HP 3PAR InForm® OS 3.1.1 Concepts Guide

HP 3PAR InForm® OS 3.1.1 Concepts
Guide
Abstract
This guide is for all levels of system and storage administrators. Anyone who plans storage policies, configures storage resources,
or monitors the storage usage of HP 3PAR Storage Systems should read this guide.
HP Part Number: QL226-96736
Published: October 2012
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Contents
1 Introduction.............................................................................................10
Audience...............................................................................................................................10
User Interfaces.......................................................................................................................10
Units of Measure....................................................................................................................10
Related Documentation............................................................................................................10
Typographical Conventions......................................................................................................11
Advisories..............................................................................................................................11
2 Overview................................................................................................12
3PAR Storage Concepts and Terminology..................................................................................12
Physical Disks....................................................................................................................13
Chunklets..........................................................................................................................13
Logical Disks.....................................................................................................................13
Common Provisioning Groups..............................................................................................14
Virtual Volumes..................................................................................................................14
Fully-Provisioned Virtual Volumes.....................................................................................14
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes...................................................................................14
Physical Copies.............................................................................................................14
Virtual Copy Snapshots..................................................................................................15
Exporting Virtual Volumes..............................................................................................15
HP 3PAR InForm OS Software..................................................................................................15
InForm OS Software Suite...................................................................................................15
Optional Software Features.................................................................................................16
Host-Based Software..........................................................................................................17
Common Criteria....................................................................................................................18
3 HP 3PAR Storage System Users...................................................................19
User Accounts........................................................................................................................19
Local User Authentication and Authorization...............................................................................20
LDAP User Authentication and Authorization...............................................................................20
Domain User Access...............................................................................................................20
4 LDAP......................................................................................................21
Overview..............................................................................................................................25
Active Directory.................................................................................................................21
OpenLDAP........................................................................................................................21
LDAP Users............................................................................................................................21
LDAP Server Data Organization................................................................................................22
LDAP and Domains.................................................................................................................22
LDAP Authentication and Authorization......................................................................................23
Authentication...................................................................................................................23
Simple Binding.............................................................................................................23
SASL Binding................................................................................................................23
Authorization.....................................................................................................................23
Authorization on Systems Using Virtual Domains....................................................................24
5 HP 3PAR Virtual Domains..........................................................................25
Overview..............................................................................................................................25
Domain Types........................................................................................................................25
Domain Type.....................................................................................................................26
Users and Domain Rights.........................................................................................................26
Object and Domain Association Rules.......................................................................................26
The Default and Current Domains.............................................................................................26
6
Contents
6 Ports and Hosts........................................................................................28
Overview..............................................................................................................................28
About Ports............................................................................................................................28
Fibre Channel Ports............................................................................................................28
iSCSI Ports........................................................................................................................28
Gigabit Ethernet Ports.........................................................................................................28
Port Location Formats..............................................................................................................29
Port Target, Initiator, and Peer Modes........................................................................................29
Active and Inactive Hosts.........................................................................................................30
Adding and Removing Hosts....................................................................................................30
Host Personas.........................................................................................................................30
Legacy Host Personas.........................................................................................................31
The Host Explorer Software Agent.............................................................................................31
7 Chunklets................................................................................................33
Overview..............................................................................................................................33
Physical Disk Chunklets............................................................................................................33
Spare Chunklets.....................................................................................................................33
8 Logical Disks............................................................................................35
Overview..............................................................................................................................35
Logical Disks and Common Provisioning Groups.........................................................................35
Logical Disk Types..................................................................................................................35
RAID Types............................................................................................................................36
RAID 0.............................................................................................................................36
RAID 1 and 10..................................................................................................................36
RAID 5 and 50..................................................................................................................37
RAID Multi-Parity................................................................................................................38
Logical Disk Size and RAID Types.............................................................................................39
9 Common Provisioning Groups....................................................................40
Overview..............................................................................................................................40
Precautions and Planning.........................................................................................................40
Growth Increments, Warnings, and Limits..............................................................................40
Growth Increment..............................................................................................................41
Growth Warning...............................................................................................................41
Growth Limit......................................................................................................................41
System Guidelines for Creating CPGs........................................................................................42
Volume Types Associated with CPGs.........................................................................................42
10 Virtual Volumes......................................................................................43
Overview..............................................................................................................................53
Virtual Volume Types...............................................................................................................43
Administrative Volumes.......................................................................................................44
Fully-Provisioned Virtual Volumes..........................................................................................44
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes........................................................................................44
TPVV Warnings and Limits..............................................................................................45
Physical Copies......................................................................................................................45
Virtual Copy Snapshots...........................................................................................................46
Virtual Copy Snapshot Relationships.....................................................................................46
Copy-on-Write Function..................................................................................................47
Copy-of and Parent Relationships....................................................................................48
Exporting Virtual Volumes........................................................................................................49
VLUN Templates and Active VLUNs......................................................................................49
VLUN Template Types.........................................................................................................49
Host Sees.....................................................................................................................50
Host Set.......................................................................................................................50
Contents
7
Port Presents.................................................................................................................50
Matched Set.................................................................................................................50
11 Reclaiming Unused Space........................................................................51
Overview..............................................................................................................................51
Reclaiming Unmapped Logical Disk Space from CPGs.................................................................51
Reclaiming Unmapped Logical Disk Space from Volumes.............................................................52
Automatically Reclaiming Unused Snapshot Space from Volumes..................................................52
Manually Reclaiming Unused Snapshot Space from Volumes........................................................52
Deleted Volume’s Snapshot Space............................................................................................52
12 Enhanced Storage Applications................................................................53
Overview..............................................................................................................................53
mySnapshot Software..............................................................................................................53
HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization Software .................................................................................53
HP 3PAR System Tuner Software...............................................................................................54
HP 3PAR Thin Conversion Software...........................................................................................55
Assessment.......................................................................................................................55
Data Preparation...............................................................................................................55
Zeroing Unused Space.......................................................................................................56
Creating a Physical Copy....................................................................................................56
HP 3PAR Thin Persistence Software............................................................................................56
Thin Copy Reclamation Software..............................................................................................56
HP 3PAR Virtual Lock Software.................................................................................................57
Adaptive Optimization Software...............................................................................................57
13 HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware...........................................................58
Overview..............................................................................................................................58
Identifying System Components................................................................................................58
Physical Disks.........................................................................................................................59
Drive Cage Models.................................................................................................................60
DC4 Drive Cages and Ports and Cabling..............................................................................60
DC3 Drive Cage and Ports and Cabling...............................................................................61
Controller Nodes....................................................................................................................62
Port Numbering.................................................................................................................62
P10000 Controller Node Numbering...................................................................................63
T-Class Controller Node Numbering.....................................................................................63
F-Class Controller Node Numbering.....................................................................................64
14 InForm OS SNMP Infrastructure.................................................................66
Overview..............................................................................................................................66
About SNMP.........................................................................................................................66
SNMP Managers....................................................................................................................72
The HP 3PAR SNMP Agent......................................................................................................73
Standard Compliance.........................................................................................................73
Supported MIBs.................................................................................................................67
MIB-II...........................................................................................................................67
Exposed Objects...........................................................................................................68
System Description....................................................................................................68
System Object ID......................................................................................................68
System Up Time........................................................................................................68
System Contact Information........................................................................................68
System Name..........................................................................................................69
System Location........................................................................................................69
The HP 3PAR MIB..........................................................................................................69
alertNotify Traps......................................................................................................70
8
Contents
15 The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API.............................................................72
Overview..............................................................................................................................72
About SMI-S..........................................................................................................................72
About the WBEM Initiative.......................................................................................................72
HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Support.............................................................................................73
Standard Compliance.........................................................................................................73
SMI-S Profiles....................................................................................................................73
Supported Extensions.........................................................................................................73
CIM Indications.................................................................................................................73
Glossary....................................................................................................74
Index.........................................................................................................81
Contents
9
1 Introduction
Audience
This guide is for all levels of system and storage administrators. Anyone who plans storage policies,
configures storage resources, or monitors the storage usage of HP 3PAR Storage Systems should
read this guide.
User Interfaces
Two user interfaces are available for the administration of HP 3PAR Storage Systems: the HP 3PAR
InForm OS Command Line Interface (CLI) Software and the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management
Console Software. Unless otherwise stated, all tasks can be performed with both the CLI and the
Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator's Manual and
the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to perform the
tasks described at a conceptual level in this guide.
Units of Measure
•
All units of storage (capacity) are calculated base 2 (x 1,024).
Therefore:
•
1 KB = 1,024 bytes
•
1 MB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes
•
1 GB = 230 bytes = 1,024 MB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
•
1 TB = 240 bytes = 1,024 GB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
•
All units of performance (speed) are calculated base 10 (x1000).
Therefore:
•
1 KB = 1000 bytes
•
1 MB = 1020 bytes = 1,000,000 bytes
•
1 GB = 1030 bytes = 1000 MB = 1,000,000,000 bytes
•
1 TB = 1040 bytes = 1000 GB = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes
Related Documentation
The following documents also provide information related to HP 3PAR Storage Systems and the
InForm Operating System:
Table 1 Related documentation
For information about…
Read the…
Complete description of CLI commands
HP 3PAR InForm OS Command Line Interface Reference
nl
10
Using the InForm OS Management Console to configure
and administer the system
HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Online Help
Using the InForm OS CLI to configure and administer the
system
HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator's Manual
Identifying storage system components and detailed alert
information
HP 3PAR InForm OS Messages and Operator's Guide
Introduction
Table 1 Related documentation (continued)
For information about…
Read the…
Using HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software
HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software User's Guide
nl
Using HP 3PAR CIM
HP 3PAR CIM API Programming Reference
Using HP 3PAR Host Explorer Software
HP 3PAR Host Explorer User’s Guide
Identifying storage system configuration specifications and Go to the Single Point of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK)
compatibility information
website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
Operating your HP 3PAR storage server in compliance
with Common Criteria.
HP 3PAR InForm OS Common Criteria Administrator’s
Reference.
Typographical Conventions
This guide uses the following typographical conventions:
Table 2 Typographical conventions
Typeface
Meaning
Example
ABCDabcd
Used for dialog elements such as titles, button When prompted, click Finish to complete the
labels, and other screen elements.
installation.
ABCDabcd
Used for in user input, filenames, commands, Start the file \os\windows\setup.exe.
paths, and screen output.
<ABCDabcd>
Used for variables in user input, filenames,
commands, paths, and screen output.
To add a user to a domain, issue the setuser
-adddomain <domain_name>:<role>
<user_name> command.
