Schleibinger Thin-Layer-Shrinkage-Measuring

Schleibinger Thin-Layer-Shrinkage-Measuring-System
Schleibinger Geräte
Teubert u. Greim GmbH
Gewerbestraße 4
84428 Buchbach
Germany
Tel. +49 8086 94010
Fax. +49 8086 94014
www.schleibinger.com
info@schleibinger.com
December 14, 2015
Contents
2
Contents
1 Introduction
4
1.1 Taxonomy of Shrinkage Measurement Systems . . . . . .
2 Theory of Operation
4
5
2.1 Thin-Layer-Measurement-System (TLMS) . . . . . . . . .
3 Handling
5
6
3.1 TLMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Hardware Installation
6
7
4.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
4.2 Installation of the Data-Logger for the TLMS . . . . . . . .
7
4.3 Important Safety Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
4.4 Thermocouples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
5 Configuring the Network access
10
5.1 How to do the network configuration between the data logger and a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
5.1.1 Working with a symbolic Server Name . . . . . . .
10
5.1.2 Working with a fix IP address . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
5.2 Setting a static IP-address on a Windows computer
. . .
12
5.3 Setting a static IP address on the data logger . . . . . . .
12
6 Balance Interface
14
6.1 Sartorius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
6.1.1 Serial Interface Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
7 The Software
14
7.1 Recording Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
7.2 Software Handling with your Web-Browser-Software . . .
14
7.3 Quickstart
17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Transferring the datasets
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
7.4.1 Data Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
7.4.2 All Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
7.4.3 HTML Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
7.4.4 FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
7.5 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
7.5.1 System-Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
7.5.2 Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
7.6 Online-Data Graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
Contents
3
8 Plotting the Measurement Data in HTML5
24
8.1 Browser Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
8.1.1 Firefox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
8.1.2 Opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
8.1.3 MS Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
8.1.4 Google Chrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
8.2 User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
8.3 Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
8.4 Zooming the Y-axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
8.5 Zooming the Time Axis
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
8.6 Insert a Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
8.7 Printing the Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
9 Bibliography
26
10 Calibration Sheet Laser sensor
28
11 Calibration Sheet Temperature Sensors
29
11.1 Sensor 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
11.2 Sensor 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
1
1
Introduction
4
Introduction
All mortars are changing their volume from the moment the binder particles came in contact with water until several months and years. In
most practical application this expansion and shrinkage must be minimized. Many theoretical models are describing the cause of this effects,
but specially the mechanism in the first hours are not completely understood yet. One demanding prerequisite for controlling the shrinkage of
mortars are measurement instruments that are able to measure shrinkage and expansion from the early beginning of hydration and setups that
are able to simulate environmental conditions in the field application.
Up to now shrinkage and expansion of building materials is measured
by simple mechanical instruments like cantilevers. Therefore a certain
strength of the material is necessary.
There is a survey given about more modern sensors and instruments
measuring also the early shrinkage before the setting point. Beneath
others a contactless LASER based measurement method with a coneformed formwork is presented avoiding the problems shown above.
1.1
Taxonomy of Shrinkage Measurement Systems
As long as a material is in the fluid state shrinkage is not causing a problem. The only thing you have to keep in mind is, that a length change on
each site of a 1 cubicmeter cube of 1/1000 is already a volume change
of about 3 liters.
When the material is setting and/or is in contact with a material that has
no shrinkage or expansion, strain inside the material or in the contact
zone will appear. As soon as this tension will be over the actual tensile
strength of the material, the material structure will be damaged, usually
by the occurring of cracks.
Therefore its obvious not only to measure the free shrinkage but also the
strain that occur. It’s called measurement of the blocked or restrained
shrinkage. The tensile strength and the materials volume is changing
most in the first hours after mixing, so restrained and free shrinkage
should be observed as early as possible in the hydration process.
The process of crystal grow itself is influenced by the environmental conditions like temperature, humidity, freeze thaw cycles, penetration of gas,
or salty or acid liquids. This environment must be kept constant to detect the shrinkage of the material itself. But on the opposite the length
change may be an indicator for the resistance against an environmental
attack on the material. For example for detecting the alkali silica reaction
or for indicating the freeze/thaw resistance of concrete.
