Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM

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Front cover
Running Microsoft SQL
Server 2008 on the
IBM System x3950 M2
Utilize the enterprise class performance
features of IBM X-Architecture servers
Maximize scale-up performance
in multi-node configurations
Introduces new features in
SQL Server 2008
Ivan Kurlat
Michael Lawson
Chris Almond
Redpaper
Click here to check for updates
ibm.com/redbooks
International Technical Support Organization
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the
IBM System x3950 M2
March 2009
REDP-4476-00
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.
First Edition (March 2009)
This document applies to Microsoft SQL Server 2008 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 running on the IBM
System x3950 M2.
This document created or updated on March 25, 2009.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2009. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
The team that wrote this paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction to the IBM System x3950 M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 IBM XA-64e fourth-generation chipset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 System memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5 Multinode configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6 Broadcom dual Gigabit Ethernet controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7 SAS disk subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.8 PCI subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.9 Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 SQL Server 2008 Editions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 New and enhanced features of SQL Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 SQL Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Database engine new and enhanced features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Analysis Services new and enhanced features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Reporting services new architecture design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Additional enhancements and features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 64-bit computing and SQL Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Windows, SQL Server, and 32-bit versus 64-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Windows Server 2008 editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Comparing Windows Server 2008 editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Windows Datacenter models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Processor and memory limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Platform synergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Scalable hardware implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Affinity in Windows Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 NUMA optimization for Windows Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Process and thread scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Affinity in SQL Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 SQL Server Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Processor and I/O affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3 Soft NUMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Network affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6 Resource Governor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Server consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Concept of consolidation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
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3.4.2 Forms of consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.4.3 Consolidation strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.4.4 Considering service availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
iv
Chapter 4. Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 x3950 M2 configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 System setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Firmware update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Windows Server 2008 x64 configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Windows installation, service pack, updates, and drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Windows settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Anti-virus software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 SQL Server 2008 x64 configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 SQL Server 2008 installation, service packs, and hot fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 SQL Server 2008 settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Storage configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Storage setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 Storage file placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Database workloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Maintenance operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 Application workloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Performance analysis process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1 Performance baseline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2 Hardware resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3 Other diagnostic and performance tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix A. Unattended install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1 Benefits of unattended installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 Installation using the configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.1 SQL Server 2008 installation GUI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2 Manual configuration file generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.3 Performing the install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 Installation from the command prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3.1 Command prompt SQL Sever 2008 fix installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Notices
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IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.
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PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR
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COPYRIGHT LICENSE:
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
v
Trademarks
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Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. These and other IBM trademarked terms are
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vi
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Preface
The IBM System x3950 M2 server provides extraordinary levels of scalability and processing
power needed to run the most demanding enterprise database workloads. The x3950 M2
system is based on the fourth generation of IBM X-Architecture® and is built on eX4
technology. As a scale-up platform, it offers unprecedented flexibility for supporting
multi-node configurations using up to 96 processor cores.
The System x3950 M2 is the ultimate in scale-up design. Scale-up refers to the idea of
increasing processing capacity by adding additional processors (and memory and I/O
bandwidth) to a single server, making it more powerful. This is precisely what the x3950 M2 is
designed to do: to scale up by adding chassis to a hardware partition to form two-node,
four-node, and eight-node configurations. SQL Server 2008 is also designed for scale-up.
Thus, when your database application needs to scale-up to handle increased demands, the
x3950 M2 and SQL Server 2008 together can grow from a one-node server to an
enterprise-class four-node server with up to 96 processor cores and 1 TB of physical
memory, which the 64-bit SQL Server 2008 x64 can take full advantage of.
This IBM Redbooks® publication presents technical considerations and configuration
examples for scaling up Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 to support very high workloads.
The team that wrote this paper
This paper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center.
Ivan Kurlat is an IT Specialist and currently the Team Leader for SQL Services within the
IBM Argentina Global Server Systems Operations team.
Michael Lawson is a database and virtualization specialist at the IBM Center for Microsoft
Technologies in Kirkland, WA. He has a B.A. in Information Sciences and Mathematics from
the University of California at Santa Cruz. Michael has 30 years of experience as a database
administrator, the last 14 years with Microsoft SQL Server. Since joining IBM in 1999, he has
supported IBM customers running SQL Server on System x® servers. He has MCDBA
(Microsoft Certified Database Administrator) certification. Michael is also an author of the
Redpaper SQL Server 2005 on the IBM eServer xSeries 460 Enterprise Server.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
vii
The authors (l-r): Mike and Ivan
Production of this IBM® Redbooks publication was managed by Chris Almond, an ITSO
Project Leader and IT Architect based in Austin, Texas.
Acknowledgements
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:








Ron Arndt
Chuck Bauman
Peter Donovan
Sue Goodwin
Tim Graves
Vinay Kulkarni
Kevin Powell
Heather Richardson
From the International Technical Support Organization:
 Tamikia Barrow
 Linda Robinson
 David Watts
We would also like to thank the authors of the following IBM Redbooks publications for their
contributions to this paper:
 Authors of SQL Server 2005 on the IBM eServer xSeries 460 Enterprise Server,
REDP-4093:
– Michael Lawson
– Yuichiro Tanimoto
– David Watts
viii
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
 Authors of Consolidating Microsoft SQL Server on the IBM System x3950 M2,
REDP-4385:
– Daniel Soares de Barros
– Simon Champion
– David Watts
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Preface
ix
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
1
Chapter 1.
The IBM System x3950 M2
enterprise database server
Delivering an industry-leading, 64-bit framework for high-performance scalable computing,
the IBM System x3950 M2 is built on the power of IBM eX4 technology, the fourth generation
of IBM X-Architecture. The eX4 technology drives the x3950 M2 to deliver the performance,
availability, expandability, and manageability required for the next generation of Microsoft’s
enterprise database platform, SQL Server 2008.
Top 4-way performance, expandable to 16-way (with 96 cores), and 64-bit memory
addressability provide an optimized high-end database platform. At the crossroads of a major
industry transition to mainstream 64-bit applications and multicore processors,
eX4 Architecture delivers a formidable combination of performance, availability, and
investment protection that is not yet available in an industry-standard x86 server.
Extensive chipset development experience and industry-leading performance and availability
breakthroughs have uniquely positioned IBM to provide a robust and powerful server, offering
innovation that delivers real business and IT results.
This chapter covers the following topics:
 1.1, “Introduction to the IBM System x3950 M2” on page 2
 1.2, “IBM XA-64e fourth-generation chipset” on page 3
 1.3, “Processors” on page 4
 1.4, “System memory” on page 7
 1.5, “Multinode configurations” on page 9
 1.6, “Broadcom dual Gigabit Ethernet controller” on page 12
 1.7, “SAS disk subsystem” on page 12
 1.8, “PCI subsystem” on page 13
 1.9, “Redundancy” on page 13
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Introduction to the IBM System x3950 M2
The x3950 M2 (Figure 1-1) is a high-performance, 2-way to 16-way scalable server that is
powered by fourth-generation IBM X-Architecture and Intel® Xeon processors each with up to
6 cores. With a 64-bit framework for high-performance scalable computing, the x3950 M2 is
built on the new IBM eX4 technology and is optimized for ERP applications, high-end
databases, and server consolidation.
Figure 1-1 The System x3950 M2
For additional details on the x3950 M2 see the IBM Redbooks publication Planning, Installing,
and Managing the IBM System x3950 M2, SG24-7630, available from:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247630.html
The key features of the x3950 M2 are:
 Four-way1 capable server
 Scalable to two, three, or four nodes to provide a multi-node server configuration with up to
16 six-core processors (totalling 96 cores), 1 TB of RAM, and 28 PCI-X slots
 XA-64e fourth-generation chipset (see 1.2, “IBM XA-64e fourth-generation chipset” on
page 3 for more information)
 Up to four Intel Xeon® processors, each with up to 6 cores, that support 64-bit addressing
with the Intel 64 Technology architecture (see 1.3, “Processors” on page 4)
 Support for Intel Virtualization Technology (VT)
 Support for an embedded hypervisor option
 Support for an internal removable flash drive installed in a dedicated USB connector on
the system board
 4 GB or 8 GB memory standard expandable to 256 GB (using 8GB DIMMs), using
high-performance PC2-5300 ECC DDR2 DIMMs
 Active Memory™ with Memory ProteXion, memory mirroring, memory hot-swap and
hot-add, and ChipKill
 Seven half-length 64-bit PCI Express x8 slots, two of which are hot-swap
 Four internal hot-swap drive bays for up to 587 GB of internal storage (with 146.8 GB
disks)
1
2
Four-way means 4 processor sockets. In this document, we use way to indicate a processor socket regardless of
whether it is a dual-core processor, a quad-core processor, or a six-core processor.
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
 Integrated LSI 1078 Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS) controller that supports RAID-0 and
RAID-1 standard and an optional ServeRAID-MR10k RAID controller for enabling
additional RAID features and a 256 MB battery backed cache
 Integrated Dual-port Broadcom 5709C PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller
 Onboard Baseboard Management Controller and Remote Supervisor Adapter II adapter
 Three-year warranty on-site, 9 hours a day, 5 days a week, next business-day response
1.2 IBM XA-64e fourth-generation chipset
The x3950 M2 uses the fourth generation of the IBM XA-64e chipset. The architecture
consists of the following components:





One to four Xeon MP dual-core or quad-core processors
Hurricane 4 Memory and I/O Controller (MIOC)
Eight high-speed memory buffers
Two PCI Express bridges
One South bridge
Figure 1-2 shows a block diagram of the x3950 M2.
Note: The unit GB refers to gigabytes while the unit Gb refers to gigabits.
CPU 1
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
DDR2
Buffer
CPU 2
CPU 3
CPU 4
Each FSB:
1066 MHz
8.53 GBps
Memory
controller
("Hurricane 4")
IBM X4
Architecture
core chipset
Scalability ports
10.24 GBps each
8 ports, each:
R: 4.26 GBps
W: 2.13 GBps
HSS-IB 6 GBps
HSS-IB 6 GBps
2 GBps
PCI-E bridge 1
PCI-E bridge 2
South bridge
1
Serial
RSA2 +
Video
DVD drive
B = bytes
b = bits
2
3
4
5
6
7
PCI +
USB
6x USB 2.0
PCI-E x4
Gb Ethernet
BCM5709C
LSI
1078
SAS
Seven PCI Express x8 slots
(slots 6 & 7 are hot-swap)
MR10k
External SAS port
HDD backplane
Figure 1-2 x3950 M2 system block diagram
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
3
Each memory port out of the memory controller has a peak read throughput of 4.26 GBps
and a peak write throughput of 2.13 GBps. DIMMs are installed in matched pairs, two-way
interleaving, to ensure that the memory port is fully utilized.
Because there are eight memory ports, spreading installed DIMMs over all four memory ports
can improve performance. The eight independent memory ports provide simultaneous access
to memory. With four memory cards installed, and eight DIMMs in each card, peak read
memory bandwidth is 34.1 GBps and peak write bandwidth is 17.1 GBps.
The memory controller routes all traffic from the eight memory ports, four microprocessor
ports, and the three PCI bridge ports. The memory controller also has embedded DRAM
which, in the x3950 M2, holds a snoop filter lookup table. This filter ensures that snoop
requests for cache lines go to the appropriate microprocessor bus and not all four of them,
which improves performance.
Figure 1-2 on page 3 also shows that PCI bridge 1 supplies four of the seven PCI Express x8
slots on four independent PCI Express buses. PCI bridge 2 supplies the other three PCI
Express x8 slots plus the onboard SAS devices, including the optional ServeRAID-MR10k. A
separate South bridge supplies all the other onboard PCI devices like the USB ports, onboard
Ethernet, and the standard RSA II.
1.3 Processors
The x3850 M2 and the x3950 M2 use either the Intel Xeon Processor E7210 dual-core, the
Intel Xeon Processor 7300 series quad-core Tigerton, or the Intel MP Xeon Processor 7400
series six-core Dunnington. All models have two processors installed. One, two, three, or four
processors are supported. Installed processors must be identical in model, speed, and cache
size. You can connect multiple models of x3950 M2 to form larger configurations (see 1.5,
“Multinode configurations” on page 9).
Comparing the Tigerton and Dunnington processors
Figure 1-3 on page 5 compares the block diagrams of the quad-core and six-core processors.
4
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Six-core MP Xeon 7400 series
(Code name: Dunnington)
Quad-core Xeon 7300 series
(Code name: Tigerton)
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
4MB
Shared
L2
Cache
4MB
Shared
L2
Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
Processor
Core
32KB L1
Instruct Cache
32KB L1
Data Cache
3MB
Shared
L2
Cache
3MB
Shared
L2
Cache
16MB
Shared
L3
Cache
3MB
Shared
L2
Cache
Figure 1-3 Comparing the quad-core and six-core processors
Each core has separate L1 instruction and data caches, execution units (integer, floating
point, and so on), registers, issue ports, and pipelines for each core. A multi-core processor
achieves fully parallel threads because these resources are not shared between the cores.
The L2 cache is shared between pairs of cores. The Tigerton does not have an L3 cache.
The six-core Dunnington offers 43% greater performance, for a database workload running
TPC-C, versus the similar quad-core Tigerton with the same power envelope. The 16MB L3
cache and the additional two cores per processor on the Dunnington make a significant
contribution to this improved performance.
With double, quadruple, or six times the number of cores for the same number of sockets, it is
critical that the memory subsystem meets the demand for data throughput. The 34.1 GBps
peak throughput of the eX4 Architecture with four memory cards is well-suited to the
demands of quad-core and six-core processors.
1066 MHz front-side bus
The Tigerton and Dunnington Xeon MP processors use two 266 MHz clocks, out of phase
with each other by 90°, and use both edges of each clock to transmit data (Figure 1-4).
266 MHz clock A
266 MHz clock B
1
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
4
5
Figure 1-4 Quad-pumped front-side bus
A quad-pumped 266 MHz bus results in a 1066 MHz front-side bus. The bus is 8 bytes wide,
which means it has an effective burst throughput of 8.53 GBps. This can have a substantial
impact, especially on TCP/IP-based LAN traffic.
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
5
Intel 64 Technology
First introduced in the Xeon DP Nocona processor, Intel 64 Technology is a 64-bit extension
to the industry standard IA32 32-bit architecture. Intel 64 Technology adds:
 A set of new 64-bit general purpose registers (GPRs)
 64-bit instruction pointers
 The ability to process data in 64-bit chunks
Even though the names of these extensions suggest that the improvements are simply in
memory addressability, Intel 64 Technology is, in fact, a fully functional 64-bit processor.
There are three distinct operation modes available in Intel 64 Technology:
 32-bit legacy mode
In this mode, processors with Intel 64 Technology act just like any other IA32-compatible
processor. You can install your 32-bit operating system on such a system and run 32-bit
applications, but you cannot make use of the new features, such as the flat memory
addressing above 4 GB or the additional GPRs. Thirty-two-bit applications run just as fast
as they would on any current 32-bit processor.
Most of the time, IA32 applications run even faster because there are numerous other
improvements that boost performance regardless of the maximum address size.
 Compatibility mode
This is an intermediate mode of the full 64-bit mode. To run in compatibility mode, you
must install a 64-bit operating system and 64-bit drivers to support both 32-bit applications
and 64-bit applications.
With the compatibility mode, you can run a 64-bit operating system and still run
unmodified 32-bit applications. Each 32-bit application is limited to a maximum of 4 GB of
physical memory; however, the limit is imposed per-process and not system wide. This
means that every 32-bit process has its own 4 GB of physical memory space, if sufficient
physical memory is installed. This is an improvement over IA32, where the operating
system kernel and the application had to share 4 GB of physical memory.
Additionally, the compatibility mode does not support the virtual 8086 mode, so real-mode
applications are not supported. Sixteen-bit protected mode applications are, however.
 Full 64-bit mode
Intel refers to this mode as the IA-32e mode. For AMD™, it is the long mode. This mode is
applied when a 64-bit OS and 64-bit application are used. In the full 64-bit operating
mode, an application can have a virtual address space of up to 40 bits, equating to one
terabyte (TB) of addressable memory. The amount of physical memory is determined by
how many DIMM slots the server has and the maximum DIMM capacity supported and
available at the time.
Applications that run in full 64-bit mode have access to the full physical memory range,
depending on the OS, to the new GPRs, and to the expanded GPRs. However, it is
important to understand that this mode of operation requires not only a 64-bit SO (and, of
course, 64-bit drivers) but also a 64-bit application that has been recompiled to take full
advantage of the various enhancements of the 64-bit addressing architecture.
For more information about the features of the latest Intel multicore processors, visit:
http://www.intel.com/products/server/processors/index.htm?iid=process+server
For more information about Intel 64, see:
http://www.intel.com/technology/intel64/index.htm
6
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
1.4 System memory
Memory is implemented in the x3950 M2 by memory cards. The server supports up to four
memory cards. Each card has eight DIMM sockets, providing a total of up to 32. Using 8 GB
DIMMs in every socket, the server can hold 256 GB of RAM. With four nodes connected
together, this means a single system image has access to 1 TB of memory.
Note: For performance reasons, all nodes should have the same amount of memory.
Also, in a multinode scalable system, the XceL4v Dynamic Server Cache dynamically
allocates 256 MB of main memory in each node for use as L4 cache. The result is a
reduction in overall memory that is available to the operating system of 256 MB per node.
Therefore, in a 16-way configuration there is a 1 GB reduction of main system memory.
In a multinode configuration, the memory in all nodes is combined to form a single coherent
physical address space. Therefore, for any given region of physical memory, some
processors are closer to it than other processors. Conversely, for any processor, some
memory is considered local and other memory is remote. The partition descriptor table of the
system is used to ensure optimal memory use.
The memory is two-way interleaved, meaning that memory DIMMs are installed in pairs.
There are eight ports from the Hurricane 4 memory controller to memory, with each
supporting up to 4.26 GBps read data transfers and 2.13 GBps write data transfers (see
Figure 1-2 on page 3).
The DIMMs operate at 533 MHz, so that they are in sync with front-side bus. However, the
DIMMs are 677 MHz PC2-5300 spec parts because they have better timing parameters than
the 533 MHz equivalent. The memory throughput is 4.26 GBps, or 533 MHz x 8 bytes per
memory port for a total of 34.1 GBps with four memory cards.
There are a number of advanced features in the x3950 M2 memory subsystem, collectively
known as Active Memory:
 Memory ProteXion
The Memory ProteXion feature (also known as redundant bit steering) provides the
equivalent of a hot-spare drive in a RAID array. It is based in the memory controller, and it
enables the server to sense when a chip on a DIMM has failed and to route the data
around the failed chip.
Normally, 128 bits out of every 144 are used for data and the remaining 16 bits are used
for ECC functions. However, the x3950 M2 needs only 12 bits to perform the same ECC
functions, leaving 4 bits free. If a chip failure on the DIMM is detected by memory
scrubbing, the memory controller can reroute data around that failed chip through these
spare bits.
It can do this automatically without issuing a Predictive Failure Analysis (PFA) or light path
diagnostics administrator alert, although an event is logged to the service processor log.
After the second DIMM failure, PFA and light path diagnostics alerts occur on that DIMM
as normal.
 Memory scrubbing
Memory scrubbing is an automatic daily test of all the system memory that detects and
reports memory errors that might be developing before they cause a server outage.
Memory scrubbing and Memory ProteXion work together and do not require memory
mirroring to be enabled to work properly.
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
7
When a bit error is detected, memory scrubbing determines if it is recoverable or not. If it
is, Memory ProteXion is enabled and the data that was stored in the damaged locations is
rewritten to a new location. The error is reported for the purpose of preventative
maintenance. As long as there are enough good locations for the proper operation of the
server, no further action is taken other than recording the error in the error logs.
If the error is not recoverable, then memory scrubbing sends an error message to the light
path diagnostics, which then turns on the proper lights and LEDs to guide you to the
damaged DIMM. If memory mirroring is enabled, then the mirrored copy of the data from
the damaged DIMM is used until the system is stopped and the DIMM replaced.
Because the x3950 M2 is now capable of supporting a large amount of memory, IBM has
added the Initialization Scrub Control setting to the BIOS, so that customers can choose
when this scrubbing is done and therefore potentially speed up the start process.
 Memory mirroring
Memory mirroring is roughly equivalent to RAID-1 in disk arrays, in that usable memory is
halved and a second copy of data is written to the other half. If 8 GB is installed, then the
operating system sees 4 GB once memory mirroring is enabled. It is disabled in the BIOS
by default. Because all mirroring activities are handled by the hardware, memory mirroring
is operating-system independent.
When memory mirroring is enabled, there are certain restrictions on placement and size of
memory DIMMs and the placement and removal of memory cards.
 Chipkill memory
Chipkill is integrated into the XA-64e chipset, so it does not require special Chipkill DIMMs
and is not visible to the operating system.
When Chipkill is combined with Memory ProteXion and Active Memory, the x3950 M2
provides high reliability in the memory subsystem. When a memory chip failure occurs,
Memory ProteXion handles the rerouting of data around the failed component as
described previously. However, if a further failure occurs, the Chipkill component in the
memory controller reroutes data.
The memory controller provides memory protection similar to disk array striping with
parity, writing the memory bits over multiple memory chips on the DIMM. It can reconstruct
the missing bit from the failed chip and continue working as usual. One of these additional
failures can be handled for each memory port for a total of eight Chipkill recoveries.
 Hot-add and hot-swap memory
The x3950 M2 supports the replacement of failed DIMMs while the server is still running.
This hot-swap support works with memory mirroring. The server also supports adding
additional memory while the server is running. Adding memory requires OS support.
These two features are mutually exclusive. Hot-add requires that memory mirroring be
disabled and hot-swap requires that memory mirroring be enabled.
In addition, to maintain the highest levels of system availability, if a memory error is
detected during POST or memory configuration, the server can automatically disable the
failing memory bank and continue operating with reduced memory capacity. You can
manually re-enable the memory bank after the problem is corrected with the Setup menu
in the BIOS.
Memory mirroring, Chipkill, and Memory ProteXion provide multiple levels of redundancy to
the memory subsystem.
Combining Chipkill with Memory ProteXion allows up to two memory chip failures for each
memory port on the x3950 M2, for a total of eight failures sustained. For example, the first
failure detected by the Chipkill algorithm on each port does not generate a light path
8
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
diagnostics error because Memory ProteXion recovers from the problem automatically. Each
memory port can then sustain a second chip failure without shutting down. As long as
memory mirroring is enabled, the third chip failure on that port sends the alert and takes the
DIMM offline, but keeps the system running out of the redundant memory bank.
1.5 Multinode configurations
A single x3950 M2 chassis is the initial base building block, or node, for a scalable system. At
their most basic, these nodes are comprised of a 4-way SMP-capable system with
processors, memory, and I/O devices.
You can form a multinode configuration by adding one or more x3950 M2 nodes to another.
The following configurations are possible:
 A two-node complex that consists of two x3950 M2 nodes, with up to eight processors and
up to 512 GB RAM
 A three-node complex that consists of three x3950 M2 nodes, up to 12 processors and up
to 768 GB RAM
 A four-node complex that consists of four x3950 M2 nodes, with up to 16 processors and
up to 1 TB RAM
Unlike the x3950 and xSeries® 460, there is no special modular expansion enclosure for the
x3950 M2. The multinode configuration is simply formed by another x3950 M2 or an x3850
M2 with the ScaleXpander Option Kit.
The ScaleXpander Option Kit includes the cables necessary to join two nodes together plus a
small component (Figure 1-5) that enables the formation of a multinode complex.
Figure 1-5 ScaleXpander Option Kit component to enable multinode configurations
Note: In this paper, when we refer to an x3950 M2, we mean either an x3950 M2 or an
x3850 M2 with the ScaleXpander Option Kit.
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
9
Multinode scalable systems
A scalable system consists of one, two, three, or four x3950 M2 nodes (Figure 1-6). Each
node can have one, two, three, or four processors, although at least two is recommended for
redundancy reasons.
8-way up to 16-way
Up to 1 TB RAM
6-way up to 12-way
Up to 768 GB RAM
x3950 M2
Up to 512 GB RAM
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
Up to 256 GB RAM
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
x3950 M2
4-way up to 8-way
2-way up to 4-way
Figure 1-6 The multinode configurations supported
The following configuration rules apply:
 Combinations of x3950 M2s
You can connect one, two, three, or four x3950 M2 nodes. Specific cabling is required.
 Processors
Each node can have either one, two, three, or four processors. All processors must be the
same speed and cache size. We recommend installing at least two processors in each
node so that in the event of a processor failure the memory and I/O in that node will be
available following automatic recovery.
 Memory
For performance reasons, you should have the same amount of memory in each node. A
minimum of one memory card with two DIMMs totalling 4 GB is required in each node.
This minimum configuration will severely limit performance. See 4.1.1, “System setup” on
page 68.
 Firmware
All system firmware, including the system BIOS, BMC firmware, FPGA firmware, and
RSA II firmware, must be at the same level for all systems. UpdateXpress System Pack is
the preferred method for updating firmware (and drivers). See 4.1.2, “Firmware update” on
page 68.
Disk drives in any of the x3950 M2s are seen by the OS as normal disk drives, and all
PCI-Express slots and onboard Gigabit Ethernet ports in the x3950 M2 are visible.
A fully configured, four-node, scalable system with quad-core processors has 64 cores, 1TB
of memory (using 8GB DIMMs), 28 PCI-Express adapters, 2.3 TB of raw disk space, and
eight Gigabit Ethernet connections.
10
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Hardware partitioning
Figure 1-7 shows how a four-node x3950 M2 appears in the Scalable Partition Web interface
tool.
Figure 1-7 The Scalable Partition Web interface tool
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
11
In Figure 1-7 on page 11 we show an expanded section of the RSA interface that is displayed
by selecting Server ♦ Scalable Partitioning ♦ Manage Partition(s).
Note the top node (Partition ID: 1 Chassis ID: 1) is marked as the primary node. The
other three nodes are the secondary nodes. The black lines connecting the nodes indicate
the connection paths for the scalability cables. Notice that every node is directly connected to
every other node. This is optimal for performance. Assuming all processor sockets are
populated, this complex will appear to the operating system as a single 16-way server.
Note: Instructions for using the Scalable Partition Web interface tool appear in the IBM
System x3850 M2 and System x3950 M2 Installation Guide.
Without physically recabling this complex, the Scalable Partition Web interface tool can be
used to create multiple partitions, which will each appear as separate servers to separate
operating systems. For example:
 Two 2-node partitions could be created. In this case, two operating systems would be
installed, one in each partition. Each operating system would see an 8-way server.
 A two-node partition and two single-node partitions. This would require three operating
systems. The operating system running on the two-node system would see an 8-way
server. Each operating system running on the single-node system would see a 4-way
server.
 Four single-node partitions, which would require four operating systems, each running on
a 4-way server.
1.6 Broadcom dual Gigabit Ethernet controller
The x3950 M2 offers a dual Gigabit Ethernet controller integrated standard. The x3950 M2
includes one dual-port Broadcom BCM5709C 10/100/1000 BASE-T MAC (Media Access
Controller) on the PCI Express x4 bus. The BCM5709C has the following features:





