Veritas NetBackup™ for Oracle Administrator`s Guide: UNIX

Veritas NetBackup™ for
Oracle Administrator's
Guide
UNIX, Windows, and Linux
Release 8.1
Veritas NetBackup™ for Oracle Administrator's Guide
Last updated: 2017-09-26
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Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction .......................................................................... 12
What’s new about NetBackup for Oracle ...........................................
About NetBackup for Oracle ...........................................................
NetBackup for Oracle features ........................................................
NetBackup for Oracle terminology ....................................................
NetBackup for Oracle operation using the Oracle Intelligent Policy
...........................................................................................
Logging the RMAN input and output on a client ..................................
NetBackup for Oracle operation using a script- or template-based policy
...........................................................................................
About Oracle RMAN .....................................................................
About the Oracle recovery catalog ...................................................
Chapter 2
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
Oracle policy configuration
23
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.................................... 35
Verifying the operating system and platform compatibility ......................
NetBackup server and client requirements .........................................
Requirements for using NetBackup for Oracle in a NetBackup cluster
...........................................................................................
About the license for NetBackup for Oracle ........................................
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX ..........................
Verifying environment variables and shutting down Oracle ..............
Linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup on UNIX platforms ...............
Chapter 4
20
22
................................. 27
Installing NetBackup for Oracle .......................................................
Registering Oracle database instances .............................................
Creating an Oracle database instance group ......................................
Creating an Oracle policy ...............................................................
Chapter 3
12
13
14
19
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............................................. 45
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration ................................
About Oracle policy configuration ...............................................
Permissions for NetBackup for Oracle log directories .....................
NetBackup for Oracle backup policy types ...................................
45
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Contents
Configuring the Maximum jobs per client for NetBackup for Oracle
..................................................................................... 54
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy .......................... 55
About the NetBackup Discovery Service ..................................... 56
Viewing the Oracle database instance repository .......................... 57
Manually adding an Oracle database instance to the repository
..................................................................................... 58
Registering an Oracle database instance .................................... 61
About Oracle database instance groups ...................................... 64
Adding an instance to an instance group ..................................... 64
Automatic Registration of an instance group ................................ 65
About instance actions ............................................................ 67
About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP) .............................................. 68
Creating an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) ................................... 70
Oracle database upgrade effect on Oracle Intelligent Policies
..................................................................................... 72
Configuring NetBackup for Oracle automatic backup schedules
..................................................................................... 73
About NetBackup for Oracle schedule properties using Oracle
Intelligent Policy ............................................................... 73
Oracle Intelligent Policy - Storage and Retention ........................... 75
About Oracle Intelligent Policy master server behavior ................... 77
Instances and Databases tab .................................................... 77
Backup Selections tab ............................................................. 79
Oracle tab ............................................................................. 81
About using a NetBackup appliance share for Oracle backups
(Copilot) ......................................................................... 84
Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance
(Copilot) ......................................................................... 86
About script- or template-based Oracle policies .................................. 88
Adding a new script- or template-based Oracle policy .................... 89
About policy attributes ............................................................. 90
About backup schedules, templates, and scripts ........................... 91
About schedule properties ....................................................... 91
Script- or template-based policy - Storage and Retention ................ 93
Adding clients to a policy .......................................................... 95
About adding backup selections to an Oracle policy ....................... 96
About configuring the run-time environment ................................. 98
About creating templates and shell scripts ................................. 105
Configuring the logon account for the NetBackup Client Service for
NetBackup for Oracle ............................................................ 113
Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle ...................... 114
5
Contents
Chapter 5
Performing backups and restores of Oracle ............ 116
Overview of using NetBackup for Oracle ..........................................
Maintaining the RMAN repository ...................................................
Querying the RMAN repository ......................................................
About NetBackup for Oracle backups ..............................................
Running NetBackup for Oracle templates ..................................
Using bpdbsbora to run a backup template ................................
Running the NetBackup for Oracle shell script ............................
Running RMAN ....................................................................
Browsing backups using the bplist command ....................................
Managing expired backup images ..................................................
About NetBackup for Oracle restores ..............................................
Starting the recovery wizard ....................................................
Using the recovery wizard ......................................................
Using bpdbsbora to run a recovery template ...............................
About an Oracle recovery shell script on the client .......................
Running RMAN on the client ...................................................
About Oracle multistream restore for proxy backup ......................
Redirecting a restore to a different client ....................................
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster
environment ........................................................................
About backups of an Oracle clustered database on Windows
....................................................................................
Bringing the database instance offline on Windows ......................
Bringing the database instance online on Windows ......................
User-directed backup or restore from the Windows client ..............
Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image ..........
Deleting an instant recovery point for Oracle Copilot instant recovery
..........................................................................................
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
..........................................................................................
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point .........
About restoring from a data file copy to ASM storage using RMAN
..........................................................................................
Chapter 6
Guided Recovery
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............................................................. 156
About OpsCenter Guided Recovery ................................................
Setting up for Guided Recovery cloning ...........................................
Guided Recovery cloning pre-operation checks ................................
Performing a Guided Recovery cloning operation ..............................
Select a Master Server dialog ........................................................
Select Source Database panel ......................................................
156
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6
Contents
Select Control File Backup panel ...................................................
Destination host and login panel ....................................................
Destination Parameters panel .......................................................
Selection summary panel .............................................................
Pre-clone check panel .................................................................
Job Details panel ........................................................................
Guided Recovery post-clone operations ..........................................
Troubleshooting Guided Recovery .................................................
Troubleshooting files for metadata collection operations at the
time of the backup ..........................................................
Troubleshooting files for Guided Recovery validation operations
....................................................................................
Troubleshooting files for Guided Recovery cloning operations
....................................................................................
Chapter 7
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
161
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............ 168
About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client .............................
Proxy copy ..........................................................................
NetBackup for Oracle stream-based operations ..........................
NetBackup for Oracle file-based operations ................................
How NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client works .......................
About the NetBackup for Oracle backup and restore operations
....................................................................................
Database objects supported by advanced backup methods ...........
About NetBackup multistreaming .............................................
RMAN multiple channels ........................................................
Restoring data files to a new location ........................................
Redirecting a restore to a different client ....................................
Symbolic links and raw data files (UNIX) ....................................
Quick I/O data files (UNIX) ......................................................
RMAN incremental backups ....................................................
Proxy backup examples .........................................................
About configuring Snapshot Client with NetBackup for Oracle ..............
Configuration requirements for snapshot backups with NetBackup
for Oracle ......................................................................
Configuring a snapshot policy for NetBackup for Oracle ................
Configuring a snapshot policy using a share on the NetBackup
appliance (Copilot) ..........................................................
Restoring NetBackup for Oracle from a snapshot backup ....................
About restoring individual files from a NetBackup for Oracle
snapshot backup ............................................................
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Contents
About NetBackup for Oracle restores of volumes and file systems
using snapshot rollback ...................................................
About configuring NetBackup for Oracle block-level incremental
backups on UNIX ..................................................................
How BLI works with NetBackup for Oracle (UNIX) .......................
About the Storage Checkpoint facility and NetBackup for Oracle
....................................................................................
Configuration requirements for BLI backups with NetBackup for
Oracle ..........................................................................
Configuring policies for BLI backups with NetBackup for Oracle
....................................................................................
About Snapshot Client effects .......................................................
How Snapshot Client software affects backup types .....................
How Snapshot Client software affects schedule properties ............
How Snapshot Client software affects templates and scripts ..........
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client environment variables
....................................................................................
About Oracle support for Replication Director ...................................
Configuring an Oracle Intelligent Policy using Replication Director
....................................................................................
Configuring a script- or template-based Oracle policy ...................
Chapter 8
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Troubleshooting ................................................................ 211
About troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle ....................................
About NetBackup for Oracle troubleshooting steps ............................
NetBackup debug logs and reports .................................................
Enabling the debug logs manually (Windows) ...................................
Enabling the debug logs manually (UNIX) ........................................
About the NetBackup for Oracle log files ..........................................
Setting the debug level on a Windows client .....................................
Setting the debug level on a UNIX client ..........................................
About RMAN utility logs ...............................................................
Troubleshooting RMAN backup or restore errors ...............................
Verifying the RMAN script on UNIX ...........................................
Troubleshooting each stage of the backup or restore ...................
Troubleshooting the UNIX browser interface and wizards ....................
Troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client ................
Minimizing timeout failures on large database restores .......................
Minimizing the loading and unloading of tapes for database backups
..........................................................................................
Delays in backup job transfer and completion ...................................
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8
Contents
Appendix A
Appendix B
Real Application Clusters
.............................................. 229
About Real Application Clusters .....................................................
About virtual names and NetBackup for Oracle .................................
About RAC archiving schemes ......................................................
About backing up a database .......................................................
Example of restoring a database ....................................................
Troubleshooting database restores (UNIX and Windows) ....................
About restoring archive logs ..........................................................
229
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Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with
NetBackup ...................................................................
239
Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices ......................................
About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) with RAC
..........................................................................................
About NetBackup for Oracle operations ...........................................
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is not
load balanced ......................................................................
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is load
balanced .............................................................................
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup
is not load balanced ..............................................................
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available, and backup
is load balanced, one policy with custom script ...........................
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup
is load balanced, simple script with manual policy failover .............
Image catalog configuration for RAC ...............................................
Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment .........................
Appendix C
Deduplication best practices
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........................................ 259
Optimizing and deduplicating stream-based and proxy copy Oracle
backups ..............................................................................
Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup ......................................
Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup .............................
Editing the RMAN script and configuring NetBackup for Oracle for a
proxy copy backup ................................................................
Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup .................................
Appendix D
240
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Snapshot Client support of SFRAC ............................ 268
About Snapshot Client support of SFRAC ........................................ 268
NetBackup configuration for an SFRAC environment ......................... 268
9
Contents
Configuring the SFRAC environment for a backup operation ................ 269
Performing a rollback restore in an SFRAC environment ..................... 270
Troubleshooting NetBackup in an SFRAC environment ...................... 272
Appendix E
Script-based block-level incremental (BLI)
backups without RMAN on UNIX and Linux
systems ......................................................................... 274
About script-based block-level incremental (BLI) backups without
RMAN ................................................................................
About BLI backup and restore operations ........................................
Verifying installation requirements for BLI backups without RMAN
..........................................................................................
File system and Storage Checkpoint space management ..............
Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup ....................
Number of policies required for BLI backup ................................
About BLI policy attributes ......................................................
About the BLI client list ..........................................................
Backup selections list for BLI backups .......................................
About schedules for BLI backup policies ....................................
Example Oracle BLI backup policy ...........................................
Setting the maximum jobs per client global attribute .....................
About BLI backup methods .....................................................
Creating notify scripts for BLI backups ......................................
Performing backups and restores ...................................................
About NetBackup for Oracle agent automatic backups .................
About NetBackup for Oracle manual backups .............................
Backing up Quick I/O files .......................................................
Restoring BLI backup images ..................................................
About NetBackup backup and restore logs .................................
About troubleshooting backup or restore errors .................................
Troubleshooting stages of backup and restore operations .............
NetBackup restore and backup status codes ..............................
Improving NetBackup backup performance ................................
About BLI backup and database recovery ..................................
Appendix F
XML Archiver
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.................................................................... 298
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import ............................
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and import archiving features
....................................................................................
XML export archive process ....................................................
Sequence of operation: XML export archive ...............................
298
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Contents
XML import restore process ....................................................
Sequence of operation: XML import restore ................................
About the environment variables set by a user in the XML export
parameter file .......................................................................
About XML export templates and shell scripts ...................................
Creating XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle
wizard (UNIX) ................................................................
Creating XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle
wizard (Windows) ...........................................................
Creating an XML export script from a template ............................
Creating XML export scripts manually .......................................
Performing an XML export archive .................................................
Running NetBackup for Oracle XML export templates ..................
Using bpdbsbora to run an XML export template .........................
Running the NetBackup for Oracle XML export script on the client
....................................................................................
Running bporaexp on the client as an Oracle user .......................
Writing to a directory versus writing to a storage unit ....................
About bporaexp parameters ....................................................
Browsing XML export archives using bporaimp parameters .................
Browsing XML export archives using bplist .......................................
Restoring an XML export archive ...................................................
Running the XML import wizard on the client ..............................
Using bpdbsbora to run an XML import template .........................
Running an XML import script on the client ................................
Running bporaimp on the client ...............................................
About bporaimp parameters ....................................................
About redirecting a restore of an XML export archive to a different
client ............................................................................
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors .............................
Checking the logs to determine the source of an error ..................
Troubleshooting each stage of the XML export or XML import
....................................................................................
Additional XML export and import logs ............................................
Appendix G
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Register authorized locations ....................................... 337
Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database
script-based policy ................................................................ 337
Index
.................................................................................................................. 340
11
Chapter
1
Introduction
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
What’s new about NetBackup for Oracle
■
About NetBackup for Oracle
■
NetBackup for Oracle features
■
NetBackup for Oracle terminology
■
NetBackup for Oracle operation using the Oracle Intelligent Policy
■
Logging the RMAN input and output on a client
■
NetBackup for Oracle operation using a script- or template-based policy
■
About Oracle RMAN
■
About the Oracle recovery catalog
What’s new about NetBackup for Oracle
NetBackup contains new features for Copilot using a new command and a
single-step restore to ASM storage.
NetBackup Copilot Instant Recovery for Oracle
The Copilot functionality is extended with the introduction of a new command called
nborair. The nborair command can determine if an image is available for Oracle
Copilot instant recovery. The functionality is not in the GUI at this time.
See “Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image” on page 142.
See “Deleting an instant recovery point for Oracle Copilot instant recovery”
on page 144.
Introduction
About NetBackup for Oracle
For information about this command, see the NetBackup Commands Reference
Guide
Single-step restore to ASM storage
Use RMAN to restore to ASM storage after creating a recovery point using nborair.
The functionality is not in the GUI at this time.
See “Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point” on page 151.
Authorized locations for script-based policies
During a backup, NetBackup checks for scripts in the default script location or the
authorized location(s). Use the nbsetconfig to configure authorized locations or
place the script in the default location.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based
policy” on page 337.
About NetBackup for Oracle
NetBackup integrates the database backup and recovery capabilities of the Oracle
Recovery Manager (RMAN) with the backup and recovery management capabilities
of NetBackup.
Figure 1-1 shows the major components in a NetBackup configuration. The server
that hosts the Oracle database must be a NetBackup client. The master server
must also have NetBackup for Oracle licensed.
13
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle features
Figure 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle on a sample network
System hosting the Oracle database
NetBackup for Oracle supplies:
- Sample configuration
Oracle database
program
to back up or
- Sample script files
restore
- NetBackup I/O library
(libobk)
- bporaimp and bporaexp
Oracle database software supplies:
Additional NetBackup
– Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN)
software:
– Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
- NetBackup client (required)
System containing Oracle
database Recovery Catalog
Network (TCP/IP)
NetBackup master server or
remote media server
Storage unit
NetBackup software:
– NetBackup master server
– NetBackup media server
NetBackup for Oracle features
The following table shows the NetBackup for Oracle main features:
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features
Feature
Description
Media and device
management
All devices that the Media Manager supports are available to
NetBackup for Oracle.
14
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle features
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features (continued)
Feature
Description
Scheduling facilities
NetBackup scheduling facilities on the master server can be
used to schedule automatic and unattended Oracle backups.
This feature also lets you choose the times when these
operations can occur. For example, to prevent interference with
normal daytime operations, you can schedule your database
backups to occur only at night.
Multiplexed backups and
restores
NetBackup for Oracle lets you take advantage of NetBackup’s
multiplexing capabilities. Multiplexing directs multiple data
streams to one backup device, thereby reducing the time
necessary to complete the operation.
Transparent Oracle and
All backups and restores run simultaneously and transparently
regular file system backup without any action from the NetBackup administrator. The
and restore operations
database administrator can run database backup and restore
operations through NetBackup. An administrator or any other
authorized user can use NetBackup to run database backups
and restores.
If you use the command line interface, templates, or scripts,
you must use script- or template-based Oracle policies. These
policies use Oracle’s Recovery Manager (RMAN) as if
NetBackup were not present.
15
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle features
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features (continued)
Feature
Description
Oracle Instance
management
An Oracle instance discovery service automatically polls the
clients throughout the NetBackup environment every five
minutes. The service collects the discovered instances in an
instance repository. The user can view the instances on the
NetBackup Administration Console or by using the nboraadm
command.
You can create the instance groups that each contain a set of
instances that are registered with a common set of credentials.
A default instance group can be created for the newly
discovered instances that are then automatically registered into
this group.
You select Oracle instances and instance groups to be part of
an Oracle backup policy. You can create the policy for the
default instance group to make sure that all newly created
instances are automatically protected.
Oracle DBAs can use the nboraadm command on the
NetBackup client to manage instances, instance groups, and
their credentials. This command is very useful in environments
where the Oracle credentials are known only by the DBAs and
not by the NetBackup administrators.
Sharing the same storage You can share the same devices and media that are used for
units that are used for other other backups or give Oracle exclusive use of certain devices
file backups
and media. NetBackup for Oracle can use the Media Manager,
disk, PureDisk storage units, etc.
Centralized and networked From the NetBackup master server, you can schedule database
backup operations
backups or start them manually for any client or instance. The
Oracle databases can also reside on the hosts that are different
from the devices on which NetBackup stores the backups.
16
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle features
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features (continued)
Feature
Description
Graphical user interfaces
NetBackup provides the following graphical user interfaces for
client users and administrators:
■
Backup, Archive, and Restore user interface
■
NetBackup Administration Console for Java
■
NetBackup OpsCenter
NetBackup OpsCenter is the web-based graphical user interface
that is used to perform an Oracle Guided Recovery cloning
operation.
See “About OpsCenter Guided Recovery” on page 156.
A database administrator or NetBackup administrator can start
backup or restore operations for Oracle from the NetBackup
graphical user interface on the master server.
Templates
The NetBackup for Oracle database wizards can create backup
and recovery templates for script- or template-based Oracle
policies. You can launch the backup wizard and the recovery
wizard from the Backup, Archive, and Restore (BAR) interface.
The wizards generate platform-independent templates
containing the configuration information that the software uses
when it performs backups and restores.
The wizard-generated templates do not support all the features
native to Oracle. You may want to write a customized backup
or restore script in a scripting language that the operating
system defines. You can use a template as the base for a script.
Oracle Guided Recovery
cloning
Guided Recovery clones an Oracle database from a backup,
and simplifies the process of creating a new database from
backups of an existing database. Guided Recovery uses an
Oracle cloning wizard that executes on the OpsCenter graphical
user interface.
Parallel backup and restore NetBackup for Oracle supports the parallel backup and restore
operations
RMAN capabilities. For example, you can run more than one
tape device at a time for a single Oracle backup or restore.
This capability reduces the time necessary to complete the
operation.
Compression
Compression increases backup performance over the network
and reduces the size of the backup image that NetBackup
writes to the storage unit.
17
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle features
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features (continued)
Feature
Description
Support for Replication
Director
Replication director can be used to create snapshots of the
Oracle database. The snapshots can then be replicated to other
NetApp disk arrays or backup the snapshot to a storage unit.
To use Replication Director, the Oracle database must exist
on a NetApp NAS disk array. Replication Director is not
supported on SAN storage at this time.
Oracle snapshot backups that use Replication Director are
supported on UNIX and Linux platforms only.
Support on a NetBackup
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running
appliance for backup to an
software version 2.7.1 or later.
appliance share (Copilot)
This feature enhances the Oracle Intelligent Policy by giving
you options for protecting an Oracle database using a share
on a NetBackup appliance. This feature gives you better control
of backups when an Oracle database backup is placed in a
database share by the DBA. This feature also lets you choose
a database share as the destination for the first backup copy.
The backup copy is a full set of database data file copies
created, incrementally updated, and protected by NetBackup.
You must create a share on the appliance for this option using
the NetBackup Appliance Shell Menu.
Oracle backups only work on an NFS share on the NetBackup
appliance.
For more information about how to set up the share, see
Creating a share from the NetBackup Appliance Shell Menu in
the Veritas NetBackup 52xx and 5330 Appliance Administrator’s
Guide.
Immediate backup for
Oracle DBA
The Oracle DBA can start an immediate backup from the client
using the nboraadm -immediate command. The Oracle
DBA can start the backup instead of waiting for the backup to
be initiated based on the NetBackup schedule. This command
option is useful if the Oracle DBA wants to perform a backup
before maintenance. The command must be initiated from the
client where the instance resides.
18
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle terminology
Table 1-1
NetBackup for Oracle features (continued)
Feature
Description
Support for Container and
Pluggable databases
Oracle 12c introduced the container databases (CDB) and
pluggable databases (PDB). The Oracle Intelligent Policy is
enhanced and allows a backup to include single or multiple
PDBs.
This feature also lets you select one or more Oracle 12c
instances along with non-Oracle 12c instances in OIP.
NetBackup for Oracle terminology
Table 1-2 explains some Oracle terms as they pertain to NetBackup.
Table 1-2
Oracle terms
Term
Definition
Full backup
A full backup backs up all the blocks into the backup set, skipping only
data file blocks that have never been used. Note that a full backup is
not the same as a whole database backup; "full" is an indicator that the
backup is not incremental.
A full backup has no effect on subsequent incremental backups, which
is why it is not considered part of the incremental strategy. In other
words, a full backup does not affect which blocks are included in
subsequent incremental backups.
Incremental
backup
An incremental backup is a backup of only those blocks that have
changed since a previous backup. Oracle lets you create and restore
incremental backups of data files, tablespaces, and a database. You
can include a control file in an incremental backup set, but the control
file is always included in its entirety. No blocks are skipped.
19
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle operation using the Oracle Intelligent Policy
Table 1-2
Oracle terms (continued)
Term
Definition
Multilevel
incremental
backup
RMAN lets you create multilevel backups. RMAN can create multilevel
incremental backup. A value of 0 or 1 denotes each incremental level.
A level 0 incremental backup, which is the base for subsequent
incremental backups, copies all blocks containing data. You can create
a level 0 database backup as backup sets or image copies.
The only difference between a level 0 incremental backup and a full
backup is that a full backup is never included in an incremental strategy.
Thus, an incremental level 0 backup is a full backup that happens to
be the parent of incremental backups whose level is greater than 0.
The benefit to performing multilevel incremental backups is that you do
not back up all of the blocks all of the time. Incremental backups at a
level greater than zero (0) only copy the blocks that were modified.
Hence, the backup size can be significantly smaller and the backup
might require much less time. The size of the backup file depends solely
upon the number of blocks that are modified and the incremental backup
level.
Differential
incremental
backup
In a differential level 1 backup, RMAN backs up all blocks that have
changed since the most recent incremental backup at level 1 (cumulative
or differential) or level 0. For example, in a differential level 1 backup,
RMAN determines which level 1 backup is the most recent backup.
RMAN backs up all blocks that have been modified after that backup.
If no level 1 is available, then RMAN copies all blocks that have changed
since the base level 0 backup.
Cumulative
incremental
backup
In a cumulative level 1 incremental backup, RMAN backs up all blocks
that have changed since the most recent backup at level 0.
Cumulative incremental backups reduce the work that is needed for a
restore. The cumulative incremental backup ensures that you only need
one incremental backup from any particular level at restore time.
Cumulative backups require more space and time than differential
incremental backups, however, because they duplicate the work that
previous backups did at the same level.
NetBackup for Oracle operation using the Oracle
Intelligent Policy
The Oracle Intelligent Policy feature lets you create a policy that specifies one or
more Oracle instances to be backed up. You manage instances in an instance
repository available on the NetBackup Administration Console. The instance
20
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle operation using the Oracle Intelligent Policy
repository contains all discovered and manually created Oracle instances that reside
in the NetBackup environment. Instance management lets you add, change, delete,
and register instances with a set of credentials.
See “Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy” on page 55.
To create an Oracle Intelligent Policy, you can use the Policy Configuration Wizard
or the Policies utility. The Policy Configuration Wizard is easier to use because
it guides you through the setup process by automatically choosing the best values
for most configurations. But the wizard does not present all policy configuration
options (for example, calendar-based scheduling). After you create a policy, you
can use the Policies utility to configure the options that are not part of the wizard.
Policy creation includes assigning instances to the policy. The Oracle Intelligent
Policy does not require you to know how RMAN functions or how to use the
templates and scripts. The feature is instance-based and not template-scripting
based.
See “Creating an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP)” on page 70.
NetBackup for Oracle includes a library of functions that enable RMAN to use
NetBackup. On UNIX, NetBackup uses the RMAN SBT_LIBRARY parameter to
link the RMAN server software with the media management API library that
NetBackup for Oracle installs. On Windows, the NetBackup for Oracle library is
located in c:\Windows\system32.
See “Installing NetBackup for Oracle” on page 27.
When you back up Oracle database instances, each resultant backup set contains
at least one backup piece from the target database. You must give each backup
piece a unique name. Several substitution variables are available to aid in generating
unique names. The policy utility provides a set of default file name formats for the
backup pieces. NetBackup considers the backup piece name as the file being
backed up, so this name must be unique in the catalog.
To override any of the default file name formats, select Specify backup file name
formats. You can change the formats for the various backup file names for data
files, archived redo logs, the control file, and the Fast Recovery Area (FRA). Ensure
that the format that is specified for all RMAN backup piece names ends with _%t
to guarantee that each backup piece has a unique name in the catalog. NetBackup
uses this timestamp as part of its search criteria for catalog images. Without this
timestamp, performance may degrade as the NetBackup catalog grows.
For a backup, the following items apply:
■
The rman command starts the requested operation on the databases.
■
When the process requires media to store backup data, RMAN issues a backup
request to start a user-directed backup.
21
Introduction
Logging the RMAN input and output on a client
■
The NetBackup media server connects to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
NetBackup for Oracle on the client sends the database data to the NetBackup
media server which saves the data to secondary storage. A restore operation
works in essentially the same manner except that RMAN issues a restore
request. Then NetBackup retrieves the data from secondary storage and sends
it to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
■
RMAN supports parallel operations, so that a single rman command can start
more than one backup, or restore on the NetBackup system.
■
The status for an RMAN operation is stored in the RMAN catalog or in the
database control file. This same status appears in the output of the RMAN
command that is used to run the backup or restore. This status is the only status
that a database administrator must check to verify that a backup or restore has
been successful.
■
You can see the RMAN script and RMAN output in the details of the controlling
job (bphdb) in the Activity Monitor.
■
NetBackup also logs status, but only for its own part of the operation. The
database administrator cannot use the NetBackup status to determine whether
rman was successful. Errors can occur in rman that do not affect NetBackup and
are not recorded in its logs.
Logging the RMAN input and output on a client
NetBackup has the ability to log the RMAN input and output that is logged locally
on the client and also sent to the Activity Monitor. The RMAN_OUTPUT_DIR entry
specifies which directory to place the RMAN input and output locally on the client
for Oracle Intelligent Policy backups. The log is only created when a backup is run
using an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) and the file is continuously updated during
the RMAN backup. Only one RMAN_OUTPUT_DIR entry per client is allowed in a
Windows environment. In a UNIX environment, each user can place the output in
a different location by adding the RMAN_OUTPUT_DIR entry to $HOME/bp.conf file.
The value in the $HOME/bp.conf file takes precedence if it exists. NetBackup does
not clean up the log files so the Oracle user has to clean up the log files manually.
You must use the nbgetconfig and the nbsetconfig commands to view, add, or
change the option. The directory that is specified must exist and the Oracle user
needs to have permission to create files within the directory.
Use the following format:
RMAN_OUTPUT_DIR = directory_name
The directory_name is a directory to which the Oracle user has permission to create
files within the directory.
22
Introduction
NetBackup for Oracle operation using a script- or template-based policy
For information about these commands, see the NetBackup Commands Reference
Guide.
The file name has a specific format that includes the client name, policy name (OIP),
schedule type, date stamp (yyyymmdd), and timestamp (hhmmss). The following
is an example of how the file name looks in the directory:
orac121_backuppolicyname_full_20160201_184157_GMT.log
The following are examples of RMAN_OUTPUT_DIR entires:
Windows: install_path\oracle\oracle_logs\RMAN
UNIX: /oracle/oracle_logs/rman
NetBackup for Oracle operation using a script- or
template-based policy
The following are prerequisites for performing Oracle backups to a storage unit:
■
On Windows, access to the NetBackup library
■
On UNIX, linking with NetBackup
■
Generating unique file names
NetBackup users or automatic schedules can start database backups by specifying
a template or a shell script in the file list of the Oracle policy. The template or the
shell script specifies the backup commands that RMAN performs on the client.
On Windows, NetBackup for Oracle includes a library of functions that enable RMAN
to use NetBackup. This library is in c:\Windows\system32.
On UNIX, NetBackup for Oracle includes a library of functions that enable RMAN
to use NetBackup. You can link to this library.
See “About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX” on page 37.
When you use the RMAN backup command, each resulting backup set contains
at least one backup piece (data file, data file copy, control file, or archive log) from
the target database. You must give each backup piece a unique name using the
format operand. Several substitution variables are available to aid in generating
unique names. You can specify the format operand in the backup command.
NetBackup considers the backup piece name as the file being backed up, so this
name must be unique in the catalog.
For a backup, the following items apply:
■
The rman command starts the requested operation on the databases.
23
Introduction
About Oracle RMAN
■
When the process requires media to store backup data, RMAN starts a
user-directed backup by issuing a backup request.
■
The NetBackup media server connects to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
NetBackup for Oracle on the client sends the database data to the NetBackup
media server which saves the data to secondary storage. A restore operation
works in essentially the same manner except that RMAN issues a restore
request. Then NetBackup retrieves the data from secondary storage and sends
it to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
■
RMAN supports parallel operations, so a single rman command can start more
than one backup, or restore on the NetBackup system.
■
The status for an RMAN operation is stored in the RMAN catalog or in the
database control file. This same status appears in the output of the RMAN
command that runs the backup or restore. This status is the only status that a
database administrator must check to verify that a backup or restore has been
successful.
■
NetBackup also logs status, but only for its own part of the operation. The
database administrator cannot use the NetBackup status to determine whether
rman was successful. Errors can occur in rman that do not affect NetBackup and
are not recorded in its logs.
About Oracle RMAN
RMAN performs a wide variety of automated backup and recovery functions. During
a backup or a restore, RMAN provides the interface to the databases, and it extracts
and inserts data.
To start a database backup or restore, the database administrator runs the rman
command. You can run this command from the command line, a script, or an
application such as NetBackup. The RMAN script is used as a parameter to the
rman command and specifies the operations to be performed (for example, backup
or restore). The RMAN script also defines other components of the operation such
as the database objects to be backed up or restored.
During a backup or restore, RMAN controls the data streams going into or out of a
database. RMAN can access storage devices when it is integrated with a media
management system, such as the system that NetBackup provides.
RMAN provides true incremental backups. An incremental backup backs up data
files and includes only the blocks that have been changed since the last incremental
backup. For more information on the backup and recovery process, see your Oracle
documentation.
Table 1-3 explains Oracle RMAN terms as they pertain to NetBackup.
24
Introduction
About Oracle RMAN
Table 1-3
Oracle RMAN terms
Term
Definition
backup set
A backup set is a backup of one or more data files, control files, SPFILEs,
and archived redo log files. Each backup set consists of one or more binary
files called backup pieces. Backup pieces are written in a proprietary format
that only RMAN can create or restore.
instance
An Oracle database instance consists of a System Global Area (SGA) and
the Oracle background processes. When Oracle starts a database, it
allocates an SGA and starts Oracle background processes. The SGA is
de-allocated when the instance shuts down.
Real
RAC is an option that allows multiple concurrent instances to share a single
Application
physical database.
Clusters (RAC)
RMAN
RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers database files. RMAN starts Oracle
database server processes on the target database. These Oracle database
server processes perform the backup and restore. RMAN performs backup
and recovery procedures, and it greatly simplifies the tasks that
administrators perform during these processes.
However, RMAN cannot directly manage the storage devices and media
that are used in its backups. So it must be integrated with an application
that has these capabilities. NetBackup for Oracle provides device and media
management capabilities by integrating RMAN with NetBackup and its
media management software. Also, RMAN can access NetBackup’s
automatic scheduling facilities and its graphical interfaces.
RMAN
repository
An RMAN recovery catalog or the database control file is a repository for
the information that RMAN uses and maintains. RMAN uses this information
to determine how to run requested backup and restore actions.
rman
command
The rman command starts an RMAN backup or restore.
25
Introduction
About the Oracle recovery catalog
Table 1-3
Oracle RMAN terms (continued)
Term
Definition
RMAN script
The RMAN script specifies the commands for RMAN to perform (for
example, backups and restores). For information on RMAN commands and
script files, see your Oracle documentation.
The following directory contains example RMAN shell scripts:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\Oracle\samples\rman
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
These example scripts run RMAN commands and are fully commented to
explain the features that are used. You can review these examples and use
them as a starting point for developing backup, restore, and recovery scripts.
For more information on RMAN terminology, see your Oracle documentation.
About the Oracle recovery catalog
The recovery catalog is a repository of information. RMAN uses the information in
the recovery catalog to determine how to perform requested backup and restore
actions.
The recovery catalog contains information about the following software components:
■
Data file and archive log backup sets and backup pieces.
■
Data file copies.
■
Archived redo logs and their copies.
■
Tablespaces and data files on the target database.
■
Stored scripts. These are named, user-created sequences of RMAN and SQL
commands.
Oracle recommends that you use RMAN with a recovery catalog, especially if you
have 20 or more data files. However, you are not required to maintain a recovery
catalog with RMAN.
For information on the benefits and disadvantages of using a recovery catalog, see
your Oracle documentation.
26
Chapter
2
NetBackup for Oracle
QuickStart
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
■
Registering Oracle database instances
■
Creating an Oracle database instance group
■
Creating an Oracle policy
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
Before you can create an Oracle Intelligent Policy, you need to install NetBackup
for Oracle and use the instance management facility.
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Registering Oracle database instances
To install NetBackup for Oracle
1
Verify that the NetBackup for Oracle agent is supported on your operating
system and platform.
See “Verifying the operating system and platform compatibility” on page 35.
2
Make sure that you meet the server requirements and client requirements of
NetBackup for Oracle.
See “NetBackup server and client requirements” on page 36.
3
Install NetBackup if it is not already on your system.
Note: The Oracle database agent is installed as part of the NetBackup client
installation.
For more information on NetBackup installation, see the NetBackup Installation
Guide.
Registering Oracle database instances
The Oracle Discovery Service discovers Oracle database instances in the NetBackup
environment and collects them in an instance repository. You must register all the
discovered instances that you want to protect by assigning them credentials. An
Oracle policy accepts only registered instances.
You can register instances individually or add them to an instance group where
they assume the credentials of the group. You can also manually add an instance
and assign it a set of credentials at that time. The Oracle database user is required
to have a certain level of credentials. The Oracle database user must have
SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges (based on version of Oracle).
Use the NetBackup Administration Console or the nboraadm command on the
CLI to access the repository for instance registration. The nboraadm command is
available on the NetBackup master server and the NetBackup clients. This command
is available because users such as the DBAs may not have access to the master
server. The NetBackup administrator uses nboraadm on the master server to control
the list of users and clients that have access to nboraadm on the NetBackup client.
To register Oracle database instances
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand
NetBackup Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
The Oracle entry in the left pane contains two items:
28
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Registering Oracle database instances
■
Click Instances to display the list of instances. The list includes the names
of instances that you have added and the instances that the Oracle
Discovery Service has discovered. The following is an example of the screen
that appears:
■
Click Instance Groups to create an instance group to which you can then
add instances with the same credentials.
Procedures are available about how to create an instance group.
See “Creating an Oracle database instance group” on page 30.
3
Select one or more instances on the instance list. Use the Ctrl and Shift keys
as needed to select multiple instances.
4
Select Actions > Register. The following Register Instance panel appears.
5
Do one of the following:
29
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Creating an Oracle database instance group
■
If you have already created an instance group, selectAdd to group and
register using group credentials to add the instance(s) to the group.
Select the instance group name from the Instance Group pulldown menu.
The instance assumes the credentials of the instance group. Click OK to
continue.
■
Click Use Instance Credentials. Enter the instance credentials and click
OK.
6
The credentials are validated and a Validation Report dialog shows the results.
You can save the credentials even if the validation fails. Click OK to display
the Instances list again.
7
Verify that the Instances list shows the date-time when you registered the
instance. The instance is now available to select for an Oracle Intelligent Policy.
8
Repeat for all other instances that you want registered individually or as part
of an instance group.
Creating an Oracle database instance group
This procedure lets you create an instance group that includes instances with a
common set of credentials. You can create a default instance group for
newly-discovered instances. Then you can create a policy that uses this instance
group to automatically protect the new instances.
30
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Creating an Oracle database instance group
To create an Oracle database instance group
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand
NetBackup Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
Right-click Instance Groups and select New Instance Group. The following
Create Group dialog appears.
3
Enter the Instance Group Name in the text window, then fill in the appropriate
credentials, and click OK.
Note: Instance group names cannot be localized.
The newly created instance group name appears in the right pane.
Click Help for help entering the appropriate credentials. If necessary, contact
the Oracle database administrator for the correct set of credentials.
4
To assign individual instances to this instance group, click Instances in the
left pane to display the list of instances.
31
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Creating an Oracle policy
5
Right-click the desired instance and select Register to display the following
Register Instance panel. You can use the Ctrl and Shift keys to select multiple
instances for registering.
6
Make sure Add to group and register using group crendentials is selected.
Use the Instance Group pulldown menu to select the instance group that you
want the instance to be added to, then click OK.
7
Repeat for each instance that you want included in the instance group.
8
You may want to make this instance group the default for all newly discovered
instances. If so, all newly discovered instances are automatically added to this
instance group. More information is available about auto-registering an instance
group.
See “Automatic Registration of an instance group” on page 65.
Creating an Oracle policy
The easiest method to set up a backup policy is to use the Policy Configuration
Wizard. This wizard guides you through the setup process by automatically choosing
the best values for most configurations.
See “About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP)” on page 68.
Not all policy configuration options are presented through the wizard (for example,
calendar-based scheduling and the Data Classification setting). After the policy is
32
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Creating an Oracle policy
created, modify the policy in the Policies utility to configure the options that are not
part of the wizard.
Use the following procedure to create a policy using the Policy Configuration Wizard.
To create a policy with the Policy Configuration Wizard
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, click NetBackup
Management.
2
In the right pane, click Create a Policy to begin the Policy Configuration
Wizard. The first panel of the Policy Configuration Wizard appears.
3
Select Oracle - Backup Oracle data on the panel, then click Next.
4
Follow the prompts. Click Help on any wizard panel for assistance while running
the wizard.
Use the following procedure to create a policy without using the Policy
Configuration Wizard.
To create a policy without the Policy Configuration Wizard
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand
NetBackup Management > Policies.
2
On the Actions menu, click New > New Policy.
3
Type a unique name for the new policy in the Add a New Policy dialog box.
If necessary, clear the Use Policy Configuration Wizard check box, then
click OK.
The Attributes tab of the Add New Policy dialog box appears along with the
following set of tabs across the top of the panel:
33
NetBackup for Oracle QuickStart
Creating an Oracle policy
4
In the Policy Type pulldown menu, select Oracle. This action causes the tabs
across the top of the panel to change to the following:
5
The Add New Policy panels contain some default conditions and some
parameters that you must specify. The default values are the best values for
most configurations. However, you may need to customize the parameter
settings on one or more of the tabs.
The dialog contains the following set of tabbed pages:
6
■
Attributes tab. Default values are automatically selected on the Attributes
tab. More information is available about these attributes.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
■
Schedules tab. More information is available about this tab.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
■
Instances and Databases tab. On this page, select the instances and
instance groups that you want backed up for the policy. An Oracle Intelligent
Policy (OIP) must include either the Protect Instances and Databases or
the Protect instance groups option. More information is available about
this tab.
See “Instances and Databases tab” on page 77.
■
Backup Selections tab. More information is available about the attributes
on this tab.
See “Backup Selections tab” on page 79.
■
Oracle tab. More information is available about the attributes on this tab.
See “Oracle tab” on page 81.
To protect the newly discovered instances, you may have to create the instance
group first, then set up a policy for the default instance group.
See “Automatic Registration of an instance group” on page 65.
34
Chapter
3
Installing NetBackup for
Oracle
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Verifying the operating system and platform compatibility
■
NetBackup server and client requirements
■
Requirements for using NetBackup for Oracle in a NetBackup cluster
■
About the license for NetBackup for Oracle
■
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
Verifying the operating system and platform
compatibility
Verify that the NetBackup for Oracle agent is supported on your operating system
or platform.
To verify operating system and compatibility
1
Go to the following webpage:
http://www.netbackup.com/compatibility
2
In the list of documents, click on the following document:
Application/Database Agent Compatibility List
3
For information on support for Snapshot Client, see the following document:
Snapshot Client Compatibility List
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
NetBackup server and client requirements
NetBackup server and client requirements
Every NetBackup server includes the NetBackup client software by default.
Therefore, you can use NetBackup for Oracle on a NetBackup server or client (if
NetBackup for Oracle is supported on that platform).
Verify that the following requirements are met for the NetBackup server:
■
The NetBackup server software is installed and operational on the NetBackup
server. The NetBackup server platform can be any that NetBackup supports.
See the NetBackup Installation Guide.
■
One or more Oracle database instances must exist.
■
Make sure that you configure any backup media that the storage unit uses.
The number of media volumes that are required depends on several things:
■
The devices used
■
The sizes of the databases that you want to back up
■
The amount of data that you want to archive
■
The size of your backups
■
The frequency of backups or archives
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
■
Verify that the NetBackup client software is installed on the computer that has
the databases you want to back up.
If the database is clustered, you must use the same version of NetBackup on
each node in the cluster.
See “About the license for NetBackup for Oracle” on page 37.
Requirements for using NetBackup for Oracle in
a NetBackup cluster
If you plan to use NetBackup for Oracle on a NetBackup server configured in a
NetBackup cluster, verify the following requirements:
■
NetBackup supports your cluster environment.
See the Software Compatibility List (SCL).
■
The NetBackup server software is installed and configured to work in a
NetBackup cluster.
See the NetBackup Installation Guide.
See the NetBackup Clustered Master Server Administrator's Guide.
36
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About the license for NetBackup for Oracle
■
The NetBackup client software is installed and operational on each node to
which NetBackup can failover.
■
A valid license for NetBackup for Oracle must exist on each node where
NetBackup server resides.
About the license for NetBackup for Oracle
The NetBackup for Oracle agent is installed with the NetBackup client software.
No separate installation is required. A valid license for the agent must exist on the
master server.
More information is available on how to add licenses.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
For a NetBackup cluster, a valid license for NetBackup for Oracle must exist on
each node where NetBackup server resides.
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for
UNIX
Before writing to a storage unit, link the Oracle database server software with the
NetBackup API library installed by NetBackup for Oracle. Oracle uses this library
when it needs to write to or read from the devices that NetBackup media manager
supports.
To link your Oracle software with the NetBackup API library, use one of the following
methods:
■
(Recommended) Use the SBT_LIBRARY parameter in the PARMS section of
the allocate channel in the RMAN script. In the run block of the RMAN script,
modify the ALLOCATE statement so that the SBT_LIBRARY parameter points
to the NetBackup API library. For example:
ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' PARMS 'SBT_LIBRARY=
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64.1';
■
Use the linking script that NetBackup provides.
■
Create the links manually.
The linking process differs depending on your hardware platform, your Oracle
database server release level, and your OS level. This topic does not address all
the supported combinations, but it specifies OS level differences.
37
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
The default location for the NetBackup API library is /usr/openv/netbackup/bin.
The name of the NetBackup API library differs depending on your platform.
Table 3-1 lists the library names for the supported platforms.
Table 3-1
NetBackup API libraries
Platform
Oracle
Library name
AIX
64-bit
libobk.a64
HP Itanium
64-bit
libobk.so
Linux x86
64-bit
libobk.so64
Linux Itanium
64-bit
libobk.so
IBM pSeries
64-bit
libobk.so
IBM zSeries
64-bit
libobk.so
Solaris (SPARC)
64-bit
libobk.so.64.1
Solaris (x86)
64-bit
libobk.so.1
Verifying environment variables and shutting down Oracle
The following procedure describes how to correctly define your environment variables
and how to shut down the Oracle database instances.
To verify environment variables and shutdown Oracle database instances
1
Make sure that your Oracle environment variables are defined.
Define the variables as follows:
2
ORACLE_HOME
The directory path to the Oracle software location.
ORACLE_SID
The name of the Oracle database instance.
Become the Oracle user.
su - oracle
3
Determine if you need to link or re-link the library with NetBackup.
See “Linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup on UNIX platforms” on page 39.
4
If this installation is an upgrade and the SBT_LIBRARY parameter is not in
use, restart the Oracle database instance.
38
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
Linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup on UNIX platforms
The procedures in this topic show how to link RMAN with NetBackup. The automatic
method is preferred. Use the manual method only if the link script fails or if you
receive Oracle messages to indicate that manual linking is required.
Link the library with NetBackup when you license NetBackup for Oracle for the first
time.
For more information about what Oracle database release that NetBackup for Oracle
supports, review the Application/Database Agent Compatibility List.
To automatically link Oracle RMAN with NetBackup
1
Run the oracle_link script that is located in /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/.
This script determines the Oracle version level and then links Oracle with the
NetBackup API library. This script writes output to /tmp/make_trace.<pid>. To
change the trace file location, change the MAKE_TRACE variable in the
oracle_link script.
2
If this installation is an upgrade, restart the Oracle database instance.
To manually link Oracle RMAN with NetBackup, follow the instructions in one of
the platform-specific sub-topics:
■
See “Manually linking AIX (64-bit)” on page 39.
■
See “Manually linking HP Itanium (64-bit)” on page 40.
■
See “Manually linking Linux x86 (64-bit)” on page 41.
■
See “Manually linking IBM pSeries or zSeries” on page 42.
■
See “Manually linking Solaris x86 (64-bit)” on page 42.
■
See “Manually linking Solaris SPARC (64-bit)” on page 43.
Manually linking AIX (64-bit)
To manually link AIX (64-bit)
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.*
39
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
3
(Conditional) Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate
location.
Perform this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.a exists.
For example:
mv libobk.a libobk.a.orig
4
Type the following ln command to create a new link:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.a64 libobk.a
5
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
Manually linking HP Itanium (64-bit)
To manually link HP Itanium (64-bit)
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.so
3
(Conditional) Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate
location.
Perform this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.so.
For example:
mv libobk.so libobk.so.orig
40
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
4
Type the following ln command to create new links:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so
5
libobk.so
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
Manually linking Linux x86 (64-bit)
To manually Linux x86 (64-bit)
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.so
3
(Conditional) Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate
location.
Perform this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.so is present.
For example:
mv libobk.so libobk.so.orig
4
Type the following ln command to create a new link:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64 libobk.so
5
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
41
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
Manually linking IBM pSeries or zSeries
To link manually IBM pSeries or zSeries
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.so
3
(Conditional) Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate
location.
Perform this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.so is present.
For example:
mv libobk.so libobk.so.orig
4
Type the following ln command to create a new link:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so libobk.so
5
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
Manually linking Solaris x86 (64-bit)
To manually link Solaris x86 (64-bit)
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.so
42
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
3
Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate location. Perform
this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.so is present.
For example:
mv libobk.so libobk.so.orig
4
Type the following ln command to create a new link:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so.1 libobk.so
5
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
Manually linking Solaris SPARC (64-bit)
To manually link Solaris (64-bit)
1
Type the following cd command to change directories:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
2
Type the following ls command to determine whether the Oracle library exists:
ls -l libobk.so
3
(Conditional) Use the mv command to move the Oracle library to an alternate
location.
Perform this step if the output from step 2 shows that libobk.so is present.
For example:
mv libobk.so libobk.so.orig
43
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX
4
Type the following ln command to create a new link:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64.1 libobk.so
5
If you run into problems and cannot re-link Oracle with the NetBackup API
library, you can rollback what you have done. Enter the following:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib64
mv libobk.so.orig libobk.so
44
Chapter
4
Oracle policy configuration
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
■
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy
■
About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP)
■
About script- or template-based Oracle policies
■
Configuring the logon account for the NetBackup Client Service for NetBackup
for Oracle
■
Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
The major part of configuring NetBackup for Oracle is to create and configure the
Oracle policies. The following topics prepare you to configure NetBackup for Oracle
policies:
■
See “About Oracle policy configuration” on page 46.
■
See “Permissions for NetBackup for Oracle log directories” on page 47.
■
See “NetBackup for Oracle backup policy types” on page 48.
■
See “Configuring the logon account for the NetBackup Client Service for
NetBackup for Oracle” on page 113.
■
See “Configuring the Maximum jobs per client for NetBackup for Oracle”
on page 54.
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
About Oracle policy configuration
NetBackup offers two ways to configure an Oracle policy.
■
Oracle Intelligent Policies. This method lets you create a single policy to protect
multiple Oracle database instances that are spread over multiple clients. You
select Oracle database instances for a policy from a repository of instances that
are automatically discovered in the NetBackup environment. Among the features
that these policies provide is the ability to schedule frequent backups of archived
redo logs. These backups are accomplished in minutes instead of hours or days.
■
Script- or template-based policies. This method lets you create an Oracle backup
policy by using a script or template that is based on a list of clients.
A backup policy for a database defines the backup criteria for a specific group of
instances (Oracle Intelligent Policy) or clients (script- or template-based policy).
The Intelligent Oracle Policy includes the following criteria:
■
Storage unit and media to use
■
Policy attributes
■
Backup schedules. Automatic schedule and archive log schedule.
■
Instances to be backed up
■
Backup selections: Whole database, tablespaces, data files, FRA
The script- or template-based policy includes the following criteria:
■
Storage unit and media to use
■
Policy attributes
■
Backup schedules: Automatic schedule and application schedule.
■
Clients to be backed up
■
Backup templates or script files to be run on the clients
To back up the database environment, define at least one script- or template-based
Oracle policy with the appropriate schedules and clients. Or, you can configure a
single Oracle Intelligent Policy that includes all instances.
Most requirements for database policies are the same as for file system backups.
In addition to the policy attributes for Oracle, other attributes are available that you
should consider.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
46
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Permissions for NetBackup for Oracle log directories
In UNIX, NetBackup uses the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs directory tree for the
recording of troubleshooting information. NetBackup also uses this directory tree
for progress and communication updates to users and other NetBackup applications.
Restrictive permissions on these directories can not only disable the collection of
troubleshooting data, but also prevent the application itself from functioning correctly.
Backup operations and restore operations fail when permissions are too restrictive.
We recommend that you make all of the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs directories
and subdirectories readable and writeable by all users (777 permissions). However,
security requirements may prohibit global read-write access. If so, you can restrict
permissions of specific directories to a single group or user. If you do restrict
permissions, you have to make sure that these restrictions do not affect backup
and restore operations. This means that all operations must be initiated using a
process that has read and write access to the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs
directory and subdirectories.
Check that the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/user_ops directory tree has 777
permissions. The items in this directory need to be accessible for the applications
to operate correctly.
If you restrict permissions on the other directories that are located in
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs, backup and restore operations are not affected.
However, troubleshooting efforts may be hindered when processes do not have
the appropriate permissions to update their designated debug logs.
In Windows, a situation can occur during backup and restore jobs of Oracle 12c
where no debug log files are created in the dbclient and bpdbsbora folders. In
the Oracle 12c release, an Oracle user can be a Windows built-in account
(LocalSystem or LocalService) or a standard Windows user account. This issue
is the result of security permissions for standard (non-administrator) Windows user
accounts.
If a standard (non-administrator) Windows user account is used, the Oracle user
may not have the proper privileges to write to the dbclient and bpdbsbora folders.
To avoid this issue, change the Windows security permissions of the dbclient and
bpdbsbora folders to give the Oracle user Full control permissions.
You need to review permissions on the user_ops folder and subfolders. By default,
these folders are writeable by all users. If restrictive settings have been configured,
ensure that full access is granted for any standard Windows user account that is
used. Otherwise, backup and restore operations can fail.
For more information about how restrictive settings can cause issues during backups,
restores, or troubleshooting, refer to the following article:
47
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH52446
Oracle Home User permissions when NetBackup SAN
Client is used
To use the NetBackup SAN Client to protect Oracle on Windows, the Oracle user
must have administrator privileges. Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1
(12.1), Oracle Database on Windows supports the use of Oracle Home User. The
Oracle Home User is specified at the time of Oracle Database installation and is
used to run the Windows services for the Oracle home. The Oracle Home User that
is used to run Windows services is similar to the Oracle user for Oracle Database
on Linux.
For more information, refer to the Oracle document "Supporting Oracle Home User
on Windows" at the following location:
http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E16655_01/win.121/e10714/oh_usr.htm
To use NetBackup SAN Client, make sure to select Use Windows Built-in Account
during Oracle Database installation. Making this selection enables the Windows
services for the Oracle home to run as LocalSystem or LocalService.
NetBackup for Oracle backup policy types
Table 4-1 shows the Oracle backup policy types you can specify.
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types
Backup type
Description
Application Backup – Scriptor template-based policy
using streamed data only
The Application Backup schedule enables user-controlled
NetBackup operations from the client. These operations
include those initiated from the client and those initiated by
an automatic schedule on the master server. NetBackup uses
the Application Backup schedule when the user starts a
backup manually. Configure at least one Application Backup
schedule for each database policy. The
Default-Application-Backup schedule is configured
automatically as an Application Backup schedule.
48
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Full Backup – Script-based
policy
Stream-based backup: The specified script in the Backup
Selections tab is executed. If the script is set up properly,
RMAN initiates a full stream based backup (full or incremental
level 0).
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (For
example: storage and retention) are used.
RMAN proxy backup: The specified script in the Backup
Selections tab is executed. If the script is set up properly,
RMAN initiates a proxy backup.
Note: The Full Backup schedule properties (For example:
storage and retention) are used for the proxy portion of the
backup. The Application Backup schedule properties (For
example: storage and retention) are used for the streamed
portion of the backup.
Differential Incremental
Stream-based backup: The specified script in the Backup
backup – Script-based policy Selections tab is executed. If the script is set up properly,
RMAN initiates a stream-based incremental level 1 backup.
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E.
storage, retention, etc.) are used.
RMAN proxy backup: This backup type should only be used
for BLI backups. If you do not use a proxy backup for a BLI
backup, then a Full Backup schedule should be used. The
specified script in the Backup Selections tab is executed.
If the script is set up properly, RMAN initiates a proxy backup.
