therefore if you configure the FortiMail unit to proxy outgoing connections instead of
using the built-in MTA by enabling “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” on
page 400, both outgoing connections are proxied.
Remote MUAs’ connections would all travel through the internal mail server, regardless of
whether the recipient has an account on that mail server or not. Outgoing email would then
need to be forwarded to the internal mail relay, and back out through the FortiMail unit. The
result? Outgoing email from remote MUAs would travel extra mail hops. This would burden the
internal network with traffic destined for an external network, and needlessly increases points of
potential failure.
Additionally, because the FortiMail unit is deployed directly in front of both the relays and the
mail server, which is not on the same network as remote MUAs, remote MUAs’ outgoing email
could be scanned twice: once as it travels from port2 to port1, and again as it travels from port1
to port2. This is resource-inefficient.
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To solve this, the FortiMail unit should not be configured to use its proxy to intercept outgoing
connections. Instead, it should use its built-in MTA. The built-in MTA forms its own separate
connections based on the MX lookup of the recipient’s domain, rerouting email if necessary.
Notice that as a result of this lookup, although remote MUAs are configured to connect to the
internal mail server, connections for incoming email are actually diverted by the built-in MTA
through the internal mail relays. This has the benefit of providing a common relay point for all
internal email.
Rerouting also prevents outgoing email from passing through the FortiMail unit multiple times,
receiving redundant scans. This prevents externally-destined email from burdening the internal
mail relays and internal mail servers.
Finally, there should be no incoming connections on port1, so it can be configured either as
Pass through or Drop.
Relaying using FortiMail’s built-in MTA versus unprotected SMTP servers
When not proxying, FortiMail units can use their own built-in SMTP relay to deliver email.
If an email user at the branch office, behind a FortiMail unit, specifies the unprotected SMTP
server 10.0.0.1 as the outgoing SMTP server, you can either let the email user send email using
that specified unprotected SMTP server, or ignore the client’s specification and insist that the
FortiMail unit send the email message itself. (See Figure 111 on page 395.)
• If you permit the client to specify an unprotected SMTP server, the FortiMail unit will allow
the email client to connect to it, and will not act as a formal relay. If the client’s attempt fails,
the outgoing proxy will simply drop the connection and will not queue the email or retry.
• If you insist that the client relay email using the FortiMail unit’s built-in MTA rather than the
client-specified relay, the FortiMail unit will act as an MTA, queuing email for temporary
delivery failures and sending error messages back to the email senders for permanent
delivery failures. It may also reroute the connection through another relay server, or by
performing an MX lookup of the recipient’s domain, and delivering the email directly to that
mail gateway instead.
Enabling the FortiMail unit to allow clients to connect to unprotected SMTP servers may be
useful if, for example, you are an Internet service provider (ISP) and allow customers to use the
SMTP servers of their own choice, but do not want to spend resources to maintain SMTP
connections and queues to external SMTP servers.
Unlike the outgoing proxy, the incoming proxy does queue and retry. In this way, it is similar to
the built-in MTA.
For information on configuring use of the incoming proxy or outgoing proxy instead of using the
built-in MTA, see “Use client-specified SMTP server to send email” on page 400 (for outgoing
connections) and “Use this domain’s SMTP server to deliver the mail” on page 368 (for
incoming connections containing outgoing email messages).
Use client-specified SMTP server to send email
In FortiMail transparent mode, go to Mail Settings > Proxies to enable this feature to use the
outgoing proxy instead of the built-in MTA for outgoing SMTP connections. This allows the
client to send email using the SMTP server that they specify, rather than enforcing the use of the
FortiMail unit’s own built-in MTA. The outgoing proxy refuses the connection if the client’s
destination SMTP server is not available. In addition, it will not queue email from the SMTP
client, and if the client does not successfully complete the connection, the outgoing proxy will
simply drop the connection, and will not retry.
Since authentication profiles may not successfully complete, the outgoing proxy will also ignore
any authentication profiles that may be configured in the IP-based policy. The built-in MTA
would normally apply authentication on behalf of the SMTP server, but the outgoing proxy will
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instead pass any authentication attempts through to the SMTP server, allowing it to perform its
own authentication.
Disable to relay email using the built-in MTA to either the SMTP relay defined in “Configuring
SMTP relay hosts” on page 351, if any, or directly to the MTA that is the mail exchanger (MX) for
the recipient email address’s (RCPT TO:) domain. The email may not actually travel through the
unprotected SMTP server, even though it was the relay originally specified by the SMTP client.
For details, see “When FortiMail uses the proxies instead of the built-in MTA” on page 393.
If this option is enabled, consider also enabling “Prevent open relaying” on page 476. Failure to
do so could allow clients to use open relays.
If this option is disabled, and an SMTP client is configured to authenticate, you must configure
and apply an authentication profile. Without the profile, authentication with the built-in MTA will
fail. Also, the mail server must be explicitly configured to allow relay from the built-in MTA in this
case.
If this option is enabled, you cannot use IP pools. For more information, see “Configuring IP
pools” on page 570.
For security reasons, this option does not apply if there is no session profile selected in the
applicable IP-based policy. For more information on IP policies, see “Controlling email based on
IP addresses” on page 450.
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Managing users
The User menu enables you to configure email user-related settings, such as groups, PKI
authentication, preferences, address mappings, and email address aliases. If the FortiMail unit
is operating in server mode, the User menu also enables you to add email user accounts.
This section includes:
• Configuring local user accounts (server mode only)
• Configuring user preferences
• Configuring PKI authentication
• Configuring user groups
• Configuring aliases
• Configuring address mappings
• Configuring IBE users
Configuring local user accounts (server mode only)
When operating in server mode, the FortiMail unit is a standalone email server. The FortiMail
unit receives email messages, scans for viruses and spam, and then delivers email to its email
users’ mailboxes. External MTAs connect to the FortiMail unit, which itself is also the protected
email server.
When the FortiMail unit operates in server mode and the web UI operates in advanced mode,
the User tab is available. It lets you configure email user accounts whose mailboxes are hosted
on the FortiMail unit. Email users can then access their email hosted on the FortiMail unit using
webmail, POP3 and/or IMAP. For information on webmail and other features used directly by
email users, see “Setup for email users” on page 689.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view email user accounts, go to User > User > User.
Figure 114:User tab
Page 402
GUI item
Description
Maintenance
(button)
Select a user and click this button to manage that user’s mailboxes, such as
Inbox, Drafts and Sent. You can check the size of each mailbox, and empty or
delete mailboxes as required.
The SecureMail mailbox contains the secured email for the user.
The Bulk mailbox contains spam quarantined by the FortiMail unit.
Click Back to return to the Users tab.
Export .CSV
(button)
Click to download a backup of the email users list in comma-separated value
(CSV) file format. The user passwords are encoded for security.
Caution: Most of the email user accounts data, such as mailboxes and
preferences, is not included in the .csv file. For information on performing a
complete backup, see “Backup and restore” on page 203.
Import .CSV
(button)
In the field to the right of Import .CSV, enter the location of a CSV-formatted
email user backup file, then click Import .CSV to upload the file to your
FortiMail unit.
The import feature provides a simple way to add a list of new users in one
operation. See “Importing a list of users” on page 405.
Before importing a user list or adding an email user, you must first configure
one or more protected domains to which the email users will belong. For more
information, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358. You may also
want to back up the existing email user accounts. For details, see “Backup
and restore” on page 203.
Password
(button)
Select a user and click this button to change a user’s password. A dialog
appears. Choose whether to change the user password or to switch to LDAP
authentication. You can create a new LDAP profile or edit an existing one. For
details, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Domain
Select the protected domain to display its email users, or to select the
protected domain to which you want to add an email user account before
clicking New.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator profile.
Search user
Enter the name of a user, or a partial user name with wildcards, and press
Enter. The list of users redisplays with just those users that meet the search
criteria.
To return to the complete user list, clear the search field and press Enter.
User Name
Displays the user name of an email user, such as user1. This is also the local
portion of the email user’s primary email address.
Type
Displays the type of user: local, LDAP, or RADIUS.
Display Name Displays the display name of an email user, such as "J Smith". This name
appears in the From: field in the message headers of email messages sent
from this email user.
Disk Usage
(KB)
Managing users
Displays the disk space used by mailboxes for the email user in kilobytes (KB).
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Configuring users in server mode
You can create users one at a time or import a list of users. Before importing a user list or
adding an email user, you must first configure one or more protected domains to which the
email users will belong. For more information, see “Configuring protected domains” on
page 358.
To configure an email user account
1. Go to User > User > User.
2. From Domain, select the name of the protected domain to which you want to add an email
user. You can also set the domain on the user dialog.
3. Either click New to add an email user or double-click an email user to modify it.
A dialog appears.
4. In User name, enter the name of the account in the selected domain whose email will be
locally deliverable on the FortiMail unit.
For example, an email user may have numerous aliases, mail routing, and other email
addresses on other systems in your network, such as accounting@example.com. However,
the user name you enter in the New User dialog reflects the email user’s account that they
will use to log in to this FortiMail unit at the selected domain; such as, jsmith if the email
address is jsmith@example.com.
5. You can change the user’s domain if it necessary. In the drop-down menu to the right of the
@ symbol, select the name of the protected domain to which the email user belongs.
6. For Authentication type, select one of the following:
• select Local and then enter the password for this email account
• select LDAP and select the name of an existing LDAP profile in the dropdown list
• select RADIUS and select the name of an existing RADIUS profile in the dropdown list.
If no profile exists, click New to create one.
If a profile exists but needs modification, select it and click Edit.
The LDAP option requires that you first create an LDAP profile in which you have enabled and
configured in “Configuring user authentication options” on page 531.
7. In Display Name, enter the name of the user as it should appear in the From: field in the
message header.
For example, an email user whose email address is user1@example.com may prefer that
their Display Name be "J Zang".
8. Click OK.
For a new user, the FortiMail unit creates the account. Authentication is not yet enabled and
a policy may not exist that allows the account to send and receive email.
Complete the next two steps as applicable.
9. To enable the user account, create a recipient-based policy that both matches its email
address and uses a resource profile in which User account status is enabled. For details, see
“Workflow to enable and configure authentication of email users” on page 519 and
“Configuring resource profiles (server mode only)” on page 517.
10.To allow the user account to send and receive email, configure an access control rule and
either an IP-based policy or an incoming recipient-based policy. For details, see
“Configuring policies” on page 427.
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Importing a list of users
The import feature provides a simple way to add a list of new local users in one operation. You
can create a CSV file in any spreadsheet and import the data as long as the columns match the
FortiMail format.
To create and import user records
1. Go to User > User > User.
2. Create at least one local (non-LDAP) user.
3. Select that user and click Export .CSV.
4. Save the file on your local computer.
5. Open the CSV file in a spreadsheet editor, such as Microsoft Excel.
6. Enter user records in the pre-existing columns so the new users exactly match the exported
format. (Delete the original exported user record.)
Figure 115:Sample CSV format
7. Use the Save As feature to save the file in plain CSV format.
8. On the User tab, click Import.
A dialog appears.
9. Click Browse to locate the CSV file to import and click Open.
10.Click OK.
A field appears showing the percentage of import completion.
A dialog appears showing the number of imported records.
The import feature does not overwrite existing records.
To change the password of multiple email user accounts
This procedure sets the same password for one or more email user accounts, which can result
in reduced security of the email users’ accounts. To reduce risk, set a strong password and
notify each email user whose password has been reset to configure a unique, strong password
as soon as possible.
1. Go to User > User > User.
2. From Show Users Of Domain, select the name of the protected domain in which you want to
change email user account passwords.
3. To change the passwords of all email user accounts for the protected domain, mark the
check box located in the check box column heading.
To change the passwords of individual email user accounts, in the check box column, mark
the check boxes of each email user account whose password you want to change.
4. Click Password.
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5. Select either:
• Password, then enter the password for this email account, or
• LDAP, then select the name of an LDAP profile in which you have enabled and configured
the User Auth Options query, which enables the FortiMail unit to query the LDAP server to
authenticate the email user.
You can create LDAP profiles using the advanced mode of the web-based manager. For more
information, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
6. Click OK.
Managing the disk usage of email users mailboxes
If your email users often send or receive large attachments, email users’ mailboxes may rapidly
consume the hard disk space of the FortiMail unit. You can manage the disk usage of email
users’ mailboxes by monitoring the size of the folders, and optionally deleting their contents.
For example, if each email user has a mailbox folder named “Spam” that receives tagged spam,
you might want to periodically empty the contents of these folders to reclaim hard disk space.
Alternatively, you can assign email users’ disk space quota in their resource profile. For details,
see “Configuring resource profiles (server mode only)” on page 517.
To empty a mailbox folder
1. Go to User > User > User.
2. Select the check box for the user.
3. Click Maintenance.
A list of mailbox folder names with their hard disk usages appears.
4. Select the mailbox folder that you want to empty, such as Trash, then click Empty.
A confirmation dialog appears.
5. Click OK.
Configuring user preferences
The User Preferences tab lets you configure preferences for each email user, such as per-user
safe lists and preferred webmail quarantine language.
Preferences apply to email user accounts in all operation modes but vary slightly in
implementation. For example:
• Out-of-office status messages and mail forwarding can only be configured when the
FortiMail unit is operating in server mode.
• In server mode, user accounts are stored on the FortiMail unit.
• With gateway or transparent mode, user accounts are stored hosted on your protected
SMTP server.
Although you may have created a local user account, the user’s preferences may not be
created. You can either wait for an event that requires it to be automatically initialized using the
default values, or you can manually create and modify it.
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Administrators can modify preferences for each email user through the web UI. Email users can
modify their own preferences by logging in to the FortiMail webmail or email quarantine.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and manage existing user preferences
1. Go to User > User > User Preferences.
GUI item
Description
Delete User Data
(button)
Select the user and then click this button to delete the user preference
settings and mail data.
Maintenance
(button)
Click to reveal a drop-down menu with preference management
options.
Two options apply just to selected users:
• Clear SafeList for Selected Users
• Clear BlockList for Selected Users
Other options apply to all users in the selected domain:
• Clear SafeList for All Domain Users
• Clear BlockList for All Domain Users
• Reset (resets preferences to their defaults)
Domain
Select the protected domain to display its email users, or to select the
protected domain to which you want to add an email user account
before clicking New.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
Search user
Enter the name of a user, or a partial user name with wildcards, and
press Enter. The list of users redisplays with just those users that meet
the search criteria.
