Working with Graphics - Apache OpenOffice Wiki

Writer Guide
8
Chapter
Working with Graphics
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This document is Copyright © 2008–2010 by its contributors as listed
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All trademarks within this guide belong to their legitimate owners.
Authors
Agnes Belzunce
John Kane
Vincenzo Ponzi
Gary Schnabl
Barbara M. Tobias
Jean Hollis Weber
Michele Zarri
Feedback
Please direct any comments or suggestions about this document to:
authors@documentation.openoffice.org
Publication date and software version
Published 25 March 2010. Based on OpenOffice.org 3.2.
You can download
an editable version of this document from
http://oooauthors.org/english/userguide3/published/
Contents
Copyright............................................................................................... 2
Graphics (images) in Writer...................................................................5
Creating and editing images..................................................................5
Preparing images for black-and-white printing...................................6
Adding images to a document................................................................7
Inserting an image file........................................................................7
Drag and drop.................................................................................. 7
Insert Picture dialog........................................................................7
Linking an image file..........................................................................8
Embedding linked images................................................................9
Inserting an image from the clipboard.............................................10
Inserting an image using a scanner..................................................10
Inserting an image from the Gallery.................................................10
Modifying an image.............................................................................. 12
Using the Picture toolbar..................................................................12
Graphics mode............................................................................... 12
Flip vertically or horizontally .......................................................13
Filters............................................................................................ 13
Color.............................................................................................. 13
Transparency................................................................................. 14
Using the formatting toolbar and Picture dialog..............................14
Cropping images............................................................................... 15
Resizing an image............................................................................. 16
Rotating a picture.............................................................................18
Other settings................................................................................... 18
Deleting a picture.............................................................................19
Using Writer’s drawing tools...............................................................19
Creating drawing objects..................................................................20
Set or change properties for drawing objects...................................20
Resizing a drawing object.................................................................21
Grouping drawing objects.................................................................22
Working with Graphics
3
Positioning graphics within the text.....................................................22
Arranging graphics...........................................................................23
Anchoring graphics........................................................................... 24
Aligning graphics.............................................................................. 25
Wrapping text around graphics........................................................26
Editing the contour........................................................................ 28
Example 1: page wrapping............................................................29
Example 2: simple contour wrapping in action..............................30
Example 3: Wrap Through and In Background..............................31
Adding captions to graphics.................................................................32
Adding captions automatically..........................................................32
Using the Caption dialog box............................................................33
Overriding the default positioning of captions..................................34
Adding captions manually.................................................................35
Place the graphic and its caption in separate paragraphs.............35
Use a table..................................................................................... 36
Creating an image map........................................................................36
Adding an image to the Gallery............................................................38
4
Working with Graphics
Graphics (images) in Writer
When you create a text document using OpenOffice.org (OOo) Writer,
you may want to include some illustrations. Illustrations (graphics) are
added to documents for a wide variety of reasons: from supporting the
description provided in the text—as used in this Guide—to providing an
immediate visual representation of the contents, as is often found in a
newspaper.
Graphics in Writer are of three basic types:
• Image files, such as photos, drawings, and scanned images
• Diagrams created using OOo’s drawing tools
• Charts created using OOo’s Chart facility
This chapter covers images and diagrams.
More detailed descriptions on working with drawing tools can be found
in the Draw Guide and Impress Guide. Instructions on how to create
charts are given in the Calc Guide.
Creating and editing images
You might create images (also called ‘pictures’ in OpenOffice.org)
using a graphics program, scan them, or download them from the
Internet (make sure you have permission to use them), or use photos
taken with a digital camera. Writer can import various vector (line
drawing) and raster (bitmap) file formats. The most common are GIF,
JPG, PNG, and BMP. See the Help for a full list.
Some things to consider when choosing or creating pictures include
image quality and whether the picture will be printed in color or black
and white (grayscale).
To edit photos and other bitmap images, use a bitmap editor. To edit
line drawings, use a vector drawing program. You do not need to buy
expensive programs. Open-source (and usually no-cost) tools such as
Gimp (bitmap editor) and Inkscape (vector drawing program) are
excellent. For many graphics, OOo Draw is sufficient. These and many
other programs work on Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux.
For best results:
• Create images that have the exact dimensions required for the
document, or use an appropriate graphics package to scale
photographs and large drawings to the required dimensions. Do
not scale images with Writer, even though Writer has tools for
Creating and editing images
5
doing this, because the results might not be as clear as you would
like.
• Do any other required image manipulation (brightness and
contrast, color balance, cropping, conversion to grayscale, and so
on) in a graphics package, not in Writer, even though Writer has
the tools to do a lot of these things too.
• If the document is meant for screen use only, there is no need to
use high resolution images of 300 or more dpi (dots per inch).
Most computer monitors work at between 72 and 96 dpi, reducing
the resolution (and the file size) has no negative impact on what is
displayed but does make Writer more responsive.
Preparing images for black-and-white printing
If color images are to be printed in grayscale, check that any adjacent
colors have good contrast and print dark enough. Test by printing on a
black-and-white printer using a grayscale setting. Better still: change
the “mode” of the image to grayscale, either in a photo editor or in
Writer itself (see “Graphics mode” on page 12).
For example, the following diagram looks good in color. The circle is
dark red and the square is dark blue. In grayscale, the difference
between the two is not so clear. A third element in the diagram is a
yellow arrow, which is almost invisible in grayscale.
Original drawing in color
Drawing printed in grayscale
Changing the colors of the circle and the arrow improves the contrast
and visibility of the resulting grayscale image.
Original drawing in color
6
Drawing printed in grayscale
Working with Graphics
If the document will be available in black-and-white print only, a better
result can often be obtained by choosing grayscale fills, not color fills—
and you don’t have to guess and test to see if you’ve made good
choices.
Adding images to a document
Images can be added to a document in several ways: by inserting an
image file, directly from a graphics program or a scanner, or from the
OOo Gallery.