Figure 1 shows free shrinkage over the time in a general way. We must
distinguish 3 ranges of of material strength for using different measurement techniques:
• fluid (F)
• starting of setting (S)
• hardened material (H)
These 3 ranges may be subdivided depending on the material geometry
and environmental conditions. For example:
• rigid volume, no evaporation
2
Theory of Operation
5
• low volume, high surface, high evaporation
• high or low temperature
• periodical temperature changes
• humidity gradient
• temperature gradient
The appropriate shrinkage measurement instruments are also shown.
Figure 1: Shrinkage over time
Schleibinger is offering the whole range for measuring shrinkage of constructing materials.
• The Schleibinger Shrinkage-Cone and the Schleibinger Thin - Layer
- Measurement System are the ideal instrument for measuring the
very early shrinkage and expansion of building materials like paste,
mortar, plaster etc. A toucheless laser sensor allows data acquisition suddenly after filling the cone-formed specimen container or
the thin layer formwork.
• The Schleibinger Shrinkage Drains are working in a similar way.
Here the shrinkage or expansion is measured with a movable anchor .
• The Schleibinger Bending Drain measures not only the length change,
but also the curling of the specimen. Here also the influence of
floor heating is simulated.
• The Schleibinger Shrinkage Ring according to ASTM C1581 is
measuring the forces occurring at restrained shrinkage.
2
2.1
Theory of Operation
Thin-Layer-Measurement-System (TLMS)
Some building materials like self-leveling flooring compounds ore plasters are applied in thin layers. These fast setting mortars set and harden
within a couple of hours and subsequent drying of such a thin layer is
generally terminated after the first day. In order to investigate the dynamics of early shrinkage and expansion we developed a special setup of two laser units which are horizontally aligned. This set-up allows to investigate the different formulation parameters and their influences onto the different stages of shrinkage and expansion, namely the
3
Handling
6
plastic shrinkage, setting expansion and drying shrinkage. The shrinkage/expansion behaviour is strongly related to both, external (climate)
and internal (formulation) factors. With respect to the latter, begin, intensity and duration of setting are key to the overall shrinkage/expansion
behaviour. With building materials applied in thin layers shrinkage is one
of the major issues because of two reasons: The high surface-volume
ratio causes evaporation to be a dominant mechanism for strong and
fast physical shrinkage, and the intense hydration reactions can cause
a pronounced chemical shrinkage, or in case of Ettringite formation a
strong expansion.
To investigate early shrinkage/expansion mechanisms in fast setting thin
mortar layers a special set-up was developed which consists of two laser
units. The two lasers are directed horizontally onto a pair of light-weight
reflectors, which are placed on top of the fresh mortar. The change in
distance between the reflectors is then registered with an accuracy of
0.1 µm. The non-contact laser device allows to start measurement right
after emplacement of the fresh mortar. A data-logger supplied with the
system registrars the data and store it in the logger as standard ASCII
files. Optional a synchronous registration of temperature and humidity
ore of a balance (Sartorius) is possible. Two temperature channels and
a mixed temperature /humidity channel are available. The logger has
a network interface (Ethernet). So you can easily integrate it into local
Intranet. With a standard web-browser software you can readout the
data, and visualize it. For further data handling we recommend Microsoft
Excel, LibreOffice ore any similar visualization program. The data are
visualized online graphical and numerical on the screen. No special PC
software is necessary. You need only your browser-software like Firefox,
Chrome ore Internet-Explorer .
3
3.1
Handling
TLMS
Take a thin PE or PP household-foil size ca. DIN A5 to DIN A4. Take a
strip of Tesa Moll and glue a kind of border around the foil to get a slim
elastic formwork for the building material.
Place the foil on the balance or a rigid support between the two laser
beams of the TLMS.
Prepare a small Styrofoam cube (ca. 10x10x10 mm). Glue a small
peace of dull aluminum foil on the one side of the cube as a reflector
for the laser beam. Fill in the specimen. Then set the reflector on the
surface of the material. Be sure that the height of the Laser beam is ok
to hit the reflector in the middle. Place the reflector about 10 mm from
the formwork border.