To return to the complete user list, clear the search field and press
Enter.
Managing users
User Name
Displays the user name of an email user, such as user1.
Display name
Displays the display name of the email user.
Language
Displays the language in which this email user prefers to display their
quarantine and, if the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode,
webmail. By default, this language preference is the same as the
system-wide default webmail language preference. For more
information, see “Customizing the GUI appearance” on page 255.
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GUI item
Description
Safe List
The icon in this column indicates whether or not a personal safe list
currently exists for this email user. Hover the mouse pointer over the
list icon to determine its status:
• New: A personal safe list does not exist for this email user.
• Edit: A personal safe list exists for this email user.
Click the icon to open a dialog where you can configure, back up, or
restore the personal safe list. Safe lists include sender IP addresses,
domain names, and email addresses that the email user wants to
permit.
Note: System-level lists take precedence over domain-level lists while
domain-level lists take precedence over personal-level lists.
For more information on safe lists and block lists, see “Configuring the
personal block lists and safe lists” on page 592.
Block List
The icon in this column indicates whether or not a personal block list
currently exists for this email user. Hover the mouse pointer over the
list icon to determine its status:
• New: A personal block list does not exist for this email user.
• Edit: A personal block list exists for this email user.
Click the icon to open a dialog where you can configure, back up, or
restore the personal block list. Block lists include sender IP addresses,
domain names, and email addresses that the email user wants to
block
Note: System-level lists take precedence over domain-level lists while
domain-level lists take precedence over personal-level lists.
For more information on safe lists and block lists, see “Configuring the
personal block lists and safe lists” on page 592.
Secondary
Accounts
The icon in this column indicates whether or not this email user will
also handle quarantined email messages for other email addresses.
Hover the mouse pointer over the list icon to determine its status:
• New: A secondary access list does not exist for this email user.
• Edit: A secondary access list exists for this email user.
Click the icon to open a dialog where you can add or remove
secondary accounts. The addresses must exist in one of the existing
FortiMail domains to be added.
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GUI item
Description
Outgoing
Recipient
Safelisting
(icon)
The icon indicates whether or not the FortiMail unit will automatically
add recipient addresses in outgoing email sent by this email user to
their per-user safe list, if it is allowed in the antispam profile. For more
information, see “Configuring other antispam settings” on page 496.
• A green check mark icon indicates automatic per-user safelisting is
enabled.
• A red X icon indicates automatic per-user safelisting is disabled.
Email users can change this setting in their webmail preferences. For
more information, log in to the FortiMail webmail, then click Help.
This setting can be initialized manually or automatically. FortiMail
administrators can manually create and configure this setting when
configuring email user preferences. If the setting has not yet been
created when either:
• an email user logs in to FortiMail webmail
• an email user sends outgoing email through the FortiMail unit
• a FortiMail administrator configures the email user’s personal block
or safe list (see “Configuring the personal block lists and safe lists”
on page 592)
then the FortiMail unit will automatically initialize this setting as
disabled.
Preference
The green check mark indicates that the user preference has been
configured and the settings will be used.
The red check mark indicates that the user preference has not be
configured and the default settings will be used.
2. Either click New or double-click the user’s preferences to modify them.
A dialog appears that varies depending on the operation mode.
3. Configure the user preferences as required.
Configuring PKI authentication
Go to User > PKI User to configure public key infrastructure (PKI) user authentication.
PKI users can authenticate by presenting a valid client certificate, rather than by entering a user
name and password.
A PKI user can be either an email user or a FortiMail administrator.
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When a PKI user connects to the FortiMail unit with a web browser, the browser presents the
PKI user’s certificate to the FortiMail unit. If the certificate is valid, the FortiMail unit then
authenticates the PKI user. To be valid, a client certificate must:
• not be expired
• not be revoked by either certificate revocation list (CRL) or, if enabled, online certificate
status protocol (OCSP)
• be signed by a certificate authority (CA), whose certificate you have imported into the
FortiMail unit
• contain a CA field whose value matches the CA certificate
• contain a Issuer field whose value matches the Subject field in the CA certificate
• contain a Subject field whose value contains the subject, or is empty
• contain a Common Name (CN) or Subject Alternative field, if LDAP Query is enabled,
whose value matches the email address of a user object retrieved using the User Query
Options of the LDAP profile.
Web browsers may have their own certificate validation requirements in addition to FortiMail
requirements. For example, personal certificates may be required to contain the PKI user’s
email address in the Subject Alternative Name field, and that Key Usage field contain
Digital Signature, Data Encipherment, Key Encipherment. For browser
requirements, see your web browser’s documentation.
If the client certificate is not valid, depending on whether you have configured the FortiMail unit
to require valid certificates, authentication will either fail absolutely, or fail over to user name and
password authentication.
If the certificate is valid and authentication succeeds, the PKI user’s web browser is redirected
to either the web UI (for PKI users that are FortiMail administrators), or FortiMail webmail or the
personal quarantine (for PKI users that are email users).
For details and examples about how to use PKI authentication for FortiMail email users and
administrators, see Appendix D in the FortiMail Administration Guide.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and configure PKI users
1. Go to User > User > PKI User.
Figure 116:PKI User tab
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GUI item
Description
Name
Displays the user name of the PKI user.
Domain
Displays the protected domain to which the PKI user is assigned. If
“Domain” on page 411 is empty, the PKI user is an administrator.
CA
Displays the name of the CA certificate used when validating the CA’s
signature of the client certificate. For more information, see “Managing
certificate authority certificates” on page 332.
Subject
Displays a string used to match part of the value in the Subject field of
the client certificate. It does not have to match the entire subject.
If empty, matching values are not considered when validating the client
certificate presented by the PKI user’s web browser.
LDAP
If “LDAP query” on page 413 is enabled, the LDAP configuration of this
PKI user is shown in three parts:
• Whether the LDAP query setting is enabled (indicated by E) or disabled
(indicated by “-”).
• Displays the name of the LDAP profile used for the query. For more
information, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
• Displays the name of the field in the client certificate (either Subject
Alternative or CN) whose value must match the email address of a user
object in the LDAP directory.
For example, E/ldapprof/Subject Alternative indicates that LDAP
query is enabled, and will use the LDAP profile named ldapprof to
validate the Subject Alternative field of the client certificate.
OCSP
If this is enabled, the OCSP configuration of this PKI user is shown in three
parts:
• Whether OSCP is enabled (indicated by E) or disabled (indicated by
“-”).
• Displays the URL of the OCSP server.
• Displays the action to take if the OCSP server is unavailable. If set to
ignore, the FortiMail unit allows the user to authenticate. If set to
revoke, the FortiMail unit behaves as if the certificate is currently
revoked, and authentication fails.
For example, E/https://www.example.com/Revoke indicates OCSP
is enabled, using the OSCP server at https://www.example.com, and if the
OSCP server is unavailable, the FortiMail unit prevents the user from
authenticating.
2. Click New to add PKI authentication for an email user or administrator account or
double-click an account to modify it.
A dialog appears.
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Figure 117:New User dialog
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
User name
For a new user, enter the name of the PKI user.
There is no requirement to use the same name as the administrator or email
user’s account name, although you may find it helpful to be so.
For example, you might have an administrator account named admin1.You
might therefore find it most straightforward to also name the PKI user
admin1, making it easy to remember which account you intended to use
these PKI settings.
Domain
Select either the protected domain to which the PKI user is assigned, or, if
the PKI user is a FortiMail administrator, select System.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
CA
Select either None or the name of the CA certificate to use when validating
the CA’s signature of the client certificate. For more information, see
“Managing certificate authority certificates” on page 332.
If you select None, you must configure “Subject” on page 412.
Subject
Enter the value which must match the Subject field of the client certificate,
or leave this field empty. If empty, matching values are not considered when
validating the client certificate presented by the PKI user’s web browser.
If you do not configure “Subject” on page 412, you must configure “CA” on
page 412.
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GUI item
Description
LDAP query Enable to query an LDAP directory, such as Microsoft Active Directory, to
determine the existence of the PKI user who is attempting to authenticate,
then also configure “LDAP profile” on page 413 and “Query field” on
page 413.
Note: If this option is enabled, no local user configuration is necessary.
Instead, the FortiMail unit creates the personal quarantine folder and other
necessary items when PKI authentication queries the LDAP server.
LDAP profile
From the drop-down list, select the LDAP profile to use when
querying the LDAP server.
• If no profile exists, click New to create one.
• If a profile exists but needs modification, select it and
click Edit.
In both cases, the Edit LDAP Profile dialog appears. For more
information, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
This option is available only if “LDAP query” on page 413 is
enabled.
Query field
Select the name of the field in the client certificate (either CN
or Subject Alternative) which contains the email address of
the PKI user.
This email address will be compared with the value of the
email address attribute for each user object queried from the
LDAP directory to determine if the PKI user exists in the
LDAP directory.
This option is available only if “LDAP query” on page 413 is
enabled.
OCSP
Enable to use an Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) server to query
whether the client certificate has been revoked, then also configure “URL” on
page 413, “Remote certificate” on page 413, and “Unavailable action” on
page 413.
URL
Displays the URL of the OCSP server.
This option is available only if “OCSP” on page 413 is
enabled.
Remote
certificate
Select the remote certificate that is used to verify the identity
of the OCSP server. For more information, see “Managing
OCSP server certificates” on page 334.
This option is available only if “OCSP” on page 413 is
enabled.
Unavailable
action
Select the action to take if the OCSP server is unavailable. If
set to Ignore, the FortiMail unit allows the user to
authenticate. If set to Revoke, the FortiMail unit behaves as if
the certificate is currently revoked, and authentication fails.
This option is available only if “OCSP” on page 413 is
enabled.
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You need to take additional steps to activate and complete a PKI user’s configuration.
To complete PKI user configuration
1. To enable PKI authentication on your FortiMail unit for all PKI users, open the CLI and enter
the following command:
config system global
set pki-mode enable
end
2. For each PKI user, import the client certificate into the user’s web browser on each computer
the PKI user will use to access the FortiMail unit. For details on installing certificates, see the
documentation for your web browser. Client certificates must be valid. For information on
how FortiMail units validate the client certificates of PKI users, see “Configuring PKI
authentication” on page 409.
3. In the web UI, import the CA certificate into the FortiMail unit. For more information, see
“Managing certificate authority certificates” on page 332.
4. For PKI users that are FortiMail administrators, select the PKI authentication type and select
a PKI user to which the administrator account corresponds. For more information, see
“Configuring administrator accounts and access profiles” on page 268.
5. For PKI users that are email users, enable PKI user authentication in the incoming
recipient-based policies which match those email users. For more information, see
“Controlling email based on recipient addresses” on page 442.
Control access to each PKI user’s computer. Certificate-based PKI authentication controls
access to the FortiMail unit based on PKI certificates, which are installed on each email user or
administrator’s computer. If anyone can access the computers where those PKI certificates are
installed, they can gain access to the FortiMail unit, which can compromise the security of your
FortiMail unit.
Configuring user groups
The User Group tab lets you group related email user accounts.
Email user groups can simplify the creation of policies. For example, when creating policies, you
can select the name of an email user group rather than entering each email user name
individually.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
Alternatively to configuring user groups locally, you can configure the FortiMail unit to query an
LDAP directory. For details, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
To view and configure user groups
1. Go to User > User > User Group.
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Figure 118:User Group tab
GUI item
Description
Domain
Select the name of a protected domain to display user groups that belong
to it.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
Name
Displays the name of the user group.
Members
Displays the email users that are members of this user group.
2. Either click New to add a group or double-click a group to modify it.
A dialog appears.
Figure 119: Configuring a user group
3. For a new group, enter its name. Spaces are not valid.
4. For a new group, select the domain from which to select users from the Users of domain list.
Groups are domain-specific.
5. Add or edit the members of the email user group:
• In the Available users area, select the names of one or more email users that you want to add
to the email user group, then click the right arrow to move them to the Members area.
• In the Members area, select the names of one or more email users that you want to remove
from the email user group, then click the left arrow to return them to the Available users area.
6. Click Create or OK.
Configuring aliases
The User Alias tab lets you configure email address aliases for protected domains.
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Aliases sometimes act as distribution lists; that is, they translate one email address into the
email addresses of several recipients, called members. An alias can also be a literal alias; that
is, it is an alternative email address that resolves to the real email address of a single email user.
For example, groupa@example.com might be an alias that the FortiMail unit will expand to
user1@example.com and user2@example.com, having the effect of distributing an email
message to all email addresses that are members of that alias, while john.smith@example.com
might be an alias that the FortiMail unit translates to j.smith@example.com. In both cases, the
FortiMail unit converts the alias in the recipient fields of incoming email messages into the
member email addresses of the alias, each of which are the email address of an email user that
is locally deliverable on the SMTP server or FortiMail unit.
Members of an alias can include the email address of the alias itself.
Aliases can contain both or either local and non-local email addresses as members of the alias.
For example, if the local protected domain is mail.example.com, you could create an email
address alias whose members are:
• user1@mail.example.com, which is locally deliverable to the protected domain
• user1@external.example.net, which is not locally deliverable to the protected domain
Alternatively to configuring aliases locally, you can configure the FortiMail unit to query an LDAP
directory. For details, see “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Unlike address maps, aliases can be one-to-many relationships between the alias and its
members, but cannot be bidirectional — that is, recipient email addresses that are aliases are
translated into their member email addresses, but sender email addresses that are members
are not translated into aliases.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Others category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and configure alias addresses
1. Go to User > User Alias > User Alias.
Figure 120:User Alias tab
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GUI item
Description
Domain
Select the name of a protected domain to view email address aliases for
that protected domain.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
Alias Name
Displays the email address of the alias, such as teama@example.com.
Members
Displays the email addresses to which the alias will translate, which may be
the email addresses of one or more local or non-local email users. Multiple
email addresses are comma-delimited.
2. Either click New to add an alias or double-click an alias to modify it.
A dialog appears. Its features vary with the operation mode.
Figure 121:Configuring an alias (gateway mode and transparent mode)
Figure 122:Configuring an alias (server mode)
3. For a new alias in all operation modes, enter the local-part (the part before the '@' symbol) of
the email address alias in Alias name.
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4. If the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway or transparent mode, do the following:
• Select the name of its protected domain from the drop-down list next to Alias name.