Advisories
To avoid injury to people or damage to data and equipment, be sure to observe the cautions and
warnings in this guide. Always be careful when handling any electrical equipment.
WARNING! Warnings alert you to actions that can cause injury to people or irreversible damage
to data or the operating system.
CAUTION:
NOTE:
guide.
Cautions alert you to actions that can cause damage to equipment, software, or data.
Notes are reminders, tips, or suggestions that supplement the procedures included in this
NOTE: The InServ Storage Server has been rebranded as HP 3PAR Storage System. There are
instances in this document where menu items and command output refer to the HP 3PAR Storage
System as InServ or InServ Storage Server.
Typographical Conventions
11
2 Overview
3PAR Storage Concepts and Terminology
HP 3PAR Storage Systems include both the hardware components that physically store your data,
and the software applications that manage your data. For more information about hardware
platforms, see “HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware” (page 58). For more information about system
software applications and features, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
The HP 3PAR Storage System is comprised of the following logical data layers:
•
“Physical Disks” (page 13)
•
“Chunklets” (page 13)
•
“Logical Disks” (page 13)
•
“Common Provisioning Groups” (page 14)
•
“Virtual Volumes” (page 14)
The relationship between HP 3PAR Storage System data layers is illustrated in Figure 1 (page 13).
Each layer is created from elements of the layer above. Chunklets are drawn from physical disks,
logical disks are created from groups of chunklets, Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs) are
groups of logical disks, and virtual volumes use storage space provided by CPGs. The virtual
volumes are exported to hosts and are the only data layer visible to hosts.
12
Overview
Figure 1 HP 3PAR Storage System Data Layers
Physical Disks
A physical diskis a hard drive mounted on a drive magazine located in an HP 3PAR Storage
System drive cage. For more information about physical disks and the HP 3PAR Storage System
hardware platforms, see “HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware” (page 58).
Chunklets
Physical disks are divided into chunklets. Each chunklet occupies contiguous space on a physical
disk. On F-Class and T-Class systems all chunklets are 256 MB. On P10000 systems all chunklets
are 1 GB. Chunklets are automatically created by the HP 3PAR InForm® Operating System and
they are used to create logical disks. A chunklet is assigned to only one logical disk. For more
information about chunklets, see “Chunklets” (page 33).
Logical Disks
A logical disk is a collection of physical disk chunklets arranged as rows of RAID sets. Each RAID
set is made up of chunklets from different physical disks. Logical disks are pooled together in
Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs) which allocate space to virtual volumes. The underlying
logical disks are automatically created by the InForm OS when you create CPGs. The RAID type,
3PAR Storage Concepts and Terminology
13
space allocation, growth increments and other logical disk parameters can be set when you create
a CPG or modified later. HP 3PAR Storage Systems support the following RAID types:
•
RAID 0
•
RAID 10 (RAID 1)
•
RAID 50 (RAID 5)
•
RAID Multi-Parity (MP) or RAID 6
For a detailed discussion of logical disks and RAID types, see “Logical Disks” (page 35).
Common Provisioning Groups
A Common Provisioning Group (CPG) is a virtual pool of logical disks that allocates space to virtual
volumes on demand. A CPG allows up to 4,095 virtual volumes to share the CPG's resources.
You can create fully-provisioned virtual volumes and Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs)
that draw space from a CPG's logical disk pool. For more information about CPGs, see “Common
Provisioning Groups” (page 40).
Virtual Volumes
Virtual volumes draw their resources from Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs), and volumes are
exported as Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) to hosts. Virtual volumes are the only data layer visible
to the hosts. You can create physical copies or virtual copy snapshots of virtual volumes that remain
available if the original base volume becomes unavailable. Before creating virtual volumes, you
must first create CPGs to allocate space to the virtual volumes. For more information about virtual
volumes, see “Virtual Volumes” (page 43).
Fully-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
A fully-provisioned virtual volume is a volume that uses logical disks that belong to a logical disk
pool known as a Common Provisioning Group (CPG). Unlike Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
(TPVVs), fully-provisioned virtual volumes have a set amount of user space that is allocated for user
data. The fully-provisioned volume size is fixed, and the size limit is 16 TB. For more information
about fully-provisioned virtual volumes, “Fully-Provisioned Virtual Volumes” (page 44).
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
A Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volume (TPVVs) is a volume that uses logical disks that belong to a
logical disk pool known as a Common Provisioning Group (CPG). TPVVs associated with the same
CPG draw space from that pool as needed, allocating space on demand in small increments for
each controller node. As the volumes that draw space from the CPG require additional storage,
the InForm OS automatically creates additional logical disks and adds them to the pool until the
CPG reaches the user-defined growth limit which restricts the CPG’s maximum size. The TPVV
volume size limit is 16 TB. For more information about TPVVs, see “Thinly-Provisioned Virtual
Volumes” (page 44).
NOTE: Creating Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) requires the HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning
Software license. For more information, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
Physical Copies
A physical copy duplicates all the data from a base volume to a destination volume. The base
volume is the original volume that is copied to the destination volume. The physical copy on the
destination volume becomes available if the original base volume becomes unavailable. Unlike a
virtual copy or snapshot, a physical copy maintains the performance of the base virtual volume.
A physical copy can only be created from a base volume with enough free space to accommodate
writes to that volume during the physical copy operation. In addition, the destination volume must
14
Overview
have a user space size at least as large as the user space of the base volume being copied, and
must not be exported.
For additional information on physical copies, see “Physical Copies” (page 45).
NOTE: With an HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software license, physical copies can be copied from
one HP 3PAR Storage System to another using Remote Copy. For additional information, see the
HP 3PAR Remote Copy User’s Guide.
Virtual Copy Snapshots
A snapshot is a virtual copy of a base volume. The base volume is the original volume that is
copied. Unlike a physical copy which is a duplicate of an entire volume, a virtual copy only records
changes to the base volume. This allows an earlier state of the original virtual volume to be recreated
by starting with its current state and rolling back all the changes that have been made since the
virtual copy was created.
You can make snapshots of: fully-provisioned virtual volumes, TPVVs, physical copies, or another
virtual copy snapshot. Snapshots are created using copy-on-write techniques available only with
the HP 3PAR Virtual Copy Software license. Thousands of snapshots of each virtual volume can
be created assuming that there is sufficient storage space available. For additional information on
virtual copies, see “Virtual Copy Snapshots” (page 46).
NOTE: Creating virtual copies requires the HP 3PAR Virtual Copy license. For more information,
see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
Exporting Virtual Volumes
For a host to see a virtual volume, the volume must be exported as a Logical Unit Number (LUN).
Volumes are exported by creating Virtual Volume-LUN pairings (VLUNs) on the system. When you
create VLUNs the system produces both VLUN templatesthat establish export rules, and active
VLUNs that the host sees as a LUN or attached disk device. For more information about active
VLUNs, VLUN templates, and VLUN template types, see “Exporting Virtual Volumes” (page 49).
HP 3PAR InForm OS Software
In addition to the 3PAR InForm OS Software Suite, 3PAR offers separately licensed optional features
and a set of host-based software applications. You can use the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line
Interface (CLI) Software and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console Software to view the
licenses currently enabled on your system.
NOTE: To learn about adding optional products and features to enhance your HP 3PAR Storage
Systems, contact your local service provider.
InForm OS Software Suite
All HP 3PAR Storage Systems include the HP 3PAR InForm OS Software Suite. The InForm OS
Software Suite is the core set of storage management software.
The HP 3PAR InForm OS Software Suite includes:
•
HP 3PAR InForm Operating System Software, independent instances of the operating system
running on each controller node.
•
HP 3PAR InForm OS Command Line Interface Software, command line user interface for
monitoring, managing, and configuring HP 3PAR Storage Systems.
•
HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Software, graphical user interface for monitoring,
managing, and configuring HP 3PAR Storage Systems.
•
HP 3PAR Access Guard Software, provides volume security at logical and physical levels by
enabling you to secure hosts and ports to specific virtual volumes.
HP 3PAR InForm OS Software
15
•
HP 3PAR Autonomic Groups, allow domains, hosts, and volumes to be grouped into a set that
is managed as a single object. Autonomic groups also allow for easy updates when new hosts
are added or new volumes are provisioned. If you add a new host to the set, volumes from
the volume set are autonomically provisioned to the new host without any administrative
intervention. If you add a new volume or a new domain to a set, the volume or domain inherits
all the rights of the set.
•
HP 3PAR Persistent Cache Software, allows systems to maintain a high level of performance
and availability during node failure conditions, and during hardware and software upgrades.
This feature allows the host to continue to write data and receive acknowledgments from the
system if the backup node is unavailable. Persistent Cache automatically creates multiple
backup nodes for logical disks that have the same owner.
•
HP 3PAR mySnapshot Software, is a copy utility designed for non-storage professionals such
as database administrators, software developers, and test engineers to safely and easily copy
and provision their own test data. With mySnapshot, developers have instant access to test
data, thus eliminating the time required to request, justify, and receive these copies from the
storage administrator. To learn more about the mySnapshot utility, see “mySnapshot Software”
(page 53).
Optional Software Features
Optional HP 3PAR software features may not currently be enabled on your system because they
require additional licenses and may require separate installations. When features are not available
on your system because they are not licensed for use, screens and functionality relating to those
features may appear grayed-out or be otherwise inaccessible in the InForm OS Management
Console and InForm OS CLI.
Systems may use the following optional software features:
•
HP 3PAR Adaptive Optimization Software gives you a much higher degree of control over
disk usage by reserving your faster and more expensive storage resources for the data that
is frequently accessed and relegating your slower and less expensive drives to storing data
that is only occasionally accessed.
To learn more about HP 3PAR Adaptive Optimization, see “Adaptive Optimization Software”
(page 57).
16
•
HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software is used for access control. Virtual Domains allow you to
limit the access of users to only subsets of volumes and hosts in an HP Storage System and
ensures that virtual volumes associated with a specific domain are not exported to hosts outside
of that domain. To learn more about domains, see “HP 3PAR Virtual Domains” (page 25).
•
HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning Software allows you to allocate virtual volumes to application
servers yet provision only a fraction of the physical storage behind these volumes. By enabling
a true capacity-on-demand model, a storage administrator can use HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning
to create Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) that maximize asset use. To learn more
about TPVVs, see “Virtual Volumes” (page 43).
•
HP 3PAR Thin Conversion Software converts a fully-provisioned volume to a Thinly-Provisioned
Virtual Volume (TPVV). Virtual volumes with large amounts of allocated but unused space are
converted to TPVVs that are much smaller than the original volume. To use the Thin Conversion
feature you must have an F-Class, T-Class, or P10000 Storage System, an HP 3PAR Thin
Provisioning license, and an HP 3PAR Thin Conversion license. To learn more about HP 3PAR
Thin Conversion, see “Enhanced Storage Applications” (page 53).