Now take the hand wheel at the boom stand and shift the left laser head
right until the red LED indicator is on. Then move the the laser slowly left,
passing the green LED range until the red indicator is on again . Now
go slowly about 2mm back to set the laser in the middle of the measuring range of 4 mm. The LED should switch here from green to yellow.
Be sure that the LED is green or yellow. Now click on Online-Data Numerical.Adjust the hand-wheel until you have raw-values of about 0.500.
Now go to the menu point called Offset-Height and select Set Range
Finder to Zero !, now a measurement value of about 0 µm will be displayed at the online-display (see above). Repeat the same for the right
4
Hardware Installation
7
Figure 2: Measurement setup at TLMS (with courtesy by Dr. Zurbriggen,
elotex, Schweiz
laser! Now choose Measurement - Data-Reset to clear the old data -set.
Then select Measurement - Start, and press Start to set the timer to zero
and starting data recording. Repeat this for all channels!
The option Quick-Start does Offset-Height, Data-Reset and Measurement Start with one singe command. Most building materials have a
big shrinkage after the first 30 minutes. Therefore it is very important
for repeatability, to fix the time between starting the mixer and the measurement start. As well the mixing times and temperatures should be
constant.
4
4.1
Hardware Installation
Requirements
The shrinkage-cone, the TLMS, the bending drain, the shrinkage drain
and the shrinkage ring are delivered with a data-logger. The data logger records the measurement values more then 40 weeks autonomous.
The data-sets are stored non-volatile in the data-logger. The logger is
equipped with a network interface. It may be integrated in your local
intra-net as well as into the world-wide Internet. As user interface you
need a PC with an actual Internet browser software like (Firefox, Internet Explorer, Chrome, Opera, Konquerer...) and optional installed Java
virtual machine (1.1.8) ore Virtual Machine (Microsoft). You can use any
PC from Win95..Windows 8 as well as Linux ore MacOS. Even a tablet
running Android or iOs is possible. The PC must be equipped with an
Ethernet network interface running the TCP/IP protocol. The data-logger
need a free fix IP address, but also activating a DNS is possible. For using it without a network, take a cross-wired Ethernet cable (Cat5, RJ45)
During the measurement you need no running PC. The configuration is
described in detail in section 5. Beneath the http protocol you may also
readout the data with the file-transfer protocol (ftp). The username for
the ftp protocol is ftp, the pasword also ftp.
For debuggung purposes you may also login with the telnet protocol.
Here username and password are tel.
4.2
Installation of the Data-Logger for the TLMS
• The data-logger will be delivered with a 100V-240V ~, 50..60Hz
power supply. Connect the power supply with the 3 pin DIN plug
to the data logger. After some seconds the data logger is running
and the LED indicator should blink.
4
Hardware Installation
8
Temperature / Humidity
Mettler−
Balance
Temperature
Network−
interface
Laser unit left
Laserunit right
Stativ
Data
logger
Switch / Hub
25 pin D−Sub
Ethernetinterface
Internet
Power−Supply
Figure 3: Wiring the TLMS
• The Laser measurement heads are mounted at the boom-stand.
• The Laser-heads are connected to the data-logger with a 25pin
D-Sub cable. Now the Laser should be on. 3).
• Connect the temperature, or temperature/humidity sensor to the
connectors on the backside of the logger. Don’t screw the connector. Push for connecting. Pull a little bit sideways for removing.
• Connect the (optional) balance to the backside 9-pin D-Sub connector of the data logger. Be sure that the serial interface of the
balance is activated. Contact your local Mettler-Toledo service for
further questions.
• Configure the network interface as described in chapter 5.
• The data-logger requires a free IP address. The logger is delivered
with the address written on a label on the bottom-side of the datalogger. Please use the Windows-program Chiptool.exe (delivered
with the data-logger) to change the IP address
4.3
Important Safety Hints
The Laser of the shrinkage cone and the TLMS is working at the wavelength of 675 nm. The maximum output power is 1mW. The sensor is
working according to Laser class IIA.
