828es
™
User Guide
Title Page
1280 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
Business voice: (617) 576-2760
Business fax: (617) 576-3609
Web site: www.motu.com
Tech support: www.motu.com/support
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 828es (“PRODUCT”)
CAUTION! READ THIS SAFETY GUIDE BEFORE YOU BEGIN INSTALLATION OR OPERATION. FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
COULD RESULT IN BODILY INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE.
HAZARDOUS VOLAGES: CONTACT MAY CAUSE ELECTRIC SHOCK OR BURN. TURN OFF UNIT BEFORE SERVICING.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRICAL SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS APPLIANCE TO RAIN OR OTHER MOISTURE.
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER. NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED
SERVICE PERSONNEL.
WARNING: DO NOT PERMIT FINGERS TO TOUCH THE TERMINALS OF PLUGS WHEN INSTALLING OR REMOVING THE PLUG TO OR FROM THE OUTLET.
WARNING: IF NOT PROPERLY GROUNDED THE MOTU PRODUCT COULD CAUSE AN ELECTRICAL SHOCK.
The MOTU product is equipped with a three-conductor cord and grounding type plug which has a grounding prong, approved by Underwriters' Laboratories and the Canadian Standards Association. This plug requires a
mating three-conductor grounded type outlet as shown in Figure A below. If the outlet you are planning to use for the MOTU product is of the two prong type, DO NOT REMOVE OR ALTER THE GROUNDING PRONG IN ANY
MANNER. Use an adapter as shown below and always connect the grounding lug to a known ground. It is recommended that you have a qualified electrician replace the TWO prong outlet with a properly grounded THREE
prong outlet. An adapter as illustrated below in Figure B is available for connecting plugs to two-prong receptacles.
Figure A
Figure B
Grounding lug
Screw
3-prong plug
Make sure this is connected to
a known ground.
3-prong plug
Grounding prong
Two-prong receptacle
Properly grounded 3-prong outlet
Adapter
WARNING: THE GREEN GROUNDING LUG EXTENDING FROM THE ADAPTER MUST BE CONNECTED TO A PERMANENT GROUND SUCH AS TO A PROPERLY
GROUNDED OUTLET BOX. NOT ALL OUTLET BOXES ARE PROPERLY GROUNDED.
If you are not sure that your outlet box is properly grounded, have it checked by a qualified electrician. NOTE: The adapter illustrated is for use only if you already have a properly grounded two-prong receptacle. Adapter is not
allowed in Canada by the Canadian Electrical Code. Use only three wire extension cords which have three-prong grounding type plugs and three-prong receptacles which will accept the MOTU product plug.
IMPORTANT SAFEGUARDS
1. Read these instructions. All the safety and operating instructions should be read before operating the product.
2. Keep these instructions. These safety instructions and the product owner’s manual should be retained for future reference.
3. Heed all warnings. All warnings on the product and in the owner’s manual should be adhered to.
4. Follow all Instructions. All operating and use instructions should be followed.
5. Do not use the product near water.
6. Cleaning - Unplug the product from the computer and clean only with a dry cloth. Do not use liquid or aerosol cleaners.
7. Ventilation - Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8. Heat - Do not install the product near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or another apparatus (including an amplifier) that produces heat.
9. Overloading - Do not overload wall outlets and extension cords as this can result in a risk of fire or electrical shock.
10. Grounding - Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding-type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong.
The wide blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult and electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet.
11. Power cord - Protect the product power cord from being walked on or pinched by items placed upon or against them. Pay particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit
from the unit.
12. Power switch - Install the product so that the power switch can be accessed and operated at all times.
13. Disconnect - The main plug is considered to be the disconnect device for the product and shall remain readily operable.
14. Accessories - Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer.
15. Placement - Use only with the cart, stand, tripod, bracket or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the product. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury
from tip-over.
16. Surge protection - Unplug the product during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time.
17. Servicing - Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the product has been damaged in any way, such as when a power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects
have fallen into the product, the product has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped.
18. Power Sources - Refer to the manufacturer’s operating instructions for power requirements. Be advised that different operating voltages may require the use of a different line cord and/or attachment plug.
19. Installation - Do not install the product in an unventilated rack, or directly above heat-producing equipment such as power amplifiers. Observe the maximum ambient operating temperature listed below.
20. Power amplifiers- Never attach audio power amplifier outputs directly to any of the unit’s connectors.
21. Replacement Parts - When replacement parts are required, be sure the service technician has used replacement parts specified by the manufacturer or have the same characteristics as the original part. Unauthorized
substitutions may result in fire, electric shock or other hazards.
22. Safety Check - Upon completion of any service or repairs to this MOTU product, ask the service technician to perform safety checks to determine that the product is in safe operating conditions.
ENVIRONMENT, HEAT AND VENTILATION
Operating Temperature: 10°C to 40°C (50°F to 104°). The product should be situated away from heat sources or other equipment that produces heat. When installing the product in a rack or any other location, be sure there
is adequate space around the product to ensure proper ventilation. Improper ventilation will cause overheating and can damage the unit.
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK OR FIRE
Do not handle the power cord with wet hands. Do not pull on the power cord when disconnecting it from an AC wall outlet.
Grasp it by the plug. Do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture. Do not place objects containing liquids on it.
AC INPUT
100 - 240VAC ~ • 50 / 60Hz • 0.5A max
Contents
Part 1: Getting Started
7
Quick Start Guide
9
828es Front Panel
10
828es Rear Panel
11
MOTU Pro Audio Control Web App
23
About the 828es
27
Packing List and System Requirements
29
Software Installation
33
Hardware Installation
Part 2: Using the 828es
53
Presets
57
Front Panel Operation
63
Working with Host Audio Software
71
Mixer Effects
79
MOTU Audio Tools
95
Networking
Part 3: Appendices
103
Troubleshooting
105
Audio Specifications
109
Mixer Schematics
113
Updating Firmware
115
OSC Support
117
Index
iii
About the Mark of the Unicorn License
Agreement and Limited Warranty on Software
TO PERSONS WHO PURCHASE OR USE THIS PRODUCT: carefully read all the terms and
conditions of the “click-wrap”license agreement presented to you when you install
the software. Using the software or this documentation indicates your acceptance of
the terms and conditions of that license agreement.
Mark of the Unicorn, Inc. (“MOTU”) owns both this program and its documentation.
Both the program and the documentation are protected under applicable copyright,
trademark, and trade-secret laws. Your right to use the program and the
documentation are limited to the terms and conditions described in the license
agreement.
REMINDER OF THE TERMS OF YOUR LICENSE
This summary is not your license agreement, just a reminder of its terms. The actual
license can be read and printed by running the installation program for the software.
That license agreement is a contract, and clicking “Accept”binds you and MOTU to all
its terms and conditions. In the event anything contained in this summary is
incomplete or in conflict with the actual click-wrap license agreement, the terms of
the click-wrap agreement prevail.
YOU MAY: (a) use the enclosed program on a single computer; (b) physically transfer
the program from one computer to another provided that the program is used on
only one computer at a time and that you remove any copies of the program from the
computer from which the program is being transferred; (c) make copies of the
program solely for backup purposes. You must reproduce and include the copyright
notice on a label on any backup copy.
YOU MAY NOT: (a) distribute copies of the program or the documentation to others;
(b) rent, lease or grant sublicenses or other rights to the program; (c) provide use of
the program in a computer service business, network, time-sharing, multiple CPU or
multiple user arrangement without the prior written consent of MOTU; (d) translate,
adapt, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or otherwise alter the program or
related documentation without the prior written consent of MOTU.
MOTU warrants to the original licensee that the disk(s) on which the program is
recorded be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a
period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase as evidenced by a copy of your
receipt. If failure of the disk has resulted from accident, abuse or misapplication of the
product, then MOTU shall have no responsibility to replace the disk(s) under this
Limited Warranty.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY AND RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT IS IN LIEU OF, AND YOU
HEREBY WAIVE, ANY AND ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, BOTH EXPRESS AND IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE LIABILITY OF MOTU PURSUANT TO THIS LIMITED
WARRANTY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE REPLACEMENT OF THE DEFECTIVE DISK(S), AND
IN NO EVENT SHALL MOTU OR ITS SUPPLIERS, LICENSORS, OR AFFILIATES BE LIABLE
FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE,
OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY THIRD PARTIES EVEN IF MOTU HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS
WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE
LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE
ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
UPDATE POLICY
In order to be eligible to obtain updates of the program, you must complete and
return the attached Mark of the Unicorn Purchaser Registration Card to MOTU.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright © 2017 by Mark of the Unicorn, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system,
or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means
whatsoever, without express written permission of Mark of the Unicorn, Inc., 1280
Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, U.S.A.
LIMITED WARRANTY ON HARDWARE
Mark of the Unicorn, Inc. and S&S Research (“MOTU/S&S”) warrant this equipment
against defects in materials and workmanship for a period of TWO (2) YEARS from the
date of original retail purchase. This warranty applies only to hardware products;
MOTU software is licensed and warranted pursuant to separate written statements.
If you discover a defect, first write or call Mark of the Unicorn at (617) 576-2760 to
obtain a Return Merchandise Authorization Number. No service will be performed on
any product returned without prior authorization. MOTU will, at its option, repair or
replace the product at no charge to you, provided you return it during the warranty
period, with transportation charges prepaid, to Mark of the Unicorn, Inc., 1280
Massachusetts Avenue, MA 02138. You must use the product’s original packing
material for in shipment, and insure the shipment for the value of the product. Please
include your name, address, telephone number, a description of the problem, and the
original, dated bill of sale with the returned unit and print the Return Merchandise
Authorization Number on the outside of the box below the shipping address.
This warranty does not apply if the equipment has been damaged by accident, abuse,
misuse, or misapplication; has been modified without the written permission of
MOTU, or if the product serial number has been removed or defaced.
ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO TWO (2)
YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE ORIGINAL RETAIL PURCHASE OF THIS PRODUCT.
THE WARRANTY AND REMEDIES SET FORTH ABOVE ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF
ALL OTHERS, ORAL OR WRITTEN, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. No MOTU/S&S dealer, agent,
or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this
warranty.
MOTU/S&S ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY BREACH OF WARRANTY, OR UNDER ANY LEGAL
THEORY, INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, DOWNTIME, GOODWILL, DAMAGE OR
REPLACEMENT OF EQUIPMENT AND PROPERTY AND COST OF RECOVERING REPROGRAMMING, OR REPRODUCING ANY PROGRAM OR DATA STORED IN OR USED WITH
MOTU/S&S PRODUCTS.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or liability
for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not
apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have other
rights which vary from state to state.
MOTU, Digital Performer, AudioDesk, Mark of the Unicorn and the unicorn silhouette
logo are trademarks of Mark of the Unicorn, Inc.
Thunderbolt and the Thunderbolt logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S.
and/or other countries.
This equipment has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause interference to radio or television equipment reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by any
combination of the following measures:
• Relocate or reorient the receiving antenna
• Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver
• Plug the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected
If necessary, you can consult a dealer or experienced radio/television technician for additional
assistance.
PLEASE NOTE: only equipment certified to comply with Class B (computer input/output devices,
terminals, printers, etc.) should be attached to this equipment, and it must have shielded interface
cables in order to comply with the Class B FCC limits on RF emissions.
WARNING: changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the
party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to operate the
equipment.
Part1
Getting Started
Quick Start Guide
Thank you for purchasing an 828es! Follow these
easy steps to get started quickly.
1 Download and run the MOTU Pro Audio
Installer found here:
http://www.motu.com/proaudio
■ You should now see the MOTU Pro Audio
Control web app in your browser, as shown on
page 12. If not, visit Appendix A, “Troubleshooting” page (103).
■ For advanced network options, and device
discovery from any modern browser, see
chapter 11, “Networking” (page 95).
2 (Optional) For quick access to the 828es from
your iPad or iPhone, download the MOTU
Discovery app from the Apple App Store.
☛
Your iPhone and iPad must be on the same
Wi-Fi network as your computer.
3 Connect the interface to your computer with a
USB cable (included) or Thunderbolt cable (sold
separately). If you have a Thunderbolt-equipped
Mac running OS X El Capitan (10.11) or later, you
can alternately connect the 828es to the Mac’s
Ethernet port with a standard CAT-5e or CAT-6
Ethernet cable (sold separately).
Mac
Windows
6 Choose a preset from the Quick Setup.
4 Switch on the 828es.
5 Open the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app by
doing one of the following:
■ Choose the 828es from the MOTU Discovery
app menu (found in the Mac menu bar or
Windows taskbar).
Alternately, you can launch the MOTU Pro
Audio WebUI Setup shortcut found on the
Windows desktop or in Start menu> All
Programs> MOTU.
■
■ From your iPad or iPhone, launch the MOTU
Discovery app, and tap your interface.
7
8
828es Front Panel
1
2
3
4
5
6
15
1. These XLR/TRS combo jacks accept a mic cable or a
quarter-inch cable, balanced or unbalanced, from a guitar
or line input. Use the front panel controls to adjust individual preamp gain, 48V phantom power and optional -20 dB
pad for each mic input.
2. Individual MIC INPUT preamp gain, switchable 48V
phantom power, and optional -20 dB pad switches for
each mic input. The Precision Digital Trim™ knob provides
63 dB of preamp gain. Turn the knob to see the gain
adjustments in the LCD. Push in the knob to lock the gain
adjustment on screen; press it again to unlock and dismiss.
3. This is the built-in talkback mic, so that you can use the
talkback feature (10) without using up one of the two mic
inputs. See “Talkback” on page 60
4. Press the METERS button to cycle among several LCD
screen sets, which display meters for the analog inputs and
outputs, metering for all digital I/O, device settings and
the menu.
5. Push the MENU knob to enter the LCD menu. Turn it to
scroll through menu options. Push again to go into the
sub-menus, if applicable. To choose the current setting,
push MENU a third time. Use the BACK button to return to
the previous menu level. Push METERS to return directly to
the main screen.
6. The 828es dual color LCDs display metering, device settings
and menu navigation. Press METERS (4) to cycle among
several screen sets or return home after menu navigation.
Use the MENU knob and BACK button for menu navigation.
7. The MONITOR knob controls the volume of both the A and
B monitor output pairs, regardless of which one is currently
selected. To change the relative volume between the A and
B monitor outs, see “Monitor volume control” on page 60.
This knob also supports surround monitoring. See
“Monitor control for surround” on page 60.
8. Use the A/B monitor select buttons to switch your studio’s
primary stereo output between two pairs of studio
monitors connected to the 828es XLR main outs and TRS
line outs 1-2, respectively. You can reassign these output
pairs as desired. See “Output assignments for Monitor A
and B” on page 59. To enable both pairs simultaneously,
push both buttons simultaneously.
7
8
9
10
14
13
11
9. Push MUTE to silence the A/B monitor outputs (or surround
outputs).
10. Push TALK to speak to musicians located in a separate
studio room or isolation booth via the 828es built-in
talkback mic (3). See “Talkback” on page 60.
11. Two independent HEADPHONE OUTPUTS with volume
control. As you turn the knob, the LCD provides visual
feedback with a volume meter.
12. POWER SWITCH: Thunderbolt, AVB, and USB are “plugand-play” protocols. That means you can switch off the
828es and turn it back on without restarting your
computer.
13. Push NET ID to display network settings for the device,
including its IP address.
14. Push MONO to sum each A/B monitor stereo pair to mono.
Push it again to return to stereo operation.
15. Push BACK to go back one level when navigating the LCD
menu.
12
828es Rear Panel
1
2
3
13
1. The 828es is equipped with an auto-switching international power supply.
2. These are standard BNC word clock jacks. Use them for a
variety of applications, such as digital transfers with
devices that cannot resolve to the clock supplied by their
digital I/O connection with the 828es.
3. These two banks of ADAT optical “lightpipe” connectors
each provide 8 channels of 24-bit ADAT optical digital I/O
at 1x sample rates (44.1 or 48 kHz) and 4 channels at 2x
sample rates (88.2 or 96 kHz). They are disabled at
higher sample rates. Alternately, they can operate as
stereo TOSLink (optical S/PDIF) connectors.
Note: you can choose independent formats for each
bank, A and B, as well as IN and OUT within each bank.
For example, you could choose ADAT for the optical A IN
(for, say, eight channels of input from your digital mixer)
and stereo TOSLink for the optical A OUT (for, say, your
DAT machine).
4. These jacks provide stereo, 24-bit S/PDIF digital input
and output at all supported sample rates (up to 96 kHz).
When connecting a source to the input, be sure to set the
clock source correctly. See “Syncing S/PDIF devices” on
page 47.
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
5. Connect a MIDI device here using standard MIDI cables.
Connect the 828es MIDI OUT port to the MIDI IN port on
the other device. Conversely, connect the 828es MIDI IN
port to the MIDI OUT port on the other device. You can
connect different devices to each port, such as a controller device to the IN port and a sound module to the OUT
port. You can also daisy-chain MIDI devices, but be sure
to manage their MIDI channels (so that they don’t
receive or transmit on the same channel).
6. Connect a standard foot switch here for hands-free
punch-in and punch-out during recording. For details
about how to set this up, see item #34 in the Device tab
overview (page 14).
7. These eight analog inputs are balanced (TRS) quarterinch connectors that can also accept an unbalanced plug.
Use with line level signals up to +24 dBu, including
synthesizers, drum machines, effects processors, etc.
These inputs are also equipped with the 828es Precision
Digital Trim™ feature: digitally controlled analog trims
that let you adjust input level in 1 dB increments from
the included MOTU Pro Audio Control web app software.
8. The eight analog outputs are balanced, DC-coupled
quarter-inch connectors that can also accept an unbalanced plug. They provide additional analog output for
secondary studio monitors, surround monitoring, submixes or any other desired destination. The output trim
can be adjusted from the Device Tab in the MOTU Pro
10
11
Audio Control web app software. From the factory,
outputs 1-2 serve as monitor pair B for front panel A/B
monitor switching. (The XLR main outs serve as pair A.)
For surround monitoring, connect your surround speakers to outputs 1-6 (or 1-8) and see “Monitor volume
control” on page 60.
9. These are quarter-inch analog SMPTE input and output
jacks. Use them to resolve the 828es directly to time code
and transmit time code to other devices.
10. These two XLR jacks serve as the 828es main output pair
for primary (powered) studio monitors, PA speakers or
any other desired destination. You can control their
volume from the front panel MONITOR knob. They also
serve as monitor pair A for the 828es front panel A/B
monitor switching feature.
To hear audio playback from your host audio software on
the MAIN OUT pair, use the Audio Interface preset and
then assign audio tracks (and master fader) to these
main outs. You can also use the MOTU Pro Audio Control
web app to route live 828es inputs (and network inputs)
here as well.
11. These two balanced quarter-inch sends supply the preamplified input signal from the mic/line/instrument
inputs on the front panel. Use them to insert your favorite compressor, EQ, reverb or other outboard effect. Use
any analog input as a return.
12. Connect the 828es to the computer here via either
Thunderbolt or USB, using a standard Thunderbolt or
USB cable (one or the other, but not both). For details,
see chapter 5, “Hardware Installation” (page 33).
13. This AVB/TSN Ethernet port provides industry standard
IEEE 802.1 network connectivity to other network
devices. Examples include:
■
Another 828es or any other MOTU AVB-equipped audio
interface, such as the 1248, 8M, 16A, 24Ai, 24Ao, 112D,
Monitor 8, etc.
■
A standard Ethernet hub or Wi-Fi router (for internet
connection and communication with the web app
software).
■
A standard AVB Ethernet switch for high-speed, lowlatency, high-capacity audio connectivity to an AVB
audio network.
■
A recent-generation Mac (any Mac with a Thunderbolt
port) running OS X El Capitan (10.11) or later. This
allows you to operate the 828es as an audio interface
over Ethernet.
CHAPTER 1
MOTU Pro Audio Control Web App
OVERVIEW
MOTU Pro Audio Control is a web app that gives
you complete control over the 828es. If you have
several MOTU interfaces networked together,
such as the 828es, 1248 and 8M, you can control
them all. If you are working with a large network
of many MOTU interfaces, you can access any
device on the network.
IT’S NOT ON YOUR HARD DRIVE
The MOTU Pro Audio Control web app is served
from the 828es hardware itself, therefore it is not
an application on your computer’s hard drive.
Instead, access it from the MOTU Discovery app
(in the Mac menu bar or Windows taskbar), the
MOTU Pro Audio WebUI Setup shortcut
(Windows only) or through your web browser.
USE YOUR FAVORITE WEB BROWSER
The MOTU Pro Audio Control web app runs in
any modern web browser on any device connected
to the 828es, either directly or wirelessly through a
Wi-Fi network. You can use any device you wish: a
desktop computer, laptop, iPad, tablet, iPhone or
smart phone. If it can run a web browser, it can run
the web app. You can use any browser you prefer:
Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc. The latest versions are
strongly recommended.
CONTROL FROM MULTIPLE DEVICES
You can run the web app on multiple host devices
simultaneously.
RUN THE INSTALLER, GET THE APP
Visit www.motu.com/download to get the latest
MOTU Pro Audio Installer and run it on your
computer to install the MOTU Discovery app,
MOTU Pro Audio WebUI Setup shortcut
(Windows only) and other software elements. Visit
the Apple App Store to install the discovery app on
your iPad or iPhone.
MAKE HARDWARE AND NETWORK
CONNECTIONS
Connect your 828es to your computer or laptop
with a USB or Thunderbolt cable. Make sure your
iPad, iPhone, tablet or smartphone is connected to
the same Wi-Fi network as your computer or
device, as explained in “Setup for web app control”
on page 38.
LAUNCHING THE WEB APP
To launch the web app, do any of the following:
■ Choose the 828es from the MOTU Discovery
app menu (in the Mac menu bar or Windows
taskbar, as shown on page 7) or launch the MOTU
Pro Audio WebUI Setup shortcut (Windows only).
■ From your iPad or iPhone, launch the MOTU
Discovery app.
■ In your favorite web browser, type this URL:
localhost:1280. (This URL requires a Thunderbolt
or USB connection to the 828es.)
■ If the 828es Ethernet port is connected to your
Ethernet or Wi-Fi network, type the unit’s IP
address (see below) into your browser.
You should now see the MOTU Pro Audio
Control web app in your browser, as shown on
page 12. If not, visit Appendix A, “Troubleshooting” page (103).
Obtaining the 828es IP address
On the front panel of the interface, push the NET
ID button. The LCD now displays the unit’s IP
address, which should look something like this:
“IP: 192.168.1.209”.
11
DEVICE TAB
6
7
8
9
10
5
11
12
4
3
2
13
14
1
15
16
Windows only
17
18
19
20
1. If you have two or more MOTU interfaces, the Devices list lets you choose
the one you are currently controlling
with the web app.
2. The Aux Mixing tab lets you view
each Aux bus in the mixer, one at a
time.
3. The Mixing tab gives you access to
the mixing and DSP in the interface.
4. The Routing tab displays a grid
matrix, where you can make direct
connections between inputs and
outputs, your computer, the mixer,
and network audio streams, if
networked interfaces are connected.
5. The Device tab has settings for the
hardware itself, such as analog input
and output trim.
6. Expands and collapses the sidebar.
7. Lets you create, save, recall and
manage presets for the 828es. These
presets capture and recall the
complete state of the device (all
settings in all tabs).
8. Choose the desired sample rate.
Make sure your host audio software
is set to the same rate.
9. Click to rename the interface. To
restore the default name, delete the
current name.
10. The Quick Setup button prompts
factory presets used to configure
your interface for a specific application. See chapter 6, “Presets”
(page 53).
11. Click this device ID button to identify
the unit you are currently viewing
and controlling with the web app
software. The front panel LCD on the
hardware itself will flash the name
of the device, and its name will also
flash in the Device list (1).
12. If an update is available for your
device, and the computer you are
viewing it from is connected to the
internet, you’ll be notified here. Click
More Info to learn what’s new and
start the update process. Firmware
updating requires a USB or network
connection to your computer. See
Appendix D, “Updating Firmware”
page (113).
Click the Become Clock Master button
to choose the current interface (1) as
the master clock source.
13. Choose the clock source from the
Clock Mode menu. Your MOTU
device will resolve its digital clock to
this master source.
17. (Windows only) Choose the Host
Buffer Size. Smaller values reduce
latency but increase your computer’s
CPU load. See “Host Buffer Size” on
page 30.
14. The Clock Status icon indicates that
the current device (1) is successfully
resolved to its chosen Clock Mode
source (13). If it cannot lock for some
reason, this icon flashes red. Check
your chosen clock source, cables, etc.
18. (Windows only) Choose a Host
Safety Offset to fine tune host buffer
latency. See “Host Safety Offset” on
page 31.
15. The Word Clock output on the your
MOTU interface can operate as an
OUT or a THRU. In addition, at higher
sample rates, it can either follow the
system clock or operate at the corresponding 1x sample rate. For details,
see “Daisy-chaining word clock” on
page 48.
16. If you have multiple MOTU interfaces, one of them may serve as a
master clock source for the network.
19. The Input Settings section provides
gain settings for inputs and the
built-in talkback mic, plus phase
invert for the mic/guitar inputs. You
can also toggle the 48V phantom
power and -20 dB pad for the mic
inputs.
20. The Output Settings section lets you
adjust the trim for any outputs that
support it. Phones and Main outputs
provide full volume control. Analog
outputs provide calibration control
(-24 to 0 dB).
12
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
DEVICE TAB (CONTINUED)
22
21
23
25
24
Scroll down to view these additional
Device tab settings.
21. AVB is IEEE’s Audio Video Bridging
Ethernet standard for highbandwidth, low-latency audio
streaming over Ethernet. If your
MOTU interface is connected to a
2nd MOTU interface through its
network port, or to an AVB switch for
access to an extended AVB network,
you can stream audio channels to
and from other devices on the
network. AVB streams are handled
in banks of eight channels, so if you
enable 2 streams, that’s 16 channels.