Inserting an image file
When the image is in a file stored on the computer, you can insert it
into an OOo document using either of the following methods.
Drag and drop
1) Open a file browser window and locate the image you want to
insert.
2) Drag the image into the Writer document and drop it where you
want it to appear. A faint vertical line marks where the image will
be dropped.
This method embeds (saves a copy of) the image file in the Writer
document. To link the file instead of embedding it, hold down the
Control+Shift keys while dragging the image.
Insert Picture dialog
1) Click in the OOo document where you want the image to appear.
2) Choose Insert > Picture > From File from the menu bar.
3) On the Insert Picture dialog, navigate to the file to be inserted,
select it, and click Open.
At the bottom of the dialog are two options, Preview and Link. Select
Preview to view a thumbnail of the selected image on the right, so you
can verify that you have the correct file. See below for the use of Link.
Adding images to a document
7
Figure 1. Insert picture dialog
Linking an image file
If the Link option in the Insert picture dialog is selected, OOo creates
a link to the file containing the image instead of saving a copy of the
image in the document. The result is that the image is displayed in the
document, but when the document is saved, it contains only a
reference to the image file—not the image itself. The document and the
image remain as two separate files, and they are merged together only
when you open the document again.
Linking an image has two advantages and one disadvantage:
• Advantage – Linking can reduce the size of the document when it
is saved, because the image file itself is not included. File size is
usually not a problem on a modern computer with a reasonable
amount of memory, unless the document includes many large
graphics files; OOo can handle quite large files.
• Advantage – You can modify the image file separately without
changing the document because the link to the file remains valid,
and the modified image will appear when you next open the
document. This can be a big advantage if you (or someone else,
perhaps a graphic artist) is updating images.
• Disadvantage – If you send the document to someone else, or
move it to a different computer, you must also send the image
files, or the receiver will not be able to see the linked images. You
need to keep track of the location of the images and make sure
the recipient knows where to put them on another machine, so
the document can find them. For example, you might keep images
8
Working with Graphics
in a subfolder named Images (under the folder containing the
document); the recipient of the file needs to put the images in a
subfolder with the same name (under the folder containing the
document).
Note
When inserting the same image several times in the document
it would appear beneficial to create links; however, this is not
necessary as OOo embeds in the document only one copy of
the image file.
Embedding linked images
If you originally linked the images, you can easily embed one or more
of them later if you wish. To do so:
1) Open the document in OpenOffice.org and choose Edit > Links.
2) The Edit Links dialog shows all the linked files. In the Source file
list, select the files you want to change from linked to embedded.
3) Click the Break Link button.
4) Save the document.
Note
Going the other way, from embedded to linked, is not so easy—
you must delete and reinsert each image, one at a time,
selecting the Link option when you do so.
Figure 2: The Edit Links dialog
Adding images to a document
9
Inserting an image from the clipboard
Using the clipboard, you can copy images into an OOo document from
another OOo document and from other programs. To do this:
1) Open both the source document and the target document.
2) In the source document, select the image to be copied.
3) Move the mouse pointer over the selected image and press
Control+C to copy the image to the clipboard.
4) Switch to the target document.
5) Click to place the cursor where the graphic is to be inserted.
6) Press Control+V to insert the image.
Caution
If the application from which the graphic was copied is closed
before the graphic is pasted into the target, the image stored on
the clipboard could be lost.
Inserting an image using a scanner
If a scanner is connected to your computer, OOo can call the scanning
application and inserted the scanned item into the OOo document as
an image. To start this procedure, click where you want the graphic to
be inserted and select Insert > Picture > Scan > Select Source.
Although this practice is quick and easy, it is unlikely to result in a
high-quality image of the correct size. You may get better results by
scanned material into a graphics program and cleaning it up there
before inserting the resulting image into OOo.
Inserting an image from the Gallery
The Gallery provides a convenient way to group reusable objects such
as graphics and sounds that you can insert into your documents. The
Gallery is available in all components of OOo. It does not come with
many graphics, but you can add your own pictures or find extensions
containing more graphics. The Gallery is explained in more detail in
Chapter 11 (Graphics, the Gallery, and Fontwork) in the Getting
Started guide. For more about extensions, see Chapter 17
(Customizing Writer) in this book.
10
Working with Graphics
This section explains the basics of inserting a Gallery image into a
Writer document:
1) To open the Gallery, click on the Gallery icon
(located in the
right side of the Standard toolbar) or choose Tools > Gallery
from the menu bar.
2) Navigate through the Gallery to find the desired picture.
3) To insert the picture, click and drag it from the Gallery into the
Writer document. You can also right-click on the picture and
choose Insert > Copy.
Figure 3 shows an example of an image dragged from the Gallery.
Figure 3. Inserting an image from the Gallery
By default, the Gallery is docked above the Writer workspace. To
expand the Gallery, position the pointer over the line that divides it
from the top of the workspace. When the pointer changes to parallel
lines with arrows, click and drag downward. The workspace resizes in
response.
To expand the Gallery without affecting the workspace, undock it so it
floats over the workspace. To do so, hold down the Control key and
double-click on the upper part of the Gallery next to the View icons.
Double-click in the same area while holding down the Control key to
dock it again (restore it to its position over the workspace).
Adding images to a document
11
When the Gallery is docked, to hide it and view the full Writer
workspace, click the Hide/Show button in the middle of the thin bar
separating the Gallery from the workspace.
To close the Gallery, choose Tools > Gallery to uncheck the Gallery
entry, or click on the Gallery icon again.
Modifying an image
When you insert a new image, you may need to modify it to suit the
document. The placement of the picture relative to the text is
discussed in “Positioning graphics within the text” on page 22. This
section describes the use of the Picture toolbar, resizing, cropping, and
a workaround to rotate a picture.
Writer provides many tools for working with images. These tools are
sufficient for most people’s everyday requirements. However, for
professional results it is generally better to use an image manipulation
program such as GIMP to modify images (for example, to crop, resize,
rotate, and change color values) and then insert the result into OOo.