Don’t look into the laser beam! Safety spectacles are urgently recommended!
Please use the laser only according to your national laws.
4.4
Thermocouples
As option thermocouples may be connected to the data-logger or the
strain gage amplifier of the Shrinkage Rings for measuring the specimen
temperature.
A thermocouple is a temperature-measuring device consisting of two
dissimilar conductors that contact each other at one or more spots, where
4
Hardware Installation
9
a temperature differential is experienced by the different conductors (or
semiconductors). It produces a voltage when the temperature of one
of the spots differs from the reference temperature at other parts of the
circuit. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor
for measurement and control. Commercial thermocouples are inexpensive, interchangeable, are supplied with standard connectors, and can
measure a wide range of temperatures. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy; system errors of less than one degree Celsius
(°C) can be difficult to achieve.
Please use only Type K
thermocouples with the
Schleibinger data logger.
Otherwise you will get wrong
results!
There are different types of thermocouples on the market. Type K (chromel
/ alumel) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a
sensitivity of approximately 41µV /C (chromel positive relative to alumel
when the junction temperature is higher than the reference temperature).
It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its -200 °C
to +1350 °C range.1
After the measurement you may simply pull out the thermocouple from
the specimen. If its not possible cut it off. You may reuse it by removing
the insulation at the cable head and drill the both cables with several
windings together again.
1
Text partly from: Wikipedia contributors. "Thermocouple." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 31 May. 2015. Web. 5 Jun. 2015.
5
5
Configuring the Network access
10
Configuring the Network access
The Schleibinger data logger, the Slabtester and the CDF machine are
equipped with a 100 BaseT network interface. It can be integrated within
a local Intranet or globally into the Internet. The network configuration
can be done with the program Chiptool (it can be found at the product
CD-ROM delivered with the equipment, sub directory Beck-chiptool).
Example Default Settings:
Device: Data logger for the shrinkage cone
Customer: Miximaxi AG
Serial Nr: 201312324
MAC-ID: 00:30:56:90:7D:C3
Hostname: Scone_201312324
[]
Obtain an IP-Address automatically
[]
Use the following IP-Addresse: IP addresse:.......
Subnet mask:.......
5.1
How to do the network configuration between the data logger and a PC
You have two options, below described number 1 is the one set by default
- obtain an IP-Address automatically.
5.1.1
Working with a symbolic Server Name
Connection of the data logger into a local network with DHCP- and DNSServer is the simplest and fasted method.
• Connect the data logger with your local network (switch) using the
network cable which was delivered with the device and switch on
the data logger (24V adapter)
• Enter the host name into the address line of your browser - see
symbol 1 in screenshot 4 (see default settings)
Figure 4: Accessing the data logger with a symbolic server name
5
Configuring the Network access
11
Figure 5: Readout the IP address to the data logger with the program
chiptool
Figure 6: Accessing the data logger with a fix IP address
A DHCP-Server assigns a free IP address to the data logger. You can
access the data logger via the default host name using the DNS - see
picture 4.
Hint: DHCP server are scanning the network from time to time assigning
a IP address and a symbolic name to all computers in the network. This
procedure may last some time. So please wait some minutes until you
try to access the data logger with its symbolic name.
5.1.2
Working with a fix IP address
If the hostname-method/DNS-server doesn’t work or supported in your
network, you can access the data logger via the assigned IP address.
You can determine the IP address of the data logger with the above
mentioned program chiptool.
Your network administrator has to make sure that the data logger always
gets the same IP address from the DHCP server. Into the address line
of your browser you enter the IP address assigned by the DHCP server
instead of the host name. See figure.
If there is no network or you are not allowed to connect a measurement
device into your local network, you can connect the Schleibinger data
logger directly to a PC, e.g. with an older notebook. Most of the PCs are
configured in a way, that they take an IP address automatically assigned
by the DHCP server. In case of a direct connection between data logger
and PC, both peers are missing the DHCP server. You have to use static
IP addresses in this case.