See chapter 11, “Networking”
(page 95).
22. If you’ve activated one or more AVB
network input streams (21), connect
them to the output streams of other
devices on the network here. This is
how you route audio from the other
devices to the 828es.
23. In the Input/Output Banks sections,
you can disable any banks that you
are not using. Doing so hides them
from the routing matrix and mixer to
simplify operation. Doing so also
helps conserve DSP resources.
24. Configure the optical ports for either
8-channel ADAT or stereo TOSLink.
At 88.2 or 96 kHz, the ADAT setting
supports 4-channel SMUX format.
See “Optical I/O” on page 45.
25. The digital mixer in the 828es
supports up to 48 channels at 44.1
or 48 kHz. At higher sample rates,
the maximum number of supported
channels is lower, due to finite DSP
resources. If you don’t need 48
inputs (or the maximum available),
you can lower the number here to
simplify mixer and routing operation and conserve DSP bandwidth
for effects processing.
13
M OT U P R O
AU DI O CON T R OL W E B
A P P
DEVICE TAB (CONTINUED)
26
27
35
34
33
28
32
29
31
30
Scroll down to view these additional
Device tab settings.
26. In the Computer Setup section, you
can specify how many audio
channels you would like to be able
to stream to and from your
computer, up to 128 channels each
way, simultaneously, over USB or
Thunderbolt. Map them as desired
in the Routing tab (page 15).
27. Your MOTU interface can resolve to
SMPTE time code, also referred to as
LTC (Longitudinal Time Code), by
choosing LTC from the Clock Mode
menu (item 13 on page 12). From
the LTC Input Source menu (27
above), choose the analog or digital
input that is receiving the time code.
If you would also like to send time
code (LTC) to the computer, where it
will be converted to MIDI Time Code
(MTC) for resolving your DAW or
other software to MTC via OS X Core
Audio (a Mac-only feature), choose
an audio channel you are not using
for other purposes from the
Computer Channel for LTC-to-MTC
Conversion menu; otherwise, leave it
set to None. Choose the desired
frame format, or use the Enable
Format Autodetect to automatically
detect the frame format of the
incoming time code. When Enable
Jam Sync is turned on, your interface
will continue to operate under its
own clock and continue LTC-to-MTC
conversion, even after it stops
receiving time code. Click Stop Jam
Sync to exit this mode. For further
details about time code sync, see
“Syncing to SMPTE time code (LTC)”
on page 48 and “LTC-to-MTC conversion” on page 69.
28. Use these buttons to manually check
for and install updates for your
MOTU interface. For complete
details, see Appendix D, “Updating
Firmware” page (113). Updating
from a file can be done off line from
your computer, using an update
you’ve obtained through MOTU’s
web site or tech support department. The Check For Updates button
requires that the computer (or
device) you are using to view your
MOTU interface is connected to the
internet through a local network or
Wi-Fi. Updating from the internet is
easy and convenient.
29. Use Set Password to passwordprotect the interface on the
network. All settings are blocked,
except for aux bus mixing, as shown
above (29). This allows musicians to
access their personal monitor (aux)
mixes from their mobile devices,
while all other device settings
remain blocked. To clear the
password, log in and then click Clear
Password. If you forget the
password, you can clear it in the
Settings menu in the front panel LCD
(see page 59) with either the Clear
Password setting or by doing a
factory reset with the Factory
Default setting.
30. The System Information section
displays information about your
MOTU device, including the
firmware version and network IP
address.
31. Use Restore Factory Presets to restore
your MOTU device’s factory presets.
32. Click Reboot to restart the interface.
33. Choose the outputs you would like
to use for the front panel monitor
controls (Monitor A/B switches,
Mute and Mono). You can also
control these functions here in the
web app with the controls provided.
See “Monitor controls” on page 59.
34. Enable the Foot Switch input here. In
each text box, type the keystroke
you wish to trigger from your foot
pedal. Click ‘X’ to clear the text box.
35. When the Computer Volume Controls
option is enabled (a Mac only
feature), the Audio MIDI Setup
utility in OS X provides volume
control for each output channel to
your MOTU audio interface. In
addition, the volume controls for
your Mac (on your computer
keyboard) will control the channels
you’ve designated for computer
output in Audio MIDI Setup, if any.
Be careful when toggling this
setting because sudden changes in
your computer volume can result.
14
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
ROUTING TAB
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
3
13
2
14
15
1
23
22
16
21
17
20
19
18
The Routing Tab lets you route inputs to
outputs. Outputs are listed by row on the
left; inputs are listed in columns across
the top. Simply click in the grid to make
a single connection. Click and drag to
make multiple connections in one
gesture. To route a single input to
multiple outputs, make multiple
connections vertically in the same
column below the input. To mix multiple
inputs to the same output, you’ll need to
use the mixer (page 16) and the Mix In
bank in the routing tab (18).
1. In its collapsed form, (shown here),
the sidebar displays icons for each
tab.
2. Click this icon to view the Routing
tab, shown on this page.
3. Click here to show or hide the
sidebar.
4. Create, save, recall and manage
routing presets.
5. Locks the grid to prevent accidental
changes. Unlock to make changes to
the grid.
6. Outputs are listed in rows on the left.
7. When you make a connection, the
source (input) signal is listed by
name here in the Source column,
just to the right of the output it is
being routed to.
8. Inputs are listed in columns across
the top of the grid, starting with the
physical inputs on the hardware
itself. In this example, the analog
inputs and S/PDIF digital inputs are
being routed to the computer over
Thunderbolt (TB).
9. The From Computer input bank lets
you route audio channels from your
host audio software to any output,
including AVB network streams or
the mixer, where you can mix
computer audio with local inputs.
Use the Device tab to choose how
many computer channels are available.
10. AVB streams are 8-channel banks
that let you route audio to or from
other devices on the AVB network (if
any are connected) to local
hardware inputs and outputs. In this
example, 8 channels of audio from a
MOTU 1248 interface are available.
The first four are being routed to the
computer. Use the Device tab
(page 13) to configure how many
AVB streams you wish to work with.
If you aren’t working with network
audio, you can set the number of
streams to zero to hide them from
this grid (and the mixer).
11. These input streams are buses that
originate from the mixer, which
supplies the main mix bus, monitor
mix bus, seven stereo aux buses,
three stereo group buses, a reverb
return bus and postFX channel sends
(for sending processed inputs to the
computer or elsewhere). You can
route these mixer buses to any
outputs you wish (6), including
physical outputs, host software on
your computer, other devices on the
AVB network, or even back in to the
mixer (beware of feedback loops!)
12. Use these two columns to route the
talkback mic and time code input to
any desired outputs. In this
example, time code is being routed
from the LTC input directly to the
output.
13. Use these triangles to expand or
collapse groups of inputs. For
example, it might be convenient to
collapse banks that you are not
using at the moment.
14. Click a channel label to rename it.
15. Audio activity indicators.
16. Here, the Monitor bus from the
mixer is being routed to analog
outputs 1-2 (the Monitor B pair) on
the 828es.
17. Click the grid to make a connection.
Click a connection to remove it. Click
and drag to make or break multiple
connections in one gesture.
18. The Mix In group lets you route audio
to the 48-channel mixer.
19. AVB output streams let you route
any audio to other devices on the
AVB network.
20. The To Computer output bank routes
any input to host audio software
running on your computer. Use the
Device tab to choose how many
computer channels are available.
21. These are the physical outputs on
the interface itself.
22. Use these triangles to expand or
collapse groups of outputs.
23. Indicate the outputs designated for
A/B monitor switching (item #33 on
page 14 and item #8 on page 9).
15
M OT U P R O
AU DI O CON T R OL W E B
A P P
MIXING TAB
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
2
1
18
33
19
32
20
31
21
30
22
23
24
29
28
25
27
26
The Mixing tab gives you full access to
the 48-channel mixer in the 828es,
which provides a main mix bus, monitor
bus, three group buses, seven aux buses,
and a dedicated reverb bus. Use the
Device tab to configure how many
inputs you wish to work with (up to 48).
Use the Routing tab (page 15) to route
channels to the mixer inputs. Channels
can come from any source, such as the
physical inputs on the interface,
channels coming from the computer, or
channels coming from the AVB network.
1. Shows and hides the Mixer Setup
sidebar (3), which lets you show and
hide channels, channel strip
settings, effects, and the Legend (6).
2. The Mixing tab selects the mixer.
3. Use the Mixer Setup sidebar to show
and hide elements in the mixer.
the top lets you create, name, save
and manage entire mixer presets.
7. Mixer input channels.
8. This input channel has an EQ shelf
filter enabled.
9. This is Group bus 1-2. You can send
inputs to this group with their Group
send fader (25). Groups are sent to
the Main Mix with its Main send
fader (24) or aux buses (19).
10. Group buses, the main mix bus, and
the reverb return bus are equipped
with the Leveler, a vintage compressor modeled after the Teletronix
LA-2A leveling amplifier.
5. Create, save, recall and manage
mixer presets.
11. The reverb channel strip provides
the reverb processor. Use the reverb
send on inputs or groups to route
them to the reverb bus, which can
then be mixed in with the main mix
or aux busses. Disable the reverb
processor to use it as an extra group.
6. This column is the Legend. It
provides labels and controls for
channel strip sections. The menu at
12. The Monitor Bus can mirror the
output of any other bus, or it can act
as a separate Solo bus. See page 19.
4. Shows and hides all elements in the
section with one click.
13. The Main Mix bus is the master fader
for the entire mixer. You can add EQ
and Leveler compression.
14. You can adjust Aux bus output levels
here, or in the Aux Mixing tab shown
on page 17.
15. Click a name to change it, except for
the Main Mix, Monitor, and Reverb
busses, which cannot be changed.
21. Channel faders.
22. Choose the source for the Monitor
bus from this menu. It can mirror
any output bus or the Solo Bus.
23. When Follow Solo is enabled, the
Monitor bus temporarily switches to
the solo bus when any channel is
soloed.
24. Main Mix sends.
16. Stereo toggle to switch channels
pairs between mono or stereo. Use
the other menus to manage channel
strip presets and to choose audio
sources and destinations for mixer
inputs and bus outputs.
25. Group sends.
26. See “Talkback setup” on page 60.
27. See “Talkback settings” on page 61.
17. Click the thumbnail EQ graph to
open the full-size, editable EQ graph
(Figure 9-4 on page 73).
28. ‘S’ lets you solo the group. ‘PRE’
toggles the sends between pre- and
post-fader routing, i.e. before or
after the channel fader.
18. The Dynamics section provides a
conventional compressor for inputs
and the Leveler for output busses.
29. Show and hide output busses here.
19. Reverb and aux sends.
20. Solo and mute. On the Monitor bus,
the SC button clears all solos.
30. Show/hide all busses with one click.
31. Same as (28) above.
32. Show and hide inputs here.
33. Show/hide all inputs with one click.
16
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
AUX MIXING TAB
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2
1
17
11
12
13
16
15
14
The Aux Mixing tab provides quick
access to the 828es mix buses (aux
buses, groups and reverb bus), viewed
one at a time. Choose a bus in the Aux
Mix Target section (3) and then use the
faders to directly mix the send levels
from all mixer inputs, groups, and the
reverb bus.
1. Shows and hides the Mixer Setup
sidebar (3), which lets you show and
hide channels.
2. The Aux Mixing tab (shown on this
page) gives you access to the Aux
busses and groups in the mixer.
3. Use the Aux Mix Target sidebar to
control which aux bus or group you
are currently viewing. You can also
show/hide inputs and group sends.
4. Click the aux bus or group you wish
to view in the window. In this
example, Aux bus 1-2 is being
displayed.
5. These are mixer inputs (aux sends
from each mixer channel). To
include an input in the aux bus mix,
simply bring up its fader.
6. These are group bus faders.
7. This is the mixer’s reverb bus fader.
8. This is the master fader for the
current aux bus being viewed (4).
9. Indicates if the input or group is
stereo or mono. This indicator is for
display purposes only. To toggle
between mono and stereo operation, use the toggle switch in the
Mixing tab (item #16 on page 16).
10. Solo and mute for the aux bus
master fader. The mute buttons for
the input channels and other buses
are for display purposes only, so that
you can see if they are muted or not
(in the mixer).
11. Shows and hides the pan controls for
aux bus inputs.
12. When Prefader is enabled, all send
levels to the aux bus are independent of the main fader for each
channel. In other words, changing
an individual channel’s main fader in
the Mixing tab won’t affect its send
level to the aux bus.
14. Show and hide mix groups and the
reverb bus here.
15. Use the Groups button here to show
or hide all groups with one click.
Drag this section divider vertically to
resize the list.
16. Show and hide mixer inputs
(channel sends) here.
17. Show and hide all mixer inputs with
one click here. Drag this section
divider vertically to resize the list.
13. Click the View Personal Mix button to
open a new web page that displays
only that specific Aux Mix or Group.
17
M OT U P R O
AU DI O CON T R OL W E B
A P P
MIXER INPUT CHANNEL STRIPS
1
32
6
7
31
2
8
9
10
2
3
3
4
5
To access a mixer input channel strip, go to
the Mixing tab (page 16), reveal the side bar
(item #3 on page 16), and show the input
channel in the Mixer Inputs section (32). To
show and hide sections of the channel strip,
such as EQ or the compressor, use the Controls
section of the side bar (item #3 in the Mixing
tab on page 16).
15. The thumbnail Compressor Graph
provides a graphic representation of the
compressor, when enabled. Click it to
open the full-size, editable Compressor
Graph (Figure 9-6 on page 74).
1. Click the input channel name to change
it. Delete the current name to restore the
default name.
17. Pan for the Aux 1-2 send. This is enabled
in the Aux mix tab (item #11 on page 17).
2. Provides hardware settings for inputs, if
any, such as preamp gain. If there are no
hardware settings for the assigned input,
this icon is grayed out. If the channel has
been assigned to an input on another
AVB device on the audio network, you can
use these settings to control it remotely.
3. Choose the source for the input channel.
You can also make this setting directly on
the Routing grid (page 15).
16. Aux 1-2 send.
18. Solo/Mute. Mute affects all sends as well
as the main channel. Pre-fader sends are
not affected by Mute.
19. Move the fader to adjust level. Doubleclick to return to zero (unity gain) or -×.
20. Click the dB scale numbers to make the
fader jump exactly to that level. Click and
drag horizontally to jump consecutive
faders to the same level.
21. Click to type in an exact dB level.
4. Create and recall channel strip presets.
5. Toggles the input between mono and a
stereo pair.
6. High Pass Filter with cutoff frequency.
11
12
4
13
7. Each effect in the channel strip (High Pass
Filter, Gate, EQ, etc.) has an on/off button
on the left and a preset menu on the
right, for managing presets that apply
only to that processing module. For
example, you can create your own EQ
presets for the EQ modules.
22. Channel pan. For mono inputs, doubleclick to center.
23. Main Mix Slider feeds signal to the Main
Mix. Slider is set to 0 dB by default, so all
channel strips are pre-routed to the Main
Mix bus. If a channel is being sent to a
Group (which will eventually be fed to
the Main Mix), drag the slider to -× so it
is not sent to Main Mix directly.
24. Group sends.
25. Makes the input the source for talkback.
8. The Gate processor provides standard
attack, threshold and release controls.
14
9. The Gate indicator turns red when the
gate is engaged.
15
30
10. The EQ section provides four bands of
parametric EQ, each with standard Gain,
Frequency, and Bandwidth settings.
16
17
12
29
18
11. The High and Low EQ bands provide a
Shelf filter button for standard high and
low shelf filtering.
19
12. The thumbnail EQ Graph displays the
currently enabled EQ filters, if any. Click it
to open the full-size, editable EQ Graph
(Figure 9-4 on page 73).
28
20
21
22
23
27
24
26
25
13. The Compressor provides standard
controls for Threshold, Ratio, Attack,
Release and Gain. Normally, the
compressor operates in Peak mode,
where signal peaks determine the input
level. Engage the RMS button to use RMS
values (a computational method for
determining overall loudness) for the
input level. Engage Auto makeup gain to
compensate for any gain reduction.
14. Input level and gain reduction meters for
the compressor.
26. See “Talkback settings” on page 61.
27. ‘S’ lets you solo the group. ‘PRE’ toggles
the sends between pre- and post-fader
routing, i.e. before or after the channel
fader. PAN enables pan for group sends.
28. The input level meter (behind the fader
handle, 19) can display either pre- or
post-fader levels. Toggle here.
29. Clears all solos.
30. ‘S’ lets you solo the Aux bus. ‘PRE’ toggles
the sends between pre- and post-fader
routing, i.e. before or after the channel
fader. The dots let you toggle the Aux bus
between mono and stereo.
31. This side bar, with the section labels in it,
can be shown or hidden using the Legend
switch in the Controls section of the side
bar (item #3 in the Mixing tab on
page 16).
32. Shows how much DSP power is being
used by the mixer hardware. To free up
DSP bandwidth, try reducing the number
of mixer ins, disabling channel effects,
reverb, etc. See “DSP Usage” on page 77
for more info.
18
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
MAIN MIX AND MONITOR CHANNEL STRIPS
1
2
3
4
5
6
3
4
5
7
15
To access the Main Mix and Monitor bus
channel strips, go to the Mixing tab
(page 16) and scroll the display to the
right, beyond the inputs and groups.
To show and hide sections of the channel
strip, such as EQ or the Leveler, use the
Controls section of the side bar (item #3 in
the Mixing tab on page 16).
8
9
1. By default, the Monitor bus serves as
a solo bus. However, it can be set to
mirror the main mix bus, or any other
aux bus, group, or the reverb bus, in
addition to monitoring solo. Make
this choice in the source menu (13).
Use the Routing grid (page 15) to
specify the output for the Monitor
bus.
2. The Main Mix bus is the primary
stereo mix.
14
10
11
3. Provides hardware settings for any
assigned outputs that have them. For
example, if the Main Mix bus is
assigned to the Main Outs on the
828es, you’ll see trim settings for the
outputs. This item is grayed out if
there are no hardware settings for
output.
4. Use this output assignment widget to
choose the destination — or multiple destinations — for the bus. You
can also make this setting directly on
the Routing grid (page 15).
5. Use the preset menus to create save,
recall, and otherwise manage
channel strip presets for the Monitor
bus and Main Mix bus.
13
6. Indicates that the bus is stereo.
12
7. The four-band parametric EQ for the
Main Mix bus operates the same as
described for input channels (items
10 and 11 on page 18), including
High and Low Shelf filter options.
8. The thumbnail EQ Graph displays the
currently enabled EQ filters, if any.
Click it to open the full-size, editable
EQ Graph (Figure 9-4 on page 73).
9. The Leveler provides specialized gain
reduction modeled after the legendary Teletronix LA-2A Leveling Amplifier. For complete details, see
“Leveler” on page 75.
10. Mutes for the Main Mix bus and
Monitor bus.
11. Master faders for the Main Mix bus
and Monitor bus. Use the same
techniques described for input
channel faders (items 19, 20 and 21
on page 18).
12. When Follow Solo is enabled, the
Monitor bus switches to the solo bus
when any channel is soloed. NOTE: if
an aux bus is soloed, then the Monitor
bus carries only the soloed aux bus
(any current channel solos are
excluded).
13. Choose the source for the Monitor bus
from this menu. It can mirror the
main mix, any aux bus, group, the
reverb bus, or it can serve only as a
Solo bus.
14. The SC button clears all solos.
15. This mid-band EQ is currently
disabled (and therefore grayed out).
19
M OT U P R O
AU DI O CON T R OL W E B
A P P
AUX BUS CHANNEL STRIPS
1
12
2
3
11
4
Aux buses can be used to create sub-mixes. An
aux bus can be assigned to any output in the
Routing grid (page 15).
To access an Aux bus channel strip, go to the
Mixing tab (page 16), reveal the side bar (item #3
on page 16), and then show the aux buses you
want in the Mixer Outputs section (29).
To show and hide the four-band EQ section of the
channel strip, use the Controls section of the side
bar (item #3 in the Mixing tab on page 16).
1. A stereo aux bus.
2. A mono aux bus.
3. Click this dot to toggle an aux bus between
mono and stereo.
5
6
4. The four-band parametric EQ module for Aux
buses operates the same as described for
input channels (items 10 and 11 on page 18),
including High and Low Shelf filter options.
5. The thumbnail EQ Graph displays the
currently enabled EQ filters, if any. Click it to
open the full-size, editable EQ Graph
(Figure 9-4 on page 73).
7
10
6. Aux bus solo and mute.
7. Aux bus master fader.
8. Click to type specific value manually.
8
9. Click to route the talkback mic to the aux bus
output.
10. Click the dB scale numbers to make the fader
jump exactly to that level. Click and drag
horizontally to jump consecutive faders to the
same level.
11. A disabled EQ band.
9
12. Use these menus (hardware settings, output
assignment, and presets) in a similar fashion
as described for the Main Out bus (items 3-5
on page 19).
20
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
GROUP AND REVERB CHANNEL STRIPS
1
2
11
3
Group busses can be used to create a mix subgroup, which is a set of inputs you wish to control
together as a group. Groups differ from aux busses
in that they have aux sends, a reverb send, as well
as a main mix send. In addition, group busses are
equipped with the Leveler.
The Reverb bus is a special group bus that provides
a reverb processor. If you disable the reverb, the
reverb bus functions as a (fourth) regular group
bus.
4
To access the Group and Reverb bus channel strips,
go to the Mixing tab (page 16), reveal the side bar
(item #3 on page 16), and then show the desired
Group buses or Reverb bus in the Mixer Outputs
section (29).
To show and hide the four-band EQ section of the
channel strip, use the Controls section of the side
bar (item #3 in the Mixing tab on page 16).
1. A Group bus channel strip. Click the name to
rename it. Delete the current name to return to
its default.
2. The Reverb bus. If you disable the Reverb
processor, it can be used as a fourth Group bus.
The Reverb channel strip is twice as wide as
other mixer channel strips to accommodate the
Reverb processor controls.
3. Group busses and the Reverb bus are always
stereo.
5
4. The four-band parametric EQ module for Group
buses and the Reverb bus operates the same as
described for input channels (items 10 and 11
on page 18), including High and Low Shelf
filter options.
10
9
6
5. The thumbnail EQ Graph displays the currently
enabled EQ filters, if any. Click it to open the
full-size, editable EQ Graph (Figure 9-4 on
page 73).
6. The Reverb processor. For complete information, see “Reverb” on page 76.
7. Click to route the talkback mic to the group
output.
8. Main Mix sends.
9. Master faders for the Group and Reverb busses.
10. Mute and Solo.
8
7
11. Use these menus (hardware settings, output
assignment, and presets) in a similar fashion as
described for the Main Out bus (items 3-5 on
page 19).
21
M OT U P R O
AU DI O CON T R OL W E B
A P P
22
M OT U P R O AUD I O CO N T R O L W E B A P P
CHAPTER 2
About the 828es
The 828es is a 28 x 32 Thunderbolt/USB/AVB
audio interface with console-style 48-channel
mixing, DSP effects, wireless control, AVB audio
networking and very high quality A/D/A
conversion at sample rates up to 192 kHz for onthe-go mobile audio recording.
Powerful DSP delivers large console style mixing
with 48 channels, 12 stereo busses, and 32-bit
floating point effects processing, including
modeled analog EQ, vintage compression and
classic reverb. Matrix routing lets you quickly
patch ins to outs, or split inputs to multiple
destinations.
The 828es can operate as an audio interface for a
studio workstation (DAW), as a standalone mixer,
or as an auxiliary monitor mixing system in the
studio or on stage. The following sections provide
a brief overview of its main features and characteristics.
Comprehensive I/O
The 828es provides a variety of analog and digital
interconnects, all active simultaneously, designed
to provide everything you need for a wellequipped recording studio.
Connection
Input
Output
Quarter-inch analog on bal/unbal TRS
8
8
Mic/guitar on XLR/TRS combo
2
-
Main outputs on XLR
-
2
Headphone output
-
2 x stereo
ADAT optical digital†
16
16
RCA S/PDIF 24-bit 96kHz digital
stereo
stereo
Total
28
32
† The 828es optical connectors support several
standard optical I/O formats, which provide
varying channel counts. See “Optical I/O” on
page 45 for details about optical bank operation.
All inputs and outputs are discrete. For example,
using a mic input does not “steal” an input from
the TRS analog I/O bank.
Network I/O
828es is capable of handling four 8-channel banks
of network audio input and output for an
additional 32 channels of network I/O.
Other MOTU interfaces
The 828es is part of a larger family of audio
interfaces that offer complementary I/O configurations. For details, visit motu.com.
Universal connectivity
The 828es can connect to a computer with
Thunderbolt or hi-speed USB 2.0, which is
compatible with USB 3.0. It is USB audio classcompliant, which means that it is iPad compatible
(with a camera connection kit) and does not
require driver installation for USB connection to a
computer.
Alternately, the 828es can be connected to the
Ethernet port on a recent-generation Mac (any
Mac with Thunderbolt on it) running Mac OS X
El Capitan (10.11) or later for audio interface
operation through AVB Ethernet.
Mic/guitar inputs with preamps
The two front-panel mic/line/instrument inputs
are equipped with preamps and “combo” XLR/
TRS jacks, which accept XLR microphone inputs
or quarter-inch line/instruments inputs.
Individual 48 volt phantom power and a -20 dB
23
pad can be supplied independently to each mic
input. The Precision Digital Trim™ knobs on the
front panel for each mic/instrument input provide
up to 63 dB of boost in precise 1 dB increments.
As explained in “Mic/guitar sends” on page 24, the
pre-amplified signal can be routed to external
outboard gear before being routed back into the
828es.