Note: The Differential Incremental Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the proxy
portion of the backup. The Application Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the
streamed portion of the backup.
49
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Cumulative Incremental
Stream-based backup: The specified script in the Backup
backup – Script-based policy Selections tab is executed. If the script is set up properly,
RMAN initiates a stream-based incremental level 1 cumulative
backup.
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E.
storage, retention, etc.) are used.
RMAN proxy backup: This backup type should only be used
for BLI backups. If you do not use a proxy backup for a BLI
backup, then a Full Backup schedule should be used. The
specified script in the Backup Selections tab is executed.
If the script is set up properly, RMAN initiates a proxy backup.
Note: The Cumulative Incremental Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the proxy
portion of the backup. The Application Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the
streamed portion of the backup.
Full Backup – Template
based policy
Stream-based backup: The specified template in the Backup
Selections tab is executed. Dynamically generates an RMAN
script that initiates an incremental level 0 backup.
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E.
storage, retention, etc.) are used.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot): The specified template in the Backup Selections
tab is executed. Dynamically generates an RMAN script that
initiates a proxy backup.
Note: The Full Backup schedule properties (I.E. storage,
retention, etc.) are used for the proxy portion of the backup.
The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E. storage,
retention, etc.) are used for the streamed portion of the
backup.
50
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Differential Incremental
backup – Template based
policy
Stream-based backup: The specified template in the Backup
Selections tab is executed. Dynamically generates an RMAN
script that initiates a Differential Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1) backup.
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E.
storage, retention, etc.) are used.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot): The specified template in the Backup Selections
tab is executed.
If the policy has Perform block level incremental backups
selected, the generated script causes RMAN to initiate a
proxy backup.
Conversely, if the policy does not have Perform block level
incremental backups selected, the generated script causes
RMAN to initiate a Differential Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1) backup.
Note: The Differential Incremental Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the proxy
portion of the backup. The Application Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the
streamed portion of the backup.
51
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Cumulative Incremental
backup – Template based
policy
Stream-based backup: The specified template in the Backup
Selections tab is executed. Dynamically generates an RMAN
script that initiates a Cumulative Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE) backup.
Note: The Application Backup schedule properties (I.E.
storage, retention, etc.) are used.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot): The specified template in the Backup Selections
tab is executed.
If the policy has Perform block level incremental backups
selected, the generated script causes RMAN to initiate a
proxy backup.
Conversely, if the policy does not have Perform block level
incremental backups selected, the generated script causes
RMAN to initiate a Cumulative Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE) backup.
Note: The Cumulative Incremental Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the proxy
portion of the backup. The Application Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for the
streamed portion of the backup.
Full Backup – OIP Policy
Stream-based backup: Dynamically generates an RMAN
script on each client for the instance(s) and or instance
group(s) defined in the Instances and Databases tab. The
script initiates an Incremental Full (INCREMENTAL LEVEL
0) backup.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot): Dynamically generates an RMAN script on each
client for the instance(s)and or instance group(s) defined in
the Instances and Databases tab to initiate a proxy backup.
Note: The Full Backup schedule properties (I.E. storage,
retention, etc.) are used for both the streamed and the proxy
data.
52
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Differential Incremental
backup – OIP Policy
Stream-based backup: Dynamically generates an RMAN
script on each client for the instance(s) and or instance
group(s) defined in the Instances and Databases tab. The
script initiates a Differential Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1) backup.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot):
■
■
The policy has Perform block level incremental
backups selected. An RMAN script is dynamically
generated on each client for the instance(s)and or
instance group(s) defined in the Instances and
Databases tab to initiate a proxy backup.
The policy does not have Perform block level
incremental backups selected. An RMAN script is
dynamically generated on each client for the instance(s)
and or instance group(s) defined in the Instances and
Databases tab. A Differential Incremental
(INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1) backup is initiated.
Note: The Differential Incremental Backup schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for both the
streamed and the proxy data.
53
Oracle policy configuration
Preparing for NetBackup for Oracle configuration
Table 4-1
Oracle backup types (continued)
Backup type
Description
Cumulative Incremental
backup – OIP Policy
Stream-based backup: Dynamically generates an RMAN
script on each client for the instance(s) and or instance
group(s) defined in the Instances and Databases tab. The
script initiates a Cumulative Incremental (INCREMENTAL
LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE) backup.
RMAN proxy backup (Policy is defined to perform a
snapshot):
■
■
The policy has Perform block level incremental
backups selected. An RMAN script is dynamically
generated on each client for the instance(s)and or
instance group(s) defined in the Instances and
Databases tab to initiate a proxy backup.
The policy does not have Perform block level
incremental backups selected. An RMAN script is
dynamically generated on each client for the
instance(s)/instance group(s) defined in the Instances
and Databases tab. A Cumulative Incremental
(INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE) backup is
initiated.
Note: The “Cumulative incremental backup” schedule
properties (I.E. storage, retention, etc.) are used for both the
streamed and the proxy data.
Archived redo log backup –
OIP Policy Only
The policy dynamically generates an RMAN script on each
client for the instance(s) and or instance group(s) defined in
the Instances and Databases tab. The policy initiates a
stream-based archive redo log backup.
Note: The frequency is granular down to intervals of minutes.
Configuring the Maximum jobs per client for NetBackup for Oracle
The following procedure shows how to set the Maximum jobs per client attribute.
To configure the maximum jobs per client
1
In the left pane of the NetBackup Administration Console, expand NetBackup
Management > Host Properties.
2
Select Master Server.
3
In the right pane, double-click the server icon.
54
Oracle policy configuration
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy
4
Click Global Attributes.
5
Change the Maximum jobs per client value to 99.
The Maximum jobs per client specifies the maximum number of concurrent
backups that are allowed per client. The default is 1.
You can use the following formula to calculate a smaller value for the maximum
jobs per client setting:
Maximum jobs per client = number_of_streams X number_of_policies
Refer to the following definitions:
number_of_streams
The number of backup streams between the database server
and NetBackup. Each separate stream starts a new backup job
on the client.
number_of_policies
The number of policies of any type that can back up this client at
the same time. This number can be greater than one. For
example, a client can be in two policies to back up two different
databases. These backup windows can overlap.
For Oracle backups and restores, the number of jobs is difficult to determine. This
difficulty exists because Oracle internally determines when and how many streams
to run in parallel to optimize performance.
Note: Enter a large enough value for the Maximum jobs per client attribute to
meet the number of jobs that Oracle runs. You may need to experiment with different
values at your site.
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent
Policy
The NetBackup Discovery Service runs on all clients in the environment and reports
to the master server when it finds instances of applications. This service helps you
to build an Oracle Intelligent Policy by finding Oracle instances and displaying them
in the NetBackup Administration Console and the Instances and Databases
tab. When NetBackup is installed, the service checks the local client host for Oracle
database instances and also checks periodically after installation (every 4 hours).
Instance management collects the discovered instances in an instance repository.
The user can access this repository on the NetBackup Administration Console or
by using the nboraadm command.
55
Oracle policy configuration
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy
DBAs can run nboraadm on a NetBackup client if the backup administrator enables
access to nboraadm by running the following command on the master server:
# nboraadm -add_dba <client_name> <user_name>
See the nboraadm description in the NetBackup Commands Reference Guide.
All instances that you want backed up as part of an Oracle Intelligent Policy must
be registered with credentials. Instance management lets you assign credentials
to individual instances as well as instance groups. The instances in an instance
group share the same set of credentials. You can direct the discovery service to
assign the new instances that it discovers to an instance group. The Oracle database
user is required to have a certain level of credentials. The Oracle database user
must have SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges (based on version of Oracle).
See “About the NetBackup Discovery Service” on page 56.
See “Manually adding an Oracle database instance to the repository” on page 58.
See “Registering an Oracle database instance” on page 61.
See “Creating an Oracle database instance group” on page 30.
See “About Oracle database instance groups” on page 64.
See “Adding an instance to an instance group” on page 64.
See “Automatic Registration of an instance group” on page 65.
See “About instance actions” on page 67.
See “About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP)” on page 68.
See “Oracle database upgrade effect on Oracle Intelligent Policies” on page 72.
About the NetBackup Discovery Service
The NetBackup Discovery Service (nbdisco) discovers Oracle database instances
throughout the NetBackup environment. The discovery service reports to the master
server when it finds instances of applications to help you build an Oracle Intelligent
Policy. The service polls the clients upon NetBackup installation and periodically
after installation (every 5 minutes). Instance management collects the discovered
instances in an instance repository. The user can access this repository on the
NetBackup Administration Console or by using the nboraadm command.
By default, this service is enabled to report instances. However, you can use the
REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES client configuration entry to shut down or restart the
service on a particular client. By default, REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES is not present
in the Windows registry or the UNIX bp.conf file.
To change the default setting, use bpsetconfig to add or change the entry:
56
Oracle policy configuration
Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy
■
In the Windows registry.
■
In the /usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf file on UNIX.
Use the following format:REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES = TRUE | FALSE
Set REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES to FALSE to shut down the discovery service.
The service shuts down within 10 minutes and remains down on the client. To turn
on the discovery service on that client, set REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES to TRUE
or remove the entire entry. Then run bp.start_all on the client to restart the
service.
To set this value on a client remotely, run the following command from the master
server:
echo REPORT_CLIENT_DISCOVERIES=FALSE | bpsetconfig -h clientname
Viewing the Oracle database instance repository
You can view a complete list of all Oracle database instances. In the NetBackup
Administration Console, in the left pane, expand the Applications node, then
expand the Oracle node. The two items under the Oracle node are Instances and
Instance Groups.
When you click All Instances, the following is an example of the instance list in
the right pane.
You can click on one of the instances to select it for an operation. You can also
select multiple instances for an operation with the following exceptions:
■
You can select only one instance at a time to view properties.
■
You can register multiple instances simultaneously only if the OS type is the
same (UNIX or Windows).
The instances are listed with the following column information:
Instance Name
The instance name (ORACLE_SID).
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State
The current state of the instance. Possible values are:
■
■
■
Blank - The instance is not yet registered and cannot be
protected using an Intelligent Oracle Policy.
Active - Credentials have been provided for the instance. An
Intelligent Oracle Policy can protect the instance.
Inactive - If the instance is added to a policy, it is not included
in the backup. An administrator can inactivate an instance to
take it offline (for example, for upgrades).
Host
Specifies the host where the Oracle database resides.
OS Type
Specifies the operating system of the host. Valid values are
Windows and UNIX.
ORACLE_HOME
The file path of the Oracle home directory where the instance
resides.
TNS_ADMIN
Specifies the location of the network administration directory on
the client system if this directory is not in the default location.
Consult your Oracle documentation for the default location of the
network administration directory on the client system.
Instance Group
Specifies the Oracle database instance group name that this
instance is part of. This field is blank if the instance does not belong
to an instance group.
Registered
Specifies the date and time when a user registered a set of
credentials for this instance. This field is blank if the instance has
not been given credentials.
Policies
The names of the policies that the instance has been assigned to.
Manually adding an Oracle database instance to the repository
New instances the instance discovery system finds on the clients are automatically
added to the repository. However, you may need to add an instance manually. For
example, you do not want to wait for the discovery service to discover the new
instance.
Note: If necessary, contact the Oracle database administrator for the correct set
of credentials. The DBA can also manually add the instance if the DBA is not willing
or allowed to share the credentials with the backup administrator. The DBA can
manually add the instance using the nboraadm command on the client. The Oracle
database user is required to have a certain level of credentials. The Oracle database
user must have SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges (based on version of Oracle).
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To manually add an Oracle database instance to the repository
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand NetBackup
Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
Click All Instances. All instances in the repository are listed in the right pane.
3
Right-click All Instances and select New instance to display the following:
4
Fill in the Instance Name, Host, and ORACLE_HOME parameters. Click Help
to display descriptions of these parameters. For example:
5
(Conditional) Use the Override Default TNS_ADMIN Path if you need to
override the default network administration directory on the client system. Enter
the fully qualified path for the network administration directory on this host.
Click Help to display a description of the parameter. Example of the parameter:
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6
Click Provide Credentials.
7
In the Register Instance dialog box, click Use Instance Credentials.
8
Enter the OS Credentials. You may have to contact the Oracle DBA for the
correct credentials.
9
In the Authentication area, you can optionally click Oracle Authentication
to enter specific Oracle credentials. You can also click Use Oracle RMAN
Recovery Catalog to enter credentials for the RMAN recovery catalog. Then
click OK.
The system tries to validate the credentials, report its findings, and return you
to the Change Instance dialog box. Validation can fail for the following reasons:
■
If the host name is invalid, the following message appears
Could not validate credentials. Failed to connect to client:
<client> (40).
■
If the host name is correct but you cannot connect to the host because the
host is down, the following message appears:
The validation operation timed out waiting for a respond from
the client (46)
■
If the host name is correct, but username-password is invalid, the following
message appears:
Validation of operating system user/password failed for client:
<client> (41).
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The error message includes the generated status code which appears in
parentheses at the end of the message. The following is an example of an
error pop-up window:
Click OK to save the credentials, or you can click Cancel and re-enter the
credentials. If you save the credentials that caused the error, the instance is
saved in the repository. You can edit the instance at a later time to correct the
validation issue.
Click OK in the Change Instance dialog box.
You have added the instance to the repository and registered the instance with
credentials.
Registering an Oracle database instance
The NetBackup Discovery Service discovers Oracle database instances on the
local client host. The service reports to the master server upon startup and every
4 hours thereafter. The master server collects the discovered instances in an
instance repository. The user accesses the repository on the NetBackup
Administration Console or by running the nboraadm command.
See the nboraadm description in the NetBackup Commands Reference Guide.
Use the following procedure to register an Oracle database instance that the
discovery service adds to the instance list.
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To register an Oracle database instance
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand NetBackup
Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
Click All Instances. The right pane displays a list of instances. Instances that
have previously been registered show a date and time in the Registered
column.
3
Double-click the instance that you want to register. The Edit Instance dialog
box appears. For example, you can select ORAC13 to display the following:
You can select multiple instances to register at the same time.
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4
(Conditional) Use the Override Default TNS_ADMIN Path if you need to
override the default network administration directory on the client system. Enter
the fully qualified path for the network administration directory on this host.
Click Help to display a description of the parameter. Example of the parameter:
5
In the Credential area, click Edit to display the Register Instance dialog box.
For example:
6
In the Register Instance dialog box, click Use Instance Credentials.
The Oracle database user is required to have a certain level of credentials.
The Oracle database user must have SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges (based
on version of Oracle).
7
Enter the OS Credentials.
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8
In the Authentication area, you can optionally click Oracle Authentication
to enter specific Oracle credentials. You may need to contact the Oracle DBA
for the correct credentials. The system tries to validate the credentials and
reports its findings.
You can also click Use Oracle RMAN Recovery Catalog to enter credentials
for the RMAN recovery catalog. Then click OK to save the credentials. The
Edit Instance dialog box reappears.
Click OK in the Edit Instance dialog box.
9
In the right pane of the Applications dialog, check the Registered column to
see that the instance is now registered.
10 Repeat for all other instances that you want registered.
About Oracle database instance groups
Instance groups can be a major time saver when you create Oracle policies.
■
You can configure an instance group to automatically add newly discovered
database instances to the group.
■
You need only enter a set of credentials once. The Oracle database user is
required to have a certain level of credentials. The Oracle database user must
have SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privileges (based on version of Oracle). Thereafter,
all discovered instances can be automatically assigned the same set of
credentials, registering instances on the fly.
■
With the selection of an instance group, you can create a single policy that backs
up and restores hundreds and even thousands of instances.
See “Creating an Oracle database instance group” on page 30.
Adding an instance to an instance group
You can add an instance to an instance group by using the NetBackup Administration
Console or by running the nboraadm command.
See the nboraadm description in the NetBackup Commands Reference Guide.
Note that you may have already registered an instance individually. When you add
it to an instance group, its credentials are automatically changed to the group
credentials.
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To add an instance to an instance group
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand NetBackup
Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
Click All Instances to display all instances in the right pane.
3
Select the instance that you want to be a member of an instance group. You
can select multiple instances from the list.
4
On the Actions menu, select Register. The Register Instance dialog appears.
For example:
5
On the Instance Group pulldown menu, select the desired instance group
(InstanceGroup1 in the example).
6
Click OK. A Validation Report dialog box appears that describes the validation
successes and failures.
Automatic Registration of an instance group
The Oracle Discovery Service brings newly discovered instances into the instance
repository. Auto Registration is a mechanism that allows a discovered instance to
be brought into the repository as a member of an instance group. The instance
assumes the credentials of the group and is automatically registered.
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To auto-register an instance group
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand NetBackup
Management > Applications > Oracle.
2
Click Instance Groups, then on the Actions menu, select Auto Registration.
The following dialog box appears:
3
In the Automatic Registration dialog box, click the Automatically register
newly discovered instances. Then select the desired instance group from
the pulldown menu.
4
(Conditional) Use the Override default Unix TNS_ADMIN path and or the
Override default Windows TNS_ADMIN path if you need to override the
default network administration directory on the client system. Enter the fully
qualified path for the correct operating system. You can automatically register
instances in Windows, UNIX, or a combination of both operating systems. The
following dialog box shows an example of this parameter:
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5
Click OK to return to the Instances display. All newly discovered instances
are automatically added to the specified instance group and registered with
the group credentials.
6
A validation report shows if the instances passed or failed. Do one of the
following:
■
Click OK to save the credentials anyway. The instance is added to the
instance list. However, instances with invalidated credentials cannot be
selected as part of an Oracle policy. Their backups fail with a 54xx status
error.
■
Click Cancel to go back and change the credentials.
About instance actions
The Actions menu contains several operations that you can perform on the
instances in the repository. Another way to perform these actions is to highlight the
desired instance or instance group, then right-click and select the operation from
the shortcut menu.
Table 4-2 describes the actions or operations that you can perform on Oracle
database instances.
Table 4-2
Instance actions
Action
Description
New instance
To create a new instance, select Actions > New > Instance. A New Instance dialog
box appears. Enter the instance properties (instance name, host, ORACLE_HOME,
and credentials).
See “Manually adding an Oracle database instance to the repository” on page 58.
New Instance Group
To create a new instance group, select Actions > New > Instance Group. A New
Instance Group dialog box appears.
See “About Oracle database instance groups” on page 64.
Properties
To display instance or instance group properties, highlight the desired item. Then select
Actions > Properties. The Edit Instance appears where you change the instance
properties (instance name, host, ORACLE_HOME, override default TNS_admin path,
and credentials).
Register
To register an instance, highlight the instance, then select Actions > Register. The
Register Instance dialog box appears. Change credentials for the selected item.
See “Registering an Oracle database instance” on page 61.
See “Adding an instance to an instance group” on page 64.
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Table 4-2
Instance actions (continued)
Action
Description
Delete
To delete an instance or an instance group from the instances repository list, highlight
the item to be deleted, then select Actions > Delete.
You cannot delete an instance or an instance group that is part of a policy. First, use
the Instances and Databases tab to delete the instance from the policy. Then, in the
instances repository list, highlight the instance to be deleted, then select Actions >
Delete.
Auto Registration
To automatically register newly discovered instances as part of an instance group,
highlight Instances in the left pane, then select Actions > Auto Registration.
See “Automatic Registration of an instance group” on page 65.
Clean up instances
This option lets you configure NetBackup to automatically clear orphaned instances
from instance management. Orphaned instances are the databases that were
discovered at one time but were never registered.
To enable instance cleanup, select Clean up After. Next, select how often (days) that
you want NetBackup to perform instance cleanup.
Note: If instance cleanup is enabled and auto registration activated, cleaned up
instances may be rediscovered and added to the auto registration group.
About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP)
The Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) feature is a method of Oracle policy backup
based on Oracle database instances. This method precludes the need to create
templates and scripts for your Oracle policies. The OIP feature has the following
elements:
■
You can create a single policy to protect multiple Oracle database instances
that are spread over multiple clients.
■
A discovery service discovers Oracle database instances throughout the
NetBackup environment. The service polls the clients every five minutes and
sends the discovered instances to an instance repository available to you on
the NetBackup Administration Console. You manage instances and instance
groups through the NetBackup Administration Console or the nboraadm
command.
■
All instances that you want backed up must be registered with credentials. If
multiple instances share the same credentials, you can create an instance group
for the set of instances with common credentials.
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■
Multiple instance groups can be created for different sets of instances with
different credentials. You can create a default instance group for newly
discovered instances to be automatically added to the group, ensuring that new
instances are protected.
■
The database administrator can control all instances and instance group
credentials using the nboraadm command on the NetBackup client, which
provides improved security throughout the system.
■
You are not required to know RMAN or to write and use templates and RMAN
scripts. Instead, this feature automatically generates the scripts at run-time.
■
The Job Details in the Activity Monitor lets you view the backup summary,
database state, RMAN input, and RMAN output for the OIP. Also, the Activity
Monitor includes a new Instances column that shows the instance that the
associated policy has backed up.
■
Enhanced error codes enable faster identification, troubleshooting, and correction
of problems. You can easily restart a failed job.
■
You no longer need to create an application backup schedule. You only need
to create automatic backup schedules for the data movement, which simplifies
how retention works on the backup pieces.
■
You can manually back up any number of instances or all the instances.
■
The OIP automatically selects parameter settings at run-time that enable optimal
deduplication.
■
You can create a new archived log schedule that backs up the archived redo
logs within intervals of minutes.
■
The Oracle Intelligent Policy can protect an Oracle database when the Oracle
DBA places database backups in the share on a NetBackup appliance.
■
The OIP can create and maintain a full set of data file copies in the share on a
NetBackup appliance. The Accelerator option is used to update the data file
copies using only the changed blocks since the last full backup.
■
Oracle 12c has introduced container databases (CDB) and pluggable databases
(PDB) and they can be protected using the OIP.
Oracle DBAs can use the nboraadm command on the NetBackup client to manage
instances, instance groups, and their credentials. This command is particularly
useful in environments where the Oracle credentials are known only by the DBAs
and not the NetBackup administrators.
The Oracle DBA can use the nboraadm command to start an immediate backup
from the client if the NetBackup administrator has given the Oracle DBA proper
permissions. The nboraadm command allows the Oracle DBA to immediately protect
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an Oracle database backup instead of waiting for the NetBackup schedule to protect
the database backup. Use nboraadm command with the –immediate option to start
a database backup.
You can select Oracle database instances and instance groups to be part of an
Oracle backup policy. An Oracle backup policy can be created for the default
instance group to ensure that all newly created instances are automatically protected.
You can create an OIP in the following ways:
■
The Policy Configuration Wizard of the NetBackup Administration Console: The
wizard guides you through the setup process by automatically choosing the best
values for most configurations.
■
The Oracle Policy utility on the NetBackup Administration Console: The Oracle
Policy utility is a set of five tabbed panels. The panels contain all the settings
and parameters that are needed to create or change an OIP.
See “Creating an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP)” on page 70.
See “About policy attributes” on page 90.
See “Instances and Databases tab” on page 77.
See “Backup Selections tab” on page 79.
See “About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) with RAC”
on page 240.
Creating an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP)
This topic guides you through the steps for setting up an Oracle Intelligent Policy
(OIP) using the NetBackup Administration Console. An OIP is used with Oracle
CDB and PDB databases, Copilot, and regular Oracle database instance backups.
This method precludes the need to create templates and scripts for your Oracle
policies.
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Steps for creating an OIP
Table 4-3
Steps
Task
Instructions
Step 1
Register Oracle
instances.
NetBackup automatically discovers Oracle instances and
displays them in the instance repository. An instance must
be registered in order for that instance to be included in an
OIP.
See “Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy”
on page 55.
See “About the NetBackup Discovery Service” on page 56.
See “Manually adding an Oracle database instance to the
repository” on page 58.
See “Registering an Oracle database instance” on page 61.
Step 2
(Conditional)
Create Oracle
instance group.
Instance groups are for instances with common credentials.
Add an instance to a group to register that instance. This
step is not required to create an OIP.
See “About Oracle database instance groups” on page 64.
See “Adding an instance to an instance group” on page 64.
See “Automatic Registration of an instance group”
on page 65.
Step 3
Add new policy
and policy name.
In the left pane of the NetBackup Administration Console,
expand NetBackup Management > Policies.
Select Action > New > Policy or right-click on All Policies
in the center pane and click New Policy on the shortcut
menu. Enter a unique name in the Policy name: dialog box
and click OK.
See “NetBackup for Oracle backup policy types” on page 48.
Step 4
Configure the
Attributes tab.
In the Policy Type pull-down menu, select Oracle. This
action causes the tabs along the top of the display to change
to a unique Oracle tab set.
For information on the Attributes tab, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
The Use Accelerator option has a different function when
used with an OIP. This option is automatically selected when
certain options in the Backup Selections tab are set during
Copilot configuration.
See “About using a NetBackup appliance share for Oracle
backups (Copilot)” on page 84.
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Steps for creating an OIP (continued)
Table 4-3
Steps
Task
Instructions
Step 5
Configure the
Schedules tab.
The schedules that are defined on the Schedules tab
determine when backups occur for an OIP.
For information on the Schedules tab, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Step 6
Configure the
Instances and
Databases tab.
Select the instances or the instance groups that the OIP will
back up. An OIP must include either the Protect Instances
and Databases or the Protect instance groups option.
See “Instances and Databases tab” on page 77.
Step 7
Configure the
Backup
Selections tab.
You can backup the Whole database, Partial database Tablespaces, Partial database - Datafiles, Fast Recovery
Area (FRA), Database Backup Shares, or the Whole
Database - Datafile Copy Share.
See “Backup Selections tab” on page 79.
See “Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup
appliance (Copilot)” on page 86.
See “Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment”
on page 257.
Step 8
Configure the
Oracle tab.
The tab contains setup options for databases, tablespaces,
data files, archived redo logs, file name formats, and database
backup shares.
See “Oracle tab” on page 81.
Oracle database upgrade effect on Oracle Intelligent Policies
Upgrade of an Oracle database causes instance information for the upgraded
database to become invalid. If this instance is associated with one or more current
NetBackup for Oracle Intelligent Policies, run-time failures can occur. The issue
occurs when an Oracle database is upgraded to a new version. The new version
is likely to have a different ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_SID, or Oracle User. If any
of these values have changed, the existing instance information in the NetBackup
instance repository and in the current Oracle Intelligent Policies becomes invalid.
When the discovery service (nbdisco) polls the clients again, it discovers the
database as a new instance. Consequently, there is no way to associate the new
instance to the old instance.
This issue is not version-specific and can affect any valid Oracle upgrade patch,
such as:
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■
Oracle 10 to version 11
■
Oracle 10 to version 12
■
Oracle 11 to version 12
For more information on valid Oracle upgrade paths, review the following
documentation on the Oracle Support website:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/upgrade/
upgrading-oracle-database-wp-12c-1896123.pdf
Therefore, when an existing Oracle database is upgraded and the ORACLE_HOME,
ORACLE_SID, or Oracle User are modified, remove the existing instance in the
instance repository. After the existing instance is removed, update the instance
repository with the new instance information. Make sure to update any policies with
the newly-discovered instances.
See “About Oracle Intelligent Policies (OIP)” on page 68.
See “Instance management for an Oracle Intelligent Policy” on page 55.
Configuring NetBackup for Oracle automatic backup schedules
Each policy has an automatic backup schedule. These schedules initiate automatic
backups and specify when a user can initiate operations.
To configure an automatic backup schedule
1
On the Policy dialog box, click the Schedules tab.
2
Click New.
3
Specify a unique name for the schedule.
4
Select the Type of backup.
5
Specify the other properties for the schedule.
See “About schedule properties ” on page 91.
6
Click OK.
About NetBackup for Oracle schedule properties using Oracle
Intelligent Policy
This topic describes the schedule properties that have a different meaning for Oracle
Intelligent Policy backups than for file system backups. Other schedule properties
vary according to your specific backup strategy and system configuration. Additional
information about other schedule properties is available.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
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Table 4-4
Description of schedule properties
Property
Description
Type of backup
Specifies the type of backup that this schedule can control. The selection list shows only
the backup types that apply to the policy you want to configure.
See “NetBackup for Oracle backup policy types” on page 48.
Schedule type
You can schedule a backup in one of the following ways:
■
■
Retention
Frequency
This setting is used only for scheduled backups. It is not used for user-directed backups.
Frequency specifies the period of time that can elapse until the next backup or archive
operation begins on this schedule. For example, assume that the frequency is 7 days
and a successful backup occurs on Wednesday. The next full backup does not occur
until the following Wednesday. Typically, incremental backups have a shorter frequency
than full backups.
Calendar
This setting is used only for scheduled backups. It is not used for user-directed backups.
The Calendar option lets you schedule the backup operations that are based on specific
dates, recurring week days, or recurring days of the month.
Specifies a retention period to keep backup copies of files before they are deleted. The
retention period for an automatic schedule controls how long NetBackup keeps records of
when scheduled backups occurred. Set the time period to retain at least two full backups
of your database. In this way, if one full backup is lost, you have another full backup to
restore.
The type of schedule you select affects the retention period as follows:
■
■
Multiple copies
Frequency-based scheduling
Set a retention period that is longer than the frequency setting for the schedule. For
example, if the frequency setting is set to one week, set the retention period to be at
least 2 weeks. The NetBackup scheduler compares the latest record of the automatic
backup schedule to the frequency of that automatic backup schedule. This comparison
is done to determine whether a backup is due. So if you set the retention period to expire
the record too early, the scheduled backup frequency is unpredictable. However, if you
set the retention period to be longer than necessary, the NetBackup catalog accumulates
unnecessary records.
Oracle is not notified when NetBackup expires a backup image. Use Oracle RMAN
repository maintenance commands to periodically delete expired backup sets from the
Oracle RMAN repository.
Calendar-based scheduling
The retention period setting is not significant for calendar-based scheduling.
If you want to specify multiple copies of a backup for the policy, configure Multiple copies
on the application backup schedule.
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Table 4-4
Description of schedule properties (continued)
Property
Description
Accelerator forced
rescan
This option instructs NetBackup to re-copy all the data files to the share. This option is only
available when Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share is selected in the Backup
Selections tab and the Use Accelerator option is selected in the Attributes tab.
This option forces the creation of a new set of database data file copies. When this option
is not selected, the data file copies in the share are updated using an incremental backup.
The incremental backup contains only the changed blocks since the last full backup.
Oracle Intelligent Policy - Storage and Retention
This topic describes storage and retention properties of the Oracle Intelligent Policy.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Table 4-5
Storage and retention behavior
Property
Description
Policy is a snapshot type
If the policy is a snapshot type, the following are the possible scenarios of the retention
behavior:
■
■
■
■
If the schedule does not override the policy storage unit, and the policy storage unit
is a non-snapshot SLP, the SLP determines the retention period and the policy
uses the policy storage unit.
If the schedule does not override the policy storage unit and the policy storage unit
is not an SLP, the schedule determines the retention period, and the policy uses
the policy storage unit.
If the schedule does override the policy storage unit with an SLP, and it is not a
snapshot SLP, the override storage unit takes precedence over the policy storage
unit, and the SLP determines the retention period.
If the schedule overrides the policy storage unit with a snapshot SLP, the policy
storage unit must be a non-snapshot SLP. The SLP on the policy storage unit
determines the retention period for the streamed data. Also, the SLP on the schedule
determines the retention for the snapshot data.
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Table 4-5
Storage and retention behavior (continued)
Property
Description
Policy is not a snapshot
type
If the policy is not a snapshot type, the following are the possible scenarios of the
retention behavior:
■
■
■
■
If the schedule does not override the policy storage unit and the policy storage unit
is not an SLP, the schedule determines the retention period.
If the schedule does not override the policy storage unit and the policy storage unit
is an SLP, the SLP determines the retention period.
If the schedule overrides the policy storage unit, and the schedule storage unit is
not an SLP, the schedule determines the retention period.
If the schedule overrides the policy storage unit and the schedule storage unit is
an SLP, the SLP determines the retention period.
The following are examples of the Oracle Intelligent Policy storage and retention
behavior for snapshot-based policy types.
Policy storage
Schedule storage Streamed data
retention is
derived from:
Snapshot data
retention is
derived from:
AdvancedDisk
-
Schedule
Schedule
AdvancedDisk
SLP
SLP
SLP
SLP
-
SLP
SLP
Tape library
-
Schedule
Schedule
Non-Snapshot SLP
Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot SLP
Snapshot SLP
AdvancedDisk
Snapshot SLP
Invalid configuration
Invalid configuration
The following are examples of the Oracle Intelligent Policy storage and retention
behavior for stream-based policy types.
Policy storage
Schedule storage
Streamed data retention
is derived from:
AdvancedDisk
-
Schedule
SLP
AdvancedDisk
Schedule
AdvancedDisk
SLP
SLP
SLP
-
SLP
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About Oracle Intelligent Policy master server behavior
By default for an Oracle Intelligent Policy, the client uses the first server in the server
list to start the Oracle backup or restore operation. However, you may want the
operation to recognize the master server name that is passed down from the master
server. If so, do one of the following:
■
On Windows, enter the USE_REQUESTED_MASTER = TRUE statement into
a text file (for example, new_config.txt). Then use the following command on
the master or the media server to send this newly created configuration file to
the client host:
# bpsetconfig -h myoracleclient new_config.txt
■
On UNIX, add USE_REQUESTED_MASTER = TRUE to the bp.conf file, which
enables more than one master server to back up the client.
Instances and Databases tab
Use the Instances and Databasese tab to select instances, instance groups, or
clients that the Oracle Intelligent Policy is scheduled to back up. Until you select
items the first time for this policy, the panel is blank. Click New to display another
panel that lists all the possible instances, instance groups, or clients.
If you add a new Oracle policy or change an existing Oracle policy, this tab appears
along the top of the policy configuration dialog.
You cannot mix instances and instance groups in this list. If you select instances
for a policy, then you want to select an instance group, the instances you select
are deleted from the list.
The Instances and Databases tab displays all the instances or instance groups
that the Oracle policy is scheduled to back up. If you add a new Oracle policy or
change an existing Oracle policy, this tab is one of several tabs that appear along
the top of the dialog. Click Instances to display three possible categories of items:
■
Protect Instances and Databases (OIP option). This panel displays all instances
that you have selected to back up for this policy. To add new instances to this
list, click New. A Select Instances panel appears that displays all registered
instances. Click the check box next to the instance or instances that you want
to add to the list. Instances that are already selected and in the list have their
check boxes checked. If an instance does not appear in this panel because it
is unregistered, you can register that instance and add it to the policy later.
The instance selection does not take effect until you click OK.
Table 4-6 describes all the instance fields for the instances in this list.
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■
Protect instance groups (OIP option). This panel displays all instance groups
that you have created. To add new instances to this list, click New. A Select
Instance Group panel appears that displays all instance groups that you have
created. All instances that are a part of an instance group at backup time are
backed up. To add an instance group to the list of groups that are displayed on
this panel, click New.
To see what instances are backed up if the policy is run for an instance group,
select the group from the list, then click Preview Instances. A panel appears
that shows a list of all the registered instances in the group to be backed up.
■
Clients for use with scripts or templates (Non-OIP option). This option is not
for use with OIP. If you want to use the client with scripts or templates method
of configuring an Oracle policy instead of the new instance method, select
Clients for use with scripts or templates. If you select this option, the existing
backup selections and instances or instance group are erased. Also, the Options
tab and the Instances and Databases tab are removed, because those options
must now be set in the RMAN script that the user supplies.
Table 4-6
Instances and Databases tab fields
Field
Description
Instance Name
The selection at the top of the panel determines the listing in the
panel window.
■
■
■
Database Name
Protect Instances and Databases displays all individual
instances that you have chosen for this Oracle policy.
Protect instance groups displays all the instance groups that
you have created for this policy.
Clients for use with scripts or templates displays all clients
that you have selected for this policy. Click New to add more
clients to this list.
The name of the selection that is referenced for this policy. The
Backup Selections tab defines what is backed up for the
selections. This column only appears when you select Protect
Instances and Databases. The Database Name can reference:
■
An entire instance
■
Single or multiple PDBs
State
Active - DB will be backed up. Done in the host properties
application.
Host
Specifies the host where the Oracle database resides.
OS Type
Specifies the operating system of the host. Valid values are
Windows and UNIX.
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Table 4-6
Instances and Databases tab fields (continued)
Field
Description
ORACLE_HOME
The file path of the Oracle home directory where the instance
resides.
Instance Group
Specifies the Oracle database instance group name that this
instance is part of. This field is blank if the instance does not belong
to an instance group.
Registered
Specifies the date and time when a user gave the instance a set
of credentials. This field is blank if the instance has not been given
credentials.
Backup Selections tab
The Backup Selections tab lets you change the type of Oracle backup. You can
back up the whole database, only the tablespaces, only the data files, the Fast
Recovery Area (FRA), Database Backup Shares, or the Whole Database Datafile Copy Share. The following is the selection list:
■
Whole database
■
Partial database - Tablespaces
■
Partial database - Datafiles
■
Fast Recovery Area - (FRA). This option backs up the contents of the FRA.
For the Oracled atabase instance to be restored and recovered, make sure that
the FRA contains a recoverable image set when it is backed up.
■
Database Backup Shares. This option is used when the Oracle DBA places
database backups in the share on a NetBackup appliance (Copilot).
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version
2.7.1 or later.
■
Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share. This option is used to create and
maintain a full set of data file copies in the share on a NetBackup appliance
(Copilot).
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version
2.7.1 or later.
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By default, the Whole database option is selected and the backup selections contain
the directive WHOLE_DATABASE. If you choose one of the partial options (tablespaces
or data files), you must click the New button to display a new panel. The panel
contains a list of instances from which you can select tablespaces or the data files
that the new policy can back up.
When you back up tablespaces or data files, this selection applies across all the
instances and PDBs that are selected in the policy. If a tablespace is selected for
one instance or PDB, that same tablespace is backed up for all instances and PDBs
in the policy.
If you set up an OIP and that policy contains a CDB with PDBs, the CDB$ROOT is
automatically included in the backup. If the policy contains a PDB that is not found
when a backup is performed, an error appears in the Activity Monitor. The
Administration Console displays a status of either 5421 or 5422.
Note: When the Backup, Archive, and Restore GUI is used, the CDB$ROOT is
automatically included in a backup of a PDB in a CDB. The CDB$ROOT is also
automatically included in a tablespace or data file backup. Also, a backup can
contain either tablespaces or the data files. A backup cannot contain both of these
options.
If you select the Database Backup Shares option, the directive
ALL_DATABASE_BACKUP_SHARES is automatically added to the selection list. Using
this directive, the policy backs up all the shares that are used on all appliances per
instance. Optionally, you can click Browse to display a new panel that contains a
list of appliance shares. The appliance shares are where Oracle DBAs have created
backups for the instances configured in the policy. Select one or more shares that
the new policy should back up. Also, you can click New and add an appliance share
to the policy manually.
When you back up appliance shares for multiple instances, the Database Backup
Shares selection applies across all the instances that are selected in the policy. If
a share is selected for one instance, the data in that share is backed up for all the
instances in that policy.
The Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option allows the NetBackup
Administrator to choose an appliance share as the destination for the first backup
copy. When the policy runs the first time, an RMAN script is generated that creates
a full set of Oracle data file copies. The copies reside in the appliance share. The
next time that the full schedule runs, the backup is accelerated if the Use
Accelerator option is selected. The RMAN script that is generated performs an
incremental backup and the changed blocks are merged into the data files. This
incremental backup creates an updated full set of Oracle data file copies. After the
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new full copy is created in the appliance share, an SLP is used to make additional
copies of the full backup. The first copy is always a remote_vxfs snapshot.
The Use Accelerator feature is automatically selected when you configure an OIP
with the Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option. The first time that the full
schedule runs it creates a full set of data file copies. After the first full schedule,
only the changes are backed up as a backup set and merged with the existing full
backup. Basically, an incremental merge is performed and Oracle’s Block Change
Tracking feature should be enabled for faster incremental backups. Only one share
can be set up so if you have two or more instances, all instances reside in the same
share.
Note: The Database Backup Shares and Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share
options can only be configured when the media server is a NetBackup appliance.
This option does not work with any other type of media server.
Oracle tab
This tab contains options for databases, tablespaces, data files, archived redo logs,
file name formats, and database backup shares.
Table 4-7
Oracle tab fields
Field
Description
Tablespace/Datafile
Options
Number of parallel streams is the number of parallel backup
streams that can be used in a backup operation.
Select Specify read-only tablespace options to enable read-only
tablespace options. Possible values are SKIP and FORCE. SKIP
means to skip the read-only tablespace during backup. FORCE
means that RMAN backs up all files.
Select Offline (cold) database backup to shut down the Oracle
database and put it in the mount state.
■
When this option is used with a PDB, the PDB is put in a
mounted state for the backup. Once the backup has completed,
the PDB is returned to the state it was in before the backup.
Select Skip offline datafiles to direct the backup operation to not
access offline data files.
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Table 4-7
Oracle tab fields (continued)
Field
Description
Specify maximum
limits
Select Specify maximum limits to access several I/O and backup
set limits. The following parameters should only have to be modified
on rare occasions. If these values are not changed, the backup
uses the default values defined in RMAN. RMAN default values
usually provide the best performance.
Maximum I/O Limits parameters:
■
■
■
Read rate (KB/sec) (RATE) specifies the maximum number of
kilobytes (KB) that RMAN reads each second on this channel.
This parameter sets an upper limit for bytes read so that RMAN
does not consume too much disk bandwidth and degrade
performance.
Size of backup piece (KB) (MAXPIECESIZE) specifies the
maximum size of each backup piece that is created on this
channel.
Number of open files (MAXOPENFILES) controls the maximum
number of input files that the backup operation can have open
at any given time.
Maximum backup set limits parameters:
■
■
Backup Identifier
Options
Number of files per backup set (FILESPERSET) specifies
the maximum number of input files to include in each output
backup set.
Size of the backup set (KB) (MAXSETSIZE) specifies a
maximum size for a backup set in kilobytes.
Backup set identifier: (TAG) specifies a user-specified tag name
for a backup set, proxy copy, data file copy, or control file copy.
The tag is applied to the output files that the backup generates.
Datafile copy tag: This option specifies a user-specified tag name
when the Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option is used.
The tag is associated with the data files that are located on the
appliance and is used during the incremental merge process.
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Table 4-7
Oracle tab fields (continued)
Field
Description
Archived Redo Log
Options
Select Include archived redo logs in full and incremental
schedules to include the archived redo logs in the full and the
incremental schedule backups.
Select Delete after making copies to delete the archived redo
logs after the selected number of backups are successful. Uncheck
the box or set to 0 to skip the delete operation and retain the logs
after backup.
Number of parallel streams controls the degree of parallelism
within a backup. This number specifies the maximum number of
connections between RMAN and a database instance. Each
connection initiates an Oracle database server session on the target
instance. This server session performs the work of backing up
backup sets.
Specify Specify maximum limits to set custom limits for the archive
redo logs.
■
■
User Specified
Backup File Name
Formats
Number of files per backup set specifies the maximum number
of archived redo log files to include in each output backup set.
Size of backup set (KB) (MAXSETSIZE) specifies a maximum
size for a backup set of archived redo logs in kilobytes.
Select Specify backup file name formats to set up formats for
various backup file names for data files, archived redo logs, the
control file, and Fast Recovery Area (FRA).
Ensure that the format that is specified for all RMAN backup piece
names (except for auto-backups of the control file) uses the _%u
and ends with _%t. NetBackup uses this timestamp as part of its
search criteria for catalog images. Without this timestamp,
performance might degrade as the NetBackup catalog grows. These
recommendations help to ensure proper backup, restore, and
crosscheck functionality.
Note: By default OIP uses the following
_d%d_u%u_s%s_p%p_t%t.
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Table 4-7
Oracle tab fields (continued)
Field
Description
Database Backup
Share Options
These options let you set a time when backup sets and backup
copies (data and control file copies) are automatically deleted from
the appliance share. However, the files are only deleted if they have
been successfully backed up from the share. The two options are
Delete protected backup sets from share after and Delete
protected backup copies from share after. The deletion is based
on the age of the file in the share. The original dump time or the
update time (if an incremental merge is done on the file) determines
the age of the file.
These options are only available when the Database Backup
Shares option is selected in the Backup Selections tab.
Use the drop downs to set the minutes, hours, days, or weeks.
Note: The Database Backup Shares delete options can only be
configured when the media server is a NetBackup appliance. This
option does not work with any other type of media server. This
feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version
2.7.1 or later.
About using a NetBackup appliance share for Oracle backups
(Copilot)
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version 2.7.1
or later.
This feature enhances the Oracle Intelligent Policy by giving you two options for
protecting an Oracle database using a share on a NetBackup appliance. The first
option gives you better control of backups when Oracle database backups are
placed in an appliance share by the DBA. The second option lets you choose an
appliance share as the destination for the first backup copy. Now you do not have
to rely on the DBA to create backups in the share. You must provision a share on
the appliance for these options using the NetBackup Appliance Shell Menu.
The Database Backup Shares option provides a share for the DBA on the
NetBackup appliance and is protected using the Oracle Intelligent Policy. The
backup occurs on the appliance as an off-host backup and all data movement
occurs on the appliance and does not affect the Oracle client. Since the OIP protects
the appliance share, the backups are visible when the DBA uses RMAN or Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
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The Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option enhances the OIP to allow the
NetBackup Administrator to choose an appliance share as the destination for the
first backup copy. When the policy runs the first time, an RMAN script is generated
that creates a full set of Oracle data file copies. The data file copies reside in the
appliance share. The next time that the full schedule runs, the backup is accelerated
if the Use Accelerator option is selected. The RMAN script that is generated
performs an incremental backup and the changed blocks are merged into the data
files. This incremental backup creates an updated full set of Oracle data file copies.
After the new full copy is created in the database backup share, an SLP is used to
make additional copies of the full backup. The first copy is always a remote_vxfs
snapshot. The remote_vxfs snapshot creates a vxfs_checkpoint snapshot of the
share on the NetBackup appliance.
On the Attributes tab, the Use Accelerator feature is automatically selected when
you configure an OIP with the Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option
selected in the Backup Selections tab. The first time that the full schedule runs it
creates a full set of data file copies. After the first full schedule, only the changes
are backed up as a backup set and merged with the existing full backup. Basically,
an incremental merge is performed. Oracle’s Block Change Tracking feature should
be enabled for faster incremental backups.
When using Copilot to protect your database, NetBackup does not protect extended
attributes, extent attributes, or Access Control Lists associated with the database’s
data files.
Note: These options are available to you but only configurable when you have a
NetBackup appliance configured as the media server. Create a share on the
appliance using the procedures in the Managing shares section of the Veritas
NetBackup 52xx and 5330 Appliance Administrator’s Guide. If you enter a share
path that is not located on an appliance, nothing is backed up.
See “Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance (Copilot)”
on page 86.
See “Backup Selections tab” on page 79.
See “Creating an Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP)” on page 70.
See “Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment” on page 257.
See “About restoring from a data file copy to ASM storage using RMAN” on page 155.
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Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance
(Copilot)
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version 2.7.1
or later.
The Database Backup Shares option protects the database backups that an Oracle
DBA creates on a share on the NetBackup appliance.
The Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option enhances the OIP to allow the
NetBackup Administrator to choose an appliance share as the destination for the
first backup copy. The backup copy is a full set of data file copies that are maintained
by updating only the changed blocks if Use Accelerator is selected.
Use the following procedure to set up a backup policy that protects shares on the
NetBackup appliance.
To configure an OIP using the Database Backup Shares or Whole Database
- Datafile Copy Share options
1
(Database Backup Shares option) The Oracle DBA asks NetBackup
administrator for the appliance share information.
2
The NetBackup administrator uses the NetBackup Appliance Shell Menu to
create a share on the appliance and then sets permissions for the share.
■
For more information about how to set up the share, see Creating a share
from the NetBackup Appliance Shell Menu in the Veritas NetBackup 52xx
and 5330 Appliance Administrator’s Guide
3
The NetBackup administrator sends information about the appliance share to
system administrator.
4
The system administrator mounts an appliance share on the Oracle database
server using the OS tools.
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5
(Database Backup Shares option) The Oracle DBA uses RMAN to create a
database backup on the appliance share.
6
Configure an OIP.
Attributes tab
On the Attributes tab, select Oracle as the Policy
Type.
The Use Accelerator option is automatically selected
when the Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share
option is selected. If the Use Accelerator option is
unchecked the full set of data files are copied again
(including changed blocks). When the Use Accelerator
option is used, the Oracle Change Block tracking should
be enabled for better performance.
For information on the Attributes tab, see the
NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Schedules tab
On the Schedules tab, click New and select Full
Backup.
For information on the Schedules tab, see the
NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Instance tab
Select the Oracle database instance in the Instance
tab.
See “Instances and Databases tab” on page 77.
Backup Selections tab
Select the Database Backup Shares option in the
Backup Selections tab.
See “Backup Selections tab” on page 79.
Oracle tab
Set up the deletion of backup sets and data file copies
in the Oracle tab.
See “Oracle tab” on page 81.
Note: The Database Backup Shares option can only be configured when the
media server is a NetBackup appliance. This option does not work with any other
type of media server.
See “ Configuring a snapshot policy using a share on the NetBackup appliance
(Copilot)” on page 185.
See “About using a NetBackup appliance share for Oracle backups (Copilot)”
on page 84.
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Oracle policy configuration
About script- or template-based Oracle policies
See “Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment” on page 257.
About script- or template-based Oracle policies
NetBackup users or automatic schedules can start database backups by specifying
a template or a shell script in the file list of the Oracle policy. The template or the
shell script specifies the backup commands that RMAN performs on the client.
Note: All scripts must be stored and run locally. One recommendation is that scripts
should not be world-writable. Scripts are not allowed to be run from network or
remote locations. Any script that is created and saved in the NetBackup db_ext
(UNIX) or dbext (Windows) location needs to be protected during a NetBackup
uninstall.
For more information about registering authorized locations and scripts, review the
knowledge base article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/000126002
On UNIX, NetBackup for Oracle includes a library of functions that enable RMAN
to use NetBackup. You can link to this library
See the instructions for how to link to this library.
See “About linking Oracle RMAN with NetBackup for UNIX” on page 37.
On Windows, NetBackup for Oracle includes a library of functions that enable RMAN
to use NetBackup. This library is in c:\Windows\system32.
When you use the RMAN backup command, each resulting backup set contains
at least one backup piece (data file, data file copy, control file, or archive log) from
the target database. You must give each backup piece a unique name using the
format operand. Several substitution variables are available to aid in generating
unique names. You can specify the format operand in the backup command.
NetBackup considers the backup piece name as the file being backed up, so this
name must be unique in the catalog.
For a backup, the following items apply:
■
The rman command starts the requested operation on the databases.
■
When the process requires media to store backup data, RMAN starts a
user-directed backup by issuing a backup request.
■
The NetBackup media server connects to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
NetBackup for Oracle on the client sends the database data to the NetBackup
media server which saves the data to secondary storage. A restore works in
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essentially the same manner except that RMAN issues a restore request. This
request causes NetBackup to retrieve the data from secondary storage and
send it to NetBackup for Oracle on the client.
■
RMAN supports parallel operations, so a single rman command can start more
than one backup, or restore on the NetBackup system.
■
The status for an RMAN operation is stored in the RMAN catalog or in the
database control file. This same status appears in the output of the RMAN
command that is used to run the backup or restore. This status is the only status
that a database administrator must check to verify that a backup or restore has
been successful.
■
NetBackup also logs status, but only for its own part of the operation. The
database administrator cannot use the NetBackup status to determine whether
rman was successful. Errors can occur in rman that do not affect NetBackup and
are not recorded in its logs.
Adding a new script- or template-based Oracle policy
This topic describes how to add a new backup policy for a database.
To add a new script- or template-based Oracle policy
1
Log on to the master server as administrator (Windows) or root (UNIX), and
start the NetBackup Administration Console.
2
If your site has more than one master server, choose the one on which you
want to add the policy.
3
In the NetBackup Administration Console, select NetBackup Management
> Policies. Then select Actions > New > New Policy.
4
In the Add a New Policy dialog box, in the Policy name box, type a unique
name for the new policy. Click OK.
5
In the Add New Policy dialog box, in the Policy type list, select Oracle. The
tabs along the top of the dialog change to include an Instances and Databases
tab.
The database agent policy type does not appear in the drop-down list unless
your master server has a license for the database agent.
6
Click the Instances and Databases tab and select Clients for use with scripts
or templates.
7
Click Yes on the Backup Policy Management dialog box. The tabs along the
top of the dialog change again to include a Clients tab.
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8
Click OK to return to the main screen of the NetBackup Administration
Console. Select View > Refresh to refresh the GUI so that the appropriate
schedule information appears in the Schedules tab.
9
In the right pane, double-click the policy that you have added. Another option
is to right-click on the policy name in the center pane and select Change from
the menu.
10 Complete the entries on the Attributes tab.
See “About policy attributes” on page 90.
11 Add other policy information as follows:
■
Add schedules.
See “Configuring NetBackup for Oracle automatic backup schedules”
on page 73.
■
Add clients. On the Clients tab, click Clients for use with Scripts or
templates option. Then click New to display a list of all possible clients.
Select new clients from this list, then click OK.
See “Adding clients to a policy” on page 95.
■
Add templates or scripts to the backup selections list.
See “About adding backup selections to an Oracle policy” on page 96.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database
script-based policy” on page 337.
12 When you have added all the schedules, clients, and backup selections you
need, click OK.
About policy attributes
With a few exceptions, NetBackup manages the policy attributes set for a database
backup like a file system backup. Other policy attributes vary according to your
specific backup strategy and system configuration.
Table 4-8 describes some of the policy attributes available for a NetBackup for
Oracle policy. For more information on policy attributes, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Table 4-8
Policy attribute descriptions for NetBackup for Oracle policies
Attribute
Description
Policy type
Determines the types of clients that can be backed up with the policy. For Oracle databases,
select the policy type Oracle.
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Table 4-8
Policy attribute descriptions for NetBackup for Oracle policies
(continued)
Attribute
Description
Limit jobs per policy
Sets the maximum number of instances that NetBackup can back up concurrently with this
policy.
Follow NFS
This option is available for Oracle policies on UNIX. Select this attribute to back up the files
from NFS-mounted file systems. If this option is not selected, NetBackup cannot perform a
backup of NFS-mounted files.
Also see the NetBackup Administrator's Guide, Volume I.
Note: This option is not available for snapshot backups.
Keyword phrase
For NetBackup for Oracle, the Keyword phrase entry is ignored.