5
Configuring the Network access
12
Figure 7: Configuring the PC for a direct connection between the PC
and the data logger
5.2
Setting a static IP-address on a Windows computer
Open Control Panel → Network and Internet → LAN-Connection →
Properties and set a static IP-address from the so called private area
e.g. 192.168.1.1 and a sub net mask 255.255.255.0. Gateway doesn’t
has to be set. See figure 7
5.3
Setting a static IP address on the data logger
Connect the data logger and the PC where you have just set the static
IP address. The best with a cross-wired Ethernet cable (Cat5, RJ45)not delivered with the equipment, and start the program chiptool. The
program is searching for the data logger and if the PC is configured correctly and the right connection cable is used, appears the Schleibinger
device in the window of the program. Click with the right mouse button
on the entry within the window and chose IP configuration. A little window appears. Set a static IP address from the same private area as well
(but different to the one on the PC) e.g. 192.168.1.2 and the same sub
net mask. Finally click on Config.
If you enter the just set IP address of the data logger into the address
line of your browser, the main page of the data logger should appear.
Please ask your network administrator how to integrate best the data
logger into the network infrastructure.
5
Configuring the Network access
13
Figure 8: Configuring the data logger for a direct connection between
the PC and the data logge with the program chiptool
6
6
Balance Interface
14
Balance Interface
Drying shrinkage is defined as the contracting of a hardened concrete
mixture due to the loss of capillary water. This shrinkage causes an increase in tensile stress, which may lead to cracking, internal warping,
and external deflection, before the concrete is subjected to any kind of
loading. All portland cement concrete undergoes drying shrinkage or
hydral volume change as the concrete ages. The hydral volume change
in concrete is very important to the engineer in the design of a structure.
Drying shrinkage can occur in slabs, beams, columns, bearing walls,
prestressed members, tanks, and foundations. (source: The Pennylvenia State Univ.)
For measuring a balance maybe connected to the data logger. Actual 3
manufacturers are supported: Kern, Mettler-Toledo and Sartorius. We
are using a RS232 interface. For USB a interface cable from the balance
manufacturer is required.
6.1
Sartorius
The actual Sartorius balnces have a USB interface, so a USB to serial
interface from Sartorius is required. As example we describe the connection of a Sartorius Secura 224-1S. This balance has a measurement
range of 200 g and a resolution of 0.0001g.
6.1.1
Serial Interface Setup
Before you may setup the serial interface you have to connect the USB
interface, otherwise the software disables the setup menu for the interface. Then switch on the balance. Select the spanner button in the main
menu. You may scroll through the menus by wiping with the finger on the
right side of the screen. In figure 9 you may see the appropriate settings.
The drying shrinkage of buildin materials
7
The Software
The software is quite similar for all four shrinkage test systems.
7.1
Recording Data
As soon the data-logger get power, data acquisition starts. This is shown
by the blinking LED at the front-side of the data-logger. The PC is only
required for setup and data transfer.
7.2
Software Handling with your Web-Browser-Software
To communicate with the data logger start at your PC your web browser
software. Input at the address line the IP address of your data logger for
example 192.168.1.40
The following start screen will appear in your browser (fig.: 10).
By clicking on the flags you can select the user language. You will see
now the system selection screen where you can select your measuring
system (shrinkage-drain, bending-drain, shrinkage-cone, temperaturelogger, shrinkage-ring) look at fig.: 11.
After selecting your system you will come to the main menu. In the
header you can select your measurement channel. Depending on the
7
The Software
15
Language
Date and time
Device information
Calibration / Adjustement
Weighing
Safety level
Low
Ambient condition
unstable
Application
weighing
Stability signal
Medium accuracy
Zero / Tare
Zero/Tare function
with stability
Automatic zero
off
Zero at power on
off
Printout
Print Function
Autom. without stability
Automatic print
Intervall time
1s
USB port
Device protocol
USB−RS232 SBI
RS 232 Configuration
Baudrate
9600 Baud
Databits
8 bits
Parity
None
Stopbits
1 bit
Handshake
off
Display brightness
Figure 9: Settings for a Sartorius balance
installed options this may be varying. In the left column you see the
control-menu (see fig. 12)
Starting a measurement works as follows:
7
The Software
16
Figure 10: Start screen
Figure 11: system select
7
The Software
17
Figure 12: Main menu
Select your channel in the header-line.