Mic/guitar sends
Before A/D conversion, the pre-amplified signal
from each front-panel mic/guitar input is routed
to one of the two rear-panel quarter-inch analog
sends, so that you can insert a favorite outboard
EQ, compressor, amp or effects processor to the
mic/guitar input signal before it is converted to
digital form. The resulting output from the
outboard gear can be fed back into the 828es via
one of the eight TRS analog inputs on the rear
panel, for routing to the computer and/or
inclusion in the 828es built-in monitor mixes.
Flexible analog I/O with Precision Digital Trim™
All quarter-inch analog inputs can accept either a
balanced or unbalanced plug. The quarter-inch
outputs are DC-coupled, so they can be used for
CV control output.
Analog inputs are equipped with digitally
controlled analog trims, adjustable in 1 dB
increments. Equipped with renowned ESS
Sabre32™ DAC technology, all analog outputs offer
32-bit trim in the DAC, also adjustable in 1 dB
increments. You can save your trim configurations
as a preset for instant recall.
Independent XLR main outs
The XLR main outs are equipped with very high
quality ESS Sabre32 D/A converters and serve as
independent outputs for the computer or the
828es on-board mixer.
On-board DSP with mixing and effects
828es is equipped with a powerful DSP engine that
drives both an extensive routing matrix and a
48-input digital mixer with 12 stereo buses and
effects. The mixer offers familiar operation
modeled after large format mixing consoles.
32-bit floating point processing
All of the mixing and effects processing in the DSP
engine is handled with 32-bit floating point
calculations, to maintain and deliver virtually
unlimited headroom and the utmost in sound
quality.
Modeled vintage effects processing
Effects include “classic” reverb, compression
modeled after the legendary Teletronix LA-2A
compressor, and 4-band EQ modeled after British
analog console EQs.
AVB/TSN system expansion and audio
networking
AVB stands for the IEEE 802.1 Audio Video
Bridging Ethernet standard for high-bandwidth,
low-latency audio streaming over Ethernet. You
may also hear AVB referred to as AVB/TSN or
simply TSN because the IEEE is in the process of
renaming the standard to Time Sensitive
Networking to accommodate the expanding scope
of the specification to applications beyond audio
and video.
The AVB Ethernet network port on the 828es lets
you add a second AVB-equipped MOTU interface
using any standard CAT-5e Ethernet cable. You
can network up to five MOTU interfaces together
using a MOTU AVB Switch™ (sold separately), and
then run them as a stand-alone network or as an
extended bank of I/Os for your computer-based
production system (or both). You can even
connect multiple computers, each with full access
to all devices on the network (including the other
computers).
24
A BO U T T HE 8 2 8E S
With additional standard AVB switches (from
MOTU or other brands) and standard Ethernet
cabling, you can build an extensive AVB audio
network. The entire network operates with nearzero network latency, even over very long cable
runs. MOTU’s AVB implementation allows you to
stream hundreds of audio channels among devices
and computers on the network with guaranteed
Quality of Service (QoS), prioritizing audio
streams over less important traffic.
Matrix routing and multing
The 828es provides completely flexible matrixstyle audio routing and multing. You can route any
analog or digital input, computer channel, or
network stream to any other output, computer, or
network device. You can also mult any single input
to unlimited multiple output destinations.
Web app control
You can control the 828es on-board DSP, mixing,
device settings, clock/sync settings and network
audio routing from the MOTU Pro Audio Control
web app software running in your favorite browser
on a laptop, tablet or smart phone. Multiple
devices can be used simultaneously on a shared
Wi-Fi network to access any audio interface
settings. Optional password protection prevents
unauthorized access from the network.
Stand-alone mixing with wireless control
If you connect the 828es to an Apple Airport or
other Wi-Fi router with a standard Ethernet cable,
you can control its powerful mixing and DSP
effects from your smart phone or tablet, without a
computer — great for live sound mixing from your
iPad, tablet, or other wireless device.
ADAT digital input
The 828es provides two 8-channel banks of optical
digital I/O. Connect outboard digital processors,
digital mixers or other gear: 16 channels at 44.1/48
kHz or 8 channels at 88.2/96 kHz. Alternately, the
optical ports can be independently configured to
support stereo TOSLink (optical S/PDIF). The
banks operate independently, including input and
output, allowing you to mix and match any optical
formats. For example, you could receive four
channels of 96 kHz S/MUX input on Bank A
while at the same time sending 96 kHz stereo
optical S/PDIF (“TOSLink”) from the Bank A
output.
S/PDIF
The 828es rear panel provides S/PDIF input and
output in two different formats: RCA “coax” and
optical “TOSLink”. The RCA jacks are dedicated to
the S/PDIF format. The TOSLink jacks can be
used for either TOSLink or ADAT optical, as
discussed earlier.
MIDI I/O
The standard MIDI IN and MIDI OUT jacks
supply 16 channels of MIDI I/O to and from the
computer via the Thunderbolt or USB connection.
Timing accuracy can be sample-accurate with host
software that supports it.
On-board SMPTE synchronization
The 828es can resolve directly to SMPTE time
code via the quarter-inch SMPTE input, without a
separate synchronizer. A SMPTE out jack is also
provided for time code distribution. The 828es
provides a DSP-driven phase-lock engine with
sophisticated filtering that provides fast lockup
times and sub-frame accuracy.
Word clock
The 828es supports standard word clock synchronization at any supported sample rate. When the
828es is operating at 96 kHz, it can generate word
clock output at either 96 or 48 kHz. Half-rate
output is supported for all high sample rates (from
88.2 to 192 kHz).
25
A B O UT T HE 8 2 8E S
Foot switch input
The quarter-inch foot switch input accepts a
standard foot switch. When you push the foot
switch, the 828es triggers a programmable
keystroke on the computer keyboard. For
example, with MOTU’s Digital Performer audio
sequencer software, the foot switch could trigger
the 3 key on the numeric keypad, which toggles
recording in Digital Performer. Therefore,
pressing the foot switch is the same as pressing the
3 key. The 828es web app software lets you
program any keystroke you wish.
Full-color dual-LCDs
The full-color dual-LCDs display all signal activity
at a glance with vivid, detailed metering for all I/O.
You can access many hardware settings directly
from the front panel.
Two independent headphone outputs
The 828es front panel provides two independent
headphone jacks with separate volume control.
You can program each phone output to mirror
another set of outputs or act as its own
independent output.
Control room features
Control room features include a built-in talkback
mic with front panel “talk” button and “A/B”
monitor select, mute and sum-to-mono buttons
for the main outs. Surround monitoring is also
supported for both 5.1 and 7.1 surround.
Rack mount or desktop operation
The 828es is housed in a sturdy, metal-alloy fullrack enclosure. Rack mounting brackets can be
removed for desktop or mobile operation.
AudioDesk
AudioDesk is a full-featured audio workstation
software package for Mac and Windows that is
available as a free download for you as an 828es
owner. Visit motu.com/download to obtain your
copy. AudioDesk provides multi-channel
waveform editing, automated virtual mixing,
graphic editing of ramp automation, real-time
effects plug-ins with crossfades, support for many
third-party audio plug-ins, sample-accurate
editing and placement of audio, and more.
26
A BO U T T HE 8 2 8E S
CHAPTER 3
Packing List and
System Requirements
PACKING LIST
PLEASE REGISTER TODAY!
the 828es ships with the items listed below. If any
of these items are not present in the box when you
first open it, please immediately contact your
dealer or MOTU.
Please register the 828es today. There are two ways
to register.
■
One audio interface
■
USB cable
■
Power cord
■
User guide
■
Product registration card
■
Visit www.motu.com/register
OR
■ Fill out and mail the included product
registration card
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
As a registered user, you will be eligible to receive
technical support and announcements about
product enhancements as soon as they become
available. Only registered users receive these
special update notices, so please register today.
■ A 1 GHz Intel-based Mac or Pentium-based PC
(or compatible). Faster CPUs are recommended
for best performance.
Thank you for taking the time to register your new
MOTU products!
■
2 GB RAM; 4 GB or more recommended.
■ OS X 10.8 or later; Windows 7 or later; for
operation as an AVB Ethernet audio interface,
Mac OS X 10.11 or later is required, running on a
recent-generation Mac (any Mac with a
Thunderbolt port on it).
■ Available Thunderbolt or high-speed USB 2.0
(or 3.0) port.
■
A large hard drive (preferably at least 512 GB).
27
28
PAC K IN G LI S T A N D S YS T E M R E Q U IR E ME N TS
CHAPTER 4
Software Installation
OVERVIEW
USB audio class-compliant operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Software installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Audio drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
MOTU Discovery app . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
MOTU Pro Audio WebUI Setup for Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . .31
AudioDesk workstation software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Working with host audio software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
USB AUDIO CLASS-COMPLIANT OPERATION
The 828es is a USB audio class-compliant device.
This means that you can connect it to your Mac
(running Mac OS 10.8 or higher) with a USB cable
and use it without installing any software drivers.
The computer recognizes the 828es as a USB audio
device and makes its inputs and outputs available
to your host audio software. Basic settings, such as
the hardware’s sample rate, are made in either your
host software.
requires is a network connection between your
computer and the 828es with a standard Ethernet
cable, Ethernet hub, or shared Wi-Fi network. For
details about accessing the web app through the
network port, see “MOTU Pro Audio Control
Web App” on page 11.
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
Software installation is required for any of the
following scenarios:
■
■ You will use the 828es as a Thunderbolt audio
interface with your Mac or PC.
■ You will use 828es as a USB audio interface, and
you want to access the web app without a network
connection between the computer and the 828es.
■
☛
In this scenario, the 828es provides basic
audio input and output, and no software driver
installation is necessary.
Connection to iOS devices (iPad and iPhone)
Audio-class compliant operation allows you to
connect the 828es to any iOS device with a
standard camera connection kit adapter. The
828es then provides multi-channel audio I/O to
your audio apps. Use your audio app to configure
the number of available audio channels.
Web app control
As explained earlier in this guide, the MOTU Pro
Audio Control web app provides full access to all
settings in the device, including the extensive onboard routing, mixing, and effects processing
features. Since the web app is served from the
audio interface hardware itself, it does not require
any software installation on your computer; all it
You are using a PC running Windows 7 or later.
You will be using multiple MOTU interfaces.
If none of the above scenarios apply to you, then
you can skip software installation if you wish, and
proceed to details about accessing the web app
through the network port, see “MOTU Pro Audio
Control Web App” on page 11.
Download and run the MOTU Pro Audio Installer
To download the latest MOTU Pro Audio installer
for Mac or Windows, visit www.motu.com/
download. Follow the directions that the installer
gives you.
☛
We recommend that you run the software
installer before you connect the 828es to your
computer and power it on. This ensures that all
driver components are properly installed in your
system.
29
AUDIO DRIVERS
The installer provides Thunderbolt and USB
audio drivers for Mac (CoreAudio) and Windows
(ASIO and Wave).
MOTU Pro Audio ASIO Driver
On Windows, to enable the 828es in your ASIO
host software, choose the MOTU Pro Audio ASIO
driver.
Thunderbolt support for Mac and Windows
You can connect your MOTU interface to a
Thunderbolt-equipped PC and access up to 128
channels of simultaneous audio input and output
using the MOTU Pro Audio ASIO driver. On Mac
OS, the MOTU Pro Audio Core Audio driver
provides similar high-bandwidth Thunderbolt I/
O for Mac audio applications. On both Mac and
Windows, you will enjoy access to very low buffer
settings and extremely low I/O latency
performance from your host audio software.
☛
Check motu.com/support for the latest
information regarding PC Thunderbolt compatibility, as some PC products are not yet qualified
for use with MOTU Thunderbolt-equipped audio
interfaces.
Industry-leading I/O latency performance
On Mac OS and Windows, the MOTU Pro Audio
driver provides exceptionally low I/O latency
performance for both Thunderbolt and USB
operation. For example, with a 32-sample buffer
size, an 828es interface operating at 96 kHz
produces round trip latency (RTL) performance of
1.9 milliseconds (ms) over Thunderbolt on
Windows and 1.6 ms on Mac OS. RTL is the
measurement of the time it takes audio to pass
from an analog input, through a highperformance DAW host such as Digital Performer,
to an analog output.
Figure 4-1: Choosing the MOTU Pro Audio ASIO driver in Cubase.
WDM / Wave driver support
On Windows, the MOTU Pro Audio driver
includes stereo and multi-channel support (up to
24 channels) for WDM (Wave) compatible audio
software.
Host Buffer Size
When connected to a Windows host, the Host
Buffer Size menu (Figure 4-2 on page 31) is
available in the Device tab (page 12). This setting
determines the amount of latency (delay) you may
hear when live audio is patched through your
Windows audio software. Smaller buffer sizes
produce lower latency, with sizes of 256 samples or
less producing virtually imperceptible delay. Many
host applications report audio hardware I/O
latency, so you can see what happens to the
reported latency when making adjustments to this
setting.
30
S O F T WA R E I N S TA L L AT I O N
Choose an interface to access its settings through
the web app (“MOTU Pro Audio Control Web
App” on page 11).
MOTU PRO AUDIO WEBUI SETUP FOR
WINDOWS
Figure 4-2: Under Windows, access the ‘Host Buffer Size’ and ‘Host
Safety Offset’ settings in the web app Device tab for your MOTU
interface.
Be careful with very small buffer sizes, as they can
cause performance issues from your host software
or PC.
☛
At sea level, audio travels approximately one
foot (30 cm) per millisecond. A latency of ten
milliseconds is about the same as being ten feet
(three meters) from an audio source.
Host Safety Offset
When connected to a Windows host, the Host
Safety Offset menu (Figure 4-2) also becomes
available. This setting allows you to fine tune host
latency. Larger offsets allow the driver more time
to process audio as it transfers to and from the
hardware. Lower settings produce lower latency,
but if you go too low, your host software may
experience performance issues. Generally
speaking, 48 samples should serve as a good
baseline setting. You can then experiment with
lower settings from there. Be mindful, however,
when reducing the safety offset, as this parameter
can have a significant impact on your computer
system’s performance.
MOTU DISCOVERY APP
The MOTU Discovery app (found in the Mac
menu bar or Windows taskbar) locates all MOTU
interfaces connected to the computer, either
directly through USB or Thunderbolt or indirectly
through your network, and displays them in a list.
On Windows, the installer provides a MOTU Pro
Audio WebUI Setup shortcut found on the
Windows desktop or in Start menu> All
Programs> MOTU. Use this shortcut to access the
MOTU Pro Audio Control web app directly in
your favorite web browser.
AUDIODESK WORKSTATION SOFTWARE
AudioDesk is an advanced workstation software
package for Mac and Windows that lets you
record, edit, mix, process, bounce and master
multi-track digital audio recording projects.
Advanced features include real-time effects
processing, recording, and much more.
See the AudioDesk User Guide, available on your
computer hard drive as a PDF document.
Figure 4-3: AudioDesk.
WORKING WITH HOST AUDIO SOFTWARE
For further information about using the 828es
with host audio software, see chapter 8, “Working
with Host Audio Software” (page 63).
31
S O F T WA R E I N S TA LL AT I O N
32
S O F T WA R E I N S TA L L AT I O N
CHAPTER 5
Hardware Installation
OVERVIEW
Thunderbolt audio interface setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
USB or iOS audio interface setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
AVB Ethernet audio interface setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Setup for two interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Setup for three to five interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Setup for a multi-switch network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Setup for multiple interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Setup for web app control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Setup for AVB Ethernet audio interface operation. . . . . . .40
A typical 828es setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Audio connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Syncing S/PDIF devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Syncing optical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Syncing word clock devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Syncing to SMPTE time code (LTC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Syncing an AVB network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Syncing multiple AVB audio interfaces connected to a Mac . .50
THUNDERBOLT AUDIO INTERFACE SETUP
■ Place it at the end of the Thunderbolt chain (up
to six devices in the chain, not including the
computer).
■
See chapter 4, “Software Installation” (page 29).
■
Use the “Audio interface” preset (page 53).
USB OR iOS AUDIO INTERFACE SETUP
Computer or iOS device
Camera connection kit (adapter)
required for iOS operation
Use this setup if you want to use the 828es as a
USB audio interface for a computer or iOS device.
■
Use a standard USB cable.
■ Connect to any USB port (USB 2.0 or 3.0) on
your computer, or use a standard camera
connection kit (adapter) for your iOS device.
■ See “USB audio class-compliant operation” on
page 29.
For Mac or iOS operation, no driver installation
is necessary.
■
Use this setup if you want to use your MOTU
device as an audio interface, and your computer
has Thunderbolt™.
■
Use the “Audio interface” preset (page 53).
■ Use a standard Thunderbolt cable (sold
separately).
33
AVB ETHERNET AUDIO INTERFACE SETUP
SETUP FOR TWO INTERFACES
OR
Use this setup if you want to use the 828es as an
AVB Ethernet audio interface for a recentgeneration Mac (i.e. any Mac with a Thunderbolt
port on it). OS X El Capitan (10.11) or later is
required for AVB audio I/O.
■
Use a standard CAT-5e or CAT-6 cable.
■
Connect to the computer’s Ethernet port.
See “Setup for AVB Ethernet audio interface
operation” on page 40.
Use this setup if you want to connect two MOTU
interfaces to your computer.
About CAT-5e cables
Use shielded CAT-5e or
CAT-6 cables, which are a
higher grade version of a
standard Ethernet cable.
They are available wherever
network cables are sold.
■ The connection to the computer can be either
USB or Thunderbolt, if you have a Thunderboltequipped MOTU interface such as the 828es, 8M,
16A, 1248, 112D, 624or 8A.
■ Use a standard Thunderbolt cable. Place it at the
end of the Thunderbolt chain.
■ Use any standard CAT-5e Ethernet network
cable to connect the two interfaces together using
their NETWORK ports.
■ As an alternative, see “Setup for multiple
interfaces” on page 37.
34
H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
SETUP FOR THREE TO FIVE INTERFACES
Use this setup if you want to connect three to five
MOTU interfaces to your computer using a
MOTU AVB Switch™ (sold separately).
■ Network cable lengths can be long: 100 meters
with standard copper wire cables; much longer
with fiber-optic network cables.
■
See “About CAT-5e cables” on page 34.
■ The connection to the computer can be USB or
Thunderbolt. Use Thunderbolt or USB 3.0, if
possible, to support a large number of audio
streams to and from the networked interfaces. A
single Thunderbolt or USB 3.0 connection
supports 128 channels in and out, simultaneously.
■ As an alternative, see “Setup for multiple
interfaces” on page 37.
Use standard CAT-5e Ethernet network cables
to connect the interfaces to the MOTU AVB
Switch using their NETWORK ports.
■
■
■ To add more computers to the network, connect
them to any interface, as shown. All computers
and interfaces have full access to each other.
See chapter 11, “Networking” (page 95).
■ Use the five AVB NETWORK ports on the
switch (not the Ethernet port).
Additional computers are optional.
All computers and interfaces have full
access to each other on the network.
OR
35
H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
■ You can daisy-chain switches in serial fashion,
but don’t create loops. For example, switches A, B,
and C below are chained properly, but don’t
connect C back to A. Alternately, you could
connect both Switches B and C to Switch A.
SETUP FOR A MULTI-SWITCH NETWORK
Use this setup if you want to connect more than
five MOTU interfaces to an extended network that
employs multiple AVB switches. AVB Ethernet is
an industry standard, so you can use MOTU AVB
Switches or 3rd-party AVB switches.
■ For further information, see chapter 11,
“Networking” (page 95).
OR
OR
Switch A
OR
OR
Additional switches,
interfaces, and
computers.
Switch B
OR
Switch C
36
H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
SETUP FOR MULTIPLE INTERFACES
It is possible to connect multiple MOTU interfaces
directly to your host computer through multiple
USB (and Thunderbolt) ports. However, there are
several disadvantages to using any of these direct
connection schemes:
The audio interfaces will not be clocked to one
another and may be susceptible to drift, unless you
use external word clock connections (if available).
You are better off using the AVB network
connections shown on pages 34-36. In this setup,
the interfaces are very tightly synchronized with
each other (measured in pico seconds) through
their network connections.
■
You will not be able to route audio directly from
one audio interface to another. You are better off
using the AVB network connections shown on
pages 34-36, which allows you to route audio
streams (hundreds at a time) directly among
interfaces with near-zero latency.
■
Connecting multiple interfaces using
Thunderbolt
If you have other MOTU interfaces with
Thunderbolt connectivity (1248, 8M, 16A, 112D,
624 or 8A) and your host computer has two or
more Thunderbolt ports, you can connect one
interface to each port, either directly or at the end
of a Thunderbolt daisy chain (on either port or
both ports).
Connecting multiple interfaces using
Thunderbolt and USB
Another way to operate multiple interfaces on the
same host computer is to connect the first
interface to a Thunderbolt port and the second to
a USB 2.0 (or 3.0) port.
performance requirements of the 828es for realtime operation and low latency timing, we
recommend the following:
Do not connect more than two units to your
computer’s USB 2.0 (or 3.0) ports.
■
■ When two units are connected with USB 2.0,
don’t connect other USB 2.0 or 3. 0 devices, such
as external hard drives.
■ For best results, establish clock synchronization
with other interfaces connected to the same
computer. You can use word clock, S/PDIF, optical
or AVB to achieve clock synchronization.
Multiple AVB Ethernet audio interfaces
When operating 828es as an AVB Ethernet audio
interface (“AVB Ethernet audio interface setup” on
page 34), multiple AVB audio interfaces can be
connected using a MOTU AVB Switch (or any
3rd-party AVB switch), and the Mac can see all of
them through their AVB connection. For example,
you could connect an Avid S3 console to the Mac,
and then connect a MOTU 828es to the S3’s extra
network port (which is a built-in switch). The Mac
can see both 828es and S3 for audio I/O. For best
results in this scenario, be sure to use OS X 10.11
(El Capitan) or later. See “Syncing multiple AVB
audio interfaces connected to a Mac” on page 50.
Mixing and matching audio interfaces
You can mix and match MOTU audio interfaces.
For example, you could connect an 828es through
Thunderbolt and another MOTU audio interface,
such as the Stage-B16, through USB 2.0.
Multiple interfaces and USB
When connected through USB, the 828es operates
as a USB 2.0 device, even when connected to a
USB 3.0 port. USB 2.0 provides enough bus speed
for several USB 2.0 devices, but due to the high-
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
The MOTU Pro Audio Control web app gives you
access to all settings, routing, mixing, and effects
processing in the 828es, and each interface on the
AVB network, if applicable. For more info, see
“MOTU Pro Audio Control Web App” on page 11.
Mixing and matching web app control scenarios
The web app connection scenarios shown in the
following sections are not exclusive from one
another. You can set up as many web app
connections as you wish and control your MOTU
device from many web app hosts simultaneously.
The web app is a web application served by the
hardware. All you need to run it is a web browser
running on a device that has a connection to your
audio interface through Thunderbolt, USB or a
shared network.
Launching the web app
Once you’ve made any of the connections shown
in the following sections, launch the web app as
explained in “Make hardware and network
connections” on page 11.
SETUP FOR WEB APP CONTROL
Web app in
your browser
Web app
Figure 5-1: The web app is served from the hardware, and accessed
through any web browser on any device connected to the interface.
Web app control can be set up independently of
audio connections
The connections in this section, especially the
network scenarios, can be set up independently of
Thunderbolt, USB or AVB networking
connections you make for audio routing (as
shown in the setup diagrams earlier in this
chapter). In addition, connections for web app
control can be made over standard Ethernet and
do not require AVB Ethernet connections. Think
of web app control as being separate from audio.
Doing so opens up a lot of possibilities for control
of the 828es, independent of the connections you
make for audio.
Web app control over Thunderbolt or USB
If the 828es is connected through Thunderbolt or
USB to a computer with internet access (as shown
on page 33), you can access the web app from the
computer, or any other device on the network. In
this case, make sure you’ve run the software
installer (page 29), which installs drivers that
allow your computer to properly communicate
with the device.
Web app control through standard Ethernet
The 828es can also be controlled by the web app
running on any device that has a standard
Ethernet connection to the interface, either
directly with a network cable, through an Ethernet
hub, or through Wi-Fi on your local network. The
sections on the opposite page show you how to set
up each of these connection scenarios.
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
Ethernet cable
A simple Ethernet cable connection can be used
for web app control, even without a USB or
Thunderbolt connection to your computer. For
example, if you are using your MOTU device as a
mixer or audio router, you could control the
on-board routing, mixing and effects from the
web app through a standard Ethernet connection.
Wi-Fi
When using standard Wi-Fi as shown, you can
control the 828es from multiple Wi-Fi devices
simultaneously.
Laptop (optional)
Tablet
Smart
phone
Wi-Fi devices
Network port
Standard Ethernet cable
Airport
or any other Wi-Fi router
Ethernet cable
Network port
Network port
Figure 5-2: Web app control through a simple Ethernet cable.
Ethernet hub or network (LAN)
In this scenario, both your laptop and your MOTU
device are connected to a standard Ethernet hub
or home/office network (LAN). You can run the
web app on multiple computers simultaneously.
Standard Ethernet
hub or network (LAN)
Network port
Figure 5-4: Web app control through Wi-Fi.
Ethernet network + Wi-Fi
You can, of course, combine the setups shown in
Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4, with Wi-Fi connected
to the Ethernet hub or network.
MOTU AVB Switch
The MOTU AVB Switch provides five AVB
Ethernet ports, plus one standard Ethernet port.
Use the AVB ports for MOTU audio interfaces,
and use the Ethernet port for Wi-Fi, Ethernet, etc.
Ethernet cables
MOTU interfaces
Network port
Wi-Fi router or
Ethernet hub/network
Figure 5-3: Web app control through a standard Ethernet hub or
network (LAN).