GIMP is an open-source graphics program that can be downloaded
from http://www.gimp.org/downloads/.
Using the Picture toolbar
When you insert an image or select one already present in the
document, the Picture toolbar appears. You can set it to always be
present (View > Toolbars > Picture). Picture control buttons from
the Picture toolbar can also be added to the Standard Toolbar. See
Chapter 17 (Customizing Writer) for more information.
This toolbar can be either floating or docked. Figure 4 shows what the
Picture toolbar looks like when it is floating.
Two other toolbars can be opened from this one: the Graphic Filter
toolbar, which can be torn off and placed elsewhere on the window,
and the Color toolbar, which opens as a separate floating toolbar.
From these three toolbars, you can apply small corrections to the
graphic or obtain special effects.
Graphics mode
You can change color images to grayscale by selecting the image and
then selecting Grayscale from the Graphics mode list
12
.
Working with Graphics
Flip vertically or horizontally
To flip an image vertically or horizontally, select the image, and then
click the relevant icon
.
Filters
Table 1provides a short description of the available filters, however the
best way to understand them is to see them in action. Feel free to
experiment with the different filters and filters settings, remembering
that you can undo all the changes by pressing Ctrl+Z or
Alt+Backspace or by selecting Edit > Undo.
1
2
3
4
5
6
9
19
10
18
20
17
21
11
12
7
8
22
13
14 15
16
23
24
25
Note: Graphics mode (3) can be Default, Grayscale,
Black/White, or Watermark.
Figure 4. Picture toolbar plus tear-off Graphic
Filter toolbar and floating Color toolbar
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
From File
Filter
Graphics mode
Color
Transparency
Flip Horizontally
Flip Vertically
Graphics Properties
Invert
Smooth
Solarization
Aging
Charcoal Sketch
Relief
Mosaic
Posterize
Pop Art
Sharpen
Remove Noise
Red
Green
Blue
Brightness
Contrast
Gamma
Color
Use this toolbar to modify the individual RGB color components of the
image (red, green, blue) as well as the brightness, contrast, and
gamma of the image. If the result is not satisfactory, you can press
Control+Z to restore the default values.
Modifying an image
13
Table 1: Graphic filters and their effects
Icon
Name
Effect
Invert
Inverts the color values of a color image or the
brightness values of a grayscale image.
Smooth
Softens the contrast of an image.
Sharpen
Increases the contrast of an image.
Remove noise
Removes single pixels from an image.
Solarization
Mimics the effects of too much light in a picture.
A further dialog box opens to adjust the
parameters.
Aging
Simulates the effects of time on a picture. Can be
applied several times. A further dialog box opens
to adjust the aging level.
Posterize
Makes a picture appear like a painting by
reducing the number of colors used.
Pop Art
Modifies the picture dramatically.
Charcoal
Displays the image as a charcoal sketch.
Relief
A dialog box is displayed to adjust the light
source that will create the shadow and, hence,
the relief effect.
Mosaic
Joins groups of pixels into a single area of one
color.
Transparency
Modify the percentage value in the Transparency box
on the
Picture toolbar to make the image more transparent. This is
particularly useful when creating a watermark or when wrapping the
image in the background.
Using the formatting toolbar and Picture dialog
When an image is selected, you can customize some aspects of its
appearance using the tools available on the Formatting toolbar (shown
in Figure 9) as well as in the dialog that is shown by right-clicking on
the image and selecting Picture. You can, for example, create a border
around the image, selecting style and color; or you can (in the Borders
page of the Picture dialog) add a shadow to the image.
14
Working with Graphics
Cropping images
When you are only interested in a section of the image for the purpose
of your document, you may wish to crop (cut off) parts of it. The user
interface offered in Writer for cropping an image is not very friendly, so
it may be a better choice to use a graphics package.
Note
If you crop an image in Writer, the picture itself is not changed.
If you export the document to HTML, the original image is
exported, not the cropped image.
To start cropping the image, right-click on it and select Picture from
the pop-up menu. In the Picture dialog box, select the Crop page.
Figure 5: The options available when cropping a picture
In the Crop page, you can control the following parameters:
Keep scale / Keep image size
When Keep scale is selected (default), cropping the image does not
change the scale of the picture.
When Keep image size is selected, cropping produces enlargement
(for positive cropping values), shrinking (for negative cropping
values), or distortion of the image so that the image size remains
constant.
Modifying an image
15
Left, Right, Top, and Bottom
The image is cropped by the amount entered in these boxes. For
example, a value of 3cm in the Left box cuts 3 cm from the left side
of the picture.
• When Keep scale is selected, the size of the image also changes,
so in this example the width will be reduced by 3 cm.
• When Keep image size is selected, the remaining part of the
image is enlarged (when you enter positive values for cropping)
or shrunk (when you enter negative values for cropping) so that
the width and height of the image remains unchanged.
Width and Height
The Width and Height fields under either Scale or Image size
change as you enter values in the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom
fields. Use the thumbnail next to these fields to determine the
correct amount by which to crop.
Resizing an image
The inserted image might not fit perfectly into the document if it is too
big or too small. In these cases you can use Writer to resize the image.
1) Click the picture, if necessary, to show the green resizing handles.
2) Position the pointer over one of the green resizing handles. The
pointer changes shape giving a graphical representation of the
direction of the resizing.
3) Click and drag to resize the picture.
4) Release the mouse button when satisfied with the new size.
The corner handles resize both the width and the height of the graphic
object simultaneously, while the other four handles only resize one
dimension at a time.
Tip
To retain the original proportions of the graphic, Shift+click
one of the corner handles, then drag. Be sure to release the
mouse button before releasing the Shift key.
Be aware that re-sizing a bit-mapped (raster) image will adversely
affect the resolution, causing some degree of blurring. It is better to
externally size your picture correctly before insertion into your
presentation, if possible.
Figure 6 shows three examples of an image inserted into a document
and resized.