Set both lasers in the middle of the measuring range. Check this by
displaying the raw values with: Online-Data Numerical. The raw value
should be near 2500 Micron. (figure 13) For starting the measurement
we recommend the Quickstart as described in chapter 7.3
Now go to Offset and then to Set Range Finder to Zero ! . The
actual value is set to zero (fig.14 ).
Now go to Measurement Start. Optional you can give a name to the
measurement, pressing Start resets the time counter to zero and starts
recording. (fig.15 )
Now go to Measurement Data-Reset. All old records will be cleared.
(fig.16 )
7.3
Quickstart
Quickstart is a comprehension of the point Data-Reset, Offset-Zero and
Measurement Start. All these commands are integrated for all channels
in the quickstart option.
Attention: All data of all
channels will be erased!
7.4 Transferring the datasets
The measurement will be stored locally in the data-logger. The memory
is non-volatile.
The easiest way for data transfer to the PC is your web-browser software.
7.4.1
Data Text
Go to Data Text. In the right browser window all measurement values
will be displayed (fig. 18). In the first column you see the seconds,
7
The Software
18
Figure 13: Measurement values in a numerical format
Figure 14: Offset zero
7
The Software
19
Figure 15: Measurement start
Figure 16: Clear dataset
7
The Software
20
Figure 17: Quickstart
in the second one you see the measurement values. All columns are
separated by tabs.
From this window you can copy the data to other programs like Excel
using the clipboard. You may also directly open this file from your Excel
program. Say in Excel File Open as filename us
http://192.168.1.40/daten/data1.txt
for the first channel data2.txt for the 2nd channel and so on.
7.4.2
All Channels
Here a synoptic set of all data channels is stored. The format is as
follows:
Date
Time
Excel-Time
Channel 1 Channel 2
12.08.04 10:40:32 38211,444815
3999,6
-221,0
The Excel Time is the internal Excel time format. The digits before the
comma show the number of days since January, 1st, 1900. The digits
after the comma show the fractal part of one day. For example noon is
0.50000, 6 am is 0.2500. If you import a data set into Excel, you can
format this column as date and time and you will see the correct date
and time format in Excel. You may retrieve this file directly from Excel at
the address
http://192.168.1.40/daten/data0.txt
There is a header written in the first data line. If you don’t like this, or
Excel has problems with the header, erase the file pheader.txt in the
par subdirectory
7.4.3
HTML Table
You may also export the data as HTML tabular. Go to Data HTML-Table
then create table. If you have a big dataset this process may need
7
The Software
21
Figure 18: Measurement values as text file
Figure 19: All channels values as text file
7
The Software
22
Figure 20: System setup
some minutes. With show table you can display the datasets as HTML
table. Via the clipboard this data can easily be transfered to Excel, Word
ore other programs.
7.4.4
FTP
The power user can also use FTP for data transfer. Login name is ftp,
password is also ftp The datasets are in /httpd/htdocs/daten. Don’t
use the Internet-Explorer for this. Its is not according to the ftp standard.
We recommend Filezilla (free software), wise-ftp ore similar programs.
7.5
System
Here you can configure some things.
7.5.1
System-Setup
You can select the sampling rate between 10s and 10 min. (see figure
20 )
If you define a limit smaller then inf then a new value will be recorded
if the difference to the last value is bigger then the defined limit ore if
the sample intervals is reached. This setup is specific for each single
channel.
If you define a sampling rate of for example 30s, the data logger will
record data at: 30s, 61s, 90s, 119s . . . The reason for this jitter are small
deviations in the response time of the several software processes running on this small computer. If you don’t like this in your Excel worksheet
please select hier n*smaplingrate/s otherwise slect Time/s.