•
HP 3PAR Thin Persistence Software keeps TPVVs and read/write snapshots of TPVVs small by
detecting pages of zeros during data transfers and not allocating space for the zeros. This
feature works in real-time and analyzes the data before it is written to the destination TPVV
or read/write snapshot of the TPVV. To use the Thin Persistence feature you must have an
F-Class, T-Class, or P10000 Storage System, an HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning license, an HP
Overview
3PAR Thin Conversion license, and an HP 3PAR Thin Persistence license. To learn more about
HP 3PAR Thin Persistence, see “Enhanced Storage Applications” (page 53).
•
HP 3PAR Thin Copy Reclamation Software reclaims space when snapshots are deleted from
an HP Storage System. As snapshots are deleted, the snapshot space is reclaimed from a
TPVV or fully-provisioned virtual volume and returned to the CPG for reuse by other volumes.
To learn more about HP 3PAR Thin Copy Reclamation, see “Enhanced Storage Applications”
(page 53).
•
HP 3PAR Virtual Copy Software allows you to take instant virtual copy snapshots of existing
volumes. It uses copy-on-write technology so that virtual copies consume minimal capacity.
Virtual copies are presentable to any host with read and write capabilities. In addition, virtual
copies can be made from other virtual copies, providing endless flexibility for test, backup,
and business-intelligence applications. To learn more about virtual copies, see “Virtual Copy
Snapshots” (page 46).
•
HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software is a host-independent, array-based data mirroring solution
that enables affordable data distribution and disaster recovery for applications. With this
optional utility, you can copy virtual volumes from one system to a second system. HP 3PAR
Remote Copy is configured and controlled with the InForm OS CLI. For more information about
the HP 3PAR Remote Copy application, see the HP 3PAR Remote Copy User’s Guide.
•
HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization Software allows you to improve the performance of virtual
volumes without interrupting access. Use this feature to avoid over provisioning for peak system
usage by optimizing the layout of your virtual volumes. With HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization
you can change virtual volume parameters, RAID levels, set sizes, and disk filters by associating
the virtual volume with a new CPG. You can also use this feature to analyze your entire system
and automatically correct space usage imbalances in the system. Virtual volume and physical
disk capacity are analyzed and rebalanced for optimal performance. This feature requires
an HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization license. To learn more about HP 3PAR Dynamic
Optimization, see “Enhanced Storage Applications” (page 53).
•
HP 3PAR System Tuner Software improves performance by identifying over-used physical
disks, and performing load balancing on those disks without interrupting access. To learn
more about the HP 3PAR System Tuner, see “Enhanced Storage Applications” (page 53).
•
HP 3PAR Virtual Lock Software enforces the retention period of any volume or copy of a
volume. To learn more about Virtual Lock, see “Enhanced Storage Applications” (page 53).
Host-Based Software
HP 3PAR host-based software applications are tightly integrated with the host environment to
improve performance and integrate host functionality with systems. Some of these applications
require additional licenses, contact your local service provider to learn more about any of the HP
3PAR host-based software applications.
•
HP 3PAR Recovery Manager for Microsoft Exchange Software is a separately purchased and
licensed application that is specifically designed to integrate with Microsoft VSS to provide a
simple, efficient and highly scalable solution for backup and recovery of Microsoft Exchange
environments. HP 3PAR Recovery Manager intelligently creates, manages, and presents
time-consistent snapshot images of Microsoft Exchange databases for non-disruptive backup,
rapid application recovery, and data sharing.
•
HP 3PAR Recovery Manager for SQL Server Software is a separately purchased and licensed
application that is specifically designed to integrate with Microsoft VSS to provide a simple,
efficient and highly scalable solution for backup and recovery of SQL Server environments.
HP 3PAR Recovery Manager intelligently creates, manages, and presents time-consistent
HP 3PAR InForm OS Software
17
snapshot images of SQL Server databases for non-disruptive backup, rapid application
recovery, and data sharing.
•
HP 3PAR VSS Provider for Microsoft Windows Software is a server application bundled with
Recovery Manager for Microsoft Exchange and SQL Server.
VSS coordinates the actions of:
◦
Database readers like the HP 3PAR Recovery Manager backup application.
◦
Database writers like Microsoft Exchange and SQL Server.
◦
Providers that create shadow copies.
•
HP 3PAR ODM Software for IBM AIX is a separately purchased and licensed application that
enables the host to use more than one physical I/O path to the system. Multipathing improves
system reliability and availability by providing fault-tolerance and load balancing of I/O
traffic.
•
HP 3PAR ODM Software for Microsoft Windows is a separately purchased and licensed
application that enables the host to use more than one physical I/O path to the system.
Multipathing improves system reliability and availability by providing fault-tolerance and load
balancing of I/O traffic.
•
HP 3PAR ODM Software for Veritas VxVM is an application for customers using Veritas
VxVM/DMP with 3PAR storage devices. It provides HP 3PAR device definitions and a message
catalog.
•
HP 3PAR Management Plug-in and Recovery Manager Software for VMware vSphere is a
Web application that is deployed as a VI Client plug-in. A VI Client plug-in is an external
Web application that is configured with the vCenter Server in such a way that VI Clients are
able to display their pages. HP 3PAR Management Plug-In for VMware vCenter displays virtual
volume mapping for easy identification of HP 3PAR volumes used by virtual machines and
datastores. HP 3PAR Recovery Manager for VMware vSphere provides virtual copy
management of HP 3PAR virtual copies and recovery of virtual machines and datastores.
•
HP 3PAR VAAI Plug-in Software for VMware vSphere enables SCSI primitives that allow HP
3PAR Storage Systems to take advantage of several VMware virtual machine operations at
the meta data level to improve performance.
•
HP 3PAR Host Explorer Software agents are programs that run on hosts connected systems.
When a host is created on the system, unassigned WWNs or iSCSI names are presented to
the system. Without the Host Explorer agents running on the attached hosts, the system is
unable to determine which host the WWN or iSCSI names belongs to and you must manually
assign each WWN or iSCSI name to a host. With Host Explorer agents running, the system
automatically groups WWNs or iSCSI names for the host together, assisting with creating the
host. The Host Explorer agent runs as a service on Windows and as a daemon on Linux and
Solaris operating systems. No license is required to use the HP 3PAR Host Explorer agent. To
learn more about Host Explorer agents, see “Ports and Hosts” (page 28).
•
HP 3PAR System Reporter Software is a separately purchased and licensed application that
enables you to monitor performance, create charge back reports, and plan storage resources
for systems using either a standard Web browser or the HP 3PAR System Reporter Excel client.
Common Criteria
The Common Criteria (CC) are internationally recognized standards for incorporating and verifying
specific security related functionality. The security criteria include product requirements and processes
for accessing and managing storage systems. HP 3PAR Storage Systems are set to operate in
Common Criteria mode during the installation process. Common Criteria mode can be disabled
after a system is configured. For more information about operating your storage system in Common
Criteria mode, refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS Common Criteria Administrator’s Reference.
18
Overview
3 HP 3PAR Storage System Users
User Accounts
In order to access an HP Storage System you must have a user account. Each InForm OS user is
assigned a role, and each role is assigned a set of rights. The roles and rights assigned to the user
determine which tasks the user can perform with a system. Assign roles to users based on the tasks
you intend the users to perform.
Eight roles are defined in the InForm OS. See Table 3 (page 19) for a description of each role.
There are four standard roles:
•
Browse
•
Edit
•
Super
•
Service
There are also four extended roles:
•
Create
•
Basic Edit
•
3PAR AO
•
3PAR RM
There is no functional difference between standard and extended roles. The extended roles define
a set of rights optimized for users with specialized or restricted tasks. For example, assigning a
user the Create role allows the user to create virtual volumes and other objects but does not allow
the user to remove virtual volumes. To maintain greater control over your system, assign users roles
with the minimum set of rights they need to perform their tasks. To view a list of roles and all of
the rights assigned to each role, see the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
User management tasks can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line Interface
(CLI) Software and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console Software. Refer to the HP 3PAR
InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console Online
Help for instructions on how to perform user management tasks.
Table 3 InForm OS User Roles
User Roles
Rights Assigned to Roles
Browse
Rights are limited to read-only access.
Edit
Rights are granted to most operations. For example,
creating, editing, and removing virtual volumes and other
objects.
Super
Rights are granted to all operations.
Service
Rights are limited to operations required to service the
system. Allows limited access to user information and user
group resources.
Create
Rights are limited to creating objects. For example, virtual
volumes, CPGs, hosts, and schedules.
Basic Edit
Rights are similar to the Edit role. For example, creating
and editing virtual volumes and other objects. The rights
to remove objects are more restricted for the Basic Edit role
than the Edit role.
User Accounts
19
Table 3 InForm OS User Roles (continued)
User Roles
Rights Assigned to Roles
3PAR AO
Rights are limited to internal use by HP for Adaptive
Optimization operations.
3PAR RM
Rights are limited to internal use by HP for Recovery
Manager operations.
Local User Authentication and Authorization
Users accessing the HP 3PAR Storage System with the InForm OS CLI client or Secure Shell (SSH)
connections are authenticated and authorized directly on the system. These users are referred to
as local users. The information used to authenticate and authorize a local user is stored on the
system.
For instructions on creating a local user, refer to the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and
the InForm OS Management Console Online Help.
LDAP User Authentication and Authorization
An LDAP user is authenticated and authorized using information from a Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) server. If multiple systems are configured to use the same LDAP server, a
user that can access one system can access all systems with the role and rights assigned to the
LDAP group.
Local user roles and rights are associated with an individual, LDAP user roles and rights are the
same for all members of the group. If you want to authenticate and authorize LDAP users with
different roles, you must create an LDAP group for each role.
For detailed information about LDAP users and LDAP connections, see “LDAP” (page 21). For
instructions on setting up an LDAP connection, refer to the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
Domain User Access
A domain user is a user with access to a specific domain. Local users belonging to a system using
HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software are domain users. In addition to the user’s roles and rights, a
domain users’ activities are also limited to the domain(s) to which they have access. A domain
user’s assigned user role is applicable only within the domain to which the user has access.
For detailed information about virtual domains and domain users, see “HP 3PAR Virtual Domains”
(page 25). For instructions on creating a domain user, refer to the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s
Manual and the InForm OS Management Console Online Help.