16
Working with Graphics
Figure 6. Three examples of resized images, plus the
original image
For more accurate resizing, use either the Crop page of the Picture
dialog box (Figure 5) or, for images, the Type page of the Picture
dialog box. On the Crop page you can either adjust the following
settings or use the settings in the Crop section as described on page
15.
• Scale Width and Height: specify in percentages the scaling of
the picture. The size of the image changes accordingly. For a
scaled resizing, both values should be identical.
• Image size: specify the size of the image in your preferred unit of
measurement. The image enlarges or shrinks accordingly.
• Original size button: when clicked, restores the image to its
original size.
In the Type page of the Picture dialog box, select the Relative option
to toggle between percentage and actual dimension. For a scaled
resizing, select the Keep ratio option. As for the Crop page, clicking
on the Original Size button restores the original image size.
Modifying an image
17
Rotating a picture
Writer does not provide a tool for rotating a picture; however, there is
a simple workaround:
1) Open a new Draw or Impress document (File > New > Drawing
or File > New > Presentation).
2) Insert the image you want to rotate. You can use any of the
mechanisms described in “Adding images to a document” on page
7, although there are some slight variations in the position of the
menu entries and icons.
3) Select the image, then in the Drawing toolbar (shown by default
at the bottom of the window in Impress and Draw), select the
Rotate icon
from the Effects tear-off toolbar
.
4) Rotate the image as desired. Use the red handles at the corners of
the picture and move the mouse in the direction you wish to
rotate. By default the picture rotates around its center (indicated
by a black crosshair), but you can change the pivot point by
moving the black crosshair to the desired rotation center.
Tip
To restrict the rotation angle to multiples of 15 degrees keep
the Shift key pressed while rotating the image.
5) Select the rotated picture by pressing Ctrl+A, then copy the
image to the clipboard with Ctrl+C.
6) Finish by going back to the location of the Writer document
where the image is to be inserted and pressing Ctrl+V.
Other settings
The Picture dialog box (Figure 5) consists of eight pages. The Crop
page was described on page 15, while the use of the Type and the
Wrap pages is explained in “Positioning graphics within the text” on
page 22. The other pages serve the following purposes:
• Options: use this page to give the picture a descriptive name (as
you want it to appear in the Navigator), display alternative text
when the mouse hovers over the picture, and protect some of the
picture settings from accidental changes. You can also prevent
the picture from being printed by deselecting the corresponding
option.
• Borders: use this page to create borders around the picture. The
Borders dialog box is the same as the one used for defining table
or paragraph borders. You can also add a shadow to the image if
so desired.
18
Working with Graphics
• Background: use this page to change the background color of
the picture. This setting produces the desired results only for
images with a transparent color.
• Hyperlink: use this page to associate a hyperlink to the picture.
you can also create an image map so that only certain areas of the
picture respond to a mouse click by opening the associated URI
(Uniform Resource Identifier) in the default browser. More
information on image maps can be found in the Impress Guide.
• Picture: use this page to flip the picture as well as to display the
original location of the file in case the image is linked rather than
embedded.
• Macro: allows you to associate a macro to the picture. You can
choose among the predefined macros or write your own.
Deleting a picture
To delete a picture:
1) Click on the picture, to show the green resizing handles.
2) Press Delete.
Using Writer’s drawing tools
You can use Writer’s drawing tools to create graphics, such as simple
diagrams using rectangles, circles, lines, text, and other predefined
shapes. You can also group several drawing objects to make sure they
maintain their relative position and proportion.
You can place the drawing objects directly on a page in your document,
or you can insert them into a frame.
You can also use the drawing tools to annotate photographs, screen
captures, or other illustrations produced by other programs, but this is
not recommended because:
• You cannot include images in a group with drawing objects, so
they may get out of alignment in your document.
• If you convert a Writer document to another format, such as
HTML, the drawing objects and the graphics will not remain
associated; they are saved separately.
In general, if you need to create complex drawings, it is recommended
to use OpenOffice.org Draw, which includes many more features such
as layers, styles, and so on.
Using Writer’s drawing tools
19
Creating drawing objects
To begin using the drawing tools, display the Drawing toolbar (Figure
7), by clicking View > Toolbars > Drawing.
If you are planning to use the drawing tools repeatedly, you can tear off
this toolbar and move it to a convenient place on the window.
1
2
3
4
Select
Line
Rectangle
Ellipse
5
6
7
8
Freeform Line
Text
Callouts
Basic Shapes
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10
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12
Symbol Shapes
Block arrows
Flowcharts
Callouts
13
14
15
16
17
Stars
Points
Fontwork Gallery
From File
Extrusion On/Off
Figure 7. The Drawing toolbar
To use a drawing tool:
1) Click in the document where you want the drawing to be
anchored. You can change the anchor later, if necessary.
2) Select the tool from the Drawing toolbar (Figure 7). The mouse
pointer changes to a drawing-functions pointer
.
3) Move the cross-hair pointer to the place in the document where
you want the graphic to appear and then click-and-drag to create
the drawing object. Release the mouse button. The selected
drawing function remains active, so you can draw another object
of the same type.
4) To cancel the selected drawing function, press the Esc key or
click on the Select icon (the arrow) on the Drawing toolbar.
5) You can now change the properties (fill color, line type and
weight, anchoring, and others) of the drawing object using either
the Drawing Object Properties toolbar (Figure 8) or the choices
and dialog boxes reached by right-clicking on the drawing object.
Set or change properties for drawing objects
To set the properties for a drawing object before you draw it:
1) On the Drawing toolbar (Figure 7), click the Select tool.
2) On the Drawing Object Properties toolbar (Figure 8), click on the
icon for each property and select the value you want for that
property.
20
Working with Graphics
3) For more control, or to define new attributes, you can click on the
Area or Line icons on the toolbar to display detailed dialog boxes.
The default you set applies to the current document and session. It is
not retained when you close the document or close Writer, and it does
not apply to any other document you open. The defaults apply to all the
drawing objects except text objects.