• For example, for the alias group1@example.com, you would enter group1 and select
example.com.
• To add members to the alias, in the field to the left of the right arrow button, enter the
email address, then click the right arrow button. The email address appears in the
Members area.
• To remove members from the alias, in the Members area, select one or more email
addresses, then click Remove Selected.
5. If the FortiMail unit is operating in server mode, do the following:
• Select a protected domain in Select an internal domain.
• The email addresses of users from the selected domain (that is, local users) appear in the
Available users area.
• To add local email addresses as members to the alias, select one or more email
addresses in the Available users area, then click ->. The email addresses are moved to
the Members area.
• To add non-local email addresses as members to the alias, enter the email address in the
External Email address field, then click -> next to the field. The email address appears in
the Members area.
• To remove members from the alias, select one or more email addresses in the Members
area, then click <- arrow. The email addresses are removed from the Members area.
Local email addresses return to the Available users area.
6. Click Create or OK.
Configuring address mappings
Address mappings are bidirectional, one-to-one or many-to-many mappings. They can be
useful when:
• you want to hide a protected domain’s true email addresses from recipients
• a mail domain’s domain name is not globally DNS-resolvable, and you want to replace the
domain name with one that is
• you want to rewrite email addresses
Like aliases, address mappings translate email addresses. They do not translate many email
addresses into a single email address.
Unlike aliases:
• Mappings cannot translate one email address into many.
• Mappings cannot translate an email address into one that belongs to an unprotected
domain. (This restriction applies to locally defined address mappings only. This is not
enforced for mappings defined on an LDAP server.)
• Mappings are applied bidirectionally, when an email is outgoing as well as when it is
incoming to the protected domain.
• Mappings may affect both sender and recipient email addresses, and may affect those email
addresses in both the message envelope and the message header, depending on the match
condition.
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The following table illustrates the sequence in which parts of each email are compared with
address mappings for a match, and which locations’ email addresses are translated if a match
is found.
Both RCPT TO: and MAIL FROM: email addresses are always evaluated for a match with an
address mapping. If both RCPT TO: and MAIL FROM: contain email addresses that match the
mapping, both mapping translations will be performed.
Table 47:Match evaluation and rewrite behavior for email address mappings
Order of
Match condition
evaluation
If yes...
Rewrite to...
1
Does RCPT TO: match
an external email
address?
Replace RCPT TO:.
Internal email
address
2
Does MAIL FROM:
match an internal email
address?
For each of the following, if it matches External
an internal email address, replace it:
email
address
• MAIL FROM:
• RCPT TO:
• From:
• To:
• Return-Path:
• Cc:
• Reply-To:
• Return-Receipt-To:
• Resent-From:
• Resent-Sender:
• Delivery-Receipt-To:
• Disposition-Notification-To:
For example, you could create an address mapping between the internal email address
user1@marketing.example.net and the external email address sales@example.com. The
following effects would be observable on the simplest case of an outgoing email and an
incoming reply:
• For email from user1@marketing.example.net to other users, user1@marketing.example.net
in both the message envelope (MAIL FROM:) and many message headers (From:, Cc:,
etc.) would then be replaced with sales@example.com. Recipients would only be aware of
the email address sales@example.com.
• For email to sales@example.com from others, the recipient address in the message
envelope (RCPT TO:), but not the message header (To:), would be replaced with
user1@marketing.example.net. The recipient user1@marketing.example.net would be aware
that the sender had originally sent the email to the mapped address, sales@example.com.
You can alternatively create address mappings by configuring the FortiMail unit to query an
LDAP server that contains address mappings. For more information, see “Configuring LDAP
profiles” on page 525.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Others category.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
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To view and configure a address map list
1. Go to User > Address Map > Address Map.
Figure 123:Address Map tab
GUI item
Description
Domain
Select the name of a protected domain to view address maps whose
internal email address belongs to that protected domain.
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
Internal Email
Address
Displays either an email address, such as
user1@admissions.example.edu, or an email address pattern, such
as *@example.com, that exists in a protected domain.
External Email
Address
Displays either an email address, such as admissions@example.edu, or
an email address pattern, such as *@example.net, that exists in a
protected domain.
2. Either click New to add an address mapping or double-click a mapping to modify it.
A dialog appears.
Figure 124:New Email Address Map dialog
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
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Description
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Internal email
address
Enter either an email address, such as user1@example.com, or an
email address pattern, such as *@example.com, that exists in a
protected domain.
This email address is hidden when passing to the external network by
being rewritten into the external email address according to the match
conditions and effects described in Table 47 on page 419.
External email
address
Enter either an email address, such as sales@example.com, or an
email address pattern, such as *@example.net, that exists in a
protected domain.
This email address is visible to the internal network, but will be rewritten
into the internal email address according to the match conditions and
effects described in Table 47 on page 419.
The external email address must not be within the same protected
domain as the internal address. Otherwise, it may cause situations
where an email address is rewritten twice, by matching both the sender
and recipient rewrite conditions, and the result is therefore the same as
the original email address and possibly not deliverable.
If you use wildcards (* or ?) in the name, you must enter a pattern using the same wild card in
the external email address. The wild card indicates that the mapping could match many email
addresses, but also indicates, during the rewrite, which substring of the original email address
will be substituted into the position of the wild card in the external address. If there is no wild
card in the other half of the mapping, or the wild card is not the same (that is, * mapped to ? or
vice versa), this substitution will fail.
Configuring IBE users
You can send secured email with Identity Based Encryption (IBE) through the FortiMail unit. The
IBE User option lets you manage the IBE mail users and configure secure questions for
forgotten passwords and IBE domains. For details about how to use IBE service, see “FortiMail
IBE configuration workflow” on page 336.
This section contains the following topics:
• Configuring active users
• Configuring expired users
• Configuring security questions
• Configuring IBE authentication
Configuring active users
The Active User tab lets you enable, delete, maintain, and reset the following secured mail
recipients:
• recipients who have received secured mail notifications from the FortiMail unit
• recipients who have registered or authenticated on the FortiMail unit
To view and manage active users, go to User > IBE User > Active User.
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Figure 125:Active User tab
GUI item
Description
Delete
(button)
Select to remove a selected user in the list.
Maintenance
(button)
Select a user and click this button to manage that user’s mailboxes, such
as Inbox, Drafts and Sent. You can check the size of a mailbox and empty a
mailbox as required.
A deleted user cannot access the FortiMail unit.
The SecureMail mailbox contains the secured email for the user. The
encrypted email are put into this mailbox if Pull is selected to retrieve IBE
mail.
The Bulk mailbox contains spam that are quarantined by the FortiMail unit.
Reset User
(button)
Click to reset a mail user and require new login information to access the
FortiMail unit.
Resetting a user sends the user a new notification and the user needs to
re-register on the FortiMail unit.
IBE domain
Select the name of an IBE domain to view its active users.
For more information about IBE domain, see “Configuring IBE
authentication” on page 425.
Search
Enter the name of a user, or a partial user name with wildcards, and press
Enter. The list of users redisplays with just those users that meet the search
criteria.
To return to the complete user list, clear the search field and press Enter.
Managing users
Enabled
Select the check box to activate a mail user. A disabled user cannot
access the FortiMail unit.
Email
Displays the email address of mail users.
First Name, Last
Name
Displays the first and last name of a mail user. This information appears
when a mail user registers on the FortiMail unit.
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GUI item
Description
Status
The mail user has four status possibilities:
• Pre-registered: The FortiMail unit encrypts an email and sends a
notification to the recipient.
• Activated: The mail recipient registers on the FortiMail unit.
• Password reset: When a mail recipient who is provided with new
password to access the FortiMail unit has actually changes the
password, this status appears.
• LDAP: When a mail recipient. who belongs to an IBE domain bound
with an LDAP profile authenticates on the FortiMail unit, this status
appears. For more information about IBE domain, see “Configuring IBE
authentication” on page 425.
Last Access
Displays the time stamp when:
• the FortiMail unit sends a notification (Pre-registered status)
• the mail recipient registers on the FortiMail unit (Activated status)
• a mail user changes the password (Password reset status)
• a mail recipient, who belongs to an IBE domain, authenticates on the
FortiMail unit (LDAP status)
Configuring expired users
Depending on the configuration of User registration expiry time and User inactivity expiry time in
the IBE service, if email recipients fail to register or authenticate on the FortiMail unit, or fail to
access the FortiMail unit after registration for a certain period of time, they become expired
users. For more information about IBE service configuration, see “Configuring IBE encryption”
on page 335.
The Expired User tab displays the same information as the Active User tab except that the users
in this list have expired. These users need to re-register on the FortiMail unit when a new
notification arrives to become active.
GUI item
Description
Delete
(button)
Select to remove a selected user in the list.
Maintenance
(button)
Select a user and click this button to manage that user’s mailboxes, such
as Inbox, Drafts and Sent. You can check the size of a mailbox and empty
a mailbox as required.
A deleted user cannot access the FortiMail unit.
The SecureMail mailbox contains the secured email for the user. The
encrypted email are put into this mailbox if Pull is selected to retrieve IBE
mail.
The Bulk mailbox contains spam that are quarantined by the FortiMail unit.
IBE domain
Select the name of an IBE domain to view its active users.
For more information about IBE domain, see “Configuring IBE
authentication” on page 425.
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GUI item
Description
Search
Enter the name of a user, or a partial user name with wildcards, and press
Enter. The list of users redisplays with just those users that meet the
search criteria.
To return to the complete user list, clear the search field and press Enter.
Enabled
Select the check box to activate a mail user. A disabled user cannot
access the FortiMail unit.
Email
Displays the email address of mail users.
First Name, Last
Name
Displays the first and last name of a mail user. This information appears
when a mail user registers on the FortiMail unit.
Status
Displays the expired user’s status.
Last Access
Displays the time stamp when the user was last active.
Configuring security questions
There are several predefined security questions available to present to mail recipients when they
register on the FortiMail unit. You can add questions.
To view the security questions, go to User > IBE User > Secure Question.
Figure 126:Secure Question tab
Managing users
GUI item
Description
Edit
(button)
Select a question and click Edit to modify it. You cannot edit a predefined
question except to disable or enable it.
Language
From the drop-down list, select the language that applies to all questions
on this page. For more information, see “Language” on page 424.
Enabled
Select to enable a question. Clear the check box to remove a question
from use.
Question
Displays the content of the question in the selected language.
Language
Displays the language selected in the Language drop-down list..
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To add a new security question
1. Double-click an empty row beneath the predefined questions.
A dialog appears.
Figure 127:New security question
2. Select Enable to activate the question.
3. Enter the question in the Question box.
The language is determined by the language choice on the tab.
4. Click OK.
Configuring IBE authentication
When mail recipients of the IBE domains access the FortiMail unit after receiving a secure mail
notification:
• recipients of the IBE domains without LDAP authentication profiles need to register to view
the email
• recipients of the IBE domains with LDAP authentication profiles just need to authenticate
because the FortiMail unit can query the LDAP servers for authentication information based
on the LDAP profile
In both cases, the FortiMail unit will record the domain names of the recipients who register or
authenticate on it under the IBE Domain tab. For details, see “Viewing and managing IBE
domains” on page 426.
Go to User > IBE User > IBE Authentication to bind domains with LDAP authentication profiles
with which the FortiMail unit can query the LDAP servers for authentication, email address
mappings, and more. For more information about LDAP profiles, see “Configuring LDAP
profiles” on page 525.
Figure 128:IBE Authentication
To configure IBE authentication rules
1. Go to User > IBE User > IBE Authentication.
2. Configure the following and click Create.
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GUI item
Description
ID
Displays the sequential number of the entry.
Domain
pattern
Enter a domain name that you want to bind to an LDAP authentication
profile.
If you want all IBE users to authenticate through an LDAP profile and do not
want other non-LDAP-authenticated users to get registered on FortiMail,
you can use wildcard * for the domain name and then bind it to an LDAP
profile.
For more information about LDAP profiles, see “Configuring LDAP profiles”
on page 525.
LDAP profile
Select the LDAP profile you want to use to authenticate the domain users.
Status
Select to enable this rule.
Viewing and managing IBE domains
The FortiMail unit records the domain names of the recipients who register or authenticate on
FortiMail.
To view those domains, go to User > IBE User > IBE Domain.
GUI item
Description
Delete
(button)
Select to remove a selected domain.
Deleting a domain also disables all its users. These users cannot access the
FortiMail unit until they receive new secure mail notifications from the FortiMail
unit.
Remove All
Select to delete all mail users in a selected domain. These users cannot
Users (button) access the FortiMail unit until they receive new secure mail notifications from
the FortiMail unit.
Managing users
Search
(button)
Select to search IBE domains. A search dialog appears.
Active User
Count
Displays the active mail users in a domain. For more information about active
users, see “Configuring active users” on page 421.
Expired User
Count
Displays the expired mail users in a domain. For more information about active
users, see “Configuring expired users” on page 423.
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Configuring policies
The Policy menu lets you create policies that use profiles to filter email.
It also lets you control who can send email through the FortiMail unit, and stipulate rules for how
it will deliver email that it proxies or relays.
Modify or delete policies and policy settings with care. Any changes made to a policy take
effect immediately.
This section includes:
• What is a policy?
• How to use policies
• Controlling SMTP access and delivery
• Controlling email based on recipient addresses
• Controlling email based on IP addresses
What is a policy?
A policy defines which way traffic will be filtered. It may also define user account settings, such
as authentication type, disk quota, and access to webmail.
After creating the antispam, antivirus, content, authentication, TLS, or resource profiles (see
“Configuring profiles” on page 462), you need to apply them to policies for them to take effect.
FortiMail units support three types of policies:
• Access control and delivery rules that are typical to SMTP relays and servers (see
“Controlling SMTP access and delivery” on page 430)
• Recipient-based policies (see “Controlling email based on recipient addresses” on
page 442)
• IP-based policies (see “Controlling email based on IP addresses” on page 450)
Recipient-based policies versus IP-based policies
• Recipient-based policies
The FortiMail unit applies these based on the recipient’s email address or the recipient’s user
group. May also define authenticated webmail or POP3 access by that email user to their
per-recipient quarantine. Since version 4.0, the recipient-based policies also check sender
patterns.
• IP-based policies
The FortiMail unit applies these based on the SMTP client’s IP address (server mode or
gateway mode), or the IP addresses of both the SMTP client and SMTP server (transparent
mode).