Full and half-duplex performance at all speeds (10/100/1000 Mbps, auto-negotiated)
Two IEEE 802.3 Ethernet MAC addresses
Integrated on-chip memory for buffering data transmissions
Dual onboard DMA engines to maximize bus throughput and minimize CPU overhead
IPMI support for system management
The Broadcom controller also includes software support for failover, layer-3 load balancing,
and comprehensive diagnostics.
Note: Category 5 or better Ethernet cabling is required with RJ-45 connectors. If you plan
to implement a Gigabit Ethernet connection, ensure that your network infrastructure is
capable of the necessary throughput to match the I/O capacity of the server.
1.7 SAS disk subsystem
The x3950 M2 has a disk subsystem that is comprised of an LSI Logic 1078 Serial Attached
SCSI (SAS) controller and four internal 2.5-in SAS hot-swap drive bays. The x3950 M2
supports internal RAID-0 and RAID-1. The optional ServeRAID-MR10k, part number
43W4280, provides additional RAID levels and a 256 MB battery backed cache.
12
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
SAS is the logical evolution of SCSI. SAS uses much smaller interconnections and offers
longer cabling distances, smaller form factors, and greater addressability. The x3950 M2 has
an external SAS x4 port that is used with the optional ServeRAID-MR10k. This port supports
SAS non-RAID disk enclosures such as the EXP3000 and has an SFF-8088 connector.
1.8 PCI subsystem
There are five half-length full-height PCI Express x8 slots and two half-length full-height active
PCI Express x8 slots internal to the x3950 M2 (see Figure 1-2 on page 3), and all are vacant
in the standard models. All seven slots have the following characteristics:




Separate bus from the other slots and devices
PCI Express x8
40 Gbps full duplex
64-bit, each supporting 32-bit adapters as well
Slots 6 and 7 also support Active PCI hot-swap adapters. The optional ServeRAID-MR10k
adapter does not use a PCI slot because it has a dedicated slot on the motherboard.
The PCI subsystem also supplies these I/O devices:








LSI 1078 Serial-attached SCSI (SAS) controller
Broadcom dual port 5709C 10/100/1000 Ethernet
Six USB ports, two on the front panel, three on the rear, one onboard
Remote Supervisor Adapter II adapter in a dedicated socket on the I/O board
ATI™ ES1000™ 16MB video controller
EIDE interface for the DVD/ROM drive
Serial port
Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
1.9 Redundancy
The x3950 M2 has the following redundancy features to maintain high availability:
 There are six hot-swap, multi-speed fans. These fans provide cooling redundancy and
enable individual fan replacement without stopping the server. Each of the three groups of
two fans is redundant. If a fan fails, the other fans speed up to continue to provide
adequate cooling until the fan can be hot-swapped by the IT administrator. In general,
failed fans should be replaced in 48 hours.
 The two Gigabit Ethernet ports can be configured as a team to form a redundant pair.
 The memory subsystem has a number of redundancy features, including memory
mirroring and Memory ProteXion (see 1.4, “System memory” on page 7).
 Support is available for RAID disk arrays, both with the onboard LSI 1078 for RAID-0 and
RAID-1. The optional ServeRAID-MR10k provides additional RAID features and a 256 MB
battery backed cache. The x3950 M2 has four internal, hot-swap disk drive bays.
 The two, standard 1440 W hot-swap power supplies are redundant in all configurations at
220 V. At 110 V, the second power supply is not redundant.
 The scalability links between the nodes are redundant, with automatic failover between the
dual cables, while running.
Chapter 1. The IBM System x3950 M2 enterprise database server
13
14
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
2
Chapter 2.
SQL Server 2008
In this chapter, we discuss the enhancements and new features of the latest release of the
Microsoft database management system, SQL Server 2008, as well as the reasons that the
x3950 M2 is the perfect hardware platform on which to run it. Just as the x3950 M2 can run
either 32-bit or 64-bit code, the SQL Server 2008 is available in both 32-bit and 64-bit
editions. In the same way, as requirements for increased memory and processors grow, the
x3950 M2 and SQL Server 2008 together can take full advantage of these additional
resources, with excellent scalability.
It has been three years since Microsoft has introduced a major release of SQL Server. This
new release, SQL Server 2008, has significant improvements in many of the features
introduced by the previous version.
SQL Server 2008 also brings about new features on the following services: Database Engine,
Analysis Services, Integration Services, Replication Services, Service Broker, and a new
architecture design for Reporting Services service.
This chapter covers the following topics:




2.1, “SQL Server 2008 Editions” on page 16
2.2, “New and enhanced features of SQL Server 2008” on page 16
2.3, “64-bit computing and SQL Server 2008” on page 24
2.4, “Windows Server 2008 editions” on page 26
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
15
2.1 SQL Server 2008 Editions
There are seven editions of SQL Server 2008:
 SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Workgroup Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Express Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Developer Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Web Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
 SQL Server 2008 Compact Edition (32-bit only)
The Developer Edition contains all the features of the Enterprise Edition. The Developer
Edition, however, is licensed for development and testing and not for production use. SQL
Server 2008 Compact and Express Editions are available for free download. The latter is a
replacement for Microsoft Desktop Engine (MSDE) and is optimal to learn and build small
data-driven applications that are fast to deploy. Compact Edition is for stand-alone use and
occasionally connected to applications for mobile devices, desktops, and Web clients.
The Enterprise Edition enables scale up to the levels of performance necessary to support
the largest enterprise online transaction processing (OLTP), highly complex data analysis,
data warehousing systems, and business intelligence applications. It contains comprehensive
business intelligence as well as analytical capabilities and high availability features, such as
failover clustering and database mirroring, all of which enable it to handle the most
mission-critical enterprise workloads.
Enterprise Edition is the most comprehensive edition of SQL Server 2008 and is ideal for very
large organizations and highly complex requirements. It is also available in a 120-day
Evaluation Edition for the 32-bit or 64-bit platform.
For a detailed description of which features are supported in which edition, see SQL Server
2008 Books Online topic “Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server 2008”, available
from:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc645993.aspx
2.2 New and enhanced features of SQL Server 2008
In this section, we provide an overview of each of the major enhancements in SQL Server
2008.
2.2.1 SQL Server installation
SQL Server 2008 possess new setup structural design for installation, upgrades,
maintenance, failover clustering, and command prompt installation. These new installation
process enhancements are described in detail in Appendix A, “Unattended install” on
page 87.
16
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
2.2.2 Database engine new and enhanced features
The database engine introduces enhancements in these areas:





Availability
Manageability
Programmability
Scalability and Performance
Security
Database mirroring
Database mirroring can be used to improve the availability of SQL Server databases. This is
done by providing fast failover and automatic client redirection to a secondary server.
Compared to failover clustering, database mirroring has the following advantages:
 It keeps two copies of the database.
 It does not require specialized hardware.
 It simplifies setup and maintenance.
SQL Server 2008 improves log performance and also provides a new feature, automatic
recovery from corrupted pages. We cover this in more detail in “Database mirroring” on
page 60.
Auditing
This feature comprises the capacity to audit different levels of activity and changes to the SQL
Server system. With an easy to use GUI it is possible to define server or database audit
specifications that can be stored either on a file or Windows® EventLog.
Backup compression
SQL Server 2008 introduces a backup compression feature. Because a compressed backup
is smaller than an uncompressed backup of the same database, compressing the backup
requires less I/O and therefore it increases performance of backup significantly. On the other
hand, backup compression increases CPU usage; however, with Resource Governor (see
“Resource Governor” on page 19) this can be limited by creating a low-priority session. Only
SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition can create a compressed database backup, but any SQL
Server 2008 edition can restore a compressed database backup.
Change Data Capture
Change Data Capture (CDC) records DML operations (such as INSERT, UPDATE, and
DELETE) on one or more user tables and exposes the information using table-valued
functions. Extract Transform Load (ETL) constitutes a good use of this feature since in an
incremental manner it loads data in data warehouses or datamarts. From a technical
viewpoint, CDC works by asynchronously reading the changes on source tables from the
transaction log and inserting them into the tables defined for this feature.
Change tracking
SQL Server 2008 provides a change tracking mechanism for applications. Once change
tracking is configured for a table, any DML statement that affects a row in a table will cause
that modification to be recorded. Values of the primary key column are the only information
from the tracked table recorded with the change information. Those values identify the rows
that have been changed. To obtain the latest data for those rows, an application can use the
primary key column values to join the source table with the tracked table.
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
17
The difference between CDC and change tracking is that CDC captures historical change
information by capturing both the fact that DML changes occur and the actual data that was
changed, while in contrast, change tracking captures the fact that rows in a table were
changed, but does not capture the data that was changed.
Data collector
The data collector is a SQL Server component that runs continuously or on a user-defined
schedule. It collects various sets of data and stores them in a relational database known as
the management data warehouse. See “Management Data Warehouse” on page 83.
Detecting edition-related migration problems
SQL Server 2008 introduces a new dynamic management view called
sys.dm_db_persisted_sku_features to identify features that would prevent a database form
being moved between different editions of SQL Server.
Events and performance counters
New performance counters and trace events were introduced in order to track the usage of
deprecated features. Additionally, DDL Triggers and Event Notifications were expanded to
include numerous stored procedures that perform DDL-like operations.
Central Management Servers
SQL Server 2008 introduces a new method for the administration of multiple instances by
enabling designation of Central Management Servers. This feature enables an administrator
to execute queries across different servers within a single Query window in SQL Server
Management Studio. It is also useful to appraise policies across a group of servers (see
“Policy-based management administration” on page 20).
Dynamic Management Views
SQL Server 2008 introduces new Dynamic Management Views to present memory
information.
 sys.dm_os_memory_brokers
Memory brokers distributes memory allocations for SQL Server components in an
equitable manner, based on projected usage. This dynamic management view provides
information about memory brokers.
 sys.dm_os_memory_nodes
SQL Server memory manager is used by allocations that are internal to SQL Server.
Memory use from external components in the SQL server memory space can be indicated
by tracking the difference between process memory counters from
sys.dm_os_process_memory and internal counters. Nodes are created per physical NUMA
memory nodes. No allocations done directly through Windows memory allocation routines
are tracked. This DMV provides information about memory allocations done only by using
SQL Server memory manager interfaces.
 sys.dm_os_nodes
SQL OS creates node structures that imitate the hardware processor locality. Given that
System x3950 is NUMA-aware, this DMV shows the configuration for the hardware NUMA
nodes. These structures can be changed by using soft-NUMA. For more details on SQL
OS see 3.3.1, “SQL Server Operating System” on page 35.
18
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
 sys.dm_os_process_memory
This DMV can be used to get memory allocations and during the performance hit by
looking at memory_utilization_percentage & page_fault_count values are useful to see
how memory is resourced.
 sys.dm_os_sys_memory
Returns memory information from the operating system. It returns the overall system state
memory usage. Determining the overall system state is an important part of evaluating
SQL Server memory usage.
Optimize for ad hoc workload option
The optimize for ad hoc workloads option is a new server configuration option used to
improve the efficiency of the plan cache for workloads that contain many single use ad hoc
batches. Instead of storing the full compiled plan, whenever this option is set to 1, the
Database Engine stores a small compiled plan stub in the plan cache when a batch is
compiled for the first time. This technique reduces memory pressure because it prevents the
plan cache from becoming filled with compiled plans that are not reused.
The compiled plan stub allows the Database Engine to recognize that this ad hoc batch has
been compiled before but has only stored a compiled plan stub. When it is executed again, it
removes the plan stub from the plan cache, and adds the full compiled plan to the cache.
The compiled stub plan is stored in the sys.dm_exec_cached_plans catalog view.
Example 2-1 Returns the batch text of cached entries that are reused for ad hoc batches
SELECT usecounts, cacheobjtype, objtype, text
FROM sys.dm_exec_cached_plans
CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text(plan_handle)
WHERE usecounts > 1
and objtype = 'Adhoc'
ORDER BY usecounts DESC;
GO
Resource Governor
Resource Governor in SQL Server 2008 enables administrators to control the way in which
CPU and memory resources are consumed within a single SQL Server instance.
Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) only provided limited ability to control
processes within Windows by permitting restrictions on what resources the process
sqlservr.exe could consume. However, this affected every activity in the SQL Server instance.
Resource Governor is an important feature for SQL Server consolidation because
administrators can ensure the best use of available SQL Server resources based on business
requirements
SQL Server Extended Events
SQL Server 2008 introduces SQL Server Extended Events, an event infrastructure for server
systems. Extended Events enables opening windows into the run time of the host process by
using events as trace points. Those events can then be aggregated in memory, sent to a file,
or output to Event Tracing for Windows (ETW).
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
19
The possible scenarios where they can be used are:




Troubleshooting the cause of working set trimming
Troubleshooting excessive CPU usage
Troubleshooting deadlocks
Correlating request activity with ETW logs
Policy-based management administration
Declarative Management Framework (DMF) is a policy-based management framework for the
SQL Server Database Engine. Using policies, several tasks within the SQL Server
Management Studio can be managed, specifically:




System configuration
Monitoring and preventive changes to the system
Simplification of administration tasks
Detection of compliance issues
Compressed storage of tables and indexes
SQL Server 2008 supports row and page compression for both tables and indexes. The
levels that can be attained include: a heap, a table that is stored as a clustered index, a
nonclustered index, an indexed view. In the case of partitioned tables or indexes the
compression option enables configuration for each partition.
SQL Server 2008 provides a stored procedure to estimate the compression savings. This
stored procedure is called sp_estimate_data_compression_savings.
Note: You can find detailed information on the use of the stored procedure
sp_estimate_data_compression_savings by visiting SQL Server 2008 Books Online at the
following link:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms130214.aspx
Once there, navigate through the following: Database Engine → Technical Reference →
Transact-SQL Reference → System Stored Procedures → Database Engine Stored
Procedures → sp_estimate_data_compression_savings
The previously mentioned features are only available in the SQL Server 2008 Enterprise and
Developer editions.
Note: You can find detailed information on how to implement compression and the
considerations of each case by visiting the SQL Server 2008 Books Online link and
selecting: Database Engine → Development → Designing and Implementing
Structured Storage → Tables → Creating and Modifying Tables → Creating
Compressed Tables and Indexes
See also “Data compression” on page 78.
FILESTREAM storage
FILESTREAM storage integrates SQL Server Database Engine with an NTFS system by
storing BLOB as files on the file system. FILESTREAM uses the NT system cache for caching
data. The SQL Server buffer pool is not used; for that reason, this memory is available for
query processing.
20
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Security enhancements
Security enhancements in the Database Engine include:




New encryption functions
New feature for transparent data encryption
Extensible key management
DES algorithms:
– TRIPLE_DES_3KEY
– Clarification on DES Algorithms
Scalability and performance enhancements
Scalability and performance enhancements in the Database Engine include filtered indexes
and statistics, new table and query hints, and new query performance and processing
features.
2.2.3 Analysis Services new and enhanced features
The following new and enhanced features are present in Analysis Services.
Analysis Services - Multidimensional Database
This latest release of Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services introduces novel features and
developments to the Multidimensional Database, including improvements to:




Aggregation design
Cube design
Dimension design
Backup and Restore
Analysis Services - Multidimensional Datamining
The latest release introduces new characteristics and enhancements to the Multidimensional
Database, specifically those to enable:









Creation of holdout test sets
Filtering on model cases
Cross-validation of multiple mining models
Support for the data mining add-ins for Office 2007
Enhancements to the Microsoft time series algorithm
Drill through to structure cases and structure columns
Aliasing mining model columns
Querying the data mining schema rowsets
Installation on the same server as SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services
2.2.4 Reporting services new architecture design
The most important change to Reporting Services (SSRS) is that it removes the dependency
on Internet Information Services (IIS). To replace the functionality provided by IIS, SSRS now
includes the following components:




Native support for HTTP.sys and ASP.NET
URL management for site and virtual directory names
A new authentication layer
Health monitoring through new memory management features
The new service for SSRS consolidates the following services into a single service: Report
Server Web Service, Report Server Windows Service, and Report Manager.
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
21
Service architecture
The Report Server Windows service is a consolidated set of applications that runs in a single
process. SSRS stores the configuration for the entire service under files and databases,
these being: ReportServer.config, ReportServerServices.exe.config, and the report server
database.
Figure 2-1 shows the new architecture for SSRS service.
HTTP Listener
Authentication
Report Manager
Report Web
Service
Background
Processing
Front-end
access
On-demand
report
processing
Scheduled
reports
ASP.NET
ASP.NET
Figure 2-1 SSRS Service architecture
The service architecture layers are as follows:
 HTTP listener
SSRS includes an HTTP listener that monitors incoming requests directed to HTTP.sys.
The hostname and the port are specified on a URL reservation that is configured on a
case by case basis. Depending on the OS the port can be shared with other applications.
 Authentication layer
SSRS includes an authentication layer. By default it uses Windows integrated security and
NTLM authentication. It also supports basic authentication, forms or custom
authentication, and anonymous access.
 Report manager
Report manager is the client that provides Web front-end access for viewing and
managing report server content and operations.
 Report Web service
The Report Web service is the engine for all on-demand report and model processing. To
support interactive processing it begins by checking the authentication rules and then
continues to handle the requirement.
 Background processing
Background processing manages all operations that run in the background and are
initiated by the report server. Most of them involve scheduled report processing and
subscription delivery, but also included are report server database maintenance tasks.
22
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Note: Detailed information about the service architecture of Reporting Services is
available from the SQL Server 2008 Books Online Web site at:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms130214.aspx
Once there, select: Reporting Services → Planning and Architecture → Service
Architecture
2.2.5 Additional enhancements and features
The enhancements mentioned in this section expand on existing functionality.
Integration Services enhancements
Integration Services introduces improvements on the following areas:
 Component enhancements
– New ADO.NET components
– New data profiling task and data profile viewer
– New Integration Services Connections project wizard to create a package that contains
the connection information that is needed to connect to data sources and destinations.
– New Script Environment
 Data management enhancements
– Enhanced data type handling in the SQL Server import and export wizard
– New date and time data types
– Enhanced SQL statements to:
•
•
•
Perform multiple data manipulation language (DML) operations
Retrieve data about changes to a data source
Improve the performance of the bulk load operation when the data is sorted
according to the clustered index on the table
 Performance and troubleshooting enhancements
– Change data capture (see “Change Data Capture” on page 17)
– New debug dump files
Service Broker enhancements
SQL Server 2008 introduces new features for Service Broker in the following areas:




Conversation priorities
Diagnostic utility
Service broker elements in object explorer
System monitor object and counters
Replication enhancements
SQL Server 2008 offers advances in peer-to-peer replication and Replication Monitor, and
adds enhanced transaction replication for partitioned tables.
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
23
2.3 64-bit computing and SQL Server 2008
Intel and AMD both offer 64-bit extensions to the long-standing 32-bit x86 architecture.
Collectively, these two technologies are referred to as “x64.” Internally, the architectures differ,
but they can be considered comparable in what they offer. x64 offers full backwards
compatibility for 32-bit applications. For scalability reasons, IBM has chosen to use the Intel
64-bit processor technology in servers such as the IBM System x3950 M2.
Intel also manufactures the Itanium® 2 processor, which is built on an entirely different 64-bit
architecture. Itanium 2 is not backwards compatible with x86 applications or cross-compatible
with x64 applications. This is because it implements a new instruction set called EPIC, which
was designed to be the next-generation processor architecture for mainframe class
scalability. However, its adoption has not been widespread and it is not a mass-market
technology.
The following sections look at the limitations that are imposed by 32-bit hardware and
software, and how 64-bit hardware and software addresses those limitations.
2.3.1 Windows, SQL Server, and 32-bit versus 64-bit
SQL Server 2008 is available in three versions: as a 32-bit version, EM64T 64-bit (x64), and
Itanium 64-bit versions; however, the IBM System x3950 M2 only runs the 32-bit and x64
versions. Running a 64-bit version of SQL Server also requires a matching version of the
operating system.
Table 2-1 shows the combinations of Windows Server® 2008 and SQL Server that run on the
IBM System x3950.
Table 2-1 Valid combinations of Windows Server and SQL Server running on System x3950 M2
Windows Server 2008, 32-bit
Windows Server 2008, x64
SQL Server 2005 32-bit (SP2)
Supported
Supported
SQL Server 2005 x64 (SP2)
Not valid
Supported
SQL Server 2008 32-bit
Supported
Supported
SQL Server 2008 x64
Not valid
Supported
SQL Server 2005 must have Service Pack 2 to run on Windows Server 2008.
Itanium versions of Windows and SQL Server are not supported on the x3950 M2
There are three combinations for running 32-bit and x64 versions of both Windows Server
2008 and 5SQL Server 2005:
 Both 32-bit
 x64 Windows and 32-bit SQL Server
 x64 Windows and x64 SQL Server
Windows and SQL Server, both 32-bit
When 32-bit Windows Server 2008 is run, either 32-bit SQL Server 2005 or 32-bit SQL Server
2008 can be run. All processes run in 32-bit, so there is no 64-bit option for SQL Server in this
case.
24
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
With 4 GB of RAM, the /3GB parameter boot.ini can be used to switch the split to 1 GB for the
kernel and 3 GB for the user portion of the Virtual Address Space (VAS).
If more than 4 GB of physical memory is installed, 32-bit SQL Server can use it as the
database buffer pool. However, Physical Address Extension (PAE) must be enabled in
Windows (add the /PAE switch to boot.ini) as well as Address Windowing Extensions (AWE)
in SQL Server (using sp_configure).
Note: For systems with more than 16 GB of RAM, you cannot enable both /3GB and /PAE.
See Section 9.11 of the Redbooks publicationTuning IBM Eserver xSeries Servers for
Performance, SG24-5287 for details.
The following must all fit in the 2 GB user mode portion of the process address space: the
entire SQL Server memory objects, binary code, data buffers, database page headers (512
MB for 64 GB of database buffers), sort area, connections, stored procedure caches, and
open cursors. Basically, everything but the unmapped cached database pages.
To access the database buffer pool pages above the 4 GB line, SQL Server must map them
into the address space below the 4 GB line (Figure 2-2). This mapping incurs some
performance overhead.
64 GB physical memory
4 GB virtual address space
2 GB kernal VA space
AWE
mapping
2 GB user VA space
SQL Server
cached db
pages
2 GB
SQL Server
VA space
4 to 64 GB
2 to 4 GB
0 to 2 GB
Binary code
Data buffers
DB page headers
Sort area
Connections
Stored proc cache
Open cursors
0 GB
Figure 2-2 SQL Server 2008 uses AWE memory only for buffer pool pages
Whenever a SQL Server workload is constrained by the 2 GB user mode limit for reasons
other than requiring more database buffer pages, it will not benefit from having more than
4 GB of physical memory. This is a hardware architectural bottleneck, which is relieved by
using 64-bit hardware and software.
SQL Server 2008 32-bit experiences the same hardware architectural bottleneck. SQL Server
2008 manages all of its memory (including the AWE memory) dynamically, releasing and
allocating memory in response to internal and external memory pressure.
Windows Server x64 and SQL Server 32-bit
With a Windows Server 2008, x64 Edition installation, you can run either SQL Server 2005
with Service Pack 2 or 32-bit SQL Server 2008.
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
25
SQL Server 2008 runs in WOW64 (Windows on Windows) in a user mode address space of 4
GB. Unlike running the same application on 32-bit Windows, SQL Server 2008 has a full 4 GB
of user mode address space given that the 64-bit kernel runs in its own address space. This
possibility provides some relief for SQL Server workloads that are constrained by the 2 GB
user mode address space of a 32-bit operating system.
SQL Server 2008 can also be configured to use AWE to access up to 64 GB of physical
memory on x64 systems. The AWE memory above 4 GB must still be mapped into the lower
4 GB user mode address space to be used.
SQL Server 2008 32-bit benefits in the same way that SQL Server 2005 does with a 4 GB
user mode address space that is not shared with the operating system. With AWE enabled,
SQL Server 2008 can access up to 64 GB of physical memory on the x3950 M2. This results
from the fact that maximum memory for a process running in the WOW64 on Intel x64 is
64 GB. SQL Server 2008 will manage all of its memory (including the AWE memory)
dynamically, releasing and allocating memory in response to internal and external memory
pressure.
Windows and SQL Server 2008, both 64-bit
When Windows Server 2008 x64 is run, the x64 version of SQL Server 2008 can be installed.
SQL Server 2008 64-bit enjoys the same memory addressability as the 64-bit operating
system. The 64-bit user mode address space is not limited to 4 GB, and it can use memory
up to the operating system maximum for any purpose, not just for database buffers. AWE
mapping is not required because the memory model is flat under 64-bit addressing. This
provides the most efficient utilization of resources for SQL Server 2008.
See the Redpaper Introducing Windows Server x64 on IBM Eserver xSeries Servers,
REDP-3982 for more information about 32-bit and 64-bit memory addressing.
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp3982.html
2.4 Windows Server 2008 editions
In this section, we compare the editions of Windows Server 2008, discuss the Datacenter
edition, and identify the processor and memory limits.
2.4.1 Comparing Windows Server 2008 editions
Microsoft offers five editions of Windows Server 2008: Web, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter
and Itanium editions. For up to date technical specifications and system configuration limits
among the editions, see the “Compare Technical Features and Specifications” page for
Windows Server 2008 at the Microsoft web site:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/compare-specs.aspx
Windows Server 2008, Datacenter Edition can provide server clustering and scaling with
respect to memory and processors that is beyond any other current or previous version of
Windows Server. The Datacenter Edition is also part of a program designed to provide the
highest level of availability and support.
Enterprise Edition and Datacenter Edition are similar in most aspects. But, you should pay
close attention to the differences in high availability and image virtualization features between
Enterprise and Datacenter editions if you need to support very large, “scale up” workloads.
26
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
2.4.2 Windows Datacenter models
IBM offers Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Datacenter Edition on the x3950 M2, either the
32-bit version or the 64-bit version.
There are two x3950 M2 Datacenter offerings:
Datacenter Unlimited Virtualization
Datacenter Unlimited Virtualization is optimized for customers requiring the highest level of
scalability, reliability and virtualization. This offering supports stand-alone server solutions
that scale from 2-sockets to 32-sockets. Datacenter Edition Unlimited Virtualization is an ideal
solution for clients who require high performance and scalability in an SMP server
environment. This end-to-end offering comes as a fully configured, certified, pre-installed
system.
Datacenter Unlimited Virtualization with High Availability
The Datacenter Unlimited Virtualization with High Availability Program consists of specific
IBM Datacenter UVHA offerings that have been both IBM ServerProven® and Microsoft
Cluster Certified. Customer-tailored service offerings deliver worry-free installation and
provide the support you need to deliver high uptime for your business-critical applications.
2.4.3 Processor and memory limits
Windows Server 2008 x64 Edition supports a significant amount of physical memory. The
number of processors that are supported has also increased in Windows Server 2008,
Datacenter Edition. The amount of physical memory that is supported for the Enterprise and
Datacenter editions is greater than the amount of memory that can be installed in servers
today.
The maximum configuration of the x3950 M2 is 16-way (four chassis with four processor
sockets) and 1 TB of physical memory (using 8 GB DIMMs).
Microsoft licensing is based on physical processors (sockets) and not on the number of cores
per processor.
Therefore, if an x3950 M2 is fitted with four quad-core or six-core Xeon processors, a license
for Windows Server 2008, Standard Edition is sufficient. This is true even though the system
contains 16 or 24 processor cores and the Windows operating system sees 16 or 24
processors.
Chapter 2. SQL Server 2008
27
28
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
3
Chapter 3.
Platform synergy
Both the x3950 M2 and SQL Server 2008 scale very well to 16 processors (64 cores on
quad-core sockets) and 1 TB of RAM. This type of scalability, where all system resources
across the multi-node complex (processors, memory, and PCI resources) are seen as one
unified hardware platform for the operating system and applications, is known as scale-up.
The key to effective scalability is affinity, that is, linking system resources that are in the
same node to maximize performance. For example, for the best performance, any memory
operations that a processor executes should involve RAM that is installed in the same node
as the processor. Fetching memory from another node can impact performance.
This chapter describes scalability and affinity in more detail. It also explains how scalability
and performance can become complicated in a server environment with hundreds, if not
thousands, of supported users. In a high-end server, such as the x3950 M2, many workloads
occur simultaneously on the server. Thus, in this environment, it is important to distribute
server resources optimally. When affinity is not configured properly, contention of resources
might occur, which often leads to serious performance degradation.
There are a number of parameters in SQL Server and Windows Server 2008 that are related
to scalability and affinity. When these Microsoft products are combined with the x3950 M2,
the solution demonstrates high scalability.
This chapter covers the following topics:
 3.1, “Scalable hardware implementation” on page 30
 3.2, “Affinity in Windows Server 2008” on page 32
 3.3, “Affinity in SQL Server 2008” on page 35
 3.4, “Server consolidation” on page 49
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
29
3.1 Scalable hardware implementation
In the standard single chassis four-way configuration, the x3950 M2 acts as an industry
standard SMP system. Each processor has equal access to all system resources.
In an SMP environment, the concentration of memory access to the memory controller is an
obstacle for scalability. The memory controller is a core component that manages I/O to and
from memory. With SMP configurations, when the processors are added, the number of
memory controllers does not change. As the number of transactions increases, so do
requests to the memory controller, which causes a significant bottleneck. As a result, SMP is
less efficient the more processors you have.
However, with multi-node x3950 M2 configurations, a NUMA-like architecture (non-uniform
memory architecture) is implemented by connecting the scalability ports of each node
together (see Figure 1-2 on page 3). These ports are directly connected to the memory
controller in each node and allow high speed communication between processors located in
different nodes. The ports act as though they were hardware extensions to the CPU local
buses. They direct read and write requests to the appropriate memory or I/O resources, and
they also maintain cache coherency between the processors.
The term NUMA is not completely correct because not only can memory be accessed in a
non-uniform manner, but also I/O resources. PCI-e and USB devices might be associated
with nodes. The exception to this are I/O devices such as diskette and CD-ROM drives that
are disabled because the classic PC architecture precludes multiple copies of these items.
The main difference between PCI-X and PCI-e is that PCI-X, due to backward compatibility
requirements, runs at the speed of the slowest device. All PCI-X devices must be able to run
at lower speed to work in older systems. Because the data is transferred in parallel, either 32
or 64 bits at a time, this means that PCI-X 64-bit/133Mhz = 1GB/s.
On the other hand, PCI Express (PCI-e) is an entirely new bus architecture. It performs serial
data transfers. Transfers are bi-directional, so data can flow to and from devices
simultaneously. Since data is switched, more than 1 device can be transferring at the same
time. So because PCI-e is a point-to-point serial connection, total bus bandwidth is no longer
an issue. In System x3950 M2 PCI-e is specified as x8. This specifies the number of lanes
that the slot offers. A lane is a bi-directional serial channel capable of around 250MB/s in
each direction, so an x8 slot should be 2GB/s in each direction (total 4GB/s).
The key to effective scalability is to add memory controllers as you add nodes. With the
four-way x3950 M2, there is one memory controller; the 16-way has four memory controllers.
In multi-node x3950 M2 configurations, the physical memory in each node is combined to
form a single coherent physical address space. The result is a system where, for any given
region of physical memory, some processors are closer to it than other processors.
Conversely, for any processor, some memory is considered local and other memory is
remote.
Memory can be described in one of two ways, depending on the relation to a given processor:
 Local memory: Memory is in the same node as the processor.
 Remote memory: Memory is installed in another node that is directly connected by
scalability cables.
Figure 3-1 on page 31 shows an example of a local memory access (CPU 1) and a remote
memory access (CPU 6).
30
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
x3950 M2 (Node 1)
CPU
0
I/O
CPU
8
I/O
CPU
1
CPU
2
2:2
Memory
Controller
x3950 M2 (Node 2)
CPU
3
CPU
4
I/O
CPU
5
CPU
6
2:2
Memory
Controller
8:8
8:8
Memory
Memory
CPU
9
CPU
10
2:2
Memory
Controller
CPU
11
CPU
12
I/O
CPU
13
CPU
14
2:2
Memory
Controller
8:8
8:8
Memory
Memory
x3950 M2 (Node 3)
CPU
7
CPU
15
x3950 M2 (Node 4)
Figure 3-1 Local memory access and remote memory access
Note: Figure 3-1 shows a conceptual diagram of a four-node NUMA configuration on
System x3950 M2. As shown in Figure 1-2 on page 3, the Memory Controller has 2 buses
connecting to PCIe and 8 buses connecting to physical memory.
There are three important aspects that are associated with memory subsystem performance
in this type of configuration: memory latency, queuing time, and snooping.
 Memory latency
Remote memory access takes more time than local memory access because of the travel
time through the interconnects (one interconnect for a remote memory access). The delay
incurred as a result of this long path is called latency. Remote access can decrease
performance when compared with local memory access. So, to increase the performance
of servers in a NUMA environment, the operating system and application must strive to
limit the use of remote memory as much as possible. This concept is known as affinity.
Affinity in the x3950 M2 means that local resources (CPU, memory, PCI devices) are
grouped together and that the operating system recognizes these groups and attempts to
limit the resources used by a thread to just those in a group.
However, while affinity is important, this focus on latency misses the actual problem that
NUMA is attempting to solve: shorten memory request queues.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
31
 Memory queuing time
Memory latency is only part of the picture, but is often the aspect that receives the most
focus. As with a large SMP-based design, the more processors that access the same
memory controller and memory, the greater the potential for poor performance. The
bottleneck then becomes the number of access operations in the queue to be actioned.
Another way to think about this is to consider the analogy of shopping at a local
supermarket. Directly in front of you is a check-out lane with 10 customers standing in line
but 20 meters to your left is another check-out lane with only two customers standing in
line. Which would you go to? The check-out lane closest to your position has the lowest
latency because you do not have far to travel. But the check-out lane 20 meters away has
much greater latency because you have to walk that far.
Clearly most people would walk the 20 meters, incurring a delay, to arrive at a check-out
lane with only two customers instead of 10. We think this way because our experience tells
us that the time waiting to check-out with 10 people ahead of us (the request queue) is far
longer than the time needed to walk to the “remote” check-out lane (latency) and wait for
only two people ahead.
This analogy clearly communicates the performance effects of queuing time versus
latency. In a computer server, with many concurrent outstanding memory requests, we
would gladly incur some additional latency (walking) to spread memory transactions
(check-out process) across multiple memory controllers (check-out lanes) because this
greatly improves performance by reducing the queuing time.
 Snooping
In a traditional SMP design, before a piece of data is retrieved from memory, all caches
that are local to every processor must be queried to determine whether that data is stored
in a cache and whether it has been modified by another process running in that processor.
For a small SMP, this snooping procedure (called the MESI protocol, for the four states
that data can be in: modified, exclusive, shared, invalid) is sufficiently efficient. However,
as you add more processors, the overhead becomes overwhelming.
The solution implemented in the x3950 M2 is a special fourth level of cache, the XceL4v
cache, that maintains a table of all contents and eliminates the need to query every
processor. In addition, for multi-node x3950 M2 configurations, the XceL4v acts as a
cache to reduce latency across the scalability cables.
It is important to note that the traffic across the scalability cables is not only memory access.
As you can see in Figure 3-1 on page 31, each node also has local PCIe slots that can have
devices such as FC adapters, Ethernet controllers, and the like. The operating system and
application must maximize overall performance for these devices also.
3.2 Affinity in Windows Server 2008
This section discusses how process, scheduling, and memory management are optimized for
the x3950 M2 scalable architecture and Windows Server 2008. It also describes the relevant
parameters in Windows Server 2008.
3.2.1 NUMA optimization for Windows Server 2008
Most editions of Windows Server 2008 are optimized for NUMA as listed in Table 3-1 on
page 33. In general, when we discuss Windows Server 2008 in this section, we mean
Windows Server 2008 editions that are optimized for NUMA.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Table 3-1 Versions of Windows Server optimized for NUMA
x86 (32-bit)
x64 (64-bit)
IA64 (64-bit)
Windows 2008 Web Edition
No
Not applicable
Not applicable
Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition
No
No
Not applicable
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 obtains the NUMA information from the SRAT table in the system BIOS
while booting. That is, NUMA architecture servers must have the SRAT table and the x3950
M2 to use this function. Windows Server 2008 cannot recognize system topology without the
SRAT table.
At startup, Windows Server 2008 builds a graph of the NUMA node access cost, that is, the
relative distance (memory latency). The system uses the information on the SRAT table to
determine the ideal node from which to obtain the resources. If adequate resources are not
available on the ideal node, the operating system consults the table for the next best choice.
Windows Server 2008 incorporates further NUMA enhancements for paging. The operating
system prefetches pages to the application’s ideal node and migrates pages to the ideal node
when a soft page fault occurs. A soft page fault occurs when the system finds the requested
page elsewhere in memory, whereas a hard page fault requires reading the page in from disk.
You can find more information on the implementation of ACPI of Windows Server 2008 from:
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/default.mspx
Note: See “Kernel Enhancements for Windows Vista® and Windows Server Longhorn”
and “Advances in Memory Management for Windows” papers on the Windows Hardware
Developer Central Site for information about ACPI implementation and NUMA
enhancements on Windows Server 2008.
3.2.2 Process and thread scheduling
Process scheduling is optimized in the NUMA environment. When a new process is created,
Windows Server 2008 uses a round-robin algorithm to assign it to the next NUMA node in the
system. Each process has a local node and default processor that belong to it.
Windows Server 2008 ensures that whenever possible the application runs on the ideal
processor and that any memory that the application allocates comes from the ideal
processor’s node. If the ideal node is unavailable or its resources are exhausted, the system
uses the next best choice.
Earlier Windows releases allocated the memory from the current processor’s node, and if its
resources were exhausted, from any node. Thus, in earlier Windows releases, a process that
ran briefly on a non-optimal node could have long-lasting memory allocations on that node,
causing slower, less-efficient operation.
With Windows Server 2008 defaults, the system allocates the memory on the ideal node even
if the process is currently running on some other node. If there is not available memory on the
ideal node it would use the SRAT table for the closest to the ideal instead.
This type of resource allocation policy increases the possibility that a process and all its
resources are on the same node or on the most optimal alternative.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
33
The thread scheduler for Windows Server 2008 is also optimized for NUMA. The operating
system schedules the ideal processor based on priority, or, if that processor is not available, it
schedules the thread to the closest processor in the local node. If all processors in the local
node are unavailable, the operating system schedules the thread to processors in the closest
node to the ideal node.
This is sometimes referred to as soft processor affinity to contrast with the hard processor
affinity you can configure with Windows System Resource Manager or within SQL Server
2008.
One of the most important differences between Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server
2008 is that the more recent version does differentiate between distances. This is probably
the most important enhancement on scheduling in NUMA systems.
You can prevent Windows Server 2008 from scheduling certain processors (for example,
non-local processors) by using hard processor affinity. Hard affinity is the function of binding
specific CPUs to a process and is available with the following tools:
 Affinity option in applications such as SQL Server 2008
In SQL Server 2008, you can choose which processors can be used by the product by
changing the affinity mask. By default, SQL Server 2008 can use all processors in the
system.
See 3.3, “Affinity in SQL Server 2008” on page 35 for more detail.
 Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM)
WSRM is a tool that provides resource management of processors and memory
resources. With WSRM, you can specify which CPUs you want each process to run on.
You can install WSRM from the Windows Server 2008 Manager. WSRM is included with
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition and Datacenter Edition and is covered by the
license for these products.
In both cases, the editions of Windows Server 2008 that can install WSRM are listed in
Table 3-2.
Table 3-2 Windows Server editions that include WSRM
x86 (32-bit)
x64 (64-bit)
IA64 (64-bit)
Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition
No
No
No
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
Yes
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition
Yes
Yes
Yes
Normally you should not use WSRM on a system that is running SQL Server 2008 in a
production environment because the two schedulers (WSRM and the CPU Affinity Mask in
SQL Server) might cause conflicts and system degradation. However, there are situations
where you might want to use both. For example, if you wish to share the x3950 M2 between
SQL Server and Internet Information Server (IIS), then you could use WSRM to restrict IIS to
only processors 0 and 1, for example, and configure SQL Server to be restricted to just
processors 2 through 7. It is important to ensure that no processors are available to both
schedulers because this causes contention problems.
WSRM is recommended to allocate CPU resources between different database instances or
other components as Analysis Services.
WSRM is best used when more than one service that consumes a significant amount of
resources is installed on the same computer. These services could include any combination
34
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
of SQL Server, Analysis Services, Reporting Services, and Integration Services, your own
services, and third-party services. It is best to use the built in controls for processor affinity for
SQL Server. WSRM would also be used to control the memory consumption for Reporting
Services and Integration Services since Analysis Services and SQL Server have their own
controls.
3.3 Affinity in SQL Server 2008
This section describes the affinity options with SQL Server 2008 and NUMA optimization for
SQL Server 2008.
3.3.1 SQL Server Operating System
SQL Server 2008 maintains the architecture previously released on SQL Server 2005 of SQL
Server Operating System (SQLOS) acting as a layer between SQL Server and the operating
system. SQLOS is a user-level, highly configurable operating system with a powerful API that
enables automatic locality and advanced parallelism.
SQLOS attempts to hide the complexity of the underlying hardware from high-level
programmers. It also provides a comprehensive set of features to programmers who are
willing to take advantage of the hardware underneath the system. SQLOS services include
non-preemptive scheduling, memory management, deadlock detection, exception handling,
hosting for external components such as CLR, and other services.
SQLOS has a hierarchical architecture, which means that SQLOS changes its structure
based on the hardware platform that SQL Server 2008 is running on. Figure 3-2 illustrates
SQLOS on an single node based server.
SQLOS
SQLOS MemoryNode
SQLOS CPUNode
SQLOS Scheduler Core n
SQLOS Scheduler Core 2
SQLOS Scheduler Core 1
SQLOS Scheduler Core 0
Figure 3-2 SQLOS on a one node server
Figure 3-3 on page 36 illustrates SQLOS on a two-node NUMA server such as a two-node
(8-way) x3950 M2.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
35
SQLOS
SQLOS MemoryNode
SQLOS MemoryNode
SQLOS CPUNode
SQLOS CPUNode
SQLOS Scheduler Core n
SQLOS Scheduler Core n
SQLOS Scheduler Core 2
SQLOS Scheduler Core 2
SQLOS Scheduler Core 1
SQLOS Scheduler Core 1
SQLOS Scheduler Core 0
SQLOS Scheduler Core 0
Figure 3-3 SQLOS on a NUMA server (eight-way x3950 M2 - two nodes)
Notice that with SQLOS on a single node based server, SQLOS only has one memory node,
while SQLOS on the two-node x3950 M2 has two memory nodes. In a four-node there will be
four memory nodes. SQLOS recognizes the two nodes and the information of locality
regarding processors and memory in the server.
3.3.2 Processor and I/O affinity
By default, no specific processor affinity is set in SQL Server 2008, and all processors can be
scheduled to perform all tasks. SQL Server 2008 still attempts to localize the use of resources
to take advantage of the NUMA design of the x3950 M2. If you wish to precisely define how
system resources are used, hard processor affinity can be enabled in SQL Server 2008. It is
possible to configure the affinity setting per instance.
There are two ways to define an affinity mask in SQL Server 2008:
 Use SQL Server Management Studio graphical interface.
 Use the sp_configure stored procedure.
To change processor affinity, do the following:
1. Select Start ♦ Programs ♦ Microsoft SQL Server 2008 ♦ SQL Server Management
Studio. The Server Properties window opens.
2. Connect to the SQL Server instance.
3. Right-click the instance icon in Object Explore, and click Properties.
4. Click Processors in Select a page in the left pane. See Figure 3-4 on page 37.
5. Select or clear the check marks in the Processor Affinity column to specify which
processors you want this particular database instance to use.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Figure 3-4 Processor affinity and I/O affinity in SQL Server 2008
I/O affinity can associate SQL Server disk I/O to a specified subset of processors so that
specified processors handle all disk I/O.
This option can work effectively in the OLTP environment where high load is generated,
especially in cases of a server with 16 or more processors. I/O affinity can enhance the
performance of SQL Server threads that are issuing I/O. For example, as shown in Figure 3-4,
we assign CPU 0 for I/O affinity and the rest for processor affinity. However, I/O affinity does
not always improve performance, so you must be careful before using it.
Note that this function does not support hardware affinity for individual disks or disk
controllers.
I/O affinity can be configured in either SQL Server Management Studio (as shown in
Figure 3-4) or the sp_configure stored procedure (as described in “Affinity I/O mask” on
page 72)
In order to specify any of the affinity mask options by executing sp_configure it is necessary
to calculate the value for the @configvalue parameter.
SQL Server uses a bitmap to number each core (as show in Table 3-3 on page 38).
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
37
Table 3-3 Number of bytes and number of cores supported
# Bytes affinity mask
# Cores supported
1
8
2
16
3
24
4
32
To cover more than 32 CPUs, configure a four-byte affinity mask for the first 32 CPUs and up
to a four-byte Affinity64 mask for the remaining CPUs.
Although the sp_configure stored procedure can accept integer values for the @configvalue,
the recommendation is to work with the hexadecimal number of the actual bitmap. For
example, if we need to configure an affinity mask for cores 30 and 31 we will use the
0xC0000000 hex number instead of its decimal -1073741824.
For an example of how to use sp_configure to specify the affinity settings shown in Figure 3-4
on page 37, see “Affinity I/O mask” on page 72.
Note: For more information regarding the Affinity Mask or Affinity64 Mask option see SQL
Server 2008 Books Online.
3.3.3 Soft NUMA
After configuring affinity on the cores, the next step is configuring SQL Server’s Soft NUMA
nodes. The work that comes into a certain Soft NUMA node is handled by that Soft NUMA
node exclusively. This keeps the processors, caches, memory, and data related to the work
all local to the Soft NUMA node.
For example, you can divide a 2-way x3950 M2 (4 x quad-core = 32 cores) that has two
physical nodes into three logical nodes as follows:
 Logical NUMA node 0 comprised of processors 0 to 15 in physical node 1
 Logical NUMA node 1 comprised of processors 16 to 23 in physical node 2
 Logical NUMA node 2 comprised of processors 24 to 31 in physical node 2
To specify the logical node arrangement in SQL Server 2008, use a binary mask that
represents cores. The mask has a bit for each core as 31...876543210 with the first core as
zero from right to left. Set each core bit to 1 to select a core or 0 to not select a core.
Table 3-4 shows the masks for each of these logical nodes.
Table 3-4 Node identifier masks
Node #
Binary
Hexadecimal
Logical NUMA node 0
00000000000000001111111111111111
0x0000FFFF
Logical NUMA node 1
00000000111111110000000000000000
0x00FF0000
Logical NUMA node 2
11111111000000000000000000000000
0xFF000000
Configuring the logical NUMA nodes requires that you directly edit the registry as follows:
1. First configure affinity mask and affinity I/O mask options in the instance as shown in
Example 3-1 on page 39 for affinities on all cores of the server.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Example 3-1 Configure script for setting affinity mask and affinity I/O mask with sp_configure
EXEC sys.sp_configure N'affinity mask', 0xFFFFFFFF
GO
EXEC sys.sp_configure N'affinity I/O mask', 0
GO
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE
GO
2. Start regedit.
3. Create the registry keys and DWORD values as follows:
– [HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\NodeConfiguration\Node0]
"CPUMask"=DWORD: 0000FFFF
– [HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\NodeConfiguration\Node1]
"CPUMask"=DWORD: 000FF0000
– [HKLM\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\NodeConfiguration\Node2]
"CPUMask"=DWORD: FF000000
These updates are shown in Figure 3-5.
4. Map the logical nodes to the port numbers as described in 3.3.4, “Network affinity” on
page 40.
5. Restart the server.
Figure 3-5 Registry settings to configure Soft NUMA nodes
A logical node that spans multiple physical nodes cannot be created. For example, it is not
possible to configure a logical node with processor 18 in physical node 1 and processor 4 in
physical node 2. However, it is possible to use processors in multiple physical nodes for one
workload.
Note: To view the configuration on the nodes you can query sys.dm_os_nodes catalog
view.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
39
3.3.4 Network affinity
Network affinity was first introduced in SQL Server 2005 and it is also supported in SQL
Server 2008. This feature provides clients with the ability to connect to specific nodes.
Network Affinity can be set by IP address (the IP address you connect to determines your
Soft NUMA node) or by IP port (the IP port you connect to determines your Soft NUMA node).
Tip: In the SQL Server 2008 Books Online, this network affinity is called NUMA affinity.
To maximize the effectiveness of the network affinity, it is best to have a network adapter
physically residing on each hardware node, each with its own IP address.
For example, consider an eight-way x3950 M2 and two network cards in the server, one in
each node. In this case, we can set a port-based connection affinity.
We can configure these settings in the SQL Server Configuration Manager GUI or the
Windows registry.
When this setting is used, the workload of Port 1 can only be processed by Soft NUMA node
0, the workload of Port 2 is only processed by Soft NUMA node 1; and the workload of Port 3
is only processed by Soft NUMA node 3 (see Table 3-4 on page 38 for information on how the
Soft NUMA nodes are formed)
Thus, each workload takes full advantage of local memory access because the requested
data is located in local memory whenever possible. If the memory in the local node is
insufficient, then memory in another node would be allocated.