NOTE: Virtual domains require an HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software license. For additional
information about the license, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
20
HP 3PAR Storage System Users
4 LDAP
Overview
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a standard protocol for communication between
LDAP clients and LDAP directory servers. Data is stored as a directory hierarchy by the server and
clients add, modify, search, or remove the data. The data can be organized using standard schemas
understood by clients and servers from different vendors or by an application-specific schema used
only by a particular vendor or application.
The InForm OS contains an LDAP client that can be configured to use an LDAP server for
authentication and authorization of system users. In an environment where there are multiple systems
configured to use the same LDAP server in the same way, a single user with access to one system
server can access all of the environment’s systems with the same role.
Accessing objects on systems configured to use HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software requires access
to the domain in which those objects reside. The configuration of domains may differ from one
system installation to the next. This results in differing levels of access over objects based on mapping
between the LDAP configuration and the individual system’s domain configuration.
The InForm OS LDAP client is designed to work with various LDAP servers and schemas for data
organization. However, only use with the Active Directory LDAP directory implementation is currently
supported.
Configuring the InForm OS to use LDAP can only be performed with the HP 3PAR InForm Command
Line Interface (CLI). Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual for instructions
on how to perform these tasks.
NOTE: At the current time, the OpenLDAP directory implementation is also available, however,
on a limited basis. Check with your local HP service representative for updates on availability.
NOTE:
All LDAP related tasks are performed with the 3PAR InForm Command Line Interface (CLI).
Active Directory
Active Directory is an implementation of LDAP directory services by Microsoft for use in Windows
environments. An Active Directory server is both an LDAP and Kerberos server. When set up for
SASL binding (see “SASL Binding” (page 23)), the Active Directory server and Kerberos server are
used for both authorization and authentication of users.
OpenLDAP
OpenLDAP is an open source implementation of LDAP directory services developed by the OpenLDAP
Project. OpenLDAP includes a server, client library, and tools that are available for a wide variety
of operating systems. Different schemata can be used for user and group information with
OpenLDAP. For example, the Posix schema is typically used for user and group information in
Linux/Unix systems.
LDAP Users
User’s created with the InForm OS CLI who access the system using InForm OS CLI clients, or with
SSH, are authenticated and authorized directly on the system. These users are referred to as local
users. An LDAP user is similar to a local user, however an LDAP user is authenticated and authorized
using information from an LDAP server.
During authentication, if a user name is not recognized as a local user, that user’s name and
password are checked on the LDAP server. The local user’s authentication data takes precedence
over the user’s LDAP authentication data. User names not associated with local user names are
authenticated using LDAP data.
Overview
21
Additionally for local users, during authentication, the password supplied by the user must match
the password assigned when that user was initially created or modified. The rights assigned to the
user during authorization are the same rights associated with the user role assigned when that
user was initially created or modified. See “HP 3PAR Storage System Users” (page 19) for additional
information about user roles and rights. LDAP users can access the system using the same methods
as a local users, although some user account creation and modification operations are unavailable.
Do not create local and LDAP users with the same name. If local and LDAP users have the same
name it can cause confusion about where access is controlled. For instructions on using LDAP with
the storage system, refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
Another key difference between local users and LDAP users is that a local user’s rights within the
system are assigned on a case-by-case basis. An LDAP user’s rights are dependent on that user’s
group association. In other words, groups are assigned specific rights within the system and an
individual LDAP user’s rights are dependent upon group membership.
LDAP Server Data Organization
LDAP server data consists of user information, which includes the user’s group associations. Data
can be previously existing data used for user account information, or can be data created for
specific use with systems. Data on the LDAP server can be organized in two different ways:
•
As a list of groups associated with each user.
•
As a list of users associated with each group.
The form in which data is organized is dependent on the type of LDAP server used and the tools
used to maintain the data. Programs such as ldp.exe, which is a downloadable Windows Support
Tool available from Microsoft, and ldapsearch, which is available for many UNIX and Linux
systems, can be used to view data entries in the LDAP server. This can be useful when configuring
the InForm OS LDAP client with your LDAP server as discussed in Chapter 4, Managing User
Accounts and Connections, in the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
LDAP and Domains
LDAP is also available for systems using virtual domains for access control. As discussed in “HP
3PAR Virtual Domains” (page 25), the Domains facility enables finer grain rights over system
objects such as volumes and hosts. Accessing objects on systems configured to use virtual domains
requires rights in the domain in which those objects reside. Because the configuration of Domains
can differ within an HP Storage System, or from one server to another (in configurations with
multiple servers), a user can have differing rights between domains in a single system, or across
multiple systems.
As discussed earlier in “LDAP Users” (page 21), LDAP users must follow a process of authentication
and authorization in order to gain access to the system. With Domains in use, in addition to
authentication with the system, LDAP users must also be authorized to access domains set up within
the system. For additional information, see “LDAP Authentication and Authorization” (page 23).
For instructions on setting up LDAP users on systems using Domains, see Chapter 4, Managing
User Accounts and Connections in the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
NOTE: Virtual domains require an HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software license. For additional
information about the license, see “Optional Software Features” (page 16).
22
LDAP
LDAP Authentication and Authorization
As stated earlier, the user’s user name is first checked against the authentication data stored on
the local system. If the user’s name is not found, the LDAP authentication and authorization process
proceeds as follows:
•
The user’s user name and password are used to authenticate with the LDAP server.
•
The user’s group memberships are determined with the data on the LDAP server.
•
A list of groups is compared against mapping rules that specify each group’s associated roles.
•
If virtual domains is in use, the user’s group is mapped to a domain.
•
The user is assigned a system user role, and a domain if domains are in use.
Authentication
Users are authenticated with the LDAP server using a bind operation. The bind operation simply
authenticates the InForm OS LDAP client to the LDAP server. This authentication process is required
for all systems using LDAP, including systems using Domains. Several binding mechanisms are
supported by the InForm OS LDAP client.
NOTE:
The binding mechanism you can use is dependent on your LDAP server configuration.
Simple Binding
With simple binding, the user’s user name and password are sent to the LDAP server in plain text
and the LDAP server determines if the submitted password is correct. Simple binding is not
recommended unless a secure connection to the LDAP server is established with Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS).
SASL Binding
In addition to simple binding, the InForm OS LDAP client also supports the PLAIN, DIGEST-MD5,
and GSSAPI SASL binding mechanisms. Generally, DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI are more secure
methods of authentication as user passwords are not sent to the LDAP server.
•
The PLAIN mechanism is similar to simple binding where the user’s user name and password
are sent directly to the LDAP server for authentication. As with simple binding, the PLAIN
mechanism should only be used if there is a secure connection (SSL or TLS) to the LDAP server.
•
The GSSAPI mechanism obtains a ticket from the Kerberos server which validates the user’s
identity. That ticket is then sent to the LDAP server for authentication.
•
With the DIGEST-MD5 mechanism, the LDAP server sends the InForm OS LDAP client one-time
data that is encrypted by the client and returned to the server in such a way that the client
proves it knows the user's password without having to send the user's password.
Authorization
Once an LDAP user has been authenticated, the next stage is authorization. The authorization
process determines what a user is allowed to do within the system.
As discussed in “LDAP Users” (page 21), an LDAP user’s role is tied to that user’s group membership,
and a user can belong to multiple groups. Each group has an assigned role, see“HP 3PAR Storage
System Users” (page 19) for information about user roles. The InForm OS LDAP client performs
group-to-role mapping using the following four mapping parameters:
•
super-map
•
service-map
•
edit-map
•
browse-map
LDAP Authentication and Authorization
23
Each group to which a user is a member is compared against the mapping parameters. Mapping
occurs sequentially with a group first compared to the super-map parameter. If no match is made,
the group is then compared with the service-map parameter, and so on. For example, if a match
is made for group A with the super-map parameter, the user belonging to group A is authorized
with Super rights to the system.
With this process, a user can be authenticated, but not authorized if no group membership exists.
In this case, the user is subsequently denied access to the system.
Authorization on Systems Using Virtual Domains
As discussed in “Authorization” (page 23), a user’s group association determines that user’s role
within the system. On systems using virtual domains, this process is taken one step further where
the user’s groups are mapped to system domains. Therefore, the user’s role within a specific group
is carried over to the domain(s) mapped to that group. For instructions on authorizing LDAP users
on systems using Domains, see Chapter 4, Managing User Accounts and Connections in the InForm
OS CLI Administrator’s Manual.
The group-to-domain mapping relationship:
24
LDAP
•
LDAP User 1 has membership to Group B.
•
Group-to-role mapping determines that Group B uses the Edit role.
•
Group-to-domain mapping establishes a match between Group B and Domain A.
•
LDAP User 1 has Edit role access to all objects in Domain A.
5 HP 3PAR Virtual Domains
Overview
When initially setting up the HP 3PAR Storage System, the system administrator creates and assigns
users with roles and rights in the system. You can create, modify, and remove a user’s access to
HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software in the system with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line
Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS
CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Online Help for
instructions on how to perform these tasks.
NOTE: Virtual domains require an HP 3PAR Virtual Domains Software license. For additional
information about the license, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
In addition to the inherent security provided by this hierarchical user structure, finer grain access
control of the system can optionally be achieved through the implementation of virtual domains.
Domains allows an administrator to create up to 1,024 domains, or spaces, within an system,
where each domain is dedicated to a specific application. A subset of the system users have
varying rights over the domains. The use of domains can be useful in scenarios where a single
system is used to manage data from several different independent applications (Figure 2 (page 25)).
Figure 2 Single System Managing Multiple Independent Applications
Each domain allows users with varying levels of accessibility to domain objects. A domain is made
of Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs), hosts, and Remote Copy groups. Domains contain derived
domain objects such as Virtual Volumes (VVs), Logical Disks (LDs), and volume exports (VLUNs).
Because objects are domain-specific, domain users cannot accidentally or deliberately export VVs
to hosts outside of their assigned domain.
Virtual domains can be grouped into autonomic groups that can be managed as one domain. If
you have a group of domains that require the same administrative procedures, it is easier to group
those domains into an autonomic group and mange them together.
NOTE: Remote Copy requires an HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software license. For additional
information about the license, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
Domain Types
When using domains for access control, accessibility to basic objects and derived objects is limited
by a user’s role and domain assignment. For more information about roles and rights, see, “HP
3PAR Storage System Users” (page 19).
Overview
25
Domain Type
The first tier of access control is the domain to which a subset of a system’s objects belong. The
objects can be assigned to a specific domain, or have no domain association.
•
The no domain contains objects that do not belong to any specified domains. For example,
objects in an existing system that did not previously use domains do not belong to any domains.
•
specified domains are created by the domain administrator and contain objects specific
to that domain. Only users with rights over that domain can work with those objects. For
example, User A in Domain A can access objects in Domain A, but not in Domain B. Multiple
specified domains can be created. Users with the Super role can browse and edit objects
in all domains.