Snapshot Client and
Replication Director
This group contains the options that enable backups with Snapshot Client and Replication
Director.
About backup schedules, templates, and scripts
Be aware of what may happen if an automatic schedule invokes a script that a user
authored. NetBackup does not provide safeguards to prevent an automatic backup
schedule, for example, from running a restore or recovery script.
To help guard against such mistakes, use a template instead of a script whenever
possible. When a template runs, it detects the backup type on the schedule. You
are responsible for specifying a template with the correct operation type (backup
or restore) in the policy.
About schedule properties
This topic describes the schedule properties that have a different meaning for
database backups than for file system backups. Other schedule properties vary
according to your specific backup strategy and system configuration. Additional
information about other schedule properties is available. See the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Table 4-9
Description of schedule properties
Property
Description
Type of backup
Specifies the type of backup that this schedule can control. The selection list shows only
the backup types that apply to the policy you want to configure.
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Table 4-9
Description of schedule properties (continued)
Property
Description
Schedule type
You can schedule an automatic backup in one of the following ways:
■
■
Retention
Frequency
Frequency specifies the period of time that can elapse until the next backup operation
begins on this schedule. For example, assume that the frequency is 7 days and a
successful backup occurs on Wednesday. The next full backup does not occur until the
following Wednesday. Typically, incremental backups have a shorter frequency than full
backups.
Calendar
The Calendar option lets you schedule the backup operations that are based on specific
dates, recurring week days, or recurring days of the month.
The retention period for an application backup schedule refers to the length of time that
NetBackup keeps backup images (stream-based backups). The retention period for an
automatic schedule controls how long NetBackup keeps records of when scheduled backups
occurred (proxy backups). For example, if your database is backed up once every Sunday
morning, you should select a retention period of at least 2 weeks.
The type of schedule you select affects the retention period as follows:
■
■
Multiple copies
Frequency-based scheduling
Set a retention period that is longer than the frequency setting for the schedule. For
example, if the frequency setting is set to one week, set the retention period to be more
than one week. The NetBackup scheduler compares the latest record of the automatic
backup schedule to the frequency of that automatic backup schedule. This comparison
is done to determine whether a backup is due. So if you set the retention period to expire
the record too early, the scheduled backup frequency is unpredictable. However, if you
set the retention period to be longer than necessary, the NetBackup catalog accumulates
unnecessary records.
Oracle is not notified when NetBackup expires a backup image. Use Oracle RMAN
repository maintenance commands to periodically delete expired backup sets from the
Oracle RMAN repository.
Oracle XML export operations create archives for long-term storage and recovery. Set
the retention level to a period of years or to infinity.
Calendar-based scheduling
The retention period setting is not significant for calendar-based scheduling.
If you want to specify multiple copies of a backup for the policy, configure Multiple copies
on the application backup schedule. If using Snapshot Client, also specify Multiple copies
on the automatic schedule.
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Script- or template-based policy - Storage and Retention
This topic describes storage and retention properties of the script- and
template-based policies.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Storage and retention behavior
Table 4-10
Property
Description
Policy is a snapshot type
If the policy is a snapshot type, the following are the possible scenarios of the retention
behavior:
■
■
■
■
If a schedule has overridden the policy storage, the override storage on the schedule
takes precedence over the policy storage.
If the policy storage is a snapshot SLP, the application schedule must override the
policy storage. The storage that is specified on the application schedule may not
be a snapshot SLP.
If the storage being used is not an SLP, the schedule determines the retention for
the snapshot data.
If you use the policy storage unit as an SLP, the SLP determines the retention for
the snapshot data.
Streamed data is processed by using the application schedule. Snapshot data is
processed by using the automatic schedule.
Policy is not a snapshot
type
If the policy is not a snapshot type, the following are the possible scenarios of the
retention behavior:
■
If the application schedule has overridden the policy storage, the override storage
on the schedule takes precedence over the policy storage.
If the storage being used is not an SLP, the retention is derived from the schedule.
■
If the storage being used is an SLP, the retention is derived from the SLP.
■
Since all data is streamed, the data is processed using the application schedule.
The following are examples of the script- or template-based policy storage and
retention behavior for snapshot-based policy types:
Policy storage Application
schedule
storage
Full/Incremental Streamed
schedule
data retention
storage
is derived
from:
Snapshot
data retention
is derived
from:
AdvancedDisk
-
Full/Incremental
Schedule
-
Application
Schedule
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Policy storage Application
schedule
storage
Full/Incremental Streamed
schedule
data retention
storage
is derived
from:
Snapshot
data retention
is derived
from:
AdvancedDisk
-
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Application
Schedule
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Non-Snapshot
SLP
AdvancedDisk
-
Application
Schedule
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Tape library
Non-Snapshot
SLP
-
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Full/Incremental
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
AdvancedDisk
(must be
specified)
Snapshot SLP
Application
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
on
Full/Incremental
Schedule
AdvancedDisk
-
Snapshot SLP
Application
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot
SLP
-
-
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Non-Snapshot
SLP
AdvancedDisk
Non-Snapshot
SLP
Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot
on Application
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
on
Full/Incremental
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot
SLP (must be
specified)
Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot
on Application
Schedule
Snapshot SLP
on
Full/Incremental
Schedule
The following are examples of the script- or template-based policy storage and
retention behavior for stream-based policy types:
Policy storage
Schedule storage Application
Streamed data
schedule storage retention is
derived from:
AdvancedDisk
-
N/A
Application Schedule
Non-Snapshot SLP
AdvancedDisk
N/A
Application Schedule
AdvancedDisk
Non-Snapshot SLP
N/A
Non-Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot SLP
-
N/A
Non-Snapshot SLP
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Policy storage
Schedule storage Application
Streamed data
schedule storage retention is
derived from:
AdvancedDisk
-
Non-Snapshot SLP
Non-Snapshot SLP
Snapshot SLP
-
AdvancedDisk
Application Schedule
Adding clients to a policy
The client list contains a list of the clients on which your scripts are run during an
automatic backup or the clients that can send backup requests to the application
schedule. A NetBackup client must be in at least one policy but can be in more than
one.
NetBackup attempts to run each template in the backup selections list for each
client in the client list. If a template is not valid on a particular client, the template
is skipped. (For example, if the Oracle home that is specified in the template does
not exist on that client.) A policy can contain multiple clients and multiple templates.
Only a subset of the templates needs to be valid on each client. If the valid templates
are successful, the entire backup is successful.
For a NetBackup for Oracle policy, clients you want to add must have the following
items installed or available:
■
Oracle
■
NetBackup client or server
■
The backup shell scripts, unless you use templates
To add clients to a NetBackup for Oracle policy
1
Open the policy you want to edit or create a new policy.
To access the Policy dialog box, double-click the policy name in the Policies
list in the NetBackup Administration Console.
2
Click the Clients tab.
3
Click New.
4
Type the name of the client and select the hardware and operating system of
the client.
5
Choose one of the following:
6
■
To add another client, click Add.
■
If this client is the last client you want to add, click OK.
In the Policy dialog box, click OK.
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About adding backup selections to an Oracle policy
The backup selections list in a database policy has a different meaning than for
non-database policies. For example, in a Standard or MS-Windows policy, the list
contains files and directories to be backed up.
In a database policy, you specify templates or scripts to be run.
Observe the following rules when you use templates or scripts:
■
Make sure that the scripts reside on each client in the client list.
■
NetBackup installs sample scripts when you install the software; you can modify
these scripts for your own use.
■
All scripts must be in an authorized location.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database
script-based policy” on page 337.
■
If you use NetBackup for Oracle in a NetBackup server cluster, make sure that
the scripts reside in a location that is available after a failover.
Note: All scripts must be stored and run locally. One recommendation is that scripts
should not be world-writable. Scripts are not allowed to be run from network or
remote locations. Any script that is created and saved in the NetBackup db_ext
(UNIX) or dbext (Windows) location needs to be protected during a NetBackup
uninstall.
For more information about registering authorized locations and scripts, review the
knowledge base article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/000126002
Add templates or scripts to the backup selections list only if you want to set up a
policy for automatic backups. These templates or scripts are run for manual backups
and for automatic schedules as specified under the Schedules tab. NetBackup
runs the templates or scripts in the order that the templates or scripts appear in the
backup selections list.
Adding a template to the backup selections list in the
NetBackup Administration Console
The following procedure describes how to add a template to the backup selections
list in the NetBackup Administration Console.
Note: Be sure to specify the correct template name in the backup selections list to
prevent an error or a wrong operation.
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To add a template to the backup selections list in the NetBackup
Administration Console
1
Open the Policy dialog box.
To access the Policy dialog box, double-click the policy name in the Policies
list in the NetBackup Administration Console.
2
Click the Backup Selections tab.
3
Click New.
4
From the Template Set list, choose the template type by operation.
5
From the Script or Template list, select a template or type the name of a
template.
Include the .tpl extension. Do not include the full path. For example,
weekly_full_backup.tpl.
6
Click Add to add the template to the list.
7
Click OK.
Adding a script to the backup selections list in the
NetBackup Administration Console
The following procedure describes how to add a script to the backup selections list
in the NetBackup Administration Console.
Note: Be sure to specify the correct script name in the backup selections list to
prevent an error or a wrong operation.
To add a script to the backup selections list in the NetBackup Administration
Console
1
Open the Policy dialog box.
To access the Policy dialog box, double-click the policy name in the Policies
list in the NetBackup Administration Console.
2
Click the Backup Selections tab.
3
Click New.
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4
In the Script or Template box, type the full path name of a script on the client.
For example:
/backup_scripts/db/cold_backup.sh
C:\backup_scripts\db\cold_backup.cmd
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database
script-based policy” on page 337.
5
Click Add to add the script to the list.
6
Click OK.
About configuring the run-time environment
When the Oracle Intelligent Policy is not used, there are many user configurable
variables that can affect the operation of NetBackup for Oracle. Most can be set
only in the NetBackup for Oracle Template Wizard or in the RMAN script. A few
can be set in multiple places, most notably those that specify the master server,
client name, policy, and schedule.
When these variables are configured in multiple places, the following order of
precedence is used (the list is ranked highest to lowest):
■
RMAN SEND command variables, if specified in the backup script.
■
RMAN ENV parameter variables, if specified in the backup script.
See “About the RMAN SEND command variables” on page 101.
■
The template fields for Client name and Schedule name, if specified in the
backup template.
■
The template fields for Server name and Backup policy name, if specified in the
backup template and initiated from the client.
■
Environment variables that are inherited from the Oracle listener process startup
environment, if RMAN connects to the database using TNS SQL*Net.
■
Environment variables that are set in the backup script before bpdbsboraor
RMAN is started.
■
The environment variables that the login or shell inherits.
See “About the Oracle RMAN environment” on page 99.
■
The environment variables that the master server initiation of an automatic
schedule sets.
See “About the environment variables set by NetBackup for Oracle” on page 101.
■
On UNIX, the Oracle user’s configuration file; $HOME/bp.conf.
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■
The NetBackup configuration:
■
Windows: The
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Veritas\NetBackup\CurrentVersion\Config
registry keys.
■
UNIX: The /usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf file.
Both: The NetBackup GUI settings for server, client name, optional default
policy, and optional default schedule.
See “About the bp.conf file on UNIX systems” on page 104.
■
■
The following defaults apply:
■
A server must be specified, there is no default.
■
The client name defaults to the host name.
■
The master server selects the first policy of type Oracle for the client name.
■
The master server selects the first schedule of type Application Backup
(stream-based) or Automatic Full Backup (proxy) from the policy.
Note: The Server name and Backup policy name that is configured within a backup
template are only used when initiated from the client.
If the backup is initiated from an automatic schedule on the master server the
operation is different. The backup uses the name of the master server and policy
that was used to initiate the template. This operation allows a template to be used
with multiple policies, with different automatic schedules, and even different master
servers.
About the Oracle RMAN environment
The Oracle RMAN program inherits the environment of the program or shell from
which it was started. The environment may come from a number of places:
■
The global environment or profile for the host
■
The profile of the user
■
The NetBackup master server
■
A non-NetBackup scheduler
■
A backup script
■
An interactive terminal session
Additionally, once RMAN is started it connects to the database instance and starts
the Oracle database server processes that perform the backup. If the connection
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is by local logon and password (without a TNS alias), the Oracle database server
process is a child of the RMAN program. The Oracle database server process
inherits the environment from RMAN. Because the NetBackup for Oracle agent is
a shared library loaded into the Oracle database server process it too inherits that
environment.
However, if RMAN connects to the database instance by SQL*Net (logon and
password@TNSalias) the Oracle database server process is a child of the SQL*Net
listener service. This SQL*Net listener service was started previously and
independently of RMAN. As a result, the NetBackup for Oracle agent does not
inherit the environment from RMAN. Instead, the agent inherits the environment
from which the listener service was started
To avoid unexpected results, it is recommended to configure RMAN to always use
the send command to pass the desired variables and values to NetBackup explicitly.
Alternatively the RMAN ENV parameter can be used to make the variables and
values available to NetBackup.
Example 1. Use the send command to specify the policy and server to use for a
database backup. As this example shows, specify the variables in the string in the
RMAN script after all channels have been allocated and before the backup
command.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
allocate channel t2 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send 'NB_ORA_POLICY=your_policy,NB_ORA_SERV=your_server';
backup (database format 'bk_%U_%t');
release channel t1;
release channel t2;
}
Example 2. Use the parms operand to specify the policy and server to use for a
database backup. The parms operand is set with each allocate channel command
in the shell script.
run {
allocate channel t1 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
PARMS "SBT_LIBRARY=/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so,
ENV=(NB_ORA_POLICY=your_policy,NB_ORA_SERV=your_server)";
allocate channel t2 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
PARMS "SBT_LIBRARY=/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so,
ENV=(NB_ORA_POLICY=your_policy,NB_ORA_SERV=your_server)";
backup (database format 'bk_%s_%p_%t');
release channel t1;
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release channel t2;
}
About the environment variables set by NetBackup for
Oracle
When an automatic schedule runs, NetBackup sets environment variables for shell
scripts to use. These variables are set only if the backup is started from the server,
either automatically by the NetBackup scheduler or manually through the
administrator interface.
On UNIX and Windows, these variables can be used to perform conditional
operations within the backup script.
Table 4-11 shows the variables.
Table 4-11
Variables that NetBackup for Oracle sets
Environment variable
Purpose
NB_ORA_SERV
Name of the NetBackup server that initiated the automatic
schedule.
NB_ORA_POLICY
Name of the Oracle policy that contained the automatic
schedule.
NB_ORA_CLIENT
Name of the NetBackup client in the policy.
NB_ORA_FULL
Set to 1 for a Full schedule.
NB_ORA_INCR
Set to 1 for a Differential incremental schedule.
NB_ORA_CINC
Set to 1 for a Cumulative incremental schedule.
NB_ORA_PC_SCHED
Name of the automatic schedule.
About the RMAN SEND command variables
The Oracle SEND command and ENV parameter support several options that are
used with NetBackup for Oracle. The variables that the SEND command specifies
supersede those specified by the ENV parameter. Also, spaces are not permitted
when the variables and values are specified.
Table 4-12 describes the options you can set for the RMAN SEND command.
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Table 4-12
Options for the SEND command
Option
Purpose
BKUP_IMAGE_PERM
Lets you set the permissions on a backup image at backup
time. Possible values are the following:
USER - set the permissions to 600. Only the original user
who backed up the data has access to the backup images.
GROUP - set the permissions to 660. Anyone from the
same group as the original user who backed up the data
has access to the backup images.
ANY - set the permissions to 664. Anyone has access to
the backup images.
If this keyword is not specified, the permissions default to
660.
To specify this keyword, use the send command to set the
variable. For example:
SEND 'BKUP_IMAGE_PERM=ANY';
Note: The BKUP_IMAGE_PERM option does not affect the
permissions for the physical files that are included in an
RMAN Proxy copy backup. Ensure the physical file owner,
group, and permissions are set correctly before the backup.
For more information, review the following document:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH213927
NB_ORA_CLIENT
Specifies the name of the Oracle client.
NB_ORA_COPY_NUMBER
Specifies which copy of the backup image to use for the
restore.
NB_ORA_METADATA
Enables (YES) and disables (NO) metadata collection for
Guided Recovery operations.
NB_ORA_PARENT_JOBID
Enables the parent ID of the job ID to be displayed in the
Activity Monitor (only valid if it is a scheduled job).
NB_ORA_PC_RESTORE
Specifies a snapshot rollback restore using a script or
RMAN command.
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Table 4-12
Options for the SEND command (continued)
Option
Purpose
NB_ORA_PC_SCHED
Specifies the NetBackup for the Oracle schedule that
NetBackup uses for a proxy copy file-based backup. (This
schedule can be Full, Differential Incremental, or
Cumulative Incremental backup type). For scheduled
backups, this variable is passed from the scheduler. When
you create an RMAN template with the NetBackup for
Oracle RMAN template generation wizard, this variable is
automatically created in the template.
NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS
Specifies the number of backup streams that NetBackup
starts simultaneously in each proxy copy session. When a
backup is started, NetBackup groups all data files into a
specified number of backup streams that are based on the
file sizes. NetBackup tries to create streams of equal size.
The default value for NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS is 1.
Only a user can set this variable. When you create an
RMAN template using the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN
template generation wizard, it is automatically created in
the template. In order for this variable to be automatically
created, you must provide a value for the number of parallel
streams.
This also can be used to specify the number of restore
streams that start simultaneously. For more information
about restores, refer to:
See “About Oracle multistream restore for proxy backup”
on page 133.
NB_ORA_POLICY
Specifies the name of the policy to use for the Oracle
backup.
NB_ORA_RESTORE_PRIORITY Specifies the restore priority in NetBackup.
NB_ORA_SCHED
Specifies the name of the Application Backup schedule to
use for the Oracle backup.
NB_ORA_SERV
Specifies the name of the NetBackup master server.
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Table 4-12
Option
Options for the SEND command (continued)
Purpose
NB_ORA_SERVER_READ_TIMEOUT Configured to instruct the dbclient to lengthen or shorten
the timeout on the media server. The media server uses
this timeout when it waits for a progress status update from
the client during transfer of the backup image. Typically,
this setting should not be adjusted.
To review setting information and delay examples, refer to
the following article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH227741
NB_ORA_DISK_MEDIA_SERVER Specifies which media server to use when more than one
has access to the image to be restored.
Supersedes any FORCE_RESTORE_MEDIA_SERVER
setting on the master server.
CPF1_POLICY
Policy to be used for duplex copy number 1.
CPF1_SCHED
Application backup schedule for duplex copy number 1.
CPF2_POLICY
Policy to be used for duplex copy number 2.
CPF2_SCHED
Application backup schedule for duplex copy number 2.
CPF3_POLICY
Policy to be used for duplex copy number 3.
CPF3_SCHED
Application backup schedule for duplex copy number 3.
CPF4_POLICY
Policy to be used for duplex copy number 4.
CPF4_SCHED
Application backup schedule for duplex copy number 4.
For more information, see the NetBackup System Administrator’s Guide, Volume
I.
About the bp.conf file on UNIX systems
A NetBackup for Oracle user can create a bp.conf file in the Oracle user’s home
directory on the NetBackup for Oracle client host. When a NetBackup for Oracle
operation is started, the user’s bp.conf file is searched before the master
configuration file (/usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf). Any option that is found at
the user level overrides the same option’s setting at the master level.
Table 4-13 shows the options you can set in the user’s bp.conf file.
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Table 4-13
Options for the user bp.conf file
Option
Purpose
BPBACKUP_POLICY
This option specifies the name of the policy to use for
the backup.
BPBACKUP_SCHED
This option specifies the name of the Application
Backup type of schedule to use for the backup.
CLIENT_NAME
This option specifies the name of the Oracle client.
This name is especially useful for a redirected restore
operation.
CLIENT_READ_TIMEOUT
Use this option to increase the number of seconds that
the Oracle client initially waits for a response from the
NetBackup server. The default is the greater of 900 or
CLIENT_READ_TIMEOUT.
ORACLE_METADATA
Set to YES to enable metadata collection for Guided
Recovery.
SERVER
This option specifies the name of the NetBackup
master server. There can only be one SERVER option
in the user bp.conf file.
VERBOSE
This option causes NetBackup to include more
information in its debug logs.
For more information, see the NetBackup System Administrator’s Guide, Volume
I.
The following shows example bp.conf entries for an Oracle user:
SERVER=jupiter
CLIENT_READ_TIMEOUT=900
VERBOSE=1
About creating templates and shell scripts
RMAN templates and scripts contain the commands that run NetBackup RMAN
backup and recovery jobs. Templates and scripts must be created before NetBackup
can perform scheduled backups. These are the template files or shell scripts that
are specified in policy configuration on the NetBackup server.
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Starting the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface
To start the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface
1
Use operating system methods to log into the client upon which NetBackup
for Oracle is installed.
2
Make sure that the Oracle database is in the mount or open state.
3
Start the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface on the NetBackup
client.
■
From the Windows Start menu, choose All Programs > Veritas NetBackup
> Backup, Archive, and Restore.
■
On UNIX, run the following command:
/usr/openv/java/jbpSA &
4
Provide the information that the logon dialog box requests.
On Windows, you do not have to logon as the administrator or as the Oracle
administrator.
On UNIX systems, how you log onto NetBackup depends on how your Oracle
authentication is configured:
■
OS authentication for Oracle:
Log on to NetBackup as an Oracle DBA UNIX account that includes sysdba
privileges.
■
Oracle authentication by password file:
Log on to NetBackup using any UNIX account, including root. You need to
provide additional Oracle logon information later in the backup process.
For the host name, type the name of the client upon which the Oracle database
and NetBackup for Oracle reside. Type your user name and password in the
other fields. You can log on as a regular user.
RMAN templates and shell scripts
You can use templates or shell scripts with the NetBackup for Oracle agent.
The NetBackup for Oracle backup wizard creates backup templates. You can launch
this wizard from the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
See “Creating RMAN templates using the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template
generation wizard” on page 107.
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The NetBackup for Oracle backup wizard does not support all of the RMAN
commands and options that Oracle provides. Write a shell script if a template does
not provide all the functionality you require.
Shell scripts that the user writes must conform to RMAN and operating system shell
syntax. Sample backup and recovery shell scripts are installed on the client with
the NetBackup for Oracle agent. Modify these scripts to meet your individual
requirements.
See “About creating RMAN scripts manually” on page 109.
NetBackup for Oracle also provides a utility, bpdbsbora, that can generate a shell
script from a backup wizard template. A user can create a template with the wizard
and then generate a shell script from the template. The script should be reviewed
to make sure the TARGET_CONNECT_STR has the correct credentials before execution.
See “Creating an RMAN script from a template” on page 109.
Creating RMAN templates using the NetBackup for Oracle
RMAN template generation wizard
The NetBackup for Oracle backup wizard stores information about desired RMAN
backup operations. The wizard uses the information to create a template that you
can run immediately. Or you can save in a NetBackup location on the master server
for later use. Before you can save on the master server, the client must be in a
policy or have images in the NetBackup catalog.
For more information on backup strategies and RMAN functionality, see your Oracle
documentation.
If Oracle is installed on a Windows system, the Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface on the client displays an Oracle node in the left pane. From the client,
expand the Oracle node in the left pane to view an Oracle database instance
hierarchy. Select a node in the left pane to view details in the right pane.
If your current logon does not have Oracle SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privileges,
the system prompts you to enter your Oracle database logon information. You need
to enter your user name and password with SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privileges
to continue. Optionally, you can also enter your net service name (TNS alias).
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To create RMAN templates using the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template
generation wizard
1
Log on to NetBackup for Oracle client and start the NetBackup Backup, Archive,
and Restore interface.
See “Starting the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface”
on page 106.
2
In the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, expand an Oracle database
instance and select the database object(s) (data files, tablespaces, archived
redo logs) to back up.
When you select the Oracle database instance, you back up the whole database
using RMAN.
3
Choose Actions > Backup.
The NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template generation wizard displays the
following screens for you to enter information about the backup operation you
want to perform:
■
Welcome (UNIX only)
■
Target Database Logon Credentials (SYSDBA only)
■
Recovery Catalog Logon Credentials
■
Archived redo logs
■
Configuration Options
■
Backup Options
■
Database State
■
NetBackup for Oracle Configuration Variables
■
Backup Limits
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard screens or more
details, click Help on the wizard screen.
4
After you complete the wizard, the Template Summary screen displays the
summary of the backup template:
You can run the template immediately after the wizard finishes, save the
template to the master server, or both. Select Perform backup immediately
and or Save Template then click Finish.
See “About storing templates” on page 112.
See “About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) with RAC”
on page 240.
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Creating an RMAN script from a template
You can use the bpdbsbora command to create a script from a backup template.
This command generates RMAN shell scripts from the templates that the backup
wizard creates.
At the command prompt, type this command in the following format:
bpdbsbora -backup -g script_file -t templ_name.tpl -S server_name
Where:
-backup
Specifies the template type.
-g script_file
Specifies the name of the file to which you want bpdbsbora
to write the script. Enclose script_file in quotation marks if it
contains blanks. This option cannot be used with the -r (run)
option.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the name of the template that you want to use as the
basis for the script. Make sure that the template exists.
bpdbsbora retrieves backup templates from a known location
on the master server, so specify only the template file name.
-S server_name
Specifies the master server upon which the template resides.
When you specify the bpdbsbora command, it retrieves
backup templates from the specified master server.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based
policy” on page 337.
About creating RMAN scripts manually
You can create RMAN scripts manually instead of using the template wizard. When
you create a script, you need to specify the type of backup and assign a name to
the output file. Keep in mind the following considerations:
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Oracle policy configuration
About script- or template-based Oracle policies
Backup type
RMAN supports the following different types of backups (In the
examples, n must be 1 or higher):
■
BACKUP FULL
■
BACKUP INCREMNTAL LEVEL 0 (Full backup base for incremental
backups)
■
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL n (Differential incremental
backup)
■
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL n CUMULATIVE (Cumulative
incremental backup)
When generating a data file backup set, you can make either an
incremental backup or a full backup. Both a full backup and an
incremental level 0 perform a complete backup of the data file. However,
an incremental level 0 backup can be used as the base for incremental
level n and or incremental level n cumulative backups.
File names
Observe the following with regard to file names:
■
■
■
Each output file must have a unique name. Use the %U format
specifier to satisfy this restriction. %U is equivalent to %u_%p_%c,
and it guarantees the uniqueness of the backup set name in all
circumstances.
Put %t at the end of the backup file name format. NetBackup uses
the timestamp as part of its search criteria for catalog images.
Without this timestamp, performance might degrade as the
NetBackup catalog grows.
Ensure that the format that is specified for all RMAN backup piece
names does not contain any space characters.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based
policy” on page 337.
About the NetBackup for Oracle sample scripts
When you install NetBackup for Oracle, there are some sample scripts that can be
used as examples. You must modify any sample script you use to work within your
environment. The NetBackup installation writes example scripts to the following
directory:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\Oracle\samples\rman
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
The Oracle example scripts are as follows:
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About script- or template-based Oracle policies
Windows:
cold_duplex_cluster_database_backup_full.cmd
cold_cluster_database_backup.cmd
cold_database_backup.cmd
cold_pdb_backup.cmd
cluster_database_restore.cmd
complete_database_restore.cmd
complete_pdb_restore.cmd
hot_database_tablespace_backup_proxy.cmd
hot_pdb_backup.cmd
hot_database_backup.cmd
hot_pdb_tablespace_backup_proxy.cmd
pit_database_restore.cmd
pit_cluster_database_restore.cmd
pit_pdb_restore.cmd
UNIX:
cold_database_backup.sh
cold_pdb_backup.sh
hot_database_backup.sh
hot_database_tablespace_backup_proxy.sh
hot_pdb_backup.sh
hot_pdb_tablespace_backup_proxy.sh
complete_database_restore.sh
complete_pdb_restore.sh
pit_database_restore.sh
pit_pdb_restore.sh
Using the NetBackup for Oracle sample scripts
The following procedure describes how to use the sample scripts to manually create
your own script.
To use sample scripts provided by NetBackup for Oracle
1
Copy the example scripts to a different directory on your client. Oracle scripts
can be located anywhere on the client.
2
Modify each script for your environment.
3
On UNIX, make sure the su command logs into the correct user.
If you do not include an su - user (user is Oracle administrator account) in
your Oracle scripts, they do not run with the proper permissions and
environment variables. Problems with your database backups and restores
can arise.
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Oracle policy configuration
About script- or template-based Oracle policies
About the set duplex command
RMAN provides an API that lets you make up to four backup sets simultaneously,
each an exact duplicate of the others. Using NetBackup, for example, you can back
up each copy to a different tape to protect against disaster, media damage, or
human error. Use the set duplex and the send commands to take advantage of
this feature.
The set duplex command specifies the number of copies of each backup piece
to create. The set duplex command affects all channels that are allocated after
you issue the command. It remains in effect until explicitly disabled or changed
during the session. You cannot issue the set duplex command after allocating a
channel.
The command syntax is:
set duplex = {ON | OFF | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4}
By default, duplex is OFF (a single backup set is produced). If you specify ON, it
produces two identical backup sets.
Note that you must enable the BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES initialization parameter to
perform duplexed backups. RMAN configures all media as needed for the number
of backup copies you request. For more information on BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES,
see your Oracle documentation.
Use the send command to specify the policy and schedule to use with each backup.
Because NetBackup uses the policy or schedule to determine what media to use,
this information is required for each copy, or an error occurs.
The command syntax is as follows:
send 'keyword=value [, keyword=value,...]';
The keywords that are used to specify a policy are CPF1_POLICY, CPF2_POLICY,
CPF3_POLICY, and CPF4_POLICY, which specify the backup policy for duplexed file
1 through duplexed file 4.
The keywords that are used to specify a schedule are CPF1_SCHED, CPF2_SCHED,
CPF3_SCHED, and CPF4_SCHED, which specify the Application Backup schedule for
duplexed file 1 through duplexed file 4.
About storing templates
NetBackup for Oracle saves backup templates on the master server and restore
templates on the client. A backup template is retrieved from the master server as
part of a backup (server-directed, scheduled, or user-directed) and is run on the
client. Backup templates are associated with a policy by specifying its name in the
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Oracle policy configuration
Configuring the logon account for the NetBackup Client Service for NetBackup for Oracle
policy backup selections list. Because backup templates are stored on the server
in a known location, server-directed and scheduled backups use the same copy of
the template. The server-directed and scheduled backups use the same copy of
the template for each client in the policy client list.
When templates are saved, if the template does not end with '.tpl', the extension
is appended to the file name before the template is saved.
Before you run a template on a NetBackup for Oracle client, NetBackup verifies
the validity of the template for that client. The verification is done by checking the
Oracle installation information that is stored in that template. Only valid templates
are run on each client.
The NetBackup for Oracle Recovery saves a template to a user-specified location
on the client. The location that is specified should include a fully qualified path to a
directory where the user has write access.
Templates store the encrypted passwords that are decrypted at run-time.
About storing shell scripts
Shell scripts must reside on the NetBackup client. Backup shell scripts are
associated with a policy by specifying the file name (including path) in the policy
backup selections list. For server-directed or scheduled backups, each client in the
policy's client list must have a copy of the script with the same name in the same
location.
See “About adding backup selections to an Oracle policy” on page 96.
The backup and the recovery process sometimes require passwords for Oracle
database access or system user accounts. Because a shell interprets the shell
scripts, store the passwords in clear text.
See “Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based
policy” on page 337.
Configuring the logon account for the NetBackup
Client Service for NetBackup for Oracle
This topic applies to those that are running NetBackup for Oracle on a Windows
platform.
Because the NetBackup Client Service is started by default under the SYSTEM
account, you must also give special attention to database user authentication. The
SYSTEM account does not have permission to connect to the target database if you
use OS authentication instead of passwords.
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Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle
If you use OS authentication, run the NetBackup client service under an account
that has SYSDBA privileges.
For more information on OS authentication, see your Oracle documentation.
Note: In a cluster environment, perform the steps on each database node in the
cluster. For an off-host backup, perform the steps on the alternate client.
To configure the logon account for the NetBackup Client Service for
NetBackup for Oracle
1
Open the Windows Services application.
2
Double-click the NetBackup Client Service entry.
3
Click the Log On tab.
4
Type the account name with SYSDBA privileges.
5
Type the password.
6
Click OK.
7
Stop and start the NetBackup Client Service.
8
Close the Services control panel application.
Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for
Oracle
After you configure the servers and clients in your environment, test the configuration
settings. Perform a manual backup (or backups) with the automatic backup
schedules you created. A description of status codes and other troubleshooting
information is available.
See the NetBackup Status Codes Reference Guide.
See the NetBackup Troubleshooting Guide.
To test the configuration settings
1
Log onto the master server as administrator (Windows) or root (UNIX).
2
Start the NetBackup Administration Console.
3
In the left pane, click Policies.
4
Click the policy you want to test.
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Oracle policy configuration
Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle
5
Select Actions > Manual Backup.
The Schedules pane contains the name of possible schedule or schedules
that are configured for the policy that you want to test.
For an Oracle Intelligent Policy, an Instances pane contains a list of instances
that are configured for the policy. Select one or more of the instances to start
the backup.
For a script- or template-based policy, the Clients pane contains the name of
the client or clients that are listed in the policy. Select one or more of the clients
to start the backup.
6
Follow the directions in the Manual Backup dialog box. Then click OK.
7
To check the status of the backup, click Activity Monitor in the NetBackup
Administration Console.
The Activity Monitor and the script output indicate the status of the backup
operation.
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Chapter
5
Performing backups and
restores of Oracle
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Overview of using NetBackup for Oracle
■
Maintaining the RMAN repository
■
Querying the RMAN repository
■
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
■
Browsing backups using the bplist command
■
Managing expired backup images
■
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
■
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster environment
■
Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image
■
Deleting an instant recovery point for Oracle Copilot instant recovery
■
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
■
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point
■
About restoring from a data file copy to ASM storage using RMAN
Overview of using NetBackup for Oracle
The NetBackup graphical user interfaces and command line interfaces let you
perform Oracle backup and recovery operations using Oracle RMAN utilities. You
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Maintaining the RMAN repository
can also use the Oracle Enterprise Manager to perform Oracle backup and recovery
operations. The Oracle RMAN command line interface is also used to maintain and
query the RMAN repository.
Maintaining the RMAN repository
The RMAN repository is the collection of metadata about your target databases
that RMAN uses to conduct its backup, recovery, and maintenance operations. You
can either create a recovery catalog in which to store this information or let RMAN
store it exclusively in the target database control file. Although RMAN can conduct
all major backup and recovery operations using only the control file, some RMAN
commands function only when you use a recovery catalog.
Table 5-1 shows the tasks that are required to maintain the RMAN repository and
a subset of the repository maintenance commands that perform the tasks. Some
of these commands might not be available with all versions of RMAN.
Table 5-1
Tasks and commands
Task
Commands that perform the task
Register a
database with the
recovery catalog
Before using RMAN with a recovery catalog, register the target database in the recovery catalog.
To register, start and mount the target database but do not open it. At the RMAN prompt, issue
a register database command.
Reset the
incarnation in the
recovery catalog
The reset database command directs RMAN to create a new database incarnation record in
the recovery catalog.
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Maintaining the RMAN repository
Table 5-1
Tasks and commands (continued)
Task
Commands that perform the task
Crosscheck the
information in the
RMAN repository
Because NetBackup can expire images independently from Oracle, the RMAN repository can
contain outdated information. Run an RMAN crosscheck to ensure that data in the recovery
catalog or control file is in sync with data in the backup image catalog. The crosscheck queries
NetBackup for the existence of each backup piece and then marks it as available or expired in
the RMAN repository. Use one of the following commands to check the specified files. You need
to run separate commands to delete images or repository records.
■
The change...crosscheck command queries NetBackup to determine if a backup piece
is available. If not, RMAN marks the backup piece as expired. If it was expired but is now
available, RMAN marks the backup piece as available. The command syntax is as follows:
change backuppiece {primary_keylist |
filename_list | tag} crosscheck;
change backupset {primary_keylist} crosscheck;
■
The crosscheck backupset command operates on available and expired backup pieces.
RMAN updates their status with the result (available or expired).
■
To crosscheck a database, start RMAN and connect to the target database and to the recovery
catalog (if used). At the rman command prompt, enter the following:
allocate channel for maintenance type 'SBT_TAPE';
crosscheck backupset of database;
The length of time to perform an RMAN crosscheck depends on several factors:
■
Number of RMAN backup pieces being crosschecked.
■
■
Number of RMAN backup pieces past their NetBackup retention period when NetBackup
expires them, not RMAN.
Format of the RMAN backup piece name and if the Veritas recommended _%t appears at
the end of the format statement.
Number of Oracle clients.
■
Number of NetBackup policies of any kind.
■
Length of time NetBackup retains backups and the number of backup images for the client
in the NetBackup catalog.
Scheduling time and the length of time between RMAN catalog maintenance operations.
■
■
■
■
■
Speed and accuracy of host name and reverse host name resolution on the NetBackup master
server.
Number and complexity of the operations that the NetBackup master server performs during
each crosscheck request.
Normal performance.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Maintaining the RMAN repository
Table 5-1
Tasks and commands (continued)
Task
Commands that perform the task
Crosscheck using
the Copilot share
If files on a Copilot share are deleted outside of RMAN, the subsequent incremental merge
backups that are done to the share fail. An RMAN crosscheck of the share must be done before
the next backup to prevent more failures. This version of the RMAN crosscheck is slightly different
from the other crosscheck examples because of the need to specify type disk instead of type
SBT_TAPE. When running the RMAN crosscheck, the default is the NetBackup_policyname.
However, if the Datafile copy tag is changed in the Oracle tab, then that tag name must be used
in place of NetBackup_policyname. An example of the command syntax follows (using the default
NetBackup_policyname):
Run {
Allocate channel ch00 type 'disk';
crosscheck backup tag <NetBackup_policyname>;
delete noprompt expired backup;
crosscheck copy <NetBackup_policyname>;
delete noprompt expired copy;
release channel ch00;
}
Delete obsolete
backups
The DELETE OBSOLETE command deletes the backups that are no longer needed to satisfy
specified recoverability requirements. You can delete obsolete pieces according to the configured
default retention policy, or another retention policy that a DELETE OBSOLETE option specifies.
As with other forms of the DELETE command, the deleted files are removed from the backup
media (i.e. expired from NetBackup). Then they are deleted from the recovery catalog, and marked
as DELETED in the control file.
If you specify the DELETE OBSOLETE command with no arguments, then RMAN deletes all the
obsolete backups that the currently configured retention policy defines. For example:
Allocate channel for maintenance type 'SBT_TAPE';
DELETE OBSOLETE;
You can also use the REDUNDANCY or RECOVERY WINDOW clauses with DELETE to delete the
backups that are obsolete under a specific retention policy instead of the configured default:
DELETE OBSOLETE REDUNDANCY = 3;
DELETE OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OR 7 DAYS;
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Maintaining the RMAN repository
Table 5-1
Tasks and commands (continued)
Task
Commands that perform the task
Delete expired
backups
The delete expired backupset command operates only on the expired backup pieces that
are found in the recovery catalog. RMAN removes them from the recovery catalog and also from
the backup media (i.e. expires them from NetBackup).
To delete expired backup sets of a database from the recovery catalog, start RMAN and connect
to the target and the recovery catalog databases. At the RMAN command prompt, type the
following commands:
allocate channel for maintenance type
'SBT_TAPE';
delete expired backupset of database;
The crosscheck and delete backupset commands restrict the list of objects to only those
that are operated on. The restrictions are placed on the specified Oracle device type (disk or SBT
tape), object type (archived logs or database files), and date range.
Resynchronize the RMAN compares the recovery catalog to either the current control file of the target database or
recovery catalog
a backup control file. It subsequently updates the catalog with the missing information or changed
information.
If you are running in ARCHIVELOG mode, do the following: Resynchronize the recovery catalog
regularly because the recovery catalog is not updated automatically when a log switch occurs or
when a redo log is archived.
You must also resynchronize the recovery catalog after making any change to the physical
structure of the target database. As with log archive operations, the recovery catalog is not
automatically updated when a physical schema change is made.
The RMAN backup, copy, restore, and switch commands update the recovery catalog
automatically when the target database control file is available. The recovery catalog database
is available when one of these commands is executed.
If the recovery catalog is unavailable when you issue backup or copy commands, you should
resynchronize it manually.
To resynchronize the recovery catalog, start RMAN and issue the resync catalog command.
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Querying the RMAN repository
Table 5-1
Tasks and commands (continued)
Task
Commands that perform the task
Change the
availability of a
backup set or file
copy
Periodically, you might need to notify RMAN that the status of a backup set, backup piece, data
file copy, or archived redo log has changed. The RMAN change command enables you to make
a variety of useful record changes.
The change ... uncatalog command removes references to a backup piece, data file copy,
or archive log from the recovery catalog. This command works only with a recovery catalog.
The change ... delete command removes references to a backup piece, data file copy, or
archive log from the control file and recovery catalog. It physically deletes the file. This command
works with or without a recovery catalog.
The change ... crosscheck command removes references to a backup piece, data file
copy, or archive log from the control file and recovery catalog. The references are removed when
that file no longer exists. This command works with or without a recovery catalog.
The change ... unavailable command marks a backup piece, data file copy, or archive
log as unavailable. This command works only with a recovery catalog.
Validate the
A restore validation retrieves the backup pieces from storage (NetBackup) and checks that the
restore of backups retrieved pieces are intact. But the restore validation discards the backup pieces without saving
the contents into the database.
Use restore ... validate when you want RMAN to choose the backups to test.
Use validate backupset when you want to specify the backup sets to test.
Querying the RMAN repository
RMAN lets you generate a number of reports relevant for backup and recovery
using the report and list commands. The list command lists the contents of
the recovery catalog or control file, and the report command performs a more
detailed analysis.
Use the report and list commands to determine what you have backed up and
what you need to back up. The information is available whether or not you use a
recovery catalog.
You can use the report command to answer many different questions.
Some examples are as follows:
■
Which files need a backup?
■
Which files have not had been backed up in awhile?
■
Which files are not recoverable due to unrecoverable operations?
■
Which backup files can be deleted?
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
■
What was the physical schema of the database at some previous point in time?
The list command queries the recovery catalog and control file and produces a
listing of its contents. The primary purpose of the list command is to determine
the backups that are available.
You can list the following information:
■
Backup sets containing a backup of a specified list of data files.
■
Backup sets containing a backup of any data file that is a member of a specified
list of tablespaces.
■
All backup sets or copies of all data files in the database.
■
Backup sets containing a backup of any archive logs with a specified name or
within a specified range.
■
Incarnations of a specified database or of all databases that are known to the
recovery catalog.
For more information on querying the RMAN repository, see your Oracle
documentation.
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
You can perform different types of backups using NetBackup. Backups can be run
automatically by using the schedules that you determine, or you can run a backup
manually. The following table describes these methods of running a backup.
Automatic backups
When the NetBackup scheduler invokes a schedule for an automatic
backup, the NetBackup for Oracle backup templates or shell scripts
run as follows:
■
In the same order as they appear in the file list
■
On all clients in the client list
The NetBackup for Oracle backup templates or shell scripts start
the database backup by running the rman command.
When the backup is started through NetBackup, RMAN performs
error checking. The rman command generates an error if it
considers a command invalid, but it allows any of the commands
it typically considers valid to proceed. When you specify the wrong
script file name, you can start an unintended operation.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
Manual backups
You can use the NetBackup server software to manually run an
automatic backup schedule for the Oracle policy. For more
information, see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
See “Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle”
on page 114.
Running NetBackup for Oracle templates
The Oracle template administration interface is available in the NetBackup Backup,
Archive, and Restore interface.
Use this dialog to run, edit, delete, rename, and view existing backup templates.
These are the templates created by the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template
generation wizard. Before you can run, edit, delete, or rename templates on the
master server, the client must exist in a policy or in the NetBackup image catalog.
See “Creating RMAN templates using the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template
generation wizard” on page 107.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
To use Oracle template administration
1
In the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, choose Actions > Administer
Database Templates > Oracle.
The Select Template list shows the names and descriptions of the RMAN
backup templates that are stored on the current master server.
2
Select the name of the backup template you want to run.
3
Click Run.
You can use the View Status tool to see the status of the backup. Click Actions
> View Status.
The Oracle template administration window provides the following functions:
Run
Runs the selected template.
Edit
Changes the contents of an existing template. The selected backup
template is loaded into the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template
generation wizard.
Delete
Removes the selected template.
On Windows, you must be a system administrator or the template
creator to delete a template.
On UNIX, you must be the root user or the template creator to
delete a template.
Rename
Changes the name of the selected template.
On Windows, you must be a system administrator or the template
creator to rename a template.
On UNIX, you must be the root user or the template creator to
rename a template.
View
Displays a summary of the selected template.
Using bpdbsbora to run a backup template
The bpdbsbora command lets you run a backup template that the NetBackup for
Oracle RMAN template generation wizard creates.
At the command prompt, type this command using the following options:
bpdbsbora -backup -r -t templ_name.tpl [-S srvr_name] [-L prog_file]
Where:
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle backups
-backup
Specifies the template type.
-r
Runs the template.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the file name of the template that you want to use.
bpdbsbora retrieves backup templates from a known location
on the master server, so specify only the template file name.
-S server_name
Optional. Specifies the master server upon which the templates
reside. When it is specified, the bpdbsbora command retrieves
backup templates from the specified master server.
-L prog_file
Optional. Specifies a run-time progress log. Enclose prog_file in
quotation marks (" ") if it contains space characters.
For example:
bpdbsbora -backup -r -t ORCLMonfull.tpl -S my_mast -L my_prog_log
Running the NetBackup for Oracle shell script
When you run a NetBackup for Oracle shell script on a client to initiate a backup
from the command prompt, specify the full path name to the file that contains the
script. For example:
Windows:
install_path\oracle\scripts\db_full_backup.cmd
UNIX:
/oracle/scripts/db_full_backup.sh
The shell starts the database backup by running the Oracle shell script. The Oracle
shell script contains commands to run rman.
The NetBackup installation script installs sample scripts in the following location:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\oracle\samples\rman
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Browsing backups using the bplist command
Running RMAN
As an Oracle user, you can run the rman command from the command prompt with
the RMAN command file as a parameter. This topic describes how to set the master
server to hag and the Oracle policy to obk before you start the backup.
On Windows, RMAN functionality runs as a service, so use the send operand to
set up the run-time environment. To start a backup using the rman command from
the command prompt, type the following:
# send "‘NB_ORA_POLICY=obk,NB_ORA_SERV=hag’" cmdfile
"install_path\oracle\scripts\db_full_backup.rcv"
\
On UNIX, type the following at the command prompt:
# rman target ‘internal/oracle@ORCL’ rcvcat ‘rman/rman@RCAT’
# send "‘NB_ORA_POLICY=obk,NB_ORA_SERV=hag’" cmdfile
\
'/oracle/scripts/db_full_backup.rcv"
If you intend to connect to a database using a TNS alias, the RMAN send command
specifies the environment variables. The example sets the master server to hag
and the Oracle policy to obk before you start the backup.
See “About the bp.conf file on UNIX systems” on page 104.
Note: To run script files for database operations other than backups or restores,
Veritas recommends that you run the rman command directly rather than using
NetBackup.
For rman command script syntax and examples, see your Oracle documentation.
Browsing backups using the bplist command
You can use the bplist command to browse Oracle backups. The command returns
a list of backup file names.
Before using this command, log onto the master server or the client:
■
On Windows, log on as administrator to the master server and to the client with
the appropriate altnames entry.
■
On UNIX, log on as root to the master server and to the client with the appropriate
altnames entry.
The following example uses the command to search all Oracle backups for a client
named jupiter:
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Managing expired backup images
# bplist -C jupiter -t 4 -R /
/exb_n2bm5bco_1_1392342936
/exb_mabm02ko_1_1392170136
/exb_lqbltds6_1_1392083334
The -t 4 on this command specifies the Oracle backups. The -R specifies the
default number (999) of directory levels to search.
For more information on the bplist command, see the NetBackup Commands
Reference Guide.
You can also use the RMAN report and list commands to browse Oracle backups.
See “Querying the RMAN repository” on page 121.
Managing expired backup images
NetBackup and Oracle each maintain a repository of RMAN-initiated backup image
information. The retention setting in the Application Backup schedule for RMAN
stream-based backups determines the NetBackup image retention. But for RMAN
proxy backups and OIP backups, the retention setting on the Automatic Backup
schedule determines retention of the NetBackup image.
To manage expired backup images from the NetBackup repository, access the
Retention setting of the Application backup schedule. Specify the length of time
before NetBackup expires a backup image.
See “About schedule properties ” on page 91.
You can also manage the expired backup images from the Oracle repository. This
method sets the backup retention as an RMAN attribute, rather than a NetBackup
attribute. RMAN deletes the obsolete but not the unexpired backups from NetBackup.
The following items are also part of this process:
■
Set the NetBackup backup retention for Oracle backups to be either infinite or
significantly longer than the RMAN retention.
■
Set the RMAN retention to the number or duration to keep the backup sets in
the RMAN catalog. If no RMAN catalog exists, then use SQL to set an
appropriate value for "control_file_record_keep_time". The minimum appropriate
time is the catalog backup retention time plus the maximum time between catalog
maintenance operations.
■
On a regular basis, run the RMAN delete obsolete command to expire obsolete
images from the RMAN catalog, the control file, and from NetBackup.
■
If a cross-check of the catalog is required, perform the cross-check after RAMN
deletes the obsolete backups.
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About NetBackup for Oracle restores
■
Stagger the initiation of RMAN catalog maintenance functions. Staggering is
done to limit the number of concurrent checks or deletion requests that RMAN
makes of the NetBackup master server.
■
Perform the RMAN catalog maintenance functions on a more frequent basis to
limit the number of NetBackup catalog requests in a single session.
■
Ensure that the format that is specified for all RMAN backup piece names (except
for autobackups of the control file) ends with _%t.
■
Ensure that the format that is specified for all RMAN backup piece names does
not contain any space characters.
■
Avoid the creation of excessive, small backup pieces of database files or archive
logs.
You can manually remove references to backup images from the Oracle RMAN
repository. Use RMAN repository maintenance commands to remove references
to backup files. You can use these commands to delete backup image information
from both the Oracle RMAN repository and the NetBackup repository.
More information is available on the RMAN repository maintenance commands.
See “Maintaining the RMAN repository” on page 117.
When a request is issued to delete a backup file from the RMAN repository, RMAN
sends the request to NetBackup. The request tells NetBackup to delete the
corresponding image from the NetBackup repository, regardless of the retention
level.
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
Make sure that a backup has completed successfully before you attempt a restore.
An error occurs if a backup history does not exist.
NetBackup for Oracle includes a recovery wizard that solicits information from the
user about the desired RMAN restore and recovery operations. The wizard uses
the information to create a template.
The recovery wizard saves a recovery template locally in a user-specified location
on the NetBackup client. Recovery templates are not stored on the master server
because recovery is always user directed, not scheduled. Typically, you run the
recovery template immediately and then delete it.
The recovery process sometimes requires passwords for Oracle database access
and system user accounts. Templates store the encrypted passwords that are
decrypted at run-time.
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About NetBackup for Oracle restores
Because recovery can be a complex process, it might be necessary to perform
manual steps as part of the operation. For more information, see your Oracle
documentation.
The restore browser is used to display database objects. A hierarchical display is
provided where objects can be selected for recovery. The top database node
expands to show all of the installed databases.
On Windows, Oracle services are searched for in the Registry to get the names
and location of each database.
On UNIX, the oratab file is read to get the names and location of each database.
The objects (tablespaces, data files, PDBs, and users) that make up an Oracle
database are displayed by expanding an individual database node. This information
is gathered from various database tables and views. Since you must be connected
to the database before you can access its tables or views, logon criteria must be
provided. When a user selects or expands a database node the wizard first tries to
logon to the database using OS authentication. If the authentication fails the user
is solicited for a user name and password. Optionally, the user is prompted for the
Net Service Name if the connection is through SQL-Net, which is then used to log
on to the database. This user must have SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privileges since
the logon credentials are also used to perform the RMAN restore. The logon fails
if the database is not in a mount state or an open state.
On Windows, NetBackup uses an API to browse the database. Logging is recorded
in the nbwin folder.
On UNIX, the GUI uses the bpubsora utility to access and query the database. If
a problem occurs when NetBackup attempts to connect or browse a database, run
this utility from the command line to debug the issue.
The recovery wizard has several limitations:
■
The database is displayed only in its current state. If objects have been deleted
from the database since the last backup, these objects do not appear among
the objects you can select for restore. To restore the objects that have been
deleted, you need to restore the entire database to a point in time before the
objects were deleted.
■
Data is restored to the original location. The wizard does not provide a way for
the user to specify alternate file names.
■
The wizard does not restore control files.
Starting the recovery wizard
This topic describes how to start the recovery wizard.
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About NetBackup for Oracle restores
To start the recovery wizard
1
Start the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
2
(Conditional) Change the policy type.
Perform this step if the Oracle node is not visible.
From the File menu (Windows) or Actions menu (UNIX), choose Specify
NetBackup Machines and Policy Type.
3
Select files for Restore:
■
On Windows, click Select for Restore.
■
On UNIX, click the Restore Files tab.
4
Expand the Oracle node in the left pane to view an Oracle database instance
hierarchy.
5
Select a node in the left pane to view details in the right pane.
Using the recovery wizard
When you are ready to perform a recovery, follow these steps to create and run a
template with the recovery wizard.
To use the recovery wizard
1
Open the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
2
Select the Restore operation:
■
On Windows, click Select for Restore
■
On UNIX, click on the Restore Files tab. In the Restore Type list, select
Normal Backups.
3
In the left pane, select the Oracle database instance.
4
In the right pane, select the database object(s) (databases, tablespaces, data
files, and users) you want to recover.
If you select the Oracle database instance, the wizard recovers the entire
database using RMAN.
5
Click Actions > Restore.
Enter information about the recovery operation you want to perform in the
screens that the NetBackup for Oracle recovery wizard displays.
The screens are as follows:
■
Welcome
■
Target Database Logon Credentials
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
■
Recovery Catalog Logon Credentials
■
Recovery Options
■
Restore Options
■
Recover Limits
■
Database State
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard screens, click Help
on the wizard screen.
6
When you have completed the wizard, the Selection Summary screen displays
the summary of the recovery template. Review this summary. You can choose
to run the template immediately after the wizard finishes or save the template
locally, or both.
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard panels, click Help
on the wizard panel.