(Sold separately)
Figure 5-5: Using the Ethernet port on the MOTU AVB Switch.
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
SETUP FOR AVB ETHERNET AUDIO INTERFACE
OPERATION
Your MOTU hardware can serve as an Ethernet
audio interface when connected to a recent
generation AVB-equipped Mac. You can then use
your MOTU interface as a standard multi-channel
audio interface with any Core Audio compatible
host software running on the Mac.
1 Launch the MOTU Discovery app. From the
Settings menu (circled in red below), choose
Launch Mac Virtual Entity, and from the submenu choose the Ethernet port to which your
MOTU interface is connected. It should now be
checked.
For Ethernet audio interface operation, you need:
■ A recent Mac (any Mac that has a Thunderbolt
port on it)
■
OS X El Capitan (10.11) or later
Firmware version 1.2.5 or later in your MOTU
interface
■
Ethernet connection to the Mac
As shown on page 34, connect the network port
on your MOTU interface to the Ethernet port on
the Mac using a standard, high-grade (CAT-5e or
CAT-6) network cable up to 100 meters in length.
☛
If your Mac doesn’t have an Ethernet port,
you can connect your MOTU interface via
Ethernet using a Thunderbolt-to-Ethernet
adapter. Ethernet might be preferable over
Thunderbolt because the Ethernet cable can be up
to 100 meters long, using standard Ethernet
cabling (which is very affordable).
Figure 5-6: Enabling AVB connectivity to the Mac.
2 After completing step #1 above, the Mac will
appear in the AVB device list in the MOTU Pro
Audio Control web app, as shown below. PLEASE
NOTE: it may take several minutes for the Mac to
appear in the list, the first time you set this up.
After the first time, though, you won’t experience
any delays.
☛
USB-to-Ethernet adapters cannot be used
because the Mac’s USB chip set does not support
AVB Ethernet.
Alternately, you can connect both the Mac and the
interface to an AVB-compatible Ethernet switch.
Web app setup
To set up your MOTU device as an AVB Ethernet
audio interface:
Figure 5-7: Accessing the AVB settings for the Mac in the MOTU web
app.
3 From the Configuration menu (Figure 5-7),
choose the channel mode for the Mac that best fits
your workflow.
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
☛
MOTU interfaces currently only support
8-channel streams (or less) so be sure to avoid
configurations with streams that have more than
eight channels.
Figure 5-10: Routing Mac channels to physical outputs.
Figure 5-8: Choosing an AVB configuration for the Mac.
4 From the Sample Rate menu (Figure 5-7),
choose the desired sample rate. Currently, the Mac
only supports 48, 96 and 192 kHz sample rates.
7 For Recording to the Mac, route desired
physical inputs on your MOTU interface to output
streams.
5 For Playback from the Mac, go to the Device
tab for your MOTU interface (the 1248 in the
example below), and connect the input streams to
the Mac’s output streams.
Figure 5-11: Routing physical inputs to the Mac.
Figure 5-9: Routing computer streams to the interface for playback
from the Mac.
6 In the Routing tab, route the Mac’s output
streams to desired physical outputs on your
MOTU interface.
8 On the Mac’s Device tab, connect the Mac’s
input streams to the MOTU interface’s output
streams.
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
Figure 5-12: Routing streams from your MOTU interface to the Mac.
AVB stream and channel counts
Each AVB stream is a group of eight audio
channels. While testing is on-going, OS X AVB
performance varies with different Mac models.
Models such as the Mac Pro (late 2013) are able to
handle eight streams (64 channels) in and out
simultaneously, for MOTU interface models that
support eight streams. (Check
motu.com/proaudio for a summary of supported
stream counts for each MOTU interface model.)
For older Macs, we recommend one or two
streams in each direction. Generally speaking, it is
best to enable only as many streams as you need.
☛ Leave Media Clock Input Stream set to None.
(This setting can be used to sync the Mac to
certain 3rd-party AVB devices that support Media
Clock. This setting is not needed for MOTU
devices.)
Clocking
In the example in Figure 5-12, the 1248 is the clock
master and the Mac is clocking to the 1248’s
Output Stream 1. You can also reverse this
scenario, where the Mac becomes the master and
the 1248 clocks to Mac’s Output Stream 1. The
Mac does not follow the web app’s Become Clock
Master button, so you must set the Mac’s Clock
Mode manually.
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
828es itself, controlled from your laptop, tablet,
and smart phone — or several devices simultaneously.
A TYPICAL 828ES SETUP
Here is a typical 828es setup. This rig can be
operated with or without a separate mixer. All
mixing and effects processing can be done in the
Guitar
Mic 1
Headphones
828es front
panel
Secondary
studio monitors
MOTU 8pre and/or
other optical devices
Main
studio monitors
8-channel
ADAT optical
Foot
switch
Ethernet cable to
another MOTU AVB
device, a MOTU AVB
Switch, or WiFi
router, etc.
Returns from
outboard gear
828es back
panel
to send returns
Send
returns
Other
outputs
Word clock device
MIDI OUT/IN
S/PDIF
DAT deck
quarter-inch
analog outs
synthesizer
Thunderbolt or USB
Compressor, reverb or
other outboard gear
quarter-inch analog inputs
Mac
or
PC
synths, samplers, effects units, etc.
Figure 5-13: A typical 828es studio setup.
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
AUDIO CONNECTIONS
Here are a few things to keep in mind as you are
making audio connections to your 828es interface.
Mic/line/instrument inputs with preamps
Connect a microphone, guitar or line-level analog
input to the front panel XLR/quarter-inch combo
jack with either a standard mic cable or a balanced
cable with a quarter-inch plug.
☛
Do not connect a +4 (line level) XLR cable to
the front-panel inputs (because of the preamps).
Use a quarter-inch input instead.
Phantom power
If you are connecting a condenser microphone or
another device that requires phantom power,
engage the corresponding front-panel phantom
power switch.
Preamp gain
The 828es preamps provides 63 dB of gain. Use the
front panel detented trim knobs to adjust gain as
needed for each input. The LCD provides visual
feedback as you turn the trim knob. Preamp gain
is digitally controlled, so you can make fine-tuned
adjustments in 1dB increments. You can also
adjust preamp gain in the web app. See “Device
tab” on page 12.
-20 dB pad
Each mic input (XLR jack) is equipped with a
-20 dB pad switch, to accommodate input signals
that could overdrive the input.
Combo jack summary
Use these guidelines for 48V phantom power, pad
and trim settings on the two combo input jacks:
Input
48V
Pad
Trim
Condenser mic
On
As needed
As needed
Dynamic mic
Off
As needed
As needed
Guitar
Off
n/a
As needed
-10 dB Line level via TRS
Off
n/a
As needed
-10 dB Line level via XLR
Off
-20 dB
+12dB
+4 dB line level (TRS only)
Off
-20 dB
Zero
TRS quarter-inch analog inputs and outputs
Quarter-inch analog inputs and outputs are
balanced (TRS) connectors that can also accept an
unbalanced plug. The outputs are DC-coupled, so
they can be used for CV control output.
☛
Quarter-inch analog outputs are not
cross-coupled. Therefore, when connecting them
to an unbalanced input, use a TRS plug with the
ring disconnected. Not floating the negative
terminal will short it to the sleeve ground and
cause distortion.
Main outs
Like all I/O on the 828es, the XLR main outputs
operate as an independent pair (they don’t share
signal with any other output pair). In a standard
studio configuration, the main outs are intended
for a pair of primary studio monitors, but they can
be used as regular outputs for any purpose. With
adjustable converter trim, they support a wide
range of industry-standard reference levels. Main
out volume is controlled by pressing the A button
on the front panel (Figure 5-14) and then
adjusting volume with the MONITOR knob.
Figure 5-14: 828es front panel
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
Analog trims
All analog inputs and outputs can be trimmed.
This allows them to support a variety of standards,
including EBU-R68, SMPTE RP-155, +4dBu, 10dBV, 2vRMS, 1vRMS.
The 828es quarter-inch analog inputs are
equipped with high-quality, digitally controlled
analog trim that provides a range from -96 to +22
dB in 1dB steps.
Quarter-inch outputs can be trimmed in the DAC
itself. Range is 24 dB.
The Main Outs and Phones provide full trim range
from 0 dB to -∞ (-127).
Trim controls are most easily accessed in the web
app. See “Device tab” on page 12. Trim settings
can also be accessed in the LCD menu.
Monitor A-B outputs
From the factory, the XLR Main Outs are assigned
as monitor pair A and Analog Outs 1-2 as monitor
pair B (Figure 5-15). If you have a secondary pair
of studio monitors, connect them to Analog Outs
1-2.
You can change these output assignments as
desired in the A-B Monitor Setup section in the
web app Device tab (item #33 on page 14). For
more information, see “Monitor controls” on
page 59.
Optical I/O
Your MOTU audio interface provides two banks
of ADAT optical (“lightpipe”) connectors. Each
bank provides an input and output connector.
Together, they provide 16 channels of ADAT
optical digital I/O at 44.1 or 48 kHz, or 8 channels
at 88.2 or 96 kHz. The optical ports are disabled
when the interface is operating at a 176.4 or 192
kHz. At the high sample rates (88.2 or 96 kHz),
4-channel SMUX operation supports two modes
(item #24 on page 13):
■ Standard — for 2x optical connection to
3rd-party SMUX-compatible hardware products.
■ Type II (Legacy) — for 2x optical connection to
legacy MOTU products that are equipped with
optical ports and support 2x operation.
The optical ports are disabled when the interface
is operating at a 176.4 or 192 kHz.
TOSLink (optical S/PDIF)
Alternately, the optical ports can be configured for
stereo TOSLink (optical S/PDIF) in the web app
(item #24 on page 13). The optical IN and OUT
banks can be configured independently.
Choosing a clock source for optical connections
When connecting an optical device, make sure
that its digital audio clock is phase-locked (in sync
with) your MOTU interface, as explained in
“Synchronization” on page 46 and “Syncing
optical devices” on page 47.
S/PDIF
The 828es provides S/PDIF digital audio input and
output on the RCA jacks provided. Be sure to
review the digital audio clocking issues, as
explained in “Syncing S/PDIF devices” on page 47.
Monitor
pair B
Monitor
pair A
Figure 5-15: 828es back panel
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
CONNECT MIDI GEAR
Connect your MIDI device’s MIDI IN jack to the
828es MIDI OUT jack (Connection A below).
Conversely, connect the MIDI device’s MIDI OUT
jack to the 828es MIDI IN jack (Connection B).
828es
rear panel
MIDI
OUT
MIDI
IN
MIDI Device
MIDI
THRU
828es
rear panel
MIDI
OUT
MIDI
cables
MIDI Device
MIDI IN
MIDI
IN
Connection A
MIDI
cable
Figure 5-17: Connecting additional devices with MIDI THRU ports.
MIDI MIDI
IN OUT
Connection B
Figure 5-16: Connecting a MIDI device to the 828es.
One-way MIDI connections
MIDI devices that do not receive MIDI data, such
as a dedicated keyboard controller, guitar
controller, or drum pad, only need Connection B
shown in Figure 5-16. Similarly, devices that never
send data, such as a sound module, only need
Connection A. Make both connections for any
device that needs to both send and receive MIDI
data.
Connecting additional gear with MIDI THRUs
If you need to connect several pieces of MIDI gear,
run a MIDI cable from the MIDI THRU of a
device already connected to the 828es to the MIDI
IN on the additional device as shown below in
Figure 5-17. The two devices then share the 828es
MIDI OUT port. This means that they share the
same set of 16 MIDI channels, too, so try to do this
with devices that listen to only one MIDI channel
(such as effects modules), which makes it easier to
avoid MIDI channel conflicts.
CONNECT A FOOT SWITCH
If you would like to use a foot switch with your
828es, connect it to the FOOT SWITCH jack. See
item #34 in the Device tab overview (page 14) for
information about how to program the foot switch
to trigger any computer keystroke you wish.
SYNCHRONIZATION
If you connect devices digitally to your MOTU
device, or if you need to synchronize your MOTU
device with an outside time reference such as word
clock, you must pay careful attention to the
synchronization connections and clock source
issues discussed in the next few sections.
Do you need to sync?
If you will be using only your MOTU device’s
analog inputs and outputs (and none of its digital
I/O), and you don’t need to resolve your system to
external word clock, you don’t need to make any
sync connections. You can skip this section.
Situations that require synchronization
There are two general cases in which you will need
to resolve you MOTU device with other devices:
■ Synchronizing with other digital audio devices
so that their digital audio clocks are phase-locked
(as shown in Figure 5-18)
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
■ Resolving your MOTU device to an external
clock source
■ Networking multiple MOTU interfaces
together
Synchronization is critical for clean digital I/O
Synchronization is critical in any audio system,
but it is especially important when you are
transferring audio between digital audio devices.
Your success in using the digital I/O features on
your MOTU device depends almost entirely on
proper synchronization. The following sections
guide you through several recommended
scenarios.
Be sure to choose a digital audio clock master
When you transfer digital audio between two
devices, their audio clocks must be in phase with
one another — or phase-locked. Otherwise, you’ll
hear clicks, pops, and distortion in the audio — or
perhaps no audio at all.
Not phase-locked
Phase-locked
Device A
Device B
Figure 5-18: When transferring audio, two devices must have phaselocked audio clocks to prevent clicks, pops or other artifacts.
There are two ways to achieve phase lock: slave
one device to the other, or slave both devices to a
third master clock. If you have three or more
digital audio devices, you need to slave them all to
a single master audio clock.
Also remember that audio phase lock can be
achieved independently of timecode (location).
For example, one device can be the timecode
master while another is the audio clock master, but
only one device can be the audio clock master. If
you set things up with this rule in mind, you’ll
have trouble-free audio transfers with your
MOTU hardware.
SYNCING S/PDIF DEVICES
The 828es provides RCA S/PDIF digital input and
output. Your 828es and the other S/PDIF device
will sync to each other by way of the S/PDIF
connection itself for click-free digital transfers.
One device is the master, and the other device is
the slave.
Syncing the 828es to its S/PDIF input
When you transfer audio from the S/PDIF device
into the 828es, choose S/PDIF as the clock source
(item #13 on page 12) to resolve the 828es to its
S/PDIF input.
Syncing another S/PDIF device to the 828es
When transferring audio from the 828es to
another S/PDIF device, set the 828es clock mode
(item #13 on page 12) to any source other than
S/PDIF. Doing so makes the 828es the clock
master. When the other device records (or
receives) S/PDIF audio (from the 828es), it will
simply synchronize to the clock provided by the
828es S/PDIF signal.
SYNCING OPTICAL DEVICES
There are several ways to sync an optical device
with your MOTU interface:
Master
Master
A. Resolve the other device to your MOTU
interface
Slave
Slave
Slave
Figure 5-19: To keep the your MOTU interface phased-locked with
other digital audio devices connected to it, choose a clock master.
B. Resolve your MOTU interface to the other
device
C. Resolve both devices to a word clock source
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
For A, choose Internal (or anything other than
Optical) as the clock mode in the Device tab (item
#13 on page 12). Then configure the other device
to resolve to its optical input.
For B, choose Optical as the clock mode (item #13
on page 12), and configure the other device to
resolve to its own internal clock.
For C, choose Word Clock as the clock mode for
the 828es (item #13 on page 12), and resolve the
other device to its word clock input.
Using word clock to resolve optical devices
If the optical device has word clock connectors on
it, you can use them to synchronize the device
with your MOTU interface. See “Syncing word
clock devices” on page 48.
SYNCING WORD CLOCK DEVICES
The word clock connectors on your MOTU device
allow you to synchronize it with a wide variety of
other word clock-equipped devices.
For standard word clock sync, you need to choose
an audio clock master (as explained in “Be sure to
choose a digital audio clock master” on page 47).
In the simplest case, you have two devices and one
is the word clock master and the other is the slave
as shown below in Figure 5-20 and Figure 5-21.
828es
Master
Word clock OUT
Audio
clock
Master
Word clock master device
Word clock OUT
Word clock IN
Slave
828es
Figure 5-21: Slaving your MOTU device (an 828es in this example) to
word clock. For the 828es clock source, choose ‘Word Clock In’.
Daisy-chaining word clock
If necessary, you can daisy-chain several word
clock devices together. When doing so, connect
WORD CLOCK OUT from the first (master)
device to the WORD CLOCK IN on the second
device. Then connect its WORD CLOCK THRU
port to the next device’s WORD CLOCK IN port,
and so on. On your MOTU interface, use its
WORD CLOCK OUT port and change its
operation from OUT to THRU in the Device tab
of the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app (item
#15 on page 12).
If you have more than four word clock devices that
you need to synchronize, avoid chaining their
word clock connections. Instead, use a word clock
distribution device of some kind.
Word clock is not needed for AVB networking
When working with multiple MOTU interfaces on
an AVB network, synchronization is handled by
AVB, so no word clock connections are necessary.
See the next section for details.
SYNCING TO SMPTE TIME CODE (LTC)
Word clock IN
Slave
Other device
Figure 5-20: Slaving another digital audio device to your MOTU device
(an 828es in this example) via word clock. For the 828es clock source,
choose any source besides word clock, as it is not advisable to chain
word clock.
The Clock Mode menu (item #13 on page 12)
provides the ability to resolve to SMPTE time code
(Longitudinal Time Code, referred to as LTC) from
any specified analog or digital input.
When you choose the LTC clock mode setting, the
audio phase lock engine in your MOTU interface
resolves to the incoming time code. (See below for
how to specify the time code input.) This ensures
that audio passing through the interface remains
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H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
resolved to time code and won’t drift over time, as
long as the audio is coming from other sources
that are also resolved to the same time code. This
also ensures that audio recorded by DAW host
software on a connected computer, or audio
playing back from the DAW, will remain resolved
to time code and won’t drift over time, even when
restarting or cuing the source time code.
☛
Depending on the stability of the incoming
time code, it may take a few seconds for your
interface to lock to the time code. The more stable
the incoming time code, the faster the lock-up
time.
SMPTE time code (LTC) settings
There are several settings for the time code
features in your MOTU interface. In the web app,
go to the Device tab (page 14) and scroll to the
LTC Setup section, shown below.
Computer Channel for LTC-to-MTC Conversion
Choose a computer channel that you aren’t using
for anything else here. It will be used to transmit
LTC from the interface to the computer. If all of
your computer channels are being used, you can
add extra channels using the To computer setting
in the Routing tab. See “LTC-to-MTC conversion”
on page 69 for further info about LTC-to-MTC
conversion.
LTC Format
Choose the frame format that matches the
incoming time code.
Enable Format Autodetect
If you would like your MOTU interface to
automatically detect the frame format of the
incoming time code, check this box.
Enable Jam Sync
When this option is checked, your MOTU
interface will continue to convert LTC to MTC
even after incoming time code stops being
received. Once Jam Sync kicks in, it will continue
generating until you click Stop Jam Sync.
SYNCING AN AVB NETWORK
The AVB protocol provides sophisticated and
accurate timing, synchronization, and clocking
features for AVB device networks of any size as
shown on pages 35-36, including:
Figure 5-22: Settings for SMPTE time code sync.
LTC Input Source
Choose the input on your interface that is
receiving the time code (LTC). Any input can be
used, including an analog input, digital input or
even an AVB network channel.
■
Low latency
■
Network-wide time base
■ Better-than-sample-accurate phase lock across
all connected devices
■
Timing accuracy down to the nanosecond
Choosing a master clock
The web app provides an easy way to choose one
device as the master clock for your whole MOTU
AVB network.
1 Go to the Devices tab (page 12).
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H A R DWA R E I N S TA L L AT IO N
2 In the device list (item #1 on page 12), choose
the MOTU interface you wish to use as the clock
master.
3 Click the Become Clock Master button below
the Clock Mode menu.
Now, all other MOTU devices on the network are
resolved to this device.
may be in a situation where at least one MOTU
device on the network must remain resolved to its
own clock (or another clock source). Just know
that in this case, audio cannot be streamed
between MOTU devices that don’t share the same
master clock.
Resolving the master clock device to an external
clock source
The MOTU device you’ve specified as the AVB
network clock master can itself be resolved to an
external time base such as word clock (if available)
or optical. Just choose the desired clock source
from its Clock Mode menu (in the Device tab).
Doing so effectively resolves the entire AVB
network to the external clock source.
SYNCING MULTIPLE AVB AUDIO INTERFACES
CONNECTED TO A MAC
There are several options for clocking multiple
AVB audio devices connected to the Mac:
■ You can resolve them to an external clock
source (like word clock, if available).
Figure 5-23: Choosing a clock master.
■ You can create an aggregate device, as usual.
The aggregate device setup panel has a check box
called Drift Correction, which sample-rate
converts devices that are not synchronized.
Alternately, you can go to the clock mode menu
for each individual device separately and choose
the master clock device by hand. For example, you
50
H A R DWA R E IN S TA LL AT I O N
Part2
Using the 828es
CHAPTER 6
Presets
OVERVIEW
AUDIO INTERFACE
Because of its advanced, extensive feature set, the
828es can be used for many different purposes.
This chapter discusses common use cases and
their corresponding device presets, to help you use
the hardware for your needs.
Choose the Audio Interface preset to use your
MOTU device as a standard Thunderbolt, USB or
iOS audio interface. Hardware inputs and outputs
are accessible from your computer or iOS device,
and the mixer and audio networking features are
disabled.
Preset menu
The preset menu (item #7 on page 12) contains a
number of presets specifically designed for
common use cases. By loading the corresponding
preset, the 828es routing tab and mixer will be
reconfigured accordingly. You can visit the routing
and Mixing tabs to inspect settings and adjust
them as needed.
Computer or
iOS device
OR
Audio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Stand-alone mixer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Interface + mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Live recording with monitor mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
AVB Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Optical converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Create your own presets
You can create presets to suit your specific needs.
The 828es is highly capable and configurable,
allowing it to perform many tasks simultaneously.
Camera connection kit (adapter)
required for iOS operation
audio connections to audio gear
Figure 6-1: Using the 828es as an audio interface.
Video tutorials
To view several excellent video tutorials for the
presets described in this chapter, visit:
www.motu.com/proaudio
53
STAND-ALONE MIXER
INTERFACE + MIXER
Choose the Stand-alone mixer preset to use 828es
as a mixer. Doing so routes all physical inputs to
the mixer, with the mixer’s main mix bus goes to
the Main Outs and the monitor bus goes to the
Headphone Outs.
Choose the Interface + Mixer preset to use the
828es as both an audio interface and mixer, simultaneously. This preset is identical to the Audio
Interface preset, except that all From Computer
channels are also routed to the on-board mixer,
which mixes them to the Main Mix bus (to the
Main Outs) and the Monitor bus (to the
Headphone Outs). The on-board mixer mixes all
of the following sources:
To control the mixer (with the web app), you have
several options. You can connect a computer to
the 828es using Thunderbolt, USB, Ethernet, or
Wi-Fi, as explained in “Setup for web app control”
on page 38. Figure 6-2 below shows the Wi-Fi
scenario. Note that you can control the mix from
multiple Wi-Fi devices.
■
The 828es analog inputs
■
The 828es optical inputs
■ All From Computer channels (Thunderbolt or
USB channels from the host computer)
Laptop (optional)
Tablet
Smart
phone
In this scenario, you can control the mixer from
the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app running
on the computer. You can also run the web app
from wireless devices on the same Wi-Fi network
as the laptop.
Wi-Fi devices
Main
Mix
Aux
Mix
The Monitor bus is set up as a solo bus.
Group Group
Mix 1 Mix 2
Airport
or any other Wi-Fi router
Laptop
Ethernet
cable
Local inputs plus network inputs
OR
Main
Mix
Aux
Mix 1
Aux
Mix 2
Figure 6-2: Using the 828es as a stand-alone mixer. This example
demonstrates how you can control the mixer from several Wi-Fi
devices.
Audio inputs from stage, studio, etc.
Figure 6-3: Using the 828es as an audio interface and mixer, simultaneously.
54
PRESETS
LIVE RECORDING WITH MONITOR MIXING
Choose the Live recording with monitor mixing
preset when you are tracking in the studio. The
setup is pretty much the same as for the “Interface
+ mixer” preset shown in Figure 6-3 on page 54,
except that aux buses are routed to the 828es
analog outs (in consecutive pairs) for independent
monitor mixes. All physical inputs on the interface
are routed to both the computer (for recording)
and the Main Mix and Monitor buses in the mixer
(for near-zero latency monitoring). Thunderbolt
or USB channels from the computer are included
in the 828es mix.
Analog inputs from FOH mixing console
24Ai
Ethernet cable
AVB EXPANSION
Use the AVB Expansion preset when you want to
connect the inputs and outputs on the 828es to
other devices over Ethernet cabling. This preset
routes all inputs and outputs on the 828es
interface to 8-channel AVB network streams in the
routing grid, which are then broadcast to any/all
other devices on the same AVB Ethernet network.
FOH mix position
Laptop (optional)
828es
Stage area
Monitor mixes to musicians on stage
Each musician controls their own monitor mix over Wi-Fi
Figure 6-4: An example of using the AVB Expansion preset: 24 channels
from the FOH console are being distributed to musicians on stage as 4
separate monitor mixes.
55
P R E S E TS
OPTICAL CONVERTER
Choose the Optical converter preset if you would
like the 828es to serve as a multi-channel digitalto-analog or analog-to-digital converter
connected to another device equipped with an
optical port. This preset sends optical inputs to the
828es analog outputs; conversely, analog inputs
are routed to the optical outputs.
For example, if you have another MOTU interface
equipped with optical, you could connect its
optical output banks to the 828es optical input
banks. The 828es then serves as an expander that
adds the 828es analog outputs to your setup.