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Incoming versus outgoing email messages
There are two types of recipient-based policies: incoming and outgoing. The FortiMail unit
applies incoming policies to the incoming mail messages and outgoing policies to the outgoing
mail messages.
Whether the email is incoming or outgoing is decided by the domain name in the recipient’s
email address. If the domain is a protected domain, the FortiMail unit considers the message to
be incoming and applies the first matching incoming recipient-based policy. If the recipient
domain is not a protected domain, the message is considered to be outgoing, and applies
outgoing recipient-based policy.
To be more specific, the FortiMail unit actually matches the recipient domain’s IP address with
the IP list of the protected SMTP servers where the protected domains reside. If there is an IP
match, the domain is deemed protected and the email destined to this domain is considered to
be incoming. If there is no IP match, the domain is deemed unprotected and the email destined
to this domain is considered to be outgoing.
For more information on protected domains, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
IP-based policies are not divided into incoming and outgoing types. The client IP address and,
for transparent mode, the server IP address are only used to determine whether or not the
IP-based policy matches.
How to use policies
Use access control rules and delivery rules to control which SMTP clients can send email
through an SMTP relay and how SMTP will deliver email that it proxies or relays.
Recipient-based policies are applied to individual email messages based on the recipient’s
email address.
IP-based policies are applied based on the IP address of the connecting SMTP client and, if the
FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode, the SMTP server.
Whether to use IP-based or recipient-based policies
Since there are two types of policies, which type should you use?
You can use either or both.
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Exceptions include the following scenarios, which require IP-based policies:
• mail hosting service providers
There is a great number of domains, and it is not feasible to configure them all as protected
domains on the FortiMail unit.
• Internet service providers (ISPs)
Mail domains of customers are not known.
• session control
Even if protected domains are known and configured on the FortiMail unit, an IP-based
policy must be created in order to apply a session profile. Session profiles are only available
in IP-based policies.
• differentiated services based on the network of origin
To apply antispam and antivirus protection based on the IP address of the SMTP client or
based on a notion of the internal or external network, rather than the domain in a recipient’s
email address, you must use an IP-based policy.
As a general rule, it is simpler to use IP-based policies. Use recipient-based policies only where
they are required, such as when the policy must be tailored for a specific email address.
For example, if your company is an ISP, you can use recipient-based policies to apply antispam
and antivirus profiles for only the customers who have paid for those services.
If both a recipient-based policy and an IP-based policy match the email, unless you have
enabled Take precedence over recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, the settings
in the recipient-based policy will have precedence.
Order of execution of policies
Arrange policies in the policy list by placing the most specific policy at the top and more general
policies at the bottom.
For example, a recipient-based policy created with an asterisk (*) entered for the user name is
the most general policy possible because it will match all users in the domain. When you create
more specific policies, you should move them above this policy. Otherwise, the general policy
would always match all email for the domain, and no other recipient-based policy would ever be
applied.
FortiMail units execute policies in the following order:
1. The FortiMail unit looks for a matching IP-based policy.
The FortiMail unit evaluates each policy for a match with the IP address of the SMTP client
and, for transparent mode, the server. Evaluation occurs in the order of each policy’s
distance from the top of the list of IP-based policies. Once a match is found, the FortiMail
unit does not evaluate subsequent IP-based policies.
If you have enabled Take precedence over recipient based policy match in the IP-based
policy, the FortiMail unit applies the profiles in the IP-based policy. In this case, it ignores
recipient-based policies in the following two steps and jumps to step 4.
2. The FortiMail unit looks for a matching recipient-based policy.
The FortiMail unit evaluates each policy for a match with the domain name portion of the
recipient’s email address (RCPT TO:), also known as the domain-part. Incoming policies are
evaluated for matches before outgoing policies. Evaluation occurs in the order of each
policy’s distance from the top of the list of recipient-based policies. Once a match is found,
the FortiMail unit does not evaluate subsequent recipient-based policies.
3. The FortiMail unit applies the profiles in the matching recipient-based policy, if any.
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4. The FortiMail unit applies the profiles in the matching IP-based policy, if any, only if it did not
already apply profiles of that type in step 3.
If SMTP traffic does not match any IP-based or recipient-based policy, it is allowed. However,
no antivirus or antispam protection may be applied.
If you are certain that you have configured policies to match and allow all required traffic, you
can tighten security by adding an IP policy at the bottom of the policy list to reject all other,
unwanted connections.
Which policy/profile is applied when an email has multiple recipients?
When applying recipient-based policies, an email message with multiple recipients is treated as
if it were multiple email messages, each with a single recipient. This allows a fine degree of
control for each recipient, but also means that separate recipient-based policies may block the
email for some recipients but allow it for others.
Exceptions include use of an antivirus profile. In this case, the FortiMail unit will treat an email
with multiple recipients as a single email. Starting with the first recipient email address, the
FortiMail unit will look for a matching recipient-based policy. If none is found, the FortiMail unit
will evaluate each subsequent recipient email address for a matching policy. The FortiMail unit
will apply only the first matching policy; it will not evaluate subsequent recipients for a matching
policy. If no matching recipient-based policy is found, the FortiMail unit will apply the antivirus
profile from the IP-based policy, if any.
If no recipient-based or IP-based policy matches, no profiles is applied.
Controlling SMTP access and delivery
The Policy > Access Control submenu lets you configure access control rules for SMTP
sessions.
Unlike proxy/implicit relay pickup, which you may have configured on “Configuring proxies
(transparent mode only)” on page 393 (if the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode),
access control rules take effect after the FortiMail unit has initiated or received an IP and
TCP-level connection at the application layer of the network.
Other protocols can also be restricted if the connection’s destination is the FortiMail unit. For
details, see “Configuring the network interfaces” on page 230.
Access control rules are categorized separately based on whether they affect either the receipt
or delivery of email messages by the FortiMail unit; that is, whether the FortiMail unit initiated
the SMTP session or was the destination.
• Configuring access control rules
• Configuring delivery rules
• Troubleshoot MTA issues
Configuring access control rules
The Receiving tab displays a list of access control rules that apply to SMTP sessions being
received by the FortiMail unit.
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Access control rules, sometimes also called the access control list or ACL, specify whether the
FortiMail unit will process and relay/proxy, reject, or discard email messages for SMTP sessions
that are initiated by SMTP clients.
When an SMTP client attempts to deliver email through the FortiMail unit, the FortiMail unit
compares each access control rule to the commands used by the SMTP client during the SMTP
session, such as the envelope’s sender email address (MAIL FROM:), recipient email address
(RCPT TO:), authentication (AUTH), and TLS (STARTTLS). Rules are evaluated for a match in the
order of their list sequence, from top to bottom. If all attributes of a rule match, the FortiMail unit
applies the action selected in the matching rule to the SMTP session, and no subsequent
access control rules are applied.
Only one access control rule is ever applied to any given SMTP session.
If no access control rules are configured, or no matching access control rules exist, and if the
SMTP client is not configured to authenticate, the FortiMail unit will perform the default action,
which varies by whether or not the recipient email address in the envelope (RCPT TO:) is a
member of a protected domain.
For protected domains, the default action is RELAY.
For unprotected domains, the default action is REJECT.
For information on protected domains, see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358.
In the absence of access control rules, the FortiMail unit prevents SMTP clients from using your
protected server or FortiMail unit as an open relay: senders can deliver email incoming to
protected domains, but cannot deliver email outgoing to unprotected domains.
For information on the sequence in which access control rules are used relative to other
antispam methods, see “Order of execution” on page 17.
If you want to allow SMTP clients, such as your email users or email servers, to send email to
unprotected domains, you must configure at least one access control rule. You may need to
configure additional access control rules if, for example, you want to:
• discard or reject email from or to some email addresses, such as email addresses that no
longer exist in your protected domain
• discard or reject email from some SMTP clients, such as a spammer that is not yet known to
blocklists
Like IP-based policies, access control rules can reject connections based on IP address. Unlike
IP-based policies, access control rules cannot affect email in ways that occur after the
session’s DATA command, such as by applying antispam profiles.
Access control rules cannot be overruled by recipient-based policies, and cannot match
connections based on the SMTP server’s IP address. (By the nature of how ACL controls
access to or through the FortiMail unit, the SMTP server is always the FortiMail unit itself,
unless the FortiMail unit is operating in transparent mode.) For more information on IP-based
policies, see “Controlling email based on IP addresses” on page 450.
If possible, verify configuration of access control rules in a testing environment before applying
them to a FortiMail unit in active use. Failure to verify correctly configured reject, discard, and
accept actions can result in inability to correctly handle SMTP sessions.
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Do not create an access control rule whose “Sender pattern” on page 433 is *, “Recipient
pattern” on page 434 is *, “Authentication status” on page 435 is Any, “TLS profile” on
page 435 is None, and Action is RELAY. This access control rule matches and relays all
connections, allowing open relay, which could result in other MTAs and DNSBL servers
blocklisting your protected domain.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view and configure access control rules
1. Go to Policy > Access Control > Receiving.
Figure 129:Receiving tab
GUI item
Description
Move
(button)
Select a policy, click Move, then select either:
• Up or Down, or
• After or Before, which opens a dialog, then in Move right after or
Move right before indicate the policy’s new location by entering the
ID of another policy
FortiMail units match the policies in sequence, from the top of the list
downwards.
Enabled
Select to enable or disable an existing rule.
ID
Displays the number identifying the rule.
If a comment is added to this rule when the rule is created, the
comment will show up as a mouse-over tool-tip in this column.
Note: This may be different from the order in which they appear on the
page, which indicates order of evaluation.
Sender Pattern
Displays the pattern that defines email senders for the rule.
Recipient Pattern Displays the pattern that defines email recipients for the rule.
Configuring policies
Sender/IP
Netmask
Displays the IP address and netmask of the SMTP client attempting to
deliver the email message.
Reverse DNS
Pattern
Displays the used in a reverse DNS look-up.
Authentication
Status
Displays which authentication status is used with the rule.
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TLS Profile
Displays the TLS profile, if any, used to allow or reject a connection.
Actions
Displays the action to take when SMTP sessions match the rule.
2. Either click New to add an access control rule or double-click an access control rule to
modify it.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enabled
Select whether or not the access control rule is currently in effect.
Sender pattern
Select either User Defined and enter a complete or partial sender
(MAIL FROM:) email address to match, or select:
• Internal: Match any email address from a protected domain.
• External: Match any email address from an unprotected domain.
• Email Group: Match any email address in the group.
If you select this option, select an email group from the Email
Group Selection field. Click New to add a new email group or Edit
to modify an existing one.
For more information, see “Configuring email groups” on
page 572.
• LDAP Group: Match any email address in the group.
If you select this option, select an LDAP profile from the LDAP
Profile field.
The pattern can use wildcards or regular expressions. See “Using
wildcards and regular expressions” on page 436.
For example, the sender pattern ??@*.com matches messages sent
by anyone with a two letter user name from any “.com” domain name.
Regular expression Mark this check box next to any of the pattern options to use regular
expression syntax instead of wildcards to specify the pattern. See
“Using wildcards and regular expressions” on page 436.
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GUI item
Description
Recipient pattern
Either select User Defined and enter a complete or partial recipient
(RCPT TO:) email address to match, or select:
• Internal: Match any email address from a protected domain.
• External: Match any email address from an unprotected domain.
• Email Group: Match any email address in the group.
If you select this option, select an email group from the Email
Group Selection field. Click New to add a new email group or Edit
to modify an existing one.
For more information, see “Configuring email groups” on
page 572.
• LDAP Group: Match any email address in the group.
If you select this option, select an LDAP profile from the LDAP
Profile field.
The pattern can use wildcards or regular expressions. See Appendix F
in FortiMail Administration Guide.
For example, the recipient pattern *@example.??? will match
messages sent to any email user at example.com, example.net, or
any “example” domain ending with a three-letter top-level domain
name.
Sender IP/netmask Select User Defined and enter the IP address and netmask of the
SMTP client attempting to deliver the email message. Use the
netmask, the portion after the slash (/), to specify the matching
subnet.
For example, enter 10.10.10.10/24 to match a 24-bit subnet, or all
addresses starting with 10.10.10. This will appear as 10.10.10.0/24 in
the access control rule table, with the 0 indicating that any value is
matched in that position of the address.
Similarly, 10.10.10.10/32 will appear as 10.10.10.10/32 and match
only the 10.10.10.10 address.
To match any address, enter 0.0.0.0/0.
Select IP Group to choose an IP group. Click New to add a new IP
group or Edit to modify an existing one. For more information, see
“Configuring IP groups” on page 572.
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GUI item
Description
Reverse DNS
pattern
Enter a pattern to compare to the result of a reverse DNS look-up of
the IP address of the SMTP client delivering the email message.
Because domain names in the SMTP session are self-reported by the
connecting SMTP server and easy to fake, the FortiMail unit does not
trust the domain name that an SMTP server reports. Instead, the
FortiMail does a DNS lookup using the SMTP server’s IP address. The
resulting domain name is compared to the reverse DNS pattern for a
match. If the reverse DNS query fails, the access control rule match
will also fail. If no other access control rule matches, the connection
will be rejected with SMTP reply code 550 (Relaying denied).
The pattern can use wildcards or regular expressions. See “Using
wildcards and regular expressions” on page 436.
For example, the recipient pattern mail*.com matches messages
delivered by an SMTP server whose domain name starts with “mail”
and ends with “.com”.
Note: Reverse DNS queries for access control rules require that the
domain name be a valid top level domain (TLD). For example, “.lab” is
not a valid top level domain name, and thus the FortiMail unit cannot
successfully perform a reverse DNS query for it.
Authentication
status
Select whether or not to match this access control rule based on
client authentication.
• Any: Match or do not match this access control rule regardless of
whether the client has authenticated with the FortiMail unit.
• Authenticated: Match this access control rule only for clients that
have authenticated with the FortiMail unit.
• Not Authenticated: Match this access control rule only for clients
that have not authenticated with the FortiMail unit.
TLS profile
Select a TLS profile to allow or reject the connection based on
whether the communication session attributes match the settings in
the TLS profile.
• If the attributes match, the access control action is executed.
• If the attributes do not match, the FortiMail unit performs the
Failure action configured in the TLS profile.
Click New to add a new TLS profile or Edit to modify an existing one.