Users and Domain Rights
By default, users with the Super role have rights over the entire system. Only these users and users
belonging to the Edit user role in the all domain can create and edit CPGs, hosts, Remote Copy
groups, and assign CPGs and hosts to specified domains. Additionally, these users have access
to all domains and their objects.
When setting up domains and users in the system, some users may require access to multiple
domains with different user rights. virtual domains allow users access to more than one domain
and a single user can be assigned different user roles in each domain.
NOTE: A user having rights over multiple domains cannot perform intra-domain operations
between objects in different domains. Users can have access to a maximum of 32 domains.
Object and Domain Association Rules
Domains contain basic objects such as CPGs, hosts, and Remote Copy groups, and derived objects
such as VVs, LDs, and VLUNs. Objects and their associations with domains must adhere to the
following rules:
•
Objects derived from a CPG inherit the domain of that CPG.
•
VVs can only be exported to hosts belonging to the VVs’ domain.
•
A VLUN inherits the domain of the VV and host from which the VLUN was exported.
The Default and Current Domains
When a user is initially created, the user is able access objects in all assigned domains. The user
can browse or edit objects depending on the user’s assigned user role. For example, an Edit user
assigned to Domains A and B can view and work on objects in both Domains A and B. However,
if it is apparent that a specific domain will receive the majority of attention from a user, virtual
domains provide the ability for administrators to set a default domain for that user.
26
HP 3PAR Virtual Domains
An InForm OS CLI user’s default domain is the domain the user accesses at the start of each CLI
session. For example, if you have Edit rights to Domains A and B and your default domain has
been set to Domain A, each time you start a new CLI session you will view and work with only
objects in Domain A. The user’s default domain can be set and reset at any time by the administrator.
If you are using the InForm Management Console, the user selects which domain to connect to and
there is no default domain, and no domain session. To change domains, InForm Management
Console users simply select a new domain from a menu of available domains.
The Default and Current Domains
27
6 Ports and Hosts
Overview
The HP 3PAR Storage System sees a host as a set of initiator port WWNs (World Wide Names)
or iSCSI Names. Hosts that are physically connected to ports on the system are automatically
detected. The Fibre Channel port WWNs and iSCSI port iSCSI Names are displayed by the user
interfaces. You can also add new WWNs or iSCSI Names for unestablished host paths and assign
them to a host before they are physically connected. These WWNs or iSCSI Names do not need
to be associated with target ports on the system controller nodes. This allows for plug-and-play
functionality that avoids the need for manual reconfiguration after connecting new hosts. For
instructions on modifying system ports and host configurations, see the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s
Manual and InForm OS Management Console Online Help.
A virtual volume can be exported, or made accessible, to one or more hosts. The host sees the
exported virtual volume as a LUN connected to one or more ports. Once the virtual volume is
exported to a host, the host can send requests to the LUN. See “Virtual Volumes” (page 43) for
more information about virtual volumes and exporting virtual volumes. For instructions on exporting
virtual volumes, see the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and InForm OS Management
Console Online Help.
NOTE: See the HP 3PAR Implementation Guides for recommended practices and detailed
configuration information about using your specific host devices with the system.
About Ports
System controller nodes can use Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet, and iSCSI ports to connect the
storage sever to your network, host computers, storage sever components, and to other systems.
You can use the InForm OS CLI and the InForm Management Console to view port information
and modify port settings. For instructions on viewing and modifying port configurations, see the
InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and InForm OS Management Console Online Help.
Fibre Channel Ports
Systems use Fibre Channel ports to connect controller nodes to hosts and drive cages. For information
about controller nodes and drive cages, see “HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware” (page 58).
iSCSI Ports
Systems use iSCSI ports to connect controller nodes to hosts. For information about controller nodes,
see “HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware” (page 58).
NOTE: The iSCSI ports in a system controller node can only be used to connect the system to a
host computer. The connection to the host is for iSCSI traffic only.
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
Systems use Gigabit Ethernet ports to enable the Remote Copy over IP (RCIP) solution, and to
connect the primary and secondary systems in the Remote Copy pair. For information about Remote
Copy, see the HP 3PAR Remote Copy Software User’s Guide.
28
Ports and Hosts
Port Location Formats
The InForm OS CLI and the InForm Management Console display the controller node Fibre Channel,
iSCSI, and Gigabit Ethernet port locations in the following format:<Node>:<Slot>:<Port>. For
example: 2:4:1.
•
•
•
Node: Valid node numbers are 0-7 depending on the number of nodes installed in your system.
When viewing a system from the rear of a cabinet:
◦
F-Class nodes are numbered 0-3 from top to bottom.
◦
T-Class nodes are numbered 0-7 from left to right, top to bottom.
◦
P10000 nodes are numbered 0-7 from left to right, bottom to top.
Slot: Valid node slot numbers are 0-9 depending on the class of nodes installed in your system.
◦
F-Class slots are numbered 0-5 from left to right.
◦
T-Class slots are numbered 0-7 from left to right.
◦
P10000 slots are numbered 0-9 from left to right, bottom to top in a node in the lower
chassis. In the upper chassis slots are numbered 0-9 from left to right, top to bottom.
Port: Valid node port numbers are 1-4 for all Host Bus Adapters (HBA).
◦
F-Class ports are numbered from top to bottom.
◦
T-Class ports are numbered from top to bottom.
◦
P10000 ports are numbered from bottom to top in a node in the lower chassis. In the
upper chassis ports are numbered from top to bottom.
For information about controller nodes, see “HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware” (page 58).
For more information about physical port and HBA locations, see the Physical Planning Manual
for your system model.
Port Target, Initiator, and Peer Modes
The system controller node ports operate in different modes. Depending on the type of port, the
port may operate in target, initiator, or peer mode.
Fibre Channel ports use the following firmware mode settings:
•
Target mode for ports that connect to hosts and receive commands from those hosts.
•
Initiator mode for ports that connect to the system physical disks and send commands to those
disks.
•
Initiator mode for Remote Copy over FC (RCFC).
iSCSI ports use the following firmware mode settings:
•
Target mode for ports that connect to hosts and receive commands from those hosts.
Gigabit Ethernet ports use the following firmware mode setting:
•
Peer mode for Ethernet ports, used for Remote Copy over IP (RCIP).
Use the InForm OS CLI or the InForm OS Management Console to view or change the current port
mode settings. For instructions on viewing or changing mode settings, see the InForm OS CLI
Administrator’s Manual and InForm OS Management Console Online Help.
Port Location Formats
29
Active and Inactive Hosts
An active host is a host that is connected to a system port and recognized by the InForm OS. Under
normal operation, an active host may have a number of volumes exported to it and therefore the
host has access to those volumes.
An inactive host is a host that is known to the InForm OS but is not recognized as being connected
to any system port at the moment. This may be because the host is currently disconnected from the
system port, or due to an error condition such as link failure or because the host is offline.
When a host on a system port becomes inactive for any reason, the following happens:
Procedure 1
1.
2.
3.
The InForm OS recognizes that the host is missing on the port and changes the state of the
host from active to inactive.
The VLUN becomes a template again until the host returns.
If and when the host reappears on the same port, The VLUNs are converted from a template
to active again. They do not remain in an active state while the host is unavailable.
Adding and Removing Hosts
The InForm OS administration tools allow you to create, modify, and remove Fibre Channel and
iSCSI host paths and their properties. When creating a new host, you can either create a host with
or without assigning WWNs or iSCSI Names. A virtual volume that is exported to a host is exported
to all the WWNs that make up the host. If you need to export virtual volumes to particular host
computer WWNs or iSCSI Names, you can create separate hosts on the system and assign each
WWN or iSCSI Name to its own host. Use the InForm OS CLI or the InForm OS Management
Console to create, modify, and remove hosts.
Hosts can be grouped into autonomic groups that can be managed as one host. If you have a
group of hosts that require the same administrative procedures, it is easier to group those hosts
into an autonomic group and mange them together. For instructions on creating, modifying, and
removing hosts, see the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and InForm OS Management
Console Online Help.
Host Personas
Host personas are a set of behaviors that permit hosts connected to FC or iSCSI ports on the system
to deviate from the default host behavior. By assigning a persona to a host, multiple host types
that require distinct customized responses can share a single system port. For example, hosts
running Windows, Linux, and AIX operating systems can all connect to the same system port. This
simplifies connecting hosts to the system and reduces management costs related to complex host
connections.
A host persona defines the custom responses for certain iSCSI commands and does not affect any
of the FC port settings. Host personas are tied to the host name and identified by the host persona
number. You can set the host persona number when the host is created or modify it later. Use the
InForm OS CLI commands or the InForm OS Management Console to display, create, modify, and
remove host personas. See the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual or the InForm OS Management
Console Online Help for instructions on displaying, creating, modifying, and removing host
personas.
Different host personas have different functions and support different host operating systems. The
specific host persona is designated by the host persona number. Depending on the selected host
persona number, the following additional capabilities are supported:
30
•
UARepLun - Sends an unit attention when the LUN list changes due to adding or removing
VLUNs.
•
RTPG - Enables the Report Target Port Group (RTPG) command and asymmetric state change
unit attention when path counts change due to adding or removing ports in the host's definition.
Ports and Hosts
•
VolSetAddr - Enables HPUX Volume Set Addressing (VSA).
•
SoftInq - Enables inquiry data formats for hosts such as Egenera and NetApp.
•
NACA - Enables Normal Auto Contingent Allegiance (NACA) bit for AIX.
•
SESLun - Enables iSCSI Enclosure Services (SES) LUN ID 254 for Host Explorer agent support.
NOTE: Each host connected to the system must use a host persona with the iSCSI Enclosure
Services LUN (SESLun) enabled, or the Host Explorer agent cannot communicate with the system.
Table 4 (page 31) describes the specific functionality for each host persona number. For a list of
supported host operating systems, go to the Single Point of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK)
website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
Table 4 Host Personas
Persona Number
Persona Name
Host Operating System
Additional Capabilities
1
Generic
Linux, Windows, and Solaris UARepLun, SESLun
2
Generic-ALUA
Linux, Windows, and Solaris UARepLun, RTPG SESLun
6
Generic-Legacy
Linux, Windows, and Solaris None
7
HPUX-Legacy
HP-UX
VolSetAddr
8
AIX-Legacy
AIX
NACA
9
Egenera
Egenera, NetApp
SoftInq
10
NetApp ONTAP
Data ONTAP
SoftInq
NOTE: Only the Generic, Generic-ALUA, and Generic-Legacy personas are supported for iSCSI
connections.
NOTE:
The NetApp host operating system requires unique WWNs for hosts in an FC fabric.