1 Line
5 Line Color
9 To Foreground
2 Arrow Style
6 Area
3 Line Style
7 Area Style / Filling 11 Bring to Front
15 Ungroup
4 Line Width
8 Rotate
16 Group
10 To Background
12 Send to Back
13 Alignment
14 Change Anchor
Figure 8. Drawing Object Properties toolbar
To change the properties for an existing drawing object:
1) Select the object.
2) Continue as described above.
You can also specify the position and size, rotation, and slant and
corner radius properties of the drawing object:
1) Right-click on the drawing object and then click Position and Size
from the pop-up menu. The Position and Size dialog box is
displayed.
2) Choose any properties, as required.
Resizing a drawing object
The same considerations for resizing an image apply also to resizing an
object. Select the object, click on one of the eight handles around it
and drag it to its new position. For a scaled resizing, select one of the
corner handles and keep the Shift key pressed while dragging the
handle to its new position.
For more sophisticated control of the size of the object, select Format
> Object > Position and Size from the menu bar. Use the Position
and Size dialog box to set the width and height independently. If the
Keep ratio option is selected, then the two dimensions change so that
the proportion is maintained, allowing for a scaled resizing.
Using Writer’s drawing tools
21
Grouping drawing objects
To group drawing objects:
1) Select one object, then hold down the Shift key and select the
others you want to include in the group. The bounding box
expands to include all the selected objects.
2) With the objects selected, hover the mouse pointer over one of
the objects and choose Format > Group > Group from the menu
bar or right-click and choose Group > Group from the pop-up
menu.
Note
You cannot include an embedded or linked graphic in a group
with drawing objects.
Positioning graphics within the text
When you add a graphic to a text document, you need to choose how to
position it with respect to the text and other graphics. The positioning
of graphics is often rather time-consuming and may be very frustrating
for both inexperienced and experienced users. As Writer is a word
processor rather than a desktop publishing program, there are some
limitations to the flexibility in positioning images and it takes time to
get things exactly as you would like them.
Positioning of a graphic is controlled by four settings:
• Arrangement refers to the placement of a graphic on an
imaginary vertical axis. Arrangement controls how graphics are
stacked upon each other or relative to the text.
• Alignment refers to the vertical or horizontal placement of a
graphic in relation to the chosen anchor point.
• Anchoring refers to the reference point for the graphics. This
point could be the page, or frame where the object is, a
paragraph, or even a character. An image always has an anchor
point.
• Text wrapping refers to the relation of graphics to the
surrounding text, which may wrap around the graphic on one or
both sides, be overprinted behind or in front of the graphic, or
treat the graphic as a separate paragraph or character.
22
Working with Graphics
The settings can be accessed in a number of ways, depending on the
nature of the graphics:
1) From the Format menu, where you can find Alignment,
Arrange, Wrap, and Anchor (both for images and drawing
objects).
2) From the pop-up menu displayed when you right-click on the
graphic.
3) From the Object toolbar shown in Figure 9.
4) For images, from the Type and Wrapping pages of the Picture
dialog box. Note that you cannot control the arrangement using
the dialog box. To open the Picture dialog box, click on the image
to select it and then choose Format > Picture or right-click on
the graphic and choose Picture on the pop-up menu.
5) For drawing objects, from the Position and Size page of the
Position and Size dialog box. To open the Position and Size dialog
box, click on the drawing object to select it and then choose
Format > Object > Position and Size or right-click on the
graphic and choose Position and Size on the pop-up menu. Note
that you can only control the alignment and anchoring.
1 Apply Style
6 Center Horizontal
11 Borders
16 Bring to Front
2 Wrap Off
7 Align Right
12 Line Style
17 Send to Back
3 Page Wrap
8 Top
13 Line Color (of the
border)
18 Change Anchor
4 Wrap Through
9 Center
14 Background Color
19 Link Frames
10 Bottom
15 Frame Properties
20 Unlink Frames
5 Align Left
Figure 9. Object toolbar (graphical control of positioning for images)
Arranging graphics
Arranging a graphic object means to determine its vertical position
relative to other graphic objects or text. Arranging is only relevant
when objects are overlapping. You can choose between four settings,
plus a special setting for drawing objects:
Bring to Front
Places the graphic on top of any other graphics or text.
Positioning graphics within the text
23
Bring Forward
Brings the graphic one level up in the stack (z-axis). Depending on
the number of overlapping objects, you may need to apply this
option several times to obtain the desired result.
Send Backward
The opposite of Bring Forward; sends the selected graphic one level
down in the object stack.
Send to Back
Sends the selected graphic to the bottom of the stack, so that other
graphics and text cover it.
To Background / To Foreground
Only available for drawing objects; moves the drawing object behind
or in front of the text respectively.
Anchoring graphics
You can anchor graphics as a character or to a page, paragraph, or
character. You can also place graphics in a frame and anchor the frame
to a page, paragraph, or character. Which method you choose depends
on what you are trying to achieve.
Here are the ways you can anchor graphics or drawing objects:
To Page
The graphic keeps the same position in relation to the page margins.
It does not move as you add or delete text or other graphics. This
method is useful when the graphic does not need to be visually
associated with a particular piece of text. It is often used when
producing newsletters or other documents that are very layout
intensive, or for placing logos in letterheads.
Caution
If you plan to use a document within a master document, do
not anchor graphics To Page because the graphics will
disappear from the master document. See Chapter 13
(Working with Master Documents) for more information.
To Paragraph
The graphic is associated with a paragraph and moves with the
paragraph. It may be placed in the margin or another location. This
method is useful as an alternative to a table for placing icons beside
paragraphs.
24
Working with Graphics
To Character
The graphic is associated with a character but is not in the text
sequence. It moves with the paragraph but may be placed in the
margin or another location. This method is similar to anchoring to a
paragraph but cannot be used with drawing objects.