For more information on TLS profiles, see “Configuring TLS security
profiles” on page 565.
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GUI item
Description
Action
Select which action the FortiMail unit will perform for SMTP sessions
matching this access control rule.
• DISCARD: Accept the email, but silently delete it and do not
deliver it. Do not inform the SMTP client.
• REJECT: Reject delivery of the email and respond to the SMTP
client with SMTP reply code 550 (Relaying denied).
• RELAY: Relay or proxy, process, and deliver the email normally if it
passes all configured scans. Do not apply greylisting.
• SAFE: Relay or proxy and deliver the email, only if the recipient
belongs to a protected domain or the sender is authenticated. All
antispam profile processing will be skipped; but antivirus, content,
greylisting and other scans will still occur.
• SAFE & RELAY: Relay or proxy and deliver the email. All antispam
profile processing will be skipped; but antivirus, content,
greylisting and other scans will still occur.
Comments
Enter a comment if necessary. The comment will appears as a
mouse-over tool-tip in the ID column of the rule list.
4. Click Create or OK.
The access control rule appears at the bottom of the list of access control rules. As a result,
the FortiMail unit will evaluate it as a match for the SMTP session only if no previous access
control rule matches. If you want your new rule to be evaluated before another rule, move
your new access control rule to its intended position in the list.
Using wildcards and regular expressions
You can enter wildcards or regular expressions in any pattern field, such as Reverse DNS
pattern, on the Access Control Rule dialog.
To use a regular expression as a pattern, first select the Regular expression check box beside
the pattern field.
If a pattern is listed on the Receiving tab with the R/ prefix, it is set to use regular expression
syntax. If the pattern is listed with a -/ prefix, it does not use regular expression syntax.
Wildcard characters (* and ?) allow you to enter partial patterns that can match multiple reverse
DNS lookup results. An asterisk (*) represents one or more characters. A question mark (?)
represents any single character.
When configuring access control rules, do not leave any pattern fields blank. Instead, to have
the FortiMail unit ignore a pattern:
• If Regular expression is disabled for the field, enter an asterisk (*) in the pattern field.
• If Regular expression is enabled for the field, enter a dot-star (.*) character sequence in the
pattern field.
For example, if you enter an asterisk (*) in the Recipient Pattern field and do not enable Regular
expression, the asterisk matches all recipient addresses, and therefore will not exclude any
SMTP sessions from matching the access control rule.
Example: Access control rules with wild cards
If your protected domain, example.com, contains email addresses in the format of
user1@example.com, user2@example.com, and so on, and you want to allow those email
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addresses to send email to any external domain as long as they authenticate their identities and
use TLS, you might configure the following access control rule:
Table 48:Example access control rule
Sender Pattern
user*@example.com
Recipient Pattern
*
Sender IP/Netmask
0.0.0.0/0
Reverse DNS Pattern
*
Authentication Status
authenticated
TLS Profile
tlsprofile1
Action
RELAY
Example: Access control rules with regular expressions
Example Corporation uses a FortiMail unit operating in gateway mode, and that has been
configured with only one protected domain: example.com. The FortiMail unit was configured
with the access control rules illustrated in Table 49.
Table 49:A list of example access control rules
Enabled ID Sender Recipient
Pattern Pattern
Yes
1
-/*
Yes
2
R/^\s*$ -/*
Yes
3
-/*
Yes
4
-/*@exa -/*
mple.or
g
Yes
5
-/*
Sender
Reverse
IP/Netmask DNS
Pattern
-/user932@e 0.0.0.0/0
xample.com
0.0.0.0/0
-/*@example. 172.20.120.
com
0/24
Authent TLS
Action
ication Profile
-/*
Any
REJECT
-/*
Any
REJECT
-/mail.exam Any
ple.org
RELAY
0.0.0.0/0
-/*
Any
REJECT
R/^user\d*@ 0.0.0.0/0
example\.co
m$
-/*
Any
RELAY
Rule 1
The email account of former employee user932 receives a large amount of spam. Since this
employee is no longer with the company and all the user’s external contacts were informed of
their new Example Corporation employee contacts, messages addressed to the former
employee’s address must be spam.
Rule 1 uses only the recipient pattern. All other access control rule attributes are configured to
match any value. This rule rejects all messages sent to the user932@example.com recipient
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email address. Rejection at the access control stage prevents these messages from being
scanned for spam and viruses, saving FortiMail system resources.
This rule is placed first because it is the most specific access control rule in the list. It applies
only to SMTP sessions for that single recipient address. SMTP sessions sending email to any
other recipient do not match it. If a rule that matched all messages were placed at the top of the
list, no rule after the first would ever be checked for a match, because the first would always
match.
SMTP sessions not matching this rule are checked against the next rule.
Rule 2
Much of the spam received by the Example Corporation has no sender specified in the
message envelope. Most valid email messages will have a sender email address.
Rule 2 uses only the sender pattern. The regular expression ^\s*$ will match a sender string
that contains one or more spaces, or is empty. If any non-space character appears in the
sender string, this rule does not match. This rule will reject all messages with a no sender, or a
sender containing only spaces.
Not all email messages without a sender are spam, however. Delivery status notification (DSN)
messages often have no specified sender. Bounce notifications are the most common type of
DSN messages. The FortiMail administrators at the Example Corporation decided that the
advantages of this rule outweigh the disadvantages.
Messages not matching this rule are checked against the next rule.
Rules 3 and 4
Recently, the Example Corporation has been receiving spam that appears to be sent by
example.org. The FortiMail log files revealed that the sender address is being spoofed and the
messages are sent from servers operated by spammers. Because spam servers often change
IP addresses to avoid being blocked, the FortiMail administrators decided to use two rules to
block all mail from example.org unless delivered from a server with the proper address and host
name.
When legitimate, email messages from example.org are sent from one of multiple mail servers.
All these servers have IP addresses within the 172.20.120.0/24 subnet and have a domain name
of mail.example.org that can be verified using a reverse DNS query.
Rule 3 uses the recipient pattern, the sender IP, and the reverse DNS pattern. This rule will relay
messages to email users of example.com sent from a client whose domain name is
mail.example.org and IP address is between 172.20.120.1 and 172.20.120.255.
Messages not matching this rule are checked against the next rule.
Rule 4 works in conjunction with rule 3. It uses only the sender pattern. Rule 4 rejects all
messages from example.org. But because it is positioned after rule 3 in the list, rule 4 affects
only messages that were not already proven to be legitimate by rule 3, thereby rejecting only
email messages with a fake sender.
Rules 3 and 4 must appear in the order shown. If they were reversed, all mail from example.org
would be rejected. The more specific rule 3 (accept valid mail from example.org) is placed first,
and the more general rule 4 (reject all mail from example.org) follows.
Messages not matching these rules are checked against the next rule.
Rules 5
The administrator of example.com has noticed that during peak traffic, a flood of spam using
random user names causes the FortiMail unit to devote a significant amount of resources to
recipient verification. Verification is performed with the aid of an LDAP server which also
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expends significant resources servicing these requests. Example Corporation email addresses
start with “user” followed by the user’s employee number, and end with “@example.com”.
Rule 5 uses only the recipient pattern. The recipient pattern is a regular expression that will
match all email addresses that start with “user”, end with “@example.com”, and have one or
more numbers in between. Email messages matching this rule are relayed.
Default implicit rules
For messages not matching any of the above rules, the FortiMail unit will perform the default
action, which varies by whether or not the recipient email address in the envelope (RCPT TO:) is
a member of a protected domain.
• For protected domains, the default action is RELAY.
• For unprotected domains, the default action is REJECT.
Configuring delivery rules
The Delivery tab displays a list of delivery rules that apply to SMTP sessions being initiated by
the FortiMail unit in order to deliver email.
Delivery rules let you to require TLS for the SMTP sessions the FortiMail unit initiates when
sending email to other email servers. They also let you to apply secure MIME (S/MIME) or IBE.
For more information about IBE, see “Configuring IBE encryption” on page 335.
When initiating an SMTP session, the FortiMail unit compares each delivery rule to the domain
name portion of the envelope recipient address (RCPT TO:), and to the IP address of the SMTP
server receiving the connection. Rules are evaluated for a match in the order of their list
sequence, from top to bottom. If a matching delivery rule does not exist, the email message is
delivered. If a match is found, the FortiMail unit compares the TLS profile settings to the
connection attributes and the email message is sent or the connection is not allowed,
depending on the result; if an encryption profile is selected, its settings are applied. No
subsequent delivery rules are applied. Only one delivery rule is ever applied to any given SMTP
session.
If you are using a delivery rule to apply S/MIME encryption, the destination of the connection
can be another FortiMail unit, but it could alternatively be any email gateway or server, as long
as either:
• the destination’s MTA or mail server
• the recipient’s MUA
supports S/MIME and possesses the sender’s certificate and public key, which is necessary to
decrypt the email. Otherwise, the recipient cannot read the email.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s:
• Domain must be System
• access profile must have Read or Read-Write permission to the Policy category
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure a delivery rule list
1. Go to Policy > Access Control > Delivery.
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GUI item
Description
Move
(button)
Click a delivery rule to select it, click Move, then select either:
• the direction in which to move the selected rule (Up or Down), or
• After or Before, then in Move right after or Move right before indicate
the rule’s new location by entering the ID of another delivery rule
FortiMail units match the rules in sequence, from the top of the list
downwards.
Enabled
Indicates whether or not the delivery rule is currently in effect.
To disable a delivery rule, mark the check box, then click Yes to confirm.
ID
Displays the number identifying the rule.
If a comment is added to this rule when the rule is created, the
comment will show up as a mouse-over tool-tip in this column.
Note: This may be different from the order in which they appear on the
page, which indicates order of evaluation.
FortiMail units evaluate delivery rules in sequence. Only the topmost
matching delivery rule will be applied.
Sender Pattern
Displays the complete or partial envelope sender email address to
match.
Recipient Pattern Displays the complete or partial envelope recipient email address to
match.
TLS Destination
IP
Displays the IP address and netmask of the system to which the
FortiMail is sending the email message. 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 matches
any IP address.
TLS Profile
Displays the TLS profile, if any, used to allow or reject a connection.
• If the attributes match, the access control action is executed.
• If the attributes do not match, the FortiMail unit performs the Failure
action configured in the TLS profile.
To edit the TLS profile, click its name. For details, see “Configuring
security profiles” on page 564.
Encryption
Profile
Indicates the encryption profile used to apply S/MIME or IBE encryption
to the email.
To edit the encryption profile, click its name. For details, see
“Configuring encryption profiles” on page 567.
2. Either click New to add a delivery control rule or double-click a delivery control rule to modify
it.
A dialog appears.
3. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
Enabled
Select whether or not the access control rule is currently in effect.
Sender pattern
Enter a complete or partial envelope sender (MAIL FROM:) email
address to match.
Wild card characters allow you to enter partial patterns that can match
multiple sender email addresses. The asterisk (*) represents one or
more characters. The question mark (?) represents any single character.
For example, the sender pattern ??@*.com will match messages sent
by any email user with a two letter email user name from any “.com”
domain name.
Recipient pattern Enter a complete or partial envelope recipient (RCPT TO:) email
address to match.
Wild card characters allow you to enter partial patterns that can match
multiple recipient email addresses. The asterisk (*) represents one or
more characters. The question mark (?) represents any single character.
For example, the recipient pattern *@example.??? will match
messages sent to any email user at example.com, example.net,
example.org, or any other “example” domain ending with a three-letter
top-level domain name.
TLS Destination
IP/netmask
Enter the IP address and netmask of the system to which the FortiMail
unit is sending the email message using TLS connection. Use the
netmask, the portion after the slash (/) to specify the matching subnet.
For example, enter 10.10.10.10/24 to match a 24-bit subnet, or all
addresses starting with 10.10.10. This will appear as 10.10.10.0/24 in
the access control rule table, with the 0 indicating that any value is
matched in that position of the address.
Similarly, 10.10.10.10/32 will appear as 10.10.10.10/32 and match
only the 10.10.10.10 address.
To match any address, enter 0.0.0.0/0.
Note: This field is not used when considering whether or not to apply
an encryption profile.
TLS profile
Select a TLS profile to allow or reject the connection based on whether
the communication session attributes match the settings in the TLS
profile.
• If the attributes match, the access control action is executed.
• If the attributes do not match, the FortiMail unit performs the Failure
action configured in the TLS profile.
Click New to add a new TLS profile or Edit to modify an existing one.
For more information on TLS profiles, see “Configuring TLS security
profiles” on page 565.
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GUI item
Description
Encryption profile Select an encryption profile used to apply S/MIME or IBE encryption to
the email.
Note that if you create a delivery rule that uses both IBE encryption
profile and TLS profile, the TLS profile will override the IBE encryption
profile and the IBE encryption will not be used. If you select an S/MIME
profile here and an IBE profile in the Encryption with profile field (Profile
> Content > Action), the S/MIME profile will override the IBE encryption
profile.
Click New to add a new encryption profile or Edit to modify an existing
one.
For more information, see “Configuring encryption profiles” on
page 567 and “Configuring certificate bindings” on page 340.
For information about content action profiles, see “Configuring content
action profiles” on page 513.
Comments
Enter a comment if necessary. The comment will appears as a
mouse-over tool-tip in the ID column of the rule list.
Controlling email based on recipient addresses
The Recipient Policies section of the Policies tab lets you create recipient-based policies based
on the incoming or outgoing directionality of an email message with respect to the protected
domain. For details about email directionality, see “Incoming versus outgoing email messages”
on page 428.
Recipient-based policies have precedence if an IP-based policy is also applicable but conflicts.
Exceptions include IP-based policies where you have enabled “Take precedence over recipient
based policy match” on page 456. For information about how recipient-based and IP-based
policies are executed and how the order of polices affects the execution, see “How to use
policies” on page 428.
If the FortiMail unit protects many domains, and therefore creating recipient-based policies
would be very time-consuming, such as it might be for an Internet service provider (ISP),
consider configuring only IP-based policies. For details, see “Controlling email based on IP
addresses” on page 450.
Alternatively, consider configuring recipient-based policies only for exceptions that must be
treated differently than indicated by the IP-based policy.
Profiles used by the policy, if any, are listed in the policy table, and appear as linked text. To
modify profile settings, click the name of the profile.