To configure network affinity in SQL Server 2008, use a binary mask that represents nodes,
similar to that described in 3.3.3, “Soft NUMA” on page 38.
The mask has a bit for each node as 210 with the first node (node 0) as the rightmost bit in
the mask. Set each node bit to 1 to select a node or 0 to not select a node.
For example:
 To specify just node 0, use mask 001 or hex 0x1.
 To specify just node 1, use mask 010 or hex 0x2.
 To specify just nodes 2, use mask 100 or hex 0x4.
To specify all nodes, use a mask of -1 or leave the field blank.
In our example, we configured the affinity of a two-node x3950 M2 (2-way) by mapping node
1 to port 49200, node 2 to port 49205 and node 3 to port 49215. You can do this as follows:
1. Select Start ♦ Programs ♦ Microsoft SQL Server 2008 ♦ Configuration Tools ♦ SQL
Server Configuration Manager.
2. In SQL Server Configuration Manager, expand SQL Server 2008 Network Configuration
and expand Protocols for <instance name>, where <instance name> is the database
instance you wish to configure.
3. In the details pane, double-click TCP/IP. If “Listen All” is enabled, then SQL Server will be
listening for connections on all of the IP addresses the server has, as shown in Figure 3-6
on page 41.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Figure 3-6 Protocol setting for affinity in SQL Server Configuration Manager
4. Assuming the use of “Listen All”, go to the “IP All” section on the “IP Addresses” tab and
go to the “TCP Port” line. This is where you will list the IP ports that SQL Server will be
listening on all IP addresses. To affinitize each port for certain Soft NUMA nodes you
should list them as:
port1[mask1], port2[mask2],....
In this case we are going to configure ports affinity as:
1433,49200[0x01],49205[0x02],49215[0x04]
It will look as shown in Figure 3-7 on page 42.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
41
Figure 3-7 Port setting for NUMA affinity in SQL Server Configuration Manager
This means that users that connect to SQL Server via any IP address on port 1433 can
have their work assigned to any Soft NUMA node. Connections via port 49200 will be
affinitized to Soft NUMA node 1, port 49205 to Soft NUMA node 2 and port 49215 to Soft
NUMA node 3.
Note: If you leave Listen All as No (disabled) in Figure 3-6 on page 41, you will need to
set the connection affinities for the specific addresses that are enabled, as shown in
Figure 3-7.
5. Restart SQL Server 2008 Service so that the changes take affect.
6. Finally, the users need to be configured so they connect to the desired port.
Consider a two-way x3950 M2 with two physical nodes. We want to use 24 processors for
OLAP workload and the remaining processors for data loading.
First, make three logical nodes as previously described. Then specify masks as described in
the following paragraph.
To assign the OLAP workload to port 49200, specify node mask of logical nodes 0 and 1
(mask 011 or 0x3) in the TCP Port field, and to assign the data loading workload to port
49205, specify logical node 3 (mask 100 or 0x4) in the TCP Port field.
49200[0x03],49205[0x04]
Figure 3-8 on page 43 shows the port settings for Soft NUMA nodes with affinity 0 and 1 to
OLAP workload and Soft NUMA node 2 to OLTP workload.
When you perform this configuration, the OLAP workload to Port 49200 uses twenty four
cores (0 to 23) and the data loading workload to port 49205 uses eight cores (24 to 31).
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Figure 3-8 Port settings for Soft NUMA nodes
3.3.5 Memory
SQL Server can allocate memory effectively in multi-node configurations such as the x3950
M2. As previously described, SQL Server 2008 has SQLOS, and it attempts to localize the
use of resources to take advantage of the NUMA design of the x3950 M2. That is, SQL
Server 2008 tries to allocate data in the same memory as that of the requesting processor to
leverage local memory access.
With SQL Server 2008, how much memory is allocated on each node can be viewed by using
the DBCC MEMORYSTATUS command.
In addition, memory usage can be monitored by using the Windows performance counter:
SQLServer:BufferNode.
Tip: To see the effect of the NUMA awareness in SQL Server 2008, disable the NUMA
optimizations with trace flag 8015. Then confirm memory usage with the DBCC
MEMORYSTATUS command. See SQL Server 2008 Books Online to learn how to set
trace flags.
To configure memory per instance, use the SQL Server Management Studio or the
sp_configure stored procedure. To change the memory setting with SQL Server
Management Studio, follow these steps:
1. Select Start ♦ Programs ♦ Microsoft SQL Server 2008 ♦ SQL Server Management
Studio.
2. Connect to SQL Server instance.
3. Right-click the instance icon in Object Explore, and select Properties.
4. Select Memory in Select a page in the left pane.
5. Change Minimum server memory and Maximum server memory, indicated in red in
Figure 3-9 on page 44.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
43
Figure 3-9 Memory setting in SQL Server Management Studio
To change the parameters using sp_configure:
Example 3-2 Change memory configuration using sp_configure
EXEC sys.sp_configure N'min server memory (MB)', N'1024'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_configure N'max server memory (MB)', N'8192'
GO
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE
GO
3.3.6 Resource Governor
Resource Governor is a new feature included in SQL Server 2008 for management of
resource contention between sessions running on the same SQL Server instance. It enables
you to manage SQL Server workloads and resources by specifying limits on resource
consumption by incoming requests to the database engine. Resource Governor does this by
incorporating the concepts of:
 Classification functions
 Workload groups
 Resource pools
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Classification functions
Classification functions are rules that are used to group SQL Server sessions. Sessions are
groups based on a set of user-specified criteria and are stored in a SQL function. This allows
Resource Governor to manage the group of sessions collectively.
Workload groups
A workload group is a logical container for grouping sessions requests with similar
classification criteria. Resource Governor predefines two fixed workload groups: Internal and
Default. The Internal workload group cannot be changed, but the group can be monitored. All
sessions that do not apply to any classification criteria, or if there is a general classification
failure, will be classified into the default workload group.
Resource pools
The resource pools represents the physical separation of the resources in the server. A
resource pool is like a virtual SQL Server instance inside a SQL Server instance. The
resource pool has two parts: The first one enables minimum resource reservation and the
second part specifies the maximum possible resource consumption. The first does not
overlap with the other pools and the second is shared between all the other pools.
The resources for the pool are set by specifying one of the following for each resource:
 MIN or MAX for CPU
 MIN or MAX for Memory
Note: The sum of MIN values across all the resource pools cannot exceed 100% of the
server resources. MAX value can be set between MIN value and 100%.
Resource Governor predefines two fixed resource pools:
 Internal Pool: Represents the resource consumed by SQL Server itself. This pool only
contains the internal group and it cannot be altered.
 Default Pool: The first predefined user pool. It can be changed but not dropped.
Treating of sessions by the Resource Governor
The following steps describe how Resource Governor treats incoming sessions and
describes the relationship between the components discussed previously (see Figure 3-10 on
page 46):
1. There is an incoming connection for a session (Session 1..N)
2. The session is classified by a user-defined function during the login process:
a. Login authentication
b. LOGON trigger execution
c. Classification
3. The session workload is routed to a workload group.
4. The workload group uses the resource pool with which it is associated. A workload group
can be associated with only one resource pool.
5. The resource pool provides and limits the resources required by the session or
application. A resource pool can be used by several workload groups.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
45
Sessions 1..N
User-defined
functions
Classification
functions
Internal Workload
Group
Default Workload
Group
Internal Pool
Default Pool
User-defined
Workload Group 1
User-defined
Pool 1
User-defined
Workload Group n
User-defined
Pool n
Figure 3-10 Relationships between Resource Governor components
Setting up Resource Governor
Continuing with the example in the previous sections we are going to set up resource pools,
workload groups, and classification functions for OLAP and data load applications.
1. Start Resource Governor.
ALTER RESOURCE GOVERNOR RECONFIGURE
GO;
Tip: To check whether the Resource governor is enabled execute:
select is_enabled from sys.resource_governor_configuration
If it returns 1 the Resource Governor is enabled in the instance.
2. Write classification for the different type of applications.
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.classifier() RETURNS sysname
WITH SCHEMABINDING
AS
BEGIN
-- Declare the variable to hold value returned in sysname
DECLARE @group_name sysname
if (APP_NAME() like '%OLAP%')
set @group_name = 'OlapWorkLoadGroup'
else if (APP_NAME() like '%LOAD%')
set @group_name = 'DataLoadWorkLoadGroup'
else
set @group_name = 'default'
RETURN @group_name
END
GO
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Note: The following system functions can be used for classification: HOST_NAME(),
APP_NAME(), SUSER_NAME(), SUSER_SNAME(), IS_SRVROLEMEMBER() and
IS_MEMBER()
3. Bind the classifier function to the Resource Governor.
ALTER RESOURCE GOVERNOR WITH (CLASSIFIER_FUNCTION=dbo.classifier);
GO
ALTER RESOURCE GOVERNOR RECONFIGURE;
GO
Tip: Column classifier_function_id in catalog view
sys.resource_governor_configuration will show the object_id of the classifier function.
To check it, execute:
select OBJECT_NAME(classifier_function_id) from
sys.resource_governor_configuration
4. Create Resource Pools for OLAP and Data Load applications.
CREATE RESOURCE POOL OLAP_Pool
WITH
(
MIN_CPU_PERCENT = 10, -- Setup 10% MIN CPU.
MAX_CPU_PERCENT = 100, -- Setup 100% MAX CPU.
MIN_MEMORY_PERCENT = 30, -- Setup 30% MIN MEMORY.
MAX_MEMORY_PERCENT = 50 -- Setup 50% MAX MEMORY.
)
GO
CREATE RESOURCE POOL DataLoad_Pool
WITH
(
MIN_CPU_PERCENT = 10, -- Setup 10% MIN CPU.
MAX_CPU_PERCENT = 100, -- Setup 100% MAX CPU.
MIN_MEMORY_PERCENT = 10, -- Setup 10% MIN MEMORY.
MAX_MEMORY_PERCENT = 20 -- Setup 20% MAX MEMORY.
)
GO
Note: For information on parameters and their defaults see SQL Server 2008 Books
Online under “CREATE RESOURCE POOL (Transact-SQL).”
5. Create Workload Groups binding the Resource Pools that were created before.
CREATE WORKLOAD GROUP OlapWorkLoadGroup
USING OLAP_Pool;
CREATE WORKLOAD GROUP DataLoadWorkLoadGroup
USING DataLoad_Pool;
Note: For information on non default parameters see SQL Server 2008 Books Online
under “CREATE WORKLOAD GROUP (Transact-SQL).”
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
47
Monitoring Resource Governor components
SQL Server 2008 introduces new catalog views, dynamic management views, event classes,
and performance counters to monitor and check configurations on this new feature.
 Performance counters
– Instance per Pool: SQLServer: Resource Pool Stats
– Instance per Group: SQLServer: Workload Group Stats
 Dynamic management views
– Three new views for Resource Governor stats
•
•
•
sys.dm_resource_governor_workload_groups
sys.dm_resource_governor_resource_pools
sys.dm_resource_governor_configuration
– Columns added on SQL Server DMVs
•
•
sys.dm_exec_sessions.group_id
sys.dm_exec_requests.group_id
 Catalog views
Three catalog views for Resource Governor metadata
•
•
•
sys.resource_governor_configuration
sys.resource_governor_resource_pools
sys.resource_governor_workload_groups
 SQL Server event class
Updated and new SQL Server event classes
•
•
•
CPU Threshold Exceeded Event Class
PreConnect:Starting Event Class
PreConnect:Completed Event Class
Note: For complete details about the DMV changes, catalog views, and so forth, see SQL
Server 2008 Books Online under “Resource Governor DDL and System Views.”
In Example 3-3 we are querying DMV sys.resource_governor_workload_groups JOIN with
sys.dm_exec_sessions to obtain the number of connections on each Workload Group.
Example 3-3 Query count connections per workload group.
select rgg.name, COUNT(*) from sys.dm_exec_sessions s
inner join sys.resource_governor_workload_groups rgg
on s.group_id = rgg.group_id
group by rgg.name
Limitations on Resource Governor
The limitations on the Resource Governor are:
 Resource Governor can only manage Database Engine resources. Analysis Services,
Reporting Services, and so forth, are not included in this solution, although it is possible to
limit this application’s resource with Windows System Resource Manager.
 The Resource Governor feature is installed and managed per instance. Each instance is
controlled individually.
 The Resource Governor controls CPU bandwidth and Memory; it does not control I/O or
connection affinity to TCP/IP ports.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
 It is only included in Enterprise, Developer, and Evaluation editions of SQL Server.
Running example test
After we set up the Resource Governor as described in the previous section, we tried a test
with RML utility OSTRESS.
Note: For further information about RML tools, see http://www.microsoft.com/downloads
under the topic “RML Tools.” There are x86 and x64 editions available for download.
We simply executed a select count(*) from a table on database AdventureWorks2008 (a
sample database on SQL Server 2008). This execution did 100000 iterations with 500
concurrent users. We first executed the OSTRESS without running Resource Governor and
we saw that all CPUs affinitized with the instance raised up to 100%.
But running the same test with Resource Governor on, setting the connection to use the
OLAP Workload Group resulted the performance shown in Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11 Windows Task Manager - CPU Usage History
Figure 3-11 shows how the Resource Governor uses NUMA nodes 0 and 1 for this workload
as hightlighted, but not node 2..
3.4 Server consolidation
This section describes server consolidation. It introduces the model of general server
consolidation and specifically discusses database server consolidation. This section also
explains vertical consolidation and horizontal consolidation, both of which are used in
database server consolidation.
3.4.1 Concept of consolidation
Consolidation is more than just an effort aimed at cost reduction. It is an opportunity to
reexamine the needs of your business, to improve the performance and scalability of the
environment to meet current and near future needs, and to improve the quality of the whole
environment by ensuring that standardization is achieved in all related processes and
procedures.
When “consolidation” is applied to a SQL Server environment, the desired outcomes are:
 Reduce the physical number of SQL Servers.
 Reduce the number of SQL Server instances.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
49
 Reduce the number of SQL Server databases.
 Centralize all SQL Servers to one physical location.
 Centralize SQL Server administration.
 Improve SQL Server utilization rates.
 Improve system monitoring and alerting.
 Implement consistent standards for the whole SQL Server environment.
 Improve data security and limit user access as the business needs require.
3.4.2 Forms of consolidation
A SQL Server server consolidation exercise involves a combination of five basic forms:
 Physical server consolidation
Physical server consolidation is the act of reducing the actual number of installed physical
servers. It is generally believed that servers cannot be shared safely. For that reason many
servers are rarely used to their full potential. However, after careful analysis of the
workload of each server (a requirement), databases can be migrated to refreshed server
hardware that is designed to handle the workload being placed on it.
 Storage consolidation
Storage consolidation can involve simply moving the data from a number of servers to a
large locally attached disk storage sub-system in a new server. Alternatively, it can also
involve the implementation of a centralized disk sub-system that is then shared over a
Storage Area Network (SAN) using high-speed network connections. The right solution
depends entirely on business requirements and available budget. When physical server
consolidation occurs, it follows that there will be some form of storage consolidation.
 Geographic consolidation
Geographic consolidation takes server systems located in different rooms, buildings,
cities, or countries and brings them together in a single, or at least reduced, number of
sites, which can reduce costs because real estate is expensive. Close attention must be
paid to both the server workload and the network requirements. Without sufficient network
connectivity and bandwidth, performance could be adversely affected, which might have
serious business implications that outweigh any potential real estate cost benefits.
 Logical server consolidation
Logical server consolidation relates to the analysis of the SQL Server instances that have
been installed on existing SQL servers. Since the release of SQL Server 2000, it has been
possible to install multiple instances of SQL Server on the same physical server. Each
instance is effectively a logical server because it has its own network interface and server
resources. There are only a few situations when a database needs its own SQL Server
instance and, in most cases, databases can be moved from their own dedicated SQL
Server instances to a SQL Server instance that is shared with many other databases,
assuming the workload requirements have been take into consideration.
 Database consolidation
Database consolidation requires in-depth analysis of database designs to determine
where databases can be combined, which reduces the number of databases. In practice,
this requires a high degree of effort and can require changes to the related application.
However, there might be a database that is located in several different countries that
shares a common design but contains country-specific data. If these identically structured
databases are geographically consolidated into one site, conceivably the databases could
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
be combined and access segregated with views and user permissions controls in SQL
Server 2008.
3.4.3 Consolidation strategies
The two general approaches to server consolidation are described in this section, together
with guidance on determining what mix of strategies to deploy for your consolidation project
and how and when to apply them to a SQL Server consolidation. There are two dimensions to
consider when consolidating SQL Servers:
 The number of physical servers after consolidation
 The number of SQL Server instances after consolidation
Vertical consolidation - Scale up
Vertical consolidation describes the process of building a single, very powerful logical server
that has the capacity to assume the databases and processing from a number of smaller,
disparate systems.
Traditionally, once a 4-way server had been utilized to its maximum, it was very expensive to
add more processing capacity to the same logical server, so more Windows server instances
were created, increasing the Windows server management overhead. With the release of
Windows Server 2003 supporting NUMA technologies, and its successor Windows Server
2008 with all the enhancements on NUMA technologies (see 3.2.1, “NUMA optimization for
Windows Server 2008” on page 32), it became cost-effective and low-risk to transform a
4-way server into an 8-, 12-, or 16-way server. The IBM System x3950 M2 has been
specifically designed for this purpose.
Starting with a single x3950 M2 system (a node), this server platform can grow as your
business requirements grow, with the addition of up to four interconnected nodes, to provide
mainframe-class levels of processing power and availability.
Building a single logical server limits the administration and maintenance to one Windows
server instance, while providing the processing power of many.
Horizontal consolidation - Scale out
Horizontal consolidation refers to the act of commoditizing a server function and then building
multiple replicas of that server template to meet overall processing demand. Some load
balancing technology is required to ensure that the work is evenly spread among all servers
and there are limitations on how work can be distributed, making this approach unsuitable for
many types of applications. Probably the most common implementation of horizontal
consolidation occurs with Web farms, where many identical servers have the same role and
the user connection is stateless.
Horizontal consolidation can deliver standardization and uniformity, which simplifies system
maintenance and administration. However, there is not necessarily a reduction in the number
of physical servers.
With regards to SQL Server, horizontal consolidation can be equated to using multiple
instances of SQL Server in place of a single instance.
SQL Server instances - single or multiple?
Using single or multiple instances equates to employing vertical or horizontal consolidation
for SQL Server instances. Hosting all databases in a single instance can be considered to be
vertical consolidation, while creating multiple SQL instances on a server, or cluster of servers,
is a practical application of horizontal consolidation. This section discusses the criteria to
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
51
assess before a decision can be reached on how many instances of SQL Server are required.
“Less is more” is the guiding principle here.
In 2.3.1, “Windows, SQL Server, and 32-bit versus 64-bit” on page 24, we describe the
memory limitations that are inherent with 32-bit versions of Windows Server and SQL Server.
One way of addressing this limitation is to install multiple instances of SQL Server so that
more of the available RAM can be utilized, albeit with an increased management overhead for
each additional instance.
With 64-bit Windows Server and SQL Server, the addressable memory space is flat and the
memory limitations are removed, so more databases can be hosted in a single instance. Now
the rationale for deciding how many SQL Server instances are required comes down to the
following considerations:
 How many different sort orders and collations are required by your databases? If they all
use the same sort order and collation, they can all share the same instance. Each SQL
Server instance has a single default sort order and collation.
 Do you need to limit DBA access to certain databases? A user with DBA rights for a SQL
Server instance has DBA access to all databases in that instance. If you must restrict DBA
access to certain databases, they must be hosted in a separate SQL instance with user
access configured accordingly.
 What are your maintenance and availability requirements? Each SQL instance must have
SQL Server patches applied to it individually. You might choose to group all databases
with a similar service window in the same SQL Server instance so that they can all be
taken down at the same time without impacting the user availability.
 Do you have two (or more) SQL user IDs or database names that are identical and cannot
be changed? In this case, you must accommodate the databases in separate SQL Server
instances. Normally, you resolve the naming conflicts and then host in the same instance,
but if this is not possible, you must use separate instances.
 Do you need to continue running SQL Server 2005 alongside SQL Server 2008? If you
have some databases that cannot be migrated for whatever reason (application
compatibility, vendor support, and so forth) you might have to continue running SQL
Server 2005. You can install a SQL Server 2005 instance on the same consolidated
hardware as your SQL Server 2008 instances.
Note: Although it is possible to install SQL Server 2000 versions in the same box with
SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008, there are several issues to consider:
 SQL Server 2000 is already in an Extended Support Phase. Our recommendation is
to upgrade all remaining instances under this version.
 SQL Server 2000 its not supported on Windows Server 2008, so you will need to
install a Windows Server 2003 Edition.
 Do you need to run SQL Server with different hotfix or service pack levels installed? You
might have some databases that do not work with the latest service packs or you might
have a vendor that has only certified their application with a certain level of hotfix or
service pack. Using a separate SQL Server instance, you can maintain it at the required
level of hotfix or service pack, while other installed instances are kept up to date.
 Do you have different types of processing executed on each database? Are there
databases with OLAP and OLTP processing? You might have databases with a high
percentage of batch processing during working and non-working hours and heavy report
querying, or databases with high transactional processing like retail, IVR related, and so
forth. With different type of processing applications you may prefer a multiple instance
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
architecture, although SQL Server 2008 provides new features like Resource Governor for
limiting consumption of resources.
Depending on the licensing model you have chosen, the number of SQL Server instances you
arrive at might require you to purchase additional SQL Server licenses. However, there are
several options available from Microsoft that are discussed at length at:
http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2008/en/us/how-to-buy.aspx
Resource contention
When you use multiple instances, be careful how you configure the allocation of processors
and memory. It is important that a processor not be shared between instances because doing
so can cause performance degradation. For example, if you have two instances of SQL
Server 2008 running on an 4-way server, you can incorrectly configure hard affinity to
processors 0 to 1 on both. The result is that both instances must share processors 0 to 1
while processors 2 to 4 are idle.
Note: By default, each instance has affinity to all installed processors. If you are running
multiple instances, you must reconfigure affinity so that instances do not share processors.
Memory configuration is also important because sharing memory among instances can, in
the worst case, cause system failure. For example, if you configure a minimum allocated
memory for each instance but the total exceeds the amount of installed RAM, then this might
cause an instance to fail.
Clustering issues
Mistakes in configuring multiple instances often cause serious problems in the environments
in which SQL Server 2008 is running in an active/active cluster with Microsoft Clustering
Service (MSCS). MSCS is a high availability solution implemented in Windows Server 2008
Enterprise Edition and Datacenter Edition. Two or more servers can be configured in a cluster
and can switch the server in case of serious problems. For example, if an application stops
because of a critical problem, the other server takes over the application after a short
switching time. Thus, the application can continue to run normally.
If you have all nodes in a cluster configured to run applications and, during a failure, the
surviving nodes take on the additional load from the failed node, this is called active-active
clustering. If instead one of the nodes is idle and its purpose is only to assume the load of a
server in the event that server fails, this is called an active-passive cluster.
When you run SQL Server in an active-active cluster with each instance using all processors
and memory in each server, if you have not configured SQL Server properly, you might
encounter serious problems when the takeover happens. If one server fails, both SQL Server
instances try to run on the other server with the same configurations as before the failure, and
both instances attempt to use all processors and all memory. With both instances using all
processors, performance is degraded. Regarding memory, however, if the total of the
minimum allocated memory for each instance exceeds the amount of installed RAM, then the
failed-over instance might not restart.
You can avoid resource contention and performance degradation by taking the following
precautions:
 Use active-passive clustering.
In active-passive clustering, one server is reserved for standby. Thus, there are no
resource contentions if takeover occurs.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
53
 Configure processors and memory of each instance appropriately on Active/Active MSCS.
For example, consider having two 4-way 32 GB x3950 M2 (4 quad-core CPUs = 16 cores
each) servers. You can avoid resource contention after takeover by configuring 8 cores
and 16 GB of RAM to both instances (that is, the sum total of both instances should be set
to sixteen cores and 32 GB of RAM).
Like the active-passive option, half of both servers will be idle. In addition, you should
carefully select the four processors so that cluster node A, for example, assigns affinity to
processors 0 to 7 and cluster node B assigns affinity to processors 8 to 15.
 Use active-active clustering and use sp_configure to reallocate memory usage.
In this scenario, you have SQL Server issue the sp_configure procedure when it restarts
to dynamically reallocate memory to all instances so that the total amount of memory
allocated does not exceed the amount of memory installed.
If you plan to implement this method of failure recovery, carefully test the scenario to
ensure that all instances do start properly with the correct amount of memory allocated.
We cover more cluster configuration issues later in this section. (See “Server clustering”
on page 58).
Performance Multiple Instances
To gain good performance when you have configured multiple instances, you should map
instances to a particular processor (or processors) in each node. For example, consider a
2-way x3950 M2 (Figure 3-12):
 Instance 1 is mapped to processors 0-3 in node 1.
 Instance 2 is mapped to processors 4 and 5 in node 2.
 Instance 3 is mapped to processors 6 and 7 in node 2.
Because the SQLOS on the x3950 M2 is NUMA-aware, this configuration maximizes the use
of local memory access.
SQL Server
Instance #1
CPU
0
I/O
CPU
1
CPU
2
2:2
Memory
Controller
SQL Server
Instance #2
CPU
3
CPU
4
I/O
SQL Server
Instance #3
CPU
5
CPU
6
2:2
Memory
Controller
8:8
8:8
Memory
Memory
x3950 M2 (Node 1)
x3950 M2 (Node 2)
Figure 3-12 Memory access from multiple instances configured NUMA-conscious
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
CPU
7
You should avoid configuring an instance to use processors from multiple nodes because this
requires remote memory access (across the scalability connections), and performance can
suffer. For example, do not configure processors 3 and 4 in the same instance. Of course, if
you wish to create an instance with more than four processors, then this is unavoidable.
Operation and maintenance of the database
You can start and stop SQL Server 2008 per instance. So, if one database needs continuous
availability and the other database does not require this level of availability, you might
consider multiple instances to reduce the operation and maintenance workload. For example,
you can apply the Service Pack to SQL Server 2008 per instance. However, you need to stop
the corresponding SQL Server service in Windows Server 2008. If you have multiple
instances, you can apply the Service Pack separately. That is, you can apply Service Pack to
the database that does not need continuous availability, and you can leave the continuously
available database as it is.
Version of SQL Server 2008 (32-bit or 64-bit)
32-bit applications can use only 2 GB of virtual address space (VAS) because of the user
space on 32-bit Windows. That is, 32-bit SQL Server 2008 can use a maximum of 2 GB of
VAS per instance, or 3 GB if you are using 4 GB tuning in Windows Server 2008 (see 2.3,
“64-bit computing and SQL Server 2008” on page 24).
When you run 32-bit SQL Server 2008 on Windows Server 2008 x64 using WOW 64
(Windows on Windows), SQL Server 2008 can use a maximum of 4 GB as user space, as
shown in Table 3-5. Then, if you use a single instance, you can use 2 GB (or 4 GB on x64
Windows) of VAS for multiple databases.
Table 3-5 Address space in 32-bit and 64-bit
Windows Server 2008
SQL Server 2008
Virtual memory limits
Physical memory limits
32-bit
32-bit
2 GB (3 GB with boot.ini flag)
64 GB
64-bit (x64)
32-bit
4 GB
64 GB
64-bit (x64)
64-bit (x64)
8 TB
2 TB
Alternatively, if you use multiple instances, you can use 2 GB (or 4 GB) x n (where n is the
number of instances) as a VAS for multiple databases. In 64-bit Windows Server 2008 and
SQL Server 2008, VAS is available to a maximum of 16 TB (8 TB for the kernel and 8 TB for
the user).
Performance Single Instance
If you use a single instance on a multiple node x3950 M2, you have some remote memory
access in a workload, as shown in Figure 3-12 on page 54. Although memory allocation of
SQL Server 2008 is NUMA optimized, some remote memory access can still happen. For
example, in Figure 3-13 on page 56, CPU 4 has to obtain the data from remote memory if
CPU 0 has previously located the data in its local memory.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
55
SQL Server
Instance #1
CPU
0
I/O
CPU
1
CPU
2
2:2
Memory
Controller
CPU
3
CPU
4
I/O
CPU
5
CPU
6
2:2
Memory
Controller
8:8
8:8
Memory
Memory
x3950 M2 (Node 1)
CPU
7
x3950 M2 (Node 2)
Figure 3-13 Memory access from single instance
In multiple instances, if the instance has affinity to the node set correctly, there is little remote
access. With 64-bit SQL Server 2008, the limitations of VAS are eliminated. However, when
you are reducing remote memory access, you should examine multiple instances for multiple
databases with SQL Server 2008 64-bit.
A drawback of having multiple databases in a single instance is that the buffer pool is shared
throughout the databases, so there is the potential that one database can “starve” the others
of buffer pool resources. The drawbacks of having multiple instances are that you must do a
two-phase commit and that you need Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC) to
implement transactions across multiple databases.
SQL Server 2008 introduces Resource Governor as a countermeasure for this particular
situation. As discussed previously, by using Resource Governor, SQL Server 2008 can limit
the amount of CPU and Memory that an application can use within an instance of SQL
Server.
Although Resource Governor can limit the percentage of CPU and memory that a session
consumes within an instance of SQL Server, it cannot limit the amount of I/Os and TCP
bandwidth. Because of this issue it is still important to analyze how the different databases
use shared resources as tempdb for determining the correct strategy.
3.4.4 Considering service availability
The effect of reducing the number of physical servers with a server consolidation exercise is
the concentration of your business systems on the remaining server infrastructure. The
consolidation inevitably leads to a consolidation of your risk; for example, a server outage that
might have affected one system before consolidation might now affect ten systems.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
A crucial part of any consolidation project is to identify and quantify the server infrastructure
risks that exist for your business. After they have been identified, the server consolidation
architecture must be designed to mitigate those risks. In this section, we cover the risk
assessment process and what strategies are available for providing high availability for those
systems that need it.
Assessing critical systems
Before considering what can be done to protect your service availability, you need to know
which systems are worth protecting and what value they add to the business. A
comprehensive review of all systems in-scope for consolidation should be performed with
representatives from your organization who can identify the applications that serve its core
business functions. They must provide a financial value against each critical application, so
that the cost of an outage to the organization can be quantified. It is this cost that should drive
the decisions about what mitigation is taken in response to the identified risk.
Each organization and application has its own unique risk factors in this equation; however,
some of the common elements are:







Value of lost orders
Value of lost employee productivity and overtime costs for catch-up
Cost of recreating lost data
Penalty payments for missed service level agreements (SLAs)
Loss of customer good will
Damage to the brand image and reputation
Impact of legal action against organization or executives
You should assess what currently exists in the way of server infrastructure to ensure service
availability for the identified critical systems. This might well highlight existing deficiencies in
the deployed infrastructure that can be addressed with the consolidation project.
The architectural infrastructure design for the consolidated server environment should reflect
the significance of system downtime and surrounding processes should address the data
integrity requirements. These are introduced in the next section.
Ensuring system availability
There are a number of elements involved in ensuring that a newly consolidated server
environment experiences high levels of service availability and this subject could probably be
a paper all on its own. We have attempted to highlight the major elements that together
contribute to the availability levels of a server infrastructure and we introduce some SQL
Server 2008 features and enhancements that can protect SQL Server service availability.
Server room environment
When you are consolidating physical servers into a central server room facility, it is crucial
that these basics be in place before consolidation begins:
 Good electrical provision so that you can provide separate power feeds to each server
 Sufficient cooling for the current servers and those that are in place after the consolidation
 Secure physical access control to ensure that unauthorized people cannot interfere with
the servers
 Adequate space around each server rack for routine access to the servers during
installation or server maintenance
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
57
Hardware fault tolerance
Consider deploying server hardware that contains redundant components that can keep the
server running if there is a failure. The following areas offer good protection against individual
component failures in a server chassis:
 Two or more power supplies from two separate power sources
 Two or more network cards with network card teaming software
 Hardware RAID protection with a hot spare drive for local disk sub-system
 Redundant fans in the server chassis for reliable cooling
 If using a SAN, two or more SAN interface cards (host bus adapters)
 IBM Chipkill memory, ECC memory, redundant bit steering, memory scrubbing, and
memory mirroring for protection against memory failure
 Hot-swap or hot-add capabilities for memory, hard drives, or PCI-X interface slots so that
they can be added or replaced without stopping the server
Fault tolerant servers are a key component of a consolidated server platform.
System monitoring and alerting
Having redundant hardware components is great, but the value is diminished if hardware
failures are not spotted and acted upon quickly. If a server has two power supplies and one
fails, the server stays on and service is not interrupted. However, if the faulty power supply is
not quickly replaced, the server would be disabled if the second supply also fails.
There are many tools available for server hardware monitoring. All IBM servers include a
license for the IBM Director systems management suite. IBM Director, by supporting system
management industry standards, can also manage a wide variety of non-IBM systems and
operating systems.
Server clustering
Server clustering with Windows Server 2008 and SQL Server 2008 provides a good solution
for protecting against the total failure of a physical server.
A cluster built with Windows Server 2008 consists of between two and sixteen servers, called
nodes; one of the main enhancements in cluster configuration on Windows Server 2008 is
that servers do not need to be identical to each other. Windows Server 2008 introduces a
new validation wizard that checks whether the system, storage, and network is suitable for
the cluster. This validation check includes the following categories:
 System configuration test: Analyzes whether the server meets the requirements of the
cluster, for example, operating system version and software updates.
 Network test: Checks whether the network meets specific requirements, such as network
redundancy.
 Storage test: Analyzes whether the storage meets the requirements for the cluster, for
example, if it can handle SCSI commands or cluster operations correctly.
These tests, along with a new improved setup process, make Windows Server 2008
clustering solutions a very good option for High Availability configurations.
Note: For more information about Windows Server 2008 Clustering new features and
enhancements see:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/clustering-home.aspx
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
A high-speed shared disk sub-system is also mandatory and, in most situations, requires a
SAN.
In a Windows cluster, SQL Server 2008 can be installed on each physical node. It is possible
to install SQL Server multiple times on the same physical server or node. These installations
are referred to as SQL Server instances and can be configured to run on all or some of the
available cluster nodes. However, a SQL Server instance can only run on one node at a time.
Figure 3-14 shows a SQL Server cluster that has six instances of SQL Server installed, four
being hosted on Node A and two on Node B. Each SQL Server instance can be considered to
be a virtual server because each instance has its own unique server names and IP addresses
and presents itself to users just like a standalone physical SQL Server.
This configuration is known as an active-active cluster because both nodes have active SQL
Server instances. As we explained previously, in this kind of architecture it is very important to
affinitize instances so that the sum of all the instances on the cluster does not use more than
100% of the resources on the whole cluster. The reason for this is that in the case of a node
failover one of the nodes has to support the workload of all the instances.
Data Network
SQL Server Instance 1
SQL Server Instance 5
SQL Server Instance 2
SQL Server Instance 6
SQL Server Instance 3
SQL Server Instance 4
Heart beat
network
connection
Node A
Node B
Storage Network
SAN Storage Device
Figure 3-14 Two node basic active-active cluster configuration
When a cluster node suffers a failure, the cluster detects that there is a problem with the
failed node. All SQL Server instances that were running on the failed node are restarted on
the other available nodes in the cluster and service is restored. SQL Server 2008 has
automatic database recovery features that do not require manual intervention in most cases.
Figure 3-15 on page 60 shows how a basic two-node cluster would look after Node A has
failed. The four SQL Server instances that were running on Node A prior to the failure have
been restarted on Node B. This occurred with no manual intervention. The disruption to
service availability equals the length of time that it takes to restart the failed SQL Server
instances plus the automatic database recovery time.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
59
Data Network
No SQL Server Instances
SQL Server Instance 5
X
SQL Server Instance 6
SQL Server Instance 1
X
SQL Server Instance 2
Heart beat
network
connection
Node A
SQL Server Instance 3
SQL Server Instance 4
Node B
X
Storage Network
SAN Storage Device
Figure 3-15 Two node basic active-active cluster configuration - Failure of Node A
Database mirroring
In this section we cover the basic concepts of Database Mirroring architecture, operation
modes, and the enhancements introduced with SQL Server 2008.
Database mirroring was first introduced in SQL Server 2005 as an option for High Availability
for databases between heterogeneous servers. SQL Server 2008 introduces enhancements
to performance over the previous version, and a new feature for automatic recovery from
corrupted pages. We cover these features later on the section, but first we discuss the basic
concepts of Database Mirroring architecture and operation modes.
With database mirroring you can take a database (the principal) and create a duplicate copy
of it (the mirror) on another SQL Server server. SQL Server ensures that the principal and
mirror are kept synchronized at all times. There are different levels of synchronization
available, but essentially the choice is between more performance and less protection or
more protection and less performance.
In its most basic configuration, database mirroring requires two servers, one for the principal
and one for the mirror. The two SQL Servers ensure that all updates to the principal are
reflected in the mirror. If the principal stops, user access is disrupted until the mirror is made
active, which is a manual process. When the mirror is made active it assumes the principal
role, and when the principal server is powered on again it assumes the mirror role.
Figure 3-16 on page 61 illustrates a basic database mirroring setup.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Data Network
Transaction log updates
SQL Server A:
Principle
database
SQL Server B:
Mirror
database
Figure 3-16 Basic database mirroring setup
Database mirroring can be set up between different server hardware. It can be performed
between different physical sites (depending on network bandwidth requirements and
availability), and does not demand a shared disk sub-system or dedicated heart-beat network
connection. As a result, it can be a much cheaper alternative to creating a clustered
environment while offering similar levels of protection in certain configurations.
This basic configuration has two possible synchronization modes.
 High-Performance mode
 High-Safety mode without automatic failover
High-Performance mode is the asynchronous database mirroring mode. In this mode SQL
Server enhances performance on behalf of high availability. In High-Performance mode the
principal server sends the log for a transaction to the mirror and the confirmation to the client
without waiting for the mirror to acknowledge. Asynchronous operation permits the principal
server to run with minimum transaction latency. This mode can be useful in disaster recovery
scenarios where the servers participating in mirroring are separated by a significant distance
or when there is low bandwidth between the servers. One issue in this mode is that the only
failover procedure is by forcing service with possible data loss. In Figure 3-17 we describe the
acknowledge process of the asynchronous mode.
Client
Principal
Begi
Mirror
n tra
n
Send
reco
rd
log
ACK
Figure 3-17 ACK process of Asynchronous mode
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
61
High-Safety mode without automatic failover is a synchronous database mirroring mode
known simply as High Safety. In synchronous mode the operation is as follows:
1. The principal server receives the transaction from the client and writes the log for the
transaction on the transaction log.
2. The principal server writes the transaction to the database and concurrently sends the log
for the transaction to the mirror server. The principal waits for the acknowledge of the
mirror server before confirming a transaction commit or rollback to the client.
3. The mirror server writes the log to disk and sends acknowledgement to the principal
server.
4. When the principal server receives the acknowledgement of the mirror server, sends a
confirmation to the client.
Figure 3-18 illustrates the acknowledge process of the synchronous mode.
Client
Principal
Begi
n tra
Mirror
n
Send
reco
rd lo
g
ACK
A CK
Figure 3-18 ACK process of Synchronous mode
The third mode for database mirroring is also a synchronous mode, but with automatic
failover. This mode is named High-Safety mode with automatic failover. The process of
synchronic acknowledge is the same as the one shown in Figure 3-18. Database mirroring
needs a third server, known as Witness, to monitor the availability of both the principal and the
mirror server to manage the automatic failover. The server must have SQL Server 2008
installed on it to be part of the mirroring solution, but this server can be used for multiple
database mirroring setups. Figure 3-19 on page 63 shows how this might look.
Note: Because Database Mirroring is not a new feature on SQL Server 2008, it is possible
that you have to upgrade an existing installation from SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server
2008. There are several scenarios for upgrading SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server 2008
when database mirroring is set up. For information on this topic search SQL Server 2008
Books Online for “How to: Minimize Downtime for Mirrored Databases When Upgrading
Server Instances.”
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
SQL Server C:
Witness server
Data Network
Transaction log updates
SQL Server A:
Principle
database
SQL Server B:
Mirror
database
Figure 3-19 Architecture diagram of High-Safety Mode with automatic failover mirroring setup
The witness communicates regularly with the principal and mirror SQL Servers. If the witness
detects that the principal is not available, it automatically makes the mirror active and
accessible, much like a clustered environment would do.
Even with a witness server, if the principal stops, service availability is disrupted because any
outstanding transactions must be applied to the mirror before it can be brought online.
However, the SQL Server instance that hosts the database will already be running and
Microsoft claims that database mirroring can provide quicker failover times than clustering.
What determines failover time for mirroring is how long database recovery takes. This is a
function of the amount of database update activity (actually, the number of transactions that
have not yet been applied to the mirror copy of the database). Failover time does not depend
on the database size.
SQL Server 2008 introduces enhancements to database mirroring. These performance
enhancements are related to how the transactions are managed between the principal and
the mirror server. The enhancements are the following:
 Write-ahead on the incoming log stream on the mirror server
 Improved use of log send buffers
 Compression of the stream of transaction log records
 Compression of stream data for which at least a 12.5 percent compression ratio can be
achieved
 Page read-ahead during the undo phase
The new feature that SQL Server 2008 introduces in database mirroring is the possibility of
automatic page repair during a database mirroring session. When one of the partners detects
a bad page it requests a good copy of the page from the other partner. If the request works it
replaces the unreadable page with the copy. A page recovery in the principal server is only
possible when the state of mirroring is “SYNCHRONIZED.”
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
63
When a page corruption occurs on the principal server, SQL Server 2008 inserts a row in the
suspect_pages table with the appropriate error status, marks the damaged page as “restore
pending” (not accessible), and asks the mirror server for the page. If the mirror server can
access the page it sends a copy to the principal server. The principal server recovers the
page and if there are any deferred transactions pending it resolves them.
When the damaged page is on the mirror server, during the repair process the mirror session
status is set to SUSPENDED until the page is recovered.
Data backups
In a consolidated server environment, your data storage is concentrated into a smaller
number of repositories, and the data backup infrastructure must be able to process all backup
tasks in the available backup window. Failure to complete backup jobs in the prescribed time
frame might infringe on application usage windows and affect performance. Therefore, the
backup infrastructure must be sized and configured to reflect the greater volume of data
coming through a consolidated infrastructure.
SQL Server 2008 introduces enhancements to backups by enabling compression for
database backups. This new feature provides benefits to the performance of backups by
reducing the amount of I/Os. Therefore, if the backups are executed by network, it reduces
the Network I/Os also.
One issue that appears with backup compression and other compression features on SQL
Server 2008 is the increase of CPU consumption. As we discussed in 3.3.6, “Resource
Governor” on page 44, we can set up workload groups for limiting the amount of CPU of a
specific application in process. On the other hand, as we also explained previously, we can
set up affinity on a specific IP Address or SQL Server network port for the backup application
and limit the number of CPUs that this process will use.
Network design
We have covered providing two or more network cards in the consolidated server platform for
fault tolerance; however, there might be a network throughput justification for using multiple
network cards. Network interface cards (NICs) that are configured with teaming software can
have greater effective bandwidth that prevents network I/O from being a system bottleneck.
Consideration should also be given to building fault tolerance into the network infrastructure.
Implementation of a tiered network infrastructure can provide protection from the loss of
network components that maintain service availability in this circumstance. Figure 3-20 on
page 65 illustrates a simplified tiered network design. A server is connected to the red and
blue sides of the network. If either server switch fails, the remaining switches maintain server
connectivity in the network. The same is true for the core switches; the result is good fault
tolerance in the network.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Server Switches
Core Switches
User Switches
User Devices
Floor Switches
Blue
Network
Server
Red
Network
Figure 3-20 Tiered network design with fault tolerance
Virtualization technologies
Server virtualization plays an extremely important role in the area of server consolidation.
However, it is important to recognize that virtualization is concerned entirely with physical
server consolidation and the removal of actual server boxes. It does not necessarily reduce
the logical server count. There is little server management reduction after a successful
virtualization project because the number of logical servers largely remains the same.
We recommend considering virtualization technologies for SQL Server in these situations:
 Test and development SQL Server environments. Virtual servers are ideal for delivering
flexible and safe test and development environments for SQL Server and many other
applications. You can install all SQL Server hotfixes and service packs on a virtual test
SQL Server to test databases before they are installed in the production environment.
 SQL Server systems that have custom configuration requirements. Sometimes a small
number of databases requires settings that are not compatible with other databases on
the same physical server. The database might require a particular combination of sort
order and collation, or maybe specific regional settings are required that the majority of
other databases do not need. If the server resources required are low, it could be a viable
solution to use a virtual server to host this type of environment.
 Replacing old server hardware when new server hardware does not support earlier
operating system versions. As server hardware ages, the risk of hardware failure
increases. Usually, when server hardware is refreshed, the operating system is upgraded
to the current version. In some cases, that is not possible because of application
compatibility issues or constraints. However, new server hardware often has limited
support for previous versions of Windows Server. With a virtual server hosted on new
server hardware, the current operating system can be maintained and the old server
hardware could be removed after successful server virtualization.
We suggest that you also apply the following guidelines to your virtualization efforts:
 Avoid virtualizing applications that need high levels of CPU or I/O resources.
 Keep consolidated SQL Server environments and virtualized SQL Server environments on
separate hardware. In other words, with hosted virtualization products like VMware®
Server and Microsoft Virtual Server, do not run SQL Server in the host operating system.
A server virtualization project must be approached with the same rigor as a SQL Server
consolidation project and the quality of the information gathering has a big influence on the
outcome of the virtualization effort.
For further information on consolidation technics, see Consolidating Microsoft SQL Server on
the IBM System x3950 M2, REDP-4385.
Chapter 3. Platform synergy
65
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
4
Chapter 4.
Configuration
In this chapter, we discuss setting up and configuring the x3950 M2 to run SQL Server 2008
x64 on Windows Server 2008, with an emphasis on performance tuning. We cover these
topics in the approximate order that you encounter them when you are setting up the
complete environment: first the hardware, then the operating system, then SQL Server, then
the storage, and, finally, the database server in operation.
The topics covered are:
 4.1, “x3950 M2 configuration” on page 68
 4.2, “Windows Server 2008 x64 configuration” on page 70
 4.3, “SQL Server 2008 x64 configuration” on page 71
 4.4, “Storage configuration” on page 74
 4.5, “Database workloads” on page 77
 4.6, “Performance analysis process” on page 79
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
67
4.1 x3950 M2 configuration
In this section, we first consider the physical hardware setup and then the BIOS settings.
4.1.1 System setup
When you set up the physical hardware, the best performance is achieved by provisioning
each of the x3950 M2 nodes uniformly. This complements the NUMA architecture by
providing local resources on each node.
In each x3950 M2 node, memory is installed in four memory cards, each of which has eight
DIMM slots, for a total of 32 DIMMs. In order of importance, there are three aspects to the
memory configuration that affect performance:
1. Install and use all four memory cards in every node
2. Balance the amount of RAM installed in every node
3. Populate every DIMM socket
As illustrated in Figure 1-2 on page 3, there are eight independent memory ports. Therefore,
to optimize performance, you need to install four memory cards and then spread the DIMMs,
installed in matched pairs, across all four memory cards before filling each card with two more
DIMMs.
The optimal memory configuration uses every slot on every card on every node, with the
same size DIMMs, so that the amount of memory is balanced across all the nodes. Other
memory configurations that do not use all the memory cards or all the DIMM slots on the
cards, or that are unbalanced across the nodes, penalize performance to some degree. In
general, more memory is better for performance.
In x3950 M2 multi-node configurations, performance can be affected by the installation of PCI
cards such as network adapters, Fibre Channel (FC) HBAs, and so on. To distribute the load
equally, the optimal solution is to spread the adapters across all the nodes. For example, in a
four node configuration with four FC cards, put one card in each node. Also, you should
connect at least one Ethernet connection on each node. Each x3950 M2 has two integrated
Gigabit Ethernet controllers.
4.1.2 Firmware update
After the hardware is physically set up, flash the firmware on all the nodes to the same
supported level. Stability and performance issues can arise if the firmware is not the same on
all nodes, or if it is not at a supported level.
UpdateXpress System Pack
We recommend using the UpdateXpress System Pack (UXSP) product to update the
firmware. Follow this link:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/support/
Select System x ♦ Product family ♦ System x3950 M2 ♦ Operating system ♦ Windows
Server 2008 x64 ♦ Download. Select the current System Update Package for your machine
type.
This provides access to the downloadable System Pack, which is a bundle of firmware and
Windows drivers for the x3950 M2 that have been tested together. Using the UpdateXpress
System Pack Installer (UXSPI), you can create bootable media, for example, a CD or USB
key, which can be used to apply the System Pack firmware on a server which has no
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
operating system installed yet. In addition, you can apply this package of updates to your
server from within Windows. If your server is connected to the Web, UXSPI can compare the
server’s firmware and driver levels with the current levels on the IBM Support site and
download and apply the firmware and drivers to replace those that are not current.
Critical Updates
Some firmware may require individual, critical updates not included in the System Pack. The
following list identifies the firmware that must be flashed and a recommended order in which
to do this. Your configuration might include other devices that must also be updated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
BIOS
BMC firmware
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) firmware
Remote Supervisor Adapter II (RSA II) firmware
SAS BIOS
SAS hard drives
ServeRAID firmware
Network adapter firmware
Diagnostics
If you need to apply firmware updates without using the UXSP product, you can use an
RSA II remote console session using the remote diskette/ISO function. You can update
BIOS, BMC, RSA II, Network adapter, SAS BIOS, ServeRAID, and SAS hard drives by using
this method. Some firmware updates also are provided as standalone Windows packages.
Note: If you are running Windows Server 2008, Datacenter Edition, be sure that the
firmware is certified for Datacenter.
BIOS settings
When you make BIOS settings, keep them identical on all nodes. Begin by loading the default
BIOS settings. The following parameters should be examined and tested with your workload
to determine what maximizes performance.
 Processor hardware prefetcher
By default, hardware prefetching, which is what processors use to prefetch extra cache
lines for every memory request, is disabled. Tests in the performance lab have shown that
disabling this feature provides the best performance for many commercial application
types with a random workload such as online transaction processing (OLTP).
A Business Intelligence (BI) workload may benefit from enabling this option, due to its
sequential memory access pattern.
To enable hardware prefetching, go to BIOS Setup (press F1 when prompted at boot) and
select Advanced Setup ♦ CPU Options and set Processor Hardware Prefetcher to
Enabled. This setting affects all processors in the chassis. Perform the same change on
each node.
 Processor adjacent sector prefetch
Also in Advanced Setup ♦ CPU Options, when this setting is enabled, the processor
retrieves both sectors of a cache line when it requires data that is not currently in its
cache. When it is disabled, the processor only fetches the sector of the cache line that
contains the data requested. The default is disabled.
Enabling this setting might positively affect performance, especially a BI workload with a
sequential memory access pattern. Typically, it affects certain benchmarks by a few
percent, although in most real applications, the effect is negligible. This control is provided
for benchmark users that wish to fine tune configurations and settings.
Chapter 4. Configuration
69
 Memory array settings
This setting is in Advanced Setup ♦ Memory Settings ♦ Memory Array Setting. The
choices are:
– Use High Performance Memory Array (default), the best performance.
– Use Hot Add Memory, if you intend to add memory while the server is running, at the
expense of reduced performance.
– Use Full Array Memory Mirroring, if you want the highest level of memory
redundancy, at the expense of reducing available memory by half and reducing
performance.
Each node of a partition in a multinode complex must have the same memory array
setting.
For additional information about x3950 M2 settings, see Planning, Installing, and Managing
the IBM System x3950 M2, SG24-7630.
4.2 Windows Server 2008 x64 configuration
In this section, we cover those aspects of the Windows operating system that are relevant to a
server that is running SQL Server 2008. In general, no special settings are required. You are
likely to find that leaving the defaults offers the best results.
4.2.1 Windows installation, service pack, updates, and drivers
After installing Windows Server 2008 x64, apply the most recent service pack, security
patches, and currently supported drivers. Unsupported or back-level software can cause
system instability, security vulnerabilities, and performance problems. Use UXSP to detect
and apply driver updates. See “UpdateXpress System Pack” on page 68.
4.2.2 Windows settings
The Windows page file size is not important for performance. On a server dedicated to
running SQL Server, there should be no paging. A modest-sized page file for taking
mini-dumps, located on local storage, is sufficient. Complete system dumps of physical
memory configurations of 64 GB and larger are impractical for debugging.
To optimize memory management and eliminate paging: Run gpedit.msc (Global Policy
Manager) and click Computer Configuration ♦ Windows Setting ♦ Security Settings ♦
Local Policies ♦ User rights assignment ♦ Lock pages in memory, then add the SQL
service group or user account.
For instant file initialization: Run gpedit.msc (Global Policy Manager) and click Computer
Configuration ♦ Windows Setting ♦ Security Settings ♦ Local Policies ♦ User rights
assignment ♦ Perform Volume Maintenance, then add the SQL service group or user
account.
Note: Enabling instant file initialization accepts a small security risk. It might be possible to
view data previously deleted on disk. See SQL Server 2008 Books Online topic “Database
File Initialization.”
To maximize performance at the expense of energy savings, open Control Panel ♦ Power
Options, then select the High Performance power plan.
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
To lower the priority of foreground programs: Control Panel ♦ System ♦ Advanced system
settings ♦ Advanced ♦ Performance ♦ Settings ♦ Advanced ♦ Background services.
The SQL Server installation configures this setting.
To reduce unnecessary processor usage: Control Panel ♦ System ♦ Advanced system
settings ♦ Advanced ♦ Performance ♦ Settings ♦ Visual Effects ♦ Adjust for best
performance.
Optionally, to avoid User Account Control prompts (consider security issues): Start ♦ All
Programs ♦ Administrative Tools ♦ System Configuration ♦ Tools tab, Launch Disable
UAC, and then reboot the system.
Consider configuring Soft NUMA to partition the cores and memory for specific workloads.
See 3.3.3, “Soft NUMA” on page 38.
4.2.3 Anti-virus software
There are steps you can take to prevent anti-virus software from impacting database
operations and performance.
If you decide to install anti-virus software on the server running SQL Server, configure it so
that updating the virus signatures and scanning the system occur during periods of low levels
of activity. Exclude the database file extensions MDF, LDF, and NDF from the virus scan, or
exclude the folders that they are stored in. This prevents the SQL Server from trying to open
SQL Server files that the anti-virus software has already opened, which can result in the
database being marked as suspect.
See the Microsoft Knowledge Base article Guidelines for choosing antivirus software to run
on the computers that are running SQL Server for more information:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309422
4.3 SQL Server 2008 x64 configuration
This section covers installing and configuring SQL Server 2008 x64.
4.3.1 SQL Server 2008 installation, service packs, and hot fixes
Before installation, create one or more domain user accounts to be used as SQL Server
service logins, if you want SQL Server 2008 to communicate with other clients and servers.
Install SQL Server 2008, and install any applicable service packs, cumulative updates, and
hot fixes.
See Appendix A, “Unattended install” on page 87 for an example showing how to complete an
unattended installation from the command line. An unattended installation provides a quick
way to reinstall the original configuration during a disaster recovery process and by its nature
forces you to document the options used during installation. It provides a way to reliably install
a large number of SQL Server instances which have identical configurations. It is even
possible to install clustered instances and add and remove nodes using an unattended install.
Chapter 4. Configuration
71
4.3.2 SQL Server 2008 settings
After SQL Server is installed, consider adjusting the following configuration settings. SQL
Server does excellent self-tuning. In general, the default settings work best.
Note: These settings can be made using the sp_configure command. Some of these
options can be set only after configuring show advanced options as 1.
Affinity mask
This configuration option restricts a particular SQL Server instance so that it runs on a subset
of the cores. If you are running only one instance of SQL Server 2008 and nothing else, then
allowing SQL Server to use all cores creates the best performance. When the server has
more than 32 cores, you need to use both the affinity mask and the affinity64 mask options.
Multiple instances with heavy resource demands should be configured to partition the
hardware resources. Use affinity mask and max server memory to place each instance
within a node, on its own node, or on a group of nodes, for best performance.
Note: There is a difference between running with the default, sp_configure 'affinity
mask',0, and affinitizing all the processors. For example, on a 16 core server,
sp_configure 'affinity mask',0xFFFF prevents the SQL threads from moving between
the cores. The threads are pinned to the core they start on. All the cores can be used by
SQL Server; however, the threads cannot move between the cores as they can when the
affinity mask is set to zero. In some cases, affinitizing all the processors can provide a
performance benefit because it reduces context switching, which occurs when threads
migrate between cores.
Affinity I/O mask
This configuration option provides a way to isolate a portion of the I/O processing within a
SQL Server instance and place it on one or more dedicated cores. I/O affinity is the ability to
dedicate a scheduler to the processing of I/O requests. Normally, in the default case, when
this mask is set to zero, I/O requests are processed on the core they are initiated on.
Generally this gives the best performance. However, in some workloads with high I/O rates,
overall performance can be improved by dedicating one or more cores to exclusively
processing I/O requests and nothing else. When the server has more than 32 cores, you need
to use both the affinity I/O mask and the affinity64 I/O mask options.
Note: Do not enable the same core in both the affinity mask and the affinity I/O mask.
Another way to say this is that the bit for a core must either be zero in both masks, or it
must be one in one mask and zero in the other mask. It cannot be one in both masks.
An example of a valid method of using affinity masks for a 16 core server is as follows:
exec sp_configure 'affinity mask',0xFFFE
exec sp_configure 'affinity I/O mask',0x0001
This correctly sets core 0 for I/O request processing and cores 1 through 15 for other
(non-I/O) SQL Server processing.
An example of an invalid method of using affinity masks for a 16 core server is as follows:
exec sp_configure 'affinity mask',0xFFFE
exec sp_configure 'affinity I/O mask',0x0003
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
This attempts to set cores 0 and 1 for I/O request processing and cores 1 through 15 for other
(non-I/O) SQL Server processing. This setting is incorrect because it assigns core 1 to both
I/O request processing and other (non-I/O) SQL Server processing.
AWE
It is not necessary to configure AWE for SQL Server 2008 x64. 64-bit applications do not
require AWE because access to memory is not limited to 4 GB. For 32-bit versions of SQL
Server this setting allows SQL Server to use up to 64 GB of memory. Using this feature is
advisable only when a value is specified for Max Server memory.
Max degree of parallelism
Setting this option to 1 prevents the query optimizer from choosing parallel query plans.
Parallel query plans reduce the time that it takes to complete a query at the expense of
increased resource utilization and reduced total throughput. Using multiple processors to run
a query is usually not desirable in an OLTP workload, although it is desirable in a BI workload.
Note that it is possible to assign query hints to individual queries to control the degree of
parallelism. This is useful for a mixed workload with both OLTP and BI.
Max server memory
When max server memory is kept at the default setting, SQL Server acquires and frees
memory in response to internal pressure (to expand because of work requests) and external
pressure (to shrink from the operating system). On a dedicated server that is running a heavy
workload, SQL Server continues to acquire memory until the maximum amount of physical
memory is nearly reached. In this case, you might find that guaranteeing memory for the
operating system, by setting max server memory to 2 GB to 4 GB less than the maximum
physical memory, gives better performance.
The typical recommendation is 2 GB less than total physical memory on systems with up to
64 GB, 4 GB less than total physical memory on systems with 128 GB or more, and an
amount between 2 GB and 4 GB less than total physical memory on systems between 64 GB
and 128 GB.
Multiple instances should always be configured with max server memory set so that the
instances do not compete for memory.
This parameter only effects the size of the buffer pool cache. SQL Server allocates memory
for other purposes, so the actual amount of memory consumed by SQL Server will be larger
than the amount specified. Max server memory is divided equally between the nodes. For
example, 252 GB on a 2-node server would result in a per node maximum buffer pool cache
size of 126 GB.
Network packet size
Setting this option to 8192 may improve performance because of better page alignment with
SQL Server’s 8KB pages. The default setting, 4096, is best for most applications. Test this to
find the optimal setting.
Priority boost
Setting this option to 1 changes the base priority of SQL Server from 7 to 13. On a dedicated
server, this might improve performance, although it can also cause priority imbalances
between SQL Server functions and operating system functions, leading to networking or
other errors. Priority boost should not be used when you are implementing failover
clustering.
Chapter 4. Configuration
73
Recovery interval
The default is 0, indicating automatic configuration. In practice, this generally means a
recovery time of less than one minute and a checkpoint approximately every minute for active
databases. Keep recovery interval set at 0 (self-configuring) unless the checkpoints impair
performance because they occur too frequently. If so, try increasing the value in small
amounts. See SQL Server Books Online topic “Understanding Recovery Performance.”
Large pages
Large-page support might benefit a dedicated x64 SQL Server with a large memory
configuration. Large pages improve performance by increasing the efficiency of the
translation look-aside buffer (TLB) in the CPU. Large pages can be used for the buffer pool
and for the code pages for SQL Server.
To enable large pages for the buffer pool use trace flag -T834. This causes SQL Server to
allocate the maximum memory specified at startup.
To enable large pages for the code pages create this registry key:
HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution
Options\sqlservr.exe. Insert this new registry DWORD:UseLargePages=1.
4.4 Storage configuration
In this section, we describe how you can configure the disk storage for SQL Server if you are
connecting the x3950 M2 to an FC-attached SAN. A SAN offers great configuration flexibility.
Similarly, SQL Server 2008 offers great flexibility because you can put database objects in
multiple files and group files into multiple file groups. Each of the various database workloads
(OLTP, BI, and the maintenance operations), imposes a characteristic I/O profile on the
storage. Over time, new workloads can be introduced that might alter the I/O profile.
One of the most important and difficult design decisions that affects performance in a
database implementation is how to make the best use of the flexibility offered by the SAN and
SQL Server to maximize performance for the unique I/O profile exhibited initially and in the
future. The problem has a chicken and egg quality because the configuration of the storage is
based on the I/O profile, but the I/O profile can best be determined by measuring it on a
running system.
For starters, try to model your proposed storage configuration on paper, using a spreadsheet
or a software tool designed to do this type of modeling. You can also attempt to extrapolate
from the performance characteristics of an earlier implementation of the proposed
environment. If this is too complicated or you do not know the characteristics, then you can
use the rules that are described in the sections that follow.
The Microsoft white paper Predeployment I/O Best Practices discusses many of the storage
issues discussed in this section. It also includes links to other resources - tools and papers on this topic. It is available from:
http://sqlcat.com/whitepapers/archive/2007/11/21/predeployment-i-o-best-practices.aspx
The IBM white paper SQL Server 2005 with IBM System Storage DS8000 & DS4000 Best
Practices Guide provides design, configuration, and planning information for implementing
Microsoft SQL Server with IBM System Storage™ arrays. This paper is planned to be
updated for SQL Server 2008 and the DS5000 storage product. It is available from:
http://ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP101126
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
4.4.1 Storage setup
The steps that are required to configure and present the Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) to the
operating system as physical disks are:
 Host to storage connection
This addresses the paths between the x3950 M2 and the storage server. The components
of these paths are the FC HBAs in the x3950 M2, the cables, the FC switches, and the
storage server controllers. The guiding principle from a performance perspective is to
spread the peak I/O traffic evenly through these components. From a redundancy
perspective, no single component should cause failure, which implies a minimum of two
HBAs, two switches, two controllers, and at least two paths to each LUN.
 Create arrays
An array is composed of a set of disk spindles, a RAID level and a stripe unit size. In
general, a greater number of spindles provides greater throughput (I/O per second and
MB per second). You will get better performance, if you plan to use significantly less than
the total disk capacity. RAID-10 usually performs better than RAID-5 (especially for
random write workloads) while providing approximately half of the capacity and more
resiliency to disk failures.
A large stripe unit size benefits a sequential workload, and a small stripe unit size benefits
a random workload. If you have no other information, a stripe unit size of 64 KB is
advisable as a starting point from which you can tune. For a more in-depth discussion of
choosing these parameters, see the Microsoft white paper, Disk Subsystem Performance
Analysis for Windows, available from:
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/storage/subsys_perf.mspx
 LUNs
LUNs are created from arrays. Using an entire array to create a single LUN is the simplest
and most advisable design because multiple LUNs created from a single array can
interfere with the performance of the other LUNs, which share spindles. The likely result is
erratic performance. One LUN per array also simplifies performance monitoring.
 Configure controller cache
In an enterprise-level SAN, significant cache is available, which can enhance performance
greatly. In general, take the database option, when one is offered. This includes settings
such as:
– Read caching ON
– Cache read-ahead multiplier OFF (if the access is random)
– Write caching ON (be sure the cache is battery backed to avoid data corruption or
power failures)
 Creating Windows logical disks
When you create partitions in Windows Server 2008 they are automatically aligned. Use
an NTFS allocation size of 64 KB.
Note: SQL Server 2008 supports mount points. Mount points reduce the number of
drive letters required, which can be a limitation when building a multi-instance cluster.
Chapter 4. Configuration
75
 Stress and performance test
To validate that the storage you have configured is reliable for use with SQL Server, you
can run SQLIOSim for several days, to detect rare, intermittent failures. You can obtain
SQLIOSim from:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;231619
To verify the performance characteristics of the volumes that you have created, you can
use the SQLIO utility, available from:
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=9A8B005B-84E4-4F24-8D6
5-CB53442D9E19&displaylang=en
Using SQLIO, you can put a load on the storage system based on the I/O profile that you
anticipate. You should keep a baseline set of statistics for each LUN (for example, 8 KB,
64 KB, 1 MB, random/sequential, read/write, and various queue depths) that you can use
to compare against actual SAN performance when you run the database application.
Note: The utilities mentioned here do not use SQL Server. They are standalone
programs that generate a synthetic load on the storage system. Also, it is not advisable
to use them to stress the OS boot drives (the default for SQLIO), only the FC-attached
storage.
Another tool, similar to SQLIO, is IOMeter, which you can download here:
http://www.iometer.org/
4.4.2 Storage file placement
This section addresses placing the various database files on the logical disks that appear in
the operating system. There are several conflicting goals to meet: availability, performance,
and cost. Designing the LUNs, the database files, and their placement for a large SAN and a
large complex database is a difficult task. In fact, there are so many details, complex
interactions, and possibilities, that automation of the design or implementation can be very
effective.
Automation is even more important when the workload is dynamic because the storage
configuration can be modified frequently while the database application is running. The
following general guidelines supplement whatever level of automation is available:
 Availability
To maximize availability, the log and backup files should be placed on arrays that are
separate from the data files. This is because you can recover from an outage caused by
media failure of the data files by using the log and backup files to restore the database. To
reduce the chance of media failure, use RAID-10 over RAID-5. To reduce backup time and
recovery time, which contributes to availability, use multiple data files and multiple backup
devices to allow parallel data transfer to all devices simultaneously. To reduce recovery
time, use RAID-10 and put the source and target files for these operations in separate
arrays.
 Performance
To maximize performance, all files should be put in RAID-10, especially data files that are
subject to random workloads. To reduce disk contention, data and log files for the same
database should be put in separate arrays. A large component of disk access time is
moving the disk arm, so isolating a log file in its own arrays allows sequential writes to
proceed with minimal disk arm movement, improving performance.
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Dividing a database into multiple file groups and putting them in separate arrays can
improve performance by distributing the I/O load over more spindles. One approach is to
separate base tables and their non-clustered indexes into separate file groups and place
them on separate arrays. The query in Example 4-5 on page 82 provides I/O statistics for
balancing I/O in this way.
Tempdb, which is a global resource for each SQL Server instance, can cause a scalability
bottleneck. Concurrent access to tempdb can be improved by splitting the tempdb data
into multiple files. Begin by creating one file per CPU. Use the query shown in
Example 4-1 to check for contention in Tempdb. Tempdb should be on its own RAID-10
array, separate from the user databases, for best performance.
Example 4-1 Tempdb query
select
from
where
and
session_id, wait_duration_ms, resource_description
sys.dm_os_waiting_tasks
wait_type like 'PAGE%LATCH_%'
resource_description like '2:%'
You can improve performance by sizing data, log, and tempdb files so that they do not
have to grow automatically during normal operations. A starting point for sizing the log of a
user database is to make it 20% of the database size if the database is less than 10 GB,
and to make it 10% of the database size if the database is more than 10 GB. A starting
point for Tempdb is to make it 20% of the largest database in the instance and make the
Tempdb log 1/2 the size of Tempdb itself. Arrays that are well below their maximum space
capacity perform better than ones that are nearly full.
 Cost
When it is not economical to put each file in its own array, consolidating files with similar
workloads is another option. For example, combine read-only data files in the same array,
randomly accessed data files in the same array, and log files in the same array. Avoid
putting files with disparate workloads in the same set of spindles. Combine files that are
accessed at different times of the day in the same array. When it is not economical to use
RAID-10, RAID-5 for the data files and backups might be acceptable.
Try to match the performance requirements of the various files with the performance
characteristics of the arrays, based on the measurements you made with SQLIO. The goal
is to avoid wasting performance capability on files that do not need it.
4.5 Database workloads
This section identifies typical database workloads and their I/O, CPU, and memory
characteristics.
4.5.1 Maintenance operations
Maintenance operations include create, load, back up database, restore, integrity check, and
index rebuild. These operations can be characterized as heavy sequential read and write that
use large block sizes. Usually they are scheduled during off-peak periods and the primary
issue is how quickly they can complete.
With the exception of integrity check and index rebuild, which have a CPU-intensive and
memory-intensive middle phase, these operations are limited by the performance of the disk
arrays involved and require little CPU or memory resources. It is possible to shorten the
elapsed time of these operations by implementing multiple file groups on separate devices
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77
and performing the operation in parallel for each file group. See, for example, SQL Server
Books Online topic “Optimizing Backup and Restore Performance.”
Backup compression is a new feature in the SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition. Backup
compression compresses database backups going to disk and tape. It trades off increased
CPU for reduced disk or tape space required for backups. Because less data has to be read
and written, backup compression may significantly reduce the time required to back up and
restore a database.
4.5.2 Application workloads
There are two main types of database application workloads: a BI workload and an OLTP
workload. Some environments operate a mixed workload with both types.
OLTP
An OLTP workload is characterized by random read/writes against the data files and
sequential writes against the log file. Usually there is no tempdb activity. Because of the
checkpoint process, the write activity to the data files occurs in spikes, usually once a minute
for an active database.
To support the database recovery function, which depends on rolling forward the log files, the
log must be periodically copied to another location. This is a sequential read activity that must
occur simultaneously with the continuous sequential write activity to the log.
Decision Support System (DSS)
A DSS workload is characterized by heavy sequential reads that use large block sizes from
the data files and little or no activity against the application database log file. There is usually
heavy sequential read/write use of tempdb when large intermediate data sets cannot be
stored in memory and must be sorted. There might be phases of high CPU usage, when the
working data is able to fit in memory.
Data compression
Data compression is a new feature in the SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition which is similar
to backup compression, discussed previously. Data compression compresses databases
(actually tables and indexes) on disk. It trades off increased CPU for reduced disk space.
Because less data has to be read, data compression may significantly reduce the time
required to query a database.
Figure 4-1 on page 79 shows a comparison of SQL Server 2008 DSS query performance
with and without compression. The horizontal line at 100% is the baseline performance with
no compression. The blue, burgundy, and yellow bars show normalized query execution time,
read Mbytes per query, and query CPU consumption with compression relative to the results
without compression, respectively. In this study, the original database size was 1665 GB and
the on disk compressed size was 955 GB, a 43% reduction of space used.
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Normalized Query Performance with Compression
Percent
150
100
50
0
PE
AP
Query Execution Time
UO
CT
PS
LB
Query Type
Read MBytes per Query
MS
SM
LS
Query CPU Consumption
Figure 4-1 SQL Server 2008 DSS query performance with and without compression
Mixed OLTP and DSS
When both OLTP and DSS workloads are run concurrently, there can be physical and logical
contention. For example, a DSS query might be reading the same data that an OLTP
transaction is updating. This is precisely the scenario that the database snapshot isolation
feature was created for. By keeping row versions of the data in tempdb, SQL Server 2008 can
avoid reader-writer blocking. The impact on the hardware is then a heavier use of tempdb.
Contention for CPU resources can arise within a single instance. In this case, it can be
resolved by using the Soft NUMA feature to partition CPUs by workload in a single SQL
Server instance as described in 3.3.3, “Soft NUMA” on page 38.
4.6 Performance analysis process
In this section, we describe the process of analyzing performance. This analysis process
includes the practice of keeping a performance baseline, how to monitor the hardware
resources on a server that is running SQL Server, and the other SQL Server specific tools
that are available.
Important: Although this paper focuses on hardware, we have observed that, while it is
possible to make improvements in the 10% to 50% range by tuning hardware, it is also
possible to make orders of magnitude of improvement by performing tuning activities at the
database and application levels.
4.6.1 Performance baseline
Keeping a performance baseline is a basic best practice. SQL Server database
administrators (DBAs) often create a separate database that contains baseline information
about how an application runs hour to hour, day to day, week to week, and month to month.
Then, they can query this database to find averages and trends to create a profile of their
applications when they are running well.
You can learn the profile of your application by determining:
 Typical transaction rate
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79
 Typical I/Os per second; read and write to database, log, and tempdb files; and the
random/sequential pattern
 Typical CPU utilization, user and kernel
 Typical memory utilization
The concept of keeping a baseline is very general. It includes keeping performance logs and
Excel® spreadsheets (in reality, any repository of historical measurements) on any
component, including the operating system, the database management system, the
application, and the hardware. The value of keeping this historical information is that when
something changes unexpectedly in performance, you can refer to this baseline data and find
clues in what has changed from then to now. This can lead more quickly to a resolution of the
problem, than if you did not have this baseline data.
One procedure for collecting a performance baseline is as follows:
1. Create a Counter Log, called Baseline_A, using the Performance Monitor GUI with a few
key counters that monitor CPU, memory, disk, and network.
2. Run the command shown in Example 4-2 from the command line, all on one line.
Example 4-2 Settings for capturing baseline performance data
logman update counter Baseline_A -v mmddhhmm -b 1/1/2015 0:00:00 -e 1/1/2015
23:59:59 -r -cnf 4:00:00 -si 00:15 -f tsv -o "C:\Perflogs\Baseline_A" -u
Administrator *
After you have run the command and when you start the Counter Log, your statistics are
collected every 15 seconds and they are saved in a log file named with the current date/time
stamp in the C:\Perflogs directory. It closes the current log file every four hours and creates a
new log file. It runs until you stop it. You can create another Counter Log, called SQL_A, and
include some of the SQL Server counters such as Transactions/sec for your databases.
SQL_A might include more counters than Baseline_A. This way, you have a relatively small
counter log for quick diagnosis and a larger one for more complete analysis.
4.6.2 Hardware resources
In this section we discuss monitoring the four hardware resources (CPU, memory, disk, and
network) from the perspective of SQL Server 2008 running its typical workloads.
CPU
If the total processing percentage (% Processor Time) is higher than 80% for sustained
periods, then you might have a CPU bottleneck. Normally the kernel mode time
(% Privileged Time) is low for SQL Server. If it is high, there might be a problem with a disk
driver or the disk subsystem.
To see if SQL Server has work queued that could run, but is waiting for a busy CPU, you must
check inside SQL Server. This is because SQL Server does not queue its work to the
Windows operating system. SQL Server has a user-mode scheduler in which it queues tasks
that are waiting.
This query results in an instantaneous view of the number of tasks queued in SQL Server that
can be run, as shown in Example 4-3.
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Example 4-3 Tasks that can be run in SQL Server
select AVG (runnable_tasks_count)
from sys.dm_os_schedulers
where status = 'VISIBLE ONLINE'
If SQL Server frequently has a non-zero number of runnable tasks, then adding additional
processors will likely result in more throughput.
Memory
For a server that is running only SQL Server, there should be no paging. That is,
Memory\Pages/sec should be zero. Most of the memory that SQL Server uses is allocated
for the Buffer Pool, which consists of 8 KB pages. Buffer Manager\Database pages gives
the number of buffer pages that contain database content.
Take the number of buffer pages, multiply it by 8 KB, and compare it to the total amount of
physical memory in the server. This gives you an indication of how much of your physical
memory is actually being used. Use DBCC MemoryStatus to obtain a snapshot of how memory
is allocated on each of the NUMA nodes and how it is consumed by the pools and caches in
SQL Server.
Memory usage in SQL Server 2008 is very complex. However, there is a simple procedure for
determining whether a workload will benefit from additional memory. It is based on the
observation that most applications respond to increased memory according to the general
graph shown in Figure 4-2.
Transactions/sec
Adding or subtracting
memory makes a little
change in performance
Adding or subtracting
memory makes a big
change in performance
Amount of physical memory
Figure 4-2 How more memory affects performance
The procedure is to measure the application performance with two amounts of memory, your
current amount of memory, and a small amount less. If the difference in performance is not
great, then that means you are at the top part of the curve and adding more memory does not
improve performance much. On the other hand, if the difference in performance is great, then
you are at the bottom part of the curve and adding memory is likely to improve performance,
up to the point where the curve begins to flatten out.
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81
The Perfmon counters that can indicate memory pressure, in the SQL Server:Buffer
Manager object, are:
 Buffer cache hit ratio (low)
 Page life expectancy (low)
 Checkpoint pages/sec (high)
 Lazy writes/sec (high)
The best way to monitor NUMA memory usage is to use the Perfmon counters in the
SQLServer:BufferNode object because it shows memory usage by NUMA node.
Disk
If CPU utilization is low, but response time or run time is not okay, you might have a disk
bottleneck. The Physical Disk Perfmon counters might provide the insight needed for tuning
most of the sequential I/O workloads. However, in the OLTP workload, the disk load of the log
and checkpoint processes are adjusted by SQL Server and so are invisible to Perfmon. When
writing to the log, the disk queue length is kept at 1. Likewise, the checkpoint is controlled so
that it does not swamp the disk and severely reduce throughput. In this case, use the query
shown in Example 4-4 to capture reads, writes, and I/O stalls by database file.
Example 4-4 SQL Server I/O statistics by file
select m.name, v.*, m.physical_name
from sys.dm_io_virtual_file_stats (null, null) v
,sys.master_files m
where v.database_id = m.database_id
and v.file_id
= m.file_id
Using this information, you can compute reads/sec, writes/sec, read and write block sizes,
and average milliseconds of wait time (I/O stalls) for read and write. If these wait times are
large, putting the files in faster disk arrays can improve database performance.
Using one of the new dynamic management views (DMV), it is now possible to obtain I/O
statistics by individual table and index, which can be used to make decisions about dividing
up the tables into file groups and for application level tuning. See the query shown in
Example 4-5. See also “Dynamic management views (DMV)” on page 84.
Example 4-5 Query I/O statistics by table and index
select *
from sys.dm_db_index_operational_stats(null, null, null, null)
Network
Network performance is rarely an issue with SQL Server. There is a new Perfmon SQL
Server counter object, Wait Statistics, that includes the counter Network IO waits, which
can prove useful. However, be aware that network waits can occur because the client is not
consuming the packets fast enough, which would not indicate a bottleneck in the server
hardware.
4.6.3 Other diagnostic and performance tools
The tools discussed in this section are useful for troubleshooting and tuning performance.
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SQL Trace and SQL Profiler
SQL Trace and SQL Profiler are related tools. SQL Trace is the name for the tracing facility
that is configured by using a set of system stored procedures. This facility does not drop trace
events when the server is under stress (unlike SQL Profiler). SQL Profiler is a GUI application
front end for SQL Trace.
SQL Trace and SQL Profiler are good tools to use to find poorly performing queries, to
determine the cause of deadlocks, or to collect a sample workload to replay for stress testing.
A trace template can be used to collect workloads in the format needed by the Database
Engine Tuning Advisor.
Database Engine Tuning Advisor
Database Engine Tuning Advisor (DTA) is a tool for tuning the physical design of a database.
DTA recommends changes in indexes and partitioning for an existing database based upon a
typical workload (a SQL trace) that is collected from the production system. You can use DTA
to identify indexes that are not being used by your application. These indexes can be dropped
because their maintenance creates unnecessary overhead. You can use DTA to identify new
indexes that currently do not exist. These indexes can be added, potentially reaping large
performance benefits.
Management Data Warehouse
SQL Server 2008 provides a complete framework for monitoring, centrally collecting, and
reporting on server activity, query statistics, and disk usage data for all SQL Server instances
in the enterprise. The database administrator uses wizards to configure data collection on
each SQL Server instance, uploading on a periodic schedule to a central SQL Server
instance which hosts the Management Data Warehouse (MDW) relational database. Default
schedules provide for purging old data. The entire framework is highly customizable. User
defined collectors and user defined reports can be added and collection and purging
schedules can be tailored.
Data is collected from T-SQL queries such as DMVs and custom queries, SQL Tracing, and
Perfmon counters. The initial reports provide interactive drill down from summary level charts
to detailed breakouts with numeric quantities, query text, and query plans. The purpose of
this framework is to aid the database administrator in managing a large farm of SQL Server
instances efficiently and effectively. The data and reports can be used for capacity planning,
performance tuning and troubleshooting.
SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) Standard Reports
Right-clicking an object in the left pane of a SQL Server instance in SSMS, then Reports,
then Standard Reports, reveals a set of troubleshooting and monitoring reports based on the
default trace and dynamic management views. The default trace is a minimal log of significant
changes occurring in the SQL Server instance which is always running by default.
For a particular SQL Server instance the reports include:
 Server Dashboard: Configuration details, including non default settings, and summary
CPU and IO usage.
 Configuration Changes History and Schema Changes History: To help answer the
question: What has changed recently?
 Memory Consumption and Scheduler Health: How memory and CPU resources are
utilized.
 Activity reports: Selected session activity such as blocking, cursors, and top resource
usage.
Chapter 4. Configuration
83
 Performance reports: Selected query statistics such as average and total CPU and
average and total IO.
For a Database instance the standard reports give per database information on disk usage,
backup and restore events, transactions, index usage, and user activity.
There are standard reports for Logins, Management, Notification Services and SQL Server
Agent. For complete documentation on all the standard reports, see:
http://blogs.msdn.com/buckwoody/archive/2008/04/17/sql-server-management-studio-st
andard-reports-the-full-list.aspx
Dynamic management views (DMV)
One of the design goals of SQL Server 2008 is for users to be able to effectively troubleshoot
and tune their databases. DMVs provide this visibility to the internal workings of SQL Server
2008.
The server-wide DMVs are:
 sys.dm_db_
These DMVs are for databases that provide space and usage information by file, index,
partition, task, and session. Note that queries that return index fragmentation statistics can
cause intensive I/O on that index.
 sys.dm_exec_
These DMVs are for execution related information, including query plans, cursors, and
sessions.
 sys.dm_io_
These DMVs provide I/O information for data and log files, pending I/O information, and
tape status.
 sys.dm_os_
These DMVs are for SQLOS related information, including memory, scheduling, tasks,
and wait statistics.
 sys.dm_tran_
These DMVs are for transaction-related information including active transactions, locking,
snapshots, and the version store. Note that selecting row version information could return
many rows and be resource intensive.
 sys.dm_xe_
These DMVs are for viewing Extended Event packages and sessions. Extended Events
provide a low level, low overhead framework for collecting performance and
troubleshooting data which can be integrated with data collected from the operating
system. The monitoring can be very precisely targeted. For example, it is possible to
collect the wait events for a single query execution.
These are the component-specific DMVs:








84
sys.dm_broker_ for the Service Broker feature
sys.dm_cdc_ for the Change Data Capture feature
sys.dm_clr_ for the Common Language Runtime feature
sys.dm_db_mirroring_ for the Database Mirroring feature
sys.dm_fts_ for the Full Text Search feature
sys.dm_qn_ for the Query Notifications feature
sys.dm_repl_ for the Replication feature
sys.dm_resource_governor_ for the Resource Governor feature
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Catalog views expose static metadata that describes all the user viewable objects in a SQL
Server instance. For example, sys.master_files gives all the database file names that are
known to the SQL Server instance. By combining catalog views with dynamic management
views, you can create queries that interpret the internal data for troubleshooting and
performance analysis.
SQLdiag
The SQLdiag utility, which has its roots in the Microsoft Product Support Services group
(actually first written by Ken Henderson), is a general purpose diagnostic tool. It collects
performance logs, event logs, SQL traces, SQL blocking data, and SQL configuration data.
An especially useful mode for using this tool is to start it, reproduce an issue, and shut it
down. The captured information that results from this mode can be analyzed for
troubleshooting. You can extensively customize the data SQLdiag collects.
Query hints and plan guides
Query hints are not new in SQL Server 2008. They can be used to force the query optimizer
to choose a specific query plan. They are useful when the optimizer occasionally does not
choose the most efficient plan. Plan guides are an extension of this.
Using a plan guide, it is possible to modify a query, providing query hints, without changing
the text of the query. This is useful when you have a third party application and do not want to
or are unable to modify the code.
New in SQL Server 2008 is the ability to specify a specific query plan as a query hint either
directly or via a plan guide.
Replay Markup Language (RML) utilities for SQL Server
The RML utilities are free, unsupported tools from the Microsoft Product Support Services
group. The RML utilities provide a framework for replaying and stress testing a SQL Server
workload based on a captured SQL Server trace. The ReadTrace utility preprocesses the
captured trace into .rml files, so that it can be efficiently replayed. The OSTRESS utility
accepts these .rml files and replays the workload in the original sequence or in stress mode.
ReadTrace can also populate a database from the trace data, which can be analyzed using
the Reporter utility.
OSTRESS can also be used stand alone to run the same query on multiple connections at
once. See Example 4-6, which performs a query on the same table from 500 TCP/IP
connections.
Example 4-6 Using OSTRESS to run a query on 500 connections
ostress.exe -Stcp:"DB3" -q -E -dNetStress -Q"select count(*) from wait_stats"
-n500 -o"C:\Temp\Ostress_tcp"
The 9.x version of the utilities can be used with SQL Server 2008; however, they do not
support the new features of SQL Server 2008. The RML utilities can be obtained here:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/944837
Windows Performance Toolkit (xPerf/ETW)
Windows Performance Toolkit provides two main programs; xperf and xperfview. Xperf
captures traces using the Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) infrastructure. Xperfview reads
the ETW trace and presents interactive graphs and summary tables. These tools can be used
to measure and analyze system and application performance.
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85
The toolkit can be obtained from:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/performance/cc825801.aspx
Performance Analysis of Logs (PAL) tool
PAL is an unsupported tool from CodePlex, Microsoft’s open source project hosting Web site.
The idea behind PAL is to use the power of the computer to read through a Perfmon log to
locate when a particular counter has exceeded a threshold, so that this does not have do be
done manually. Perfmon templates and predefined threshold values for the major Microsoft
products are provided, including SQL Server. The exceptions located are presented via an
HTML report with charts and graphs.
PAL can be obtained here:
http://www.codeplex.com/PAL
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A
Appendix A.
Unattended install
SQL Server 2008 introduces enhancements to the entire installation process. In this appendix
we describe the improvements to the command prompt installation or unattended installation.
There are two ways to perform an unattended installation of SQL Server 2008, both of which
are covered in this appendix. You can install SQL Server 2008 by:
1. Using a configuration file
1. Passing all options as parameters on the command line
Topics in this appendix are:
1. A.1, “Benefits of unattended installation” on page 88
1. A.2, “Installation using the configuration file” on page 88
1. A.3, “Installation from the command prompt” on page 90
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
87
A.1 Benefits of unattended installation
SQL Server 2008 command prompt installation, or unattended installation, is a powerful tool
for administrators. The use of unattended installation has the following advantages:
 It provides an easy and fast way to reinstall a SQL Server during a disaster recovery
situation.
 It provides a reliable way to install a large number of SQL Servers with identical
configurations. With Windows scripting it is possible to install SQL Server, Service Packs,
configure security, maintenance jobs, and so forth, with one click or by deploying an SMS
installation package.
 It eliminates the need for repetitive DBA tasks and thus the chance for human mistakes
during the configuration of a new SQL Server instance or client.
 It helps you keep up to date with new installations by adding new SQL Server fixes to the
unattended installation scripts.
 The unattended installation configuration file is a self-documenting file of how SQL
Servers are installed.
A.2 Installation using the configuration file
Before installing this way, you must create the configuration file. You can create the
configuration file in one of two ways: either automatically as a result of running the SQL
Server 2008 install GUI (setup), or you can create the file manually.
A.2.1 SQL Server 2008 installation GUI
Despite the numerous changes on SQL Server 2008 GUI (setup), this section only covers the
features of setup that help with the unattended installation process.
SQL Server 2005 GUI Installation originally included enhancements on error logging under
the bootstrap folder. However, the GUI also introduces, as part of a normal installation, the
generation of the configuration.ini file with all the features selected during the normal
procedure as shown in Figure A-1 on page 89.
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Figure A-1 Configuration.ini file generation
The location of the configurationfile.ini file is also displayed in this dialog.
Tip: The name configurationfile.ini for the file is just for the example. The name does not
need to be configurationfile.ini or configuration.ini, but it is recommended that the
extension be ini.
A.2.2 Manual configuration file generation
The unattended installation procedure allows you to install any SQL Server 2008 component.
The components for the installation are specified as parameters in a Configuration.ini file, or
as parameters on the command prompt (that is, without Configuration.ini file). The
parameters are divided in groups according to the features of SQL Server 2008:







SQL Server Setup
Analysis Services
Database Engine
Integration Services
Reporting Services
SQL Server Browser
SQL Server Agent
Appendix A. Unattended install
89
For more information on SQL Server 2008 group of parameters see SQL Server 2008 Books
On-line under “How to: Install SQL Server 2008 from the Command Prompt.”
The ini file for the Command Prompt installation process has no different structure than a
normal ini file.
The file needs a header between brackets and a row per option selected for the installation. In
Example A-1 we are creating Configuration.ini file for a simple installation of Database Engine
with Error Reporting option enabled, informing installation directories, named instance name,
and so forth.
Example A-1: Example of Configuration.ini file format
[SQLSERVER2008]
ACTION="Install"
ERRORREPORTING="1"
FEATURES="SQL"
INSTALLSHAREDDIR="C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server"
INSTALLSHAREDWOWDIR="C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server"
INSTANCEDIR="E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server"
INSTANCENAME="CMDINSTALL"
...
A.2.3 Performing the install
Now that the configuration file has been created, it is simply a matter of issuing the setup
command from the directory where the setup files are located (either the supplied installation
media or the network share where the files are stored). The command is:
Setup.exe /q /ACTION=Install /Configurationfile=<path to configuration file>
A.3 Installation from the command prompt
In this section, we describe how to install SQL Server 2008 from the command prompt,
without the use of a configuration file.
The first step is to define the parameters and their values. In this example we install a
Database Engine named instance with the name CMDINSTALL. In Example A-2 we are
specifying the parameters for the SQL Server Setup, Database Engine, and SQL Server
Agent groups.
Example A-2: Command prompt installation parameters
SQL Server Setup:
/ACTION=Install
/ERRORREPORTING=1
/FEATURES=SQL
/INDICATEPROGRESS
/INSTALLSHAREDDIR="C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server"
/INSTALLSHAREDWOWDIR="C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server"
/INSTANCEDIR="E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server"
/INSTANCENAME="CMDINSTALL"
/Q
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Database Engine:
/INSTALLSQLDATADIR="E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\CMDINSTALL"
/SECURITYMODE
/SQLBACKUPDIR
/SQLCOLLATION="SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS"
/SQLSVCACCOUNT="DOMAIN\SQLServiceAccount"
/SQLSVCPASSWORD="PASSWORD"
/SQLSVCStartuptype=2
/SQLSYSADMINACCOUNTS="LIST SYSADMIN ACCOUNTS"
SQL Server Agent
/AGTSVCACCOUNT="DOMAIN\SQLServiceAccount"
/AGTSVCPASSWORD="PASSWORD"
/AGTSVCSTARTUPTYPE=2
Now, to run the setup installer, we supply all these parameters on the command line. In our
example, the command line is shown in Example A-3 (the entire command is entered on one
line).
Example A-3: Command to install SQL Server 2008
setup.exe /ACTION=Install /ERRORREPORTING=1 /FEATURES=SQL /INDICATEPROGRESS
/INSTALLSHAREDDIR=="C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server"
/INSTALLSHAREDWOWDIR="C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server"
/INSTANCEDIR="E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server" /INSTANCENAME="CMDINSTALL" /Q
/INSTALLSQLDATADIR="E:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\CMDINSTALL"
/SQLCOLLATION="SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS"
/SQLSVCACCOUNT="FINSQL\SQLServiceAccount" /SQLSVCPASSWORD="sqlSQL123"
/SQLSVCStartuptype=2 /SQLSYSADMINACCOUNTS="FINSQL\kurlat"
/AGTSVCACCOUNT="FINSQL\SQLServiceAccount" /AGTSVCPASSWORD="sqlSQL123"
/AGTSVCSTARTUPTYPE=2
Once you press Enter to begin the install, you will see output similar to Figure A-2.
Figure A-2 Setup progress
Once the process completes, the output is similar to Figure A-3 on page 92.
Appendix A. Unattended install
91
Figure A-3 Ended process
Tips:
 By default, the installer logs everything to the folder c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL
Server\100\Setup Bootstrap\Log\<YYYYMMDD_HHMMSS\.
 The command line installation creates a configuration file for later use. This generated
file is stored in the same folder as the log.
A.3.1 Command prompt SQL Sever 2008 fix installation
As with any other component on SQL Server 2008, a fix also might be installed within
command prompt. The syntax for a fix installation is:
FIXINSTALLATIONFILE.exe /Q /INDICATEPROGRESS="True" /INSTANCENAME="NAMEINSTANCE"
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Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this paper.
IBM Redbooks publications
For information about ordering these publications, see “How to get Redbooks publications” on
page 93. Note that some of the documents referenced here may be available in softcopy only.
 IBM System x3950 M2 and x3850 M2 Technical Introduction, REDP-4362
 Planning, Installing, and Managing the IBM System x3950 M2, SG24-7630
 Consolidating Microsoft SQL Server on the IBM System x3950 M2, REDP-4385
 SQL Server 2005 on the IBM eServer xSeries 460 Enterprise Server, REDP-4093
 Introducing Windows Server x64 on IBM Eserver xSeries Servers, REDP-3982
Online resources
These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources:
 IBM System x3950 M2 Product Overview
http://ibm.com/systems/x/hardware/enterprise/x3950m2/
 Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Books Online
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms130214.aspx
How to get Redbooks publications
You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Technotes, draft publications
and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks, at this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved.
93
94
Running Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the IBM System x3950 M2
Back cover
Running Microsoft SQL
Server 2008 on the
IBM System x3950 M2
Utilize the enterprise
class performance
features of IBM
X-Architecture
servers
Maximize scale-up
performance in
multi-node
configurations
Introduces new
features in SQL Server
2008
The IBM System x3950 M2 server provides extraordinary levels of
scalability and processing power needed to run the most demanding
enterprise database workloads. The x3950 M2 system is based on the
fourth generation of IBM X-Architecture and is built on eX4 technology.
As a scale-up platform, it offers unprecedented flexibility for supporting
multi-node configurations using up to 96 processor cores.
The System x3950 M2 is the ultimate in scale-up design. Scale-up
refers to the idea of increasing processing capacity by adding
additional processors (and memory and I/O bandwidth) to a single
server, making it more powerful. This is precisely what the x3950 M2
is designed to do: to scale up by adding chassis to a hardware partition
to form two-node, four-node, and eight-node configurations. SQL
Server 2008 is also designed for scale-up.
Thus, when your database application needs to scale-up to handle
increased demands, the x3950 M2 and SQL Server 2008 together can
grow from a one-node server to an enterprise-class four-node server
with up to 96 processor cores and 1 TB of physical memory, which the
64-bit SQL Server 2008 x64 can take full advantage of.
This IBM Redbooks publication presents technical considerations and
configuration examples for scaling up Microsoft SQL Server 2008 to
support very high workloads.
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For more information:
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