7
The Software
7.5.2
23
Time
Here you can setup date and time. The displayed value is only a dummy
value. Be careful, the European time format is used.
day.month.year:hour:min for example 26.03.03:12:11. The hour format
is from 0..24h
7.6
Online-Data Graphical
You can display several channels in the same plot. In the next chapters
you will find a more detailed explanation of this part of the program.
8
8
Plotting the Measurement Data in HTML5
24
Plotting the Measurement Data in HTML5
The software is offering tow options to disply the the measurement data
in a graphical way.
The first option is using a so called Java Applet. This is a small program,
written in the Java programming language. To run such a program a
Java Plugin must be installed in your Internet browser.
8.1
Browser Compatibility
Another option is using the new features offered by HTML5 Therefore
you need a new browser software version like the Internet Explorer 9+,
Firefox 2.x+, Safari 3.0+, Opera 9.5+ or Konqueror 4.x+. The software
tool we are using is called FLOT and is running under the open MIT
license.
Official supported are: Internet Explorer 9+, Firefox 2.x+, Safari 3.0+,
Opera 9.5+ or Konqueror 4.x+. We urgently recommend Firefox 14.x or
higher. Also Opera is working well. Many other browsers doesn’t work,
especially with Windows7 64bit.
8.1.1
Firefox
Firefox is working since version 2.x+ Also with Windows7 64bit and
Linux.
8.1.2
Opera
For Opera you have to set a certain switch: Please input at the adress
line:
about:config
Then you get a menu with a lot of options.
Please slect the button:
UserPrefs
There will be a submenu opened:
Allow File XMLHttpRequest
please selct this option.
Save the settings and restart the Opera browser.
8.1.3
MS Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer 6.0 doesn’t work. Internet Explorer 8.0 may work after some confirmed popup windows. Internet Explorer 9.x running with
Window7 Professional 64bit doesn’t work.
8.1.4
Google Chrome
Doesn’t work with Windows7 64bit.
8
Plotting the Measurement Data in HTML5
25
Figure 21: plotting a measurement curve in the Internet-Browser
8.2
User Interface
8.3
Channel Selection
In the upper area you may see check boxes where you may select the
channels that should be shown. The color of the curves are the same
then the background color of the channel names.
After selecting the required channels, you have to click on the icon with
the two green arrows to reload and draw the data.
8.4
Zooming the Y-axis
The FLOT software is trying to find an optimal y-range for the data. You
can select the range by putting in valid numbers in the min: and max:
input fields.
8.5
Zooming the Time Axis
Please press the left mouse button and move the mouse over the region
of interest in the time range. The background will change to light yellow.
If you If release the mouse button again the plot will be refreshed. If you
click on the magnifier icon the whole time range will be shown again.
8.6
Insert a Legend
Clicking on the paper-clip icon will open an input field for a text legend,
shown in the graph.
8.7
Printing the Graph
Firefox: please use the print function of the browser. Select actual frame
in the in the printing options dialog of the browser to print the graph
without the menus around.