7
Click Finish to run, to save, or to run and save the recovery template.
Using bpdbsbora to run a recovery template
The bpdbsbora command lets you run a recovery template that the NetBackup
Recovery Wizard creates.
At the command prompt, type this command and the following options:
bpdbsbora -restore -r -t [/path/]templ_name.tpl [-L progress_file]
Where:
-restore
Specifies the template type.
-r
Runs the template.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the full-path name of the template file that you want to
use.
Unlike backup templates, restore templates do not reside in a
predetermined location on the master server. They are considered
to be temporary in nature and should reside on the client. If the
full path is not specified as part of the restore template name, the
file might not be found.
-L progress_file
For example:
Optional. Specifies a run-time process log. Enclose progress_file
in quotation marks (" ") if they contain space characters.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
132
For Windows:
bpdbsbora -restore -r -t install_path\oracle\restore_templs\ORCL_MON_Full.tpl
For UNIX:
bpdbsbora -restore -r -t /oracle/restore_templs/ORCL_MON_Full.tpl
About an Oracle recovery shell script on the client
You can initiate a database recovery from the command prompt by typing the full
path to the shell script that performs an Oracle recovery. For example:
Windows:
install_path\oracle\scripts\database_restore.cmd
UNIX:
/oracle/scripts/database_restore.sh
The operating system shell starts the database restore by running the Oracle shell
script file. The Oracle shell script file contains commands to run RMAN.
The NetBackup installation script writes sample scripts to the following location:
Windows:
install_path\Netbackup\dbext\oracle\samples\rman\
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
Running RMAN on the client
You can run the rman command from a command prompt on the client. Use the
appropriate RMAN command file as a parameter.
On UNIX, the following example assumes that you are logged on as an Oracle
administrator.
To run the RMAN command on the client:
◆
At the command prompt, type the following:
Windows: rman target ‘internal/oracle@ORCL’ rcvcat ‘rman\rman@RCAT’
cmdfile ‘install_path\oracle\scripts\database_restore.rcv’
UNIX: rman target ‘internal/oracle@ORCL’ rcvcat ‘rman/rman@RCAT’
cmdfile ‘/oracle/scripts/database_restore.rcv’
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
About Oracle multistream restore for proxy backup
NetBackup lets you specify the number of restore streams that start simultaneously
when the RMAN command is used. You can use the SEND command variable
NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS or the RMAN ENV parameter to specify the number of restore
streams. When you send the request to NetBackup, there may not be the same
number of streams or jobs running during restore. NetBackup adjusts the stream
count based on the count that is specified when you use the NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS
variable. Or, NetBackup uses the number of images the requested restore job needs
if the restore job needs more than one image. NetBackup selects whichever is the
minimum number needed to complete the restore job.
When the restore job needs only one image and it is a snapshot, the stream count
is based on the count that you specify in NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS. Or, NetBackup uses
the number of files the requested restore job needs to complete. NetBackup selects
whichever is the minimum number needed to complete the restore job. Also, the
files are evenly distributed across the streams based on the file size.
When the restore needs only one image and that image is not a snapshot, then
NetBackup does not attempt to perform a multistream restore.
See “About the RMAN SEND command variables” on page 101.
When the multistream restore is started, a parent job is created that initiates a child
job for each stream. If you cancel the parent job, all incomplete child jobs are
canceled and the job exits with a status of 150. If one of the child jobs is successful
before parent cancelation, then the parent job exits with a status of 1. If you cancel
one of the running child jobs, the child exits with status 150 and the parent job exits
with a status of 1.
Note: Multistream restore only works when using Oracle backup images and is
only accessible using command-line inputs.
Multistream restore supports the following snapshot method images:
■
remote_vxfs
■
VxFS_Checkpoint
■
VxVM
Multistream restore is not supported when using the following types of images:
■
Block level incremental images
■
Off-host supported snapshot method images
It is recommended to configure RMAN to always use the SEND command to pass
the desired variables and values to NetBackup explicitly. Alternatively the RMAN
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
ENV parameter can be used to make the variables and values available to
NetBackup. The following are examples of running the multistream restore:
Example 1. Use the SEND command to specify the NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS variable.
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS=<number of restore streams>';
RESTORE DATABASE; RECOVER DATABASE;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
Example 2. Use the PARMS operand to specify the NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS variable.
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
PARMS "ENV=(NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS= <number of restore streams>)";
RESTORE DATABASE; RECOVER DATABASE;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
Redirecting a restore to a different client
With NetBackup for Oracle you have the option to restore a database to a client
other than the one that originally performed the backup. The process of restoring
data to another client is called a redirected restore.
Figure 5-1 shows a redirected restore.
Figure 5-1
Redirected restore
1. Client A agents are backed up.
3. The server restores client A backup
image to client B.
Server
2. Client B requests restore of client A
image to client B.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
The user on client A cannot initiate a redirected restore to client B. Only the user
on client B, which is the client receiving the backup image, can initiate the redirected
restore. Any user who belongs to the database group that performed the backup
can restore it, unless the BKUP_IMAGE_PERM variable is set to USER.
Preparing the master server for an alternate restore
The examples in the following procedure assume that the database instance ORAC11
was backed up by client2, and you want to restore ORAC11 to client1.
For more information on how to manage client restores, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
To prepare the NetBackup master server for alternate restores
1
Log onto the NetBackup master server that hosts the policy that backed up
database instance ORAC11.
2
Create a dest_client_name file on the NetBackup master server.
■
Windows: install_path\NetBackup\db\altnames\dest_client_name
■
UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames/dest_client_name
Where dest_client_name is the name of a client that is allowed to be a
destination client for alternate restores. For example, client1.
3
After creating a dest_client_name file, add the name of the NetBackup for
Oracle source client to the dest_client_name file. For example, add the following
line to this file:
client2
For more information on managing a client restore, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
About performing a redirected restore with RMAN
Perform the following procedure on the destination client host if you want to restore
any RMAN backups that another client owns.
The user on client A cannot initiate a redirected restore to client B. Only the user
on client B, which is the client receiving the backup image, can initiate the redirected
restore. Any user who belongs to the database group that performed the backup
can restore it, unless the BKUP_IMAGE_PERM variable is set to USER.
Note: If the RMAN catalog database has been lost, restore the catalog database
first before continuing with the redirected restore.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
To perform a redirected restore
1
Enable a network connection to the RMAN catalog database that the source
client used.
2
Do one of the following:
■
On Windows, use the rman parms option to set the NB_ORA_CLIENT
environment variable to the source client.
■
On UNIX, set the NB_ORA_CLIENT environment variable to the source client.
3
On UNIX, check the bp.conf files on the source client. Make sure that the
CLIENT_NAME variable either is not set or is set to the host name of the source
client.
4
Make the init.ora file of the source client available to the destination client.
Copy the file to the destination client or modify the file on the destination client.
Change all location-specific parameters.
5
Create a folder or set the permissions for a directory to restore the data files:
■
On Windows, create and start an Oracle service for the previously set
ORACLE_SID. Create the folder to which you want to restore the data files.
■
On UNIX, grant write permission to the directory to which you want to restore
the data files.
6
Set up a password file for the destination client database.
7
Start the database in the nomount state.
8
Start RMAN, connecting to the catalog. On Windows, also connect to the target
database.
9
On UNIX, set dbid to be the DBID of the source client database. Connect to
the target database without using a user ID and password.
10 Run an RMAN restore script. On UNIX, you can alternatively type the RMAN
commands for the restore.
Example - Performing a redirected restore of Oracle
For example, assume the following:
■
Source client is camel
■
Destination client is giraffe
■
Master server is lion
■
ORACLE_SID is test
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About NetBackup for Oracle restores
■
The user is connected to the Oracle database using a local connection, not
SQL*Net
■
UNIX user is ora on both camel and giraffe
To perform a redirected restore (example)
1
Create the following file on server lion:
Windows: install_path\NetBackup\db\altnames\giraffe
UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames/giraffe
Edit giraffe to contain the name camel:
2
Do one of the following:
■
Windows: Use the BAR GUI to set lion as the master server.
■
UNIX: Log onto giraffe as ora. Set SERVER=lion in
$ORACLE_HOME/bp.conf. This server must be the first server that is listed
in the bp.conf file.
3
Modify the network tnsnames.ora file to enable the RMAN catalog connection.
4
Create inittest.ora.file.
5
Windows: Using Oracle administration, create and start ORACLESERVICETEST.
6
Set the environment variable ORACLE_SID to test. On UNIX, also set
NB_ORA_CLIENT to camel.
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster environment
7
Make sure that the destination database directory exists and has appropriate
access permissions.
The data files are restored to the directory path with the same name they had
when they were backed up.
8
Start the database in a nomount state.
On UNIX, the following is the output:
SQL> startup nomount pfile=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/inittest.ora
%rman catalog rman/rman@rcat
RMAN> set dbid=<dbid of source database on camel
RMAN> connect target/
RMAN> run {
RMAN>
ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
RMAN>
SEND 'NB_ORA_SERV=lion, NB_ORA_CLIENT=camel';
RMAN>
restore controlfile;
RMAN>
}
SQL> alter database mount;
%orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwtest password=<oracle>
%rman catalog rman/rman@RCVCAT
RMAN>set dbid=<Saved dbID of Source Target>
RMAN>connect target/
RMAN>run {
RMAN>
ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
RMAN>
ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
RMAN>
SEND 'NB_ORA_SERV=lion, NB_ORA_CLIENT=camel';
RMAN>
restore database;
RMAN>
restore archivelog all;
RMAN>
}
SQL>recover database until cancel using backup controlfile;
Now apply the archived logs. Type cancel when you decide to stop recovery.
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft
Windows cluster environment
To use NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Cluster environment, the following must
be installed in the cluster nodes:
■
NetBackup client or server (7.5 or greater)
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Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster environment
■
NetBackup for Oracle on Windows (7.5 or greater)
■
Oracle Database version 10g or greater
■
Oracle Failsafe 3.11 for Oracle 10g or greater
■
Review the Oracle compatibility list for complete information.
NetBackup for Oracle users in a Microsoft Cluster environment must take some
additional steps to prepare for server-directed backups, user-directed backups, and
user-directed restores.
About backups of an Oracle clustered database on Windows
The most convenient way to back up your clustered databases is to set up schedules
for automatic backups. NetBackup for Oracle comes with sample scripts for clustered
Oracle databases. The NetBackup for Oracle installation process installs the sample
scripts in the following location:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\oracle\samples\rman\
Modify the scripts to give values to the following variables:
■
Oracle SID
■
Oracle Home
■
Cluster Name, Domain
■
Failsafe Home
■
Failsafe user ID
■
Failsafe Password
■
Failsafe Database Resource Name
■
Virtual Oracle Database Name
You can also manually back up an Oracle policy. Refer to the following procedure:
See “Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle” on page 114.
For more information on how to back up or restore Microsoft Cluster using
NetBackup, see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Bringing the database instance offline on Windows
Before you can perform a user-directed backup or restore from the client, you must
take the database instance offline. You can use the Failsafe graphical user interface
or the Failsafe command line (FSCMD).
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster environment
To take the database instance offline with Failsafe graphical user interface
1
Select the Oracle database resource in the Failsafe graphical user interface.
2
Choose to bring it offline.
To take the database instance offline with Failsafe command line (FSCMD), type
the following command:
■
fscmd offlineresource salesdb /cluster=curly /offline=immediate
/domain=domainname /user=user /pwd=pwd
To bring the resource offline, the preceding command sets offline=immediate.
Alternately, based on your need you can specify one of the following as the
argument:
abort
Shuts down the database instantaneously by aborting the database
instance.
immediate
Shuts down the database immediately by terminating SQL
statements in progress, rolling back uncommitted transactions and
disconnecting users.
normal
Shuts down the database and doesn’t allow new connections after
the command was issued. This command waits for the connected
users to disconnect before the database is shut down.
transactional
Shuts down the database only after all of the current transactions
have completed.
Because the offlineresource operation shuts down the Oracle database service,
enter the following command to start the Oracle database service:
net start OracleService
Bringing the database instance online on Windows
After you perform a user-directed backup or restore from the client, you must bring
the database instance online. You can use the Failsafe graphical user interface or
the Failsafe command line (FSCMD).
To bring the database instance online with Failsafe graphical user interface
1
Select the resource in the Failsafe graphical user interface.
2
Choose to bring it online.
To bring the database instance online with Failsafe command line (FSCMD), type
the following command:
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Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Using NetBackup for Oracle in a Microsoft Windows cluster environment
■
fscmd online resource salesdb /cluster=curly
/offline=immediate /domain=domainname /user=user /pwd=pwd
User-directed backup or restore from the Windows client
This section explains the process to prepare a Microsoft Cluster environment for a
user-directed backup or restore operation.
Note: When performing user-directed backups, make sure that you are on the node
that owns the shared drive where the Oracle database is installed.
Note: When user-directed client restores are performed with different configuration
options of NetBackup failover media servers and a UNIX or Windows master server,
see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
To perform a user-directed backup or restore from the client
1
Take the clustered Oracle database instance offline.
See “Bringing the database instance offline on Windows” on page 139.
2
Shut down and then startup the database in mount state.
The sequence is necessary to perform administrative tasks like backup and
recovery. Use the svrmgrl or sqlplus utility from Oracle. At the command
line, type the following:
Shutdown option [normal, abort, immediate]
startup mount
3
Perform the backup or recovery.
See “Using the recovery wizard” on page 130.
4
Bring the Oracle database online with failsafe after the desired backup or
restore is complete. The database is then enabled to fail over between the
configured cluster of nodes.
See “Bringing the database instance online on Windows” on page 140.
141
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image
142
Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle
Copilot image
The nborair command can determine if an image is available for Oracle Copilot
instant recovery.
Note: The functionality for creating an instant recovery point is not in the GUI. This
feature is command line option only.
Refer to the NetBackup Commands Reference Guide for more usage options using
the nborair command.
To create an instant recovery point
1
Determine if there are any images available for instant recovery by running the
nborair –list_images [-client name] [-server master] command.
The NetBackup administrator or the DBA can run this command from the
NetBackup client or master server.
Example output:
# nborair -list_images -client orachost1.demo.com -server mastsrv123
Time: 08/30/2016 15:51:17
ID: orachost1.demo.com_1472590277 Full Backup
policy1
Time: 08/31/2016 11:20:17
Time: 09/02/2016 10:42:45
ID: orachost1.demo.com_1472660417 Full Backup
ID: orachost1.demo.com_1472830965 Full Backup
policy1
policy1
2
List the files that are included in the backup image by running the nborair
–list_files –backupid backup_id command.
The NetBackup administrator or the DBA can run this command from the
NetBackup client or master server. The DBA sees only the files they can access
when this command is run.
Example output:
# nborair -list_files -backupid orachost1.demo.com_1472590277
-rw-r----- orac112 dba 807411712 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSAUX...
-rw-r----- orac112 dba 744497152 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSTEM...
-rw-r-----rw-r-----rw-r-----rw-r-----rw-r-----rw-r-----
orac112
orac112
orac112
orac112
orac112
orac112
dba
dba
dba
dba
dba
dba
52436992 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-UNDOTBS...
5251072 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-USERS_FN...
163328 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/arch_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_SCN-3744354_...
2560 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/arch_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_SCN-3744354_5i...
98304 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/spfile_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160902_...
1425408 Sep 02 10:42 /backup/cf_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160902_5k...
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image
3
Create the instance recovery point by running the nborair
-create_recovery_point -backupid backup_id -dest_client name
command. The backup_id is the same backup_id found in step 1.
The NetBackup administrator must run this command from the NetBackup
master server.
For this example, the destination client is oracdest.
Example output:
# nborair -create_recovery_point -backupid orachost1.demo.com_1472590277
-dest_client oracdest
Appliance: appl5330
Export path: /shares/share1_orachost1.demo.com_1472590277_rp1
Export options: oracdest(rw,no_root_squash,insecure)
4
Mount the recovery point on the destination client using the OS tools and with
the required mount options per Oracle documentation.
Example:
mount –t nfs
appl5330:/shares/share1_orachost1.demo.com_1472590277_rp1 /mnt
For Windows, Oracle’s DNFS needs to be configured. The recovery point has
to be exported with the insecure option.
5
(Conditional) On the destination host, verify the mount point is from the backup
ID that was requested by running the nborair –validate –backupid
backup_id -mount_path mount_path command.
The NetBackup administrator or the DBA can run this command on the
destination host.
Example output:
# nborair -validate -backupid orachost1.demo.com_1472590277 -mount_path /mnt
Validation successful - Recovery point mounted on /mnt was
created from backup ID orachost1.demo.com_1472590277
See “Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point” on page 151.
143
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Deleting an instant recovery point for Oracle Copilot instant recovery
Deleting an instant recovery point for Oracle
Copilot instant recovery
The nborair command can delete an instant recovery point that is available for
Oracle Copilot instant recovery.
Note: The functionality for deleting an instant recovery point is not in the GUI. This
feature is command line option only.
Refer to the NetBackup Commands Reference Guide for more usage options using
the nborair command.
To delete an instant recovery point
1
(Conditional) Verify the recovery point is unmounted from the destination client
using the OS tools.
UNIX: umount /mnt
2
List the recovery point on the NetBackup appliance by running the nborair
–list_recovery_points –appliance appliance_name command.
The NetBackup administrator must run this command from the NetBackup
master server.
Example output:
# nborair -list_recovery_points -appliance appl5330
Total 1 recovery points found.
Export path: /shares/share1_orachost1.demo.com_1472590277_rp1
Share name: share1
Export options: oracdest(rw,no_root_squash,insecure)
3
Delete the recovery point on the NetBackup appliance by running the nborair
-delete_recovery_point -appliance appliance_name -export_path
export_path command.
The NetBackup administrator must run this command from the NetBackup
master server.
Example output:
# nborair -delete_recovery_point -appliance appl5330
-export_path /shares/share1_orachost1.demo.com_1472590277_rp1
144
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time
restore of database
After a point in time restore of an Oracle database, RMAN can leave files from the
previous database incarnations on a Copilot share. NetBackup does not
automatically clean up the files from the previous database incarnation. This
procedure describes how to manually clean up the share using RMAN.
Note: The functionality for cleaning up a Copilot share is not in the GUI. This feature
is command line option only.
To clean up the Copilot share
1
Open a command prompt on the NetBackup client.
2
Set the NLS DATE_FORMAT to display hours, minutes, and seconds.
UNIX:
NLS_DATE_FORMAT=DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS
export NLS_DATE_FORMAT
Windows:
set NLS_DATE_FORMAT=DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS
3
Log into RMAN and if NetBackup uses the RMAN catalog, it is required to log
in to the catalog.
4
Use the RMAN> list incarnation of database; command to find the Reset
Time for the current incarnation.
Example:
List of
DB Key
------10046
10046
10046
Database Incarnations
Inc Key DB Name DB ID
------- -------- ---------------10054
ORACLEC2 3019371157
10047
ORACLEC2 3019371157
11551
ORACLEC2 3019371157
STATUS Reset SCN Reset Time
--- ---------- ---------PARENT 1
11-SEP-14_08:40:48
PARENT 2233668
27-APR-17_10:23:22
CURRENT 2323198
28-APR-17_10:41:37
145
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
5
146
Use the list backup summary completed before "to_date()" device
type disk; command to find all the backup pieces from the previous
incarnation by using the reset time ("to_date()" must match
NLS_DATE_FORMAT).
Example:
RMAN> list backup summary completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" device type disk;
List of Backups
===============
Key
TY LV S
------- -- -- 10192
B F A
10193
B F A
10194
B F A
10195
B F A
10196
B F A
10197
B F A
10198
B F A
10199
B F A
10200
B F A
10759
B A A
10786
B F A
10814
B F A
Device Type
----------DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
DISK
6
Completion Time
-----------------27-APR-17_10:42:59
27-APR-17_13:16:37
27-APR-17_13:16:55
27-APR-17_13:28:52
27-APR-17_13:29:08
27-APR-17_14:00:31
27-APR-17_14:00:43
27-APR-17_14:07:31
27-APR-17_14:07:48
28-APR-17_10:28:46
28-APR-17_10:28:56
28-APR-17_10:29:08
#Pieces
------1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
#Copies
------1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Compressed
---------NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
Tag
--TAG20170427T104257
TAG20170427T131636
TAG20170427T131654
TAG20170427T132851
TAG20170427T132906
TAG20170427T140031
TAG20170427T140043
TAG20170427T140730
TAG20170427T140747
DCS_CDB
DCS_CDB
DCS_CDB
Use the list backup summary completed before "to_date()" device
type disk tag ''; command to find the backup pieces on the share by using
the tag (by default, the tag is the NetBackup policy name).
Example:
RMAN> list backup summary completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" device type disk tag 'DCS_CDB';
List of Backups
===============
Key
TY LV S
------- -- -- 10759
B A A
10786
B F A
10814
B F A
Device Type
----------DISK
DISK
DISK
Completion Time
-----------------28-APR-17_10:28:46
28-APR-17_10:28:56
28-APR-17_10:29:08
#Pieces
------1
1
1
#Copies
------1
1
1
Compressed
---------NO
NO
NO
Tag
--DCS_CDB
DCS_CDB
DCS_CDB
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
7
147
Use the list backup completed before "to_date()" device type disk
tag ''; command to remove the summary option to see what files need
deleting.
Example:
RMAN> list backup completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" device type disk tag 'DCS_CDB';
List of Backup Sets
===================
BS Key Size
Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---------- ----------- ------------ -----------------10759
40.00K
DISK
00:02:55
28-APR-17_10:28:46
BP Key: 10762
Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: DCS_CDB
Piece Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\ARCH_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_SCN-2323355_26S2QF5F_DCS_CDB
List
Thrd
---1
1
of Archived Logs in backup set 10759
Seq
Low SCN
Low Time
------- ---------- -----------------19
2322734
28-APR-17_10:16:54
20
2323527
28-APR-17_10:25:48
Next SCN
---------2323527
2323546
Next Time
--------28-APR-17_10:25:48
28-APR-17_10:25:49
BS Key Type LV Size
Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ -----------------10786
Full
80.00K
DISK
00:03:02
28-APR-17_10:28:56
BP Key: 10789
Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: DCS_CDB
Piece Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\SPFILE_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_T-20170428_27S2QF5I_DCS_CDB
SPFILE Included: Modification time: 27-APR-17_14:57:53
SPFILE db_unique_name: ORACLEC2
BS Key Type LV Size
Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ -----------------10814
Full
17.17M
DISK
00:03:11
28-APR-17_10:29:08
BP Key: 10816
Status: AVAILABLE Compressed: NO Tag: DCS_CDB
Piece Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\CF_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_T-20170428_28S2QF5L_DCS_CDB
Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 2323603
Ckp time: 28-APR-17_10:25:57
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
8
148
Use the delete backup completed before "to_date()" device type
disk tag ''; command to delete the unwanted backup pieces.
Example:
RMAN> delete backup completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" device type disk tag 'DCS_CDB';
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=242 device type=DISK
List of Backup Pieces
BP Key BS Key Pc# Cp# Status
------- ------- --- --- ----------10762
10759
1
1
AVAILABLE
SCN-2323355_26S2QF5F_DCS_CDB
10789
10786
1
1
AVAILABLE
T-20170428_27S2QF5I_DCS_CDB
10816
10814
1
1
AVAILABLE
T-20170428_28S2QF5L_DCS_CDB
Device Type Piece Name
----------- ---------DISK
C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\ARCH_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_
DISK
C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\SPFILE_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_
DISK
C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\CF_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_
Do you really want to delete the above objects (enter YES or NO)? YES
deleted backup piece
backup piece handle=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\ARCH_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_SCN-2323355_26S2QF5F_DCS_CDB
RECID=50 STAMP=942488751
deleted backup piece
backup piece handle=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\SPFILE_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_T-20170428_27S2QF5I_DCS_CDB
RECID=51 STAMP=942488754
deleted backup piece
backup piece handle=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\CF_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_T-20170428_28S2QF5L_DCS_CDB
RECID=52 STAMP=942488758
Deleted 3 objects
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
9
149
Use the list copy completed before "to_date()" tag ''; command to
find the data file copies on the share using the same reset time and tag.
Example:
RMAN> list copy completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" tag 'DCS_CDB';
specification does not match any control file copy in the repository
List of Datafile Copies
=======================
Key
File S Completion Time
Ckp SCN
Ckp Time
------- ---- - ------------------ ---------- -----------------10649
1
A 28-APR-17_10:25:39 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_1GS2QE1J_S-48_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
10251
2
A 28-APR-17_10:15:32 2243146
27-APR-17_10:31:51
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-2_1LS2QEGQ_S-53_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Container ID: 2, PDB Name: PDB$SEED
10648
3
A 28-APR-17_10:25:39 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-3_1IS2QE8G_S-50_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
10249
4
A 28-APR-17_10:13:19 2243146
27-APR-17_10:31:51
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-4_1JS2QEBG_S-51_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Container ID: 2, PDB Name: PDB$SEED
10647
5
A 28-APR-17_10:25:38 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-UNDOTBS1_FNO-5_1HS2QE57_S-49_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
10646
6
A 28-APR-17_10:25:37 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-USERS_FNO-6_1NS2QEJV_S-55_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Cleaning up the Copilot share after point in time restore of database
10 Use the delete
150
copy completed before "to_date()" tag ''; command
to delete the data file copies on the selected share.
Example:
RMAN> delete copy completed before "to_date('28-APR-17_10:41:37',
'DD-MON-YY_HH24:MI:SS')" tag 'DCS_CDB';
released channel: ORA_DISK_1
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=242 device type=DISK
specification does not match any control file copy in the repository
List of Datafile Copies
=======================
Key
File S Completion Time
Ckp SCN
Ckp Time
------- ---- - ------------------ ---------- -----------------10649
1
A 28-APR-17_10:25:39 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_1GS2QE1J_S-48_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
10251
2
A 28-APR-17_10:15:32 2243146
27-APR-17_10:31:51
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-2_1LS2QEGQ_S-53_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Container ID: 2, PDB Name: PDB$SEED
10648
3
A 28-APR-17_10:25:39 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-3_1IS2QE8G_S-50_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
10249
4
A 28-APR-17_10:13:19 2243146
27-APR-17_10:31:51
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-4_1JS2QEBG_S-51_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Container ID: 2, PDB Name: PDB$SEED
10647
5
A 28-APR-17_10:25:38 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-UNDOTBS1_FNO-5_1HS2QE57_S-49_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point
151
10646
6
A 28-APR-17_10:25:37 2323417
28-APR-17_10:25:15
Name: C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-USERS_FNO-6_1NS2QEJV_S-55_
I-3019371157_DCS_CDB
Tag: DCS_CDB
Do you really want to delete the above objects (enter YES or NO)? YES
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_1GS2QE1J_
S-48_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=36 STAMP=942488739
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-2_1LS2QEGQ_
S-53_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=29 STAMP=942488132
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-3_1IS2QE8G_
S-50_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=35 STAMP=942488739
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-4_1JS2QEBG_
S-51_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=27 STAMP=942487999
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-UNDOTBS1_FNO-5_1HS2QE57_
S-49_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=34 STAMP=942488738
deleted datafile copy
datafile copy file name=C:\HA_NBA_SHARE\DATA_D-ORACLEC2_I-3019371157_TS-USERS_FNO-6_1NS2QEJV_
S-55_I-3019371157_DCS_CDB RECID=33 STAMP=942488737
Deleted 6 objects
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot
recovery point
The following procedure shows how to use RMAN to restore from a recovery point.
This procedure is only viable after the command nborair -create_recovery_point
is run and the recovery point is mounted on a target client.
Note: The functionality for single-step restore to ASM storage is not in the GUI.
This feature is run with RMAN only.
The procedure example assumes that a recovery point is already mounted and
uses the mount point of /db_mp as the example. All RMAN commands must run
from the target host.
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point
152
To perform a single-step restore to ASM storage from a recovery point
1
Catalog the backups from the recovery point.
RMAN> catalog start with '/db_mp/';
searching for all files that match the pattern /db_mp/
List of Files Unknown to the Database
=====================================
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-2_8hrgu3qd_s-1297_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_8irgu3qk_s-1298_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-UNDOTBS1_FNO-3_8jrgu3qr_s-1299_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-USERS_FNO-4_8krgu3qt_s-1300_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/arch_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_SCN-5248163_a8rh0s3b
File Name: /db_mp/spfile_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160929_a9rh0s3c
File Name: /db_mp/cf_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160929_aarh0s3d
Do you really want to catalog the above files (enter YES or NO)? YES
cataloging files...
cataloging done
List of Cataloged Files
=======================
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSAUX_FNO-2_8hrgu3qd_s-1297_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_8irgu3qk_s-1298_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-UNDOTBS1_FNO-3_8jrgu3qr_s-1299_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-USERS_FNO-4_8krgu3qt_s-1300_I-3955369132
File Name: /db_mp/arch_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_SCN-5248163_a8rh0s3b
File Name: /db_mp/spfile_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160929_a9rh0s3c
File Name: /db_mp/cf_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_T-20160929_aarh0s3d
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point
2
153
Restore the datafiles from the point in time of the recovery point.
The following RMAN restore is from disk (DISK). Also, this example uses the
NLS_DATE_FORMAT="DD-MM-YYYY-HH24:MI:SS" command that was set in the
environment before RMAN was run. Use the date format for your environment.
RMAN> restore until time '2016-09-29-10:00:00' database;
Starting restore at 2016-10-12:15:51:22
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=193 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001
input datafile copy RECID=461 STAMP=925055096
file name=/demo_2/data_D-ORAC112_I-3955369132_TS-SYSTEM_FNO-1_8irgu3qk_s-1298_I-3955369132
destination for restore of datafile 00001: /db/orac112/app/oradata/orac112/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: copied datafile copy of datafile 00001
output file name=/db/orac112/app/oradata/orac112/system01.dbf RECID=0 STAMP=0
Finished restore at 2016-10-12:15:51:34
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
Single-step restore to ASM storage from a Copilot recovery point
3
154
Recover the database.
If the restore of archive logs is not available on disk, then the logs are restored
from NetBackup (sbt_tape).
RMAN> run
{
allocate channel ch00 type sbt_Tape;
recover database;
release channel ch00;
}
released channel: ORA_DISK_1
allocated channel: ch00
channel ch00: SID=193 device type=SBT_TAPE
channel ch00: Veritas NetBackup for Oracle - Release 8.0 (2016091418)
Starting recover at 2016-10-12:15:54:13
starting media recovery
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 508 is already on disk as file
/db/orac112/app/fast_recovery_area/ORAC112/archivelog/2016_09_29/o1_mf_1_508_cytbkv22_.arc
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 509 is already on disk as file
/db/orac112/app/fast_recovery_area/ORAC112/archivelog/2016_09_29/o1_mf_1_509_cytbkv36_.arc
....
archived log file name=
/db/orac112/app/fast_recovery_area/ORAC112/archivelog/2016_09_29/o1_mf_1_508_cytbkv22_.arc
thread=1 sequence=508
archived log file name=
/db/orac112/app/fast_recovery_area/ORAC112/archivelog/2016_09_29/o1_mf_1_509_cytbkv36_.arc
thread=1 sequence=509
....
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:55
Finished recover at 2016-10-12:15:55:09
released channel: ch00
RMAN>
See “Creating an instant recovery point from an Oracle Copilot image” on page 142.
See “About using a NetBackup appliance share for Oracle backups (Copilot)”
on page 84.
Performing backups and restores of Oracle
About restoring from a data file copy to ASM storage using RMAN
See “Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance (Copilot)”
on page 86.
About restoring from a data file copy to ASM
storage using RMAN
When you use a proxy method for data file copies, NetBackup cannot place the file
directly back in ASM storage. You need to do a two-step restore for the data file
copies.
If the backups are stream-based then restore directly from NetBackup.
When you restore back to the appliance share, make sure that the share on the
appliance is configured with the no_root_squash NFS export option enabled.
For more information, refer to the Managing shares chapter in the Veritas NetBackup
Appliance Administrator’s Guide.
The first step is to stage the files to a file system. The second step is to use RMAN
to restore the files into ASM storage.
The following is an example RMAN script to stage the files to a file system:
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00
TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=clientname,NB_ORA_SERV=servername';
SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE USERS TO '/dump/%U';
RESTORE TABLESPACE USERS;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
Once the file is on a file system, then you can restore to ASM storage by running
the following:
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL dc00 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
RESTORE TABLESPACE USERS;
RECOVER DATABASE;
RELEASE CHANNEL dc00;
}
155
Chapter
6
Guided Recovery
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
About OpsCenter Guided Recovery
■
Setting up for Guided Recovery cloning
■
Guided Recovery cloning pre-operation checks
■
Performing a Guided Recovery cloning operation
■
Select a Master Server dialog
■
Select Source Database panel
■
Select Control File Backup panel
■
Destination host and login panel
■
Destination Parameters panel
■
Selection summary panel
■
Pre-clone check panel
■
Job Details panel
■
Guided Recovery post-clone operations
■
Troubleshooting Guided Recovery
About OpsCenter Guided Recovery
The use of the OpsCenter web-based user interface to guide a user through the
Oracle cloning operation offers several benefits:
■
The process is more automated, making the operation easier to perform.
Guided Recovery
Setting up for Guided Recovery cloning
■
OpsCenter retrieves information for you such as databases and control files,
shortening the Oracle clone setup time.
■
A validation process increases the rate of successfully completing the cloning
operation.
■
You do not need access to the original database to perform the cloning operation.
Setting up for Guided Recovery cloning
Guided Recovery cloning requires metadata cataloging, which enables database
information to display in OpsCenter. Metadata cataloging must occur during the
backup from the Oracle database to be cloned. The collected metadata displays
within the OpsCenter interface to guide the Clone operation. Cloning also requires
that the Oracle destination file paths exist before the operation begins.
Do the following before you perform a Guided Recovery cloning operation:
■
Configure metadata cataloging before taking the backup, that is used for the
cloning operation, using one of these methods.
■
Place the following text into a text file (for example:new_config.txt) on the
master or the media server that has access to the client:
ORACLE_METADATA=YES
Then send this configuration to the client host by using the following
bpsetconfig command:
bpsetconfig -h myoracleclient new_config.txt
The bpsetconfig command is located in the admincmd directory.
Windows: install_path\NetBackup\bin\admincmd
UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd
■
Alternatively on UNIX and Linux, ensure that the Oracle metadata parameter
in the client's bp.conf is set at backup time as follows:
ORACLE_METADATA=YES
■
Alternatively, the RMAN commands can include a SEND statement at the
time of the backup.
... allocate channels ...
SEND 'NB_ORA_METADATA=YES';
... backup command ...
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■
Set up all destination file paths before you run the cloning operation because
the operation does not create new file paths during the process. Ensure that
the Oracle user has write access to these paths.
Guided Recovery cloning pre-operation checks
Check the following items before you begin the cloning process:
■
Ensure that the source and the destination systems and the source and the
destination databases are compatible. Examples are Solaris 9 to Solaris 10 and
Oracle 11 to Oracle 11.
■
The cloning operation does not support offline tablespaces or raw tablespaces.
■
The cloning operation does not support Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(ASM).
■
To use a different user or a different group for the clone, change the permissions
of the backup image at backup time. Add the 'BKUP_IMAGE_PERM=ANY' to
the send commands during the backup of the source database.
See “About the environment variables set by NetBackup for Oracle” on page 101.
■
If the destination client is different than the source client, perform an alternate
restore procedure.
See “Redirecting a restore to a different client” on page 134.
■
On Windows systems, if the NetBackup Legacy Network Service runs as the
Oracle user, that user needs the right to "Replace a process level token".
■
On Oracle 9 for Windows, run the Oracle service under the Oracle user account.
By default, it runs under the local system. On Oracle 10G systems and later,
you can run under the local system.
■
On Windows systems, if you clone to the same system, shut down the source
database to successfully complete the operation. Otherwise, an error indicating
the database cannot be mounted in exclusive mode appears.
■
On UNIX and Linux systems, if the cloning user shares an existing Oracle home,
the user must have write access to some directories such as DBS.
■
On UNIX and Linux systems, shut down the source database before you clone
in the following situation: You clone to the same system and you either use the
same user or use the same home as the source database.
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Performing a Guided Recovery cloning operation
You need to log onto OpsCenter, to perform a cloning operation. OpsCenter is the
web GUI that you use to perform all guided recovery operations.
To perform a cloning operation on an Oracle database in OpsCenter
1
When you log onto OpsCenter, the first screen that appears is the Monitor
Overview screen. Along the top of the screen, click Manage > Restore.
2
On the What do you want to restore? screen, click Clone Oracle Database.
3
On the small Select a Master Server dialog box, use the drop-down menu to
select the master server that you want to work with, then click OK.
See “Select a Master Server dialog” on page 160.
4
The Select Source Database screen lets you filter the list of databases by
database name, host name, database version, platform, and date. The default
condition is to display all databases that are backed up in the default date
range. Click Show Databases.
More information is available on this screen.
See “Select Source Database panel” on page 161.
5
The databases appear under the filtering part of the same screen. Click option
at the left side of the desired database entry to select the database on which
you want to perform a cloning operation. Then click Next>.
6
The Select Control File Backup screen shows a timeline view of the control
file backups. Select the icon for the desired control file backup from the timeline
view. You can hover over the icon to display the control file details. If the icon
represents multiple backups, you can hover over the icon to display all versions
of the backup for that time periods.
Additional information is available to verify that you have selected the correct
control file. The lower left corner of the screen lists three links. More information
is available about these links.
See “Select Control File Backup panel” on page 161.
Click on the icon of the control file backup you want to restore for the clone of
the selected database. The default is the latest backup selected. Then click
Next>.
7
The Destination Host and Login screen contains parameters for the
destination of the clone to be created. Enter the destination host name in the
text box that is provided or click Browse and select from a list of available
hosts. Note the following prerequisites concerning the destination host:
■
The platform type of the source and destination must be the same.
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■
A NetBackup client must be installed.
■
A compatible version of Oracle must be installed.
See “Destination host and login panel” on page 162.
For operating system authentication, enter a user name, password (Windows),
and domain (Windows). Then click Next>.
8
The Define Destination Parameters screen appears. The five tabs on this
screen are used to change database attributes, the destination paths of control
files, data files, redo logs, and restore options. After you have changed the
destination parameters, click Next>.
See “Destination Parameters panel” on page 162.
9
The Selection Summary screen lets you scan the information you have entered
on the previous screens. Links to the recovery sets and destination database
attributes let you view and verify any changes you have made. When you are
satisfied with the summary information, click Next>.
See “Selection summary panel” on page 163.
10 The Pre-clone Check screen lets you validate the database attributes and the
file paths. To validate, click the underlined word here. If a directory path does
not already exist, the validation check flags the error. If a file already exists,
the validation check also flags the error, so that the cloning operation does not
overwrite the file.
See “Pre-clone check panel” on page 163.
When you are ready to launch the cloning operation, click Launch Cloning
Process. A display appears that is similar to the NetBackup Activity Monitor.
Note: In NetBackup (7.1 or greater), validation of the data files that reside in raw
devices may fail even though the Clone operation was successful. You may receive
an error that states the validation for specific paths failed.
Select a Master Server dialog
From the pulldown menu, select the NetBackup master server that collected the
backup information to be used for the cloning operation.
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Select Source Database panel
When the Select Source Database screen first appears, the lowest portion of the
screen shows a list of the latest backups for all the databases that the master server
knows about for the default date range.
The upper portion of the screen shows parameters for filtering the list of databases.
If the list is long, you can filter what databases appear by database name, host
name, database version, and date range. Multiple filter parameters can be used at
the same time.
For example, to show only the Solaris databases that are backed up between
11/05/2011 and 11/12/2011, select Solaris from the Platform: pulldown menu. Then
select the dates from the calendar icons. Then click Show Databases to display
the new filtered list of databases.
Select Control File Backup panel
The Guided Recovery Select Control File Backup screen is a timeline view of all
the control files that are backed up for the selected database. The timeline displays
an icon for each control file that is associated with the backed up database. When
you first enter this screen, the latest backup control file is already selected.
Hover over the icon on the timeline to display a popup that shows information about
that file: backup name, type of media, the size of the backup, etc.
Multiple control files may be displayed on the timeline. To view all the instances of
control files, you may need to increase the scope of the timeline. You can display
the timeline in days, weeks, months, or years. If multiple control files were backed
up during a single timeline unit, a different icon appears representing more than
one control file (for example, if the database was backed up twice in an hour). To
select from among these files, hover over the icon. A popup lists each control file
in table format. It shows several items including the backup name and the type of
media. Click option next to the desired control file.
You can also click one of the links in the lower left of the screen to verify that you
have selected the proper control file.
■
View Database Schema shows the schema of the selected control file. It shows
how the database is laid out by listing each data file name, tablespace name,
and its size.
■
View Datafiles Recovery Set shows the data file backups to be used for the
restore process. It also shows the backup and image information that is displayed
for each data file. The data file recovery set is generated only for the files that
are backed up as part of an incremental strategy. Even though files that are
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Destination host and login panel
backed up as part of a full backup do not appear in this list, the clone still
completes successfully.
If the image spans media, only the first media is shown in the list.
■
View Archived Log Recovery Set shows the archive log backups that may be
used to recover the database to the latest point in time of that control file. This
set is generated only for the files that are backed up as part of an incremental
strategy. Even though files that are backed up as part of a full backup do not
appear in this list, the clone still completes successfully.
Destination host and login panel
The Select Destination Parameters screen lets you enter the destination host and
the Oracle logon information. For Windows, you are asked for the domain name,
user name, and password. For UNIX and Linux, you are asked only for the user
name.
The following rules apply to the selection of the destination host:
■
The destination must be of the same platform type as the source of the clone.
■
A NetBackup client must be installed.
■
A compatible version of Oracle must be installed.
Destination Parameters panel
Guided Recovery uses many values from the source database as default values
for the destination database. You can modify these values if not appropriate for the
destination database.
Note: The Windows information you enter on this screen is case-sensitive. Be sure
to enter the Windows information appropriately.
The Destination Parameters screen contains the following tabs:
■
Database Attributes. This pane appears when you first enter the Database
Attributes screen. Each attribute name has identical source and destination
attributes. You can change the destination attribute of the instance name,
database name, and database home. Note that the instance name is
case-sensitive while the database name is not case-sensitive.
If you use a temporary tablespace or data files, and you plan to write the data
files back to the same location, do not modify the path. If you must modify the
path, make sure that it is identical to the source path including case (upper,
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lower, mixed). Otherwise, the clone fails with an error that indicates the temporary
file already exists. This limitation does not affect UNIX and Linux systems.
■
Control File Paths. This pane displays the source path and the destination
path for each control file. You can change a control file destination path by
clicking in the associated text window and entering the new path. You can also
click Browse to navigate to the desired path. When you change a path, a highlight
bar appears around the text window as a visual indicator that this path has
changed.
■
Data File Paths. This pane lets you change the destination path for one or more
data files. Enter the path in the text window provided, then select the data files
on which to apply it, and press the Apply option.
■
Redo Log Paths. This pane displays the source path and the destination path
for all redo logs. You can type in a new destination path or click Browse to
navigate to the desired path. When you change a path, a highlight bar appears
around the text window as a visual indicator that this path has changed.
■
Restore Options. This pane displays restore options. The option that is displayed
on this pane is Number of parallel streams for restore and recover.
When you are done making changes on this screen, click Next>. All the information
from the previous screen is saved in preparation for the cloning operation. All the
changes that are made in this screen are temporary and are active only for the
cloning session.
Selection summary panel
The following information appears on this screen:
■
The selected master server and the source database attributes.
■
The date and time of the selected control file backup, and the backup media
type.
■
The database recovery set and the archived log recovery set.
■
The destination database attributes selected in the previous screen and the
database initialization parameters to be used for the cloning operation.
Pre-clone check panel
The Guided Recovery Pre-clone Check screen lets you validate the database
attributes and the file paths. To validate, click the underlined word here. If a file
path does not already exist, the validation check flags the error. If a file already
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exists, the validation check also flags the error, so that the cloning operation does
not overwrite the file.
You can also specify an email address, so when the cloning process completes,
an email is sent to you that gives you the status of the cloning operation along with
other pertinent information.
Job Details panel
The Job Details screen is intended to reflect the NetBackup Activity Monitor. More
information is available on the Activity Monitor.
For more information, see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Guided Recovery post-clone operations
Perform the following after the cloning operation has completed:
■
On Windows systems, if the cloning operation fails, use the dbca utility to delete
the database. dbca sometimes removes directories, so verify before retrying
the operation.
■
On UNIX systems, update the oratab file with the appropriate instance
information.
■
On UNIX systems, if the cloning operation fails, do the following cleanup:
■
■
If the database is active, shut down the database.
■
Remove init<SID>.ora, spfile<SID>.ora, and any other files that are
associated with the SID being used, from the <$ORACLE_HOME>/DBS
directory.
■
Remove all data files.
If a cloned Oracle database contains read-only tablespaces or data files, you
must make them read-write before RMAN backs them up, or RMAN cannot
restore them. After the backup (cloning operation), you can return the items to
read-only.
The following shows an example of the sequence of steps in the process:
■
Back up Oracle database A which contains read-only tablespace TABLE1.
■
Clone database A to database B.
■
Use the Oracle alter tablespace command to make tablespace TABLE1
read-write. You may revert to read-only if you want.
■
Back up database B.
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■
Use RMAN to restore database B.
Troubleshooting Guided Recovery
Guided Recovery operations are in addition to the normal NetBackup for Oracle
operations.
On UNIX and Linux systems, gather all legacy logs at VERBOSE=5. On Windows
systems, gather them at General=2, Verbose=5, and Database=5. All unified logs
should be gathered at DebugLevel=6 and DiagnosticlLevel=6.
In addition to the troubleshooting methods and evidence that you use for resolving
NetBackup for Oracle operations, there is also information that is required specifically
for troubleshooting Guided Recovery when it fails.
For more information about NetBackup debug logs and reports, refer to the
NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Troubleshooting files for metadata collection operations at the time
of the backup
The information in the following log files can be helpful when you troubleshoot
Guided Recovery metadata collection operations.
From the Oracle client host:
■
netbackup/logs/bphdb legacy logs
■
netbackup/logs/dbclient legacy logs (The directory must be writable by the Oracle
users.)
■
ncf unified logs, OID 309, New Client Framework
■
ncforautil unified logs, OID 360, New Client Framework Oracle Utility
■
ncforaclepi, OID 348, New Client Framework Oracle Plugin
From the NetBackup media server: netbackup/logs/bpbrm legacy logs
From the NetBackup master server:
■
netbackup/logs/bprd legacy logs
■
nbars unified logs, OID 362, NetBackup Agent Request Service
■
dars unified logs, OID 363, Database Agent Request Service
For more information about NetBackup debug logs and reports, refer to the
NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
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Troubleshooting files for Guided Recovery validation operations
The information in the following log files can be helpful when you troubleshoot
Guided Recovery validation operations.
From the Oracle client host:
■
netbackup/logs/vnetd legacy logs
■
ncf unified logs, OID 309, New Client Framework
■
ncfnbcs unified logs, OID 366, New Client Framework NetBackup Client Services
From the NetBackup master server:
■
netbackup/logs/vnetd legacy logs
■
nbars unified logs, OID 362, NetBackup Agent Request Service
■
dars unified logs, OID 363, Database Agent Request Service
From the Veritas OpsCenter server:
■
<SYMCOpsCenterServer>/config/log.conf file
■
opscenterserver unified logs, OID 148 (The default location is
<SYMCOpsCenterServer >/logs)
■
opscentergui unified log, OID 147 (The default location is
<SYMCOpsCenterGUI>/logs)
For more information about NetBackup debug logs and reports, refer to the
NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Troubleshooting files for Guided Recovery cloning operations
The information in the following log files can helpful when you troubleshoot Guided
Recovery cloning operations.
From the Oracle client host:
■
netbackup/logs/bphdb legacy logs (Includes the obk_stdout and obk_stderr
logs.)
■
netbackup/logs/bpdbsbora legacy logs
■
netbackup/logs/dbclient legacy logs (The directory must be writable by the Oracle
users.)
■
A tar of netbackup/logs/user_ops (UNIX/Linux)
■
A compress of NetBackup\Logs\user_ops (Windows)
From the NetBackup master server:
■
netbackup/logs/vnetd legacy logs
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■
netbackup/logs/bprd legacy logs
■
nbars unified logs, OID 362, NetBackup Agent Request Service
■
dars unified logs, OID 363, Database Agent Request Service
From the Veritas OpsCenter server:
■
<SYMCOpsCenterServer>/config/log.conf file
■
opscenterserver unified logs, OID 148 (The default location is
<SYMCOpsCenterServer >/logs)
■
opscentergui unified log, OID 147 (The default location is
<SYMCOpsCenterGUI>/logs)
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Chapter
7
NetBackup for Oracle with
Snapshot Client
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
■
How NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client works
■
About configuring Snapshot Client with NetBackup for Oracle
■
Restoring NetBackup for Oracle from a snapshot backup
■
About configuring NetBackup for Oracle block-level incremental backups on
UNIX
■
About Snapshot Client effects
■
About Oracle support for Replication Director
About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
To use NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client, NetBackup Snapshot Client
and NetBackup for Oracle must both be licensed and installed.
Before you use NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client, confirm that your
platform is supported.
See “Verifying the operating system and platform compatibility” on page 35.
A snapshot is a disk image of the client’s data that is made almost instantaneously.
When it is used with NetBackup Snapshot Client, NetBackup for Oracle can back
up Oracle objects by taking snapshot images of the component files. Later, it backs
up the snapshot version to the storage unit.
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
Snapshot backup captures the data at a particular instant without having caused
significant client downtime. Client operations and user access continue without
interruption during the backup. The resulting capture or snapshot can be backed
up without affecting the performance or availability of the database.
The following NetBackup Snapshot Client features are available for use with
NetBackup for Oracle.
Table 7-1
Snapshot Client features used with NetBackup for Oracle
Feature
Description
Instant recovery
This feature enables instant recovery of backups from disk.
It combines snapshot technology with the ability to do rapid
disk-based restores. NetBackup creates the image without
interrupting user access to data. Optionally, the image is
retained on disk as well as backed up to storage. Instant
recovery enables block-level restores.
The maximum number of instant recovery snapshots to be
retained at one time is calculated per client and database
name. With the remote_vxfs method, the number of
snapshots to be retained at one time is calculated per client,
database name, and NetBackup appliance.
Off-host backup
An off-host backup shifts the burden of backup processing
onto a separate backup agent, such as an alternate client.
This shift reduces the effect on the client’s computing
resources ordinarily caused by a local backup. The backup
agent reads the data from the client disk and writes it to
storage.
On UNIX, an off-host backup can also be directed to a
NetBackup media server, or third-party copy device.
Block-level incremental
backup
On UNIX, a Block-Level Incremental (BLI) Backup uses the
change tracking capabilities of the Veritas File System (VxFS)
Storage Checkpoint feature. In a BLI backup, only the
changed blocks of data are backed up, not the entire file or
file system. A BLI backup saves time, decreases the amount
of backup media that is required, and significantly reduces
CPU and network overhead during backups.
You can perform a BLI backup with or without RMAN.
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About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
Table 7-1
Snapshot Client features used with NetBackup for Oracle
(continued)
Feature
Description
Proxy copy
A proxy copy is a special type of backup in which the
NetBackup for Oracle agent manages the control of the data
transfer. During the backup and restore operations, the proxy
copy enables the agent to manage the entire data movement
between the disks that contain the data files and the storage
devices that NetBackup manages.
Backups and restores remain tightly integrated with Oracle
and its catalog, greatly simplifying administration tasks.
File-based operations
Oracle provides the list of files that require backup or restore
to NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client.
More information is available.
See “NetBackup for Oracle file-based operations” on page 171.
Stream-based operations
Stream-based operations are the standard NetBackup
implementation of conventional NetBackup for Oracle backup
and restore.
More information is available.
See “NetBackup for Oracle stream-based operations”
on page 170.
Proxy copy
A proxy copy is a special type of backup in which the NetBackup for Oracle agent
manages the control of the data transfer. During the backup and restore operations,
proxy copy enables the agent to manage the entire data movement between the
disks that contain the data files and the storage devices that NetBackup manages.
With proxy copy, RMAN provides a list of files that require backup or restore to the
NetBackup for Oracle agent. The agent determines how the data is moved and
when to move the data. Proxy copy is an extension to Oracle’s Media Management
API.
Backups and restores remain tightly integrated with RMAN and its catalog, which
greatly simplifies administration tasks.
NetBackup for Oracle stream-based operations
Stream-based operations are the standard NetBackup implementation of
conventional RMAN backup and restore. In a stream-based backup, NetBackup
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About NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
moves the data that the server process provides. NetBackup captures the data
stream content that RMAN provides. If the user has specified multiple streams,
then RMAN opens multiple streams and NetBackup catalogs them as separate
images.
Figure 7-1 represents a stream-based backup or restore.
Figure 7-1
NetBackup for Oracle RMAN stream-based backup or restore
Oracle Server
Data
Control commands
Oracle database
disk
Oracle database
disk
NetBackup
Storage
NetBackup for Oracle file-based operations
File-based operations are the NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
implementation of Oracle proxy copy backups and restores. In a file-based operation,
RMAN provides the list of files that require backup or restore to NetBackup for
Oracle with Snapshot Client. NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client performs
the data movement.
Figure 7-2 represents a file-based backup or restore.
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How NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client works
Figure 7-2
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client file-based backup or
restore
Oracle Server
Control commands
List of files
Oracle database
disk
Data
Data
Oracle database
disk
NetBackup
Storage
How NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
works
NetBackup users or schedules start database backups or restores. The Oracle
Intelligent Policy automatically generates an RMAN script. The script- or
template-based policy uses a template or a shell script in the backup selections list
of the Oracle policy. A template-based policy uses the template to generate the
RMAN script. The template or the shell script specifies backup or restore commands
for the Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to use when you perform the backup or
restore on the client.
The RMAN backup proxy command initiates a proxy copy backup of the specified
objects. The objects that can be backed up using the proxy copy functionality depend
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How NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client works
on the Oracle version. RMAN translates the objects into the physical file names
and provides a list of file names to NetBackup for Oracle.
See “Database objects supported by advanced backup methods” on page 173.
The agent checks that the policy it uses for the backup is configured with the
appropriate Snapshot Client attributes. The agent then initiates file-based backups
of the Oracle files and uses the NetBackup Snapshot Client interface to perform
the data movement.