Before you can configure a recipient policy, you first must have configured:
• at least one protected domain (see “Configuring protected domains” on page 358)
• at least one user group or LDAP profile with a configured group query, if you will use either to
define which recipient email addresses will match the policy (see “Configuring user groups”
on page 414 or “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525)
• at least one PKI user, if you will allow or require email users to access their per-recipient
quarantine using PKI authentication (see “Configuring PKI authentication” on page 409)
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category.
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For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view recipient-based policies
1. Go to Policy > Policies > Policies.
The tab includes two sections: one for IP policies and another for recipient policies.
Figure 130:Policies tab
2. In the Recipient Policies section of the tab, select Incoming or Outgoing from Direction to
view a list of applicable policies.
GUI item
Description
Move
FortiMail units match the policies for each domain in sequence, from the
top of the list downwards. Therefore, you must put the more specific
policies on top of the more generic ones.
(button)
To move a policy in the policy list:
1. Select a domain. Note: if the domain is “All”, the Move button is
disabled
2. Click a policy to select it.
3. Click Move, then select either:
• the direction in which to move the selected policy (Up or Down), or
• After or Before, then in Move right after or Move right before indicate
the policy’s new location by entering the ID of another policy.
Domain
Select a domain to display its recipient-based policy list.
(drop-down list)
You can see only the domains that are permitted by your administrator
profile.
Direction
Select either Incoming to see and configure incoming recipient-based
(drop-down list) policy, or Outgoing to see and configure outgoing recipient-based
policy. For a definition of directions, see “Incoming versus outgoing
email messages” on page 428.
Enabled
Configuring policies
Select whether or not the policy is currently in effect.
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GUI item
Description
ID
Displays the number identifying the policy.
If a comment is added to this rule when the rule is created, the comment
will show up as a mouse-over tool-tip in this column.
Note: This may be different from the order in which they appear on the
page, which indicates order of evaluation.
FortiMail units evaluate policies in sequence. More than one policy may
be applied. For details, see “Order of execution of policies” on page 429
and “Which policy/profile is applied when an email has multiple
recipients?” on page 430.
Direction
(column)
Domain Name
(column)
Displays the incoming or outgoing directionality of the policy as set in
the Direction drop-down list.
Indicates the domain part of the recipient’s email address in the
envelope (RCPT TO:) that an email must match in order to be subject to
the policy.
• For incoming recipient-based policies, this is the name of a protected
domain.
• For outgoing recipient-based policies, this is System, indicating that
the recipient does not belong to a protected domain.
Sender Pattern
A sender email address (MAIL FROM:) as it appears in the envelope or a
wildcard pattern to match sender email addresses.
Recipient
Pattern
A recipient email address (RCPT TO:) as it appears in the envelope or a
wildcard pattern to match recipient email addresses.
AntiSpam
Displays the antispam profile selected for the matching recipients.
To modify or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Managing antispam profiles” on
page 483.
AntiVirus
Displays the antivirus profile selected for the matching recipients.
To modify or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring antivirus profiles and
antivirus action profiles” on page 501.
Content
Displays the content profile selected for the matching recipients.
To modify or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
DLP
Displays the DLP profile selected for the matching recipients.
To modify or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring data loss prevention” on
page 458.
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GUI item
Description
Resource
Displays the resource profile selected for the matching recipients.
(server mode
only)
To modify or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring resource profiles (server
mode only)” on page 517.
Authentication
Displays the authentication profile selected for the matching recipients.
(not in server
mode)
To modify or view a profile, click its name.The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring authentication profiles” on
page 520 or “Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
To configure recipient-based policies
1. Under Recipient Policies, either click New to add a policy or double-click a policy to modify
it.
A multisection dialog appears.
2. Select Enable to determine whether or not the policy is in effect.
3. For a new policy, select from the Direction drop-down list either Incoming, for a
recipient-based policy that affects incoming email, or Outgoing, for a recipient-based policy
that affects outgoing email.
The options available vary greatly with your choice for this setting
For definitions of outgoing and incoming email, see “Incoming versus outgoing email
messages” on page 428.
4. Enter a comment if necessary. The comment will appears as a mouse-over tool-tip in the ID
column of the rule list.
5. Configure the following sections, as applicable:
• “Configuring the recipient incoming policies” on page 445
• “Configuring the recipient outgoing policies” on page 446
• “Configuring the profiles section of a recipient policy” on page 447
• “Configuring authentication for incoming email” on page 448
• “Configuring the advanced incoming policies” on page 449
6. Click Create.
Configuring the recipient incoming policies
If you are configuring a policy for incoming email, configure the Sender Pattern and Recipient
Pattern sections.
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GUI item
Description
Sender
Pattern
Select one of the following ways to define recipient (RCPT TO:) email addresses
that match this policy:
• User: Enter a recipient email address or a pattern with wild cards, such as
*@protected.example.com.
• Local group: Select the name of a protected domain in the second drop-down
list, then select the name of a user group in the first drop-down list.
• LDAP group: Select an LDAP profile in which you have enabled and configured
a group query, then enter either the group’s full or partial membership attribute
value as it appears in the LDAP directory.
Depending on your LDAP directory’s schema, and whether or not you have
enabled “Use group name with base DN as group DN” on page 530, this may
be a value such as 1001, admins, or
cn=admins,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com.
• Email address group: Select an email group from the dropdown list. For details
about creating an email group, see “Configuring email groups” on page 572.
Wild card characters allow you to enter patterns that can match multiple email
addresses. The asterisk (*) represents one or more characters and the question
mark (?) represents any single character.
Recipient See above descriptions.
Pattern
Configuring the recipient outgoing policies
If you are configuring a policy for outgoing email, configure the Sender Pattern and Recipient
Pattern sections.
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GUI item Description
Sender
Pattern
Select one of the following ways to define sender (MAIL FROM:) email addresses
that match this policy:
• User: Enter a sender email address or a pattern with wild cards, such as *@
• .example.com.
• Local group: Select the name of a protected domain in the second drop-down
list, then select the name of a user group in the first drop-down list.
• LDAP group: Select an LDAP profile in which you have enabled and configured a
group query, then enter either the group’s full or partial membership attribute
value as it appears in the LDAP directory.
Depending on your LDAP directory’s schema, and whether or not you have
enabled Use group name with base DN as group DN, this may be a value such
as 1001, admins, or cn=admins,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com.
• Email address group: Select an email group from the dropdown list. For details
about creating an email group, see “Configuring email groups” on page 572.
Wild card characters allow you to enter patterns that can match multiple email
addresses. The asterisk (*) represents one or more characters and the question
mark (?) represents any single character.
Recipient See above descriptions.
Pattern
Configuring the profiles section of a recipient policy
Select the profiles that you want to apply to the policy. If you have created a system profile and
a domain profile with the same profile name, the profile that appears in the profile drop-down
lists is the domain profile, not the system profile. Thus, only the domain profile will be selected.
GUI item
Description
AntiSpam
Select which antispam profile, if any, to apply to email matching the policy.
If you have not yet configured the profile that you want to apply, click New to
add the profile in a pop-up dialog. If you need to modify an existing profile
before applying it, click Edit. For details, see “Managing antispam profiles” on
page 483.
Tip: You can use an LDAP query to enable or disable antispam scanning on a
per-user basis. For details, see and “Enable LDAP scan override” on page 379.
AntiVirus
Select which antivirus profile, if any, to apply to email matching the policy.
If you have not yet configured the profile that you want to apply, click New to
add the profile in a pop-up dialog. If you need to modify an existing profile
before applying it, click Edit. For details, see “Configuring antivirus profiles and
antivirus action profiles” on page 501.
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GUI item
Description
Content
Select which content profile, if any, to apply to email matching the policy.
If you have not yet configured the profile that you want to apply, click New to
add the profile in a pop-up dialog. If you need to modify an existing profile
before applying it, click Edit. For details, see “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
DLP
Select which DLP profile, if any, to apply to email matching the policy.
If you have not yet configured the profile that you want to apply, click New to
add the profile in a pop-up dialog. If you need to modify an existing profile
before applying it, click Edit. For details, see “Configuring DLP profiles” on
page 460.
Resource
Select which resource profile, if any, to apply to email matching the policy.
(server mode If you have not yet configured the profile that you want to apply, click New to
only)
add the profile in a pop-up dialog. If you need to modify an existing profile
before applying it, click Edit. For details, see “Configuring resource profiles
(server mode only)” on page 517.
Configuring authentication for incoming email
The Authentication and Access section appears only if the directionality is incoming.
For more information on configuring an authentication profile, see “Workflow to enable and
configure authentication of email users” on page 519.
GUI item
Description
Authenticatio If you want the email user to authenticate using an external authentication
n type
server, select the type of the authentication profile (SMTP, POP3, IMAP,
RADIUS, LDAP, or LOCAL for server mode).
Note: In addition to specifying an authentication server for SMTP email
messages that this policy governs, configuring “Authentication profile” on page 448
also allows email users to authenticate when accessing their per-recipient
quarantine using HTTP or HTTPS. For more information, see “How to enable,
configure, and use personal quarantines” on page 178.
Authenticatio Select an existing authentication profile to use with this policy.
n profile
Use for SMTP
authentication
(gateway and
transparent
mode only)
Enable to allow the SMTP client to use the SMTP AUTH command, and to use
the server defined in “Authentication profile” on page 448 to authenticate the
connection.
Disable to make SMTP authentication unavailable.
This option is available only if you have selected an “Authentication profile” on
page 448.
Note: Enabling this option allows, but does not require, SMTP authentication.
To enforce SMTP authentication for connecting SMTP clients, ensure that all
access control rules require authentication. For details, see “Configuring
access control rules” on page 430.
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GUI item
Description
Allow
quarantined
email access
through POP3
(gateway and
transparent
mode only)
Enable to allow email users matching this policy to use POP3 to retrieve the
contents of their personal quarantine. For more information, see “How to
enable, configure, and use personal quarantines” on page 178.
Allow
quarantined
email access
through
webmail
(gateway and
transparent
mode only)
This option is available only if you have selected a profile in Authentication
profile.
Note: This option is for POP3 access only. Email users cannot access their
personal quarantine through IMAP.
Enable to allow email users matching this policy to use FortiMail webmail
(HTTP or HTTPS) to retrieve the contents of their personal quarantine. For
more information, see “How to enable, configure, and use personal
quarantines” on page 178.
This option is available only if you have selected a profile in “Authentication
profile” on page 448.
Configuring the advanced incoming policies
The Advanced Settings section appears only if the directionality is incoming.
GUI item
Description
Reject different
SMTP sender
identity for
authenticated
user
Enable to require that the sender uses the same identity for: authentication
name, SMTP envelope MAIL FROM:, and header FROM:.
Disable to remove such requirements on sender identities. By default, this
feature is disabled.
Sender identity In some cases, while you do not want to allow different SMTP sender
verification with identities for an authenticated user, you still want to:
LDAP server
• allow users to authenticate with their identities (for example,
user1@example.com) and send email from their proxy email addresses
(for example, user1.name@example.com and user1name@example.com)
• or to allow users in an alias group to authenticate with their own identities
(for example, salesperson1@example.com) and send email from their
alias group address (for example, sales@example.com)
Then you can choose to verify the sender identity with the LDAP server. If the
verification is successful, the sender will be allowed to send email with
different identities.
Note: When the above rejection option is enabled, even though the
authentication identity can be different from the sender identity upon
successful LDAP verification. the envelope (MAIL FROM:)address is never
allowed to be different from the header FROM:)address. And the two
addresses cannot be empty either.
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GUI item
Description
Enable PKI
authentication
for web mail
access
Enable if you want to allow web mail users to log in by presenting a
certificate rather than a user name and password. Also configure “Certificate
validation is mandatory”.
Certificate
validation is
mandatory
For more information on configuring PKI users and what defines a valid
certificate, see “Configuring PKI authentication” on page 409.
If the email user’s web browser does not provide a valid personal certificate,
the FortiMail unit will fall back to standard user name and password-style
authentication. To require valid certificates only and disallow password-style
fallback, enable this option.
Controlling email based on IP addresses
The IP Policies section of the Policies tab lets you create policies that apply profiles to SMTP
connections based on the IP addresses of SMTP clients and/or servers.
Due to the nature of relay in SMTP, an SMTP client is not necessarily always located on an email
user’s computer. The SMTP client is the connection initiator; it could be, for example, another
email server or a mail relay attempting to deliver email. The SMTP server, however, is always a
mail relay or email server that receives the connection.
For example, if computer A opened a connection to computer B to deliver mail, A is the client
and B is the server. If computer B later opened a connection to computer A to deliver a reply
email, B is now the client and A is now the server.
Like access control rules, IP-based policies can reject connections based on IP address. For
information about IP pools, see “Configuring IP pools” on page 570.
Unlike access control rules, however, IP-based policies can affect email in many ways that
occur after the session’s DATA command, such as by applying antispam profiles. IP-based
policies can also be overruled by recipient-based policies, and, if the FortiMail unit is operating
in server mode, may match connections based on the IP address of the SMTP server, not just
the SMTP client. For more information on access control rules, see “Configuring access control
rules” on page 430.
IP-based policies can apply in addition to recipient-based policies, although recipient-based
policies have precedence if the two conflict unless you enable Take precedence over recipient
based policy match.
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For information about how recipient-based and IP-based policies are executed and how the
order of policies in the list affects the order of execution, see “How to use policies” on
page 428.
If SMTP traffic does not match any IP-based or recipient-based policy, it is allowed. However,
no antivirus or antispam protection may be applied.
If you are certain that you have configured policies to match and allow all required traffic, you
can tighten security by adding an IP policy at the bottom of the policy list to reject all other,
unwanted connections.
To do this, create a new IP policy, enter 0.0.0.0/0 as the client IP/netmask, and set the action
to Reject. See the following procedures about how to configure an IP policy. Then, move the
policy to the very bottom of the IP policy list. Because this policy matches any connection, all
connections that do not match any other policy will match this final policy, and be rejected.
Profiles used by the policy, if any, are listed in the policy table, and appear as linked text. To
modify profile settings, click the name of the profile.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category.
Domain administrators can create and modify IP-based policies. Because they can affect any IP
address, a domain administrator could therefore create a policy that affects another domain. If
you do not want to allow this, do not grant Read-Write permission to the Policy category in
domain administrators’ access profiles.
For details, see “About administrator account permissions and domains” on page 269.