NOTE: A host device must use either iSCSI or Fibre Channel connections. Mixed ports on a single
device is not supported.
Legacy Host Personas
A legacy host persona is a host persona that simulates the behavior of a port persona. Prior to the
HP 3PAR InForm Operating System 2.3.1 release, port personas were used on system ports. Port
personas are no longer supported. Use the InForm CLI commands or the InForm OS Management
Console to convert your legacy host personas to new host personas. See the InForm OS CLI
Administrator’s Manual or the InForm OS Management Console Online Help for instructions on
converting your legacy host personas.
The Host Explorer Software Agent
The HP 3PAR Host Explorer Software agent is a program that runs on a host connected to an HP
Storage System. The Host Explorer agent runs as a service on Windows and as a daemon on Linux
and Solaris operating systems. No license is required to use the Host Explorer agent.
The Host Explorer agent communicates with the system over an FC or iSCSI connection and enables
the host to send detailed host configuration information to the system. The information gathered
from the Host Explorer agent is visible for uncreated hosts and assists with host creation and
diagnosing host connectivity issues.
When a host is created on the system, unassigned WWNs or iSCSI names are presented to the
system. Without the Host Explorer agent running on the attached hosts, the system is unable to
determine which host the WWN or iSCSI names belongs to and you must manually assign each
The Host Explorer Software Agent
31
WWN or iSCSI name to a host. With Host Explorer agents running, the system automatically
groups WWNs or iSCSI names for the host together, assisting with creating the host.
The Host Explorer agent collects the following information and sends it to the system:
•
Host operating system and version.
•
Fibre Channel and iSCSI HBA details.
•
Multipath driver and current multipath configuration.
•
Cluster configuration information.
You can install the Host Explorer agent from the HP 3PAR Host Explorer CD. For instructions on
installing and using the Host Explorer agent, see the HP 3PAR Host Explorer User’s Guide. For a
list of supported host operating systems, go to the Single Point of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK)
website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
32
Ports and Hosts
7 Chunklets
Overview
Physical disks are divided into chunklets. When a physical disk is admitted to the system it is divided
into chunklets that become available to the system. Some chunklets are used by logical disks and
other chunklets are designated as spares to hold relocated data during a disk failure or during
maintenance procedures.
Creating, moving, and removing chunklets and spares can only be performed with the HP 3PAR
InForm Command Line Interface (CLI). Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual
for instructions on how to perform these tasks.
Viewing chunklets and spares can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line
Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the InForm OS CLI
Administrator’s Manual and the InForm OS Management Console Online Help for instructions on
how to perform this task.
Physical Disk Chunklets
Physical disks are divided into chunklets. Each chunklet occupies contiguous space on a physical
disk.
Space on a physical disk is allocated as follows:
•
On F-Class and T-Class systems all chunklets are 256 MB. On P10000 systems all chunklets
are 1 GB.
•
256 MB of data is reserved for the table of contents (TOC), which contains the internal
description of the system. The TOCs on all physical disks in the system contain the same
information.
•
4 MB are reserved for diagnostic use, 2 MB beginning after the TOC and 2 MB from the end
of the disk logical block address.
•
One or more chunklets are allocated as spares. These spare chunklets are used to hold
relocated data during disk failures and during maintenance procedures. Spares are created
during installation and setup. Any chunklet can be reserved as a spare, but the system setup
script selects those chunklets as close to the end of the physical disk’s logical block space as
possible.
•
The remainder of the disk can be used for logical disks.
Spare Chunklets
Some chunklets are identified as spares when the system is first set up at installation. Data from
other chunklets is moved or reconstructed onto these spare chunklets in response to a chunklet or
disk failure or when a drive magazine needs to be serviced. This initial spare storage totals the
amount of storage in a single drive magazine, using the largest size physical disks.
How spare chunklets work:
•
When a connection is lost to a physical disk or a physical disk fails, all future writes to the
disk are automatically written to a logging logical disk until the physical disk comes back
online or until the time limit for logging is reached. Logging disk space is allocated when the
system is set up. This does not apply to RAID 0 chunklets which have no fault-tolerance.
•
If the time limit for logging is reached, or if the logging logical disk becomes full, the relocation
of chunklets on the physical disk to free chunklets designated as spares starts automatically.
Free chunklets are any chunklets that are not already allocated for use by logical disks.
Overview
33
•
For automatic relocations, the system uses up a maximum of one disk worth of chunklets per
system node.
•
When selecting a target chunklet for relocation, the system attempts to identify a local spare
chunklet, a local free chunklet, a remote spare chunklet, and then finally a remote free chunklet.
NOTE: Local chunklets are chunklets on disks whose primary path is connected to a node that
owns the logical disk containing the chunklets being relocated.
34
•
If the system uses up its free or spare chunklets for relocation, an alert is generated.
•
Once the spare and free chunklets are used up, automatic relocation no longer occurs. In
most cases, some data redundancy is lost. The system also generates an alert.
Chunklets
8 Logical Disks
Overview
A Logical Disk (LD) is a collection of physical disk chunklets arranged as rows of RAID sets. Each
RAID set is made up of chunklets from different physical disks. Logical disks are pooled together
in Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs) which allocate space to virtual volumes. Creating CPGs
maps out the data layout parameters for the creating logical disks. Logical disks are created
automatically by the system when virtual volumes are created from CPGs. The RAID type, space
allocation, growth increments and other logical disk parameters can be set when you create a
CPG or modified after creating a CPG. For information about CPGs, see “Common Provisioning
Groups” (page 40).
Logical Disks and Common Provisioning Groups
Creating a Common Provisioning Group (CPG) establishes a virtual pool of logical disks that can
grow on demand. When you create virtual volumes, the system creates all underlying logical disks
for you automatically. Volumes associated with a CPG draw logical disk space from the virtual
pool as needed, allocating space on demand. As the volumes that draw from a CPG require
additional storage, the system automatically creates additional logical disks and adds them to the
pool. Once you create a CPG, you can add and remove logical disks. You can also specify
advanced logical disk parameters when creating CPGs. This allows you to exercise a greater
degree of control over how the system creates logical disks within the CPG.
NOTE: Creating virtual copies or snapshots requires the HP 3PAR Virtual Copy Software license.
For more information, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15)
Logical Disk Types
The following logical disk types provide storage space to virtual volumes:
•
User logical disks provide user storage space to virtual volumes. The user space contains the
user data and is exported as a LUN to the host.
•
Snapshot data logical disks provide the storage space for snapshots or virtual copies. The
snapshot space contains copies of user data that changed since the previous snapshot of the
volume was created.
•
Snapshot administration logical disks provide the storage space for snapshot administration.
The administration space is used to track changes to the volume since the previous snapshot
was created.
The system sets aside logical disks for logging, for preserved data, and for system administration.
The following logical disk types are created by the system:
•
logging logical disks are RAID 10 logical disks that are used to temporarily hold data during
disk failures and disk replacement procedures. Logging logical disks are created by the system
during the initial installation and setup of the system. Each controller node in the system has
a 20 GB logging LD.
•
preserved data logical disks are RAID 10 logical disks used to hold preserved data. Preserved
data logical disks are created by the system during the initial installation and setup of the
storage system. The size of the preserved data LD is based on the amount of data cache in
the system.
When multiple disk failures during write operations leave data suspended in cache memory, the
system temporarily preserves this data by writing it to a preserved data logical disk. By doing so,
the system clears the data cache and prevents it from locking up and leading to wider system
Overview
35
failures. When the destination logical disks become available again, the system automatically
writes the preserved data from the preserved data logical disks to the destination logical disks.
•
Administration volume logical disks provide storage space for the admin volume, a single
volume created on each system during installation. The admin volume is used to store system
administrative data such as the system event log.
RAID Types
The 3PAR storage system supports the following RAID types:
•
RAID 0
•
RAID 10 (RAID 1)
•
RAID 50 (RAID 5)
•
RAID Multi-parity (MP)
RAID 0
On a RAID 0 logical disk, data is striped across rows of chunklets on different physical disks. The
number of chunklets in a RAID 0 set is known as the set size, which is always 1 for a RAID 0 logical
disk. The number of sets in a row is known as the row size. The system accesses data from a RAID
0 logical disk in step sizes, where the step size is the number of contiguous bytes that the system
accesses before moving on to the next chunklet. A RAID 0 logical disk improves performance but
provides no fault-tolerance.
Figure 3 (page 36) shows a RAID 0 logical disk with a set size of 1 and a row size of 3:
Figure 3 Data Striped Across Chunklets on a RAID 0 Logical Disk
RAID 1 and 10
On a RAID 10 logical disk, data is striped across RAID 1 (or mirrored) sets. A RAID 1 set is made
up of two or more chunklets that contain the same data. The chunklets in each set are distributed
across different physical disks, which may be located in different drive magazines or even different
drive cages. The number of chunklets in a RAID 1 set is the set size (or mirror depth). The number
of sets in each row is the row size. The maximum row size is 40. The system accesses data from
a RAID 10 logical disk in step sizes. A step size is the number of contiguous bytes that the system
accesses before moving on to the next chunklet. A RAID 1 set can function with the loss of all but
one of the chunklets in the set.
Figure 4 (page 37) shows a RAID 10 logical disk with a set size of 2 and a row size of 3 in two
rows:
36
Logical Disks
Figure 4 Data Striped Across RAID 1 Sets on a RAID 10 Logical Disk
RAID 5 and 50
On a RAID 50 logical disk, data is striped across rows of RAID 5 sets. A RAID 5 set, or parity set,
must contain at least three chunklets. A RAID 5 set with three chunklets has a total of two chunklets
of space for data and one chunklet of space for parity. RAID 5 set sizes with between 3 and 9
chunklets are supported. The data and parity steps are striped across each chunklet in the set. The
chunklets in each RAID 5 set are distributed across different physical disks, which may be located
in different drive magazines or even different drive cages. The number of sets in a row is the row
size. The system accesses the data from a RAID 50 logical disk in step sizes. The step size is the
number of contiguous bytes that the system accesses before moving on to the next chunklet. A RAID
5 set can function with the loss of any one of the chunklets in the set.
Figure 5 (page 38) shows a RAID 50 logical disk with a set size of 3, and 2 sets in 1 row:
RAID Types
37
Figure 5 Data Striped Across RAID 5 Sets on a RAID 50 Logical Disk
RAID Multi-Parity
On a RAID Multi-Parity (MP) or RAID 6 logical disk, data is striped across rows of RAID MP sets.