When Oracle performs proxy copy backups, it puts the data files being backed up
into backup mode. NetBackup then creates a snapshot of the files. After the snapshot
has been created, the NetBackup for Oracle agent signals back to Oracle to take
the data files out of backup mode. The data files being backed up are in backup
mode only for the period of time necessary to capture a snapshot of the data.
About the NetBackup for Oracle backup and restore operations
For a backup operation, the NetBackup for Oracle agent performs the following
steps:
■
Receives a list of files to back up from RMAN.
■
A unique backup file name identifies each file in the NetBackup catalog. To
ensure that this procedure occurs, use the format operand to give each data
file a unique name.
■
Queries the policy to check whether the Snapshot Client policy attributes are
specified.
■
Initiates a configured number of Snapshot Client backups and waits until the
jobs are completed.
See “About NetBackup multistreaming” on page 174.
For a restore operation, the NetBackup for Oracle agent performs the following
steps:
■
Receives a list of files to restore from RMAN.
■
Sends a restore request to the NetBackup server for all files in the list.
■
Waits for NetBackup to restore all files in the file list.
Database objects supported by advanced backup methods
Oracle controls the kinds of database objects that can be backed up by proxy copy
and, therefore, what NetBackup can back up using Snapshot Client backup methods.
Oracle allows proxy copy backups of databases, tablespaces, and data files. With
Oracle 10g releases and later, Oracle also allows proxy copy backups of archived
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redo logs. As a result, NetBackup can use file-based Snapshot Client backup
methods to back up these objects.
For control files, Oracle RMAN performs conventional stream-based backups only.
NetBackup for Oracle must use stream-based backups for control files even when
you use Snapshot Client methods for the other database objects.
The Oracle Intelligent Policy handles both stream-based and file-based components.
File-based and stream-based backups require different configurations. When
configuring your NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client backups, be sure to
configure a policy that allows both stream-based and file-based backups.
About NetBackup multistreaming
On the initial call, NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client returns a special entry
to RMAN indicating that it supports proxy copy. It also indicates to RMAN that it
supports an unlimited number of files to be proxy-copied in a single proxy copy
session. The number of channels that are allocated for the RMAN backup proxy
command does not control the degree of parallelism for proxy backups. RMAN uses
only one channel for proxy copy backups except when a specific configuration is
used.
The NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS variable controls the number of proxy copy backup streams
to be started. By default, the agent initiates one backup job for all files. If the RMAN
send command passes NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS, NetBackup for Oracle splits the files
into the number of groups that the variable specifies based on the file size. The
agent attempts to create streams of equal size and determines the number of
processes that run to perform the backup.
RMAN multiple channels
If you allocate multiple channels for an RMAN proxy copy backup session, RMAN
uses only one channel to perform a proxy backup of all objects. All other channels
can be used for a stream-based (non-proxy) backup of the control file or archived
redo logs.
See “Proxy backup examples” on page 177.
Restoring data files to a new location
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client can restore the data files that are backed
up by proxy to a new location. The new location can be specified by using the RMAN
set newname command or ALTER DATABASE RENAME DATAFILE statement before
a restore is initiated. For example, to restore a data file for tablespace TEST to a
new location, you can use the following RMAN commands:
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RUN
{
allocate channel t1 'SBT_TAPE';
sql 'alter tablespace TEST offline immediate'
# restore the datafile to a new location
set newname for datafile '/oradata/test.f' to
'/oradata_new/test.f';
restore tablespace TEST;
# make the control file recognize the restored file as current
switch datafile all;
recover tablespace TEST;
release channel t1;
}
The RMAN procedure for the data files that are backed up by proxy is the same as
for conventionally backed up data files. RMAN knows that the data files were backed
up by proxy, and it issues a proxy restore request to NetBackup for Oracle, which
restores the data files to the new location. For more information on the required
procedure, see your Oracle documentation.
Redirecting a restore to a different client
The procedure for restoring a proxy backup to a different destination client is the
same as the procedure for stream-based, non-proxy backups.
Symbolic links and raw data files (UNIX)
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client backs up and restores the data files
that consist of symbolic links and regular files. Both the symbolic link and the file
are backed up and restored. However, if you selected Retain snapshots for instant
recovery then the symbolic link must reside on the same file system as the data
file. When you use instant recovery, if the symbolic link resides on a different file
system than the data file it points to, the restore fails.
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client backs up and restores data files created
on raw partitions.
Quick I/O data files (UNIX)
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client backs up and restores Quick I/O Oracle
data files. A Quick I/O file consists of two components: a hidden file with space
allocated for it and a link that points to the Quick I/O interface of the hidden file.
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On the backup, NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client follows the symbolic
link and backs up both components of the Quick I/O file: the symbolic link and the
hidden file.
On the restore, NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client restores both components
from the backup image. If one or both of the components are missing, NetBackup
for Oracle with Snapshot Client creates the missing component(s).
RMAN incremental backups
You can use proxy copy backups as a part of the incremental strategy with
conventional non-proxy RMAN backups. RMAN lets you create a proxy copy
incremental level 0 backup. This backup can be the base for subsequent RMAN
traditional incremental backups (level 1-n). To accomplish this backup, perform a
snapshot proxy copy (file-based) level 0 incremental backup and follow with an
RMAN traditional (stream-based) level 1-n incremental backup.
In Oracle 10g it is possible to track changed blocks using a change tracking file.
Enabling change tracking does produce a small amount of database overhead, but
it greatly improves the performance of incremental backups. Use the ALTER
DATABASE ENABLE BLOCK CHANGE TRACKING; sqlplus command to enable block
change tracking on the database.
In the following example, the first run command initiates a proxy copy backup of
tablespace tbs1. NetBackup for Oracle uses a snapshot file-based backup to
perform a full tablespace backup. RMAN designates this backup as eligible for
incremental level 1-n backups. The second run command initiates a traditional
non-proxy level 1 incremental backup of the same tablespace tbs1. In this case,
NetBackup for Oracle performs a stream-based backup.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
backup
incremental level 0
proxy
format ’bk_%U_%t’
tablespace tbs1;
release channel t1;
}
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
backup
incremental level 1
format ’bk_%U_%t’
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tablespace tbs1;
release channel t1;
}
Proxy backup examples
The Oracle Intelligent Policy automatically creates the RMAN proxy script. In some
instances, you need to create a custom script specific to your environment.
The following examples show how to use multiple channels in RMAN scripts with
proxy backups.
Table 7-2
Proxy backup examples
Backup example
Sample script
This RMAN sample script initiates a whole
database backup, which includes the control
file. RMAN starts one proxy copy backup
session by sending a list of all data files to
the NetBackup for Oracle agent on channel
t1.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send 'NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS=3';
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(database);
release channel t1;
}
The agent splits the files into three streams and initiates a file-based
backup for each stream. After the proxy backup is done, RMAN starts
a non-proxy conventional backup of the control file on channel t1.
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Table 7-2
Proxy backup examples (continued)
Backup example
Sample script
This RMAN sample script initiates a whole
database backup, which includes the control
file. RMAN starts one proxy copy backup
session by sending a list of all data files to
the NetBackup for Oracle agent on channel
t1. The agent splits the files into three
streams and initiates a file-based backup for
each stream. At the same time, RMAN starts
a non-proxy conventional backup of the
control file on channel t2.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
allocate channel t2 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send 'NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS=3';
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(database);
release channel t1;
release channel t2;
}
If the RMAN recovery catalog is not used, the version of the control file
being backed up does not contain information about the current backup.
To include the information about the current backup, back up the control
file as the last step in the backup operation. This step is not necessary
if the recovery catalog is used.
Run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
backup
format 'cntrl_%s_%p_%t'
current controlfile;
release channel t1;
}
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Table 7-2
Proxy backup examples (continued)
Backup example
Sample script
In this sample script, RMAN initiates two
proxy copy backups sequentially on channel
t1. It starts a proxy backup of tablespace
tbs1 data files. After the backup is done, it
starts another proxy backup of tablespace
tbs2 data files.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(tablespace tbs1);
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(tablespace tbs2);
release channel t1;
}
This configuration can cause problems if the sequential backups create
snapshots on the same or a separate volume that share a snapshot
resource specification. In such a situation, issue a single backup
command such as the following which specifies both tablespaces rather
than two separate backup commands:
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(tablespace tbs1, tbs2);
release channel t1;
}
In this example, RMAN distributes proxy
copy backups over two channels. It creates
two proxy copy backup sessions sending
tbs1 data files on channel t1 and tbs2
data files on channel t2. Such a method is
useful if you want to specify different
NetBackup configurations for each channel.
In this example, each send command
specifies a different policy that is sent to the
proxy backups. Each of the proxy backups
uses this policy.
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send ’NB_ORA_POLICY=policy1’;
allocate channel t2 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send ’NB_ORA_POLICY=policy2’;
backup proxy
format 'bk_%U_%t'
(tablespace tbs1 channel t1);
(tablespace tbs2 channel t2);
release channel t1;
release channel t2;
}
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About configuring Snapshot Client with NetBackup for Oracle
About configuring Snapshot Client with
NetBackup for Oracle
This topic explains how to configure snapshot and instant recovery backups for the
Oracle policy. For information on how a snapshot method is automatically selected
and details on the types of backup methods, see the NetBackup Snapshot Client
Administrator’s Guide.
Snapshot backups do not back up all database objects. Your backup configuration
must include one or more automatic schedules to perform snapshot backups and
one or more application schedules to perform stream-based backups. This
configuration ensures that the entire database can be restored successfully.
For snapshot or instant recovery backups, configure the following policies and
schedules as follows:
■
A Oracle policy with the following attributes:
■
Snapshot methods for the file systems in which the database files reside.
■
A backup method on the policy attributes dialog box.
■
An Automatic Full Backup schedule to perform snapshot and off-host backups
of the database.
■
(Conditional) For script- or template-based policies: An Application Backup
schedule to back up the transaction logs.
To use NAS snapshot with NetBackup for Oracle, the Oracle database must be
installed and configured to work in a NAS environment.
If you want to use a SnapVault storage unit, make sure that the storage unit is
configured before you start configuring the NAS snapshot policy.
For more information about NAS snapshot and SnapVault, see the NetBackup
Snapshot Client Administrator’s Guide.
Configuration requirements for snapshot backups with NetBackup
for Oracle
Each agent has its own hardware requirements, software requirements, compatibility
with certain features, and the snapshot methods that are supported. Special
requirements apply for specific types of backups. See the NetBackup Snapshot
Client Administrator’s Guide and the Veritas Support website for more information.
Familiarize yourself with this information before you configure any snapshot backups.
The following list highlights some of the requirements that pertain to database
agents:
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■
Snapshot Client backups do not back up all database objects. Your backup
configuration must include schedules to perform snapshot and stream-based
backups. This configuration ensures that the entire database can be restored
successfully.
■
On UNIX, the user identification and group identification numbers (UIDs and
GIDs) associated with the files to be backed up must be available. The UID and
GID must be available to both the primary client and the alternate backup client.
The UID on the primary client and the alternate backup client must be the same.
Similarly, the GID on the primary client and the alternate backup client must be
the same.
Note: The UID number can be different than the GID number.
■
Allocate different areas for data files, archived redo logs, and the control file for
database activities. Write the data files to their own repository because it is
required for an instant recovery point-in-time rollback. Only data files can exist
on the volume or the file system that you want to restore.
■
The hardware and software that is required for the appropriate snapshot method
must be installed and configured correctly.
■
NetBackup Snapshot Client must be installed and configured correctly, and the
license for this option must be registered.
■
To perform off-host backups, perform any special configuration that is required.
Configuring a snapshot policy for NetBackup for Oracle
The following procedure shows how to configure a snapshot policy with optional
instant recovery, snapshot retention, and off-host backup.
This procedure does not detail how to configure a snapshot policy when using a
NetBackup appliance.
See “ Configuring a snapshot policy using a share on the NetBackup appliance
(Copilot)” on page 185.
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About configuring Snapshot Client with NetBackup for Oracle
To configure a snapshot policy
1
Open the policy you want to configure.
2
Click on the Attributes tab. The following screen appears.
3
Select the Oracle policy type.
4
Select a policy storage unit from the Policy storage list.
Select the policy
type
Select appropriate
storage unit or
storage unit group
Click Perform
snapshot backups
Click Retain
snapshot for Instant
Recovery or SLP
management
Click Perform offhost backup and
specify a method
Select a policy storage unit in this step even if you plan to select Instant
Recovery Snapshots Only later in this procedure.
NetBackup uses this storage unit for the stream-based backups of the control
files and the archived redo logs that are included in this policy.
On UNIX, NetBackup also uses this storage unit if you select Third Party Copy
Device when you configure the schedule.
On UNIX, Any_available is not supported for the following data movers:
NetBackup Media Server or Third-party Copy Device.
5
Click Perform snapshot backups.
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6
(Optional) Click Options to choose a snapshot method.
By default NetBackup chooses a snapshot method for you. To choose a
snapshot method, click auto (the default) or click one of the methods that are
presented in the list.
The snapshot method that you can use depends on your hardware environment
and software environment. Only certain snapshot methods are supported in
certain environments. See the NetBackup Snapshot Client Administrator’s
Guide or the supported platforms matrix on the Veritas Support website for
more information.
You can configure only one snapshot method per policy. For example, assume
that you want one snapshot method for clients a, b, and c, and a different
method for clients d, e, and f. Then you need to create two policies for each
group of clients and select one method for each policy.
7
(Optional) Select Retain snapshot for Instant Recovery or SLP management.
When this option is selected, NetBackup retains the snapshot backup image
on disk for later use in recovery.
8
(Optional) Select Perform off-host backup.
By default, the client that hosts the database performs the backup. If you want
to reduce the I/O processing load on the client that hosts the database, specify
an alternate client to perform the backup.
9
(Conditional) Select an off-host backup method.
The following off-host backup methods are available:
Use Alternate
client (UNIX and
Windows clients)
If you select Alternate client, also specify the name of the client
to perform the backup. This option may require additional
configuration. The alternate client must be a client that shares the
disk array.
Use Data mover If you click Data mover, also select one of the following possible
(UNIX clients only). data movers:
NetBackup Media Server
Third-Party Copy Device
Network Attached Storage
10 Click the Schedules tab.
11 Click New.
12 Configure a schedule for the database files.
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13 (Conditional) To create only disk images, in the Destination panel, under
Instant Recovery, select Snapshots only.
This setting suppresses NetBackup’s default behavior, which is to copy the
snapshot to a storage unit. When you select Snapshots only, NetBackup
creates the on-disk snapshot copy of the database, but it does not copy the
snapshot to a storage unit. The on-disk snapshot becomes the only backup
copy. Note that the on-disk snapshot is not considered to be a replacement
for a traditional backup.
14 (Conditional) On the Schedules tab, configure a backup schedule for the
control files or archived redo logs.
■
Oracle Intelligent Policy backup policy. Configure an Archived Redo Log
Backup schedule for this policy.
■
Script- or template-based backup policy. Configure an Application Backup
schedule for this policy.
NetBackup uses this storage unit for the stream-based backups of the control
files and the logs that are included in this policy. NetBackup copies the
database’s control files and archived redo logs to the storage unit you select.
For UNIX clients, if you selected Third-Party Copy Device as an off-host
backup method, click Override policy storage unit. Then select a non-SAN
Media Manager or other storage unit type that is appropriate to back up the
control files and archived redo logs.
15 Configure the Clients, instances, or instance groups.
■
Oracle Intelligent Policy backup policy. On the Instances and Databases
tab, specify the instances or instance group, to be included in this policy.
■
Script- or template-based backup policy. On the Clients tab, specify the
clients to be included in this policy.
16 On the Backup Selections tab, specify the correct setup depending on policy
setup.
■
Oracle Intelligent Policy backup policy. Use the radio button to select Whole
Database, Partial database – Tablespaces, Partial database – Datafiles,
Fast Recovery Area, Database Backup Shares, or Whole Database Datafile Copy Share when using this type of policy.
■
Script- or template-based backup policy. Specify the backup template or
backup script when you use this type of policy.
More information is available about how to use templates and scripts for a
NetBackup for Oracle policy with Snapshot Client.
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About configuring Snapshot Client with NetBackup for Oracle
See “About Snapshot Client effects” on page 194.
17 Configure other attributes and add any additional schedules and backup
selections.
Configuring a snapshot policy using a share on the NetBackup
appliance (Copilot)
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version 2.7.1
or later.
Use the following procedure to configure an Oracle snapshot policy that uses
Database Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share options.
This procedure uses the Oracle Intelligent Policy, which makes configuration easier.
To configure a snapshot policy using a NetBackup appliance share
1
Open the policy you want to configure or create a new policy.
Do not use the Policy Configuration Wizard when performing this procedure.
2
Select the Attributes tab.
3
Select Oracle as the policy type if this policy is new.
4
Select a policy storage unit from the Policy storage list.
■
Policy storage
Oracle combines snapshots (proxy) and stream-based backups as part of the
same backup. The storage that is indicated here is used for the stream-based
part of the Database Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile Copy
Share backup.
Select a storage lifecycle policy that is configured to contain the stream-based
(non-snapshot) part of the database backup. The storage must use a storage
lifecycle policy that is configured for non-snapshot backups.
5
Select Perform snapshot backups.
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6
Click Options to choose a snapshot method.
When you use the Database Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile
Copy Share options, remote_vxfs is the only valid snapshot method.
Note: If there is more than one backup share that is associated with the
database instance, then Maximum Snapshots should be set to number of
recovery points you want multiplied with number of backup shares. Example:
If you want three recovery snapshot points and the database instance is
associated with two backup shares then Maximum Snapshots should be set
to 6.
7
Select Retain snapshot for Instant Recovery or SLP management.
8
Select the Schedules tab.
9
Click New.
10 Configure a Full schedule for the database backup shares.
■
Type of backup: Select Full Backup. The Full Backup is used for both
the snapshot part of the database and the non-snapshot (stream-based)
part of the Oracle database.
■
Override policy storage selection: Enable and select the SLP that is
configured for a snapshot. (A snapshot SLP is one in which the first
operation is a snapshot operation.) This option must be enabled so that the
schedule storage overrides the policy storage with a snapshot SLP.
■
Retention: The retention for the streamed data is based on the
non-snapshot SLP that was indicated as the Policy storage in Step 4.
■
The non-snapshot SLP specified on the policy storage in Step 4
determines the retention for the streamed data.
■
The snapshot SLP that is specified as the schedule storage (Override
policy storage selection) determines the retention for the snapshot
data.
When Database Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share
is selected, it is recommended that an SLP is set up to backup from the
snapshots and copy snapshots to a storage unit. NetBackup retains the
snapshot backup image on disk for later use in SLP management.
Click OK to save the schedule.
11 (Optional) On the Schedules tab, configure an Archived Redo Log Backup
schedule for the archived redo logs.
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12 Select the Instances and Databases tab and specify the instances to back
up. The policy must include at least one instance. To continue to use the Oracle
Intelligent Policy method, select either Protect instances or Protect instance
groups.
13 On the Backup Selections tab, use the radio button to select Database
Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share options.
14 (Optional) Configure other attributes and add any additional schedules.
See “Configuring a snapshot policy for NetBackup for Oracle” on page 181.
See “About Snapshot Client effects” on page 194.
See “Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance (Copilot)”
on page 86.
Restoring NetBackup for Oracle from a snapshot
backup
The following topics describe how to restore files, volumes, and file systems from
a snapshot backup:
■
See “About restoring individual files from a NetBackup for Oracle snapshot
backup” on page 187.
■
See “About NetBackup for Oracle restores of volumes and file systems using
snapshot rollback” on page 188.
■
See “Performing a NetBackup for Oracle point-in-time rollback restore from a
SnapVault backup (UNIX)” on page 189.
■
See “Performing a snapshot rollback restore from the Java or Windows interface”
on page 188.
About restoring individual files from a NetBackup for Oracle snapshot
backup
Data that is backed up with Snapshot Client methods is restored in the same way
as data that is backed up without Snapshot Client methods.
Use this procedure for the files that were backed up with, or without, instant recovery
enabled. In all cases, Oracle determines the files that were backed up, and it initiates
a corresponding restore request to the database agent.
If instant recovery is enabled, NetBackup attempts to restore the file by using the
unique restore methods available with the instant recovery feature. The type of
restore method that NetBackup uses depends on your environment and the type
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Restoring NetBackup for Oracle from a snapshot backup
of backup performed. If NetBackup is unable to use any of the instant recovery
methods, it restores the file in the typical manner. Data is copied from the snapshot
to the primary file system. Information on the instant recovery methods that
NetBackup uses is available.
See the NetBackup Snapshot Client Administrator’s Guide.
About NetBackup for Oracle restores of volumes and file systems
using snapshot rollback
You can request that an entire volume or an entire file system be restored from an
instant recovery Snapshot backup. This type of a restore is called a point in time
rollback. All the data in the snapshot is restored; single file restore is not available
in a rollback.
See the NetBackup Snapshot Client Administrator’s Guide.
The following considerations are relevant for NetBackup for Oracle restores:
■
Snapshot rollback overwrites the entire volume.
■
With NetBackup for Oracle, snapshot rollback always performs file verification.
The agent checks for the following:
The requested files (number and names) are identical to those in the snapshot
■
The primary volume does not contain any files that were created after the
snapshot was made
If verification fails, the rollback aborts with status 249.
■
Performing a snapshot rollback restore from the Java or
Windows interface
This topic describes how to perform a snapshot rollback restore from the Java or
Windows interface.
To perform a snapshot rollback restore from the Java or Windows interface
1
Open the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
2
Select one of the following:
■
In the Java interface, click the Restore Files tab.
■
In the Windows interface, select File > Select Files and Folders to
Restore.
If the data file you want to restore has not changes since it was backed up,
the rollback may fail. Initiate the restore from a script and use the FORCE
option.
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3
Select Actions > Select Restore Type > Point in Time Rollback.
4
Use the NetBackup for Oracle recovery wizard for the restore.
See “About NetBackup for Oracle restores” on page 128.
Performing a snapshot rollback restore using a script or
RMAN command
This topic describes how to perform a snapshot rollback restore using a script or
RMAN command.
Note: If the data file you want to restore has not changed since it was backed up,
the rollback may fail. Initiate the restore from a script and use the Oracle FORCE
option.
To specify a snapshot rollback restore using a script or RMAN command, follow
this example:
■
If you want to use a shell script or RMAN command, set a new variable,
NB_PC_ORA_RESTORE=rollback
■
Example:
RUN {
allocate channel t1 'SBT_TAPE';
send 'NB_ORA_PC_RESTORE=rollback';
sql 'alter tablespace TEST offline immediate'
restore tablespace TEST;
recover tablespace TEST;
release channel t1;
}
Performing a NetBackup for Oracle point-in-time rollback
restore from a SnapVault backup (UNIX)
When you select a point-in-time rollback restore from a SnapVault backup,
NetBackup restores the entire subvolume (qtree) to a new subvolume (qtree) on
the primary host. The restore does not overwrite the existing subvolume. File
verification is not performed.
The format of the new subvolume name is as follows:
mountpointname_restore.timestamp
For example: subvol1_restore.2005.05.19.10h49m04s
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About configuring NetBackup for Oracle block-level incremental backups on UNIX
To perform a NetBackup for Oracle point-in-time rollback restore from a
SnapVault backup (UNIX)
1
Unmount the original subvolume, which is the subvolume that the restore
process did not overwrite.
2
Rename the original subvolume.
3
Rename the new subvolume with the name of the original.
4
Mount the new subvolume on the client. Use the ALTER DATABASE RENAME
DATAFILE command to point to the restored data file on the newly created
subvolume.
About configuring NetBackup for Oracle
block-level incremental backups on UNIX
If only a small portion of a database changes on a daily basis, full database backups
are costly in terms of time and media. The Block-Level Incremental (BLI) Backup
interface extends the capabilities of NetBackup to back up only the file system
blocks that contain changed data blocks.
A database BLI backup is done at the file system block level, which means only
changed file blocks are backed up. Unchanged blocks within the files are not backed
up. The VxFS Storage Checkpoint facility tracks changed blocks in real time.
Accordingly, a BLI backup does not need to search the entire volume for the modified
blocks at backup time. BLI backup saves time, decreases the amount of backup
media that is required, and significantly reduces CPU and network overhead during
backups. In addition, BLI backup allows more frequent backups, so backup images
are more up to date.
BLI backup is particularly useful for any large databases that are sized in terms of
hundreds of gigabytes or terabytes. Most traditional methods for database backup
require that any change in the database—no matter how small—requires that the
entire database is backed up. With BLI backup, only modified blocks (or file) need
to be backed up.
The recommended method for performing BLI backups is the proxy BLI agent with
RMAN. This method supports the other features of NetBackup for Oracle, including
the policy types and schedules and the convenience of the template generation
wizard. It also remains tightly integrated with RMAN and its catalog, which greatly
simplifies administration tasks.
You can also perform backups with the script-based BLI method without RMAN.
See “About script-based block-level incremental (BLI) backups without RMAN”
on page 274.
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About configuring NetBackup for Oracle block-level incremental backups on UNIX
Note: Veritas recommends that Snapshot Client users who want to perform BLI
backups use BLI with RMAN.
NetBackup for Oracle also provides a method for BLI backup without RMAN that
uses scripts to put tablespaces into, and take them out of, backup mode. This
method is not recommended, and it requires a significantly different configuration.
But for Oracle 12c, using script-based BLI backups without the use of RMAN are
not supported.
How BLI works with NetBackup for Oracle (UNIX)
NetBackup supports BLI full backups and BLI incremental backups of Oracle
databases.
BLI backup supports two types of incremental backups: differential and cumulative.
Full, differential incremental, and cumulative incremental backups are specified as
part of the policy schedule configuration. When a restore is performed, NetBackup
restores an appropriate full backup. Then it applies the changed blocks from the
incremental backups.
Restoring any of the incremental backup images requires NetBackup to restore the
last full backup image and all the subsequent incremental backups. The restore
process continues until the specified incremental backup image is restored.
NetBackup performs this restore process automatically, and it is completely
transparent. The media that stored the last full backup and the subsequent
incremental backups must be available, or the restore cannot proceed.
Note that restoring a file rewrites all blocks in that file. The first subsequent
differential incremental backup and or all subsequent cumulative incremental
backups back up all the blocks in the restored file. After an entire database is
restored, the first subsequent backup results in a full backup.
The restore destination can be a VxFS, UFS (Solaris), JFS (AIX), or HFS (HP-UX)
file system. The destination VxFS file system does not need to support the Storage
Checkpoint feature to restore files. However, a VxFS file system with the Storage
Checkpoint feature is needed to perform BLI backups of the restored data.
This topic uses the following terms to describe BLI backups:
■
Full Backup.
A backup in which NetBackup backs up each database file completely, not just
data blocks that have changed since the last full or incremental backup.
■
Cumulative BLI Backup.
This type of backup is a backup of all the changed blocks in the database files
since the last full backup. A cumulative BLI backup image contains only the data
blocks of database files that changed since the last full backup. A cumulative
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BLI backup can reduce the number of incremental backup images that must be
applied during a restore operation. This speeds up the restore process.
■
Differential BLI backup.
A backup in which NetBackup performs a backup of only those data blocks
(within the database files) that changed since the last backup. The previous
backup can be of type full, cumulative incremental, or differential incremental.
When NetBackup initiates BLI backups, it creates, manages, and uses the
appropriate Storage Checkpoints of the filesystem(s) hosting the Oracle data file
systems. These Storage Checkpoints identify and maintain a list of modified blocks.
About the Storage Checkpoint facility and NetBackup for Oracle
The BLI backup methodology uses the Storage Checkpoint facility in the Veritas
File System (VxFS). This facility is available through the Storage Foundation for
Oracle.
The VxFS Storage Checkpoint facility keeps track of the file blocks modified by the
database since the last backup. NetBackup with BLI backup leverages this facility
to back up only changed blocks for an incremental backup. The entire volume or
file is not backed up.
VxFS Storage Checkpoint is a disk-efficient and I/O-efficient snapshot of file systems.
A Storage Checkpoint provides a consistent, stable view of a file system at the
instant when the file system was snapped or checkpointed. Instead of making a
physically separate copy of the file system, a Storage Checkpoint tracks changed
file system blocks. Disk space is saved and I/O overhead is significantly reduced.
Because the changed blocks are tracked, the VxFS Storage Checkpoint enables
BLI backups. VxFS Storage Checkpoint facility provides a consistent view of file
systems, which allows BLI backup to freeze the database image during database
backups.
The Storage Checkpoint operation is similar to the snapshot file system mechanism.
However, the Storage Checkpoint persists after a system restart which is unlike a
snapshot. Also, the Storage Checkpoint operation is totally transparent to backup
administrators. The Checkpoint image is managed and available only through
NetBackup or through the VxDBA utility for database backup available with the
Veritas Storage Foundation.
For more information on Storage Checkpoints, see the Veritas Storage Foundation
Administrator’s Guide.
You can take a Storage Checkpoint while the database is online or offline. To take
a Storage Checkpoint while the database is online, you must enable archive log
mode. During the creation of the Storage Checkpoint, all tablespaces are placed
in backup mode.
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Configuration requirements for BLI backups with NetBackup for
Oracle
Before you configure BLI backups, make sure that your configuration meets the
following requirements:
■
NetBackup for Oracle is installed, licensed, and configured.
■
NetBackup Snapshot Client is installed and configured, and the master server
must have a valid license for this option.
■
Veritas Storage Foundation for Oracle must be installed and configured.
■
Veritas File System must have Storage Checkpoint licensed.
For more information on requirements, see the NetBackup Snapshot Client
Administrator’s Guide.
Configuring policies for BLI backups with NetBackup for Oracle
This topic explains how to configure BLI backups for Oracle policies. BLI backups
do not back up all database objects. Include schedules to perform stream-based
backups.
Your backup configuration must ensure that the entire database can be successfully
restored.
See “Configuration requirements for BLI backups with NetBackup for Oracle”
on page 193.
To configure a policy for BLI backups, configure the following:
■
The BLI backup method on the policy attributes dialog box.
■
An Automatic Backup schedule to perform full and incremental snapshot
backups of the data files.
■
An Application Backup schedule to perform a stream-based backup of control
files and archived redo logs. These files are backed up with standard RMAN
operations.
To configure a policy for BLI backups
1
Open the policy you want to configure.
2
Click the Attributes tab.
3
From the Policy Type list, choose Oracle.
4
Select a Policy storage.
5
Select Perform block level incremental backups.
6
To configure schedules, click the Schedules tab.
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Oracle does not support proxy backups of database control files and archived
redo logs. To perform a whole database proxy backup, which automatically
includes a backup of the control file, configure the following:
■
One or more automatic backup schedules to perform proxy BLI backups
of the data files.
■
An Application Backup schedule type to back up the control files and
archived redo logs.
7
On the Clients tab, specify clients to be backed up with this policy.
8
On the Backup Selections tab, specify the template or script.
About the types of NetBackup for Oracle BLI backups
NetBackup performs BLI backups with Automatic Full Backup, Automatic Differential
Incremental Backup, and Automatic Cumulative Incremental Backup schedules.
If a user initiates a backup and the proxy schedule name is not specified on the
request with the NB_ORA_PC_SCHED environment variable, the NetBackup server
starts an Full Backup schedule by default.
NetBackup for Oracle checks that a full backup was performed before it proceeds
with an incremental backup. If the NetBackup scheduler or user initiates an
incremental backup, and NetBackup for Oracle finds no record of a full backup
using the same policy, it performs a full backup.
To ensure that it has a proper set of images to restore, NetBackup performs a full
backup when it encounters the following situations:
■
If the number of backup streams that is specified changed from the previous
backup. This change can be made in the NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS environment
variable.
■
If NetBackup does not have a valid full backup image for the same policy in its
database. For example, this situation can occur if images were expired.
■
If a new file was added to or deleted from the list of files for an incremental
backup.
NetBackup for Oracle always initiates a full backup under these conditions, even
if you want to perform an incremental backup.
About Snapshot Client effects
The following topics describe how the Snapshot Client software affects backup
types, schedule properties, and templates. Snapshot Client also affects scripts and
environment variables.
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How Snapshot Client software affects backup types
The backup types available on the Schedules tab of the policy play a different role
for NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client backups.
See Table 7-3 on page 195.
Table 7-3
Backup types for Oracle policies
Backup type
Description
Application Backup
An application backup applies only to template- or script-based
policies not the Oracle Intelligent Policies.
The Application Backup schedule stores stream-based backups.
The Default-Application-Backup schedule is automatically configured
as an Application Backup schedule.
Full backup
The full and incremental backup schedule types automatically start
the backups by running the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN scripts or
Differential incremental
templates. They also store the snapshot backups.
backup,
Note: For most snapshot types, any automatic backup schedule
Cumulative incremental
(full, cumulative, or differential) results in a full volume snapshot.
backup
BLI is the only snapshot method that can perform an incremental
backup.
How Snapshot Client software affects schedule properties
Some schedule properties have a different meaning for Snapshot Client database
backups than for a regular database backup. For a description of other schedule
properties, see the information that is specific to standard database agent backups.
See “About schedule properties ” on page 91.
Table 7-4 explains the properties for Snapshot Client backups.
Table 7-4
Schedule properties
Property
Description
Retention
Automatic Schedules:
Determines how long to retain history of the backups that the
master server schedules and also how long to retain snapshot
backups.
Application Schedules:
Determines how long to retain stream-based backups.
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Table 7-4
Schedule properties (continued)
Property
Description
Multiple Copies
For snapshot backup, configure Multiple copies on the automatic
backup schedule.
For stream-based backups, configure Multiple copies on the
Application backup schedule.
Frequency
Determines how often an Automatic schedule executes a backup.
Does not apply to Application backup schedules.
How Snapshot Client software affects templates and scripts
You can use a template that the NetBackup for Oracle wizard creates to perform
backups with Snapshot Client. After they are created, templates reside on the
NetBackup master server and are available for use by other NetBackup for Oracle
clients.
See “About creating templates and shell scripts” on page 105.
In the RMAN template generation wizard, the Specify Maximum Limits selection
options on the backup limits screen are not applicable for snapshot backups. RMAN
uses these options only for conventional stream-based backups. If the template
includes archived redo logs, NetBackup does use this option to back up the logs.
Whether you use a template or script, you must enable the advanced backup method
for your clients. Configure this method on the Attributes tab of the policy. At run
time, the agent checks the policy attributes to determine if a Snapshot Client backup
method is configured and performs a proxy file-based backup. A template defaults
to a single session for proxy backups.
If you use a script, the script must reside on each client that is included in the policy.
Include the RMAN backup proxy command in the script to perform the advanced
backup method. Sample scripts are included with the installation.
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client environment variables
You can use environment variables to change the number of streams the proxy
copy session uses or to specify an alternate backup schedule.
The following list shows the variables that you can to set that are specific to
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client:
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NB_ORA_PC_SCHED
The NetBackup for Oracle schedule NetBackup uses for
a proxy copy file-based backup. (This schedule can be Full,
Differential Incremental, or Cumulative Incremental backup
type).
For scheduled backups, this variable is passed from the
scheduler. When you create an RMAN template with the
NetBackup for Oracle RMAN template generation wizard,
this variable is automatically created in the template.
NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS
Specifies the number of backup streams that NetBackup
starts simultaneously in each proxy copy session. When a
backup starts, NetBackup groups all data files into a
specified number of backup streams that are based on the
file sizes. NetBackup tries to create streams of equal size.
The default value for NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS is 1.
Only a user can set this variable. When you create an
RMAN template using the NetBackup for Oracle RMAN
template generation wizard, this variable is automatically
created in the template when you provide a value for the
Number of parallel streams.
For NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client, the order of precedence for
environment variables is the same as for standard NetBackup for Oracle. Refer to
the instructions for how to configure the NetBackup and the user variables.
See “About configuring the run-time environment” on page 98.
NetBackup for Oracle installs sample scripts in the following location:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\oracle\samples\rman
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
The following are the scripts for NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client that
show how to configure the required variables:
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Windows:
This script sets the environment and calls RMAN
hot_database_backup_proxy.cmd with the appropriate command to perform a whole
database proxy backup. When NetBackup runs a
UNIX:
schedule, it sets the environment variables that
hot_database_backup_proxy.sh
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client uses.
The script shows how to use the RMAN send
command to pass the NetBackup for Oracle with
Snapshot Client variables with a vendor-specific
quoted string.
Windows:
This script sets the environment and calls RMAN
hot_tablespace_backup_proxy.cmd with the appropriate command to perform a
tablespace proxy backup.
UNIX:
hot_tablespace_backup_proxy.sh
If you use scripts, use the send command to pass the environment variables to the
agent. The following example uses the send command to specify the values for
NB_ORA_PC_SCHED and NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS:
run {
allocate channel t1 type 'SBT_TAPE';
send 'NB_ORA_PC_SCHED= sched, NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS= number’;
backup proxy
(database format 'bk_%U_%t');
}
For more information, see the sample scripts that are provided with the agent.
See “Proxy backup examples” on page 177.
About Oracle support for Replication Director
Replication Director can be used to create snapshots of the Oracle database and
replicate the snapshots to other NetApp disk arrays. To use Replication Director,
the Oracle database must exist on a NetApp NAS disk array. (It is not supported
on SAN storage at this time.)
Oracle snapshot backups that use Replication Director are supported on UNIX
platforms only.
The administrator can create an Oracle policy to use Replication Director by using
either the following methods:
■
The Oracle Intelligent Policy (recommended).
See “Configuring an Oracle Intelligent Policy using Replication Director”
on page 199.
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■
Create a script- or template-based Oracle policy.
See “Configuring a script- or template-based Oracle policy” on page 205.
Table 7-5 describes the differences between the two methods:
Table 7-5
Differences in Oracle snapshot policy setup
Configuration Oracle Intelligent Policy
Scripts
■
■
■
Script- or template-based Oracle policy
All scripts that are necessary to protect all
■
parts of the database are automatically
generated at run-time.
■
The administrator does not need to know how
to configure RMAN scripts.
■
The retention levels for the different parts of
the database are automatically assigned
■
Schedules
NetBackup can continue to use custom scripts
to perform database backups.
The administrator must know how to configure
RMAN scripts.
The administrator must set the retention levels
for the different parts of the database
correctly.
The administrator must ensure that a
snapshot of the proxy data is created.
The administrator configures only one schedule The administrator must configure two schedules
that backs up all parts of the database and sets with two retentions:
the correct retention automatically.
■ One Full Backup schedule to back up the
The Archived Redo Log schedule is not
snapshot (proxy) data part of the database.
supported with a snapshot backup.
■ One Application Backup schedule to back
up the stream-based part of the Oracle
database.
The Archived Redo Log schedule is available
with a configured script.
Backups
User-directed backups are not supported. To
User-directed backups are supported.
attempt a user-directed backup (results in a
status 240 (no schedules of the correct type exist
in this policy).
Load balancing
RAC load balancing is not supported.
RAC load balancing is supported.
Configuring an Oracle Intelligent Policy using Replication Director
Use the following procedure to configure an Oracle snapshot policy that uses
Replication Director. This procedure uses the Oracle Intelligent Policy, which makes
configuration easier.
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To create an Oracle Intelligent Policy
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand
NetBackup Management > Policies.
2
On the Actions menu, click New > New Policy.
3
Type a unique name for the new policy in the Add a New Policy dialog box
and click OK.
Do not use the Policy Configuration Wizard to configure a policy for
Replication Director.
4
Select the Attributes tab. The following items are specific to creating an Oracle
policy for snapshots with Replication Director:
■
Policy type
For NetBackup to perform Oracle backups, select Oracle. An Oracle tab
appears.
■
Policy storage
Oracle combines snapshots (proxy) and stream-based backups as part of
the same backup. The storage that is indicated here is used for the
stream-based part of the Replication Director backup.
Select a storage lifecycle policy that is configured to contain the
stream-based (non-snapshot) part of the database backup. The storage
must use a storage lifecycle policy that is configured for non-snapshot
backups.
■
Use Replication Director
Enable Use Replication Director to automatically select other options that
Replication Director requires:
■
Perform snapshot backups: Ensures that the policy creates snapshots
of the disk array.
■
Retain snapshots for Instant Recovery or SLP management: Ensures
that the policy retains the snapshot after the backup completes.
■
Options button
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Snapshot
Type
■
■
■
■
Auto (default): The OpenStorage partner uses the best
snapshot technology available to that partner to create the
snapshot.
Differential: The OpenStorage partner creates a snapshot
that is completely dependent on the source. This parameter
is based on copy-on-write technology. The device creates a
cache object to maintain the original blocks of the snapshot
when the blocks are modified.
Plex: The OpenStorage Partner creates a snapshot that is
completely independent of the source snapshot. This option
is based on mirror-break-off technology. When a mirror device
is attached to the source, the contents of the mirror device is
exactly the same as the source device. When the relationship
is broken between the two, the mirror device is separated from
the source. The mirror device acts as a point-in-time copy.
Clone: The OpenStorage Partner creates an independent
copy of the volume. The copy process can take some time as
the entire copy must be complete. The snapshot that is created
is independent of the source.
Maximum Sets the maximum number of snapshots to be retained at one
Snapshots time.
The default setting is one. Choose the number of snapshots that
is appropriate for your environment. Note that the maximum
number of snapshots on a NetApp volume is 255.
When the maximum is reached, snapshot rotation occurs: The
next snapshot causes the oldest to be deleted.
Managed by SLP retention is automatically selected if the Fixed
or the Expire after Copy retention is currently selected in the
SLP.
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5
Select the Schedules tab. Create one schedule:
■
Type of backup: Select Full Backup. The Full Backup is used for both
the snapshot (proxy) part of the database and the non-snapshot
(stream-based) part of the Oracle database.
The Oracle Intelligent Policy does not support the snapshot of an Archived
Redo Log Backup. To take a snapshot of the archived redo logs, use the
script- or template-based Oracle policy method.
Note: Unless creating Block Level Incremental (BLI) backups, always select
Full Backup to create snapshots of the Oracle database.
■
Override policy storage selection: Enable and select the SLP that is
configured for snapshot replication. (A snapshot SLP is one in which the
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first operation is a snapshot operation.) This option must be enabled so
that the schedule storage overrides the policy storage with a snapshot SLP.
■
Retention: The retention for the streamed data is based on the
non-snapshot SLP that was indicated as the Policy storage in Step 4.
■
The non-snapshot SLP specified on the policy storage in Step 4
determines the retention for the streamed data.
■
The snapshot SLP that is specified as the schedule storage (Override
policy storage selection) determines the retention for the snapshot
data.
Click OK to save the schedule.
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6
Select the Instances and Databases tab and specify the instances to back
up. The policy must include at least one instance. To continue to use the Oracle
Intelligent Policy method, select either Protect instances or Protect instance
groups.
Oracle Intelligent Policy
Method
Script- or templatebased Oracle policy
method
7
Select the Backup Selections tab. Select the parts of the database to back
up. Note that the selection applies to all listed instances.
The following can be selected for the policies that use Replication Director:
■
Whole database: Backs up the entire database (default).
■
Partial database - Tablespaces: Backs up the tablespaces.
■
Partial database - Datafiles: Backs up the data files.
■
Fast Recovery Area (FRA): Do not select for a policy that uses Replication
Director.
■
Database Backup Shares: Do not select for a policy that uses Replication
Director.
■
Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share: Do not select for a policy that
uses Replication Director.
Note: If you back up the partial database, and later want to perform a
Point-in-time rollback restore, make sure that you select all of the tablespaces
or data files from a partition in the Backup Selections.
For copy-back restores, this is not a requirement.
8
Select the Oracle tab to configure Oracle RMAN properties.
9
When the policy configuration is complete, click OK.
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Configuring a script- or template-based Oracle policy
Use the following procedure to configure an Oracle snapshot policy that uses
Replication Director. This procedure uses an Oracle policy type, but does not
automatically generate the necessary scripts. It allows the administrator to use
custom scripts and templates.
To create a script- or template-based Oracle policy
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, in the left pane, expand
NetBackup Management > Policies.
2
On the Actions menu, click New > New Policy.
3
Type a unique name for the new policy in the Add a New Policy dialog box
and click OK.
Do not use the Policy Configuration Wizard to configure a policy for
Replication Director.
4
Select the Attributes tab. The following items are specific to creating an Oracle
policy for snapshots with Replication Director:
■
Policy type
For NetBackup to perform Oracle backups, select Oracle. An Oracle tab
appears.
■
Policy storage
Oracle combines snapshots (proxy) and stream-based backups as part of
the same backup. The storage that is indicated here is used for the
stream-based part of the Replication Director backup.
Select the storage that is configured to contain the stream-based
(non-snapshot) part of the database backup. The storage can be either a
storage lifecycle policy that is configured for non-snapshot backups, or a
disk or Media Manager unit.
■
Use Replication Director
Enable Use Replication Director to automatically select other options that
Replication Director requires:
■
Perform snapshot backups: Ensures that the policy creates snapshots
of the disk array.
■
Retain snapshots for Instant Recovery or SLP management: Ensures
that the policy retains the snapshot after the backup completes.
■
Options button
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Snapshot
Type
■
■
■
■
Auto (default): The OpenStorage partner uses the best
snapshot technology available to that partner to create the
snapshot.
Differential: The OpenStorage partner creates a snapshot
that is completely dependent on the source. This parameter
is based on copy-on-write technology. The device creates a
cache object to maintain the original blocks of the snapshot
when the blocks are modified.
Plex: The OpenStorage Partner creates a snapshot that is
completely independent of the source snapshot. This option
is based on mirror-break-off technology. When a mirror device
is attached to the source, the contents of the mirror device is
exactly the same as the source device. When the relationship
is broken between the two, the mirror device is separated from
the source. The mirror device acts as a point-in-time copy.
Clone: The OpenStorage Partner creates an independent
copy of the volume. The copy process can take some time as
the entire copy must be complete. The snapshot that is created
is independent of the source.
Maximum Sets the maximum number of snapshots to be retained at one
Snapshots time.
The default setting is one. Choose the number of snapshots that
is appropriate for your environment. Note that the maximum
number of snapshots on a NetApp volume is 255.
When the maximum is reached, snapshot rotation occurs: The
next snapshot causes the oldest to be deleted.
Managed by SLP retention is automatically selected if the Fixed
or the Expire after Copy retention is currently selected in the
SLP.
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5
Select the Instances and Databases tab and specify the instances to back
up. Select Clients for use with scripts and templates. If either of the other
two are selected, the Oracle Intelligent Policy is used and the scripts are created
automatically.
Oracle Intelligent
Policy method
Script- or templatebased Oracle policy
method
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After selecting the Clients for use with scripts and templates option, a
message appears that describes the effect of this choice:
■
Existing selections (if any) for this policy are erased.
■
The Oracle tab is removed from this policy.
■
Another effect is that the Selections tab turns into the Clients tab.
Click Yes to continue Oracle policy configuration.
6
Click Yes to save and close the entire policy.
7
In the NetBackup Administration Console, select the policy and click the
refresh button in the toolbar.
8
Re-open the policy and select the Schedules tab.
Modify the Default-Application-Backup schedule:
■
Override policy storage selection: Enable and select a non-snapshot
storage unit or a non-snapshot SLP. This is most likely the storage unit that
is specified on the Attributes tab. Indicating it here makes the selection
explicit.
■
Retention: The policy or SLP indicates the retention for the backup:
■
When the storage is an SLP, the SLP determines the retention and no
selection is possible here.
■
When the storage is not an SLP, the schedule determines the retention
and a selection is possible here.
Click OK to save the schedule.
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Create one Full Backup schedule:
■
Name the schedule.
■
Type of backup: Select Full Backup.
Note: Unless creating Block Level Incremental (BLI) backups, always select
Full Backup to create snapshots of the Oracle database.
■
Override policy storage selection: Enable and select the SLP that is
configured for snapshot replication.
■
Retention: The SLP indicates the retention for the backup.
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9
Configure the schedule in the Start Window tab and the Exclude Days tab.
Click OK to save and close the schedule.
10 Select the Clients tab. By default, the Clients for use with scripts or
templates option is selected for this script- or template-based Oracle policy.
11 Add the client name(s) that contain the Oracle database and indicate the
operating system of each.
12 Select the Backup Selections tab. Specify the script or the template that
NetBackup should use. Indicate only one script or one template.
13 When the policy configuration is complete, click OK.
210
Chapter
Troubleshooting
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
About troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle
■
About NetBackup for Oracle troubleshooting steps
■
NetBackup debug logs and reports
■
Enabling the debug logs manually (Windows)
■
Enabling the debug logs manually (UNIX)
■
About the NetBackup for Oracle log files
■
Setting the debug level on a Windows client
■
Setting the debug level on a UNIX client
■
About RMAN utility logs
■
Troubleshooting RMAN backup or restore errors
■
Troubleshooting the UNIX browser interface and wizards
■
Troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
■
Minimizing timeout failures on large database restores
■
Minimizing the loading and unloading of tapes for database backups
■
Delays in backup job transfer and completion
8
Troubleshooting
About troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle
About troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle
NetBackup, NetBackup for Oracle, and the Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) all
provide reports on database backup, archive, and restore operations. These reports
are useful for finding the errors that are associated with those applications.
For more information about debug logs and reports, refer to the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
About NetBackup for Oracle troubleshooting steps
When troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle problems, the following items are
referred to as the API:
■
On Windows, orasbt.dll is called the API.
■
On UNIX, the libobk module is called the API. Many media manager vendors
also call the libobk module DMO (Database Module).
To perform this procedure, ensure that NetBackup is properly installed and
configured:
212
Troubleshooting
About NetBackup for Oracle troubleshooting steps
To perform general troubleshooting steps
1
When verifying your installation, ensure that the NetBackup for Oracle binaries
exist.
On UNIX, these are located in /usr/openv/netbackup/bin.
The binaries are as follows:
On Windows:
The binary resides on the client and both the
install_path\NetBackup\bin\bphdb.exe NetBackup scheduler and the graphical
interface uses the binary to start backups.
On UNIX: bphdb
The main purpose of bphdb is to run an
Oracle Intelligent Policy or a template or a
shell script that calls rman, bporaexp, or
bporaimp.
On Windows:
Provides the functions that RMAN can call.
c:\Windows\System32\orasbt.dll
On UNIX: libobk
A shared library module that contains the
functions that RMAN can call. This library is
loaded when RMAN is started. The name of
this binary depends on the operating system.
See “About linking Oracle RMAN with
NetBackup for UNIX” on page 37.
2
For the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface and the Oracle Intelligent Policy,
verify that the following binaries exist.
On Windows: install_path\NetBackup\bin\bpdbsbora.exe
On Windows: install_path\NetBackup\bin\bpubsora.exe
On Windows: install_path\NetBackup\bin\dbsbrman.dll
On UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpdbsbora
On UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpubsora
On UNIX: /usr/openv/lib/libdbsbrman.so (libdbsbrman.sl on HP-UX)
3
Check that both the NetBackup server and client software work properly. That
is, check that normal operating system files can be backed up and restored
from the client. The NetBackup client must be running the same version of
software as the NetBackup server.
4
The logs can become very large, especially bpdbm. Ensure that enough free
disk space exists in the log directory disk partition.
213
Troubleshooting
NetBackup debug logs and reports
5
Check that the following NetBackup log directories exist:
■
On the Windows client: bpdbsbora, bporaexp, bporaimp, bpubsora,
dbclient, bphdb, bpfis, bplist, and bpcd.
■
On the UNIX client: bpdbsbora, bporaexp (or boraexp64), bporaimp (or
boraimp64), bpubsora, dbclient, bphdb, bpfis, and bpcd. These directories
must have 777 permissions.
■
On the master server: bprd and bpdbm.
■
On the host with the storage unit: bpbrm and bptm.
The VERBOSE level must be 5.
6
On UNIX, confirm the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/user_ops directory and
the subdirectories have 777 permissions. They must exist and be accessible
for the applications to operate correctly.
See “Permissions for NetBackup for Oracle log directories” on page 47.
NetBackup debug logs and reports
The NetBackup server and client software let you enable detailed debugging logs.
The information in these log files can help you troubleshoot the problems that occur
outside of either the database agent or RMAN.
Note the following with regard to these logs:
■
These logs do not reveal the errors that occur when RMAN is running unless
those errors also affect NetBackup. Oracle may (or may not) write errors in the
application to the NetBackup logs. Your best sources for Oracle error information
are the logs provided by Oracle.
■
Generally, each debug log corresponds to a NetBackup process and executable.
However, for an RMAN backup, the debug log is created in the dbclient
directory, which has no corresponding executable.
More detailed information about the debug log files is available.
See the NetBackup Troubleshooting Guide.
Also refer to the following file:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\README.debug file
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/README.debug file
214
Troubleshooting
Enabling the debug logs manually (Windows)
NetBackup provides other reports that are useful in isolating problems. One such
report is All Logs Entries on the server. Information on server reports is available.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Enabling the debug logs manually (Windows)
To create the NetBackup for Oracle for Windows database agent logs manually
1
Create the following directories on the client:
■
bpubsora
For any Oracle database instance browse problems when a template is
created for backup or restore.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bpubsora
■
bphdb
For any backup that is initiated from an automated schedule on the master
server.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bphdb
■
bpdbsbora
For any template-based backup or restore, including OIP and Guided
Recovery.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bpdbsbora
■
dbclient
For any backup or restore using RMAN.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\dbclient
■
bpbkar
For any snapshot backup.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bpbkar
■
tar
For any snapshot restore.
215
Troubleshooting
Enabling the debug logs manually (UNIX)
install_path\NetBackup\logs\tar
2
Verify the user or group that the Oracle process (process that loads
orasbt.dll) has appropriate permissions to write to the following directories
if they exist. If the following directories do not exist, the directories are created
automatically with the correct permissions.
install_path\NetBackup\logs\user_ops
install_path\NetBackup\logs\user_ops\dbext
install_path\NetBackup\logs\user_ops\dbext\logs
Also verify that the user or group that the Oracle process runs as has
appropriate permissions to write to the log directories in step 1.
3
On the NetBackup server or servers, create the debug log directories for the
legacy processes that interact with the Oracle agent.
On the master server:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bprd
On the media server or servers:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bpbrm
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bptm
4
The debug logs for unified processes on the server and the client hosts are
created automatically by NetBackup.
NetBackup writes unified logs to install_path\NetBackup\logs.
For information on how to use logs and reports, see the NetBackup
Troubleshooting Guide.