To view the list of IP-based policies, go to Policy > Policies > Policies, then look in the
IP Policies section.
Figure 131:IP Policies
GUI item
Description
Move
Click a policy to select it, click Move, then select either:
(button)
• the direction in which to move the selected policy (Up or Down), or
• After or Before, then in Move right after or Move right before indicate
the policy’s new location by entering the ID of another policy
FortiMail units match the policies in sequence, from the top of the list
downwards.
Enabled
Configuring policies
Select whether or not the policy is currently in effect.
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GUI item
Description
ID
Displays the number identifying the policy.
If a comment is added to this rule when the rule is created, the comment
will show up as a mouse-over tool-tip in this column.
Note: This may be different from the order in which they appear on the
page, which indicates order of evaluation.
FortiMail units evaluate policies in sequence. More than one policy may
be applied. For details, see “Order of execution of policies” on page 429
and “Which policy/profile is applied when an email has multiple
recipients?” on page 430.
Source
Displays the IP address of the SMTP source to which the policy applies.
Destination
Displays the IP address of the destination IP to which the policy applies.
Session
Displays the name of the session profile applied by this policy.
To modify the or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring session profiles” on
page 462.
AntiSpam
Displays the name of the antispam profile applied by this policy.
To modify or view the a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Managing antispam profiles” on
page 483.
AntiVirus
Displays the name of the antivirus profile applied by this policy.
To modify the or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring antivirus profiles and
antivirus action profiles” on page 501.
Content
Displays the name of the content profile applied by this policy.
To modify the or view a profile, click its name. The profile appears in a
pop-up window. For details, see “Configuring content profiles” on
page 506.
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GUI item
Description
IP Pool
Displays the name of the IP pool profile applied by this policy.
The IP addresses in the IP pool is used as the source IP address for the
SMTP sessions matching this policy.
The IP pool profile is ignored if the “Take precedence over recipient based
policy match” on page 456 option is disabled.
• An IP pool in an IP policy will be used to deliver incoming emails from
FortiMail to the protected server. It will also be used to deliver
outgoing emails if the sender domain doesn't have a delivery IP pool
or, although it has a delivery IP pool, Take precedence over recipient
based policy match is enabled in the IP-based policy.
• An IP pool (either in an IP policy or domain settings) will NOT be used
to deliver emails to the protected domain servers if the mail flow is
from internal to internal domains.
• When an email message’s MAIL FROM is empty "<>", normally the
email is a NDR or DSN bounced message. FortiMail will check the IP
address of the sender device against the IP list of the protected
domains. If the sender IP is found in the protected domain IP list, the
email flow is considered as from internal to internal and the above rule
is applied (the IP pool will be skipped). FortiMail will also skip the DNS
query if servers of the protected domains are configured as host
names and MX record.
Authentication
Displays the name of an authentication profile applied to the IP policy.
(not in server mode) To modify the profile, click its name. The profile appears in a pop-up
window. For details, see “Configuring authentication profiles” on
page 520
Exclusive
Indicates whether or not “Take precedence over recipient based policy match”
on page 456 is enabled in this policy. See “Order of execution of policies”
on page 429 for an explanation of that option.
• Green check mark icon: The option is enabled. Recipient-based
policies will not be applied if a connection matches this IP-based
policy.
• Red X icon: The option is disabled. Both the IP-based policy and any
applicable recipient-based policies will be applied.
To configure an IP-based policy
1. Go to Policy > Policies > Policies.
The tab includes two sections: one for IP policies and another for recipient policies.
2. In the IP Policies section, click New to add a policy or double-click a policy to modify it.
A dialog appears that varies with the operation mode.
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3. Configure the following settings and then click Create.
GUI item
Description
Enable
Select or clear to enable or disable the policy.
Source
You can use the following types of IP addresses of the SMTP clients
to whose connections this policy will apply.
• IP address and subnet mask
• IP group. See “Configuring IP groups” on page 572.
• IP pool. See “Configuring IP pools” on page 570.
To match all clients, enter 0.0.0.0/0.
Destination
If the FortiMail unit runs in transparent mode, enter the IP address of
the SMTP server to whose connections this policy will apply.
• IP address and subnet mask
• IP group. See “Configuring IP groups” on page 572.
• IP pool. See “Configuring IP pools” on page 570.
To match all servers, enter 0.0.0.0/0.
If the FortiMail unit runs in gateway or server mode, the destination
will be the FortiMail unit itself. But if you use virtual hosts on the
FortiMail unit, you can specify which virtual host (IP/subnet or IP
pool) the email is destined to. Otherwise, you do not have to specify
the destination address.
If you use virtual hosts, you must also configure the MX record to
direct email to the virtual host IP addresses as well.
This feature can be used to support multiple virtual hosts on a single
physical interface, so that different profiles can be applied to different
host and logging for each host can be separated as well.
Action
Select whether to:
• Scan: Accept the connection and perform any scans configured
in the profiles selected in this policy.
• Reject: Reject the email and respond to the SMTP client with
SMTP reply code 550, indicating a permanent failure.
• Fail Temporarily: Reject the email and respond to the SMTP client
with SMTP reply code 451, indicating to try again later.
• Proxy Bypass: Bypass the FortiMail proxy without scanning.
Comments
Enter a comment if necessary. The comment will appears as a
mouse-over tool-tip in the ID column of the rule list.
Profiles
Session
Select the name of a session profile to have this policy apply.
This option is applicable only if “Action” on page 454 is Scan.
Warning: If you are configuring an IP-bases policy in transparent
mode, you must select a session profile for the policy to work.
AntiSpam
Configuring policies
Select the name of an antispam profile to have this policy apply. This
option is applicable only if “Action” on page 454 is Scan.
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AntiVirus
Select the name of an antivirus profile to have this policy apply.
This option is applicable only if “Action” on page 454 is Scan.
Content
Select the name of a content profile to have this policy apply.
This option is applicable only if “Action” on page 454 is Scan.
IP pool
Select the name of an IP pool profile, if any, that this policy will apply.
• An IP pool in an IP policy will be used to deliver incoming email
from FortiMail to the protected server. It will also be used to
deliver outgoing emails if the sender domain doesn't have a
delivery IP pool or, although it has a delivery IP pool, Take
precedence over recipient based policy match is enabled in the
IP-based policy.
• An IP pool (either in an IP policy or domain settings) will NOT be
used to deliver emails to the protected domain servers if the mail
flow is from internal to internal domains.
• When an email message’s MAIL FROM is empty "<>", normally
the email is a NDR or DSN bounced message. FortiMail will check
the IP address of the sender device against the IP list of the
protected domains. If the sender IP is found in the protected
domain IP list, the email flow is considered as from internal to
internal and the above rule is applied (the IP pool will be skipped).
FortiMail will also skip the DNS query if servers of the protected
domains are configured as host names and MX record.
This option is applicable only if “Action” on page 454 is Scan.
For details about IP pools, see “Configuring IP pools” on page 570.
Authentication and
Access
This section appears only if the FortiMail unit is operating in gateway
or transparent mode. For server mode, select a resource profile
instead.
(not available in server
mode)
For more information on configuring authentication, see “Workflow to
enable and configure authentication of email users” on page 519.
Authentication If you want the email user to authenticate using an external
type
authentication server, select the authentication type of the profile
(SMTP, POP3, IMAP, RADIUS, or LDAP).
Note: In addition to specifying an authentication server for SMTP
email messages that this policy governs, configuring “Authentication
profile” on page 448 also allows email users to authenticate when
accessing their per-recipient quarantine using HTTP or HTTPS. For
more information, see “How to enable, configure, and use personal
quarantines” on page 178.
Authentication Select an existing authentication profile to use with this policy.
profile
Click New to create on or Edit to modify the selected profile.
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Use for SMTP Enable to allow the SMTP client to use the SMTP AUTH command,
authentication and to use the server defined in “Authentication profile” on page 448
to authenticate the connection.
Disable to make SMTP authentication unavailable.
This option is available only if you have selected an “Authentication
profile” on page 448.
Note: Enabling this option allows, but does not require, SMTP
authentication. To enforce SMTP authentication for connecting SMTP
clients, ensure that all access control rules require authentication. For
details, see “Configuring access control rules” on page 430.
Miscellaneous
Reject
different
SMTP sender
identity for
authenticated
user
Enable to require that the sender uses the same identity for:
authentication name, SMTP envelope MAIL FROM:, and header
FROM:.
Sender
identity
verification
with LDAP
server
In some cases, while you do not want to allow different SMTP sender
identities for an authenticated user, you still want to:
Disable to remove such requirements on sender identities. By
default, this feature is disabled.
• allow users to authenticate with their identities (for example,
user1@example.com) and send email from their proxy email
addresses (for example, user1.name@example.com and
user1name@example.com)
• or to allow users in an alias group to authenticate with their own
identities (for example, salesperson1@example.com) and send
email from their alias group address (for example,
sales@example.com)
Then you can choose to verify the sender identity with the LDAP
server. If the verification is successful, the sender will be allowed to
send email with different identities.
Note: When the above rejection option is enabled, even though the
authentication identity can be different from the sender identity upon
successful LDAP verification. the envelope (MAIL FROM:)address is
never allowed to be different from the header FROM:)address. And
the two addresses cannot be empty either.
Take
precedence
over recipient
based policy
match
Enable to omit use of recipient-based policies for connections
matching this IP-based policy. For information on how policies are
executed, see “How to use policies” on page 428.
This option is applicable only if Action is Scan.
Note: Enabling this option also causes the FortiMail unit to ignore the
option “Hide the transparent box” on page 367 in the protected domain.
Example: Strict and loose IP-based policies
You have a FortiMail unit running in gateway mode to protect your internal mail server
(192.168.1.1). The FortiMail unit receives email incoming to, and relays email from, the internal
mail server.
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You can create two IP-based policies:
• Policy 1: Enter 192.168.1.1/32 as the source IP address and 0.0.0.0/0 as the
destination to match outgoing email connections from the mail server, and select a loose
session profile, which may have sender reputation and other similar restrictions disabled,
since the sender (that is, source IP) will always be your mail server.
• Policy 2: Enter 0.0.0.0/0 as the source IP address and 192.168.1.1/32 as the
destination IP address to match incoming email connections from all other mail servers, and
select a strict session profile, which has all antispam options enabled.
You would then move policy 1 above policy 2, as policies are evaluated for a match with the
connection in order of their display on the page.
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Configuring data loss prevention
The FortiMail data leak prevention (DLP) system allows you to prevent sensitive data from
leaving your network. After you define sensitive data patterns, you can take actions against the
email containing data matching these patterns. You configure the DLP system by creating
individual rules based on document fingerprint, file filters or sensitive information in a DLP
profile and assign the profile to a policy.
This section describes how to configure the DLP settings.
• DLP configuration workflow
• Defining the sensitive data
• Configuring DLP rules
• Configuring DLP profiles
DLP configuration workflow
To use the DLP feature
1. Define the sensitive data first. See “Defining the sensitive data” on page 458.
2. Define the DLP scan rules which specify the information to be checked in the email traffic.
See “Configuring DLP rules” on page 460.
3. Define DLP profiles, which use one or more rules. See “Configuring DLP profiles” on
page 460. You also specify the actions for the matched rules. These are the same action
profiles you use in the content profiles. See “Configuring content action profiles” on
page 513.
4. Apply the DLP profiles to the IP or recipient based policies. See “Controlling email based on
recipient addresses” on page 442 and “Controlling email based on IP addresses” on
page 450.
Defining the sensitive data
Sensitive data can be any of the following types:
• User-defined: specify what information should be checked, such as a word, a phrase, or a
regular expression.
• Predefined: for your convenience, FortiMail comes with a list of predefined information
types, such as credit card numbers and SIN numbers. To view the predefined sensitive data,
go to Data Loss Prevention > Sensitive Data > Standard Compliance.
• Document fingerprints: see “DLP document fingerprinting” on page 458.
• File filters: these are the same file filters you use in the content profiles. See “Configuring file
filters” on page 508.
DLP document fingerprinting
One of the DLP techniques to detect sensitive data is fingerprinting (also called document
fingerprinting). Most DLP techniques rely on you providing a characteristic of the file you want
to detect, whether it’s the file type, the file name, or part of the file contents. Fingerprinting is
different in that you provide the file itself. The FortiMail unit then generates a checksum
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fingerprint and stores it. The FortiMail unit generates a fingerprint for all email attachments, and
compares it to all of the fingerprints stored in its fingerprint database. If a match is found, the
configured action is taken.
Any type of file can be detected by DLP fingerprinting and fingerprints can be saved for each
revision of your files as they are updated.
The FortiMail unit must have access to the documents for which it generates fingerprints. There
are two methods to generate fingerprints:
• One method is to manually upload documents to be fingerprinted directly to the FortiMail
unit.
• The other is to allow the FortiMail unit to access a network share that contains the
documents to be fingerprinted.
If only a few documents are to be fingerprinted, a manual upload may be the easiest solution. If
many documents require fingerprinting, or if the fingerprinted documents are frequently revised,
using a network share makes user access easier to manage.
To configure manual document fingerprints
1. Go to Data Loss Prevention > Sensitive Data > Fingerprint.
2. Click New and configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the fingerprint.
Description
Optionally enter a description.
File list
Click New to browse to the file and generate a fingerprint for it.
To configure a fingerprint document source
1. Go to Data Loss Prevention > Sensitive Data > Fingerprint Source.
2. Click New and configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the document source.
Description
Optionally enter a description.
Server type
This refers to the type of server share that is being accessed. The default
is Windows Share but this will also work on Samba shares.
Server address Enter the IP address of the server.
User name
Enter the user name of the account the FortiMail unit uses to access the
server network share.
Password
Enter the password of the account the FortiMail unit uses to access the
server network share.
Path
Enter the path to the document folder.
File pattern
You may enter a filename pattern to restrict fingerprinting to only those
files that match the pattern. To fingerprint all files, enter an asterisk (“*”).
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GUI item
Description
Checking
period
Check the files document source daily if the files are added or changed
regularly.
Advanced
Scan
By default, only the files in the specified path are fingerprinted. Files in
subdirectories subdirectories are ignored. Select this option to fingerprint files in
subdirectories of the specified path.
Remove
chunks
Select this option to retain the fingerprints of files deleted from the
document source. If this option is disabled, fingerprints for deleted files
will be removed when the document source is scanned next time.