Other interface
Optical cable
828es
Analog outputs
Figure 6-5: Use the Optical converter preset to use the 828es as an
optical-to-analog output expander. You can also use this preset to use
the 828es as an analog-to-optical input expander.
56
PRESETS
CHAPTER 7
Front Panel Operation
OVERVIEW
THREE LCD SCREEN SETS
This chapter explains how to use the features on
the 828es front panel, including the two LCD
displays, menu navigation, A/B monitor controls
and talkback.
Push the METERS button (Figure 7-1) repeatedly
to cycle among the three different LCD screen sets
shown below.
Dual LCD displays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Three LCD screen sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Menu Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Push-button Knobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Channel focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Monitor controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Talkback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Net ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Headphone volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Stand-alone operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Screen set A
Screen set A (Figure 7-2) shows metering and
system settings for the sample rate and clock
source.
Input meters
Sample rate and MIDI
clock source Activity
DUAL LCD DISPLAYS
The two full-color LCD displays on the 828es
front panel provide comprehensive metering for
all of the analog and digital inputs and outputs.
They also display activity indicators for MIDI and
network I/O, system settings and menu access to
many settings.
METERS
button
Figure 7-1: Push the METERS button to cycle among three LCD screen
sets that provide extensive metering, activity indicators and status
information.
Output meters
Figure 7-2: Screen set A.
Screen set B
Screen set B (Figure 7-3) shows analog metering
only, without settings.
Analog input meters
Analog output meters
Figure 7-3: Screen set B.
57
Screen set C
Screen set C (Figure 7-4) shows metering for all
optical and S/PDIF digital I/O, system settings and
time code settings.
Metering for optical
and S/DIF digital I/O
Sample rate, clock source,
MIDI and network activity
Turn the MENU knob to scroll through the menu.
Push MENU to enter the selected sub-menu or to
select the currently highlighted setting.
A currently selected setting flashes. Turn the
MENU knob to change the setting, and push it to
confirm the change, or push BACK to cancel the
change and exit.
Push BACK to return to the previous menu item.
To exit the menu, push METERS.
Time code settings
Figure 7-4: Screen set C.
Sample rate and clock source
The sample rate and clock source section of the
LCD (Figure 7-2 on page 57) displays the sample
rate at which the unit is currently operating (item
#8 in the Devices tab on page 12), and the current
Clock Mode setting (item #13 on page 12). The
Clock Mode setting can also be found (and
changed) in the Settings Menu.
Time code settings
For more information about the time code settings
shown in Figure 7-4 on page 58, see “Syncing to
SMPTE time code (LTC)” on page 48.
MENU NAVIGATION
Push the MENU knob to access the menu, which
provides settings and status information
(Figure 7-5).
Menu
Device
The Device menu item provides information
about the device, such as its name and connection
mode (Thunderbolt, USB or AVB).
Network
The Network menu item displays the following
network-related information:
Setting
Explanation
Serial/UID
Unique AVB network identifier and serial
number that can be used for troubleshooting
and registering your device at motu.com/
register.
IP address
The unique network address for the unit.
Type this address into your web browser to
access the unit’s settings in the MOTU Pro
Audio Control web app.
AVB
Indicates whether AVB networking is
currently enabled or disabled. For example,
AVB could be disabled because a non-AVB
switch is being used. When AVB is disabled,
audio streaming over the network is disabled.
Meter overview
Figure 7-5: Menu navigation.
58
FR ON T PA N E L OP E R AT I O N
Settings menu
The Settings menu provides access to basic
hardware settings.
Setting
What it does
Clock Mode
Sets the audio clock source for the device.
Sample Rate
Sets the sample rate for the device.
Optical
Specifies ADAT or TOSLink, or the SMUX
format when operating at 88.2 or 96 kHz. See
“Optical I/O” on page 45.
MIDI Thru
When enabled, MIDI data passes directly
from the MIDI input to the MIDI output
when the 828es is disconnected from the
computer (no USB or Thunderbolt
connection to the computer).
Configure IP
Chooses between DHCP and a manually
assigned IP Address.
Clear Password
Removes password protection in the web app.
Factory Defaults
Restores factory default settings.
temporarily suspend the focus timeout, push the
knob again while focused. A “pin” icon appears in
the LCD to indicate that the focused metering will
remain on screen until you push the knob again to
dismiss it.
While the display is “pinned” you can adjust any
front panel knob and the display will change to the
knob you are adjusting. Push any knob to exit
channel focus.
MONITOR CONTROLS
The 828es front panel provides several controls for
the primary and secondary monitors in your
studio, labeled A and B, respectively (Figure 7-6
on page 59).
Presets menu
The Presets menu lets you recall settings that have
been saved as a device preset. Use the web app to
create and save presets (item #7 in the “Device tab”
on page 12).
Figure 7-6: The front-panel monitor controls.
Version menu
The Version menu item displays firmware version
info.
Meter overview
The meter overview (Figure 7-5) provides
metering for all analog and digital I/O.
PUSH-BUTTON KNOBS
All front-panel knobs are push-button digital
rotary encoders. Push the knob view its current
setting without changing it (turning the knob).
These controls are also available in the A-B
Monitor Setup section in the web app Device tab
(item #33 on page 14), so you can control them
from your laptop, tablet or smartphone.
Output assignments for Monitor A and B
From the factory, monitor pair A is assigned to the
XLR Main Outs and monitor pair B to Analog
Outs 1-2 (Figure 5-15 on page 45). You can change
these output assignments as desired in the A-B
Monitor Setup section in the web app Device tab
(item #33 on page 14).
CHANNEL FOCUS
When turning a knob to adjust volume or preamp
gain, the LCD focuses on the channel with a longthrow, horizontal meter that shows the current
setting. A few seconds after you stop turning the
knob, the LCD returns to the previous display. To
Monitor A/B select
To select a monitor pair and mute the other pair,
press A or B (Figure 7-6). Press both buttons at the
same time to hear both sets of monitors simultaneously.
59
F R O N T PA N E L O P E R AT IO N
Monitor volume control
Control the volume of both Monitor A and B pairs
with the MONITOR knob (Figure 7-6). This knob
controls both pairs. To adjust their volume relative
to one another, use their trim controls in the
Device tab (item #20 on page 12).
Mute and Mono
Push MUTE (Figure 7-6) to temporarily silence
both Monitor output pairs (A and B). Push
MONO (Figure 7-6) to temporarily sum each pair
to mono. When summing to mono, the left and
right channels are mixed together and the
resulting mono audio stream is sent to both
outputs of the stereo pair. The resulting mono
signal is also attenuated by 3 dB to maintain the
same overall loudness of the original stereo image.
Monitor control for surround
The 828es monitor controls support 5.1 and 7.1
surround output from Analog Outputs 1-6 or 1-8,
respectively. Choose the desired format from the
Monitor A menu in the A-B Monitor Setup section
in the web app Device tab (item #33 on page 14),
as shown below in Figure 7-7. After doing so, the
MONITOR knob and MUTE button (on both the
front panel and in the web app) affect all six (or
eight) analog outputs. The MONO button does
nothing when surround monitoring is enabled. In
addition, Monitor B cannot be assigned to Analog
outputs 1-6 (or 1-8). Choose any other output pair.
TALKBACK
Talkback allows an engineer in the control room
to temporarily dim all audio and talk to musicians
during a recording session. Talkback requires a
microphone located in the control room, near the
engineer. The 828es provides a built-in talkback
mic on its front panel (item 3 on page 9).
Alternately, you could use an external microphone
connected to a mic input (or a line input when
combined with a separate preamp), but the builtin mic frees up inputs for other high-priority
sources such as vocal mics, guitars, keyboards, etc.
Talkback setup
To set up talkback:
1 Route the talkback mic to a mixer input, as
demonstrated in Figure 7-9. If you are using one of
the two front-panel mic inputs for an external
talkback mic, route that input to a mixer channel.
2 Choose an Aux bus or group for talkback, as
demonstrated in Figure 7-9 with Aux 1-2, and
route it to the outputs feeding speakers (or a
headphone mixer) for the musicians.
☛
You can route talkback to as many buses and/
or groups as you wish. Route them to whatever
physical outputs are needed for your particular
setup.
3 In the Controls panel of the mixer, show the
Legend and the Talkback section (Figure 7-8).
4 For the channel assigned to the talkback mic,
enabled its Talkback source switch (Figure 7-8).
5 For the aux bus you chose for talkback in step 2,
enable its Talkback output switch (Figure 7-8). As
mentioned before, you can do so for two or more
output buses.
Figure 7-7: Monitor control for surround.
60
FR ON T PA N E L OP E R AT I O N
Talkback settings
The talkback settings (Figure 7-8) can be accessed
by enabling the Legend in the Controls panel of
the mixer.
Legend
Talk
Press and hold the Talk button (Figure 7-8) to
engage the talkback mic. This is the same as
pressing the TALK button on the front panel of the
828es (item #10 on page 9).
Talkback
section
Talkback Talkback
settings source
Talkback
output
Sticky
When Sticky is engaged (Figure 7-8), the Talk
button remains engaged when you click it, until
you click it again to disengage, so you don’t have to
hold it down while speaking. This setting also
affects the TALK button on the front panel of the
828es (item #10 on page 9).
Figure 7-8: Mixer setup for the talkback mic.
Step 2
Step 1
Figure 7-9: Basic routing for the built-in talkback mic. In this example, the built-in talkback mic is routed to input 1 of the mixer. Aux bus
1-2 is assigned to analog outs 7-8, which are being used to route the signal to speakers in the room where the musicians are located.
61
F R O N T PA N E L O P E R AT IO N
Dim
If you are feeding a monitor mix to the musicians
on the same Aux bus as your talkback mic, use the
Dim knob (Figure 7-8) to control how much the
monitor mix will be attenuated when talkback is
engaged. This gives you control over the relative
volume between the talkback mic signal and all
other audio on the mix bus. To control overall
volume of everything, use the bus fader.
NET ID
Push NET ID (item #13 on page 9) to immediately
view the 828es network information, including its
IP Address. Push BACK or METERS to return to
the meters.
HEADPHONE VOLUME
Each headphone jack has independent volume
control. The LCD provides visual feedback.
STAND-ALONE OPERATION
All settings, including mix settings and device
settings, are saved in the 828es memory. They
remain in effect even when the interface is not
connected to a computer. This allows you to use
the 828es as a stand-alone mixer. You can make
adjustments to any setting at any time from the
web app running on a device that has a network
connection to the 828es, as explained in “Setup for
web app control” on page 38.
62
FR ON T PA N E L OP E R AT I O N
CHAPTER 8
Working with Host Audio Software
OVERVIEW
The 828es provides multi-channel audio input and
output for Core Audio compatible audio
applications on the Mac and ASIO or Wave
compatible applications on Windows, including
MOTU’s Digital Performer and AudioDesk,
Apple’s Logic Pro and GarageBand, and other
third-party software applications such as Ableton
Live, Avid Pro Tools, Cockos Reaper,
Propellerhead Reason, Steinberg Cubase and
Nuendo, Cakewalk SONAR, PreSonus Studio
One, Bitwig, and others.
AudioDesk is available as a free download for
828es owners at motu.com/download. For
complete information about all of AudioDesk’s
powerful workstation features, refer to the
AudioDesk User Guide.pdf found in the Help menu
of the AudioDesk application.
Digital Performer, MOTU’s state-of-the-art digital
audio workstation software, is available separately;
for details about upgrading from AudioDesk to
Digital Performer, talk to your authorized MOTU
dealer or visit motu.com.
Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Run the web app . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Choose the MOTU Pro Audio driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Reducing monitoring latency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Working with the Routing grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Working with on-board mixing and effects . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
LTC-to-MTC conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
PREPARATION
Install your host audio software first if you haven’t
already done so, and complete these chapters
before proceeding:
■
chapter 4, “Software Installation” (page 29)
■
chapter 5, “Hardware Installation” (page 33)
RUN THE WEB APP
Before you run your host audio software, launch
the web app to configure your MOTU hardware.
The web app lets you configure important settings
in your audio interface, enable the desired inputs
and outputs, and set up audio streams to and from
the computer.
Sample Rate
Choose the desired sample rate for the 828es (item
#8 in the Device tab on page 12) and your host
audio software. Make sure the sample rates for the
hardware and software match. Newly recorded
audio will have this sample rate.
Clock Mode
The Clock Mode setting (item #13 in the Device
tab on page 12) is important because it determines
the master digital audio clock for your system.
If you do not have any digital audio connections to
your MOTU device (you are using the analog
inputs and outputs only), and you will not be
resolving your host software to optical or another
external clock source, choose Internal.
If you have devices connected to the optical ports,
see “Syncing optical devices” on page 47.
If you have devices connected to the S/PDIF ports,
see “Syncing S/PDIF devices” on page 47.
If you are slaving your MOTU device and your
host software to word clock, follow the directions
in “Syncing word clock devices” on page 48.
If you have devices connected to the network port,
see “Syncing an AVB network” on page 49.
63
Audio Interface preset
Click Launch Quick Setup (item #10 in the Device
tab on page 12) and choose the Audio Interface
preset. Your MOTU interface is now set up for
operation as an audio interface with any host
audio software. For details about customizing the
audio routing to and from the computer, see
“Working with the Routing grid” on page 67.
Where to go in popular audio hosts
Here is the location for this setting in various
popular audio software host applications:
Pro Tools 9 or later
Setup menu > Playback Engine or Current
Engine
CHOOSE THE MOTU PRO AUDIO DRIVER
Logic Pro
Preferences > Audio tab > Devices tab > Core
Audio tab
Garage Band
Garage Band menu > Preferences > Audio/
MIDI > Audio Output/Input menus
Once you’ve made the preparations described so
far in this chapter, you’re ready to run your audio
software and enable the MOTU Pro Audio driver,
which allows your host software to use the 828es
as an audio interface.
For Mac OS X audio software
For audio software running under Mac OS X, go
to the menu item or preference where you choose
the audio device (Core Audio driver) you wish to
use, and then select the 828es by name.
For Windows audio software
For audio software running under Windows, go to
the menu item or preference where you choose the
ASIO driver you wish to use, and then choose
MOTU Pro Audio. If your host audio software
doesn’t support ASIO, choose the MOTU Pro
Audio Wave driver instead.
Host software
Location for choosing the 828es
Digital Performer and Setup menu > Configure Audio System >
AudioDesk
Configure Hardware Driver
Cubase and Nuendo Device Setup > Devices list > VST Audio
System menu
Live
Preferences > Audio tab
Reason
Preferences > Audio preferences
Reaper
Preferences > Audio prefs > Devices
Other audio software
Consult your software’s manual for further
information.
REDUCING MONITORING LATENCY
Monitoring latency is a slight delay caused by
running an input signal through your host audio
software and back out. For example, you might
hear it when you drive a live guitar input signal
through an amp modeling plug-in running in
your audio sequencer.
This delay is caused by the amount of time it takes
for audio to make the entire round trip through
your computer, from when it first enters an input
on the 828es, passes through the interface
hardware into the computer, through your host
audio software, and then back out to an output.
Figure 8-1: Choosing the MOTU Pro Audio ASIO driver in Cubase.
64
WO R K IN G W IT H H O S T AU DI O S O F T WA R E
Monitoring through the 828es
If you don’t need to process a live input with
plug-ins, the easiest way to avoid monitoring
latency is to disable your DAW’s live monitoring
feature and instead use the digital mixer in the
828es to route the input directly to your outputs.
For details, see “Mixing tab” on page 16. The
mixer in the 828es even provides zero latency
effects processing (EQ, compression and reverb),
which can be applied to the signal.
Direct hardware playthrough / Direct ASIO
monitoring
When managing your live monitor mix through
the 828es mixer, remember to disable your DAW’s
live monitoring features, so that you won’t hear
record-enabled tracks in your DAW. Also note that
the 828es does not support Direct Hardware
Playthrough in Digital Performer, or the Direct
ASIO Monitoring feature (or similar) offered and
other DAWs, which lets you control no-latency
hardware monitoring from within the host
application. Instead, you can use the MOTU Pro
Audio Control web app mixer (“Mixing tab” on
page 16) to make these live monitoring
connections manually.
If you don’t require any effects processing on the
input signal (no reverb or compression, for
example), all this takes is one click in the routing
grid to route the input being recorded to the
output you are using for monitoring.
If you are recording a mono input that you’d like to
monitor in stereo, or if you need to apply effects to
the monitored signal, you can simply route the
input to the mixer in the 828es. This is done by
opening the Mix In group in the Outputs column
along the left side of the grid, and clicking the tile
at the intersection of the input’s column and the
desired mixer input’s row. Once routed to the
mixer, use the input channel, reverb bus, and
monitor bus in the mixer to apply effects as
desired, and perhaps include other channels to the
mix, and then assign the monitor bus output in the
routing grid to the output you are using for
monitoring.
In either case (routing directly in the grid or
routing through the mixer), be sure to maintain
the input’s connection to the computer as well, so
the input signal can be recorded in your host
software. In other words, you’ll want to make sure
there are two tiles enabled in the input’s column in
the grid: one tile for the connection to the
computer and another tile for your monitoring
output (or a mixer input, if you are using the mixer
to apply effects). If you need to route the input
signal to other destinations, too, you can certainly
do so (you can route the input to multiple destinations).
Monitoring through your host audio software
If you do need to process a live input with host
software plug-ins, or if you are playing virtual
instruments live through your MOTU audio
hardware, you can significantly reduce latency by
adjusting the audio buffer setting in your host
audio software, as explained in the next section.
☛
It is important to note that monitoring delay
has no effect on the recording, or playback, of
audio data from disk. The actual recording and
playback is extremely precise, it is only the
monitoring of your live input signal which may be
delayed.
Adjusting your host software audio buffer
Buffers are small bundles of audio data. The 828es
“speaks” to your computer in buffers, rather than
one sample at a time. The size of these buffers
determine how much delay you hear when
monitoring live inputs through your audio
software: larger buffers produce more delay;
smaller buffers produce less.
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Adjusting buffer size on Mac OS X
Under Mac OS X, audio I/O buffer size is handled
by the host audio application (not by the 828es
Core Audio driver). Most audio software
applications provide an adjustable audio buffer
setting that lets you control the amount of delay
you’ll hear when monitoring live inputs or
processing them with software plug-ins. Here are a
few examples.
Figure 8-4: In Logic Pro, go to the Audio Driver preferences to access the
Buffer Size option shown above.
Adjusting buffer size on Windows
On Windows, the buffer size is adjusted in the web
app Device tab (page 12). See “Host Buffer
Size”and “Host Safety Offset” on page 31.
Lower latency versus higher CPU overhead
Buffer size has a large impact on the following:
Figure 8-2: In Digital Performer and AudioDesk, choose Setup menu>
Configure Audio System> Configure Hardware Driver to open the
dialog shown above and access the Buffer Size setting.
■
Monitoring latency
■
The load on your computer’s CPU
■ Responsiveness of transport controls and effect
knobs in AudioDesk, Digital Performer or other
audio software.
■
Figure 8-3: In Cubase or Nuendo, choose Devices menu > Device Setup.
Select your interface (828es), then click the Control Panel button to
access the window above and the Buffer Size setting.
Real-time virtual instrument latency.
The buffer setting presents you with a trade-off
between the processing power of your computer
and the delay of live audio as it is being patched
through your software. If you reduce the size, you
reduce monitoring latency, but significantly
increase the overall processing load on your
computer, leaving less CPU bandwidth for things
like real-time effects processing. On the other
hand, if you increase the buffer size, you reduce
the load on your computer, freeing up bandwidth
for effects, mixing and other real-time operations.
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Lowering the buffer size will make your software
respond faster; raising the buffer size will make it a
little bit slower.
Figure 8-5: When adjusting the buffer size to reduce monitoring
latency, watch the ‘processor’ meter in Digital Performer or
AudioDesk’s Performance Monitor. If you hear distortion, or if the
Performance meter is peaking, try raising the buffer size.
If you are at a point in your recording project
where you are not currently working with live,
patched-thru material (e.g. you’re not recording
vocals), or if you have a way of externally
processing inputs, choose a higher buffer size.
Depending on your computer’s CPU speed, you
might find that settings in the middle work best
(256 to 1024).
Transport responsiveness
Buffer size also impacts how quickly your audio
software will respond when you begin playback,
although not by amounts that are very noticeable.
Effects processing and automated mixing
Reducing latency with the buffer size setting has
another benefit: it lets you route live inputs
through the real-time effects processing and mix
automation of your audio software.
WORKING WITH THE ROUTING GRID
The Routing grid (Figure 8-6) gives you a lot of
control over the audio routing to and from your
computer, as explained in the following sections.
Enabling and disabling input/output banks
In the web app Device tab (page 13), you can
enable all input and output banks on your MOTU
device that you wish to make available to your host
Figure 8-6: An example of routing computer channels (from host audio software) to the analog outputs on an 828es. Computer
channels 1-2 are being split to three pairs of outputs: Phones 1-2, Phones 3-4 and Main L-R.
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audio software. You can disable banks you are not
using to simplify operation. Be sure to keep at least
one input and output bank enabled, though.
Specifying the number of computer channels
In the web app Device tab (item 26 on page 14), in
the Computer Setup section, you can specify the
number of computer channels for streaming audio
to and from your host audio software. You might
want enough channels to cover the following:
Physical inputs you want to record on your
computer.
■
The physical outputs you want to send audio
playback to.
■
■ Any audio streams going to and from the
on-board mixer in your MOTU device.
■ Any audio streams going to and from the AVB
network, if you have multiple networked MOTU
devices.
If you aren’t sure how many channels you’ll need,
visit the Routing tab, as explained below.
Making inputs and outputs available to your
host software
In the web app, use the Routing tab (page 15) to
map inputs and outputs to computer channels, as
demonstrated in Figure 8-6 and Figure 8-7.
Configuration presets
The presets menu (item #7 in the Devices tab on
page 12) provides many useful presets for various
host routing scenarios. These presets are a
convenient shortcut for the routing grid setups
discussed in the next few sections.
Figure 8-7: An example of routing physical inputs on the 828es to computer channels (for host audio software).
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Naming computer input and output channels
Click on any computer input or output name in
the routing grid (Figure 8-6) to change its name.
These names appear in your host audio software.
Streaming computer audio to and from the
on-board mixer
In the Routing grid, you’ll see mixer inputs across
the top of the grid, including Main, Monitor, Aux,
etc. (item 11 on page 15). These are output buses
from the 828es on-board mixer. To route one of
these mix buses to your host computer software,
click the grid at the intersection of the mix column
and desired computer channel row. Now, the mix
bus output will be routed to the computer via the
channel you selected.
Conversely, you can stream audio from the
computer into the mixer. Channels coming from
the computer are represented across the top of the
routing grid as inputs. To route a computer
channel to the mixer, click the grid at the
intersection of the computer channel column and
the desired mix input row. Now, that computer
channel will be routed to the mixer input.
Working with AVB network streams
Audio channels going to networked AVB
interfaces can be streamed to and from your host
audio software through the 828es connected
directly to the computer. For information about
how to set this up, see “Mapping computer
channels to network streams” on page 99.
Mirroring computer channels to multiple
outputs
Figure 8-6 shows an example of mirroring one
stereo audio stream from host audio software to
several outputs. In the example, computer
channels 1-2 are being sent to Phones 1-2, Phones
3-4 and Main L-R. To route a source to multiple
destinations, click multiple boxes in its column,
(see computer channels 1-2 in Figure 8-6).
Combining multiple sources to one output
To merge (mix) any channels in the grid
(computer streams or otherwise), route them to
mixer inputs and then use the on-board mixer
(“Mixing tab” on page 16).
Routing grid tutorials
For further information about using the routing
grid, including many useful tips and techniques,
visit:
www.motu.com/techsupport/technotes/avbrouting
and
www.motu.com/proaudio
WORKING WITH ON-BOARD MIXING AND
EFFECTS
The 828es provides powerful mixing, EQ,
compression and reverb, which can operate handin-hand with your host’s mixing environment. For
example, the 828es can serve as a monitor mixer,
routing channels to musicians, or it can serve as an
integrated extension of your host’s mixing
environment. You can even save a particular
mixing configuration as a preset for future recall.
For details, see “Mixing tab” on page 16.
LTC-TO-MTC CONVERSION
When connected to a Mac, your MOTU interface
can convert SMPTE time code (LTC) to MIDI
Time Code (MTC), allowing any MTCcompatible host audio software to resolve to MTC.
LTC-to-MTC conversion can be done even when
the Clock Mode setting for the MOTU interface is
set to Internal (or any other setting). Note that the
Clock Mode setting does NOT have to be set to
LTC. In other words, the interface can convert
LTC to MTC even when it is not resolving its
audio engine to the incoming time code. This
allows your DAW host software to resolve to time
code with fast lockup response.
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To set up LTC-to-MTC conversion:
1 Set the interface Clock Mode to Internal (or any
other desired setting).
2 Set the other LTC settings as needed, as
discussed in “Syncing to SMPTE time code (LTC)”
on page 48, including the Computer Channel for
LTC-to-MTC Conversion setting.
3 If you would like MIDI Time Code to continue
to be generated, even after LTC stops being
received, check Enable Jam Sync (Figure 5-22 on
page 49). Otherwise, leave it unchecked.
4 Follow the directions for MTC (SMPTE) sync
in your DAW software.