Enabling the debug logs manually (UNIX)
To create the NetBackup for Oracle for UNIX database agent logs manually
1
Create the following directories on the client:
■
bpubsora
For any Oracle database instance browse problems when a template is
created for backup or restore.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpubsora
■
bphdb
216
Troubleshooting
Enabling the debug logs manually (UNIX)
For any backup that is initiated from an automated schedule on the master
server.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bphdb
■
bpdbsbora
For any template-based backup or restore, including OIP and Guided
Recovery.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpdbsbora
■
dbclient
For any backup or restore using RMAN.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/dbclient
■
bpbkar
For any snapshot backup.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bpbkar
■
nbtar
For any snapshot restore.
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/tar
2
Verify the user or group that the Oracle process (process that loads libobk)
has appropriate permissions to write to the following directories if they exist. If
the following directories do not exist, the directories are created automatically
with the correct permissions.
/usr/openv/logs/user_ops
/usr/openv/logs/user_ops/dbext
/usr/openv/logs/user_ops/dbext/logs
Also verify that the user or group that the Oracle process runs as has
appropriate permissions to write to the log directories in step 1.
217
Troubleshooting
About the NetBackup for Oracle log files
3
On the NetBackup server or servers, create the debug log directories for the
legacy processes that interact with the Oracle agent.
On the master server:
/usr/openv/logs/bprd
On the media server or servers:
/usr/openv/logs/bpbrm
/usr/openv/logs/bptm
4
The debug logs for unified processes on the server and the client hosts are
created automatically by NetBackup.
NetBackup writes unified logs to /usr/openv/logs.
For information on how to use logs and reports, see the NetBackup
Troubleshooting Guide.
About the NetBackup for Oracle log files
Table 8-1 describes the logs that are created when you create the log directories.
Use a text editor to view the contents of the logs.
The log are located in the following directories:
Windows: install_path\NetBackup\logs\<cmd>
UNIX: /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/<cmd>
For example, the logs for bphdb all appear in the
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bphdb directory (Windows) or the
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bphdb directory (UNIX).
218
Troubleshooting
About the NetBackup for Oracle log files
Table 8-1
Log files
Log directory
Description
bphdb
The bphdb directory contains the following types of logs:
■
Windows: obk_stdout.mmddyy.hhmmss.txt
UNIX: obk_stdout.mmddyy
■
Unless it is redirected elsewhere, NetBackup writes template or shell script output
to this file.
Windows: obk_stderr.mmddyy.hhmmss.txt
UNIX: obk_stderr.mmddyy
■
Unless it is redirected elsewhere, NetBackup writes template or shell script errors
to this file.
Windows: mmddyy.log
UNIX: log.mmddyy
This log contains debugging information for the bphdb process. bphdb is the
NetBackup database backup binary. It is invoked when an automatic backup
schedule is run. NetBackup for Oracle uses this client process for template or shell
script execution.
dbclient
The dbclient directory contains the following execution log:
■
Windows: mmddyy.log
■
UNIX: log.mmddyy
This log contains debugging information and execution status for the Oracle for
NetBackup client processes.
On Windows, the processes are linked to the library program that is provided with
NetBackup for Oracle.
On UNIX, this library program is libobk.
bpdbsbora
The bpdbsbora directory contains the following execution log:
■
Windows: mmddyy.log
■
UNIX: log.mmddyy
This log contains debugging information and execution status for the NetBackup for
Oracle backup and recovery wizards and for the bpdbsbora command line utility. This
log also contains the debugging information and execution status information that is
generated when an Oracle template is run from an automatic schedule (when bphdb
invokes bpdbsbora to run the template).
bporaexp64
The bporaexp (or bporaexp64 on UNIX) directory contains the following execution
log:
■
Windows: mmddyy.log
■
UNIX: log.mmddyy.log
219
Troubleshooting
Setting the debug level on a Windows client
Table 8-1
Log files (continued)
Log directory
Description
bporaimp64
The bporaimp (or bporaimp64 on UNIX) directory contains the following execution
log:
■
Windows: mmddyy.log
■
UNIX: log.mmddyy
Setting the debug level on a Windows client
To control the amount of information that is written to the debug logs, change the
Database debug level. Typically, the default value of 0 is sufficient. However,
technical support may ask you to set the value higher to analyze a problem.
The debug logs are located in install_path\NetBackup\logs.
To change the amount of debug information in other log directories, set the other
debug levels. For instance, Verbose.
To set the debug level on a Windows client
1
Open the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
2
Select File > NetBackup Client Properties.
3
Click the Troubleshooting tab.
4
Set the General debug level.
5
Set the Verbose debug level.
6
Set the Database debug level.
7
Click OK to save your changes.
8
Stop and start the Oracle database services. This action is necessary for
orasbt.dll to pick up the new debug level.
Setting the debug level on a UNIX client
To control the amount of information that is written to the debug logs, change the
“Database” debug level. Typically, the default value of 0 is sufficient. However,
Technical Support may ask you to set the value higher to analyze a problem.
The debug logs are located in /usr/openv/netbackup/logs.
220
Troubleshooting
About RMAN utility logs
To set the debug level on a UNIX client
◆
Enter the following line in the bp.conf file.
VERBOSE = X
Where X is the debug level you want.
About RMAN utility logs
RMAN uses a command language interpreter, and it can be run in interactive or
batch mode. You can use the following syntax to specify a log file on the command
line to record significant RMAN actions:
msglog ‘logfile_name’
Troubleshooting RMAN backup or restore errors
An RMAN backup error can originate from NetBackup or from Oracle, as follows:
■
On the NetBackup side, an error can be from the API, from the NetBackup server
or client, or from Media Manager.
■
On the Oracle side, an error can be from RMAN or from the target database
instance.
Veritas suggests that you use the following steps when troubleshooting a failed
operation:
■
Check the logs to determine the source of the error.
■
Troubleshoot each stage of the backup or restore.
Verifying the RMAN script on UNIX
The following procedure describes how to verify that the RMAN script works
correctly.
To verify the RMAN script
1
Use RMAN to make a backup directly to disk. Do not use NetBackup.
2
Use RMAN with NetBackup to create a backup.
221
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting RMAN backup or restore errors
3
Check the /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/dbclient directory permissions.
They should be set to 777.
4
Look for a log file in /usr/openv/netbackup/logs/dbclient.
If no log file exists, libobk is not linked into Oracle properly.
See “Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle” on page 114.
Troubleshooting each stage of the backup or restore
The following explains the sequence of events for an action initiated by RMAN and
suggests solutions for the problems that can occur at each point in the sequence:
■
rman starts.
A backup or restore can be started in any of the following ways:
■
From an RMAN backup or restore initiated from the operating system prompt
such as:
rman target user/pwd[@TNS_alias] \
rcvcat user/pwd[@TNS_alias]\
cmdfile RMAN_script_file_name
Where the RMAN_script_file_name is fully qualified.
■
■
Using a template that runs from the NetBackup client interface or from
bpdbsbora.
■
Manually from the administrator interface on the master server.
■
Automatically by an automatic backup schedule.
If an error occurs now, check the RMAN log.
RMAN verifies its environment and then issues requests to the API.
On Windows, some information, such as the NetBackup version, API versions,
and trace file name, is registered with RMAN. An error now is usually due to a
problem with client and server communication. Check the messages in the bprd
and the bpcd logs for clues.
On UNIX, some information, such as the NetBackup version, API versions, trace
file name, and NetBackup signal handlers, is registered with RMAN. An error
now is usually due to a problem with client and server communication. Check
the messages in the bprdand the bpcd logs for clues. Also verify the bp.conf
entries on the client.
■
RMAN issues a backup or restore request.
222
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting RMAN backup or restore errors
The API gathers necessary parameters and sends the backup or restore
request to the NetBackup server. The API waits until both the server and client
are ready to transfer data before it returns to the request.
The API then sends this information to the master server’s bprd process.
To troubleshoot a problem in this part of the first sequence, examine the following
file:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\dbclient\mmddyy.log
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/dbclient/log.mmddyy
If the bprd process failed, check the logs for bprd and bpbrm.
A failure now is frequently due to bad NetBackup server or Oracle policy
configuration parameters.
NetBackup can usually select the correct Oracle policy and schedules. But
NetBackup can select a policy or schedule in error if there are several Oracle
policies in its database.
On Windows, try setting the SERVER and NB_ORA_POLICY values in the client
environment.
On UNIX, try setting the SERVER and POLICY values in the bp.conf file on the
client or by setting environment variables.
For example, the following C Shell setenv commands specify the Oracle policy,
schedule, and server for NetBackup to use:
setenv NB_ORA_POLICY policyname
setenv NB_ORA_SCHED application_backup_schedule_name
setenv NB_ORA_SERV NetBackup_server
■
RMAN issues read or write requests to the API, which then transfers data to or
from the NetBackup server.
A failure here is probably due to NetBackup media, network, or timeout errors.
■
RMAN tells the API to close the session.
The API waits for the server to complete its necessary actions (for example, it
verifies the backup image) and then exits.
An error can originate from either NetBackup or RMAN, as follows:
■
RMAN aborts if it encounters an error while it reads a data file during the
backup (for example, if Oracle blocks are out of sequence). It also aborts if
NetBackup sends a bad backup image during the restore.
223
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting the UNIX browser interface and wizards
■
NetBackup might return an error code to the API if for some reason it could
not complete the backup successfully.
Troubleshooting the UNIX browser interface and
wizards
If you do not see the Oracle database instance in your Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface, verify the following:
■
A NetBackup for Oracle license is installed on the master server.
■
For browsing in the restore window, the policy type must be set to Oracle.
Perform the following actions to change the client policy type:
■
On the Actions menu, select Specify NetBackup Machines and Policy
type.
■
In the Policy type drop-down list, select Oracle.
■
Click OK.
On Windows, to change the client policy type:
■
■
On the File menu, select Specify NetBackup Machines and Policy Type.
■
On the Specify NetBackup Machines dialog, click the Clients/Policy Type
tab.
■
In the Policy Type drop-down list, select Oracle.
■
Click OK.
On UNIX, the oratab file is in the correct location (/etc/oratab or
/var/opt/oracle/oratab) and contains all of the available Oracle SIDs.
Although Oracle allows the use of wild cards in the oratab file, the NetBackup
BAR GUI requires that each SID be specified.
If you have trouble connecting to the Oracle database, verify the following:
■
Make sure that the database is in a mount state or an open state.
■
Make sure that your login ID and password have Oracle SYSDBA or
SYSBACKUP privileges. Initially, NetBackup for Oracle attempts OS
Authentication to log on. If that fails, you are prompted for a user name,
password, and an optional Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) alias. The
user name and password you enter must have SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP
privileges.
■
In a clustered environment, failure to connect to the database can mean a
problem with the network configuration. The browser must connect locally.
224
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client
However, in some environments, all connections are considered to be remote
connections, even a connection to a local database. This behavior is true for
example in an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) environment. In such
cases, you must make the connection using a TNS alias.
In a Linux environment, Oracle backups and restores fail if the Linux logon is not
the Oracle user. In such cases, Oracle generates the following message:
INF - ORA-19554: error allocating device, device type: SBT_TAPE, device name:
INF - ORA-27211: Failed to load Media Management Library
If you want to start an Oracle job as someone other than an Oracle user, augment
the default shared library search path. Use the Linux ldconfig(8) command to add
$ORACLE_HOME/lib to the search path.
Troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle with
Snapshot Client
Debug logs used for troubleshooting the problems that occur with NetBackup and
NetBackup for Oracle have been discussed in previous areas. In addition to those
logs, there are debug logs used for troubleshooting NetBackup for Oracle with
Snapshot Client.
Snapshot Client backup and debug messages are written to the following
subdirectories of:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\logs
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/
The logs are as follows:
■
The bpbrm log is on the NetBackup media server.
■
The bptm/bpdm log is on the NetBackup media server.
■
The bpbkar log is on the NetBackup client and alternate client.
■
The bpfis log is on the NetBackup client and alternate client.
■
The bppfi log is on the NetBackup client or alternate client.
Snapshot Client restore and debug messages are written to the following
subdirectories on the NetBackup master server:
225
Troubleshooting
Minimizing timeout failures on large database restores
■
The bprestore is almost always a client log on the NetBackup host that initiated
the restore by using the bprestore command.
■
The bprd is on the NetBackup master server.
■
The bpbrm is on the NetBackup master server.
■
The bptm/bpdm is on the NetBackup media server. Both the tape and the disk
backup log to bptm, disk backups also log to bpdm.
■
The tar is on the NetBackup client or redirected client.
Additional help for troubleshooting most installation and other issues is available
in the NetBackup Snapshot Client Administrator’s Guide.
See “About NetBackup for Oracle troubleshooting steps” on page 212.
Minimizing timeout failures on large database
restores
Large database restores sometimes fail when multiple restore sessions compete
for resources. In this situation, a restore session can be delayed while waiting for
media or device access. If the delay is too long, the restore session times out. Use
the following procedure to minimize session timeouts and to allow the restores to
complete successfully.
To minimize timeout failures on large database restores
1
In the NetBackup Administration Console, expand NetBackup Management
> Host Properties > Clients.
2
Double-click the client.
3
Select the Timeouts properties.
4
Set the Client read timeout property to a large value.
The default for the Client read timeout setting is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
For database agent clients, increase the value significantly from the
recommended value.
See the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume 1.
For example, change this setting to 30-60 minutes to minimize timeout errors.
5
Click OK for each client.
226
Troubleshooting
Minimizing the loading and unloading of tapes for database backups
Note: This change may delay detecting problems during subsequent backups.
Consider putting the original value back in place once any restore that requires a
change is complete.
Minimizing the loading and unloading of tapes for
database backups
You can minimize excessive unloading and reloading of tapes between
multistreamed database backups by changing the media settings for the master or
the media server.
See the NetBackup Administration Guide, Volume 1 for details.
To minimize loading and unloading of tapes
1
Open the NetBackup Administration Console.
2
Choose Host Properties.
3
Choose Master Servers or Media Servers.
4
Double-click on the name of the server.
5
In the left pane, click Media.
6
Configure the following settings:
■
Media unmount delay
■
Media request delay
Use this variable only with non-robotic drives, such as tape stackers.
Delays in backup job transfer and completion
Sometimes you may see a Oracle backup job pause for an extended time during
the data transfer. Also, the backup job may appear to hang after the transfer
completes but before the job completes. The delay may be due to one of the
following:
■
Oracle delays
■
Network issues
■
Storage unit delays
■
Oracle database server post-backup processing
The delays during the transfer can be especially pronounced if using large data
files. Lengthy delays make it difficult for NetBackup to know if Oracle is hung or
227
Troubleshooting
Delays in backup job transfer and completion
delayed. To review setting information and delay examples, refer to the following
article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH227741
To determine the cause of delays after the transfer, refer to the following article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH198864
228
Appendix
A
Real Application Clusters
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
About Real Application Clusters
■
About virtual names and NetBackup for Oracle
■
About RAC archiving schemes
■
About backing up a database
■
Example of restoring a database
■
Troubleshooting database restores (UNIX and Windows)
■
About restoring archive logs
About Real Application Clusters
In a Real Application Clusters (RAC) environment, many Oracle database instances
exist on separate servers, each with direct connectivity to a single Oracle database.
All the servers can run transactions concurrently against the same database. Should
any single server or instance fail, processing continues on the surviving servers.
RAC supports all Oracle backup features that are available in exclusive mode,
including online backups and offline backups of an entire database or individual
tablespaces.
About virtual names and NetBackup for Oracle
Users of a RAC can typically access the database by a virtual network host name.
This access is dependent on the configuration of a RAC and any cluster software
on which it is running.
Real Application Clusters
About virtual names and NetBackup for Oracle
The virtual network host name may be associated with an IP address in the following
ways:
■
With an IP address for a host in the cluster
■
A virtual IP address for an Oracle database instance running on a host in the
cluster
■
A failover virtual IP address that may move between the hosts in the cluster
Backup operations may use the various virtual network host names, or the network
host name of the hosts in the cluster.
To differentiate between the various network names, the following terms and
definitions are used:
Host name
The network host name that is associated with a specific host
in the cluster.
VIP name
The network host name that is associated with a virtual IP
address specific to an instance in the cluster.
Failover name
The network host name that is associated with an IP address
that is active on a running node. This network host name is
the network host name that can perform a backup at this
time.
Warning: Do not use a single client name if the backup is load balanced across
more than one node. In a load-balanced configuration, the node that hosts the IP
address to which the client name resolves, generates successful backups. However,
the jobs originating from the other nodes fail with status code 54.
Oracle 11g R2 Grid Infrastructure (CRS) includes the Single Client Access Name
(SCAN) feature. A single SCAN can resolve to multiple IP addresses each assigned
to a different physical node in the cluster.
A SCAN can be used in a NetBackup policy that receives the Application Backup
request. However, this abstraction of the client name causes backup and restore
jobs to fail with status code 54. Also, the client side fails with status code 6 (backup)
or status code 5 (restore).
Accordingly, ensure that the client that appears in the NetBackup Oracle policy is
not a SCAN. Also, ensure that any NB_ORA_CLIENT or CLIENT_NAME that the
node provides in the backup request is not a SCAN. These names must reliably
resolve on both the master server and the media server to an IP address. This IP
address allows the server processes to connect to the node from which the backup
request originated.
230
Real Application Clusters
About RAC archiving schemes
About RAC archiving schemes
The preferred RAC configuration uses a cluster file system archiving scheme. In
this scheme, each node writes to a single Cluster File System (CFS) archived log
destination and can read the archived log files of the other nodes.
Figure A-1 depicts a CFS archiving scheme.
Figure A-1
CFS archiving scheme
CFS archive
destination
Database
data files
Node 1
Node 2
If the CFS solution is not available, Oracle recommends a scheme like that in
Figure A-2. In Figure A-2, each node archives to a local directory and writes a copy
to each of the other nodes’ archive directories. The locations are shared between
the nodes (with read and write permissions) by NFS mounting the directory (UNIX)
or sharing the locations (Windows).
Figure A-2 describes non-CFS local archiving scheme with archive sharing.
231
Real Application Clusters
About RAC archiving schemes
Figure A-2
Archive
Destination
1
Non-CFS local archiving scheme with archive sharing
Archive
Destination
2
Archive
Destination
2
Archive
Destination
1
Database
data files
Node 1
Node 2
NFS mount or Shared location
read and write access
Physically Attached
Logically Attached
232
Real Application Clusters
About RAC archiving schemes
A scheme similar to the previous one exists if each node archives to a local directory,
and the locations are shared (read-only) with the other nodes in the cluster. These
locations are shared among the nodes by NFS-mounting the directory (UNIX) or
sharing the locations (Windows). Therefore, each node can read each archive
destination.
Figure A-3 describes non-CFS local archiving scheme with archive read-only sharing.
233
Real Application Clusters
About RAC archiving schemes
Figure A-3
Archive
Destination
1
Non-CFS local archiving scheme with archive read-only sharing
Archive
Destination
2
Archive
Destination
2
Archive
Destination
1
Database
data files
Node 1
Node 2
NFS mount or Shared location
write access
Physically Attached
Logically Attached
234
Real Application Clusters
About backing up a database
The simplest archiving scheme is local archiving with no sharing. Each node writes
only to the local destination, and no access is given to the other nodes in the cluster.
Figure A-4 describes non-CFS local archiving scheme with no archive sharing.
Figure A-4
Non-CFS local archiving scheme with no archive sharing
Archive
destination
2
Archive
destination
1
Database
data files
Node 1
Node 2
For more information about configuration and additional archiving scheme examples
see your Oracle documentation.
About backing up a database
If you are in a RAC environment and you chose one of the archive log schemes
that are described in the previous topic, you can perform a backup with typical
RMAN scripts.
In the following example, RMAN backs up the database, including all of the archive
logs. This example assumes that the archive logs are accessible by each node in
the cluster. If they are not, then the archive logs need to be backed up separately
on each node.
Note: This example works only if the backup is not load balanced across multiple
nodes, because NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT evaluates only to the node
on which the RMAN script is executed.
235
Real Application Clusters
Example of restoring a database
RUN
{
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT,NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV';
BACKUP
DATABASE;
sql 'alter system archive log current';
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT,NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV';
BACKUP
ARCHIVELOG ALL ;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
Example of restoring a database
Restoring the database from the nodes where the backup was performed is
straightforward and identical to a typical RMAN restore.
In this example, the backup images to be restored must all be accessible by the
client name saturn in the image database on the master server jupiter.
Note: This example works only if the backup is not load balanced across multiple
nodes. The reason is because NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT evaluates
only to the node on which the RMAN script is executed.
The following example restores the entire database from any node:
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=saturn,NB_ORA_SERV=jupiter';
RESTORE
DATABASE;
RECOVER
DATABASE;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
236
Real Application Clusters
Troubleshooting database restores (UNIX and Windows)
Troubleshooting database restores (UNIX and
Windows)
An RMAN restore to one node of a cluster can fail with a status code 39 when the
following situation is present:
■
The NB_ORA_CLIENT is set to the virtual name of the cluster.
■
The client name is set to the virtual name of the cluster.
To remedy this problem, use the hostname.
More information is available on restores and redirected restores.
See “About NetBackup for Oracle restores” on page 128.
See “Example of restoring a database” on page 236.
About restoring archive logs
You can use the typical RMAN script to restore the archive logs under the following
circumstances:
■
If the remote archived log destinations allow write access.
See Figure A-2 on page 232.
■
If the archive logs reside on a CFS.
See Figure A-1 on page 231.
In the examples that follow, the client is saturn and the server is jupiter. The backups
are stored under the client name saturn.
The following example restores all of the archive logs:
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=saturn,NB_ORA_SERV=jupiter';
RESTORE
ARCHIVELOG ALL;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
If the remote archive logs destinations do not allow write access, use a script such
as the following to restore the archive logs:
RUN {
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=saturn,NB_ORA_SERV=jupiter';
237
Real Application Clusters
About restoring archive logs
SET ARCHIVELOG DESTINATION TO <directory>;
RESTORE
ARCHIVELOG ALL;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
Where <directory> is the directory into which the archive logs are restored.
Use a script like the preceding one if your configuration is a configuration shown in
one of the following topics:
■
See Figure A-3 on page 234.
■
See Figure A-4 on page 235.
238
Appendix
B
Best practices for
protecting Oracle RAC
with NetBackup
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices
■
About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) with RAC
■
About NetBackup for Oracle operations
■
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is not load
balanced
■
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is load balanced
■
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is not
load balanced
■
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available, and backup is load
balanced, one policy with custom script
■
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is load
balanced, simple script with manual policy failover
■
Image catalog configuration for RAC
■
Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices
Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices
The Real Application Clusters (RAC) option allows multiple concurrent instances
to share a single physical database.
Oracle database backup and recovery is more difficult as databases grow in size
and greater demands on database availability limit the time to perform backups.
Often the backup time window is too short to accommodate a complete backup
process by using only one backup node in the cluster. Database administrators
need more efficient methods to complete these large backups in the allotted time.
For the Oracle RAC database, Oracle can split the backups into pieces and send
them in parallel from multiple nodes, which shortens the processing time.
This section describes the methods that can be used to backup the Oracle RAC
database. You can use one node to backup the database or balance the backup
load across multiple nodes of an Oracle RAC database.
About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent
Policy (OIP) with RAC
The NetBackup for Oracle Template Wizard and Oracle Intelligent Policy both work
well for backing up Oracle database instances. They can be used to backup Oracle
RAC when only a single host name or client name is needed to affect the backup.
They cannot be used to backup Oracle RAC when more than one client name must
be used.
The following are the two situations when the Template Wizard or the OIP cannot
be used to backup Oracle RAC:
■
The channels are load balanced across the hosts in the cluster.
■
One client name is used to determine the host on which to execute RMAN, and
the channels are allocated using a different client name.
Note: Using a separate template or OIP for each instance in a RAC may be
successful. However, using these methods may result in multiple backups of the
same shared application data.
Backup scripts or Oracle launch mechanisms provides greater flexibility for complex
configurations and are preferred for use with RAC.
240
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
About NetBackup for Oracle operations
About NetBackup for Oracle operations
The following lists what occurs when you initiate RMAN:
■
The NetBackup Oracle policy can contain one or more client names and one or
more backup scripts to execute.
Note: Oracle 11g R2 Grid Infrastructure (CRS) includes the Single Client Access
Name (SCAN) feature. This feature allows a single host name to resolve to
multiple IP addresses each assigned to a different physical node in a cluster.
Ensure that the client that appears in the NetBackup Oracle policy is not a SCAN.
Also, ensure that any NB_ORA_CLIENT or CLIENT_NAME provided by the
client host in the backup request is not a SCAN. These names must reliably
resolve on both the master server and the media server to a client host IP
address. This IP address allows the server processes to connect to the client
host from which the backup request originated. If the SCAN is used in a
NetBackup policy, this abstraction of the client name leads to backup and restore
jobs failing. The backup and restore jobs may fail with a status 54. The client
side fails with status 6 (backup) or status 5 (restore).
■
The NetBackup master server uses the automatic schedules in the Oracle policy
to determine when the scripts in the backup selections are run on clients.
■
The NetBackup scheduler starts one Automatic Backup job for each client in
the policy. The jobs for multiple clients can run concurrently. The scheduler
executes each script on each client in the specified sequence. All the scripts for
one client are run in the same automatic job.
■
The backup scripts start RMAN.
■
If an automatic schedule and script do not exist in the policy, a process on the
client can still initiate RMAN when necessary.
The following lists what occurs when RMAN requests the backup:
■
RMAN connects to the appropriate Oracle database instance(s) for the backup.
Hence, the script may execute on one host, but the backup may take place on
a different host.
■
RMAN allocates one or more channels according to the backup script.
■
RMAN sends one or more backup pieces on each channel, in sequence.
■
Each channel interacts with NetBackup for Oracle and sends a user-directed
backup request to the NetBackup master server for each backup piece.
241
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is not load balanced
■
Each request becomes a separate NetBackup Application Backup job. Hence
there can be one Application Backup job queued or active, concurrently, per
allocated channel.
■
RMAN can send one or more of the variables NB_ORA_CLIENT,
NB_ORA_POLICY, and NB_ORA_SCHED to the NetBackup master server.
■
If RMAN does not send NB_ORA_CLIENT, the client name is used.
■
If RMAN does not send NB_ORA_POLICY, the master server selects the first
Oracle policy it finds for the client.
■
If RMAN does not send NB_ORA_SCHED, the master server selects the first
Application Backup schedule in the policy.
■
The NetBackup master server must be able to match any requested client name,
Oracle policy and Application Backup schedule, or the job fails.
The following lists how NetBackup receives the data from RMAN:
■
The Application Backup jobs activate and the NetBackup media server processes
which connect to the provided client name to receive the data. Hence, the client
name that is sent in the user-directed request must bring the data connection
back to the requesting host.
■
RMAN sends the appropriate data on the appropriate channel, and the data is
transferred to storage.
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists
and backup is not load balanced
In this configuration, a failover name exists such that the NetBackup media server
can always reach an available host to execute the backup script. Further, since
load balancing is disabled, RMAN allocates the channels on a single host, typically
the same host where the script executes.
The configuration is as follows:
■
Configure the policy to specify the failover name as the client name. The
automatic schedule then runs the backup script on a host that is currently
operational.
■
The backup script or an identical copy must be accessible to all hosts in the
cluster. The clustered file system is a good location.
■
Configure the backup script so that RMAN provides to NetBackup the failover
name from the policy. It floats to the active instance-host and ensures successful
data transfer, and all the backups are stored under that single client name.
242
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is load balanced
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ... ;
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT';
BACKUP ... ;
■
The NetBackup master server configuration must allow the physical host names
access to all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
echo "failover_vipname" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
■
You can use Preferred Network on the client to specify the outbound interface
for user-directed requests to the master server. This method is not recommended.
However, if you use this method then you must allow the VIP names to access
all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
cp hostname1 vipname1
cp hostname1 vipname2
Note: This method may not be desirable because it affects the source IP for
user-directed file system backup, list, and restore requests.
The backup script then runs on the active host that currently hosts the failover name.
RMAN allocates the channels on that host to perform the backup. The Application
Backup jobs queue to the failover name, and the NetBackup media server connects
back to the failover name for the data transfer. The backup images are stored under
the failover name regardless of which host performed the backup. Restores can
take place from either host as long as the restore request is configured to SEND
'NB_ORA_CLIENT=failover name';
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists
and backup is load balanced
In this configuration, the NetBackup master server can always use the failover name
to reach an active host to run the backup script. However, because RMAN allocates
channels on both hosts, the NetBackup media server must connect back to the
243
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is load balanced
244
correct host to obtain the data for each request. Hence, the backup images are
stored under two different client names which must differ from the failover name
that is used to execute the script.
■
Set up the policy to specify the failover name as the client name. Thus, the
Automatic schedule executes the backup script on a host that is currently
operational.
■
The backup script or an identical copy must be accessible to all hosts in the
cluster. The clustered file system is a good location.
■
Do not configure the backup script to send a single value for NB_ORA_CLIENT.
The NetBackup media server must connect back to the correct host, which
depends on which host originated the user-directed backup request. Select one
of the following three methods to accomplish this task:
■
Configure the backup to provide a host-specific client name with each backup
request using one of the following three options:
■
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
1
2
3
4
...
...
...
...
Configure RMAN to bind specific channels to specific instances and provide
the associated client names on each channel for backup image storage.
Also, configure RMAN for connect-back to the requesting host for the data
transfer. Do not use the failover name, because it is active on only one of
the hosts.
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
Note: If one or more of these nodes are down, these allocation operations
fail which causes the backup to fail.
■
Alternatively, configure Oracle to bind specific channels to specific hosts.
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 1 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 2 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 3 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 4 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name exists and backup is load balanced
■
■
Alternatively and by default, the backup uses the client names which should
be distinct for each host and is typically the physical host name.
Because CLIENT_NAME or NB_ORA_CLIENT values must differ from the
failover name in the policy, the NetBackup master server cannot accept the
user-directed backup request. You must implement one of the following options.
■
■
■
245
Option A: Modify the existing policy and the backup script to handle multiple
client names.
■
Add both VIP names or both host names to the policy, in addition to the
failover name.
■
Modify the script so that it exits with status 0 if the client name is not the
failover name.
Option B: Alternatively, use a separate policy to accept the backup requests.
■
Create a second policy to receive the backup requests from RMAN.
■
Set the policy type to be Oracle.
■
Set the policy to contain the NB_ORA_CLIENT or client names as
configured in the previous information.
■
The Application Backup schedule must have an open window to accept
the backups.
■
The policy does not need a backup script or an automatic schedule.
■
Configure the backup script to provide the name of this policy with each
user-directed backup request:
■
ALLOCATE CHANNEL...PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_POLICY=<second_policy_name>)';
or
SEND 'NB_ORA_POLICY=<second_policy_name>';
The NetBackup master server configuration must allow the physical host names
access to the backup images. The images are stored under the VIP names or
host names as follows:
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "failover_name" >> hostname1
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is not load balanced
■
You can use Preferred Network or another means to force NetBackup to use
the IP addresses associated with the VIP names for outbound user-directed
requests. If you use this method then you must allow the VIP names to access
all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
cp hostname1 vipname1
cp hostname1 vipname2
Option A: The NetBackup scheduler starts three automatic jobs, and each runs
the backup script (two of them on the host that currently hosts the failover name).
The two executions of the backup script that receive the VIP names or host names
exit immediately with status 0. The reason immediate exit is done is to avoid a
redundant backup and any retries. The third execution of the backup script that
receives the failover name, starts RMAN. RMAN then sends the data for backup
by using the appropriate client name for the instance or host for the channel.
NetBackup stores the backup images under the initiating policy using both client
names.
Option B: The first policy runs the backup script by using the failover name. RMAN
sends the name of the second policy and the configured client names for each
channel with the user-directed request from each host. The second policy stores
the backup images using both client names.
Either client can initiate a restore. RMAN must be configured with 'SET
AUTOLOCATE ON;' to request the backup pieces from the appropriate instance-host
that performed the backup. Alternatively, you can restore from either host or instance
if you configure each restore request to include the correct client name. This name
is the client name used at the time the backup piece was transferred to storage.
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=client_name_used_by_backup'
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not
available and backup is not load balanced
In this configuration, VIP names or host names allow connections to the respective
hosts in the cluster. You need a special configuration to ensure that the backup
script executes on at least one of the hosts but not on both hosts. Otherwise, a
backup may not occur if the specified instance is down, or a redundant backup
occurs if both of the specified instances are active.
For ease of discussion, the term primary refers to the instance on which the backup
normally occurs. The term secondary refers to the other instance which may be
used if the primary is unavailable. In addition, because the backup may occur on
246
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is not load balanced
247
either host, the backup images have the potential to be stored under both client
names. The image storage name is dependent on which host is active at the time
of the backup. The configuration is as follows:
■
The policy specifies client names for both hosts, either hostname1 and
hostname2, or vipname1 and vipname2. The specification of client name ensures
that the backup is attempted on a host which is currently operational.
■
The backup script must be accessible to both hosts in the cluster, the clustered
file system makes a good location.
■
The backup script should be customized so that it starts RMAN on exactly one
of the clients. If the script is executed on the primary, then start RMAN and
perform the backup. If the script is executed on the secondary and the primary
is up, then exit with status 0 so the NetBackup scheduler doesn't retry this client.
If the script is executed on the secondary and the primary is down, then start
RMAN and perform the backup. You can build the script customization around
a tnsping to the primary or even a query of the database. Use this customization
to see if the other instance is open and able to perform the backup.
$ select INST_ID, STATUS, STARTUP_TIME, HOST_NAME from gv$instance;
INST_ID STATUS STARTUP_T HOST_NAM
---------- ------------ --------- --------1 OPEN 13-JAN-09 vipname1
2 OPEN 13-JAN-09 vipname2
■
Each user-directed backup request must use a client name which allows the
NetBackup media server to connect back to the correct host for the data transfer.
By default, the backup uses the CLIENT_NAME from the bp.conf file which is
distinct for each host. A better solution is to configure RMAN to provide the
appropriate client name from the policy as follows:
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=$NB_ORA_CLIENT';
■
Configure the NetBackup master server to give the physical host names access
to all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available, and backup is load balanced, one policy with
custom script
■
You can use Preferred Network or another means to force NetBackup to use
the IP addresses associated with the VIP names for outbound user-directed
requests. If you use this method then you must allow the VIP names to access
all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
cp hostname1 vipname1
cp hostname1 vipname2
Either client can initiate a restore. RMAN must be configured with 'SET
AUTOLOCATE ON;' to request the backup set pieces from the appropriate instance
or host that performed the backup. Alternatively, you can restore from either host
or instance if you configure each restore request to include the correct client name.
This client name is the one that is used at the time the backup set piece was
transferred to storage.
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=client_name_used_by_backup'
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not
available, and backup is load balanced, one policy
with custom script
A load-balanced backup without a failover name must overcome the combined
challenges of the preceding configurations. Because a failover name does not exist,
the NetBackup scheduler must attempt to execute the backup script on both hosts.
In this case, the script must start RMAN on only one of the hosts. Because RMAN
may allocate channels on both instances, the user-directed requests must present
host specific names. The requirement is that the connect-back from the NetBackup
media server must be able to retrieve the data from the correct host.
■
The policy should specify both client names, either hostname1 and hostname2
or vipname1 and vipname2. The specification of client names is to ensure that
the backup script is executed on at least one host which is currently operational.
■
The backup script must be accessible to both hosts in the cluster. The clustered
file system makes a good location.
■
The backup script should be customized so that it starts RMAN on exactly one
of the clients. If the backup script is executed on the primary, then start RMAN
and perform the backup. If the backup script is executed on the secondary and
the primary is up, then exit with status 0 so that the NetBackup scheduler doesn’t
retry this client. If the backup script is executed on the secondary and the primary
is down, then start RMAN and perform the backup. The script customization
248
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available, and backup is load balanced, one policy with
custom script
249
can be built around a tnsping to the primary or even a query of the database.
Use this customization to see if the other instance is open and able to perform
the backup.
$ select INST_ID, STATUS, STARTUP_TIME, HOST_NAME from gv$instance;
INST_ID STATUS STARTUP_T HOST_NAM
---------- ------------ --------- --------1 OPEN 13-JAN-09 vipname1
2 OPEN 13-JAN-09 vipname2
■
The backup script must not be configured to send a single value for
NB_ORA_CLIENT. This configuration is because the NetBackup media server
needs to connect back to the correct host depending on which host originated
the user-directed backup request.
■
Configure the backup to provide a host-specific client name with each backup
request using one of the following three options:
■
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
1
2
3
4
...
...
...
...
Configure RMAN to bind specific channels to specific instances and provide
the associated client names on each channel for backup image storage.
Also, configure RMAN for connect-back to the requesting host for the data
transfer.
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
Note: If one or more of these nodes are down, these allocation operations
fail which causes the backup to fail.
■
Alternatively, configure Oracle to bind specific channels to specific hosts.
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 1 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 2 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 3 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 4 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is load balanced, simple script with
manual policy failover
■
■
Alternatively by default, the backup uses the client names which should be
distinct for each host and is typically the physical host name.
Configure the NetBackup master server to allow the physical host names access
to all of the backup images.
cd /usr/opnv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
■
You can use Preferred Network or another means to force NetBackup to use
the IP addresses associated with the VIP names for outbound user-directed
requests. If you use this method then you must allow the VIP names to access
all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
cp hostname1 vipname1
cp hostname1 vipname2
The net result is that the backup script runs on all of the currently active hosts but
only starts RMAN on one host. RMAN allocates channels across the hosts for load
balancing. The user-directed backup requests include a NB_ORA_CLIENT or
CLIENT_NAME specific to the requesting host and which matches the policy. The
connect-back for data transfer and the backup image are stored under that name.
Either client can initiate a restore. RMAN must be configured with 'SET
AUTOLOCATE ON;' to request the backup pieces from the appropriate instance-host
that performed the backup. Alternatively, you can restore from either host or instance
if you configure each restore request to include the correct client name. This name
is the client name used at the time the backup piece was transferred to storage.
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=client_name_used_by_backup';
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not
available and backup is load balanced, simple
script with manual policy failover
Some implementations of RAC (Linux/Windows) do not include a failover name.
Also, some sites do not need a robust backup script that determines the active
250
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Example RAC configuration: Failover name is not available and backup is load balanced, simple script with
manual policy failover
251
instance in real time. If this scenario is the case, use the following configuration to
manually initiate a backup from the secondary host when the primary host is down.
■
Create a first Oracle policy with an Application Backup schedule to receive the
backup images from both hosts. Configure both VIP names or the host names
as clients in the policy. Do not configure an Automatic Backup schedule or a
backup selection (script).
■
Create a second Oracle policy to execute the backup script on the primary host.
Configure the VIP name or host name of the primary host in the policy. Configure
the pathname to the backup script in the policy. Create an Automatic Backup
schedule with an open window in the policy.
■
Create a third Oracle policy that can be used to manually execute the backup
script on the secondary host when the primary host is unavailable. Configure
the VIP name or host name of the secondary host in the policy. Configure the
pathname to the backup script in the policy. Create an Automatic Backup
schedule without an open window in the policy.
■
The backup script must be accessible to both hosts in the cluster, the clustered
file system makes a good location.
■
Configure the backup to provide a host-specific client name with each backup
request using one of the following three options:
■
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
ALLOCATE
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
CHANNEL
1
2
3
4
...
...
...
...
Configure RMAN to bind specific channels to specific instances and provide
the associated client names on each channel for backup image storage.
Also, configure RMAN for connect-back to the requesting host for the data
transfer.
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)'
PARMS='ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)'
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname1';
CONNECT='sys/passwd@vipname2';
Note: If one or more of these nodes are down, these allocation operations
fail which causes the backup to fail.
■
Alternatively, configure Oracle to bind specific channels to specific hosts.
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 1 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 2 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 3 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname1' PARMS
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname1)";
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Image catalog configuration for RAC
CONFIGURE CHANNEL 4 DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' CONNECT 'sys/passwd@vipname2' PARMS
"ENV=(NB_ORA_CLIENT=vipname2)";
■
■
Alternatively and by default, the backup uses the client names which should
be distinct for each host and is typically the physical host name.
Configure the NetBackup master server to allow the physical host names access
to all of the backup images.
cd /usr/opnv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
■
Although not recommended, you can use preferred network or another means
to force NetBackup to use the IP addresses associated with the VIP names for
outbound user-directed requests. If you use this method then you must allow
the VIP names to access all of the backup images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
cp hostname1 vipname1
cp hostname1 vipname2
The second policy executes the backup script on the primary host when it is
scheduled. RMAN starts the backup process on all of the hosts, and they send back
the appropriate NB_ORA_CLIENT or CLIENT_NAME for that host. If the primary
is down, initiate the third policy manually from the NetBackup master server and
perform a similar backup.
Either client can initiate a restore. RMAN must be configured with 'SET
AUTOLOCATE ON;' to request the backup pieces from the appropriate instance-host
that performed the backup. Alternatively, you can restore from either host or instance
if you configure each restore request to include the correct client name. This name
is the client name used at the time the backup piece was transferred to storage.
SEND 'NB_ORA_CLIENT=client_name_used_by_backup';
Image catalog configuration for RAC
If the RAC backup used a failover name as the NB_ORA_CLIENT, then the backup
images from all nodes are stored under that single client name. Because the backup
252
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Image catalog configuration for RAC
images are stored under a single client name, the image catalog does not need
any special configuration.
However, if a failover name was not used, then the backup images for individual
clients are stored in uniquely named image directories. This configuration can cause
complications when an operation such as crosscheck or restore are performed from
an alternate cluster or an alternate node within the cluster
Note: This technique works best when you use the VIP names for the instances
as the racclient names. If you use physical host names, the backup images from
file system backups are stored with the Oracle backup images within a single image
directory. This situation can result in two potential problems. First, if the same file
name exists on both hosts but with different content, care must be used to select
the correct backup image from which to restore. The selection confusion can be
eliminated by configuring the file system backup to specify a policy keyword. The
keyword is specific to the host from which each file system backup is taken. Then
use the host-specific keyword to constrain the image search when performing
browse and restore. Second, either host can restore the files that were backed up
from the other host. Being part of the same cluster, this restore technique is normally
not a concern. But be aware in case there are special considerations for permissions
and security restrictions at your site.
The following procedure can be used to centralize storage of the backup images
from all nodes in the cluster under one client name. That single client name can
then be used for maintenance and restore operations.
In the following procedure, all steps are performed on the master server unless
otherwise noted. Also, the procedure uses two examples of network host names
that are routable:
■
racclient1
■
racclient2
In this procedure, the logical name for the cluster is racname. If there is a failover
name that is always active on a node in the cluster, then it could be used as the
racname. Alternatively, the racname can temporarily be added as a host name alias
for racclient1 or racclient2 to complete the initial configuration and then be removed.
253
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Image catalog configuration for RAC
To centralize storage of the backup images from all nodes in the cluster under
one client name
1
On both the master and the media server, confirm that the RAC client names
are resolvable, network routable, and reverse resolve accurately:
bpclntcmd –hn racclient1
bpclntcmd –hn racclient2
ping racclient1
ping racclient2
bpclntcmd –ip <ip_address_for_racclient1>
bpclntcmd –ip <ip_address_for_racclient2>
Fix any host name forward and reverse resolution inconsistencies, and any
network routing problems. Be sure to clear the NetBackup host cache and wait
10 seconds after making any name resolution changes:
bpclntcmd –clear_host_cache
254
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Image catalog configuration for RAC
2
On the master server, check if image directories or client aliases already exist
for either of the racclients or the logical name for the cluster:
Windows:
dir install_path\Veritas\NetBackup\db\images\racclient1
dir install_path\Veritas\NetBackup\db\images\racclient2
dir install_path\Veritas\NetBackup\db\images\racname
UNIX:
ls -ld /usr/openv/netbackup/db/images/racclient1
ls -ld /usr/openv/netbackup/db/images/racclient2
ls -ld /usr/openv/netbackup/db/images/racname
Windows or UNIX:
bpclient –client racclient1 –list_all_aliases
bpclient –client racclient2 –list_all_aliases
bpclient –client racname –list_all_aliases
Note: Do not continue this procedure if either of the client names already have
image directories or are aliases to a client name other than the racname.
Instead of using this procedure, consider merging the existing image directories
and client names per the following Veritas knowledge base article.
https://www.veritas.com/docs/000018409
Alternatively, create new network resolvable and network routable host names
for the RAC clients and return to step 1.
3
If the logical cluster name already had an image directory and is an alias for
itself, then skip to step 5.
4
Run a backup using the logical cluster name as a NetBackup client name.
■
If the racname is not a resolvable host name, temporarily make it a host
name alias for the host name of one of the RAC client names. Changing
the host name alias is most easily done my modifying the hosts file.
■
The backup should be a file system backup using a new or an existing
policy, it can be a backup of only one file.
■
Afterward, make sure the racname has an image directory and client alias
per the checks in step 2. Then remove any temporary host name alias or
policy that was created.
255
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Image catalog configuration for RAC
5
Direct future backups and image searches for racclient1 and racclient2 to the
logical cluster name.
Create the client aliases for the cluster and confirm:
bpclient –client racname –add_alias racclient1
bpclient –client racname –add_alias racclient2
bpclient –client racname –list_all_aliases
bpclient –client racclient1 –list_all_aliases
bpclient –client racclient2 –list_all_aliases
If problems are encountered, refer to the following tech note:
https://www.veritas.com/docs/000018409
6
Create or modify an Oracle policy for the RAC, specify racclient1 and racclient2
as the clients.
For more information on policy and RMAN configuration techniques, See
“Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices” on page 240.
7
Ensure that the policy is active and run a backup of the RAC using the policy.
8
Allow the client hosts to use NB_ORA_CLIENT=racname during crosscheck
and restore operations. These altname files are created on the master server.
The peername is the host name to which the master server resolves the source
IP address from which each client connects to the master. The peername is
easily determined when you run bpclntcmd -pn on each client host.
Windows:
cd install_path\Veritas\NetBackup\db\altnames
echo racname >> peername_racclient1
echo racname >> peername_racclient2
UNIX:
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo racname >> peername_racclient1
echo racname >> peername_racclient2
From racclient1, the peername is 'racclient1.com':
$ bpclntcmd -pn
expecting response from server mymaster
racclient1.com racclient1 192.168.0.11 60108
For more information about client alias best practices, refer to the following tech
note:
256
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment
http://www.veritas.com/docs/TECH208362
See “Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices” on page 240.
See “About NetBackup for Oracle operations” on page 241.
Configuring the appliance within a RAC
environment
Note: This feature requires a NetBackup appliance running software version 2.7.1
or later.
RAC may be used with the OIP and the appliance. You can use either the Database
Backup Shares or Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option in the OIP
configuration. Both options only use a single node when a share is used on the
appliance.
When the Database Backup Shares option is used, the DBAs have the ability to
load balance the backups to the appliance share. Once the DBAs have placed a
backup on the appliance share, NetBackup uses a single node of the cluster to
protect the share. It does not matter which nodes are used to backup to the appliance
share. NetBackup only uses a single node to protect the data on the share.
The Whole Database - Datafile Copy Share option uses a single node of the RAC
cluster to move the data to the appliance share and protect the share.
Use the following procedure to configure the RAC environment to use OIP and the
appliance to protect the share.
To configure the RAC environment with OIP and the appliance NFS share
1
Mount the appliance share at the same mount point on each node.
2
Configure all backups images so that they are cataloged under one client name.
■
3
See “Image catalog configuration for RAC” on page 252.
Configure the master server to allow physical host name access to the backup
images.
cd /usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames
echo "failover_name" >> hostname1
echo "hostname1" >> hostname1
echo "vipname1" >> hostname1
echo "hostname2" >> hostname1
echo "vipname2" >> hostname1
cp hostname1 hostname2
257
Best practices for protecting Oracle RAC with NetBackup
Configuring the appliance within a RAC environment
4
Add a database instance from one RAC node to the Oracle database instance
repository.
5
Create an OIP (using the Database Backup Shares or Whole Database Datafile Copy Share option) and only put one instance from the RAC cluster
into the policy.
See “Configuring an OIP using a share on the NetBackup appliance (Copilot)”
on page 86.
See “About using Templates and Oracle Intelligent Policy (OIP) with RAC”
on page 240.
See “Oracle RAC with NetBackup best practices” on page 240.
258
Appendix
C
Deduplication best
practices
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
Optimizing and deduplicating stream-based and proxy copy Oracle backups
■
Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup
■
Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup
■
Editing the RMAN script and configuring NetBackup for Oracle for a proxy copy
backup
■
Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup
Optimizing and deduplicating stream-based and
proxy copy Oracle backups
NetBackup enables you to perform optimized deduplication of Oracle databases.
You can perform either a stream-based backup or a proxy copy backup.
Veritas recommends that you perform a proxy copy if the database consists of many
small tablespaces. A proxy copy is also recommended if the DBA or the backup
administrator does not want to set FILESPERSET=1.
To configure a proxy copy Oracle backup, you need to edit the RMAN script and
configure NetBackup for Oracle.
See “Editing the RMAN script and configuring NetBackup for Oracle for a proxy
copy backup” on page 265.
For stream-based backups, Veritas recommends that you specify FILESPERSET=1
for all Oracle database backups. When FILESPERSET=1 is specified, Oracle
Deduplication best practices
Optimizing and deduplicating stream-based and proxy copy Oracle backups
generates the backup set identically each time. The backup set is generated with
the same data from the same files in the same sequence each time the database
is backed up. This uniformity ensures better deduplication. In addition, when
FILESPERSET=1 is in effect, Oracle does not perform multiplexing, so Oracle includes
only one file in each backup set. If FILESPERSET is specified with a number other
than 1, Oracle groups files together unpredictably and deduplication rates suffer.
You may also want to increase the number of channels that are allocated to the
backup, if possible.
Veritas recommends that you test your database backups by running both
stream-based backups and proxy copy backups. Measure the deduplication rates
and the backup times, and see which method fits best in your environment. The
Oracle database files themselves benefit the most from deduplication. Typically,
the archive logs and the control files are unique, so they benefit less from
deduplication.
Deduplication performs best when used in the following ways:
Stream deduplication
The Oracle Intelligent Policy detects both
ASM and non-ASM environments to generate
the correct backup scripts ensuring good
deduplication rates. In a non-ASM
environment, scripts are generated that are
a non-snapshot proxy backup. In an ASM
environment, scripts are generated that set
FILESPERSET=1 if this command has not
been modified in a backup policy.
You may need to create a custom script for
your environment. However, in most
situations, the Oracle Intelligent Policy creates
the script that is needed for your environment.
Snapshot deduplication
When you use snapshot deduplication,
nothing changes and NetBackup proxy
snapshot backup is performed. If ASM is
detected, an error is displayed. Snapshot
backup is not allowed in an ASM
environment.
260
Deduplication best practices
Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup
Note: In OIP when deduplication storage is used and a stream-based backup is
selected, the policy overrides and attempts to perform a proxy backup. The override
is attempted if NO ASM storage is found in the database. The
ORACLE_OVERRIDE_DATA_MOVEMENT setting in the bp.conf file can be used to override
this behavior.
Set ORACLE_OVERRIDE_DATA_MOVEMENT=1 to always do streaming.
Set ORACLE_OVERRIDE_DATA_MOVEMENT=2 to always do proxy.
Set ORACLE_OVERRIDE_DATA_MOVEMENT=>2 to maintain standard behavior.
On UNIX you can edit the /usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf file.
On Windows you can use the bpsetconfig command
(install_path\NetBackup\bin\admincmd\bpsetconfig) on the server to set the
client’s configuration. See the following example:
bpsetconfig -h myoracleclient
ORACLE_OVERRIDE_DATA_MOVEMENT = 1
For information about the backup methods, see the following:
■
See “Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup” on page 261.
■
See “Editing the RMAN script and configuring NetBackup for Oracle for a proxy
copy backup” on page 265.
Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup
The following procedure explains how to reconfigure an existing Oracle RMAN
specification to achieve a stream-based, optimized, deduplicated Oracle backup.
To configure a stream-based Oracle backup
1
On the client computer that hosts the Oracle database, open the RMAN backup
script in a text editor, and make the following edits:
■
Add the FILESPERSET=1 parameter to the part of the RMAN script that
specifies how you want to back up the database.
Do not add FILESPERSET=1 to the section of the RMAN script that specifies
how to back up the control files or archive logs. Typically, these other data
objects are unique to each backup, so there is very little potential gain from
optimizing the control file and archive log backups for deduplication.
Example RMAN script after editing:
261
Deduplication best practices
Configuring a stream-based Oracle backup
BACKUP
FILESPERSET=1
%BACKUP_TYPE%
FORMAT 'bk_u%%u_s%%s_p%%p_t%%t'
DATABASE;
The addition of FILESPERSET=1 suppresses Oracle multiplexing of more
than one data file into a backup set. When you suppress Oracle multiplexing,
Oracle creates the backup set identically each time the backup runs.
NetBackup can deduplicate these identical backup sets.
■
Specify parallel backup streams for the database backup.
Specify appropriate ALLOCATE CHANNEL and RELEASE CHANNEL parameters
in the backup script.
For an example that shows an edited backup script, see the following:
See “Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup” on page 263.
2
Disable Oracle's optimization and encryption for the duration of the database
backup.
By default, Oracle disables optimization and encryption. If optimization and
encryption are enabled, run the following RMAN commands from the command
line to disable optimization and encryption:
RMAN> CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF;
If your site requires encryption, you can specify encryption in the NetBackup
for Oracle backup policy.
262
Deduplication best practices
Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup
3
Disable Oracle's compression for the duration of the database backup.
By default, Oracle disables compression. If compression is enabled, Oracle
compresses unused sections in streams, and the result is unpredictable
deduplication rates. If compression is enabled, run the following RMAN
command from the command line to disable compression:
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE SBT_TAPE BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
If your site requires compression, you can specify compression in the
NetBackup for Oracle backup policy.
4
Configure a NetBackup for Oracle policy.
If you want to compress or encrypt the backup, enable compression and
encryption in the NetBackup pd.conf file.
Run a full database backup as soon as you can. The policy can perform
incremental backups until the full backup can be run.
Note: Make sure that Oracle optimization, encryption, and compression are disabled
for the entirety of the database backup. Make sure to check specifications outside
of the RMAN backup script, too.
Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup
The following is an example fragment from an RMAN script that performs an
optimized, deduplicated, stream-based backup of an Oracle database.