9
9
Bibliography
26
Bibliography
References
[1] ASTM C 1581-09a. “Standard Test Method for Determining Age at
Cracking and Induced Tensile Stress Characteristics of Mortar and
Concrete under Restrained Shrinkage” , 2009
[2] ASTM C 827-95a (Reapproved 1997) “Standard Test Method for
Change in Height at Early Ages of Cylindrical Specimens from Cementitious Mixtures”, 1997
[3] Bludau W, “Lichtwellenleiter in Sensorik und optischer Nachrichtentechnik”, Springer Berlin 1998
[4] Breitenbücher R, “Zwangsspannungen und Rissbildung infolge Hydratationswärme” Dissertation TU München, München, 1989
[5] Bühler E, Zurbriggen R, “Mechanisms of early shrinkage and expansion of fast setting flooring compounds” Tagung Bauchemie,
7./8. Oktober 2004 in Erlangen Neubauer J, Goetz-Neunhoeffer F,
hrsg. von der GDCh-Fachgruppe Bauchemie, 2004
[6] EN 12617-4:2002, “Products and systems for the protection and
repair of concrete structures. Test methods, Part 4: Determination
of shrinkage and expansion”
[7] Gerstner B, Haltenberger H, Teubert O, Greim M, “Device for measuring deformation of mortar in two directions under different temperature conditions has sensors for simultaneous measurement of
vertical and horizontal mortar movement” German Paten Application DE000010123663A1, 2001
[8] Greim M, Teubert O, “Appliance for detecting initial expansion
and shrinkage behavior of building materials based on contactless measurement of change in filling level of container of
fresh material specimens until set”, German Patent Application
DE000010046284A1, 2000
[9] Ilschner B, Singer RF, "Werkstoffwissenschaften und Fertigungstechnik: Eigenschaften, Vorgänge, Technologien" Springer Berlin
2010
[10] Jensen OM, Hansen PF. “A Dilatometer for Measuring Autogeneous Deformation in Hardening Portland Cement Paste” Materials
and Structures : Research and Testing. 28:406-409, 1995
[11] Lorenz OK, Schmidt M, “Aufschüsseln schwimmend verlegter Zementestriche”, ibausil, 13. Internationala Baustofftagung September 1997, hrsg. Stark J. Band 1, 1997
[12] Lura P, Durand F , Jensen OM, “Autogenous strain of cement
pastes with superabsorbent polymers”, International RILEM Conference on Volume Changes of Hardening Concrete: Testing and
Mitigation, Jensen OM, Lura P, Kovler K (eds), RILEM Publications
SARL 2006
[13] Sören Eppers Assessing the autogenous shrinkage cracking
propensity of con crete by means of the restrained ring test Die
Bewertung der autogenen Schwindrissneigung von Beton mit Hilfe
des Ring-Tests
References
27
[14] Sören Eppers, Christoph Müller On the examination of the autogenous shrinkage cracking propensity by means of the restrained ring
test with particular consideration of temperature influences
[15] Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald S. Müller, Dipl.-Geol. Dipl.-Min. Astrid Hirsch,
Dr.-Ing. Vladislav Kvitsel Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf
Silbereisen, Dipl.-Ing. Carsten Becker CEMEX Deutschland AG
Schwindarmer Beton ? Entwicklung und Möglichkeiten
[16] Frank Apicella, BASF Corp - Construction Chemicals "Crack-Free"
Repair Materials ... Are We There Yet ? Minnesota Concrete Council
[17] Jae-Heum Moon,Farshad Rajabipour,Brad Pease,and Jason Weiss
Quantifying the Influence of Specimen Geometry on the Results of
the Restrained Ring Test Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 3, No.
8, Paper ID JAI100436
[18] Henkensiefken et al.2008 CBC Reducing Restrained Shrinkage
Cracking in Concrete: Examining the Behavior of Self-Curing Concrete Made using Different Volumes of Saturated Lightweight Aggregate
10
Calibration Sheet Laser sensor
28
Figure 22: Calibration plot
10
Calibration Sheet Laser sensor
11
11
11.1
Calibration Sheet Temperature Sensors
29
Calibration Sheet Temperature Sensors
Sensor 1
Temperature 2
26.1
25.34
2534
11.2
35.4
34.6
3460
C
Sensor 2
Temperature 2
26.4
25.34
2534
35.7
34.6
3460
C
List of Figures
30
List of Figures
1
Shrinkage over time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
2
Measurement setup at TLMS (with courtesy by Dr. Zurbriggen, elotex, Schweiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
3
Wiring the TLMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
4
Accessing the data logger with a symbolic server name .
10
5
Readout the IP address to the data logger with the program chiptool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
6
Accessing the data logger with a fix IP address . . . . . .
11
7
Configuring the PC for a direct connection between the
PC and the data logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
8
Configuring the data logger for a direct connection between the PC and the data logge with the program chiptool 13
9
Settings for a Sartorius balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
10
Start screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
11
system select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
12
Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
13
Measurement values in a numerical format . . . . . . . .
18
14
Offset zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
15
Measurement start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
16
Clear dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
17
Quickstart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
18
Measurement values as text file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
19
All channels values as text file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
20
System setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
21
plotting a measurement curve in the Internet-Browser . .
25
22
Calibration plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
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