A RAID MP set, or double-parity set, must contain at least 8 chunklets. A RAID MP set with 8
chunklets has a total of 6 chunklets of space for data and 2 chunklets of space for parity. RAID
MP set sizes of 8 and 16 chunklets are supported. The data and parity steps are striped across
each chunklet in the set. The chunklets in each RAID MP set are distributed across different physical
disks, which may be located in different drive magazines or even different drive cages. The number
of sets in a row is the row size. The system accesses the data from a RAID MP logical disk in step
sizes. The step size varies and is dependent on the size of the RAID MP set. A RAID MP set can
function with the loss of any two of the chunklets in the set.
The following example shows 2 RAID MP sets in one row, the second set is shown below the first
set. In the first RAID MP set in the following example, p0 is the parity step for data steps F, L, M,
Q, T, V, and X. Figure 6 (page 39) shows a RAID MP logical disk with a set size of 8, and 2 sets
in 1 row:
38
Logical Disks
Figure 6 Data Striped Across RAID MP Sets on a RAID MP Logical Disk
Logical Disk Size and RAID Types
A logical disk is a collection of physical disk chunklets arranged as rows of RAID sets. On F-Class
and T-Class systems all chunklets are 256 MB. On P10000 systems all chunklets are 1 GB. All
systems round up so that the logical disk size is divisible by the size of one chunklet, either 1 GB
or 256 KB. The total size of the logical disk is determined by the number of data chunklets in the
RAID set.
•
A RAID 0 or RAID 1 logical disk must contain at least one chunklet.
•
A RAID 5 set, or parity set, must contain at least three chunklets. A RAID 5 set with three
chunklets has a total of two chunklets of space for data and one chunklet of space for parity.
The system default is four chunklets: three for data and one for parity (3+1).
•
A RAID MP set, or double-parity set, must contain at least 8 chunklets. RAID MP set sizes of
8 and 16 chunklets are supported. The system default is 8 chunklets. A RAID MP set with 8
chunklets has a total of 6 chunklets of space for data and 2 chunklets of space for parity (6+2).
NOTE: The system also rounds up the size of virtual volumes, CPGs, and CPG growth increments
to be divisible by the size of one chunklet, either 1 GB or 256 KB.
Logical Disk Size and RAID Types
39
9 Common Provisioning Groups
Overview
A Common Provisioning Group (CPG) creates a virtual pool of logical disks that allows up to 4,095
virtual volumes to share the CPG's resources and allocates space on demand. You can create
fully-provisioned virtual volumes and Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) that draw space
from the CPG's logical disk pool.
CPGs enable fine-grained, shared access to pooled logical capacity. Instead of pre-dedicating
logical disks to volumes, the CPG allows multiple volumes to share the buffer pool of logical disks.
For example, when a TPVV is running low on user space, the system automatically assigns more
capacity to the TPVV by mapping new regions from logical disks in the CPG associated with that
TPVV. As a result, any large pockets of unused but allocated space are eliminated. Fully-provisioned
virtual volumes cannot create user space automatically and the system allocates a fixed amount
of user space for the volume.
By default, a CPG is configured to auto-grow new logical disks when the amount of available
logical disk space falls below a configured threshold. The initial buffer pool of logical disks starts
off at a fraction of the exported virtual capacity of mapped volumes and automatically grows over
time as required by application writes.
Creating CPGs can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line Interface (CLI)
and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s
Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to
perform these tasks.
For more information about TPVVs and fully-provisioned virtual volumes, see “Virtual Volumes”
(page 43).
Precautions and Planning
A Common Provisioning Group (CPG) creates a virtual pool of logical disks that allows up to 4,095
volumes to share the CPG's resources and allocate space on demand. However, CPGs still require
careful planning and monitoring to prevent them from becoming so large that they set off the
system's built-in safety mechanisms. These safety mechanisms are designed to prevent a CPG from
consuming all free space on the system, but they only work properly on systems that are planned
carefully and monitored closely. The maximum number of CPGs per system is 2,048.
Growth Increments, Warnings, and Limits
You can create several types of volumes that draw space from the CPG's logical disk pool as
needed. When creating a CPG, set a growth increment and an optional growth warning and
growth limit to restrict the CPG's growth and maximum size. It is important to plan the CPG's
growth increment, growth warning, and growth limit carefully and then continue to monitor the
CPG closely over time.
:
Use caution in planning CPGs. The system does not prevent you from setting growth warnings or
growth limits that exceed the amount of currently available storage on a system. When volumes
associated with a CPG use all space available to that CPG, any new writes to TPVVs associated
with the CPG will fail and/or snapshot volumes associated with the CPG may become invalid or
stale. Under these conditions, some host applications do not handle write failures gracefully and
may produce unexpected failures.
NOTE: By default, the growth warning and growth limit are set to none, which effectively disables
these safety features.
40
Common Provisioning Groups
Growth Increment
As volumes that draw from a CPG require additional storage, the system automatically creates
additional logical disks according to the CPG's growth increment. The default growth increment
is fixed at 32 GB, but the minimum growth increment varies according to the number of controller
nodes in the system and ranges from 8 GB for a two-node system to 32 GB for a four-node system
(Table 5 (page 41)).
Table 5 Default and Minimum Growth Increments
Number of nodes
Default
Minimum
2
32 GB
8 GB
4
32 GB
16 GB
6
32 GB
24 GB
8
32 GB
32 GB
In some it may be desirable to use a larger growth increment. However, a smaller growth increment
can prevent the CPG from automatically allocating too much space.
The optimal growth increment depends on several factors:
•
Total available space on your system.
•
Nature of the data running on the system.
•
Number of CPGs in the system.
•
Number of volumes associated with those CPGs.
•
Anticipated growth rate of the volumes associated with the CPGs.
NOTE: The system may round up when creating logical disks to support virtual volumes and
Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs), resulting in a discrepancy between the user-specified size
or growth increment and the actual space allocated to logical disks created by the system. For a
detailed discussion of this issue, see “Logical Disk Size and RAID Types” (page 39).
Growth Warning
When the size of the volumes that draw from a CPG reach the CPG’s growth warning, the system
generates an alert to notify you of the CPG's increasing size. This safety mechanism provides the
opportunity to take early action that may prevent snapshot volumes associated with the CPG from
experiencing failures, causing host or application write failures, and exhausting all free space on
the system.
When setting growth warnings for CPGs, it is critical to consider the number of CPGs on the system,
the total capacity of the system, and the projected rate of growth for all volumes on the system.
The storage system does not prevent you from setting growth warnings that exceed the total capacity
of the system. For example, on a 3 TB system you can create two CPGs that each have a growth
warning of 2 TB. However, if both CPGs grow at a similar rate, it is possible for the volumes that
draw from the CPGs to consume all free space on the system before either CPG reaches the growth
warning threshold.
Growth Limit
If the volumes that draw from a CPG are allowed to reach the CPG’s growth limit, the system
prevents them from allocating additional space. This safety mechanism stops a runaway application
or volume from exhausting all free space available to the CPG and causing invalid (stale) snapshot
volumes and/or new application write failures for volumes associated with that CPG. However,
the storage system does not prevent you from setting growth limits that exceed the total capacity
Precautions and Planning
41
of the system. For example, on a 4 TB system it is possible to create a CPG with a 5 TB growth
limit. Likewise, it is possible to create five CPGs, each with a 2 TB growth limit, etc.
In addition, volumes that draw from a CPG can only use the space available to that CPG based
on the CPG's logical disk parameters. For example, if you create a CPG that only uses logical
disks that belong to controller node 0, when the virtual volumes that draw from a CPG have filled
up all space available to that CPG based on it's logical disk parameters, the following will happen:
•
New writes to any Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) mapped to that CPG will return
write failures.
•
Snapshot volumes mapped to the CPG may become invalid (stale), subject to the virtual copy
policy associated with the base volume. For base volumes with a no stale snapshots virtual
copy policy, new writes to the base volume will result in write failures.
•
For base volumes with a stale snapshots virtual copy policy, new writes will cause snapshot
volumes to become invalid (stale).
•
If the volumes that draw from a CPG reach the CPG’s growth limit, the system generates
additional alerts to notify you that all logical capacity for the CPG has been consumed.
System Guidelines for Creating CPGs
Use the following guidelines to ensure maximum performance and optimal reliability in the volumes
supported by those logical disks:
•
To provide the highest availability, chunklets in the same RAID set should be from different
drive cages, and then different drive magazines.
•
Physical disks with fewer used chunklets should be used before physical disks with more used
chunklets.
•
Chunklets in the same row should be from different physical disks. In other words, a physical
disk should not appear twice in the same row.
•
Chunklets should belong to a disk that is connected through the primary path to the logical
disk’s owner node.
•
The system should use as many physical disks as possible.
•
The load on all physical disks should be balanced.
•
The system should use the largest possible row size.
NOTE: The system may round up when creating logical disks to support virtual volumes and
Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs), resulting in a discrepancy between the user-specified size
or growth increment and the actual space allocated to logical disks created by the system. For
more information, see “Logical Disk Size and RAID Types” (page 39).
Volume Types Associated with CPGs
Depending on the products and features licensed for use on the system, after creating a CPG you
can create two types of base volumes that draw from the CPG's logical disk pool: Thinly-Provisioned
Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) and fully-provisioned virtual volumes. These two volume types draw from
the pool in different ways. For information about TPVVs, see “Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes”
(page 14). For information about fully-provisioned virtual volumes, see “Fully-Provisioned Virtual
Volumes” (page 14).
42
Common Provisioning Groups
10 Virtual Volumes
Overview
Volumes draw their resources from Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs), and volumes are exported
as Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs) to hosts. Virtual volumes are the only data layer visible to hosts.
You can create physical copies or virtual copy snapshots of virtual volumes for use if the original
base volume becomes unavailable. Before creating virtual volumes, you must first create CPGs to
allocate space to the virtual volumes. For information about CPGs, see “Common Provisioning
Groups” (page 40).
Volumes can be grouped into autonomic groups that can be managed as one volume. If you have
a group of volumes that require the same administrative procedures, it is easier to group those
volumes into an autonomic group and mange them together.
Creating virtual volumes can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm OS Command Line
Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS
CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Online Help for
instructions on how to perform these tasks.
For the maximum number of virtual volumes and virtual volume copies that can be created with
your specific system configuration, go to the Single Point of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK)
website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
NOTE: Creating Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) requires the HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning
Software license. Creating virtual copies requires the HP 3PAR Virtual Copy Software license. For
more information, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
Virtual Volume Types
There are three types of virtual volumes:
•
Fully-provisioned virtual volumes
•
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs)
•
Administrative Volumes
Administrative volumes are created by the system and are for system usage only.
Fully-provisioned virtual volumes and TPVVs have three separate data components:
•
User space is the area of the volume that corresponds to the logical disk regions in the CPG
available to the host. The user space contains the user data and is exported as a LUN to the
host.