As Character
The graphic is placed in the document like any other character and,
therefore, affects the height of the text line and the line break. The
graphic moves with the paragraph as you add or delete text before
the paragraph. This method is useful for keeping screenshots in
sequence in a procedure (by anchoring them as a character in a
blank paragraph) or for adding a small (inline) icon in sequence in a
sentence.
To Frame
If the graphic has been placed in a frame, you can anchor the
graphic in a fixed position inside the frame. The frame can then be
anchored to the page, a paragraph, or a character, as required.
Aligning graphics
Once you have established the anchor point of the graphic, you can
decide the position of the graphic relative to this anchor: this is called
aligning the graphics. Choose from six options: three for aligning the
graphic horizontally (left, center, right) and three for aligning the
graphic vertically (top, center, bottom). Horizontal alignment is not
available for images anchored as character.
For finer control of the alignment, use the Position options on the Type
page of the Picture dialog box, shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10: Fine tuning the alignment
For both the horizontal and vertical position, start by picking the
reference point in the right hand side drop down menu, then select in
the first drop down menu among Left, Right or Center. If you select
the value From left (or From top for the vertical positioning) you can
specify the amount in your selected unit of measurement. In the
Positioning graphics within the text
25
example in Figure 10, the upper-left corner of the image will be placed
at 3 cm from the left margin of the page horizontally and on the top
margin vertically.
Wrapping text around graphics
The Wrap setting determines the relation between the text and the
graphic. Several possibilities are provided:
No Wrap
With this option the text is placed above and below the image but
not around it. This is the wrapping type used for most of the figures
in this guide.
Page Wrap or Optimal Page Wrap
The text flows around the image. Moving the image around the page
causes the text to be rearranged to fill the space to the left and right
of it. Optimal Page Wrap prevents text from being placed to the
side of the image if the spacing between the image and the margin
is less than 2 cm.
Wrap Through
Superimposes the image on the text. That is, the image is above the
text. This option must be used in conjunction with the imagetransparency setting in order to make the text under the picture
visible.
In Background
Similar to Wrap Through, but the image is placed below the text so
there may be no need to change the transparency to make the text
visible.
Note
The No Wrap option found in the pop-up menu of a picture is
equivalent to the Wrap Off menu item in the Format > Wrap
menu.
The wrap format is normally selected after the anchoring and the
alignment of the picture have been decided. To set the position of an
image to the the desired wrap format, follow these steps:
1) Select a graphic by clicking on it.
2) Right-click to display the pop-up menu and move the mouse
pointer to Wrap to display the available wrap formats.
Alternatively you can select Format > Wrap from the main
menu.
26
Working with Graphics
3) Select the desired wrap format.
Note
When anchoring a graphic as character, you can only adjust
the distance between the image and the text, but no wrapping
option is displayed.
To fine tune the wrapping options, open the Picture dialog box and
select the Wrap page shown in Figure 11. For images you can open this
dialog box by selecting Format > Picture from the main menu or
right-click and select Picture from the pop-up menu. For drawing
objects, you can access the Wrap page by selecting Format > Wrap >
Edit in the main menu or right-click and select Wrap > Edit from the
pop-up menu.
Figure 11: The advanced wrap format options
This page is divided into three sections. In the top part you can select
among the wrap types mentioned above, plus two additional wrap
formats that prevent the text from filling the area to the left (After) or
to the right (Before) of the picture. Use the Spacing section of the
page to adjust the spacing between the image and the text. The
contents of the Options section of the page may change depending on
the selected wrap format.
First paragraph
Check this box if you want OOo to start a new paragraph after the
image even if it could still wrap around the image.
Positioning graphics within the text
27
In background
This option becomes available if Through Wrap is selected; it
moves the image in the background.
Contour
Wraps the text around a custom contour rather than around the
edge of the picture. This option is only available for Page or Optimal
Page Wrap.
Outside only
Forces the text to wrap on the outside of the image, even if the
contour contains open areas within the shape.
Editing the contour
This option is only available for image wrapping. If you select wrapping
around a drawing object, OOo automatically creates a contour. You can
access the Contour Editor by selecting Format > Wrap > Edit
Contour or from the right-click menu
The dialog box of Figure 12 opens with the image loaded in the main
window. Use the tools to draw the region of the image you do not want
to be covered by the text—such area will be shaded.
Some familiarity with drawing tools is required to create complex
contours; however, in most circumstances there is no need for high
accuracy. Figure 12 shows the actual contour used for “Example 2:
simple contour wrapping in action” and as you can see the shape of the
line around the edge of the sphere is far from perfect.
When you are done, click on the Apply button to save the contour. If
you are not satisfied with the result, you can select the contour line
and press the Delete key to restart. You can also undo the previous
steps or you can select the Edit Points button and adjust the contour
shape point by point.
For simple images, the AutoContour button does a decent job. If the
contour has to be drawn around an area with the same or a similar
color, you can select this region using the eyedropper. Select this tool,
then click on a point in the image having the desired color. OOo
automatically selects all the points which have the same or a similar
color. The similarity level can be changed by modifying the value in the
tolerance box (100% = perfect match).
Note
28
While all the positioning techniques discussed in this section
apply equally to frames, contour wrapping is not possible.
Working with Graphics
Figure 12: The Contour Editor in action
Example 1: page wrapping
Figure 13 shows an example of page wrapping in action.
Image anchor
Spacing image to text
Margin to image distance
Figure 13: Example of image with Page Wrap formatting
Positioning graphics within the text
29
The process to obtain this is the following:
1) Insert the image into the document, then anchor it to the first
paragraph. To move the anchor, select the image and move it until
the anchor symbol is at the beginning of the paragraph. Do not
worry about the position as that will be fixed in the next step.
2) Align the image so that the left margin of the image is in line with
the paragraph indentation. This can be done with the mouse or
using the advanced settings. In the example, the image is placed
1 cm from the left margin.
3) Change the wrap to Page Wrap. It starts out OK; however, there is
still too little space between the image and the text. To correct it,
access the Wrap page of the Picture dialog box and set the gap
between the image and text to 0.2 cm in the Right and Bottom
boxes.