Your MOTU interface driver automatically
communicates with OS X, creating a device in the
computer’s Audio MIDI Setup configuration that
reports its time code port to any MTC-compatible
host software. If your host software requires that
you specify the port, you should see your MOTU
interface SMPTE Sync port as an available option
in the list. In Digital Performer, this is the Sync to
port menu in the Receive Sync settings (Setup
menu), which is set to Any by default (so it should
just work). Here’s a summary for a few popular
DAW hosts:
Host software
Sync settings
Digital Performer and Settings menu > Receive Sync > Sync to port
AudioDesk
menu
Pro Tools
Setup > Peripherals > Synchronization
Logic
File > Project Settings > Synchronization >
General
Live
Preferences > MIDI Sync
Cubase
Transport > Project Synchronization Setup
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CHAPTER 9
Mixer Effects
OVERVIEW
Leveler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
This chapter provides further information about
the effects processors available in the DSP mixer
in the 828es. For basic mixer operation, see:
The Leveler™, an accurate model of the legendary
LA-2A optical compressor, which provides
vintage, musical automatic gain control
Mixing tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Aux Mixing tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Mixer input channel strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Main Mix and Monitor channel strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Aux bus channel strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Group and Reverb channel strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Reverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Powerful DSP-driven mixing and effects
The mixer is driven by a powerful DSP that
delivers 32-bit floating point precision and plenty
of processing bandwidth for no-latency effects,
including parametric EQ, dynamics, and reverb.
Effects can be applied when operating as an audio
interface or as a stand-alone mixer without a
computer. Input signals to the computer can be
recorded wet and/or dry, or recorded dry while a
real-time wet monitor mix is sent to musicians.
Effects include:
High Pass Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
A conventional high pass filter
Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
A standard gate with threshold/attack/release
controls
Four-band parametric EQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Multi-band parametric EQ modeled after British
analog consoles
Classic reverb with tail lengths up to 60 seconds
Advantages over host-based mixing and
processing
The hardware mixer in the 828es provides several
major advantages over mixing and processing in
your host audio software:
■ No buffer latency. The DSP-mixer provides the
same near-zero latency throughput performance
as a conventional digital mixer. Effects processing
doesn’t impact your computer’s CPU.
■ DSP mixing and routing can be maintained
independently of individual software applications
or projects.
■ DSP-driven mixing can function without the
computer, allowing the 828es to operate as a
portable, stand-alone mixer with effects.
☛
Effects are disabled when operating at 4x
sample rates (176.4 or 192 kHz).
HIGH PASS FILTER
All input channel strips provide a 12 dB per octave
high pass filter. High Pass filters are often used to
remove unwanted mic rumble, for example.
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
A standard compressor with threshold/ratio/
attack/release/gain controls
Figure 9-1: The High Pass Filter.
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GATE
All input channel strips provide a Gate module.
Enabling EQ
Each band has an enable/disable button
(Figure 9-3), allowing you to enable as few or as
many bands as needed for the channel strip.
Figure 9-2: The Gate module.
Enable/disable
The gate silences the signal when the input signal’s
level drops below the Threshold.
The rate at which the gate responds, (opens to let
signal through) is determined by the Attack
parameter. With a short Attack time, the gate will
open as soon as the signal crosses the Threshold;
with longer Attack times, the gate will gradually
open, much like a fade-in.
When the input level falls back below the
Threshold, the time it takes for the gate to close
(how quickly the signal is attenuated), is
determined by the Release parameter. Short
Release times will close the gate quickly, abruptly
attenuating your signal, versus longer release
times, which will gradually attenuate your signal,
like a natural fade-out.
FOUR-BAND PARAMETRIC EQ
All mixer channel strips, (except for the Monitor
bus), provide modeled, four-band parametric EQ.
Vintage EQ
Inspired by legendary British large console EQs,
the EQ section (Figure 9-3) models the sound of
the most sought-after classic equalizers. Four
bands of center frequency parametric EQ filtering
are provided, each with a bandwidth control. The
High and Low bands include a shelf filtering
option. With 32-bit floating point precision, the
vintage EQ has been carefully crafted and
meticulously engineered to produce musical
results in a wide variety of applications.
Figure 9-3: The Four-band parametric EQ module.
EQ filter controls
The EQ filters have three controls:
Control
unit
range
Gain
dB
-20.00 to +20.00
Frequency
Hertz
20 to 20,000
Bandwidth
Octaves
0.01 to 3.00
Double-click a knob to return to its default position.
EQ filter characteristics
EQ is one of the most widely used processing tools
and can be applied to many different situations,
from minor corrective tasks to creative tone
sculpting. The four-band EQ has been designed to
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be flexible enough to cover a broad range of
applications. By adjusting Gain and Bandwidth
together, you can emulate the smooth and musical
character of classic analog EQ circuits, in which
the Gain/Bandwidth dependency was dictated by
the actual circuit design and electrical
components used.
COMPRESSOR
All mixer input channel strips provide a
compressor module.
Low and high shelf filters
The Low and High bands offer a shelf option that
is similar to those found in most conventional
parametric EQs.
EQ graph
The EQ graph below the EQ section (Figure 9-3)
provides a thumbnail visual indication of the
current EQ settings for the input channel. It is for
visual reference only and cannot be edited directly.
However, you can click it to open the full-size EQ
graph in a separate window (Figure 9-4), which is
fully editable.
Frequency/Gain
handle
Figure 9-5: The Compressor module.
The Compressor (Figure 9-5) lowers the level of
the input when amplitude of the signal is above the
Threshold. The amount of attenuation is
determined by the Ratio and the input level. For
example, if the input is 6 dB above the Threshold
and the Ratio is 3:1, the compressor will attenuate
Q (bandwidth)
handle
Peak/shelf
switch
EQ filter
Enable/disable
Figure 9-4: The full-size EQ graph.
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M IX E R E F F E C TS
the signal to 2 dB above the Threshold. When the
input level goes above the threshold, the
attenuation is added gradually to reduce
distortion. The rate at which the attenuation is
added is determined by the Attack parameter.
Likewise, when the input level falls below the
Threshold, the attenuation is removed gradually.
The rate at which the attenuation is removed is
determined by the Release parameter. Long
Release times may cause the audio to drop out
briefly when a soft passage follows a loud passage.
Short Release times may cause the attenuation to
“pump”, a term used to describe the sound of the
compressor when the average input level quickly
fluctuates above and below the Threshold. These
types of issues can be addressed by adjusting the
compressor’s parameters, or applying the Leveler
instead. Gain adjusts the overall output level of the
compressor, post processing. The Level meter
(Figure 9-5) shows the level of the input signal
entering the compressor. It shows either the Peak
envelope or the RMS level, if enabled.
Gain reduction meter
The Gain reduction meter (Figure 9-5) displays
the current amount of attenuation applied by the
compressor, before the makeup gain stage.
RMS mode
By default, the compressor operates in Peak mode,
which uses signal peaks to determine the input
level. In RMS mode, the compressor measures the
input signal’s loudness, using the root-meansquare computational method. When RMS is
disabled, RMS mode will let brief peaks through
because the detector sidechain is only looking at
the average signal level. By contrast, peak mode
will catch those brief peaks. Peak mode is
generally used for drums, percussion and other
source material with strong transients, while RMS
mode is mostly used for everything else.
The level meter shows either the peak level or the
RMS level, depending on the mode.
Auto Makeup
When Auto Makeup Gain is engaged (Figure 9-5
and Figure 9-6), the compressor dynamically
compensates for any gain reduction, to preserve
the original loudness of the signal.
Ratio handle
Threshold
handle
Figure 9-6: The full-size Compressor graph.
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M IX E R E F F E C TS
Compressor graph
The Compressor graph below the Compressor
section (Figure 9-5) provides a thumbnail visual
indication of the current compressor settings for
the input channel. It is for visual reference only
and cannot be edited directly. However, you can
click it to open the full-size Compressor graph in a
separate window (Figure 9-6), which provides
graphic editing of the Ratio and Threshold
controls.
LEVELER
The Leveler™ (Figure 9-7) provides an accurate
model of the legendary Teletronix™ LA-2A® optical
compressor, known for its unique and highly
sought-after Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
characteristics.
Figure 9-7: The Leveler module.
The Leveler is available on the Main Mix bus and
all Group busses, including the Reverb bus.
A model of an optical compressor
An optical leveling amplifier works by shining a
light on a photoresistor. The intensity of the light
source is proportional to the audio signal, and the
resistance of the photoresistor is in turn inversely
proportional to the intensity of the light. Photoresistors respond quite quickly to increases in light
intensity, yet return to their dark resistance very
slowly. Thus, incorporation of the photoresistor
into an attenuator followed by an amplifier which
provides make-up gain produces a signal which
maintains a constant overall loudness.
Automatic gain control using light
The AGC circuit of the LA-2A uses a vintage optocoupler known by its model number T4. The T4
contains an electroluminescent-panel (ELP) and
photoresistor mounted so that the emission of the
panel modulates the resistance. An ELP consists of
a thin layer of phosphorescent material
sandwiched between two insulated electrodes to
form a capacitor. Making one of the electrodes
transparent allows the light to escape. These
devices are essentially glow-in-the-dark paint on a
piece of foil covered by metalized glass or plastic,
and are the same devices used in low-power night
lights. Unfortunately, these devices need high
voltages to operate, and are best driven by tube
circuits which can supply voltage swings of several
hundred volts.
Response characteristics
Once the light has faded away, the photoresistor
then decays back to its dark state. The shape of the
decay curve varies depending on how bright the
light was, and how long the light lasted. A general
rule of thumb is that the louder the program, the
slower the release. Typically, the release can take
up to and over one minute. One thing to keep in
mind when using these types of devices is that the
typical concepts of compression ratio, attack,
release, and threshold do not apply. The light
intensity is determined by the highly non-linear
interactions of the input signal, AGC circuit, and
ELP, and thus exhibit a strong program
dependence that is impossible to describe without
the mind-numbing mathematics of statistical
mechanics. The actual results, however, can be
almost mystical: even when you feed the same
material (a loop perhaps) through the Leveler
twice, you’ll often see a new response the second
time through a loop, complete with unique attack
times, release times and compression ratios.
Furthermore, two different input signals with the
same RMS levels may be leveled in a drastically
different manner.
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M IX E R E F F E C TS
It is precisely this self-adjusting behavior that
makes optical compressors the tool of choice for
smoothing out vocals, bass guitar and fullprogram mixes without destroying perceived
dynamics.
REVERB
Use the enable/disable button (Figure 9-8) to turn
the reverb processor on or off. Since reverb uses
considerable DSP resources, it is best to leave it off
when you are not using it.
Enabling or disabling the Leveler
The Leveler models the LA-2A so closely, it also
models the time it takes for an actual LA-2A to
“warm up” after it is turned on. Therefore, when
you enable the Leveler, give it a moment to “settle”
before you begin processing signals with it.
Gain Reduction
Gain Reduction (Figure 9-7) sets the strength of
the signal sent to the AGC model.
Makeup Gain
Makeup gain (Figure 9-7) amplifies the output
signal to make up for gain reduction.
Limit button
The Limit button (Figure 9-7) models the original
LA-2A Limit/Compress mode switch. The effect is
very subtle, with the Limit option behaving only
slightly more like a limiter than a compressor. The
switch increases the level of the input to the AGC
model and runs the attenuator at a slightly lower
level. The Leveler then responds more strongly to
transients, but otherwise still behaves like a
leveling amplifier.
Figure 9-8: The Reverb processor.
Routing inputs and groups to the reverb
processor
The reverb processor is a single, independent unit
that provides stereo reverb. You can route any
input channel or Group bus to the Reverb
processor with the Reverb send on its channel
strip. All incoming signals to the reverb processor
are merged and processed together. The resulting
stereo output from the reverb can then be merged
into the Main Mix bus with the Main send on the
Reverb channel strip (item #8 on page 21).
Reverb Time
Reverb time (Figure 9-8) determines the length of
decay, or tail, of the reverb. The knob’s range is
from 100 milliseconds to 60 seconds.
Predelay
Predelay is the amount of time before the acoustic
energy from the source returns to the listener,
after reflecting off the surfaces of the listening
space. The very first reflections helps you perceive
information about the listening space, (size,
distance, surface type, etc.). In large rooms, it takes
a while (on the order of milliseconds) before the
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M IX E R E F F E C TS
first reflections return to the listener. Predelay is
useful for adding clarity, as it delays these
reflections, before the onset of full reverberation.
For example, with pre-delay added to vocals, the
reflections won’t start until after the initial sound
of a word has been sung.
Spread
Spread controls stereo imaging. A position of 12
o’clock produces essentially a mono image.
Turning the control all the way to the left
completely swaps the stereo image.
High and Mid frequency bands
The High and Mid frequency bands let you
independently control the reverb time for separate
frequency bands, relative to the low frequency
reverb time. The High setting represents the
bottom frequency of the High band; the Mid
setting represents the bottom frequency of the
Mid band. The Ratio determines the length for
each band specified in a percentage of the low
frequency reverb time.
DSP USAGE
The DSP Usage meter (item #32 on page 18)
shows how much of the available DSP processing
power is currently being used by the mixer for the
mix and for effects processing. If there aren’t
enough DSP resources for all effects to be enabled
on a channel, effects are disabled for that channel
and all subsequent channels.
☛
Unlike other effects, HPF and EQ on a stereo
channel requires approximately twice the DSP
resources as on a mono channel.
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CHAPTER 10
MOTU Audio Tools
The MOTU Audio Tools application provides
advanced audio analysis tools, which can be
applied to a left channel input, right channel input,
or both.
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Device menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Analysis menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Left/right input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
FFT and Spectrogram display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
X-Y Plot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Phase Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
INSTALLATION
MOTU Audio Tools is a standard software
application installed on your Mac or PC when you
run the MOTU Pro Audio installer or setup app. It
can be found in the Applications folder (Mac) or
Start menu under MOTU (Windows).
DEVICE MENU
If you are working with more than one MOTU
audio interface, the Device menu (Figure 10-1)
displays all interfaces that are currently connected
to your host computer. Choose the device you
wish to work with.
Figure 10-1: The MOTU Audio Tools window with the FFT and Spectrogram Analysis .
79
ANALYSIS MENU
Choose the desired form of audio analysis from
the Analysis menu (Figure 10-1). For details on
each analysis pane, see the following sections of
this guide.
LEFT/RIGHT INPUT
Choose the desired channel(s) you wish to scope
from the Left Input and Right Input menus
(Figure 10-1). These menus display the To
Computer channels configured in the MOTU Pro
Audio Control web app. The number of channels
shown is controlled by the From device to
computer setting in the Device tab. For example, if
18 channels are specified, you’ll see 18 channels in
the Left/Right Input menus. Use the Routing tab to
map desired audio sources (listed across the top of
the grid) to the To Computer audio channels, as
demonstrated in Figure 8-7 on page 68.
Figure 10-2: The ‘From device to computer’ setting determines how
many channels you see in the Left Input and Right Input menus.
FFT AND SPECTROGRAM DISPLAY
The FFT analysis pane displays a real-time Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) frequency measurement
and spectrogram “waterfall”, as shown in
Figure 10-3.
Spectrogram
The spectrogram scrolls from top to bottom,
where the top edge of the display represents what
you are hearing “now”. Color represents amplitude
along the left/right frequency spectrum. The
amplitude color scale runs from black (silence) to
red (full scale) as follows:
Silence
Black
Blue
Green
Yellow
Orange
Full scale
Red
Figure 10-4: Spectrogram color-to-amplitude spectrum.
Y-axis labels
for FFT display
FFT curve
View
controls
Horizontal
controls
Vertical
controls
Spectrogram
controls
Figure 10-3: FFT and Spectrogram display.
Grow handle
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View controls
You can show and hide the FFT display and
spectrogram as desired using the View controls
(Figure 10-5).
Pause button
View menu
Display options
Figure 10-5: FFT view controls.
View menu
This menu provides various options for displaying
the two input channels.
View menu setting
What it does
Left
Displays the left channel only.
Right
Displays the right channel only.
Split Screen H
Shows both channels side by side, with the
screen split horizontally.
Split Screen V
Shows both channels side by side, with the
screen split vertically.
Shared
Displays both FFTs (left is green and right is
red), and the spectrogram waterfall shows the
maximum level of either the left or right
channel (whichever is greater).
Max
The FFT and spectrogram shows the
maximum level of either the left or right
channel.
Subtract L - R
Subtracts the right channel from the left
channel and displays the results.
Logarithmic or Linear X-Axis Scale
The x-axis defaults to a logarithmic scale, but it
can be changed to a linear scale if desired. In the
View controls (Figure 10-5), click Logarithmic to
access the x-axis scale options menu. With a linear
scale selected, frequency is constant, but the width
of each octave along the x-axis is different. With a
logarithmic scale selected, octaves are displayed
with a constant width, but frequency is displayed
logarithmically within each octave.
Axes display
The Axes control (Figure 10-5) sets the opacity of
the grid displayed in the graph, from 100% (fully
visible) down to 0% (fully hidden).
Pausing the display
The Pause button in the upper right corner of the
View section (Figure 10-5) allows you to freeze the
display at any time. To resume, click the button
again.
Horizontal controls (frequency axis)
The Horizontal controls (Figure 10-6) configure
the value range of the x-axis (frequency). Click
and drag the values up or down to set them, or
double-click to return to the default value.
Horizontal controls menu
Figure 10-6: The Horizontal controls.
There are two modes for the controls: Zoom/Offset
and Min/Max. To change the mode, use the
Horizontal control menu (Figure 10-6).
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom sets the display zoom
from 1x to 100x, where the number represents the
zoom factor relative to the entire frequency range.
For example, when the horizontal zoom value is
1x, the entire frequency range from 10 to 24000
Hertz is displayed; when the horizontal zoom
value is 2x, one half of the entire frequency range
is displayed. Pos determines which frequency is
displayed at the center of the graph.
In Min/Max mode, Min and Max set the lowest
and highest displayed frequencies (in Hertz).
Vertical controls (amplitude axis)
The Vertical controls (Figure 10-7) operate
similarly to the Horizontal controls, except that
they configure the y-axis (amplitude).
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OSCILLOSCOPE
Vertical controls menu
The Oscilloscope (Figure 10-9) graphs the
amplitude of an audio signal over time.
Figure 10-7: The Vertical controls.
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom sets the display zoom
from 1x to 100x, and Pos sets the center amplitude
of the graph. In Min/Max mode, Min and Max set
the smallest and largest displayed amplitude.
Spectrogram controls
The Floor control (Figure 10-8) sets the amplitude
threshold for the spectrogram display, from -144
dB up to 0 dB.
Amplitude is displayed on the y-axis and time is
displayed on the x-axis. A thick white vertical line
marks where time equals zero; a thick white
horizontal line marks where amplitude equals zero
(Figure 10-9, below).
Level meters are displayed to the right of the
graph. One or two meters are shown, depending
on the current view mode (see “View controls”).
View controls
The View controls (Figure 10-10) provide several
options for the oscilloscope display.
Pause button
Figure 10-8: The Spectrogram controls.
View menu
The Alpha control (Figure 10-8) sets the opacity of
the spectrogram information displayed in the
graph, from 100% (fully visible) to 0% (hidden).
Figure 10-10: View controls.
Measurement
info
Measurement
range boundary
Figure 10-9: Oscilloscope.
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View menu
The View menu (Figure 10-10) lets you choose
how to display the audio channel(s) being
displayed.
View menu
setting
What it displays
Left
Left channel only
Right
Right channel only
Split screen
Left channel on top; right channel on the bottom
Shared
Left and right on top of each other; left is green,
right is red
Add
Left and right channels’ amplitudes are added
together
Subtract L-R
The right channel’s amplitude is subtracted from
the left channel’s amplitude
Display options
The Axes control (Figure 10-10) sets the opacity of
the grid displayed in the graph, from 100% (fully
visible) down to 0% (fully hidden). The Show
Ruler option toggles the measurement items (see
“Measurement information” on page 85).
Pausing the display
The Pause button in the upper right corner of the
View section (Figure 10-10) allows you to freeze
the display at any time. To resume, click the button
again. The level meters will remain active while
the display is paused.
Horizontal controls (time axis)
The Horizontal controls (Figure 10-11) configure
the value range of the x-axis (time). Click and drag
the values up or down to set them, or double-click
to return to the default value.
There are two modes for the controls: Zoom/Offset
and Min/Max. To change the mode, use the
Horizontal control menu (Figure 10-11).
Horizontal controls menu
Figure 10-11: Horizontal controls.
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom sets the display zoom
from 1/1000x to 10x, where the number represents
the number of pixels per sample. For example,
when the horizontal zoom value is 10x, 10 samples
are displayed in 100 pixels; when the horizontal
zoom value is 1/10x, 100 samples are displayed in
10 pixels. Pos moves the line marking time equals
zero left or right.
In Min/Max mode, Min and Max set the earliest
and most recent displayed time.
Time Units
The Time Units sub-menu (Figure 10-11) provides
the option to view the X axis in Seconds or
Samples.
Vertical controls (amplitude axis)
The Vertical controls (Figure 10-9) operate
similarly to the Horizontal controls, except that
they configure the y-axis (amplitude).
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom sets the display zoom
from 1/2 to 100x, and Pos moves the line marking
amplitude equals zero line up or down.
In Min/Max mode, Min and Max set the smallest
and largest displayed amplitude.
Waveform Recognition
The Waveform Recognition option (Figure 10-9)
searches through new audio data looking for a
waveform which most resembles that which was
previously displayed. The region where this takes
place is a small window around the line marking
time equals zero, denoted by the extra vertical
graph lines surrounding it. There are two kinds of
waveform recognition available: Type I and
Type II.
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Type I recognition provides the most stable
display of the waveform. It is the most resistant to
change. Louder transients, such as those produced
by a snare drum, are not displayed inside of the
waveform window. Type I is best for observing the
shape of a signal produced by a synthesizer or
observing the tone of a guitar through a chain of
pedals.
Type II recognition is less resistant to change. It
will include loud transients within the waveform
recognition window. Type II is better for
observing percussive music where the beat itself is
to be centered within the waveform window.
Trigger
When the Trigger (Figure 10-12) is not enabled
(the Trigger menu is set to None), the graph
updates based on time: after every n samples of the
monitored audio signal, the most recent samples
are displayed. When the Trigger is enabled (set to
any mode other than None), the graph updates in
response to specific conditions in the signal. The
Trigger section defines that criteria and how the
graph will display the events that match.
Trigger indicator
Trigger menu
Criteria check boxes
Figure 10-12: Trigger settings.
Criteria
The criteria checkboxes (Figure 10-12) determine
the conditions that the trigger is looking for and
where it will look for them.
The Left checkbox causes the condition to be
looked for in the left channel of the signal;
likewise, the Right checkbox looks for the
condition in the right channel. One or both of
these can be enabled simultaneously. If neither is
enabled, the criteria will not be found because the
trigger is not looking at any audio signal.
The Pos and Neg checkboxes determine the slope
of the event. When the Pos checkbox is enabled,
the trigger will look for an event where amplitude
is increasing; likewise, enabling the Neg checkbox
tells the trigger to look for an event where
amplitude is decreasing. One or both of these can
be enabled simultaneously. If neither is enabled,
the criteria will not be found because the trigger is
not looking for any particular kind of event.
The Level setting defines the amplitude threshold
that the trigger is looking for. The Level is
indicated on the graph by a blue horizontal line (or
two blue horizontal lines, if Magnitude is enabled).
Events which cross this threshold using the
enabled slope(s) in the enabled channel(s) will
activate the trigger. The response of the trigger is
set by the Trigger mode (see “Trigger modes”,
below).
Enabling the Magnitude checkbox tells the trigger
to look for both positive and negative Level values,
regardless of whether the Level value is positive or
negative. For example, if Level is set to +0.500 and
Magnitude is enabled, the trigger will look for both
+0.500 and -0.500. You will see a second blue line
appear in the display when Magnitude is enabled
to denote the second value.
Holdoff
Holdoff defines a time interval during which the
oscilloscope does not trigger. The most recent
trace will be displayed during that period. When
the period is over, the trigger is “re-armed’, i.e. it
will begin looking for the criteria again.
Click and drag this value up or down to set it, or
double-click to return to the default value.
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Trigger modes
The Trigger menu (Figure 10-12) provides four
modes:
Measurement information
You can view detailed information about a
particular time range by using the measurement
bars (Figure 10-9).
Trigger mode What it does
None
The Trigger is not active; this is the default mode.
The incoming audio signal will be displayed
continuously as audio is received.
Auto
The display is always updating, but when the
condition is met, the trigger event will be displayed
centered around the line marking time equals zero.
Normal
The display updates only when the condition is met;
the last trace will be displayed until the next
matching event is found.
Single Sweep
Similar to Normal mode, but the last trace will be
displayed until you manually arm the trigger by
clicking the Trigger indicator (Figure 10-12 on
page 84) or by pressing the space bar.
Trigger indicator
The Trigger indicator (Figure 10-12) displays the
state of the trigger, and also provides a way to
manually interact with it. The Trigger indicator
always displays one of three colors:
Color
Status
Green
When the current Trigger criteria has been met (including
when the Trigger mode is None).
Yellow
When the Trigger is armed, but has not yet found an event
which matches its criteria. Yellow can also indicate that the
graph has been manually paused using the Pause button in
the View section (see “Pausing the display” on page 83).
Red
When the Trigger is being held off, either because the
Trigger mode is set to Single Sweep or the Holdoff time is
not set to zero.
You can also click on the Trigger indicator to force
certain actions, depending on the Trigger mode.
In Auto and Normal modes, clicking on the
Trigger indicator causes the display to run freely;
you may click & hold to force this to occur for as
long as you’d like. In Single Sweep mode, clicking
on the Trigger indicator re-arms the trigger. When
the Trigger mode is None, clicking on the Trigger
indicator has no effect.
To adjust the left and right edges of the
measurement area, click and drag the blue bars in
the graph (Figure 10-9), or click and drag the blue
numbers in the upper left or right corners. To reset
them to the default value, double-click the
numbers.
Information about the measured area is displayed
at the center of the top ruler: the duration (in
seconds and samples), the approximate frequency,
and the scientific note name. If the measured area
is long enough, the approximate beats per minute
(bpm) is displayed.