RUN {
# Back up the database.
# Use 4 channels as 4 parallel backup streams.
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch02 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch03 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND ' NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV’;
BACKUP
$BACKUP_TYPE
SKIP INACCESSIBLE
TAG hot_db_bk_level0
263
Deduplication best practices
Example RMAN script for a stream-based backup
# The following line sets FILESPERSET to 1 and facilitates database deduplication.
FILESPERSET 1
FORMAT 'bk_%s_%p_%t'
DATABASE;
sql 'alter system archive log current';
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch01;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch02;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch03;
# Back up the archive logs
# The FILESPERSET parameter setting depends on the number of archive logs you have.
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND ' NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV’;
BACKUP
FILESPERSET 20
FORMAT 'al_%s_%p_%t'
ARCHIVELOG ALL DELETE INPUT;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch01;
#
# Note: During the process of backing up the database, RMAN also backs up the
# control file. This version of the control file does not contain the
# information about the current backup because "nocatalog" has been specified.
# To include the information about the current backup, the control file should
# be backed up as the last step of the RMAN section. This step would not be
# necessary if we were using a recovery catalog or auto control file backups.
#
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND ' NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV’;
BACKUP
FORMAT 'cntrl_%s_%p_%t'
CURRENT CONTROLFILE;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
264
Deduplication best practices
Editing the RMAN script and configuring NetBackup for Oracle for a proxy copy backup
Editing the RMAN script and configuring
NetBackup for Oracle for a proxy copy backup
The following procedure explains how to edit the RMAN script on the client.
To edit the RMAN script
1
On the client computer that hosts the Oracle database, open the RMAN backup
script in a text editor, and make the following edits:
■
Add PROXY to the list of commands that backs up the data files.
Example RMAN script after editing:
BACKUP
FORMAT 'bk_u%u_s%s_p%p_t%t'
PROXY
DATABASE;
■
Specify the NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS parameter in the database backup script.
The NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS variable controls the number of proxy copy backup
streams to be started. By default, the agent initiates one backup job for all
files. If the RMAN send command passes NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS, NetBackup
for Oracle splits the files into the number of groups that are specified by
the variable based on the file size. The agent attempts to create streams
of equal size and determines the number of processes that run to perform
the backup.
For an example that shows an edited backup script, see the following:
See “Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup” on page 266.
2
Disable Oracle's optimization and encryption for the duration of the database
backup.
By default, Oracle disables optimization and encryption. If the optimization and
encryption are enabled, run the following RMAN commands from the command
line to disable optimization and encryption:
RMAN> CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF;
If your site requires encryption, you can specify encryption in the NetBackup
for Oracle backup policy.
265
Deduplication best practices
Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup
3
Disable Oracle's compression for the duration of the database backup.
By default, Oracle disables compression. If compression is enabled, Oracle
compresses unused sections in streams, and the result is unpredictable
deduplication rates. If compression is enabled, run the following RMAN
command from the command line to disable compression:
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE SBT_TAPE BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
If your site requires compression, you can specify compression in the
NetBackup for Oracle backup policy.
4
Configure a NetBackup for Oracle policy.
If you want to compress or encrypt the backup, enable compression and
encryption in the NetBackup pd.conf file.
Run a full database backup as soon as you can. You can perform incremental
backups until the full backup can be run.
Note: Make sure that Oracle optimization, encryption, and compression are
disabled for the entirety of the database backup. Also, make sure to check
specifications outside of the RMAN backup script.
Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup
The following is an example of an RMAN script that performs an optimized,
deduplicated, proxy copy backup of an Oracle database.
RUN {
# Back up the database.
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
# Specify 2 streams.
SEND 'NB_ORA_PC_STREAMS=2';
BACKUP
PROXY
SKIP INACCESSIBLE
TAG hot_db_bk_proxy
FORMAT 'bk_%s_%p_%t'
266
Deduplication best practices
Example RMAN script for a proxy copy backup
DATABASE;
sql 'alter system archive log current';
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
# Back up the archive logs.
# The FILESPERSET parameter setting depends on the number of archive logs you have.
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND ' NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV’;
BACKUP
FILESPERSET 20
FORMAT 'al_%s_%p_%t'
ARCHIVELOG ALL DELETE INPUT;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch01;
#
# Note: During the process of backing up the database, RMAN also backs up the
# control file. This version of the control file does not contain the
# information about the current backup because "nocatalog" has been specified.
# To include the information about the current backup, the control file should
# be backed up as the last step of the RMAN section. This step would not be
# necessary if we were using a recovery catalog or auto control file backups.
#
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE';
SEND ' NB_ORA_SERV=$NB_ORA_SERV’;
BACKUP
FORMAT 'cntrl_%s_%p_%t'
CURRENT CONTROLFILE;
RELEASE CHANNEL ch00;
}
267
Appendix
D
Snapshot Client support of
SFRAC
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
About Snapshot Client support of SFRAC
■
NetBackup configuration for an SFRAC environment
■
Configuring the SFRAC environment for a backup operation
■
Performing a rollback restore in an SFRAC environment
■
Troubleshooting NetBackup in an SFRAC environment
About Snapshot Client support of SFRAC
Veritas Storage Foundation for the Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
environment leverages storage management and high availability technologies for
deployment of Oracle RAC on UNIX environments.
Storage Foundation is a complete solution for heterogeneous online storage
management. Based on VxVM and VxFS, it provides a standard set of integrated
tools to centrally manage data growth, maximize storage hardware usage, and
provide data protection.
NetBackup configuration for an SFRAC
environment
To perform the offhost snapshot backup of Oracle database in the SFRAC
environment, the NetBackup client software must be installed on each node of the
cluster.
Snapshot Client support of SFRAC
Configuring the SFRAC environment for a backup operation
You need to configure the following:
■
On the master server or media server that resides outside of the cluster, you
must configure the policy to back up the Oracle RAC database.
■
Configure the alternate client so that the snapshot is taken using that offhost.
The alternate client should not be part of the cluster.
Note: IPv6 is not supported for SFRAC.
Configuring the SFRAC environment for a backup
operation
The backup and rollback operations involve the Oracle Agent and the hardware
array. The configuration steps required for both of these operations should also be
done before taking the snapshot.
The following lists the prerequisites before you perform a backup in the SFRAC
environment.
To configure the SFRAC environment for a backup operation
1
Configure a virtual IP or virtual name over the cluster. NetBackup refers to the
client by using this virtual name.
2
The NetBackup client name on each node of the cluster must match the virtual
name that is configured on the cluster. Do one of the following:
■
If you have already installed the client, change the CLIENT_NAME entry
in the bp.conf file of the NetBackup directory to the following:
CLIENT_NAME = <virtual_name>
■
Alternatively, add the following parameter to the RMAN script file that you
are using for backup and restore, and keep the default CLIENT_NAME as
the hostname:
NB_ORA_CLIENT = <host_name>
3
Specify the required host mode options in the storage array that provides the
storage LUNs. For example, in the Host group options of an Hitachi array, enter
the type of host (for example, Solaris) and enable the VERITAS Database
Edition/Advanced Cluster for Oracle RAC (Solaris) option.
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Performing a rollback restore in an SFRAC environment
4
Add the following line to the bp.conf file, on each node in the cluster.
PREFERRED_NETWORK = <virtual-host-name>
This entry is required when running a rollback operation.
5
If the CFS version that you run does not support group quiescence, enable
serial quiescence by adding the following lines to the
/usr/openv/lib/vxfi/configfiles/vxfsfi.conf file.
[QUIESCENCE_INFO]
"QUIESCENCE_SERIAL_QUIESCENCE"=dword:00000001
6
Ensure that the database is in open (read-write) mode.
7
Ensure that the service group for the database in VCS is in the online state.
8
Because only the master node of the cluster supports the rollback restore,
change the virtual IP before a rollback operation so that it points to the master
node.
9
Configure a snapshot backup policy for the SFRAC environment. In the backup
selection tab of the policy, make sure that you provide a path name to the
RMAN script. Make sure that the script resides on all the nodes of the cluster.
Parameters like ORACLE_SID can differ on each of the nodes. For example,
on node 1, the ORACLE_SID can be symc1 and on node 2, the ORACLE_SID
can be symc2.
Performing a rollback restore in an SFRAC
environment
The following procedure describes the manual steps that are needed to restore
volumes and file systems by using the snapshot rollback method in an SFRAC
environment.
A typical host deployment for running NetBackup for Oracle in an SFRAC
environment is as follows: Host A and Host B are in the cluster and Host C is used
as an alternate client. The instant recovery snapshot is taken using the Oracle policy
and the Hardware Snapshot FIM (frozen image method).
The application I/O stack is built upon the hardware array of VxVM (CVM) and VxFS
(CFS).
The Veritas Cluster Server (VCS) controls the Oracle RAC database and other
required essential resources such as shared storage. VCS defines and manages
its resources as a single unit called a service group. A service group contains all
the necessary components and resources of an application.
270
Snapshot Client support of SFRAC
Performing a rollback restore in an SFRAC environment
The following are entities in the VCS that monitor the application I/O stack:
■
CFSMount contains the mount points (cfs) where data files, archive logs, and
control files are stored.
■
CVMVolDg contains all the Volume Groups (cvm) configured on top of the
various array LUNs that participate in the hardware snapshot.
■
The Database Resource Group contains the database instance and assists in
failover.
To perform a rollback restore in the SFRAC environment
1
Ensure that you previously created a virtual IP for the clustered node. Point
that virtual IP to the master node of the cluster.
2
On all the clustered nodes, take the VCS database service group (Oracle,
CFSMount, and CVMVolDg resources) offline by using the following command:
# hagrp -offline <DB_Service_Group> -any
3
Freeze the database service group.
# hagrp -freeze <DB_Service_Group>
4
Mount the CFSMount points manually outside VCS on the master node. This
action helps when you start the database in mount state.
# mount -F vxfs -o cluster <mntPt>
5
Start the database with mount option on the clustered master node using one
of these options:
Option 1:
# sqlplus /as sysdba
# startup mount;
Option 2:
# sqlplus /as sysbackup
# startup mount;
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Troubleshooting NetBackup in an SFRAC environment
6
272
Run the rollback restore operation from the RMAN script or the client GUI. A
sample RMAN script file (hot_database_backup_proc) is located in the
following directory path:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/rman
To perform PIT rollback, add the following parameter to the script:
NB_ORA_PC_RESTORE=rollback
7
Unmount the CFS on the master node.
# umount <mntPt>
8
Unfreeze the VCS database service group.
# hagrp -unfreeze <DB_Service_Group>
9
On all the clustered nodes, take the VCS database service group (Oracle,
CFSMount, and CVMVolDg resources) back online:
# hagrp -online <DB_Service_Group> -any
Troubleshooting NetBackup in an SFRAC
environment
The following describes some common errors and how to troubleshoot them:
■
Problem: The backup failed with error code 6 displayed in the GUI. The
rman_script.out file shows the following error:
RMAN-06403: could not obtain a fully authorized session
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist
SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Resolution: Check the ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID values.
ORACLE_HOME should not have an extra ‘/’ at the end.
■
Problem: The backup failed with error code 239. The dbclient logs show the
following log statement:
serverResponse: ERR - server exited with status 239: the specified
client does not exist in the specified policy
01:02:23.844 [4000] <16> CreateNewImage: ERR - serverResponse() fail
Snapshot Client support of SFRAC
Troubleshooting NetBackup in an SFRAC environment
273
Resolution: The client name mentioned in the policy and in the bp.conf file at
the client are different.
■
Problem: The backup failed with error 156. The bpfis logs show the following
error.
CVxFSPlugin::vxFreezeAll : ioctl VX_FREEZE_ALL failed with errno : 16
CVxFSPlugin::quiesce - Could not quiesce as VX_FREEZE_ALL failed and
VX_FREEZE is not allowed
Resolution: Add the following lines to the
/usr/openv/lib/vxfi/configfiles/vxfsfi.conffile:
file:[QUIESCENCE_INFO]
"QUIESCENCE_SERIAL_QUIESCENCE"=dword:00000001
■
Problem: The rollback failed with the following error displayed in the GUI:
Failed to process backup file <bk_113_1_728619266>
The dbclient logs show the following error:
xbsa_ProcessError: INF - leaving
xbsa_QueryObject: ERR - VxBSAQueryObject: Failed with error: Server
Status: client is not validated to use the server
xbsa_QueryObject: INF - leaving (3)
int_FindBackupImage: INF - leaving
int_AddToFileList: ERR - Failed to process backup file
<bk_113_1_728619266>
Resolution : Add the following line in the bp.conf file on the master node of the
cluster PREFERRED_NETWORK = <virtual_name>
Appendix
E
Script-based block-level
incremental (BLI) backups
without RMAN on UNIX
and Linux systems
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
About script-based block-level incremental (BLI) backups without RMAN
■
About BLI backup and restore operations
■
Verifying installation requirements for BLI backups without RMAN
■
Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
■
Performing backups and restores
■
About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
About script-based block-level incremental (BLI)
backups without RMAN
NetBackup for Oracle with Snapshot Client extends the capabilities of NetBackup
to back up only changed data blocks of Oracle database files. NetBackup
recommends using RMAN-based BLI backups, which allow the use of templates
and remain tightly integrated with Oracle administration.
If you choose to use script-based BLI backups without RMAN, you can configure
NetBackup for BLI support. A BLI backup backs up only the changed data blocks
Script-based block-level incremental (BLI) backups without RMAN on UNIX and Linux systems
About BLI backup and restore operations
of Oracle database files. NetBackup for Oracle script-based BLI performs backups
using the Storage Checkpoint facility in the Veritas File System (VxFS) available
through the Veritas Storage Foundation for Oracle.
About BLI backup and restore operations
A BLI backup performs database backups by obtaining the changed blocks identified
by the Storage Checkpoints. BLI backups can also be performed while the database
is online or offline. As with Storage Checkpoints, you must enable archive log mode
to perform online BLI backups.
A BLI backup places the tablespaces in backup mode, takes a Storage Checkpoint,
and then performs the backup. You specify how and when to back up the database
when configuring the NetBackup notify scripts.
For example, suppose at 4:00 p.m. you lost a disk drive and its mirrored drive. A
number of user tablespaces reside on the disk drive, and you want to recover all
committed transactions up to the time you lost the drive. Because the BLI backup
facility lets you perform more frequent backups, you did an online differential
incremental backup at 1:00 p.m.
You recover by shutting down the database, installing new replacement disk drives,
and restoring all the data files with NetBackup. Then you apply the archive logs to
recover the tablespaces on the failed drive. If you used Fulldata Storage
Checkpoints, the extra redo logs generated during an online backup are small, the
media recovery part of the database recovery takes very little time. Moreover,
because you have a recent backup, the entire recovery is accomplished quickly.
Verifying installation requirements for BLI
backups without RMAN
Verify the following requirements before you begin the installation.
To verify the installation requirements
1
Make sure that the following products are properly installed and configured:
■
NetBackup
■
A supported level of Oracle
■
NetBackup for Oracle
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■
2
Veritas Storage Foundation for Oracle
Verify licensing.
The products must have valid licenses. To check for licenses, enter the following
commands based on your version:
For VxFS versions earlier than 3.5:
# vxlicense -p
For VxFS versions 3.5 or later:
# vxlicrep
The command displays all the valid licenses that are installed on the system.
If you have valid licenses, the Storage Checkpoint feature and the Veritas
Storage Foundation for Oracle appear in the list.
3
Verify that both the NetBackup server (master and media) and client software
work properly.
Particularly, verify that you can back up and restore typical operating system
files from the client.
File system and Storage Checkpoint space management
To support BLI backups, the VxFS file systems need extra disk space to keep track
of the block change information. The space that is required depends on the type
of checkpoint that is used and the database change rate while the backup is running.
Using Storage Checkpoints has an effect on space in the following ways:
Nodata Storage Checkpoint
If the database is offline during the entire backup window (a
cold database backup) or you use this checkpoint type, the
additional space is minimal. Each file system requires about
1% of free space.
This checkpoint sets a bit to indicate if a file block changed.
When you use this checkpoint type, the data files are left in
quiesce (write suspend) mode for the duration of the backup.
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Fulldata Storage Checkpoint If the database is online during the backup and using this
checkpoint type, then more free space is needed in the file
system.
NetBackup for Oracle keeps the Oracle containers in quiesce
(write suspend) mode only for the time that is needed to
create a Storage Checkpoint. During the backup, the
checkpoint creates copies of any file blocks immediately
before they are changed. The backup up contains only the
unchanged blocks and the original copies of the changed
blocks. After the backup completes, the Fulldata Storage
Checkpoint is converted to a Nodata Storage checkpoint and
the copied blocks are returned to the free list.
If the workload change rate is light during backup or the
backup window is short, 10% free space is usually sufficient
for the workload. If the database has a heavy change rate
while the backup is running, the file systems may require
more than 10% of free space.
Note: The default option that NetBackup uses for backups is Fulldata Storage
Checkpoint.
To use Nodata Storage Checkpoint instead of the default option, a user must create
the following empty touch file:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/NODATA_CKPT_PROXY
Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI
backup
To allow full and incremental backups, you must add at least one Standard type
policy to NetBackup and define the appropriate schedules for that policy. Use the
NetBackup Administration Console to add policies. NetBackup policies define the
criteria for the backup.
These criteria include the following:
■
Policy attributes
■
Clients and the files or directories to be backed up on the client
■
Storage unit to use
■
Backup schedules
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
While most database NetBackup BLI backup policy requirements are the same as
for file system backups, the following items have special requirements:
■
The number of policies that are required
See “Number of policies required for BLI backup” on page 278.
■
Policy attribute values
See “About BLI policy attributes” on page 280.
■
The BLI client list
See “About the BLI client list” on page 280.
■
The list of directories and files to back up
See “Backup selections list for BLI backups” on page 281.
■
Schedules
See “About schedules for BLI backup policies” on page 281.
Number of policies required for BLI backup
A database BLI backup requires at least one Standard type policy.
This policy usually includes the following:
■
One full backup schedule
■
One incremental backup schedule
■
One user-directed backup schedule for control files and archive logs
Only one backup stream is initiated for each backup policy during automatic backups.
To enable multiple backup streams, define multiple policies for the same database.
If you have more than one database SID, configure policies for each SID. If you
intend to do simultaneous backups of more than one SID on the same file system,
use Nodata Storage Checkpoints. Set the METHOD to NODATA_CKPT_HOT.
For example, to back up file systems F1, F2, F3, and F4 with two streams, you need
to define two policies (P1 and P2) with F1 and F2 backed up in P1, and F3 and F4
backed up in P2. If you have one large file system that needs to be backed up with
multiple streams, divide the files in the file system between different policies. After
a file is added to a policy, it should stay in that policy. If you must rearrange the file
list, do so only prior to a full backup.
If you have more than one policy defined for an Oracle database instance,
NetBackup groups the database instance by the NetBackup keyword phrase. Identify
one of the policies as the POLICY_IN_CONTROL in the NetBackup notify scripts. This
policy performs database shutdowns and restarts. All policies with the same keyword
phrase need to be configured to start simultaneously.
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Warning: Care must be taken when specifying the keyword phrase. A multistream
backup is attempted if the backup process finds more than one policy with the
following characteristics: Each policy has the BLI attribute set, each policy is active,
each policy contains the same client, and each policy has an identical keyword
phrase.
Typical failure status is: “74 - timeout waiting for bpstart_notify to complete.”
"See “NetBackup restore and backup status codes” on page 295.
You can check the file systems on the backup client to see if they are included in
one of the NetBackup policies on the server. To see if you need to add any new
file systems to the NetBackup policies, run the following commands from the server
on a regular basis, perhaps as a cron(1) job:
# cd /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/goodies/
# ./check_coverage -coverage -client mars -mailid \nbadmin
The preceding command generates the following output and mails it to the specified
mailid:
File System Backup Coverage Report (UNIX only)
----------------------------------------------Key:
* - Policy is not active
UNCOVERED - Mount Point not covered by an active policy
MULTIPLE - Mount Point covered by multiple active policies
CLIENT: mars
Mount Point
----------/
/home
/oradata1
/oradata2
/oradata3
/opt
/oracle
/stand
/usr
/var
Device
-----/dev/vg00/lvol3
/dev/vg00/lvol5
/dev/dsk/c1t0d0
/dev/dsk/c1t0d0
/dev/nbuvg/nbuvol
/dev/vg00/lvol6
/dev/vg00/oracle
/dev/vg00/lvol1
/dev/vg00/lvol7
/dev/vg00/lvol8
Backed Up By Policy
------------------production_servers
production_servers
block_incr1
block_incr1
UNCOVERED
production_servers
production_servers
production_servers
production_servers
production_servers
Notes
-----
If there is an UNCOVERED file system that is used by Oracle, add it to one of the
NetBackup policies so that all the necessary file systems are backed up at the same
time.
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
Note: After a file system is added to a policy, it is a good idea to keep the file system
in that policy. If you change the policy, NetBackup performs a full backup the next
time backups are run even if an incremental backup is requested.
About BLI policy attributes
NetBackup applies policy attribute values when it backs up files.
The following attributes must be set for BLI backup:
Policy Type
Set to Standard.
Perform block level
incremental backups
Select to enable BLI backups. If the BLI attribute is not enabled,
NetBackup uses the standard method to back up the files in
the file list.
Job Priority
Set so that the BLI backup policies run before other policies.
Keyword phrase
Define as the Oracle database instance name ($ORACLE_SID)
in each of the policies for the same instance. Multistream
backups start when all the policies with a particular keyword
phrase complete their respective startup scripts. If you have
multiple Oracle database instances (SIDs) use a separate set
of policies for each SID. If the SIDs are backed up
simultaneously and any share a common file system for data
files, use Nodata Storage Checkpoints. Set the METHOD to
NODATA_CKPT_HOT.
Note: Do not change a keyword phrase after it is set in a policy. The keyword phrase
is used in naming Storage Checkpoints. Changing the keyword phrase necessitates
a full backup even if an incremental backup is requested.
The NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I describes other policy attributes
and how to configure them.
About the BLI client list
The client list specifies the clients upon which you configured a BLI backup. For a
database backup, specify the name of the machine upon which the database resides.
Specify the virtual hostname if clustered.
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
Backup selections list for BLI backups
The backup selections list specifies a list of directories and files to back up. The list
must contain all the database files or their directory names. Using directory names,
rather than file names, ensures that new database files added to an existing
configuration are backed up without having to update the file list. Use the
check_coverage script to make sure all file systems are backed up.
If you are using the Quick I/O interface, you need to specify both the Quick I/O file
name and the associated hidden file in the file list (for example, dbfile and
.dbfile), or you need to specify the directory that contains both files. NetBackup
does not follow the symbolic links to automatically back up the hidden file if you
enumerate only the dbfile explicitly in the backup selections list. They are both
included if you enumerate their common directory.
When the NetBackup scheduler invokes an automatic backup schedule, it backs
up the files one at a time, in the same order they appear in the backup selection
list.
Oracle does not recommend backing up the online redo log, so it is recommended
that you place online redo log files in a different file system than datafiles, archive
log files, or database control files. Do not include the online redo log files in the file
list.
About schedules for BLI backup policies
The NetBackup server starts these schedule types:
■
Full Backup
■
Differential Incremental Backup
■
Cumulative Incremental Backup
Each BLI backup policy must include one full backup schedule and at least one
incremental backup schedule. In addition, you must designate one of the BLI backup
policies as the POLICY_IN_CONTROL. The policies for each stream must have the
same types of schedules.
The NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I describes other schedule attributes
and how to configure them.
You can configure the following types of schedules:
■
User-directed backup schedule. The user-directed backup schedule
encompasses all the days and times when user-directed backups are allowed
to occur. Set the backup window as described.
The policies for each stream must have the same types of schedules.
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
■
Automatically initiated backup schedules. Include server-initiated backup
schedules to specify the days and times for NetBackup to automatically start
backups of the files specified in the policy file list. Set the backup window as
described.
For server-initiated full and incremental backup schedules, set the start times and
durations to define the appropriate windows for the backups. Follow the same
procedure used to define backup schedules for other policies. For more information
on these procedures, see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
The backups are started by the scheduler only within the backup window specified.
For the POLICY_IN_CONTROL, include in the user-directed backup schedule the time
periods when the BLI backup policies complete.
Set the retention level and periods to meet user requirements.
Example Oracle BLI backup policy
The following example shows attributes and schedules for an Oracle BLI backup
policy. Use the NetBackup Administration Console to add policies.
Policy Name: oracle_backup1
Policy Type: Standard
Active: yes
Block level incremental: yes
Job Priority: 0
Max Jobs/Policy: 1
Residence: oracle_tapes
Volume Pool: NetBackup
Keyword: ORA1
Client List: Sun4 Solaris2.6 mars
HP9000-800 HP-UX11.00 mars
Backup Selections List: /oradata/oradata1
Schedule:
full
Type:
Full Backup
Frequency:
1 week
Retention Level: 3 (one month)
Daily Windows:
Sunday
18:00:00 --> Monday
Monday
18:00:00 --> Tuesday
Tuesday
18:00:00 --> Wednesday
Wednesday 18:00:00 --> Thursday
Thursday
18:00:00 --> Friday
Friday
18:00:00 --> Saturday
Saturday
18:00:00 --> Sunday
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
Schedule:
Type:
Frequency:
Retention Level:
Daily Windows:
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Schedule:
Type:
Retention Level:
Daily Windows:
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
incr
Differential Incremental Backup
1 day
3 (one month)
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
18:00:00 -->
userbkup
User Backup
3 (one month)
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
06:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
24:00:00
24:00:00
24:00:00
24:00:00
24:00:00
24:00:00
24:00:00
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
In this example, the oracle_backup1 policy backs up all the files in
/oradata/oradata1. The policy specifies a weekly full backup, a daily differential
incremental backup, and a user-directed backup schedule. The archive logs and
the control file are backed up using the user-directed schedule at the completion
of the full or incremental backup.
Setting the maximum jobs per client global attribute
Set the Maximum Jobs per Client to the number of policies that have the same
keyword phrase. This number can be greater than one when multiple job policies
are defined to back up multiple file systems.
About BLI backup methods
You can choose from the following backup methods when configuring BLI notify
scripts:
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
Table E-1
BLI backup terminology
Term
Definition
cold database
backup
A cold database backup is taken while the database is offline or closed.
BLI backup shuts down the database and performs either full or
block-level incremental backups. This backup method is also referred
to in Oracle documentation as a "consistent whole database backup"
or a "closed backup." The data from a cold backup is consistent,
resulting in easier recovery procedures.
To select this backup method, set METHOD to
SHUTDOWN_BKUP_RESTART.
In an offline backup, all database files are consistent to the same point
in time (for example, when the database was last shutdown using typical
methods). The database must stay shut down while the backup runs.
hot database
backup
A hot database backup allows the database to be online and open while
the backup is performed. With the Storage Checkpoint facility, this
backup method runs database backups in parallel so a database does
not need to be in backup mode for a long time.
To select this backup method, set METHOD to ALTER_TABLESPACE.
Hot backups are required if the database must be up and running 24
hours a day, 7 days a week.
To use hot backups, the database must be in ARCHIVELOG mode. BLI
backup uses the alter tablespace begin backup command and
the alter tablespace end backup command to put the database
into and take it out of backup mode. Oracle documentation refers to
this method as an inconsistent whole database backup or open backup.
Unlike the cold database backup method, the data in hot backups is
fuzzy or inconsistent until the appropriate redo log files (online and
archived) are applied after the restore operation to make the data
consistent.
Nodata storage
checkpoint hot
A Nodata storage checkpoint hot backup puts the tablespaces in backup
mode for the duration of the backup. It uses a Nodata Storage
Checkpoint to reduce the amount of file system space consumed.
To select this backup method, set METHOD to NODATA_CKPT_HOT.
Use this method if all of the following conditions are present:
■
You are backing up multiple Oracle database instances.
■
More than one instance shares the file system.
■
The backup of the instances can overlap in time.
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Table E-1
BLI backup terminology (continued)
Term
Definition
quick freeze
database backup
The quick freeze database backup is different than an online database
backup, because it requires the database to be brought down briefly to
take a snapshot or Fulldata Storage Checkpoint of the database image.
The Fulldata Storage Checkpoint is created in a few seconds and the
database can be restarted immediately. A backup image from a quick
freeze database backup is equivalent to a backup image from a cold
database backup. You can choose this backup method when you
configure BLI notify scripts.
To select this backup method, set METHOD to
SHUTDOWN_CKPT_RESTART.
See “Creating notify scripts for BLI backups” on page 285.
If the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode, you can use all four methods to back up
the database. If the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode, you can only select the
cold backup or quick freeze backup.
When you use the cold and quick freeze database backups, the default shutdown
command that you use in the bpstart_notify.oracle_bli script is shutdown or
shutdown normal. These commands wait for all users to log off before it initiates
the shutdown. In some circumstances, even after all interactive users are logged
off, processes such as the Oracle Intelligent Agent (Oracle dbsnmp account) can
still be connected to the database, preventing the database shutdown. Attempt to
use the default shutdown commands to shut down the database cleanly.
Alternatively, you can use shutdown immediate to initiate the database shutdown
immediately.
Creating notify scripts for BLI backups
Create notify scripts that run on the clients to synchronize the backup operation
and the database operation. You need a set of three notify scripts for each policy
that is performing BLI backups. The scripts must be in the
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin directory on the NetBackup client.
The scripts are named as follows:
■
bpstart_notify.POLICY
■
post_checkpoint_notify.POLICY
■
bpend_notify.POLICY
To create the notify scripts, run the following script as root:
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/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/bin/setup_bli_scripts
This script copies the sample notify script templates to /usr/openv/netbackup/bin
and makes the necessary changes based on the information you provide.
The notify script templates are located on the local machine in the following location:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples
When you run setup_bli_scripts you need to supply the following information:
■
Identify the POLICY_IN_CONTROL
See “Identify the POLICY_IN_CONTROL for BLI backups” on page 286.
■
Provide the Oracle environment variables
See “Oracle environment variables for BLI scripts” on page 286.
■
Select a backup method
■
Notify scripts for other policies
See “About BLI notify scripts for other policies” on page 287.
See the information about how to use the notify scripts to back up your Oracle
database.
Identify the POLICY_IN_CONTROL for BLI backups
If you have more than one policy defined on the server for one Oracle database
instance, identify one of the policies as the POLICY_IN_CONTROL. This is the policy
that initiates the database shutdown, startup, or alter tablespace commands.
The POLICY_IN_CONTROL can be any policy (for example, the first policy defined).
This variable is stored in the notify scripts.
Oracle environment variables for BLI scripts
If you create notify scripts, or if you run setup_bli_scripts, you need to provide
values for the Oracle environment variables.
These variables are as follows:
ORACLE_DBA
User name of the Oracle database administrator. Typically,
oracle.
ORACLE_BASE
$ORACLE_BASE of the Oracle database instance.
ORACLE_HOME
$ORACLE_HOME of the Oracle database instance.
ORACLE_SID
Oracle database instance ID ($ORACLE_SID) if it is different from
the keyword.
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ORACLE_LOGS
Directory in which the Oracle archive logs reside.
ORACLE_CNTRL
Location to which a copy of the Oracle control file is written so
that it can be backed up.
SQLCMD
sqldba, svrmgrl, or sqlplus command to start up or shut
down the database.
ORACLE_INIT
Path name for the Oracle startup parameter file (INIT.ORA). If
you are using an Oracle SPFILE as your parameter file, do not
set the ORACLE_INIT environment variable.
ORACLE_CONFIG
Path name for the Oracle configuration file (CONFIG.ORA). Some
database configurations use the CONFIG.ORA file to specify
values for the database parameters that usually do not change.
The CONFIG.ORA file can be called by the INIT.ORA file using
an include statement.
About BLI notify scripts for other policies
If you have more than one policy defined to support multiple backup streams, create
a copy of the notify scripts for each policy defined.
For example, assume that you have two policies defined, oracle_backup1 and
oracle_backup2. Also assume that POLICY_IN_CONTROL is set to oracle_backup1.
You also need to create notify scripts for policy oracle_backup2. The
setup_bli_scripts script performs this step automatically.
Sample setup_bli_scripts session
The following sample session shows how to use setup_bli_scripts to create the
notify scripts.
#/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/bin/setup_bli_scripts
Please enter the user name of your Oracle administrator? orac901
ORACLE_BASE is the Oracle environment variable that identifies
the directory at the top of the Oracle software and administrative
file structure. The value of this variable is typically
/MOUNTPOINT/app/oracle
Please enter your ORACLE_BASE? /dbhome/oracle/orac901
ORACLE_HOME is the Oracle environment variable that identifies the
directory containing the Oracle software for a given Oracle server
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Creating NetBackup policies for script-based BLI backup
release. The value of this variable is typically
/dbhome/oracle/orac901/product/RELEASE
Please enter your ORACLE_HOME? /dbhome/oracle/orac901
sqlplus will be used.
The default "connect" statement that will be used to connect to the database is:
"connect / as sysdba"
Would you like to modify the connect and use a specific login? (y/n) n
"connect / as sysdba" will be used.
Please enter the Oracle instance (ORACLE_SID) you want to back up? orac901
If you are using a CONFIG.ORA file, you need to specify where
it is, so that it can be backed up. If this does not apply
apply to your configuration, hit ENTER to go on. If this does
apply to your configuration, specify the file path.
Typically this would be:
/dbhome/oracle/orac901/admin/orac901/pfile/configorac901.ora
but this file could not be found.
Enter your Oracle config file path or hit ENTER:
To back up a copy of the Oracle control file, you need to specify a file
path where Oracle can write a copy of the control file.
Please enter the file path where Oracle is to write a copy of your
control file? /dbhome/oracle/orac901/admin/orac901/pfile/cntrlorac901.ora
To back up the Oracle archive logs, you need to specify their location.
Enter the directory path to your Oracle archive logs?
/dbhome/oracle/orac901/admin/orac901/arch
Do you have more archive log locations? (y/n): n
Do you want the output of successful executions of the NetBackup
scripts mailed to you? y
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Performing backups and restores
Please enter the mail address to send it to? jdoe@company.com
Do you want the output of unsuccessful executions of the NetBackup
scripts mailed to you? y
Please enter the mail address to send it to? jdoe@company.com
There are 4 backup methods to choose from:
ALTER_TABLESPACE
- Use alter tablespace begin backup method
NODATA_CKPT_HOT
- Use alter tablespace begin backup with nodata ckpts
SHUTDOWN_CKPT_RESTART - Shutdown, create the ckpt clones, and restart
SHUTDOWN_BKUP_RESTART - Shutdown the DB, backup, and then restart
If one of the methods requiring DB shutdown are selected, you may experience
problems with timeouts if the database can't be shut down in a timely
manner. You may want to change the shutdown command in the notify scripts to
shutdown immediate, or you may have to increase the BPSTART_TIMEOUT value in the
bp.conf file on the master server, or you may want to change the backup
method to ALTER_TABLESPACE or NODATA_CKPT_HOT.
Note: the default BPSTART_TIMEOUT value is 300 seconds.
Do you want to use the ALTER_TABLESPACE method? y
You now need to decide on how many NetBackup policies you will have
backing up simultaneously. The first one you enter will be known
as the POLICY_IN_CONTROL in the scripts and will perform any needed
DB operations. When you create the policies on the NetBackup server,
you will have to divide the filesystems between these policies.
Please
Please
Please
Please
Please
Please
Please
enter
enter
enter
enter
enter
enter
enter
the
the
the
the
the
the
the
name
name
name
name
name
name
name
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
the policy that will be the POLICY_IN_CONTROL? BLI_1
another policy or DONE to stop? BLI_2
another policy or DONE to stop? BLI_3
another policy or DONE to stop? BLI_4
another policy or DONE to stop? BLI_5
another policy or DONE to stop? BLI_6
another policy or DONE to stop? DONE
Performing backups and restores
After the installation and configuration are complete, you can use the NetBackup
interfaces to start Oracle backups and restores. You can run backups manually by
using schedules that you determine. You can also run a schedule manually.
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Performing backups and restores
Note: You must be the root user to perform all operations using the BLI backup
software.
About NetBackup for Oracle agent automatic backups
The best way to back up databases is to set up schedules for automatic backups.
Note: You must be the root user to perform all operations using the BLI backup
software.
Note: For HP-UX PA-RISC checkpoints to unmount and be cleaned up, create
touch file /usr/openv/netbackup/AIO_READS_MAX that contains the value 1.
HP-UX PA-RISC checkpoints may not be unmounted on Oracle database agents.
About NetBackup for Oracle manual backups
You can also run an Automatic Backup schedule manually using the NetBackup
Administration Console. For information about performing manual backups of
schedules, see the NetBackup Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Note: You must be the root user to perform all operations using the BLI backup
software.
Note: For HP-UX PA-RISC checkpoints to unmount and be cleaned up, create
touch file /usr/openv/netbackup/AIO_READS_MAX that contains the value 1.
To perform a cold (offline) backup, set the environment variable METHOD in the
bpstart_notify script on the client to SHUTDOWN_BKUP_RESTART. The
bpstart_notify script shuts down the database before the backup begins and
the bpend_notify script restarts the database after the backup completes.
To perform a hot (online) backup using Fulldata Storage Checkpoints, make sure
the database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode and set the variable METHOD to
ALTER_TABLESPACE. The bpstart_notify script changes the tablespaces to online
backup mode before the backup begins, and the post_checkpoint_notify script
changes the tablespaces back to normal mode after the Fulldata Storage
Checkpoints are created.
To perform a Nodata Storage Checkpoint Hot (online) backup, make sure the
database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode and set the environment variable METHOD
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Performing backups and restores
in the bpstart_notify script to NODATA_CKPT_HOT. The bpstart_notify script
changes the tablespaces to online backup mode before the backup begins. The
bpend_notify script changes the tablespaces back to normal mode after the backup
completes.
To perform a quick freeze backup, set the environment variable METHOD in the
bpstart_notify script to SHUTDOWN_CKPT_RESTART. The bpstart_notify script
shuts down the database and the post_checkpoint_notify script restarts it
immediately after the Fulldata Storage Checkpoints are created. Taking VxFS
Fulldata Storage Checkpoints is very fast (within a minute), and with the NetBackup
queuing delay for scheduling the backup jobs, the database down time is typically
only a few minutes.
Backing up Quick I/O files
A Quick I/O file consists of two components: a hidden file with the space allocated
for it, and a link that points to the Quick I/O interface of the hidden file. Because
NetBackup does not follow symbolic links, you must specify both the Quick I/O link
and its hidden file in the list of files to be backed up.
Note: You must be the root user to perform all operations using the BLI backup
software.
For example:
ls -la /db02
total 2192
drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
-rw-r--r-lrwxrwxrwx
2 root
root
96
9 root
root
8192
1 oracle dba 1048576
1 oracle dba
22
.cust.dbf::cdev:vxfs:
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
20
20
20
20
17:39
17:39
17:39
17:39
.
..
.cust.dbf
cust.dbf ->\
The preceding example shows that you must include both the symbolic link cust.dbf
and the hidden file .cust.dbf in the backup file list.
If you want to back up all Quick I/O files in a directory, you can simplify the process
by only specifying the directory to be backed up. In this case, both components of
each Quick I/O file is properly backed up. In general, you should specify directories
to be backed up unless you only want to back up some, files in those directories.
Note: For HP-UX PA-RISC checkpoints to unmount and be cleaned up, create
touch file /usr/openv/netbackup/AIO_READS_MAX that contains the value 1.
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Performing backups and restores
Restoring BLI backup images
Restoring the backup images that a BLI backup creates is no different than restoring
the backup images that are created using the default NetBackup configuration.
Restoring to any of the incremental backup images requires NetBackup to restore
the last full backup image and all the subsequent incremental backups until the
specified incremental backup image is restored. NetBackup does this automatically.
The media that stored the last full and the subsequent incrementals must be
available, or the restore cannot proceed.
You can start the restore operations from the NetBackup client by using the Backup,
Archive, and Restore interface. To restore the latest copy of each file, select either
the files or parent directories with the latest backup date, and click Restore. For
more information on restoring, see the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore
Getting Started Guide.
If the operation is to restore files from an incremental backup image, NetBackup
issues multiple restore operations beginning from the last full backup image and
the subsequent incremental backup images until the selected date. The activity of
multiple restores is logged in the Progress Log.
If you plan to restore files backed up by another client or to direct a restore to another
client, start the restore from the NetBackup server using the Backup, Archive, and
Restore interface. Before you initiate a restore, a backup must have successfully
completed or an error occurs during the execution.
For Solaris, the restore destination can be a VxFS or UFS file system. The
destination file system does not need to support the Storage Checkpoint feature,
but to be able to perform BLI backups of the restored data, a VxFS file system with
the Storage Checkpoint feature is required.
For HP-UX, the restore destination can be a VxFS or HFS file system. The
destination file system does not need to support the Storage Checkpoint feature to
restore files. However, a VxFS file system with the Storage Checkpoint feature is
required to perform BLI backups of the restored data.
For AIX, the restore destination can be a VxFS or JFS file system. The destination
file system does not need to support the Storage Checkpoint feature to restore files.
However, a VxFS file system with the Storage Checkpoint feature is required to
perform BLI backups of the restored data.
Note that restoring a file causes all blocks in that file to be rewritten. Thus, all the
blocks in the file are considered to have been modified. Thus, the first subsequent
differential incremental backup and all subsequent cumulative incremental backups
back up all of the blocks in the restored file. If you are restoring an entire database
or a file system, the first subsequent backup backs up all blocks that are restored.
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About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
To restore a Quick I/O file, if both the symbolic link and the hidden file already exist,
NetBackup restores both components from the backup image. If either one of the
two components is missing, or both components are missing, NetBackup creates
or overwrites as needed.
Oracle database recovery might be necessary after restoring the files. See the
Oracle documentation for more information on doing database recovery.
About NetBackup backup and restore logs
NetBackup provides logs on the database backup and restore operations. These
logs are useful for finding problems that are associated with those operations. The
following table describes the most useful logs and reports for troubleshooting backup
and restore operations.
Table E-2
NetBackup backup and restore logs
Log file type
Description
NetBackup progress
logs
For user-directed backups and restores performed with Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface, the most convenient log to use for NetBackup is the progress log. The progress
log file is written to the user's home directory, by default in
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/user_ops/username/logs. This log indicates whether
NetBackup was able to complete its part of the operation. You can view the progress log
from the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, or you can use a file editor such as vi(1).
NetBackup debug logs The NetBackup server and client software provide debug logs for troubleshooting problems
that occur outside of BLI backups. To enable these debug logs on the server or client, create
the appropriate directories under the following directory:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs
For more information on debug logs, see the NetBackup Troubleshooting Guide or see the
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/README.debug file.
NetBackup reports
In addition to logs, NetBackup provides a set of reports that help isolate problems. One report
is All Log Entries on the server. For a description of all reports, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
A backup or restore error can originate from NetBackup for Oracle, from the
NetBackup server or client, from the Media Manager, or from VxFS. In addition to
examining log files and reports, you should determine at which stage of the backup
or restore operation the problem occurred. You can also use NetBackup status
codes to determine the cause of the problem.
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Script-based block-level incremental (BLI) backups without RMAN on UNIX and Linux systems
About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
Troubleshooting stages of backup and restore operations
Refer to the following list to determine the source of a backup or restore error:
■
A backup or restore can be started in either of the following ways:
■
Manually from the administrator interface on the master server
Automatically by a NetBackup server using a full schedule or incremental
schedule
If an error occurs during the start operation, examine the Java reports window
for the possible cause of the error.
■
■
If the backup or restore starts successfully but eventually fails, one of the
following can be the cause:
■
Server/Client communication problem
■
Schedule error
■
Media-related error
■
VxFS errors
For more information, see the NetBackup Troubleshooting Guide.
■
There can be insufficient disk space for the VxFS Fulldata Storage Checkpoints
to keep track of changed block information. Check the All Log Entries report
for errors.
If there is a file system out-of-space condition, increase the size of the file system
so it is large enough for Fulldata Storage Checkpoints or use the Nodata Storage
Checkpoint Hot backup method. This error does not affect the integrity of the
backup images because a full backup of the affected file system occurs after
the condition is fixed.
■
If an incremental backup is intended, but the whole file system is backed up
instead, one of the following conditions might be present:
■
Storage Checkpoints that keep track of changes have been removed
■
The Block level incremental attribute is not selected
■
Other errors with a nonzero status code
The most common cause of this problem is the file system removed the Storage
Checkpoint that keeps track of the block changes. This action might occur if the
file system runs out of space, and there are no volumes available to allocate to
the file system. The integrity of the backup images is not affected, because a
full backup of the file system occurs at the next backup opportunity after
NetBackup detects that a Storage Checkpoint is missing.
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About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
NetBackup restore and backup status codes
The status codes and their meanings are as follows:
■
Status Code 9. An extension package is needed but was not installed.
The client does not have the NetBackup binaries required to do BLI backups.
Use update_clients on the server to push out new binaries. Also, use
vxlicense -p to verify that the Storage Checkpoint feature [83] and the Veritas
Storage Foundation for Oracle [100] are installed.
■
Status Code 69. Invalid file list specification.
Look for a message such as the following in the error log on the server:
FTL - /oradata is not in a VxFS file system. A block incremental
backup of it is not possible.
This indicates that there was an attempt to back up a file system that is not a
VxFS file system with the Block level incremental attribute. This error can also
occur if the file system is not mounted.
■
Status Code 73. bpstart_notify failed.
When running the notify scripts, the bpstart_notify script exited with a nonzero
status code, or the permission bits are set wrong on the bpstart_notify script.
The script must have execute permission. If the permission bits are set, check
the bpstart_notify_output.ORACLE_SID file in the
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/BLOCK_INCR directory.
■
Status Code 74. Client timed out waiting for bpstart_notify to complete.
Check the BPSTART_TIMEOUT setting on the NetBackup server. The
BPSTART_TIMEOUT specified did not allow enough time for the script to complete.
The shutdown database operation might be taking too long, or the script might
be waiting for other streams to start. Check the
bpstart_notify_output.ORACLE_SID file and the
post_checkpoint_notify_output.ORACLE_SID file in the
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/BLOCK_INCR directory. Make sure that the policies
and schedules are configured with appropriate multiplexing factors and that the
required storage units that allow all streams to start at the same time are
configured. Check to see if all needed tape drives are working and available.
Make sure that the database is not processing transactions so that the instance
cannot be shut down immediately (if you are using one of the backup methods
where the database is shut down).
Finally, make sure that the priority on the BLI policies is higher than other policies,
so they get access to the tape drives before the other policies.
■
Status Code 75. Client timed out waiting for bpend_notify to complete.
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About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
Check the BPEND_TIMEOUT setting on the NetBackup server. The BPEND_TIMEOUT
specified did not allow enough time for the script to complete. The restart
database operation might be taking too long, or the script might be waiting for
other streams to call the bpend_notify script. Check the
bpend_notify_output.ORACLE_SID file and the
post_checkpoint_notify_output.ORACLE_SID file in the
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/BLOCK_INCR directory. Make sure that the policies
and schedules are configured with appropriate multiplexing factors and that the
required storage units that can allow all streams to be started at the same time
are configured. Verify that all needed tape drives are working and available
during backup.
■
Status Code 77. Execution of the specified system command returned a nonzero
status code.
Check the post_checkpoint_notify_output.KEYWORD file in the
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/BLOCK_INCR directory for the possible cause. The
post_checkpoint_notify script exited with a nonzero status code.
■
Status Code 143. Invalid command protocol.
Check to see if the Block level incremental policy attribute is selected without
a keyword specified. Set the Keyword phrase in the policies to the Oracle
database instance name ($ORACLE_SID).
Improving NetBackup backup performance
If backups are running slowly, check to see if the database has an excessive
workload. BLI backups allow hot database backups and quick freeze database
backups. Because the database is running during both of these backup methods
while NetBackup is backing up the database files, Oracle I/O can affect the backup
performance.
If the database is not running with a high transaction volume, troubleshoot
NetBackup. If the incremental backup takes a long time to finish, it could mean that
there are more changed blocks since the last incremental backup. Verify whether
the size of the incremental backup image has increased, and consider increasing
the frequency of incremental backups.
Finally, you can improve the speed at which backup is performed by using
multiplexed backups. Assigning multiple policies to the same backup device is
helpful when devices are not writing at their maximum capacity.
About BLI backup and database recovery
A BLI backup does not perform automatic database recovery. This process includes
restoring the database files from NetBackup images and applying the Oracle redo
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About troubleshooting backup or restore errors
log files to the database files. Follow the Oracle documentation to perform database
recovery after a restore.
297
Appendix
F
XML Archiver
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
■
About the environment variables set by a user in the XML export parameter file
■
About XML export templates and shell scripts
■
Performing an XML export archive
■
Browsing XML export archives using bporaimp parameters
■
Browsing XML export archives using bplist
■
Restoring an XML export archive
■
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
■
Additional XML export and import logs
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
While Oracle RMAN performs backup, restore, and recovery of physical Oracle
database objects (data files, tablespaces, control files, and archived redo logs), the
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import utilities provide backup and
restore of logical database objects (tables, users, and rows).
The XML format is used to provide a self-identifying and system-independent format
ideal for database archiving.
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and import archiving features
Table F-1 describes NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import archiving
features.
XML Archiver
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
Table F-1
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import archiving
features
Feature
Description
System- and
NetBackup for Oracle uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
database-independent standard to represent relational database table data that is extracted
archive format
from an Oracle database.
The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a universal format for
structured documents and data. The XML 1.0 standards are
produced by the World Wide Web Consortium and include the XML
Schema standard.
Unicode UTF-8 is the character set encoding generated by
NetBackup for Oracle. Standard XML processors support UTF-8.
US7ASCII is a strict subset of UTF-8.
Self-identifying archive The XML Schema standard is used to describe the table data that
format
is included in an archive. In this way, the archive contains the key
to understanding the format of the data as well as the data itself.
Command line
interfaces that allow
export and import at
row-level granularity
Parameter files specify the table data to include in an archive and
the table data to extract from an archive for import into an Oracle
database.
Restore destination
option
NetBackup for Oracle can either restore XML data to an operating
system directory or import the data back into the Oracle database.
Flexible archive image The NetBackup catalog contains information on the contents of the
searches
archive that can be searched by using flexible search criteria, such
as tablename or user.
XML export archive process
Figure F-1 shows the XML export archive process.
299
XML Archiver
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
XML export archives
Figure F-1
1
Command line
Backup, archive, and
restore interface
Script or template (bporaexp or
bporaexp64)
Table list WHERE clause
NetBackup
Scheduler
OCI
3
2
Query processor
Oracle DBMS
Table metadata / Table data
4
5
XML generator
XML schema / XML instances
6
OS Directory
NetBackup
Table F-2 describes the archive activity.
Table F-2
Archive activity
Activity
Process
Oracle XML archive
NetBackup for Oracle extracts database table data, converts
it into XML format, and stores XML data to either of the
following types of repositories:
■
A directory
■
A storage unit
300
XML Archiver
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
Table F-2
Archive activity (continued)
Activity
Process
XML export
NetBackup for Oracle converts Oracle table data to XML
format (XML schema, or metadata, and XML instance, or
data).
Archive
NetBackup stores the XML data on a NetBackup storage
unit.
bporaexp/bporaexp64
command
NetBackup for Oracle’s XML export utility converts Oracle
database table data into a self-identifying XML schema
document and instance document. They can be archived by
NetBackup or redirected to an OS directory.
Sequence of operation: XML export archive
Figure F-2 shows data flow.
301
XML Archiver
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
Figure F-2
XML export archive data flow
XML schema(s), XML
instance(s)
XML schema(s), XML
instance(s)
XML generator
Option to
create XML
files on disk
NetBackup
Table(s) metadata, Table(s) data
Oracle DBMS
Query processor
OCI
Table list WHERE clause
Script or template
(bporaexp)
(Parameter file)
Command line
Backup, archive, and restore
interface
Scheduler
NetBackup
NetBackup for Oracle users or automatic schedules start database XML export
archives by performing a manual backup of an Oracle policy, by invoking the script
or template at the command line on the client, or by invoking a template through
the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
For an XML export archive:
■
The NetBackup for Oracle script or template calls the bporaexp utility with a
specified parameter file.
■
The query processor uses the parameters in the specified file to build an SQL
query for each table.
■
Oracle’s OCI API executes the queries on the Oracle database instance to be
archived.
302
XML Archiver
NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
■
The query processor passes the output (including metadata and data for a single
table or multiple tables) to the XML Generator.
■
For each table passed, the XML generator builds one or more sets of XML
schema and XML instance documents.
■
XML data streams are backed up by NetBackup.
■
Alternately, bporaexp allows the files to be saved to an operating system
directory.
XML import restore process
Figure F-3 shows the XML import restore process.
XML import restores
Figure F-3
OS Directory
Restore
XML
export
NetBackup
XML Format
OS Directory
Table F-3 describes the restore activity.
Table F-3
Restore activity
Activity
Process
Oracle XML Restore
NetBackup for Oracle manages the retrieval of archived
database table data, the parsing of the XML format, and the
insertion of the data back into the Oracle database.
Restore
NetBackup retrieves the XML-formatted data from the storage
unit.
XML import
NetBackup for Oracle parses XML-formatted Oracle table
data and inserts data into the Oracle database.
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NetBackup for Oracle XML export and XML import
Table F-3
Restore activity (continued)
Activity
Process
bporaimp/bporamip64
commands
NetBackup for Oracle’s XML import utility can parse the
XML-formatted data for re-insertion into the database or can
redirect the data to an OS directory.
304
Sequence of operation: XML import restore
Figure F-4 shows data flow.
Figure F-4
XML import restore data flow
XML schema(s), XML
instance(s)
Option to
restore XML
files on disk
XML Parser
XML schema(s), XML
instance(s)
NetBackup
Archive name
Table(s) metadata,
Table(s) data
Keyword
Table name
Oracle DBMS
OCI
XML data loader
Script or template
(bporaimp)
(Parameter file)
Command line or Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface
NetBackup for Oracle users start database XML import restores by invoking a
NetBackup for Oracle script or template at the client command line or by invoking
an XML import restore template through the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
XML Archiver
About the environment variables set by a user in the XML export parameter file
For an XML import restore:
■
The NetBackup for Oracle script or template calls the bporaimp utility with a
specified parameter file.
■
The input parameters that identify the XML archive to restore are passed to
NetBackup.
■
NetBackup locates and reads the set of XML schema and instance documents
from the NetBackup storage unit.
■
The XML data stream is passed to an XML parser, which passes the data to
the XML data loader.
■
The XML data loader uses Oracle’s OCI API to insert the data into the database.
Optionally, bporaimp allows the XML data stream to bypass the XML parser
and be sent to an operating system directory. In addition, users can restore the
table metadata only into an operating system directory. bporaimp also allows
import from an operating system directory into Oracle.