4) The last touch is to change the position so that the image is below
the first line of the paragraph. Again, you can use the mouse to
drag the image or use the advanced settings, which require a bit
of trial and error. The line height used in this guide—0.75 cm
from the top margin of the paragraph—is a good value.
Example 2: simple contour wrapping in action
In this example we again apply page wrapping as in example 1,
enabling this time the contour option. We will work on an image and on
a drawing object as the contour option works slightly differently in the
two cases.
The example of Figure 14 has been built following the steps below,
which you can use to practice.
1) Create some text (a very quick way to do that is to use the dummy
text AutoText. That is, type DT and then press the F3 key).
2) Insert an image of your choice and anchor it to the first
paragraph. Adjust the alignment as desired then change the wrap
type to Page Wrap.
3) Right-click on the picture to select the option Wrap > Contour,
then right-click again and select Wrap > Edit Contour from the
pop-up menu.
4) Use the technique discussed in “Editing the contour” on page 28
to create a custom contour and click Apply. If needed, adjust the
spacing between the edge of the image and the text.
5) Insert an AutoShape of your choice (a rotated triangle in the
example) and proceed as in step 2 above.
30
Working with Graphics
6) Enable the contour wrap by selecting Format > Wrap >
Contour from the main menu. As discussed previously, OOo
automatically generates the contour. You may need to adjust the
distance between the drawing object and the text.
Figure 14: Image and drawing object with contour wrapping
Example 3: Wrap Through and In Background
This example shows how to use an image as a watermark by wrapping
it through the text and adjusting the transparency. This is not the best
way to create watermarks and it is presented here only for its
illustration purposes. If you need to create a watermark, it is best to
use a Fontworks object wrapped in the background.
The Wrap Through option inserts an image overlapping the text which
as a result will be hidden. To make the text appear, change the
transparency of the picture; although the words under the image
become visible, they may be difficult to read and will appear lighter
than the rest of the text.
To reproduce the example of Figure 15 create some dummy text, then
insert the image of your choice. Anchor the image (to the page in the
example) and select the wrap through option from the Format > Wrap
menu or right-clicking on the image and selecting Wrap > Wrap
Through from the pop-up menu. Move the image into the desired
position. The Picture toolbar should be displayed when the image is
Positioning graphics within the text
31
selected. Change the transparency to a suitable value (in the example
this is 40%) so that the text can be read. In the example, a shadow
effect is applied to the text (Format > Character then select Shadow
in the Font Effects page).
Figure 15: Transparent image added over the text
You can obtain a better result if you set a graphic’s wrap to In
Background. In this case all the text will be clearly readable, with
characters that have the same intensity as long as the background is
not too dark. Also in this case you may want to adjust the transparency
of the image.
Adding captions to graphics
You can add captions to graphics in three ways: automatically, by using
the Caption dialog box, or manually.
Adding captions automatically
You can set up OOo to add captions automatically whenever you insert
a graphic, a table, or other objects into a document. You can choose
which objects are captioned automatically, what the sequence name is
for each caption (for example, “Table” or “Illustration”), and the
position of the caption.
To set up automatic captions:
1) Click Tools > Options. On the Options dialog box, click on the +
sign next to OpenOffice.org Writer to show a list of options.
32
Working with Graphics
2) Select AutoCaption. Now you can see several choices at the
right of the dialog box for adding captions automatically.
3) Choose which objects you want to be automatically captioned and
specify the characteristics of the captions.
For more information, see “AutoCaption options” in Chapter 2 (Setting
up Writer).
When you insert a graphic, if automatic captioning is enabled, the
graphic is placed in a frame along with a caption containing the default
sequence name for graphics―Illustration. Position the cursor in the
caption area and type the text for the caption. You can change the
sequence name by selecting one from the drop-down Category list.
Note
Tip
You can specify where to place an automatic caption for any
object except a picture; picture captions can only be
automatically placed below the picture. If you need a caption
above the picture (for example, for data plots in scientific
publications), you must add the captions manually, as
described in “Adding captions manually” on page 35.
A common sequence name—Figure—is not one of the names
provided: <None>, Drawing, Illustration, Table, and Text.
If you want the name “Figure” or any other custom name for
your graphics, do the following:
1) Open the Options – OpenOffice.org Writer –
AutoCaption dialog box, as described above.
2) In the Add captions automatically when inserting section,
select OpenOffice.org Writer Picture. This activates the
Caption area in the dialog box for pictures (graphics).
3) Under the Category drop-down list, enter the name that
you want added (say, Figure), by overwriting any sequence
name in the list. (Overwriting a term does not delete it
from the drop-down list.) You can also set some options for
the number style and for a separator between the name
and the number, if desired. Click OK to save the changes.
Using the Caption dialog box
To add captions using the Caption dialog box:
1) Insert the graphic, then select it and click Insert > Caption.
2) Under Properties on the Caption dialog box (Figure 20), make
your selections for the Category, Numbering, and Separator fields
(Illustration, Arabic (1 2 3), and a colon (:), respectively, for the
Adding captions to graphics
33
example in Figure 16 and type your caption text in the Caption
text box at the top. Whatever text you enter for the caption
appears in the box at the bottom, after the sequence name,
number, and separator.
3) Click OK. The graphic and its caption are placed in a frame, as
shown in Figure 17.
Tip
In the Category box, you can type any name you want, for
example, Figure. OOo will create a numbering sequence using
that name.
Figure 16. Defining the caption for an illustration
Illustration 1. An example
Figure 17. An example of a graphic and its caption contained in a
frame. The outer box shows the edge of the frame; this border is
normally set to be invisible.
Overriding the default positioning of captions
The default positioning for picture captions is Below, and that position
cannot be changed using the Caption dialog. However, you can
override the positioning manually, as follows:
1) Follow the instructions in “Using the Caption dialog box” on page
33 to create the caption.