Ideas for using the Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope can be used in many useful ways
during the routine operation of your recording
studio. Here are just a few examples.
Analyzing and comparing harmonic content
The oscilloscope lets you “see” the nature of the
harmonic profile in any audio material. You can
also view two signals side by side (in stereo mode)
to compare their profiles and, if necessary, make
adjustments to the source of each signal and view
your changes in real time.
Viewing transients such as drum hits
If you loop a snare hit or other similar transient
audio clip and feed it through the oscilloscope,
you can more or less “freeze” the transient
waveform in the oscilloscope frame. This can be
useful, for example, for viewing the results of realtime compression that you are applying with an
effects plug-in. For example, when you are
compressing a snare hit, as you make adjustment
the compressor, you can see the transient
waveform change the next time the Oscilloscope
triggers. For compression, this can be particularly
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useful for balancing the effect of the attack on the
transient, relative to the decay portion of the
waveform. Conversely, you can see the effect of the
threshold setting directly on the decay portion,
relative to the attack. In effect, you can see as well
as hear the results of your compression
adjustments.
To view a transient waveform in the Oscilloscope
display, turn off Waveform Recognition and use
the Normal Trigger mode. Adjust the level high
enough to encompass the vertical amplitude of
most of the transient. If the transient pulse sweeps
across the screen, try raising the Holdoff level.
Once the transient is settled in the display and
fairly stable, you may need to adjust the horizontal
position to center it in the display. You can also
pause the display at any time and adjust the
horizontal bounds to locate a transient.
Clip detection
You can use the Oscilloscope to detect clipping in
a digital audio signal. To do so, enable all criteria
(Figure 10-12), choose Single Sweep from the
trigger menu (Figure 10-12), set the level to 0.999
and click the trigger indicator (Figure 10-12) to
arm it (yellow). As soon as the signal clips, the
trigger indicator will turn red, and the display will
show the offending clip at the line marking time
equals zero.
Viewing timing pulses
If you have two audio signals with recognizable,
timed pulses in them, and you wish to compare
their timing with respect to each other, you can
use Split Screen or Shared view to visually
compare the timing of the two signals. You can
zoom in to the sample level for sample accurate
viewing.
the Oscilloscope as you adjust its sound to check
in real time for undesirable (and possibly
inaudible) characteristics, which are easily seen in
the Oscilloscope display. A good example is DC
offset. If a signal develops DC offset, the apparent
vertical center of its overall waveform will drift
above or below the line marking amplitude equals
zero. Try setting Waveform Recognition to Type I
and setting Trigger to None.
Another example is waveform polarity. If you are
combining several raw waveforms, polarity is a
critical, yet not always obvious, factor in
determining the resulting sound. You can use the
Oscilloscope to easily view and compare polarities
to see if they are inverted from one another or not.
The Add and Subtract L - R View menu settings are
particularly useful here.
You can also use the Oscilloscope to help you
apply waveform modulation and keep it “in
bounds”. For example, you could easily see if pulse
width modulation is collapsing in on itself to
choke the sound, an effect that is readily seen in
the Oscilloscope display but not necessarily easy
to determine by ear when using multiple
modulation sources.
Guitarists can also visually observe the effects of
their pedals and processing, while playing. With
the Trigger mode set to None and Waveform
Recognition set to Type I, the waveform will be
tracked automatically.
When applying filters and filter resonance, the
visual effect on the waveform can be invaluable in
reinforcing what you are hearing as you make
adjustments.
Building synthesizer patches
If you are building a synth patch on a synthesizer
(or forming similar highly periodic audio
material), you can run the audio signal through
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X-Y PLOT
The X-Y Plot window (Figure 10-13) graphs the
amplitude of a stereo audio signal on a twodimensional grid.
For each unit of time (i.e., each sample), the
amplitude of the left channel is displayed on the
x-axis and the amplitude of the right channel is
displayed on the y-axis. A thick white vertical line
marks where left channel amplitude equals zero; a
thick white horizontal line marks where right
channel amplitude equals zero (Figure 10-13).
There are also thick white diagonal lines for y = x
and
y = -x.
Metering
Level meters are displayed above and to the right
of the graph for the left (green) and right (red)
channels, respectively. An additional Correlation
meter (blue) is displayed on the right. This meter
displays the correlation between the two channels.
The higher the meter, the higher the correlation
between the two channels. Below are a few
examples:
Mathematical
relationship
Situation
Meter level X-Y Plot graph
Perfect correlation
+1
Diagonal line
y=x
going from lower
left to upper right:
Zero correlation
0
No discernible
pattern
Perfectly out of phase-1
None
Diagonal line
y = -x
going from upper
left to lower right:
View controls
The View controls (Figure 10-14) provide several
options for the X-Y Plot display.
Figure 10-13: X-Y Plot.
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Pause button
Figure 10-14: View controls.
Pausing the display
The Pause button in the upper right corner of the
View section (Figure 10-14) allows you to freeze
the display at any time. To resume, click the button
again. The level meters will remain active while
the display is paused.
Line/Scatter
Choose either Line or Scatter from the menu in the
View section (Figure 10-14) to plot each point
(sample) as either a single pixel or as a continuous
line that connects each plot point to the next, as
shown below in Figure 10-15.
shown in white and then fades to gray. To adjust
the scale of this color/brightness change, see
“Decay” on page 89.
Axes
The Axes control (Figure 10-14) sets the opacity of
the grid displayed in the graph, from 100% (fully
visible) down to 0% (fully hidden).
Horizontal and vertical controls
The Horizontal and Vertical controls
(Figure 10-16) configure the value range of the xaxis (left channel amplitude), and y-axis (right
channel amplitude), respectively. Click and drag
the values up or down to set them, or double-click
to return to the default value.
There are two modes for the controls: Zoom/Offset
and Min/Max. To change the mode, use the menu
shown in Figure 10-16.
Figure 10-16: Setting the Horizontal or Vertical control modes.
Figure 10-15: The same X-Y Plot displayed in Line versus Scatter mode.
☛
Line mode is significantly more CPU
intensive than Scatter. You can reduce Line mode
CPU overhead on the X-Y Plot by reducing the
Length parameter (described below).
Color/Grayscale
In Color mode (Figure 10-14) the most recently
displayed audio data is shown in red, which fades
to yellow, green and then finally blue, before
disappearing. In Grayscale mode, data is first
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom scales the axis. Pos
moves the lines marking x = 0 left and right, or
y = 0 up and down.
In Min/Max mode, Min and Max let you scale the
grid by moving the -1.0 and +1.0 points along the
axis. Min/Max mode lets you control the graph
boundaries directly.
Persistence
The Persistence controls (Figure 10-17) affect the
appearance of data from when it is first displayed
until it disappears from the grid.
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origin (center of the grid). When warp is negative,
they expand away from the origin. The further the
warp value is from zero, the greater the effect.
Figure 10-17: The Persistence controls.
Length
Length (Figure 10-17) sets the number of recent
samples to show on the plot. For example, when
Length is set to 10,000, the 10,000 most recent
samples are shown.
Decay
The brightness (in Grayscale mode) or hue (in
Color mode) of each sample on the plot is
determined by a linear scale, with the most recent
sample displayed at the maximum value and the
oldest sample displayed at the minimum value.
Decay (Figure 10-17 on page 89) determines the
brightness or hue of the minimum value. When
Decay is zero, the oldest sample is black. When
Decay is +1.000, the oldest sample is fully opaque
(in Grayscale mode) or red (in Color mode).
Warp
Warp (Figure 10-17) determines the position of
data points after they are first drawn. When warp
is zero, data points remain in the same position.
When warp is positive, they contract towards the
In polarity
Using the X-Y Plot
The X-Y Plot helps you “see” the width of the
stereo field of a mix (Figure 10-18). It also helps
you determine if a mix has issues with polarity, as
follows:
Activity on the X-Y Plot
What it indicates
Signal activity occurs mostly
Left and right channels are
along the x = y axis (lower left to predominantly in polarity (the
upper right) and the Correlation stereo field is relatively narrow)
meter reading is high
Signal activity occurs mostly
Left and right channels are
along the y = -x axis (upper left to predominantly out of polarity
lower right) and the Correlation (not in phase)
meter reading is low (near -1)
Signal activity occurs in a
seemingly random fashion
throughout the grid
No phase relationship exists (i.e. it
is probably a wide stereo field)
If a stereo signal is out of phase, it is not mono
compatible because it can cancel itself out, either
partially or nearly completely, when collapsed to
mono.
Out of polarity
No polarity
Figure 10-18: Checking polarity in a stereo signal with the X-Y Plot.
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PHASE ANALYSIS
The Phase Analysis window (Figure 10-19) graphs
frequency versus phase difference versus
amplitude of a stereo signal on either rectangular
or polar coordinates.
View controls
The View controls (Figure 10-20) provide several
options for the Phase Analysis display.
Pause button
In rectangular coordinates, the vertical axis
represents frequency, and the horizontal axis
represents the phase of the left channel minus the
phase of the right channel (measured in radians).
Figure 10-20: View controls.
In polar coordinates, the radius represents
frequency and the angle (theta) from the +y
vertical axis represents the phase difference of left
channel minus the right channel.
Correlation Meter
The blue Correlation Meter to the right of the
display shows the correlation between the two
channels. The higher the meter, the higher the
correlation between the two channels.
Pausing the display
The Pause button in the upper right corner of the
View section (Figure 10-20) allows you to freeze
the display at any time. To resume, click the button
again. The correlation meter will remain active
while the display is paused.
Figure 10-19: Phase Analysis.
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Line/Scatter
Choose either Line or Scatter from the menu in the
View section (Figure 10-20) to plot each data
point as either a single pixel or as a continuous line
that connects each frequency data point to the
next, as shown below in Figure 10-15.
Rectangular/Polar
Choose either Rectangular or Polar from the menu
in the View section (Figure 10-20) to control how
audio is plotted on the Phase Analysis grid.
Rectangular plots the audio on an X-Y grid, with
frequency along the vertical axis and phase
difference on the horizontal axis. Polar plots the
data on a polar grid with zero Hertz at its center.
The length of the radius (distance from the center)
represents frequency, and the angle (theta)
measured from the +y (vertical) axis represents
the phase difference in degrees.
Figure 10-21: The same Phase Analysis displayed in Line versus Scatter
mode.
☛
Line mode is significantly more CPU
intensive than Scatter. You can reduce Line mode
CPU overhead for the Phase Analysis display by
increasing the Floor filter and reducing the Max
Delta Theta filters (see “Filters” on page 92).
Figure 10-22: Rectangular versus Polar display (with a linear plot).
Color/Grayscale
In Color mode (Figure 10-20) signal amplitude is
indicated by color as follows: red is loud and blue
is soft. In grayscale mode, white is loud and gray is
soft.
Linear/Logarithmic
Choose either Linear or Logarithmic from the
menu in the View section (Figure 10-20) to change
the scale of the frequency axis. In rectangular
coordinates, the vertical axis represents frequency,
and in polar coordinates, the radius from the
center is frequency. With a linear scale,
frequencies are spaced evenly; in a logarithmic
scale, each octave is spaced evenly (frequencies are
scaled logarithmically within each octave).
Linear is better for viewing high frequencies;
logarithmic is better for viewing low frequencies.
Above, Figure 10-22 shows Rectangular versus
Polar display with a Linear plot. Below,
Figure 10-23 shows the same displays (and the
same data) with a Logarithmic plot:
Figure 10-23: Rectangular versus Polar display with a logarithmic plot.
Axes
The Axes control (Figure 10-20) sets the opacity of
the grid displayed in the graph, from 100% (fully
visible) down to 0% (fully hidden).
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Horizontal and vertical controls
The Horizontal and Vertical controls
(Figure 10-24) let you scale each axis of the grid
and offset its zero point. Click and drag the values
up or down to set them, or double-click to return
to the default value.
There are two modes for the controls: Zoom/Offset
and Min/Max. To change the mode, use the menu
shown in Figure 10-24.
Figure 10-24: Setting the Horizontal or Vertical control modes.
In Zoom/Offset mode, Zoom scales the axis. Pos
moves the zero line.
In Min/Max mode, Min and Max let you scale the
grid by moving the end points along the axis. Min/
Max mode lets you set the boundaries of the graph
directly.
Filters
The Filters section (Figure 10-25) lets you control
the density of the Phase Analysis display.
Figure 10-25: Filters.
Floor
Floor (Figure 10-25) determines the amplitude
threshold for the display. When the amplitude of
both channels drops below this threshold, the
signal is not shown.
Max delta theta
Max delta theta (Figure 10-25) only affects Line
view (see “Line/Scatter” on page 91) and sets the
maximum difference in frequency between plot
points in the line plot. For two adjacent
frequencies, if the distance (phase difference)
between the two frequencies is greater than the
Max delta theta, then the line is not drawn.
Using the Phase Analysis
In the polar display (top row of Figure 10-26 on
page 93), stereo material that is predominantly
phase-aligned (correlated) appears along the
vertical axis, as demonstrated in the first column
(Perfectly in phase) in Figure 10-26. If the vertical
line tilts left or right, this indicates general
differences in phase; the more the tilt (delta theta),
the more the phase difference. If the vertical line
points downwards in the polar display, this
indicates that the stereo image is predominantly
out of polarity, as demonstrated by the fourth
column (Inverted) in Figure 10-26. Delays appear
as spirals in the polar display.
The rectangular display (bottom row of
Figure 10-26) also shows a predominantly phasealigned stereo image along the vertical axis, and
tilt (or left-right offset) from the center vertical
axis represents differences in phase. If a signal is
predominantly out of polarity, it appears along the
theta = -1.0 or theta = +1.0 lines in the rectangular
display, as demonstrated in the fourth column
(Inverted) in Figure 10-26 on page 93.
Using Phase Analysis for multiple mic placement
The polar display can be very useful when
recording drums or another instrument with
multiple microphones. The slight delays caused by
the differences in distance to the source can often
create a comb filtering (delay) effect between two
mic signals, due to phase cancellation. These
comb filter effects appear as spirals in the polar
display. If you arrange the mics so that the null
points (where the spiral pattern meets the negative
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y axis) are outside the critical frequency range of
the instrument being recorded, you can avoid
phase problems among the mic signals.
Tuning PA systems
The Phase Analysis window can also be used to
troubleshoot and tune PAs and sound
reinforcement systems by placing microphones in
strategic locations, comparing the two signals in
the Phase Analysis grid and looking for phase
issues at various locations.
Checking for phase issues in stereo tracks
You can use the Phase Analysis window to check
the overall polarity of a stereo mix. Figure 10-27 is
an example of a full stereo mix that has phase
issues, as indicated by the majority of the signal’s
energy, which is predominantly skewed to the left
side of the rectangular view (left) and spread along
the -y axis in the polar view (right).
Summing to mono
The Phase Analysis window is ideal for checking
stereo audio that needs to be summed to mono.
The Phase Analysis lets you see what frequencies
will be canceled out when summed.
Figure 10-27: A stereo mix with phase issues.
In the rectangular view, any lines in the signal that
touch the +1.0 or -1.0 vertical lines in the grid will
be canceled out at the frequency where they touch,
when the signal is summed to mono.
In the polar view, any signal that falls on the
negative y axis (below zero) will be canceled out
when the signal is summed to mono.
Perfectly in phase
One-sample delay
Twenty-sample delay
Inverted
Polar view
Rectangular
view
Figure 10-26: Two identical audio streams in the Phase Analysis.
93
M OT U AU DI O TO O L S
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M OT U AUD IO TO O LS
CHAPTER 11
Networking
OVERVIEW
The Audio Video Bridging (AVB) network port on
the 828es opens up a world of possibilities for
creating expanded, customized audio network
systems.
About AVB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
MOTU’s AVB implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Networking examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
A quick guide to networking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Setting up a MOTU interface for networking . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Mapping audio to network streams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Mapping computer channels to network streams. . . . . . .99
Device presets and AVB stream connections . . . . . . . . . . .100
Bridging to Ethernet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
The MOTU AVB Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
ABOUT AVB
Audio Video Bridging (AVB) is an extension of the
Ethernet standard developed by the IEEE (802.1
standards committee) specifically to add highperformance audio and video networking.
☛
You may also hear AVB referred to as
AVB/TSN or simply TSN because the IEEE is in
the process of renaming the standard to Time
Sensitive Networking to accommodate the
expanding scope of the specification to
applications beyond audio and video.
AVB brings together the worlds of networking
technology and high-end audio. Here is a brief
summary of some of the immediate benefits of
AVB for you, as a MOTU interface user:
■ An open industry standard — AVB has been
developed by the IEEE as an international
standard specification. It is not proprietary or
controlled by one company.
■ High channel counts — AVB provides hundreds
of network channels.
■ Extremely low latency — AVB guarantees lowlatency, real-time performance.
■ Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) — AVB’s
Stream Reservation Protocol provides Guaranteed
Quality of Service for each and every audio
stream. If the network cannot continuously
maintain every bit of every sample in the audio
stream, it will not allow you to make the network
connection in the first place. AVB streams are
prioritized over other network traffic to ensure
high performance.
■ Network-wide clocking and sync — AVB
devices all clock together over your network for
better-than-sample-accurate phase lock across all
connected devices. Timing accuracy is down to
the nanosecond.
■ True plug-and-play operation — AVB has been
designed from the ground up to provide automatic
device discovery, enumeration, and connection
management. Just plug the 828es into a standard
AVB switch and go. If you wish to make stream
connections and have the ability to select media
clock, you must use the web app, or some other
AVB controller. You don’t need an IT professional
to configure the network. AVB is a self-managing
network protocol.
■ Bridging to standard Ethernet — AVB
cooperates with standard Ethernet networks, for
connecting traditional Ethernet devices like
wireless routers, switches, or any other non-AVBaware device.
95
■ Support for existing network infrastructure —
Replace your existing switches with standard
AVB-compatible switches, and your CAT-5e or
CAT-6 wired infrastructure now supports AVB.
■ Long cable runs —þa single AVB network
connection can run up to 100 meters with a
standard copper wire CAT-5e or CAT-6 cable.
Fiber-optic cable runs can be much longer. With
multiple switches, you can create a network that
covers very large distances, if necessary. You can
use up to seven “hops” (switch-to-switch
connections).
■ AVB is already shipping on current Macs —
Apple supports AVB on all current shipping Macs,
and the 828es can operate as a standard AVB audio
interface when connected to your Mac’s AVBequipped Ethernet port.
MOTU’S AVB IMPLEMENTATION
MOTU engineering has faithfully implemented
the IEEE 802.1 AVB standard for the MOTU AVB
products. This means that MOTU devices are fully
inter-operable with any 3rd party AVB-compatible
device. In addition, MOTU has fine-tuned AVB
operation among MOTU devices for optimum
performance, within the AVB specification. Here
is a brief summary of advantages you will enjoy
when using MOTU devices together in a network:
■ Up to 256 channels of host I/O — MOTU
interfaces (depending on the model) can support
up to 256 simultaneous channels of audio I/O (128
in, 128 out) to and from the entire network
through Thunderbolt or USB 3.0.
■ Support for multiple computer hosts — All
computers and all network devices run in sync
with each other, resolved to the network’s master
clock.
■ Gigabit Ethernet — The MOTU AVB Switch
delivers 1 Gbit Ethernet performance, which
provides substantially higher bandwidth than
100 Mbit Ethernet. This allows you to have many
more devices on the AVB network.
■ Over 500 channels of network audio —
MOTU’s AVB network can stream over 500
channels of audio throughout the network.
Depending on the model, some MOTU devices
can broadcast sixteen 8-channel network streams
and simultaneously listen to sixteen 8-channel
network streams.
■ Exceptionally low network latency — Standard
AVB network latency is 2 ms. MOTU AVB
network latency is an astonishing 0.6 ms, even
over seven “hops” (switches) and hundreds of
meters of cable. By comparison, other
commercially available, proprietary audio
network protocols have variable (unpredictable)
network latency in the range of 2-5 ms.
■ Star configuration — MOTU AVB supports a
star network configuration, which is much more
flexible than daisy-chain scenarios, which
depends on all devices in the chain.
■ Web interface — MOTU AVB devices can be
controlled from the MOTU Pro Audio Control
web app, which runs within any web browser on
any networked laptop, tablet, or smart phone.
Although the web app shares the network with
AVB, AVB audio streams are never compromised
because AVB streams over the network traffic.
■ Bridging to standard Ethernet — the MOTU
AVB Switch provides an extra standard Ethernet
port for bridging to your local Ethernet network,
Wi-Fi, etc. for command and control, internet
access, and other standard network traffic. All
ports allow connection to standard (non-AVB)
network devices, however, the “Ethernet” port is
suggested because it does not support AVB.
96
NETWORKING
NETWORKING EXAMPLES
Networking comes into play as soon as you hook
up a second MOTU interface to your first one, as
explained in “Setup for two interfaces” on page 34,
to add more I/O to your studio. Here are just a few
examples of what is possible.
Personal studio expansion
Let’s say you have an 828es next to your computer.
You could add an 8M interface and position it
across the room, near your drum kit, for placing
up to 8 mics on the drums. All the mic cabling is
kept near the drums, and you have one simple,
clean network cable running back to your
computer system. Despite the distance, the two
interfaces operate as a seamless system, controlled
from your computer or iPad.
Studio installation
A studio installation of three to five interfaces can
be handled with a single MOTU AVB Switch. See
“Setup for three to five interfaces” on page 35.
Networking is ideal for studio installation because
you can position interfaces at strategic locations.
Running cables becomes much simpler and more
cost effective. Not only does a setup like this give
you access to all I/O from your computer, even
multiple computers, you can also route audio from
any input to any output across devices with near
zero latency. You can also route audio from one
computer to another with very low latency. As a
simple example, you could deploy several
interfaces in a studio as follows:
Interface
Location
Purpose
24Ao
Control room
Multi-channel output in control
room for main monitors, secondary
monitors, surround, etc.
1248
Iso booth
Local mic and instrument
I/O in the iso booth.
828es
Studio room
Local inputs and monitoring system
for musicians.
8M
Studio room
More mic inputs, or additional mic
inputs for drum kit
8M
Studio room
drum kit
8 more mics on the drum kit
24Ai
Machine room
Analog inputs for hardware synths,
outboard returns, etc.
Large studio facility
In a larger studio facility, you could build audio
network neighborhoods similar to the studio
installation described earlier in multiple rooms,
even multiple floors, with multiple computers and
Wi-Fi control from anywhere in the facility. All
computers and devices can see each other and you
can stream audio anywhere on the network with
near-zero latency, as if any two devices were
connected directly to each other.
Concert systems
Concert systems must be flexible so they can adapt
to each new venue while on tour. Because of its
modular nature, AVB networking allows you to
design systems that are scalable and easy to adapt
to each venue. You can easily bring devices on and
offline, rerouting audio stems as needed.
Because MOTU AVB networking employs a star
configuration, instead of daisy-chaining, you can
set up backup computer playback systems on a
shared network. For example, in a concert setting,
if one computer system goes down, the backup
system can be brought on line instantly through
the same network infrastructure.
Traditionally, live performance setups often have
separate domains for front of house mixing,
monitor mixing, computer backline, and other
97
N E T WO R K I N G
systems. With MOTU AVB networking, these
systems can be unified on the same network,
opening up many possibilities for shared resources
and mixing/routing responsibilities, especially
from multiple sources (laptops, iPads, tablets, etc.)
MOTU AVB networking handles audio in
convenient 8-channel stems, making large-scale
network management more manageable. MOTU
AVB’s very low latency makes it particularly
suitable for line arrays and sound reinforcement.
Large-scale venues
With long cable runs and industry standard
networking infrastructure, MOTU AVB systems
are well-suited for large-scale commercial
installations such as arenas, stadiums, theme
parks, clubs, casinos, houses of worship, broadcast
facilities, schools, universities, and so on. Audio
streams can travel long distances with submillisecond latency through as many as seven
switches. Audio can be distributed from a
centralized location to anywhere in the venue.
A QUICK GUIDE TO NETWORKING
MOTU AVB networking has been designed to be
powerful, yet straightforward to set up and use.
Here are a few things that are useful to know.
■ Connect MOTU interfaces to any AVB Switch
using their NETWORK ports.
■ On the MOTU AVB Switch, connect MOTU
interfaces to the five AVB NETWORK ports (not
the Ethernet port). Connect the Ethernet port to a
Wi-Fi router, your Local Area Network (LAN) or
your computer (for running web app only).
MOTU AVB interfaces or
other AVB switches
Wi-Fi router, Ethernet
hub/network, or
computer
(Sold separately)
■ Expand the network by adding more switches.
Make a single connection from one switch to the
other. On MOTU AVB Switches, use their AVB
NETWORK ports, NOT the Ethernet port.
■ You can daisy-chain switches in serial fashion,
but don’t create loops. For example, in the network
below, do not make any additional connections
between any two switches.
Networking basics
■ Before proceeding below, review the
networking connection diagrams on pages 34-36.
A
■ To make network connections, use shielded
CAT-5e or CAT-6 cables (a higher grade cable).
B
D
F
■ Network cable lengths can be long: 100 meters
with standard copper wire cables; much longer
with fiber-optic network cables.
C
E
G
Working with AVB switches
■ Networks of three or more interfaces require an
AVB-compatible switch. You can use any standard
AVB switch on the market. MOTU offers the fiveport MOTU AVB Switch™ (sold separately).
☛
■ AVB audio can’t pass through more than seven
switches. However, you can daisy-chain more than
seven switches and route audio freely among
A non-AVB compatible switch will not work.
98
NETWORKING
them. You just won’t be able to create point-topoint connects that span more than seven
switches.
Working with computers on a network
■ Computers are not required for network
operation, as you can control the network from
iPads, tablets and smart phones.