About the environment variables set by a user in
the XML export parameter file
You can set the XML export parameter file in the Oracle user’s environment. If you
use templates, use the template generation wizard to set these variables.
On Windows:
See “Creating XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle wizard
(Windows)” on page 308.
On UNIX:
See “About the environment variables set by a user in the XML export parameter
file” on page 305.
Table F-4 shows the NetBackup for Oracle environment variables.
Table F-4
NetBackup for Oracle environment variables
Environment variable
Purpose
NB_ORA_SERV
Specifies the name of NetBackup master server.
NB_ORA_CLIENT
Specifies the name of the Oracle client.
On Windows, this variable is useful for specifying a virtual
client name in a cluster.
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Table F-4
NetBackup for Oracle environment variables (continued)
Environment variable
Purpose
NB_ORA_POLICY
Specifies the name of the policy to use for the Oracle backup.
To define NB_ORA_POLICY, use the RMAN PARMS
statement or send statement in Oracle shell scripts. For
example:
ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' ;
send 'NB_ORA_POLICY=Oracle_Backup' ;
BACKUP
NB_ORA_SCHED
Specifies the name of the Application Backup schedule to
use for the Oracle backup.
About XML export templates and shell scripts
The following sections describe XML export templates and shell scripts. The
templates and scripts are as follows:
Templates. The NetBackup for Oracle XML export wizard creates XML export
templates. This wizard is initiated from the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore
interface.
The NetBackup for Oracle XML export wizard does not support all of the parameters
that the command line utility bporaexp provides. You can write a shell script if a
template does not provide all of the required functionality.
Shell scripts. The user writes the shell scripts. They must conform to the operating
system’s shell syntax. Sample XML export and import shell scripts are installed on
the client with the NetBackup for Oracle agent. Modify these scripts to meet your
individual requirements.
NetBackup for Oracle also provides a utility, bpdbsbora, that can generate a shell
script from an XML export or import wizard template. A user can then create a
template with the wizard and generate a shell script from it. The user can run or
modify the shell script.
Creating XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle
wizard (UNIX)
NetBackup for Oracle provides a wizard that solicits information about desired XML
export operations. The wizard uses the information to create a template that can
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About XML export templates and shell scripts
be run immediately or saved in a NetBackup-specific location on the current master
server for later use.
To create XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle wizard
1
Open the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
See “Starting the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface”
on page 106.
2
Click the Backup Files tab.
3
In the left pane of the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, expand the
Oracle node.
4
In the left pane, select the Oracle database instance.
Database objects that can be exported are listed under the Users node. Only
the schema owners and objects accessible by the current user logon displays.
5
Expand the Users list to the schema owners of the objects to be exported.
6
In the right pane, select the Oracle objects to export.
7
Choose Actions > Backup to start the wizard.
The NetBackup for Oracle XML export wizard displays the following screens
for you to enter information about the export operation you want to perform:
■
Welcome
■
Target Database Logon Credentials
■
Configuration Options
■
Archive Export Options
■
NetBackup Archive Destination Options
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard screens or more
details, click Help on the wizard screen.
8
When you have completed the wizard, the Template Summary screen displays
the summary of the XML export template.
You can choose to run the template immediately after the wizard finishes, save
the template to the master server, or both. For explanations of your choices,
click Help.
To save, to run, or to save and run the template, click Finish.
See “About storing templates” on page 112.
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About XML export templates and shell scripts
Creating XML export templates using the NetBackup for Oracle
wizard (Windows)
NetBackup for Oracle provides a wizard that solicits information about desired XML
export operations. The wizard uses the information to create a template that can
be run immediately or saved in a NetBackup-specific location on the current master
server for later use.
To create XML export templates by using the NetBackup for Oracle wizard
1
Open the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
See “Starting the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface”
on page 106.
2
Choose File > Select Files and Folders to Backup.
3
In the left pane, expand the Oracle node.
Select a node in the left pane to view its details in the right pane.
4
(Optional) Enter your Oracle database logon User name and Password with
SYSDBA privileges.
Perform this step if your current logon does not have Oracle SYSDBA privileges.
Optionally, also enter your Net service name (TNS alias).
5
In the left pane of the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, select the Oracle
database instance.
Database objects that can be exported are listed under the Users node. Only
the schema owners and objects accessible by the current user logon display.
6
Expand the User list to the schema owners of the objects to export.
7
In the right pane, select the Oracle objects to export.
8
Choose Actions > Backup to start the wizard.
The NetBackup for Oracle XML Export Template Generation Wizard displays
the following screens for you to enter information about the export operation
that you want:
■
Welcome
■
Target Database Logon Credentials
■
Configuration Options
■
Archive Export Options
■
NetBackup Archive Destination Options
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309
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard screens or more
details, click Help on the wizard screen.
9
After you complete the wizard, the Selection Summary screen displays the
summary of the XML export template.
You can run the template immediately after the wizard finishes, save the
template to the master server, or both. For explanations of your choices, click
Help.
To save, to run, or to save and run the template, click Finish.
Creating an XML export script from a template
You can use the bpdbsbora command to create a script from an XML export
template. This command generates XML export shell scripts from the templates
that the XML export wizard creates.
To create an XML export script from a template
◆
At the command prompt, type this command using the following options:
bpdbsbora -export -g script_file -t templ_name.tpl -S server_name
where:
-export
Specifies the template type.
-g script_file
Specifies the name of the file to which you want
bpdbsbora to write the script. Enclose script_file in
quotation marks if it contains blanks. This option cannot
be used with the -r (run) option.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the name of the template file name that you want
to use as the basis for the script. Make sure that the
template exists. bpdbsbora retrieves XML export
templates from a known location on the master server, so
specify only the template file name.
-S server_name
Specifies the master server upon which the template
resides. When you specify the bpdbsbora command, it
retrieves XML export templates from the specified master
server.
XML Archiver
About XML export templates and shell scripts
Creating XML export scripts manually
When the database agent was initially installed, the installation software wrote
example scripts to the following locations:
■
For export:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\Oracle\samples\bporaexp
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/bporaexp
■
For import:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\Oracle\samples\bporaimp
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/bporaimp
The example export scripts that are installed in bporaexp are as follows:
Windows:
data_archiver_export.cmd
UNIX:
data_archiver_export.sh
data_archiver_export64.sh
bporaexp_help.param
bporaexp_partitions.param
bporaexp_table_to_files.param
bporaexp_tables.param
bporaexp_tables_rows.param
The example import scripts that are installed in bporaimp are as follows:
Windows:
data_archiver_import.cmd
UNIX:
data_archiver_import.sh
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data_archiver_import64.sh
bporaimp_archive.param
bporaimp_archive_schema_to_files.param
bporaimp_archive_to_users.param
bporaimp_bfile_table.param
bporaimp_help.param
bporaimp_ignore_rows_table.param
bporaimp_large_table.param
bporaimp_list.param
bporaimp_old_archive.param
bporaimp_partitions.pram
bporaimp_table_from_files.param
bporaimp_table_to_files.param
bporaimp_table_to_user.param
bporaimp_tables.param
To use the example scripts
1
Copy the example scripts to a different directory on your client. Oracle scripts
can be located anywhere on the client.
2
Modify each script for your environment.
3
On UNIX, make sure that the su command logs into the correct user.
If you do not include an su - user (user is Oracle administrator account) in
your Oracle scripts, they do not run with the proper permissions and
environment variables. The result is problems with your database backups and
restores.
Performing an XML export archive
The following sections describe how to perform an XML export archive.
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Table F-5
Tasks and commands
Task
Commands used to accomplish the task
Automatic backup of an
Oracle policy
As with Oracle backups using RMAN, the most convenient way to create Oracle archives
that consist of XML exports of data from your database is to set up schedules for automatic
backups. The Oracle policy runs NetBackup for Oracle templates or shell scripts. For a
backup using RMAN, a backup template is used, and for an XML export, an XML export
template is used.
When the NetBackup scheduler invokes a schedule for an automatic backup, the NetBackup
for Oracle XML export templates or shell scripts run as follows:
■
In the same order as they appear in the file list
■
On all clients in the client list
The NetBackup for Oracle XML export template or shell scripts start the XML export by
running the NetBackup bporaexp or bporaexp64 utility.
Manual backup of an
Oracle policy
The administrator can use the NetBackup server software to manually run an automatic
backup schedule for the Oracle policy. For more information, see the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
See “Testing configuration settings for NetBackup for Oracle” on page 114.
User-directed XML
exports from the client
The following sections describe procedures for performing user-directed XML exports.
■
■
■
■
■
■
Running NetBackup for Oracle XML export templates.
See “Running NetBackup for Oracle XML export templates” on page 312.
Using bpdbsbora to run an XML export template.
See “Using bpdbsbora to run an XML export template” on page 313.
Running the NetBackup for Oracle XML export script on the client.
See “Running the NetBackup for Oracle XML export script on the client” on page 314.
Running bporaexp on the client as an Oracle user.
See “Running bporaexp on the client as an Oracle user” on page 315.
Writing to a directory versus writing to a storage unit.
See “Writing to a directory versus writing to a storage unit” on page 315.
bporaexp parameters
See “About bporaexp parameters” on page 317.
Running NetBackup for Oracle XML export templates
The Template Administration interface is available in the Backup, Archive, and
Restore interface.
Use this dialog to run, edit, delete, rename, and view existing XML export templates.
These are the templates created by the NetBackup for Oracle XML Export Wizard
and stored in a predetermined location on the master server. Before you can run,
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313
edit, delete, or rename templates on the master server, the client must exist in a
policy or in the NetBackup image catalog.
To use Oracle template administration
1
In the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, click Actions > Administer
Database Templates > Oracle.
The Oracle template administration window appears.
The Select Template list shows the names, descriptions, and types of the
Oracle templates that are stored on the current master server.
2
Select the name of the XML export template you want to run.
3
Click Run.
The Oracle template administration window provides the following functions:
Run
Runs the selected template.
Edit
Changes the contents of an existing template. The selected XML
export template is loaded into the NetBackup for Oracle XML
export template generation wizard.
Delete
Removes the selected template.
On Windows, you must be the administrator or the template creator
to delete a template.
On UNIX, you must be the root user or the template creator to
delete a template.
Rename
Changes the name of the selected template.
On Windows, you must be the administrator or the template creator
to rename a template.
On UNIX, you must be the root user or the template creator to
rename a template.
View
Displays a summary of the selected template.
Using bpdbsbora to run an XML export template
The bpdbsbora command lets you run an XML export template that the NetBackup
for Oracle XML export wizard creates.
At the command prompt, type this command using the following options:
bpdbsbora -export -r -t templ_name.tpl [-S server_name] [-L prog_log]
XML Archiver
Performing an XML export archive
Where:
-export
Specifies the template type.
-r
Runs the template.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the name of the template file that you want to use.
bpdbsbora retrieves the XML export templates from a known
location on the master server, so specify only the file name.
-S server_name
Optional. Identifies the master server. bpdbsbora retrieves XML
export templates from a specific master server when you specify
this option.
-L prog_log
Optional. Specifies a run-time process log. Enclose prog_log in
quotation marks (" ") if it contains space characters.
For example:
bpdbsbora -export -r -t sales.tpl -S my_server -L my_progress_log
Running the NetBackup for Oracle XML export script on the client
You can initiate a database XML export from the operating system command prompt:
Type the full path to the shell script that performs the export. For example:
Windows:
install_path\oracle\scripts\data_archiver_export.cmd
UNIX:
/oracle/scripts/data_archiver_export.sh
The operating system shell starts the database XML export archive by running the
XML export script. The XML export script contains commands to run bporaexp.
The NetBackup for Oracle installation script installs sample scripts in the following
location:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\oracle\samples\bporaexp
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/bporaexp
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Running bporaexp on the client as an Oracle user
As an Oracle user you can also run the bporaexp command (bporaexp64 on some
platforms) from the operating system command prompt and specify a parameter
file.
To run bporaexp on the client as an Oracle user
1
Create a parameter file that specifies the settings that determine how the
backup is to be performed. Information is available about the bporaexp
parameters.
See “About bporaexp parameters” on page 317.
2
Run the following command to specify the parameter file:
# bporaexp [username/password] parfile = filename | help=y
3
Configure the runtime environment, because this method does not call the full
script that includes the runtime configuration.
On UNIX and Linux, check the sample scripts for runtime environment details.
See “About configuring the run-time environment” on page 98.
bporaexp creates a set of XML schema and instance documents that can be used
to archive Oracle table data. For each archive, one master XML schema (.xsd)
document is generated. In addition, bporaexp generates a table-specific schema
(.xsd) document and a table specific instance (.xml) document for each table.
Additional files are created if the table contains LONG or LOB columns.
See “Performing an XML export archive” on page 311.
Writing to a directory versus writing to a storage unit
One important aspect of the parameter file is the DIRECTORY parameter. If you
specify the DIRECTORY parameter, the bporaexp (bpdbsbora64 on some platforms)
command writes the backup files to the operating system directory you specify.
NetBackup does not write the files to a storage unit.
For example, assume that the archive test1 contains one table, USER1. If the
directory parameter is specified, NetBackup creates certain files when you run
the bporaexp command.
Windows:
DIRECTORY=\db\netbackup\xml
UNIX:
DIRECTORY=/db/netbackup/xml
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Table F-6 shows the files NetBackup creates when you run the command.
Table F-6
NetBackup files for example table USER1
File
Content
Windows: \db\netbackup\xml\test1\test1.xsd
Master XML schema for table
USER1
UNIX: /db/netbackup/xml/test1/test1.xsd
Windows:
\db\netbackup\xml\test1\USER1\TEST1.xsd
Table schema for table
USER1
UNIX: /db/netbackup/xml/test1/USER1/TEST1.xsd
Windows:
\db\netbackup\xml\test1\USER1\TEST1.xml
XML document for table
USER1
UNIX: /db/netbackup/xml/test1/USER1/TEST1.xml
If the DIRECTORY parameter is not specified, NetBackup writes the backup images
to a storage unit. A NetBackup backup set is created and cataloged under the name:
Windows:
\Oracle\XMLArchive
UNIX:
/Oracle/XMLArchive
All NetBackup for Oracle bporaexp backups are cataloged using this convention.
Alternatively, if the parameter file does not contain the DIRECTORY parameter,
NetBackup creates and catalogs the following files:
Windows:
\Oracle\XMLArchive\test1\test1.xsd
\Oracle\XMLArchive\test1\USER1\TEST1.xsd
\Oracle\XMLArchive\test1\USER1\TEST1.xml
UNIX:
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/test1.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/USER1/TEST1.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/USER1/TEST1.xml
In production, do not use the DIRECTORY parameter in the bporaexp parameter file.
When you write to a storage unit, NetBackup offers the features that include
searching and cataloging with the NetBackup catalog and automatic handling of
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output that exceeds file system limits. With the DIRECTORY parameter, file system
limits, such as a 2 GB maximum, can cause an error.
To run bporaexp on the client, run the following command:
bporaexp [username/password] parfile = filename | help=y
On some UNIX platforms, the bporexp64 command is used.
About bporaexp parameters
This topic describes the available bporaexp (bporaexp64 on some platforms)
parameters.
Note the following:
■
Use the NetBackup parameters NB_ORA_SERV, NB_ORA_CLIENT, NB_ORA_POLICY,
and NB_ORA_SCHED to specify the NetBackup runtime configuration. Otherwise,
the order of precedence for the runtime configuration variable settings is used.
■
Some parameters are valid only when you write to a storage unit. Other
parameters are valid only when you write to a directory. In the following table,
the Target Location column contains either Storage Unit or Directory to indicate
whether the parameter in that row applies to writing to a storage unit or to a
directory. Parameters that are recognized when you write to a directory are
ignored when you write to a storage unit.
Table F-7 shows the available bporaexp parameters with their default values.
bporaexp parameters and default values
Table F-7
Parameter
Required?
Default
Description
Target location
CONSISTENT
N
N
Specifies if bporaexp uses the SET
TRANSACTION READ ONLY statement to
ensure that the data from all tables is
consistent to a single point in time and does
not change during the execution of the
bporaexp command. If the default of
CONSISTENT=N is used, each table is
exported as an independent transaction.
Directory
DIRECTORY
N
no default
Optionally specifies a directory for the output
of the bporaexp utility.
Directory
HELP
N
N
Displays a help message with descriptions of
bporaexp parameters. Does not export data
if HELP=Y.
Directory
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bporaexp parameters and default values (continued)
Table F-7
Parameter
Required?
Default
Description
KEYWORD
N
no default
Optionally specifies a keyword phrase that
NetBackup associates with the image being
created by the archive operation. Values for
KEYWORD must be in double quotes.
Storage Unit
LOG
N
no default
Optionally specifies a file name to receive
informational and error messages. If so,
messages are logged on the log file and not
displayed to the terminal display.
Directory
NAME
Y
no default
The name of the master XML schema file.
Directory
NB_ORA_SERV
N
NB_ORA_CLIENT
N
NB_ORA_POLICY
default master Optionally specifies the name of the
server
NetBackup master server.
default client
Target location
Storage Unit
Optionally specifies the name of the
NetBackup for Oracle client.
Storage Unit
N
default Oracle Optionally specifies the name of the
policy
NetBackup for Oracle policy.
Storage Unit
NB_ORA_SCHED
N
default backup Optionally specifies the name of the backup
policy
policy schedule to use.
schedule
Storage Unit
OWNER
N
no default
Lists the Oracle schema owners to export.
For each owner, the tables, partitions, and
views that are owned by that Oracle account
are exported by default. The PARTITIONS
and VIEWS parameters can be used to
exclude partitions and views.
Directory
PARTITIONS
N
Y
Optionally specifies whether or not table
partitions are included. Only valid when used
with the OWNER parameter.
Directory
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bporaexp parameters and default values (continued)
Table F-7
Parameter
QUERY
Required?
Default
Description
N
no default
Selects a subset of rows from a set of tables.
The value of the query parameter is a string
that contains a WHERE clause for a SQL select
statement that is applied to all tables and
table partitions listed in the TABLES
parameter.
Target location
Directory
For example, if TABLES = emp, bonus and
QUERY = "where job = ‘SALESMAN’ and
sal < 1600", two SQL statements are run:
■
SELECT*FROM emp where
job=’SALESMAN’ and sal<1600;
■
SELECT*FROM bonus where
job=’SALESMAN’ and sal<1600;
Each query that runs refers to a single table
at a time in the FROM clause, so it is illegal to
have a join in the WHERE clause.
ROW_BUFFER
N
1000
Specifies the size, in rows, of the buffer used
to fetch rows. Tables with LONG columns are
fetched one row at a time. The maximum
value allowed is 32767.
Directory
TABLES
Y
no default
Lists the table names, view names, and
partition names to export. The USERID must
have SELECT privilege on the tables and
views. The syntax used is:schema.table:
partition name or schema.view name
Directory
USERID
Y
no default
Specifies the username/password (and
optional connect string) of the user initiating
the export. If a connect string is not provided,
the ORACLE_SID environment variable is
used.
Directory
VIEWS
N
Y
Optionally specifies whether or not views are
included. Only valid when used with the
OWNER parameter.
Directory
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Browsing XML export archives using bporaimp
parameters
To use the bporaimp (bporaimp64 on some platforms) command to browse XML
export archives created by using bporaexp (bporaexp64 on some platforms), create
a parameter file with the desired search criteria. First, set the variables LIST=Y and
USERID=username/. Only the archives created using the Oracle USERID are listed.
The Oracle password is not required. The operating system account that is running
bporaimp has access only to archives that were created using the same account.
Note: Only XML export archives created using NetBackup mode are searched.
Exports stored in an operating system directory using the DIRECTORY parameter
are not searched.
Use the NB_ORA_SERV and NB_ORA_CLIENT parameters to specify the NetBackup
server and client. Otherwise, the order of precedence for the runtime configuration
variable settings is used. You can also include the LOG parameter.
Information is available on the LIST, LOG, NB_ORA_CLIENT, NB_ORA_SERV, and USERID
parameters.
See “About bporaimp parameters” on page 326.
Table F-8 shows other parameters you can include in the parameter file.
Table F-8
Parameters you can include in a parameter file
Parameter
Default
Description
ARCHIVE_DATE_FROM
no default
Optionally specifies a start date for the
archive search. Used with
ARCHIVE_DATE_TO to specify a
range. The date format is
mm/dd/yyyy [hh:mm:ss].
ARCHIVE_DATE_TO
no default
Optionally specifies an end date for
the archive search. Used with
ARCHIVE_DATE_FROM to specify a
range. The date format is
mm/dd/yyyy [hh:mm:ss].
KEYWORD
no default
Optionally specifies a keyword phrase
for NetBackup to use when searching
for archives.
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Table F-8
Parameters you can include in a parameter file (continued)
Parameter
Default
Description
NAME
no default
The name of the master XML schema
file.
FROMUSER
no default
Optionally specifies a
comma-separated list of table owners.
TABLES
no default
Optionally specifies a list of table and
partition names that were included in
an archive.
For example, assume you named the list parameter file bporaimp_list.param. At
the command prompt, type the following:
bporaimp parfile = bporaimp_list.param
Note: On some UNIX platforms, the bporaimp64 command is used.
Browsing XML export archives using bplist
For a higher level view of the Oracle XML export archive list, you can use the bplist
command. The result is the list of XML schema and instance document file names.
Note: Only XML export archives created using NetBackup mode are searched.
Exports stored in an operating system directory using the DIRECTORY parameter
are not searched.
The following UNIX or Linux example uses bplist to search all Oracle archives for
a client named jupiter. The sample output is produced for two archives, test1
and little_sales, where each archive has one Oracle table (test1 has
USER1.TEST1 and little_sales has USER1.LITTLE_SALES).
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bplist -C jupiter -t 4 -R /Oracle/XMLArch/
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/test1.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/USER1/TEST1.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/test1/USER1/TEST1.xml
/Oracle/XMLArchive/little_sales/little_sales.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/little_sales/USER1/LITTLE_SALES.xsd
/Oracle/XMLArchive/little_sales/USER1/LITTLE_SALES.xml
/exb_n2bm5bco_1_1392342936
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Restoring an XML export archive
322
/exb_mabm02ko_1_1392170136
/exb_lqbltds6_1_1392083334
The following Windows example uses bplist to search all Oracle archives for a client
named jupiter. The sample output is produced for one archive, test.
install_path\NetBackup\bin\bplist -C jupiter -t 4 -R Oracle:\XMLArch\
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\test.xsd
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\BONUS.xsd
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\BONUS.xml
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\DEPT.xsd
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\DEPT.xml
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\EMP.xsd
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\EMP.xml
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\SALGRADE.xsd
Oracle:\XMLArchive\test\SCOTT\SALGRADE.xml
The -t 4 on this command specifies the Oracle backups or archives. The -R
specifies the default number of directory levels to search, 999.
For more information on this command, see the bplist man page in the NetBackup
Commands Reference Guide.
Restoring an XML export archive
Before you attempt to restore an archive, make sure that the XML archive has
successfully completed. You can identify the correct archive to restore by browsing
the XML export archives. NetBackup generates an error if an archive backup history
does not exist.
Running the XML import wizard on the client
NetBackup for Oracle includes an XML import wizard that solicits information from
the user about the desired import operations. The wizard uses the information to
create a template. You can use the template immediately, or you can save it for
later use.
The NetBackup for Oracle XML import wizard saves an XML import template locally
in a user-specified location on the NetBackup client. XML import templates are not
stored on the server because a restore is always user directed, not scheduled.
Typically, you run an XML import template immediately and then delete it.
The restore process requires a password for Oracle database access. Templates
store encrypted passwords that are decrypted at runtime.
XML Archiver
Restoring an XML export archive
To start the XML import wizard
1
Start the NetBackup Backup, Archive, and Restore interface.
On UNIX and Linux, from the command line, run the following command:
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/jbpSA &
2
3
4
Do one of the following:
■
On Windows: From the Windows Start menu, choose All Programs >
Veritas NetBackup > Backup, Archive, and Restore. To change the
policy type, choose File > Specify NetBackup Machines and Policy Type.
Perform this step if the Oracle node is not visible.
■
On UNIX and Linux: (Conditional) To change the policy type, choose Actions
> Specify NetBackup Machines and Policy Type.
Do one of the following:
■
On Windows, click Select for Restore.
■
On UNIX and Linux, click the Restore Files tab.
Expand the Oracle node in the left pane to view an Oracle database instance
hierarchy in the right pane.
To use the XML import wizard
1
In the left pane of the Backup, Archive, and Restore interface, select the Oracle
database instance.
Database objects that can be imported are listed under the Users node. The
tool displays only the schema owners and objects accessible by the current
user login.
2
Expand the Users list to the schema owners of the objects to be imported.
3
In the right pane, select database objects that exist in the archive to be restored.
4
Choose Actions > Restore.
5
Enter information about the restore operation you want to perform in the screens
that the NetBackup for Oracle XML import wizard displays.
The screens are as follows:
■
Welcome
■
Target Database Logon Credentials
■
Archive Import Options
■
NetBackup Archive Source Options
323
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Restoring an XML export archive
■
324
NetBackup Import Destination Options (Windows)
If you need an explanation of any of the fields on the wizard screens, or more
details, click Help on the wizard screen.
6
Review the summary.
When you have completed the wizard, the Selection Summary screen displays
the summary of the XML import template.
You can choose to run the template immediately after the wizard finishes, save
the template locally, or both.
See “About storing templates” on page 112.
Using bpdbsbora to run an XML import template
The bpdbsbora command lets you run an XML import template that the NetBackup
XML Import Wizard creates.
At the command prompt, type this command with the following options:
bpdbsbora -import -r -t templ_name.tpl [-L progress_file]
where:
-import
Specifies the template type.
-r
Runs the template.
-t templ_name.tpl
Specifies the full path name of the template you want to use.
Unlike export templates, XML import templates do not reside
in a predetermined location on the master server. They are
considered to be temporary in nature and should reside on the
client. If the full path is not specified as part of the XML import
template name, it must reside in the current directory.
-L progress_file
Optional. Specifies a run-time progress log. Enclose
progress_file in quotation marks (" ") if it contains space
characters.
For example:
Windows:
bpdbsbora -import -r -t H:\oracle\imp_tpls\sales_imp.tpl -L prog_file
UNIX:
bpdbsbora -import -r -t /oracle/imp_tpls/sales_imp.tpl -L prog_file
XML Archiver
Restoring an XML export archive
Running an XML import script on the client
You can initiate a restore from the operating system command prompt by typing
the full path to the XML import script that initiates the restore. For example:
Windows:
install_path\oracle\scripts\data_archiver_import.cmd
UNIX:
/oracle/scripts/data_archiver_import.sh
The operating system shell starts the database restore by running the XML import
script file. The XML import script file contains commands to run bporaimp
(bporaimp64 on some platforms).
The NetBackup for Oracle installation script writes sample scripts to the following
location:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\dbext\oracle\samples\bporaimp
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext/oracle/samples/bporaimp
Running bporaimp on the client
Run the bporaimp command from the operating system command line on the client
using the appropriate parameter file.
The Windows account that runs bporaimp has access only to XML export archives
that were created using the same Windows account.
The UNIX account that runs bporaimp has access only to XML export archives that
were created using the same UNIX account. Be sure to configure the runtime
environment, because this method does not call the full script that includes the
runtime configuration. Check the sample scripts for runtime environment details.
To run bporaimp on the client
◆
At the command prompt, type the bporaimp command in the following format:
bporaimp [username/password] parfile = filename | help=y
On some UNIX platforms, the bporaimp64 command is used.
See “About bporaimp parameters” on page 326.
325
XML Archiver
Restoring an XML export archive
About bporaimp parameters
Use the NetBackup parameters NB_ORA_SERV and NB_ORA_CLIENT to specify the
NetBackup runtime configuration. Otherwise, the order of precedence for the runtime
configuration variable settings is used.
Some parameters are valid only when writing to a storage unit. Other parameters
are valid only when writing to a directory. In the following table, the right-most column
contains either “Storage Unit” or “Directory” to indicate whether the parameter in
that row is applicable for either writing to a storage unit or to a directory. Parameters
that are recognized when writing to a directory are ignored when writing to a storage
unit.
Table F-9 describes the bporaimp (bporaimp64 on some platforms) parameters
and default values.
Table F-9
Parameter
Required?
bporaimp parameters and default values
Default
Description
Target
location
ARCHIVE_DATE_FROM
N
no default Optionally specifies a start date for the archive Storage Unit
to be imported. Used with ARCHIVE_DATE_TO
to specify a range. If not used, the most recent
archive is imported. If the range used results in
more than one archive, the most recent from
the range is used. The date format is
mm/dd/yyyy [hh:mm:ss].
ARCHIVE_DATE_TO
N
no default Optionally specifies an end date for the archive Storage Unit
to be imported. Used with
ARCHIVE_DATE_FROM to specify a range. If
not used, the most recent archive is imported.
If the range used results in more than one
archive, the most recent from the range is used.
The date format is mm/dd/yyyy [hh:mm:ss].
BFILE_DIRECTORY
Y (if any
no default
table being
imported has
BFILE
columns)
Specifies a directory for the output of any BFILE Directory
columns being imported. Oracle’s CREATE
DIRECTORY command can be used to create
the DIRECTORY in Oracle, and the name should
match the name used in the export file.
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Restoring an XML export archive
Table F-9
Parameter
bporaimp parameters and default values (continued)
Required?
Default
Description
Target
location
COMMIT
N
N
DIRECTORY
N
no default Optionally specifies a directory for the input of Directory
the bporaimp utility.
FROMUSER
N
no default Optionally specifies a comma-separated list of Directory
users to import from an archive containing
multiple users’ tables. If not specified, all of the
tables are imported.
HELP
N
N
Displays a help message with descriptions of
bporaimp parameters.
IGNORE_ROWS
N
N
Specifies whether or not rows should be
Directory
inserted into a table that is not empty. The
default is that the table already exists and that
it is empty. If it is not empty, IGNORE_ROWS =
N causes an error to be reported, and the table
is skipped with no rows inserted. IGNORE_ROWS
= Y causes rows to be inserted with errors
reported in the log file.
Specifies whether bporaimp should commit Directory
after each array insert. The size of the array is
determined by ROW_BUFFER. By default,
bporaimp commits only after loading each
table, and performs a rollback when an error
occurs, before continuing with the next object.
Directory
If IGNORE_ROWS = Y and an error such as a
primary key constraint violation occurs, no data
is inserted if COMMIT = N. However, if COMMIT
= Y, the array of rows (size determined by
ROW_BUFFER) is not inserted, but bporaimp
continues to process additional row arrays in
the order in which they were exported. To cause
all rows that do not violate a primary key
constraint to be inserted, set COMMIT = Y,
ROW_BUFFER = 1, and IGNORE_ROWS = Y.
KEYWORD
N
no default Optionally specifies a keyword phrase for
Storage Unit
NetBackup to use when searching for archives
from which to restore files.
327
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Restoring an XML export archive
Table F-9
Parameter
bporaimp parameters and default values (continued)
Required?
Default
Description
LIST
N
N
LOG
N
no default Optionally specifies a file name to receive
Directory
informational and error messages. If this
parameter is specified, messages are logged
in the log file and not displayed to the terminal
display.
NAME
Y
no default The name of the master XML schema file. This Directory
parameter is required if LIST = N.
NB_ORA_SERV
N
default
master
server
Optionally specifies the name of the NetBackup Storage Unit
master server.
NB_ORA_CLIENT
N
default
client
Optionally specifies the name of the NetBackup Storage Unit
for Oracle client.
RESTORE_SCHEMA_ONLY
N
N
Used with RESTORE_TO_DIRECTORY to restore Storage Unit
the XML schema files only to a directory.
RESTORE_TO_DIRECTORY
N
ROW_BUFFER
N
LIST = Y queries the NetBackup catalog and Storage Unit
lists the archives available. Does not import the
data if LIST = Y.
no default Optionally specifies a directory for the output
of the bporaimp utility. If used, the XML data
is not parsed and inserted into Oracle.
1000
Target
location
Specifies the size, in rows, of the buffer used
to insert rows. Tables with LONG or LOB
columns are inserted one row at a time. The
maximum value allowed is 32767.
Storage Unit
Directory
328
XML Archiver
Restoring an XML export archive
Table F-9
Parameter
Required?
bporaimp parameters and default values (continued)
Default
Description
Target
location
TABLES
N
no default Optionally specifies a list of table, view, and
Directory
partition names to import. If not used, all objects
in the archive are imported. The objects must
already exist, and the USERID must have
INSERT privilege on the objects. The object
names cannot be qualified with owner names,
and the FROMUSER parameter is used to specify
a particular owner. If a partition name is
specified, it indicates the exported partition only
and the rows are inserted according to the
partitioning scheme of the target table. If the
export contains partitions, and the import does
not specify them, all are inserted.
TOUSER
N
no default Optionally specifies a comma-separated list of Directory
users to import to that can be used with the
FROMUSER parameter to change the table
owners. The TOUSER Oracle accounts must
already exist, and the USERID must have
INSERT privilege on the tables that must also
exist.
USERID
Y
no default Specifies the username/password (and optional Directory
connect string) of the user initiating the import.
If a connect string is not provided, the
ORACLE_SID environment variable is used.
About redirecting a restore of an XML export archive to a different
client
With NetBackup for Oracle you have the option to restore an XML export archive
to a client other than the one that originally performed the XML export. The process
of restoring data to another client is called a redirected restore.
Before you redirect the restore, see the following topic:
Figure F-5 illustrates a typical redirected restore.
329
XML Archiver
Restoring an XML export archive
Figure F-5
Redirected restore of an XML export archive to a different client
1. Client A agents are backed up.
3. The server restores client A backup
image to client B.
Server
2. Client B requests restore of client A
image to client B.
The user on client A cannot initiate a redirected restore to client B. Only the user
on client B, which is the client receiving the backup image, can initiate the redirected
restore. Any user who belongs to the database group that performed the backup
can restore it, unless the BKUP_IMAGE_PERM variable is set to USER.
Redirecting a restore of an XML export archive to a new
client using bporaimp
On UNIX and Linux, any user who belongs to the database group that performed
the archive can restore XML export archive. The BKUP_IMAGE_PERM variable
must be set to GROUP or ANY, not USER.
Perform the following procedure on the new client host if you want to restore XML
export archives that are owned by another client.
To redirect a restore of an XML export archive to a new client using bporaimp
1
Set the environment variables for bporaimp (bporaimp64 on some platforms)
on the new client, including ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID.
2
In the bporaimp parameter file, include the following lines:
nb_ora_serv = NetBackup_server
nb_ora_client =
original_client_where_XML_export_occurred.
3
Specify any other bporaimp parameters.
See “Running bporaimp on the client” on page 325.
4
Run bporaimp.
330
XML Archiver
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
Example - Using bporaimp for a redirected restore
For example, assume the following:
■
Original client is jupiter
■
New client is saturn
■
Server is jupiter
■
ORACLE_SID is test on both saturn and jupiter
■
Windows user is ora on both jupiter and saturn
■
UNIX user is ora on both jupiter and saturn
■
Archive name is sales
To use bporaimp for a redirected restore (example)
1
Create the following file on server jupiter:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\db\altnames\saturn
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/db/altnames/saturn
2
Edit the preceding file to contain the name jupiter.
3
Log on to saturn as ora.
4
Create file bporaimp.param.
Include the following parameters:
NAME = sales
NB_ORA_SERV = jupiter
NB_ORA_CLIENT = jupiter
USERID = orauser/orapasswd
5
Run bporaimp parfile=bporaimp.param to restore sales archive to saturn
and to import the data into the test database on saturn.
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
An XML export or import error can originate from NetBackup or from Oracle, as
follows:
331
XML Archiver
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
■
On the NetBackup side, an error can be from the bporaexp or bporaimp
programs, the NetBackup server or client, or Media Manager.
■
On the Oracle side, an error can be from the target database.
Use the following steps when troubleshooting a failed operation:
■
Check the logs to determine the source of the error.
■
Troubleshoot each stage of the XML export or XML import.
The following sections describe these steps in detail.
On UNIX and Linux, these sections describe the log files from the bporaexp
and bporaimp commands. The logs are created in
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaexp or
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaimp.
Checking the logs to determine the source of an error
This topic describes how to check the logs to determine the source of an error.
To check the logs
1
Check the bporaexp or bporaimp log.
If the LOG parameter is specified in the bporaexp or bporaimp command’s
parfile, the commands write logs to the file that is specified as the argument
to the LOG parameter. The commands write log information to the screen if LOG
is not specified.
For example, incorrect installation or configuration causes the following common
problems:
■
The ORACLE_HOME environment variable was not set.
■
The bporaexp or bporaimp program was unable to connect to the target
database.
When bporaexp and bporaimp are being used and the backup images are
being written to an operating system directory, these logs are the only source
of error logging and tracking.
2
Check the NetBackup logs.
On Windows, the first NetBackup log to check is
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaexp\log.mmddyy or
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaimp\log.mmddyy.
On UNIX, the first NetBackup log to check is
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaexp/log.mmddyy or
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaimp/log.mmddyy.
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XML Archiver
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
Examine these logs for messages that show how to determine the source of
an error.
These logs are written by the NetBackup client and contain the following:
■
Requests from bporaexp and bporaimp
■
Activities between bporaexp and bporaimp and NetBackup processes
If the logs do not contain any messages, the following conditions could be
present:
■
bporaexp or bporaimp terminated before requesting service from
NetBackup.
■
bphdb (if started by the scheduler or graphical user interface) did not start
the template or shell script successfully. Check the bphdb logs for stderr
and stdout files.
Try to run the XML export or XML import template or script file from the
command line to determine the problem.
On UNIX, the error is usually due to a file permission problem for bphdb itself
or for the export or import script file.
Ensure that the full XML export or import script file name is entered correctly
in the Backup Selections list of the Oracle policy configuration, or for templates,
that the name is correct.
On UNIX, logs are not created in this directory if the permissions are not set
for the Oracle user to write to the directory. The full permissions setting, chmod
777, is best.
For more information about debug logs and reports, refer to the NetBackup
Administrator’s Guide, Volume I.
Troubleshooting each stage of the XML export or XML import
The information in this section does not apply to you if DIRECTORY is specified in
bporaexp or bporaimp command’s parfile.
The following explains the sequence of events for an action that bporaexp or
bporaimp initiates in NetBackup mode. This situation occurs when DIRECTORY is
not specified in the bporaexp or bporaimp command’s parfile. It suggests solutions
for the problems that can occur at each point in the sequence.
To troubleshoot by stage
1
bporaexp or bporaimp starts.
An export or import can be started in any of the following ways:
333
XML Archiver
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
■
Command line from the system prompt.
For example:
bporaexp parfile = parameter_filename
bporaimp parfile = parameter_filename
■
Using a template that is run from the NetBackup client GUI or bpdbsbora.
■
Manually from the NetBackup Administration Console on the master server.
■
Automatically by an automatic export schedule.
If an error occurs now, check the bporaexp or bporaimp log.
2
bporaexp or bporaimp verifies its environment and then connects to Oracle
and NetBackup.
An Oracle environment problem, a database problem, an incorrect user ID, or
an incorrect password can cause Oracle connect errors.
A NetBackup error now is usually due to a problem with client and server
communication. Check the messages in the bprd and bpcd logs for clues.
Also verify the bp.conf entries on the UNIX or Linux client.
3
bporaexp or bporaimp issues a backup or restore request.
Before the backup or restore request proceeds, bporaexp or bporaimp
commands perform three functions:
■
Gather necessary parameters
■
The backup or restore request is sent to the NetBackup server
■
Wait until the server and client are ready to transfer data
The NetBackup client interfaces gather information from the following places:
■
The environment, including bporaexp and bporaimp parameter files. If you
use templates, the parameter files are generated from the template.
If you use scripts, you have to generate the parameter file manually.
■
Server configuration parameters on Windows.
■
The user’s bp.conf and /usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf files on the UNIX
or Linux client.
This information is sent to the master server’s bprd process.
To troubleshoot a backup problem in this part of the sequence, examine the
following file:
Windows:
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XML Archiver
Troubleshooting XML export or XML import errors
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaexp\log.mmddyy
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaexp/log.mmddyy
If the bprd process failed, check the bprd and bpbrm logs.
During this sequence, most failures occur because of incorrect NetBackup
server or Oracle policy configuration parameters.
NetBackup can usually select the correct Oracle policy and schedules. However,
NetBackup can select a policy or schedule in error if there are several Oracle
policies in its database.
In Windows, try setting the SERVER and POLICY values in the client environment
or by setting the following bporaexp parameters:
NB_ORA_POLICY=policyname
NB_ORA_SCHED=schedule
NB_ORA_SERV=NetBackup_server
NB_ORA_CLIENT=NetBackup_client
In UNIX, try setting the SERVER and POLICY values in the bp.conf file on the
client or by setting the following bporaexp parameters:
NB_ORA_POLICY=policyname
NB_ORA_SCHED=schedule
NB_ORA_SERV=NetBackup_server
NB_ORA_CLIENT=NetBackup_client
To troubleshoot a restore, examine the following log file:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaimp\mmddyy.log
UNIX:
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaimp/log.mmddyy
Make sure that the correct NetBackup server and NetBackup client values are
used by setting the following bporaimp parameters:
NB_ORA_SERV=NetBackup_server
NB_ORA_CLIENT=NetBackup_client
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XML Archiver
Additional XML export and import logs
Set these parameters to the same values that were used for the XML export
operation.
4
bporaexp or bporaimp issues read or write requests to the NetBackup client,
which then transfers data to or from the NetBackup server.
bporaexp builds an SQL query for each table being archived, and it uses the
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) to run the query. The query results are translated
into XML. The XML output is passed to the NetBackup client interfaces.
bporaimp uses the reverse process. That is, XML data is restored, parsed,
and inserted into the database.
A failure here is probably due to an Oracle error, or to a NetBackup media,
network, or timeout error.
5
bporaexp or bporaimp tells the NetBackup client to close the session and
disconnects from the Oracle database.
The NetBackup client waits for the server to complete its necessary actions
(backup image verification and so on) and then exits.
Additional XML export and import logs
The bporaexp and bporaimp utilities perform error logging and tracing in the file
that is specified by the LOG parameter. The log files contain Oracle errors and other
errors that are not related to NetBackup.
When bporaexp and bporaimp are used and the backup images are written to a
storage unit, these errors are also logged in the NetBackup debug logs. These logs
appear in the following directories:
Windows:
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaexp
install_path\NetBackup\logs\bporaimp
UNIX and Linux:
/user/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaexp
/user/openv/netbackup/logs/bporaimp
When you use bporaexp and bporaimp and the backup images are written to an
operating system directory, the file that is specified by the LOG= parameter is the
only source of error logging and tracing.
336
Appendix
G
Register authorized
locations
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based
policy
Registering authorized locations used by a
NetBackup database script-based policy
During a backup, NetBackup checks for scripts in the default script location and
any authorized locations. The default, authorized script location for UNIX is
usr/openv/netbackup/ext/db_ext and for Windows is
install_path\netbackup\dbext. If the script is not in the default script location
or an authorized location, then the policy job fails. You can move any script into the
default script location or any additional authorized location and NetBackup
recognizes the scripts. You need to update the policy with the script location if it
has changed. An authorized location can be a directory and NetBackup recognizes
any script within that directory. An authorized location can also be a full path to a
script if an entire directory does need to be authorized.
If the default script location does not work for your environment, use the following
procedure to enter one or more authorized locations for your scripts. Use
nbsetconfig to enter an authorized location where the scripts reside. You can also
use bpsetconfig, however this command is only available on the master or the
media server.
Register authorized locations
Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based policy
338
Note: One recommendation is that scripts should not be world-writable. NetBackup
does not allow scripts to run from network or remote locations. All scripts must be
stored and run locally. Any script that is created and saved in the NetBackup db_ext
(UNIX) or dbext (Windows) location needs to be protected during a NetBackup
uninstall.
For more information about registering authorized locations and scripts, review the
knowledge base article:
http://www.veritas.com/docs/000126002
To add an authorized location
1
Open a command prompt on the client.
2
Use nbsetconfig to enter values for an authorized location. The client privileged
user must run these commands.
The following examples are for paths you may configure for the Oracle agent.
Use the path that is appropriate for your agent.
■
On UNIX:
[root@client26 bin]# ./nbsetconfig
nbsetconfig>DB_SCRIPT_PATH = /Oracle/scripts
nbsetconfig>DB_SCRIPT_PATH = /db/Oracle/scripts/full_backup.sh
nbsetconfig>
<ctrl-D>
■
On Windows:
C:\Program Files\Veritas\NetBackup\bin>nbsetconfig
nbsetconfig> DB_SCRIPT_PATH=c:\db_scripts
nbsetconfig> DB_SCRIPT_PATH=e:\oracle\fullbackup\full_rman.sh
nbsetconfig>
<ctrl-Z>
Note: Review the NetBackup Command Reference Guide for options, such
as reading from a text file and remotely setting clients from a NetBackup server
using bpsetconfig. If you have a text file with the script location or authorized
locations listed, nbsetconfig or bpsetconfig can read from that text file. An
entry of DB_SCRIPT_PATH=none does not allow any script to execute on a client.
The none entry is useful if an administrator wants to completely lock down a
server from executing scripts.
Register authorized locations
Registering authorized locations used by a NetBackup database script-based policy
3
(Conditional) Perform these steps on any clustered database or agent node
that can perform the backup.
4
(Conditional) Update any policy if the script location was changed to the default
or authorized location.
339
Index
Symbols
.xml 315
.xsd 315
/Oracle/XMLArchive 322
A
ALTER_TABLESPACE 284, 290
API
error 221, 224, 332
libobk module 212
Application Backup schedule
for block level incremental backups 193
with Snapshot Client 180
archive 301–302
ARCHIVE_DATE_FROM 320, 326
ARCHIVE_DATE_TO 320, 326
ARCHIVELOG 285, 290
Auto snapshot type 201, 206
automatic archive 312
automatic backups 290
Automatic Cumulative Incremental Backup schedule
Snapshot Client effects 195
Automatic Differential Incremental Backup schedule
Snapshot Client effects 195
Automatic Full Backup schedule
Snapshot Client effects 195
with Snapshot Client 180
B
backup
configure schedule 73
errors 293
full 195
manual backup 123, 312
media 36
methods 285
methods or types of 283
performing 290
policy 122, 139, 312
test 114
backup (continued)
to appliance 84
using scripts 122, 139, 312
wizard
invoking 196
Backup Selections list
adding scripts 97
adding selections 96
adding templates 97
Database Backup Shares 86
overview 96
BFILE_DIRECTORY 326
binaries
pushing out 295
BLI Backup
restores 292
BLI no RMAN
adding policies 277
backup example 282
cold backup 284
goodies directory 279
hot backup 284
improving performance 296
mailid 279
requirements 276
schedules 285
standard policy type 277
workload 296
block level incremental
attributes 294
troubleshooting 294
block level incremental backup
configuring 193
overview 190
bp.conf 104
troubleshooting 223, 335
BPBACKUP_POLICY 105
BPBACKUP_SCHED 102, 105
bpdbsbora
for XML import 324
bpend_notify 285, 296
BPEND_TIMEOUT 296
Index
bphdb log 219
bplist 126
browsing for backups 126
browsing for XML export archives 321
example 126
bporaexp 301–302, 314, 317
bporaexp64 317
bporaimp 304, 320–321
performing a restore 325
bporaimp64 321, 325
bpstart_notify 285, 290
bpstart_notify.oracle_bli 285
BPSTART_TIMEOUT 295
browsing archives 320
C
check_coverage 281
client read timeout property 226
CLIENT_NAME 102, 105
CLIENT_READ_TIMEOUT 102, 105
clients list, for backup policies 95
Clone snapshot type 201, 206
commands
allocate channel 23, 88
backup 23, 88, 120
bpdbsbora 124
bplist 126, 321
bporaexp 301–302, 314, 317
bporaimp 304, 320–321
bporexp64 317
change 121
copy 120
crosscheck 118
crosscheck backupset 118
delete expired backupset 120
list 121
register database 117
report 121
reset database 117
restore 120
resync catalog 120
rman
execute backups 126
execute scripts 126
performing restore 132
script syntax 126
send 112
set duplex 112
switch 120
COMMIT 327
compatibility information 35
configuration
database user authentication 113
CONSISTENT 317
Copy-on-write technology 201, 206
correcting errors 293
D
debug logs 293
accessing 218
debug level 220
enabling 214
troubleshooting with log files 214
UNIX 216
Windows 215
Differential snapshot type 201, 206
DIRECTORY
parameter 317, 327
E
environment variables 196
environmental variables
user-directed backup 126
error
checking 122
correcting 293
examples
bplist 126
parameter files 311
RMAN script 110
scripts 311
execution log 219–220
F
failed operation
troubleshooting 221, 332
file system
growing 294
UNCOVERED 279
file-based operations 171
FROMUSER 321, 327
Fulldata Storage Checkpoint 277
G
Getting Started Wizard 200, 205
Guided Recovery 156
Destination host and login screen 162
341
Index
Guided Recovery (continued)
Job Details screen 164
metadata 157, 165
Performing a cloning operation 159
Post-clone operations 164
Pre-clone check screen 163
Pre-operation checks 158
Select Control File Backup screen 161
Select Destination Parameters screen 162
Select Master Server dialog 160
Select Source Database 161
Selection summary screen 163
Troubleshooting 165
H
HELP 317, 327
hot backup 284
I
IGNORE_ROWS 327
INIT.ORA 287
installation
adding a license 37
prerequisites for clusters 36
requirements for NetBackup servers 36
instance group
adding an instance 64
automatic registration 65
instant recovery
configuration requirements 180
overview 169
policy configuration 180
restore method 188
see Snapshot Client 169
J
jbpSA 323
K
KEYWORD 318, 320, 327
L
libobk
shared library module 213
licenses 37
LIST 328
parameters 320
LOG 318, 328
logs
NetBackup progress 293
M
Managed by SLP retention 201, 206
manual archive 312
manual backups 123, 290, 312
maximum jobs per client 54
Maximum snapshot limit retention type 201, 206
Maximum Snapshots parameter 201, 206
Mirror-break-off technology 201, 206
multi-streamed backups 227
multiple copies feature 74, 92, 196
multiplexing
overview 15
N
NAME 318, 328
NB_ORA_CLIENT 305, 317–318, 320, 326, 328
NB_ORA_COPY_NUMBER 102
NB_ORA_POLICY 306, 317–318
NB_ORA_SCHED 306, 317–318
NB_ORA_SERV 305, 317–318, 320, 326, 328
NB_PC_ORA_RESTORE variable 189
NetApp
number of snapshots per volume 201, 206
NetBackup
Client Service log on account configuring 113
logs and reports 293
mode 317
server and client requirements 36
Nodata Storage Checkpoint 276
O
offhost backup. See Snapshot Client
configuring 183
overview 169
Oracle
environment variables 286
Intelligent Agent 285
policy for snapshot backups
Oracle Intelligent Policy 199
using script- or template-based Oracle policy
creation method 205
registering an instance 61
sample scripts 110
342
Index
Oracle Recovery Manager
errors 221
example RMAN script 110
ORACLE_METADATA 105
OWNER 318
P
parameter file 302, 305, 315
parms operand 100
PARTITIONS 318
permission bits 295
Plex snapshot type 201, 206
Point-in-time copy 201, 206
Point-in-time rollback restores
Oracle policy 204
policies
changing properties 33
creating 32
policy configuration
adding clients 95
attributes 90
backup selections list 96
for databases 89
for Snapshot Client 181, 193
overview 46
testing 114
Policy Configuration Wizard 200, 205
POLICY_IN_CONTROL 286–287
post_checkpoint_notify 285, 296
processes
log files for NetBackup processes 218
Progress Log 292
proxy copy 170
Q
QUERY 319
R
Recovery Wizard
use with Snapshot Client 196
redirected restores 134, 329
redo log 281
reports 214
See also debug logs
All Logs Entries 214
database operations 212
restore
errors 293
restore (continued)
multistream 133
Point-in-time rollback 188
snapshot rollback 188–189
to a different client 134, 329
user-directed 325
with Snapshot Client methods 188
XML import 303–304
RESTORE_SCHEMA_ONLY 328
RESTORE_TO_DIRECTORY 328
restoring
Point-in-time rollback 204
retention period
for Snapshot Client 195
RMAN
browsing repository 126
querying repository 121
script example 110
scripts 199
SEND 101
rman change command 128
rollback restores
Point-in-time rollback 204
ROW_BUFFER 319, 328
S
schedules
backup 122, 139, 312
frequency 73, 75, 91, 93
properties 73, 75, 91, 93
properties for Snapshot Client 195
retention for Snapshot Client 195
scripts
bpend_notify 296
bpstart_notify.oracle_bli 285
cautions for using 91
check_coverage 281
notify 290
RMAN 24, 26
scheduler 122, 139, 312
XML export 306
send operand 126
SERVER 103, 105
Setup
Oracle Intelligent Policy
OIP 70
setup_bli_scripts
contents of 286
sample of 287
343
Index
shared library module
libobk 213
SHUTDOWN_BKUP_RESTART 284, 290
SHUTDOWN_CKPT_RESTART 285, 291
snapshot backup 168, 180, 188
configuration requirements 180
database objects included 180
policy configuration 180
restore method 188
Snapshot Client
configuring policies 180
effects on policies and schedules 194
file-based operations 171
overview 169
proxy copy 170
stream-based operations 171
snapshot rollback 188–189
Snapshot Type parameter 201, 206
SnapVault 189
Storage Checkpoint 192
backup 285
removing 294
stream-based operations 171
T
U
UNCOVERED file system 279
Unicode 299
unified logging 216, 218
update_clients 295
Use Replication Director property 90
user-directed archive 312
user-directed restore 325
USERID 319–320, 329
UTF-8 299
V
VERBOSE 103–105
Verifying installation 213
Veritas Storage Foundation 193
VIEWS 319
W
wizard
overview 17
use with Snapshot Client 196
wizards
Policy Configuration 32
tab
X
Backup Selections tab 79
Instances and Databases tab 77
Oracle tab 81
TABLES 319, 321, 329
templates
administration 312
advantages over scripts 91
creating for XML export 306, 308
overview 17
XML export 306
testing policy configuration 114
timeout failures
minimizing 226
TNS_ADMIN
automatic registration 65
manually adding instance 58
registering an instance 61
TOUSER 329
transaction logs
see archive logs 193
XML
archiving features 299
export 301
Export Wizard 307
import 303
Import Wizard 323
instance 301–302, 304, 315
schema 299, 302, 304, 315
344
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