Retain old
chunks
Select this option to retain the fingerprints of previous revisions of
updated files. If this option is disabled, fingerprints for previous version of
files will be deleted when a new fingerprint is generated.
Configuring DLP rules
DLP scan rules specify what to look for in what part of the email. For example, you can specify
to scan for some sensitive data in email bodies and attachments.
To configure DLP rules
1. Go to Data Loss Prevention > Rule and Profile > Rule.
2. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the rule.
Description
Optionally enter a description.
Conditions
Select either Match all conditions or Match any condition.
Click New to add conditions.
Depending on what email part you select, you can specify different
conditions.
Exceptions
Click New to add exceptions. Email matching the exceptions will not be
scanned.
Configuring DLP profiles
After you configure the scan rules/conditions, you add them to the DLP profiles. In the profiles,
you also specify what actions to take (for details about action profiles, see “Configuring content
action profiles” on page 513). Then you apply the DLP profiles to the IP or recipient based
policies.
To configure a DLP profile
1. Go to Data Loss Prevention > Rule and Profile > Profile.
2. Click New.
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3. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile.
Action
Select a default action to use when the specified scan rules match the
email. Click New to create a new action profile. See “Configuring content
action profiles” on page 513.
Comment
Optionally enter a comment.
Content Scan
Settings
Click New to configure the following settings:
• Enabled: check this box to enable the settings.
• Scan rule: select a scan rule from the dropdown list. Or click New to
create a new rule.
• Action: select an action profile from the dropdown list. Or click New to
create a new profile. If no action profile is selected, the default one will
be used.
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Configuring profiles
The Profile menu lets you configure many types of profiles. These are a collection of settings for
antispam, antivirus, authentication, or other features.
After creating and configuring a profile, you can apply it either directly in a policy, or indirectly by
inclusion in another profile that is selected in a policy. Policies apply each selected profile to all
email messages and SMTP connections that the policy governs.
Creating multiple profiles for each type of policy lets you customize your email service by
applying different profiles to policies that govern different SMTP connections or email users. For
instance, if you are an Internet service provider (ISP), you might want to create and apply
antivirus profiles only to policies governing email users who pay you to provide antivirus
protection.
This section includes:
• Configuring session profiles
• Configuring antispam profiles and antispam action profiles
• Configuring antivirus profiles and antivirus action profiles
• Configuring content profiles and content action profiles
• Configuring resource profiles (server mode only)
• Configuring authentication profiles
• Configuring LDAP profiles
• Configuring dictionary profiles
• Configuring security profiles
• Configuring IP pools
• Configuring email and IP groups
• Configuring notification profiles
Configuring session profiles
Session profiles focus on the connection and envelope portion of the SMTP session. This is in
contrast to other types of profiles that focus on the message header, body, or attachments.
To access this part of the web UI, your administrator account’s access profile must have Read
or Read-Write permission to the Policy category. For details, see “About administrator account
permissions and domains” on page 269.
To configure session profiles
1. Go to Profile > Session > Session.
2. Click New to add a profile or double-click a profile to modify it.
A multisection page appears.
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Figure 132:Session Profile dialog
3. For a new session profile, type the name in Profile name.
4. Configure the following sections as needed:
• “Configuring connection settings” on page 463
• “Configuring sender reputation options” on page 464
• “Configuring endpoint reputation options” on page 466
• “Configuring sender validation options” on page 467
• “Configuring session settings” on page 470
• “Configuring unauthenticated session settings” on page 473
• “Configuring SMTP limit options” on page 476
• “Configuring error handling options” on page 477
• “Configuring header manipulation options” on page 478
• “Configuring list options” on page 479
• Configuring advanced MTA control settings
Configuring connection settings
This procedure is part of the session profile configuration process. For general procedures
about how to configure a session profile, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
1. Go to Profile > Session.
2. Click New to create a new session profile or double click on an existing profile to edit it.
3. Expand the Connection Settings section if needed. The options vary with the operation
mode.
4. Configure the following options to restrict the number and duration of connections to the
FortiMail unit. When any of these limits are exceeded, the FortiMail unit blocks further
connections. Setting any of these values to 0 disables the limit.
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GUI item
Description
Hide this box from the mail
server
Enable to preserve the IP address or domain name of
the SMTP client in:
(transparent mode only)
• the SMTP greeting (HELO/EHLO) and in the
Received: message headers of email messages
• the client IP in email header
This masks the existence of the FortiMail unit.
Disable to replace the IP addresses or domain names
with that of the FortiMail unit.
Note: Unless you enabled Take precedence over
recipient based policy match in the IP-based policy, the
Hide the transparent box option in the protected
domain supersedes this option, and may prevent it
from applying to incoming email messages.
Note: For full transparency, also enable “Hide the
transparent box” on page 367.
Restrict the number of
connections per client per 30
minutes to
Specify the maximum connections per client IP address
in a period of 30 minutes.
Restrict the number of
messages per client per 30
minutes to
Specify the maximum email messages (number of MAIL
FROM) a client can send in a period of 30 minutes.
Restrict the number of
recipients per client per 30
minutes to
Specify the maximum recipients (number of RCPT TO)
a client can send email to for a period of 30 minutes.
Maximum concurrent
connections for each client
Enter the maximum number of concurrent connections
per client.
Connection idle timeout
(seconds)
Enter a limit to the number of seconds a client may be
idle before the FortiMail unit drops the connection.
Do not let client connect to
blocklisted SMTP servers
Enable to prevent clients from connecting to SMTP
servers that have been blocklisted in antispam profiles
or, the FortiGuard AntiSpam service if enabled.
(transparent mode only)
Configuring sender reputation options
This procedure is part of the session profile configuration process. For general procedures
about how to configure a session profile, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
You can also view the sender reputation statuses by going to Monitor > Sender Reputation. See
“Viewing the sender reputation statuses” on page 187.
To configure sender reputation options
1. Go to Profile > Session.
2. Click New to create a new session profile or double click on an existing profile to edit it.
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3. Click the arrow to expand Sender Reputation.
Configure the sender reputation settings to restrict the number of email messages sent from
SMTP clients based upon whether they have a reputation of sending an excessive number of
email messages, email with invalid recipients, or email infected with viruses.
Sender reputation scores can be affected by sender validation results.
Enabling sender reputation can improve performance by rejecting known spammers before
more resource-intensive antispam scans are performed.
Figure 133:Sender reputation
4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable sender reputation
checking
Enable to accept or reject email based upon sender
reputation scores.
The following options have no effect unless this option is
enabled.
Throttle client at n
Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail unit
will rate limit the number of email messages that can be sent
by this SMTP client.
Entering 0 means no score limit and thus no action. But
FortiMail still monitors the sender reputation and increases or
decreases the sender reputation scores accordingly.
The enforced rate limit is either Restrict number of emails per
hour to n or Restrict email to n percent of the previous hour,
whichever value is greater.
Restrict number of
emails per hour to n
Configuring profiles
Enter the maximum number of email messages per hour that
the FortiMail unit will accept from a throttled SMTP client.
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GUI item
Restrict email to n
percent of the
previous hour
Description
Enter the maximum number of email messages per hour that
the FortiMail unit will accept from a throttled SMTP client, as a
percentage of the number of email messages that the SMTP
client sent during the previous hour.
Temporarily fail client Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail unit
at n
will return a temporary failure error when the SMTP client
attempts to initiate a connection.
Entering 0 means no score limit and thus no action. But
FortiMail still monitors the sender reputation and increase or
decrease the sender reputation scores accordingly.
Reject client at n
Enter a sender reputation score over which the FortiMail unit
will reject the email and reply to the SMTP client with SMTP
reply code 550 when the SMTP client attempts to initiate a
connection.
Entering 0 means no score limit and thus no action. But
FortiMail still monitors the sender reputation and increase or
decrease the sender reputation scores accordingly.
Check FortiGuard Block IP Enable to query the FortiGuard Antispam Service to determine
at connection phase
if the IP address of the SMTP server is blocklisted. And this
action will happen during the connection phase.
In an antispam profile, you can also enable FortiGuard block
IP checking. But that action happens after the entire message
has been received by FortiMail.
Therefore, if this feature is enabled in a session profile and the
action is reject, the performance will be improved.
Configuring endpoint reputation options
This procedure is part of the session profile configuration process. For general procedures
about how to configure a session profile, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
1. Go to Profile > Session.
2. Click New to create a new session profile or double click on an existing profile to edit it.
3. Click the arrow to expand Endpoint Reputation.
The Endpoint Reputation settings let you restrict, based upon its endpoint reputation score,
the ability of an MSISDN or subscriber ID to send email or MM3 multimedia messaging
service (MMS) messages from a mobile device. The MSISDN reputation score is similar to a
sender reputation score.
For more on endpoint reputation-based behavior, see “About endpoint reputation” on
page 610.
Enabling endpoint reputation can improve performance by rejecting known spammers before
more resource-intensive antispam scans are performed.
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Figure 134:Endpoint reputation settings
4. Configure the following:
GUI item
Description
Enable Endpoint
Reputation
Enable to accept, monitor, or reject email based upon endpoint
reputation scores.
This option requires that your RADIUS server provide mappings
between dynamic IP addresses and MSISDNs/subscriber IDs to
the FortiMail unit. If this profile governs sessions of SMTP clients
with static IP addresses, instead see “Configuring sender
reputation options” on page 464.
Action
Select either:
• Reject: Reject email and MMS messages from
MSISDNs/subscriber IDs whose MSISDN reputation scores
exceed Auto blocklist score trigger value.
• Monitor: Log, but do not reject, email and MMS messages from
MSISDNs/subscriber IDs whose MSISDN reputation scores
exceed Auto blocklist score trigger value. Entries appear in the
history log.
Auto blocklist score
trigger value
Enter the MSISDN reputation score over which the FortiMail unit
will add the MSISDN/subscriber ID to the automatic blocklist.
The trigger score is relative to the period of time configured as the
automatic blocklist window. For more information on the automatic
blocklist window, see “Configuring the endpoint reputation score
window” on page 614.
Auto blocklist
duration
Enter the number of minutes that an MSISDN/subscriber ID will be
prevented from sending email or MMS messages after they have
been automatically blocklisted.
Configuring sender validation options
This procedure is part of the session profile configuration process. For general procedures
about how to configure a session profile, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
1. Go to Profile > Session.
2. Click New to create a new session profile or double click on an existing profile to edit it.
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3. Click the arrow to expand Sender Validation. Configure the settings to confirm sender and
message authenticity.
Failure to validate does not guarantee that an email is spam, just as successful validation
does not guarantee that an email is not spam, but it may help to indicate spam. Validation
results are used to adjust the sender reputation scores and deep header scans.
Enabling sender validation can improve performance by rejecting invalid senders before more
resource-intensive antispam scans are performed.
4. Configure the following:
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GUI item
Description
SPF check
If the sender domain DNS record lists SPF authorized IP
addresses, use SPF check to compare the client IP address to the
IP addresses of authorized senders in the DNS record (RFC 4408).
An unauthorized client IP address increases the client sender
reputation score. An authorized client IP address decreases the
client sender reputation score.
If the DNS record for the domain name of the sender does not
publish SPF information, the FortiMail unit omits the SPF client IP
address validation.
You can also enable SPF checking in the antispam profile. See
“Configuring antispam profiles and antispam action profiles” on
page 483.
Note: Before FortiMail 4.0 MR3 Patch 1 release, you must enable
SPF checking in the session profile before SPF checking in the
antispam profile takes effect. Starting from 4.0 MR3 Patch 2
release, SPF checking can be enabled in either a session profile or
an antispam profile, or both profiles. However, if you select to
Bypass SPF checking in the session profile, SPF checking will be
bypassed even though you enable it in the antispam profile.
Note: Before FortiMail 4.0 MR3 Patch 1 release, only SPF
hardfailed (-all) email is treated as spam. Starting from 4.0 MR3
Patch 2 release, you can use a CLI command (set
spf-checking {strict | aggressive} under config
antispam settings) to control if the SPF softfailed (~all) email
should also be treated as spam. For details, see the FortiMail CLI
Guide.
Enable DKIM check
If a DKIM signature is present (RFC 4871), enable this to query the
DNS server that hosts the DNS record for the sender’s domain
name to retrieve its public key to decrypt and verify the DKIM
signature.
An invalid signature increases the client sender reputation score
and affects the deep header scan. A valid signature decreases the
client sender reputation score.
If the sender domain DNS record does not include DKIM
information or the message is not signed, the FortiMail unit omits
the DKIM signature validation.
Enable DKIM signing Enable to sign outgoing email with a DKIM signature.
for outgoing
This option requires that you first generate a domain key pair and
messages
publish the public key in the DNS record for the domain name of
the protected domain. If you do not publish the public key,
destination SMTP servers cannot validate your DKIM signature. For
details on generating domain key pairs and publishing the public
key, see “DKIM Setting” on page 376.
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GUI item
Description
Enable DKIM signing Enable to sign outgoing email with a DKIM signature only if the
for authenticated
sender is authenticated.
senders only
This option is effective only if Enable DKIM signing for outgoing
messages is enabled.
Enable domain key
check
If a DomainKey signature is present, use this option to query the
DNS server for the sender’s domain name to retrieve its public key
to decrypt and verify the DomainKey signature.
An invalid signature increases the client sender reputation score
and affects the deep header scan. A valid signature decreases the
client sender reputation score.
If the sender domain DNS record does not include DomainKey
information or the message is not signed, the FortiMail unit omits
the DomainKey signature validation.
Bypass bounce
verification check
If bounce verification is enabled, enable to omit verification of
bounce address tags on incoming bounce messages.
This bypass does not omit bounce address tagging of outgoing
messages.
For more information, see “Configuring bounce verification and
tagging” on page 605.
Sender address
verification with
LDAP
Enable to verify sender email addresses on an LDAP server. Also
select an LDAP profile from the dropdown list. Or click New to
create a new one. For details about LDAP profiles, see
“Configuring LDAP profiles” on page 525.
Configuring session settings
This procedure is part of the session profile configuration process. For general procedures
about how to configure a session profile, see “Configuring session profiles” on page 462.
1. Go to Profile > Session.
2. Click New to create a new session profile or double click on an existing profile to edit it.
3. Click the arrow to expand Session Settings.
Figure 135:Session settings (gateway mode and server mode)
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Figure 136:Session settings (transparent mode)
4. Configure the follo