■ To add computers to the network, connect them
to any interface using Thunderbolt (which offers
the highest possible channel counts). If
Thunderbolt is not available, use USB.
■ A computer can be connected to the network
through its Ethernet port, but only for the
purposes of running the web app on the computer
for command and control over the network. (In
this scenario, you won’t be able to stream audio to/
from the network from the computer.)
All computers and interfaces on the network
have full access to each other.
2 Go to the Device tab (item #5 on page 12), go to
the AVB Stream Setup section (item #21 on
page 13), and type in the number of 8-channel
input and output streams you want for that device.
3 Go to the AVB Stream Connections section
(item #22 on page 13), and choose the network
stream you want the device to listen to for each
bank.
4 Use the Routing tab to map specific I/O
channels within each MOTU interface to its
network input and output streams, as explained in
the next section.
MAPPING AUDIO TO NETWORK STREAMS
Once you’ve configured a device’s AVB streams, as
explained above, use the Routing tab (page 15) to
map audio channels to network input and output
streams.
■
■ MOTU employs a 1 Gbit AVB implementation
in the MOTU AVB Switch. The switch allows
routing of many audio channels on the network.
SETTING UP A MOTU INTERFACE FOR
NETWORKING
Depending on the model, MOTU interfaces have
the ability to broadcast up to sixteen 8-channel
streams to the rest of the network. Conversely, it
can “listen” to as many as sixteen 8-channel
streams from anywhere else in the network. The
specific number of streams supported depends on
the model.
For each device on the network, set it up for
network operation as follows:
1 In the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app,
choose the device (item #1 on page 12).
Input streams (coming from the rest of the
network) are listed across the top of the routing
grid. Expand the stream and click on the grid to
map incoming network channels to local
destinations, including physical outputs on the
device, computer channels (to a connected
computer), or mixer channels.
Output streams being broadcast to the rest of the
network are listed in rows along the left side of the
grid. Expand each stream bank and map
individual network output channels to local
sources, such as physical inputs on the interface,
channels coming from the computer, or channels
coming from the device’s mixer.
MAPPING COMPUTER CHANNELS TO
NETWORK STREAMS
If a host computer is connected to an interface
(through USB), mapping network input and
output streams is accomplished as described in the
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N E T WO R K I N G
previous two sections. Simply enable AVB streams
as desired, and map them to computer channels in
the Routing grid.
If, while mapping, you run out of computer
channels, enable more in the Computer Setup
section of the Device tab (item #26 on page 14). If
the computer is connected with Thunderbolt or
USB 3.0 (to a MOTU interface that supports it),
you can enable a maximum of 128 channels in and
out. If the computer is connected with USB 2.0,
performance will vary, depending on the sample
rate and other factors.
DEVICE PRESETS AND AVB STREAM
CONNECTIONS
When you save a preset for a MOTU device (item
7 on page 12), any AVB stream connections that it
has established with other devices on the network
are now included with the saved preset. When you
recall the preset, those saved stream connections
are restored, as long as the other devices are still
present on the network and broadcasting the same
streams. If the other device is not present (or
perhaps turned off), its streams will be reported as
“off line”.
In general, if you have multiple devices on a
network with interconnecting AVB streams, and
you wish to preserve the state of the network, it is
recommended that you save a device preset for
each device on the network. Doing so will allow
you to faithfully restore the entire network stream
configuration by recalling each device’s saved
preset.
BRIDGING TO ETHERNET
The Ethernet port on the MOTU AVB Switch
allows you to connect standard network devices,
such as:
■
A Wi-Fi router
■ An Ethernet hub or switch connected to a local
home, studio, or office network
■
Any other standard networking device
THE MOTU AVB SWITCH
The heart of a MOTU AVB network is the MOTU
AVB Switch (sold separately). For a brief overview
of the switch and its features, visit:
www.motu.com/products/avb/avb-switch.
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NETWORKING
Part3
Appendices
APPENDIX A
Troubleshooting
Some or all of my MOTU interface inputs and
outputs are not available in my host audio software.
Make sure that the inputs and outputs are enabled
in the Device tab (“Device tab” on page 12) and
routed to and from the computer in the Routing
tab (“Routing tab” on page 15). For details, see
“Making inputs and outputs available to your host
software” on page 68. A quick and easy way to do
this is to choose the Audio Interface preset from
Quick Setup (item 10 on page 12).
I have absolutely no audio input or output
happening to or from my interface. Why?
Make sure that the unit has a stable sample rate
(the sample rate will flash if the clock hasn’t settled
yet). Try setting the unit’s clock source to Internal
if you can’t sync to any external clock sources.
Check that audio is working with Internal sync,
and if so, then work on establishing a stable
external clock.
I can't hear computer audio output through my
MOTU interface.
In the Sound panel of System Preferences, the
828es should be selected as the output device.
Almost all applications will use just the first two
output channels, so make sure that From
Computer 1 and From Computer 2 are routed to
the physical outputs that you are listening to in the
Routing tab (e.g. Phones 1-2 or Analog 1-2).
How do I monitor live inputs?
Please refer to the documentation for the audio
application that you are using. If your application
does not support input monitoring, you will need
to use the mixer in the 828es. Please see
“Monitoring through the 828es” on page 65.
The Routing tab (page 15) doesn’t display some of the
inputs or outputs on my interface.
The Routing tab only displays input and output
banks that are enabled in the Device tab (page 12),
so be sure any banks you wish to work with are
enabled there. However, to conserve DSP
resources and help consolidate screen-space in the
other tabs, it is efficient practice to disable unused
input or output banks (optical banks, for example,
when only working with analog banks, or all
output banks when only working with Phones).
I'm getting a “Could not enable this effect because
DSP is overloaded” error. What should I do?
Disable other effects or reduce the number of
mixer inputs to conserve DSP resources. If there
are audio input and output banks on your
interface that you are not using (such as the optical
banks), disable them in the Device tab (page 12).
I accidentally deleted my factory presets. How do I
restore them?
In the Device tab (page 12), click the Restore
Factory Presets button to restore all factory presets.
How do I factory reset my device?
Push the MENU knob to enter the main menu.
Navigate to Settings > Factory Default and push
the MENU knob twice to reset.
I hear clicks and pops under word clock sync.
Many problems result from incorrect word
clocking. It is essential that all digital devices in
the system be word locked. Consult “Synchronization” on page 46 for detailed information on
how to word clock your gear. Whenever there is
any unexpected noise or distortion, suspect
incorrect word lock.
How do I control monitoring latency?
See “Reducing monitoring latency” on page 64.
103
Clicks and pops due to hard drive problems...
If you have checked your clock settings and you
are still getting clicks and pops in your audio, you
may have a drive related problem. Set your Clock
Source to Internal and try recording just using the
analog inputs and outputs on the 828es. If you
encounter the same artifacts you may want try
using another drive in your computer. Clicks and
pops can also occur when the drive is severely
fragmented or there are other drive-related issues.
Connecting or powering gear during operation...
It is not recommended that you connect/
disconnect, or power on/off devices connected to
the 828es while recording or playing back audio.
Doing so may cause a brief glitch in the audio.
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
We are happy to provide complimentary customer
support to our registered users. If you haven’t
already done so, please take a moment to register
online at MOTU.com, or fill out and mail the
included registration card. Doing so entitles you to
technical support and notices about new products
and software updates.
■
Online support: www.motu.com/support
Please provide the following information to help
us solve your problem as quickly as possible:
■ The serial number of your MOTU device. This
is printed on a label placed on the bottom of the
rack unit. It is also displayed at the bottom of the
Device tab in the MOTU Pro Audio Control web
app (item #30 on page 14). You must be able to
supply this number to receive technical support.
■ A brief explanation of the problem, including
the exact sequence of actions which cause it, and
the contents of any error messages which appear
on the screen.
■ The pages in the manual that refer to the
features or operation of your MOTU Device or
AudioDesk with which you are having trouble.
■ The version of your computer’s operating
system.
We’re not able to solve every problem immediately,
but a quick call to us may yield a suggestion for a
problem which you might otherwise spend hours
trying to track down.
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
If you are unable, with your dealer’s help, to solve
problems you encounter with your MOTU device,
you may contact our technical support
department in one of the following ways:
■ Tech support hotline: (617) 576-3066 (Monday
through Friday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. EST)
If you have features or ideas you would like to see
implemented, we’d like to hear from you. Please
write to the Development Team, MOTU Inc., 1280
Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, or
use our online suggestion box at www.motu.com/
suggestions.
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A P P E N DI X A : T R O U BL E S H O OT I N G
APPENDIX B
Audio Specifications
MIC in
Connector Type
Combo-style, XLR / TRS
Pin 2 hot, tip hot
XLR
Impedance load
2.65 k ohm
Pad
-20 dB, Switchable per channel
Phantom power
+48 v, switchable per channel
DIN 45596 / IEC 61938-P48
EIN
-128 dBu
XLR Terminated
Dynamic Range
118 dB
A-weighted
THD+N
-107 dB
Unweighted
Frequency Response
+0 -0.1 dB, 20 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Max Level In with Pad
+24 dBu
Max Level In without Pad
+5 dBu
Trim range
0 to +63 dB in 1 dB steps
TRS
Description
Balanced or single ended
Suitable for line or instrument (guitar)
Impedance Load
1 meg ohm
differential
Pad
-20 dB, Switchable per channel
Phantom power
No
Dynamic Range
118 dB
A-weighted
THD+N
-107 dB
-2 dBFS, Unweighted
Frequency Response
+0 -0.1 dB, 20 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Max Level in with Pad
+17 dBu
Max Level in without Pad
+5 dBu
Trim range
0 to +63 dB in 1 dB steps
105
Line In
Connector Type
1/4” Female, TRS
Balanced/unbalanced, Tip hot
Specification
Complies with EBU-R68 / SMPTE RP-155
Impedance Load
10 k ohm
Dynamic Range
117 dB
A-weighted
THD+N
-108 dB
-2 dBFS, Unweighted
Frequency Response
+0, -0.1 dB, 20 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Max Level In
+24 dBu
Trim Range
-96 dB to 22 dB
Boost +2 dBu to +24 dBu in 1 dB steps
Connector Type
1/4” Female, TRS
Balanced, tip hot
Output Impedance
100 ohm
Per leg
Dynamic Range
123 dB
A-weighted
THD+N
-108 dB
-2 dBFS, Unweighted, 1 kHz
Frequency Response
+0, -0.1 dB, 20 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Max Level Out
+20 dBu
Trim Range
24 dB
Line Out
-4 dBu to +20 dBu in 1 dB steps
Main Out
Connector Type
XLR Male
Output Impedance
100 ohm
Per leg
Dynamic Range
123 dB
A-weighted
THD+N
-109 dB
-2 dBFS, Unweighted, 1 kHz
Frequency Response
+0, -0.1 dB, 20 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Max Level Out
+20 dBu
Trim Range
24 dB
-4 dBu to +20 dBu in 1 dB steps
106
A P P E N DI X B : AUD I O S P E C I F I C AT IO N S
Phones
Connector Type
1/4” Female, TRS Stereo
Tip Left, Ring Right
Dynamic Range
108 dB
A-Weighted
THD+N
-100 dB
Unweighted
Frequency Response
+0 -0.15 dB, 22 Hz/20 kHz
Ref. 1 kHz
Drive
Max. 80 mw
16/32/55 ohms
Trim Range
128 dB
0 to -128 dB (muted) in 1 dB steps
S/PDIF
Connector Type
RCA
Termination
75 ohm I/O
Lock Range
44.1k/48k, +/- 0.5%
1x, 2x
Input Voltage Range
0.2 Vpp/1Vpp
With termination
Output Drive
0.5.0 Vpp With termination
DC coupled
THD+N In
-122 dB
Unweighted
Specification
IEC-958/60968-3
Word Clock In/Out/Thru
Specification
AES-11 2009 Annex B
Connector Type
BNC
Termination
75 ohm (in/out)
THRU is unterminated
Lock Range
44.1 kHz / 48kHz, +- 0.5%
x1/x2/x4
Input
1 vpp to 3 v p-p (with termination)
AC coupled
Output
5.0 vpp, (2.5 v p-p terminated)
DC coupled
Jitter
complies with AES3-4-2009
< 0.025 UI
Connector Type
IEC 3-conductor receptacle
For AC mains connection
Configuration
Internal, Universal
Power Input
100 V to 240 V, 50 Hz or 60 Hz
Power Usage
35 watts
Power Supply
107
A P P E N D I X B : AU D IO
S P E C I F I C AT I O N S
108
A P P E N DI X B : AUD I O S P E C I F I C AT IO N S
APPENDIX C
Mixer Schematics
MONO INPUT CHANNEL
109
STEREO INPUT CHANNEL
+
110
A P P E N D IX C : M I X ER S C H E MAT IC S
GROUP BUS
+
111
A P P E N D I X C : M IX E R S C HE M AT IC S
MONITOR BUS
+
112
A P P E N D IX C : M I X ER S C H E MAT IC S
APPENDIX D
Updating Firmware
MOTU periodically posts firmware updates for
the 828es. These updates may include bug fixes,
enhancements and new features.
Updates are posted on MOTU’s servers. If your
computer or Wi-Fi device has access to the
internet, the MOTU Pro Audio Control app
notifies you as soon as an update is made available.
Otherwise, you can check motu.com/proaudio
periodically for the latest firmware update.
A USB or network cable connection is required
Firmware updating requires either a USB or
network cable connection to your computer. So
before you begin, connect a USB cable from the
828es to your computer, or connect a standard
CAT-5 or CAT-6 network cable from the network
port on the 828es to one of the following:
■ Your computer’s network port (or a
Thunderbolt-to-Ethernet adapter)
■ Your home, studio, or office network (with
internet access)
Updating with internet access
You are now ready to update the firmware:
1 Launch the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app
on your computer, iPad, or iPhone, as usual.
2 Go to the Device tab.
3 In the New Update Available banner
(Figure D-1), click More Info.
4 After reviewing the list of enhancements, click
OK to start the update.
5 Follow the on-screen instructions.
6 If you have a Mac, and you normally use USB or
Thunderbolt to connect the 828es to your Mac, it
is a good idea to disconnect the Ethernet cable
after you complete the update, so that the Mac
doesn’t switch to Ethernet as the primary audio
connection to the 828es (instead of USB or
Thunderbolt).
☛ Having both USB and Ethernet connected
during the firmware update process is also fine.
Updating off-line, without internet access
If the 828es (and the computer it is connected to)
has no internet access, you can download a
firmware update file from another computer that
does have internet, and then use the file to update
the 828es, as follows:
You can update firmware with or without internet
access. Both scenarios are explained below.
1 Download the firmware file from
motu.com/proaudio.
An AVB port on a MOTU AVB switch
(connected to your office network through the
Ethernet port)
■
Figure D-1: The firmware update banner appears across the Device tab when your web host has internet access and MOTU posts an update.
113
2 Transfer the file to a computer with a USB or
network cable connection to the 828es.
2 Choose Firmware Updater > Open...
3 Launch the MOTU Pro Audio Control web app
on the computer, as usual.
4 Go to the Device tab, scroll down to the bottom
and click Update from File.
5 Locate the file on your hard drive and click OK
to start the update.
Figure D-3: Launching the Firmware Updater.
3 Connect Ethernet cables, if necessary, or click
the Update from File option.
4 Click Update All Interfaces Now.
6 Follow the on-screen instructions.
7 If you have a Mac, and you normally use USB or
Thunderbolt to connect the 828es to your Mac, it
is a good idea to disconnect the Ethernet cable
after you complete the update, so that the Mac
doesn’t switch to Ethernet as the primary audio
connection to the 828es (instead of USB or
Thunderbolt).
Updating multiple interfaces on a network
If you have two or more MOTU interfaces on a
network, you can update their firmware all at
once.
1 Go to the MOTU Discovery Settings menu.
MOTU Discovery
Figure D-4: Updating multiple interfaces in one operation.
Viewing the latest firmware version information
You can confirm the firmware version at the
bottom of the Device tab (Figure D-5).
Settings
Figure D-2: MOTU Discovery Settings menu.
Figure D-5: The currently installed firmware version is displayed at the bottom of the Device tab.
114
A P P EN D I X D : U P DAT I N G F IR MWA R E
APPENDIX E
OSC Support
Open Sound Control (OSC) is a protocol for
communication among computers and other
multimedia devices that is optimized for modern
networking technology.
MOTU audio interfaces support OSC, which
provides remote control of all device settings and
mixer controls from any OSC-enabled controller.
For further details about remote control through
OSC, along with complete documentation for the
MOTU AVB OSC API, visit:
http://www.motu.com/proaudio#avb-osc-support
115
116
A P P E N D I X E : OS C S UP P O R T
Index
Symbols
+4dB analog input 44
,
Numerics
-10dB analog input 44
24-bit
,
optical 10 25
2x SMUX mode 13 45
5.1/7.1 surround monitoring 9 10 60
828es
expansion 34
setup example 43
specifications 105
summary of features 23
,
, ,
A
Ableton Live 63, 64
,
ADAT optical 10 25
connecting 45
settings 13
Analog inputs/outputs 10 45
making connections to 44
Apple
GarageBand 64
Logic Pro 64
ASIO driver 64
ASIO monitoring 65
Attack
Compressor 72 74
Audio interface preset 53
Audio Tools 79
AudioDesk 26 31 63 64
Auto 74
Auto (Makeup Gain) 74
Aux Mix Target 17
Aux Mixing tab 17
AVB
audio interface operation 23 34 40
Ethernet explained 95
Input/Output Banks 13
networking 95 100
overview 95
Stream Connections 13
Stream Setup 13
streams (Routing tab) 15
Switch
setup 35 39
AVB menu item 58
Avid
Pro Tools 64
,
,
, , ,
, ,
–
,
B
Balanced analog 44
,
Become Clock Master 12 50
Buffer Size 12 30
,
C
CAT-5e/6 cables 34
Check for Updates 14
Chrome 11
Class compliance 29
Clear Password 14 59
Clock Mode 12 59
Clock mode 57
Clock section (LCD) 58
Clock source 46
Coax 25
Cockos Reaper 64
Compressor effect 16 73
Computer Channel for LTC-to-MTC
Conversion 14
Computer Setup 14
Computer Volume Controls option 14
Condenser mic input 44
Configure IP 59
Connecting multiple interfaces 34
Control surface support (through OSC) 115
Controller
connecting 46
Converter mode
setup/example 56
Core Audio driver 64
Correlation Meter 90
Cubase 63 64
clock source 63
sample rate 63
CueMix FX
Devices menu 79
installation 79
output jacks 10
Customer
support 104
,
,
,
D
Device menu item 58
,
Device tab 12 13
Devices menu 79
Digital converter (see Optical converter)
Digital Performer 63 64
Direct hardware playthrough 65
Dim 62
Direct ASIO monitoring 65
Direct hardware playthrough 65
Discovery app 7 31
Driver installation 7 11 29
Drivers
installing USB drivers 29
DSP
effects 71
meter 77
resources 77
DSP Usage 18 77
Dynamic mic 44
,
,
,
EEffects 71
Enable Jam Sync 14
EQ 72
enabling 72
filter types 72
frequency 72
gain 72
, ,
Q 72
Ethernet
connecting 39
Ethernet interface operation 34 40
Expansion 34
,
FFactory Defaults 59
Firefox 11
Firmware
version 14
Firmware updates 12
Follow Solo 16 19
Foot switch 26
connecting 46
jack 10
Four-band EQ 72
Frequency
EQ 72
From Computer 15
Front panel 57
menu navigation 58
metering 57
,
G
Gain
EQ 72
reduction 74
reduction (Leveler) 76
GarageBand 63 64
clock source 63
sample rate 63
Gate effect 16 72
GR (gain reduction) 74
Guitar
connecting 44
,
,
H
Headphone outputs 9
Headphones
connecting 43
High pass filter 71
Host
Buffer Size 12 30
Safety Offset 12 31
,
,
IID knob/button 11, 12
IEEE 802.1 95
Input banks 13
Input settings 12
Inputs
analog 10
optical 10
prefader metering 18
Installation
AVB audio interface 34 40
iOS connection 33
network 35 36
QuickStart Guide 7
software 29
,
,
117
I N DE X
Thunderbolt interface 33
two interfaces networked 34
USB connection 33
Interface + mixer preset 54
iOS operation 29 33
IP address 11 14 58
iPad
QuickStart 7
iPad/iPhone support 29
,
, ,
JJam sync 14, 49
K
Keyboard controller
connecting 46
LLatency 12, 30, 64, 66
Launch Mac Virtual Entity 40
LCD
menu 58
Leveler 16 75
Limit button 76
Live 64
Live recording with monitor mixing preset
,
55
Lock button 15
Logic Pro 64
Logic Pro/Express 63
clock source 63
sample rate 63
LTC
Input Source 14
Setup 48
to MTC conversion 69
accessing 16
aux bus 20
connecting 43
effects 71
group bus 21
input channel strip 18
main mix channel strip 19
Monitor channel strip 19
overview 16
Reverb bus 21
schematics 109
Setup 13
stand-alone operation 71
Mixing tab 16
Monitor
A/B output assignments 59
A/B select 59
controls 59
volume control 60
Monitor A surround 9 10 60
Monitoring
thru main outs 44
Mono button 60
MOTU
Audio Tools 79
AudioDesk 64
AVB Installer 29
AVB Switch
setup 35 39
Digital Performer 64
Discovery app 7 11 31 114
Pro Audio ASIO driver 64
Pro Audio Control web app 7 11 21
Aux Mixing tab 17
Device tab 12 13
Mixing tab 16
Routing tab 15
Pro Audio Installer 7 11
Pro Audio WebUI Setup 11 31
MTC 14 69
Mute button 60
, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
,
,
,
M
Mac OS X 63
input and output names 69
system requirements 27
Mac Virtual Entity 40
Main outs
front panel volume control 44
jacks 10
making connections to 44
Makeup Gain 74
Makeup gain 76
Meters 57
overview 59
prefader 18
Mic inputs
preamp gain/pad/48V 9
Mic/guitar inputs 44
Mic/instrument inputs
overview 23
MIDI
activity indicators 58
MIDI Thru 59
MIDI Time Code 14 69
Mixer
,
N
NET ID button 62
Network menu item 58
Networking 95 100
installation 35 36
Nuendo 63 64
clock source 63
sample rate 63
–
,
O
Optical 59
,
,
connectors 10 45
meters 58
overview 25
S/PDIF 45
Optical Converter preset 56
setup/example 56
Optical setup 13
Optimization 66
OS X audio software
,
clock source 63
sample rate 63
OSC support 115
Oscilloscope 82
Output banks 13
Output settings 12
Outputs
analog 10
optical 10
P
Packing list 27
Pad 44
Password protection 14
Patch thru
latency 66
Pedal 26
jack 10
Pedal A 46
Pedal B/LRC 46
Performance 66
Phantom power 44
Phase Analysis 90
Phase-lock 47
Phone outputs 9
Power switch 9
PRE button 18
PRE switch 16
PreDelay 76
Prefader button 17
Presets 7 12
Mixer tab 16
overview 53
Routing tab 15
Presets menu 59
Pro Audio Control web app 7 11 21
Aux Mixing tab 17
Device tab 12 13
Mixing tab 16
Routing tab 15
Pro Tools 63 64
Processing 71
Punch in/out 26
,
, –
,
,
Q
Q 72
Quick Setup window 7
QuickStart Guide 7
R
Ratio
Compressor 73
Reaper 63 64
Reason 63
Propellerhead Reason 64
Reboot 14
Registration 27
Release
Compressor 72 74
Remote control (through OSC) 115
Restore Factory Presets 14
,
,
118
INDEX
–
Reverb 76 77
design section 77
enabling/disabling 76
predelay 76
routing to/from 76
time 76 77
width 77
RMS mode 74
Routing tab 15
,
SS/PDIF 25
connection 45
meters 58
optical 10 25 45
sync 47
, ,
Safari 11
Sample Rate 59
Sample rate 12 57
conversion 45
Samplers
connecting 43
SC button 19
Schematics 109
Serial/UID 58
Set password 14
SMPTE sync 48
SMPTE time code 14
Software
installation 29
Software installer 7 11 29
Solo bus 19
Solo Clear button 18
SONAR 63
Sound module
connecting 46
Soundtrack Pro
clock source 63
sample rate 63
SRC 45
,
, ,
Stage I/O preset 55
Stage monitors
connecting 43
Stand-alone mixer preset 54
Stand-alone operation 57 62
Standard (optical setting) 45
Steinberg
Cubase 64
Nuendo 64
Sticky 61
Stop Jam Sync 14
Studio setup (example) 43
Surround monitoring 9 10 60
Synchronization 46
Become Clock Master 50
SMPTE time code 48
Synths
connecting 43
System Information 14
System requirements
minimum 27
recommended computer 27
To Computer 15
TOSLink 10 13 25 45
Trim 44
Troubleshooting 103
TRS analog inputs/outputs 45
TRS connectors 44
TSN 24 95
Type II (Legacy) optical setting 45
, , ,
,
,
U
Unbalanced analog 44
,
, ,
Update From File 14 114
USB
class compliance 29
installing drivers 29
V
Version menu item 59
View Personal Mix 17
W
Wave driver 64
TTalk button 61
–
Talkback 60 62
dim 62
settings 61
setup 60
sticky 61
Technical support 104
Threshold
Compressor 73
Thru (word clock) 48
Thunderbolt 33
connector 10
Time code
settings 58
Time code sync 14 48
Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) 24 95
,
WDM (Wave) Driver 30
Width
reverb 77
Wi-Fi
setup 39
Windows
shortcut 31
system requirements 27
WDM (Wave) driver 30
Word clock 10 25 47
Thru 48
, ,
X
X-Y Plot 87
,
119
I N DE X
120
INDEX
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