34
Working with Graphics
2) Right-click on the picture (not the frame surrounding picture and
caption) and make sure that Anchor > To paragraph is
selected.
3) Left-click on the picture and drag it below the caption.
Tip
You may wish to adjust the spacing above and below the
caption text, to fine-tune the appearance of the picture and its
caption.
Adding captions manually
If you need to save as *.doc files or export in other formats, you may
find that captions applied as described above (either automatically or
using the Caption dialog box) are lost during the export. To avoid
export problems, or as another way to put captions above pictures or
below them (the usual case), you can add a caption manually, in either
of two ways:
• Place the graphic and its caption in separate paragraphs.
• Use a table.
Place the graphic and its caption in separate paragraphs
Insert the graphic and anchor it to its paragraph as a character. Press
Enter to create a new paragraph for the caption.
1) In the caption paragraph, type, for example, Figure and add a
space.
2) To insert the figure number automatically, click Insert > Fields
> Other (Control + F2) and select the Variables tab.
3) Select Number range in the Type list. Select Figure in the
Selection list and choose, for example, Arabic (1 2 3) in the
Format drop-down list. Click the Insert button.
4) A number will appear after the word “Figure” in the caption. Now,
type the text of the caption.
Adding captions to graphics
35
Tips
If you are manually adding captions to a lot of figures using
this method, you might want to make an AutoText entry
containing, for example, Figure and a space, the figurenumber field, and an optional separator and a space after it.
To ensure the picture and its caption stay together on the
page: if the picture is going above the caption, define the text
flow of the Figure paragraph style as Keep with next
paragraph and the next style as Caption. Conversely, if the
caption is going above, define the Caption paragraph style as
Keep with next paragraph and the next style as Figure.
Use a table
Create a one-column, two-row table. Place the picture in one row and
type the caption in the other row—or use two or more rows for the
caption and other text. This method can be especially useful for
pictures with numbered legends, such as Figure 9 in this chapter.
Creating an image map
An image map defines areas of an image (called hotspots) with
hyperlinks to web addresses, other files on the computer, or parts of
the same document. Hotspots are the graphic equivalent of text
hyperlinks (described in Chapter 12). Clicking on a hotspot causes OOo
to open the linked page in the appropriate program (for example, the
default browser for an HTML page; OOo Calc for a .ODS file; a PDF
viewer for a PDF file). You can create hotspots of various shapes and
include several hotspots in the same image.
To use the image map editor:
1) In your OOo document, select the picture where you want to
define the hotspots.
2) Choose Edit > ImageMap from the menu bar. The ImageMap
Editor (Figure 18) opens.
3) Use the tools and fields in the dialog (described on the next page)
to define the hotspots and links necessary.
4) Click the Apply icon
to apply the settings.
5) When done, click the Save icon
to save the imagemap to a file,
then click the X in the upper right corner to close the dialog.
36
Working with Graphics
Figure 18: The dialog to create or edit an image map
The main part of the dialog shows the image on which the hotspots are
defined. A hotspot is identified by a line indicating its shape.
The toolbar at the top of the dialog contains the following tools:
• Apply button: click this button to apply the changes.
• Load, Save, and Select icons.
• Tools for drawing a hotspot shape: these tools work in exactly the
same way as the corresponding tools in the Drawing toolbar.
• Edit, Move, Insert, Delete Points: advanced editing tools to
manipulate the shape of a polygon hotspot. Select the Edit Points
tool to activate the other tools.
• Active icon: toggles the status of a selected hotspot between
active and inactive.
• Macro: associates a macro with the hotspot instead of just
associating an hyperlink.
• Properties: sets the hyperlink properties and adds the Name
attribute to the hyperlink.
Below the toolbar, specify for the selected hotspot:
• Address: the address pointed by the hyperlink. You can also point
to an anchor in a document; to do this, write the address in this
format: file:///<path>/document_name#anchor_name
Creating an image map
37
• Text: type the text that you want to be displayed when the mouse
pointer is moved over the hotspot.
• Frame: where the target of the hyperlink will open: pick among
_blank (opens in a new browser window), _self (opens in the
active browser window), _top or _parent.
Tip
The value _self for the target frame will work just fine in the vast
majority of occasions. It is therefore not recommended to use
the other choices unless absolutely necessary.
Adding an image to the Gallery
You may wish to add to the Gallery any images that you use frequently,
for example, a company logo. You can then very easily insert these
graphics into a document later.
To add images to the Gallery, proceed as follows:
1) Open the Gallery.
2) Select the theme where you want to add images, or you can
create a new theme. Note that you can add images only to “My
Theme” or to any other theme that you have created; these are
indicated by a green icon in the list of themes. You cannot add
images to the built-in themes, indicated by an icon of another
color.
To create a new theme:
a) Click the New Theme button above the list box of Themes.
The Properties of New Theme dialog box opens, which is
similar to the one shown in Figure 19.
b) Select the General tab (not shown) and type a name for the
new theme in the text box.
c) Select the Files tab, skip step 3, and continue with step 4.
3) Right-click on the desired theme and select Properties in the
pop-up menu. This displays a window from which to select the
files to be added.
38
Working with Graphics
Figure 19. Gallery properties dialog box
4) On the Files page, click the Find Files button. The Select path
dialog box opens.
5) You can enter the path for the file’s directory in the Path text box,
or you can navigate to locate the file’s directory. Use the File type
drop-down list to help limit the search.
6) Click the Select button to start the search. A list of graphic files
is then displayed in the window. You can use the File type filter
again to further limit the search.
7) Select the files to add. To select more than one file, hold the
Control key down while you click on each file.
8) Finally, click Add.
9) When you have finished working with the Gallery, you can click on
its icon
to close it.
Note
This procedure assumes that the graphic files for the themes
already exist. You may need to import some graphics or to
create your own onto your computer if the existing files are
insufficient.
Note
Similar to the file search function on various operating
systems, Find Files searches for graphic files in any
subfolders of the directory selected in step 5.
Adding an image to the Gallery
39
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