•
Snapshot space, also known as copy space, is the area of the volume that corresponds to
logical disk regions in the CPG containing copies of user data that changed since the previous
snapshot of the volume was created. The snapshot space contains the copy data.
•
Administration space, also known as admin space, is the area of the volume that corresponds
to logical disk regions in the CPG that track changes to the volume since the previous snapshot
was created. The administration space contains pointers to copies of user data in the snapshot
space. Administration space is managed by the system, not with the tools you use to manage
user and snapshot space.
You can increase the size of volumes, the amount of user space, and the amount of snapshot space
for volumes as the requirements increase. If the user space and snapshot space use all available
space, the Virtual Copy feature’s copy-on-write operation will fail. To avoid running out of user
space, use TPVVs to automatically draw more user space from a CPG. The InForm OS automatically
reclaims unused snapshot from TPVVs and fully-provisioned virtual volumes and returns the space
to the logical disks.
Overview
43
For greater administrative flexibility, you can provision the virtual volume’s user space and snapshot
space from the same or different CPGs. If the virtual volume’s user space and snapshot space are
on a different CPGs, the user space remains available to the host if the CPG containing the snapshot
space becomes full. To save time by not repeating tasks, you can create many identical virtual
volume’s at one time.
Administrative Volumes
As part of installation and setup process, a volume called the administrative volume, or admin
volume, is created on the system. This volume is used by the system to store administrative data
such as the system event log. The admin volume is always named admin. This volume cannot be
exported and cannot be removed from the system.
Fully-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
A fully-provisioned virtual volume is a volume that uses logical disks that belong to a logical disk
pool known as a Common Provisioning Group (CPG). Unlike Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
(TPVVs), fully-provisioned virtual volumes have a set amount of user space allocated in the system
for user data. They require the system to reserve the entire amount of space required by the
fully-provisioned virtual volume wether or not the space is actually used. The fully-provisioned virtual
volume size is fixed, and the size limit is 16 TB. You can set snapshot space allocation limits and
usage warnings to help manage the growth of snapshot space.
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes
With an HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning Software license, you can also create Thinly-Provisioned Virtual
Volumes (TPVVs). A TPVV uses logical disks that belong to a logical disk pool known as a Common
Provisioning Group (CPG). TPVVs associated with the same CPG draw user space from that pool
as needed, allocating space on demand in one chunklet increments beginning with either 256 MB
or 1 GB per controller node. As the volumes that draw space from the CPG require additional
storage, the system automatically creates additional logical disks and adds them to the pool until
the CPG reaches the user-defined growth limit that restricts the CPG’s maximum size. The TPVV
volume size limit is 16 TB.
TPVVs are capable of responding to host write requests by allocating space on demand in one
chunklet increments beginning with either 256 MB or 1 GB per controller node. These allocations
are adaptive since subsequent allocations are based on the rate of consumption for previously
allocated space.
For example, if a TPVV is initially allocated 256 MB per node but then consumes that space in
less than sixty seconds, the next allocation becomes 512 MB per node. However, if the initial 256
MB per node is consumed more slowly, the next allocation increment remains at 256 MB per node.
Under this provisioning scheme, the maximum allocation increment is 1 GB per controller node
supporting the TPVV. In addition, as the TPVV reaches either its exported size or its user-defined
allocation limit, the system allows allocation of an additional 128 MB per node beyond these limits
in order to ensure that the exported TPVV address space is usable.
CAUTION: Use of allocation limits is recommended to prevent consumption of physical raw
capacity beyond a tolerable limit. However, you should exercise caution when setting the value
of the allocation limit. Upon reaching the allocation limit, any new writes to TPVVs will fail and/or
snapshot volumes associated with the CPG may become invalid. Under this condition, some host
applications do not handle write failures gracefully and may produce unexpected failures.
CAUTION: Do not allow the volumes that draw from a CPG to exceed the CPG’s growth limit.
Doing so can invalidate snapshot volumes. Refer to “Common Provisioning Groups” (page 40) for
additional cautions and recommendations.
44
Virtual Volumes
TPVV Warnings and Limits
The TPVV volume size limit is 16 TB. When creating a TPVV, you have the option to set an allocation
warning threshold and an allocation limit threshold.
•
allocation warning threshold: For volumes capable of allocating space on demand, the
user-defined threshold at which the system generates an alert. This threshold is a percentage
of the volume's virtual size, the size that the volume presents to the host.
•
allocation limit threshold: For volumes capable of allocating space on demand, the user-defined
threshold at which writes fail, preventing the volume from consuming additional resources.
This threshold is a percentage of the volume's virtual size, the size that the volume presents
to the host.
When setting TPVV allocation warnings and allocation limits, you must take into account the space
to be consumed by both the volume’s user data and the snapshot data.
The total amount of snapshot space consumed by a TPVV and its snapshots includes the data written
to the base volume and the data written to the snapshots. The size of the data written to the snapshots
equals the total writes to the base volume since the oldest existing read-only (RO) snapshot was
created.
When deciding on the allocation warning and allocation limit thresholds for a TPVV, you can use
an estimate of the maximum write rate to compute the snapshot data growth rate.
•
If there are no RO snapshots, and the volume is not a physical copy or used for Remote Copy,
use the maximum write rate as the growth rate.
•
If there are RO snapshots, or if the volume is not a physical copy or used for Remote Copy,
use twice the maximum write rate as the growth rate.
•
Set the allocation warning and limit thresholds based on the growth rate and how much
advance warning you require before the volume reaches its limit and writes fail.
Use the following formula to generate the allocation warning threshold:
where the value of n is as follows:
•
for a TPVV without read-only snapshots, and when that TPVV is not a physical copy or used
for Remote Copy, n=1.
•
for a TPVV with read-only snapshots, or when that TPVV is a physical copy or used for Remote
Copy, n=2.
For example, if a 1 TB TPVV with read-only snapshots has a maximum write rate of 1 GB per day
and you would like 30 days warning prior to that TPVV reaching the allocation limit, use the
following calculation for the allocation warning percentage:
Physical Copies
A physical copy is a point-in-time copy that duplicates all the data from one original base volume
to another volume called the destination volume. This is done so that the data on the destination
volume can be used if the original base volume becomes unavailable. Any changes to either volume
Physical Copies
45
causes them to lose synchronization with each other, which is corrected by resynchronizing the
two volumes as described in the InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and the InForm OS
Management Console Online Help. No special license is required to create a physical copy of a
volume.
Physical copies can be created and managed in groups to reduce the number of management
tasks. You can create a consistent group physical copies form a list of virtual volumes, and group
physical copies into autonomic groups that are managed as one physical copy.
A physical copy can only be made from a volume with enough free space to accommodate writes
to that volume during the physical copy operation. In addition, the destination volume must meet
the following conditions:
•
It must have snapshot space associated with.
•
It must have at least as much user space as the volume being copied.
•
It must not be exported to a host.
For the maximum number of physical copies that can be created with your specific system
configuration, go to the Single Point of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK) website
http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
NOTE: If you create a TPVV copy of a fully-provisioned virtual volume, you cannot create a
fully-provisioned copy of that TPVV at a later time. A fully-provisioned virtual volume cannot be
converted to a TPVV, then converted back to a CPVV
Virtual Copy Snapshots
A virtual copy is a snapshot of another virtual volume. You can make virtual copies of base volumes,
physical copies, or other virtual copies. Virtual copies are created using copy-on-write techniques
available only with the HP 3PAR Virtual Copy Software license. Unlike a physical copy which
duplicates the entire base volume, a virtual copy only records the changes to the original volume.
This allows an earlier state of the original volume to be recreated by starting with the current state
and rolling back all of the changes that have been made since the virtual copy was created.
The system allows you to make a maximum of 500 virtual copies of a base volume. Up to 256
virtual copies can be read/write copies. The maximum number of virtual copies that can be created
on a system is determined by the system configuration. For the maximum number of virtual copies
that can be created with your specific system configuration, go to the Single Point of Connectivity
Knowledge (SPOCK) website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
Virtual copies can be created and managed in groups to reduce the number of management tasks.
You can create a consistent group virtual copies form a list of virtual volumes, and group virtual
copies into autonomic groups that are managed as one virtual copy.
NOTE: Virtual copies are consistent at the virtual volume level, but not at the host filesystem or
application level. In other words, virtual copies only preserve the data that was written on the
source virtual volume before the virtual copy is created. Virtual copies do not preserve the data
that is resident within the application or filesystem buffers and is not flushed to disk before the
virtual copy is created.
HP offers optional HP 3PAR Recovery Manager DBA software to enable application-level consistent
snapshots. Contact HP Customer Support for more information.
Virtual Copy Snapshot Relationships
Base volumes are always read/write, but virtual copies can be read/write or read-only. The rules
that govern the relationships between a base volume and its virtual copies are based upon the
difference between read/write and read-only volumes. Read-only and read/write copies must
alternate. You can only make a read-only copy of a read/write volume, and you can only make
a read/write copy of a read-only volume. Since base volumes are always read/write, you can
46
Virtual Volumes
only create read-only copies of a base volume. See Figure 7 (page 47) for an example of alternating
read-only and read/write virtual copy relationships.
Figure 7 Alternating Read-only and Read/Write Virtual Copies
See Figure 8 (page 47) for a more complex example of the possible relationships between a parent
base volume and its virtual copies.
Figure 8 Base Volume and Virtual Copy Relationships
Copy-on-Write Function
When a virtual volume or snapshot’s source volume is written to, the copy-on-write function preserves
the data that is to be overwritten. The data is copied to the snapshot space associated with the
original virtual volume before the write operation is completed, and a pointer in the administration
space points to the copied data.
See Figure 9 (page 48) for an example of a sequence of snapshots.
Virtual Copy Snapshots
47
Figure 9 Snapshot Tree
The relationships between the virtual copies derived from a base volume can be represented as a
tree. In the example in Figure 9 (page 48), the base volume BaseVV is the starting point. In this
example, each new virtual copy of the original has its name incremented by 1.
Each copy of a copy has an additional level added to its name: in this example, the first copy of
S1 is S1_0, and a copy of S1_0 is S1_0_0. Unlike the automatic snapshots created for physical
copies, these snapshots are not assigned names by the system.
NOTE: The naming convention used in the example above is recommended, but it is not enforced
by the system. You can name each virtual volume and virtual copy at the time of creation.
The following rules are enforced by the system when you create a snapshot:
•
The tree grows in alternating layers of read/write and read-only snapshots. You can only
make a read-only copy of a read/write volume, and you can only make a read/write copy
of a read-only volume.
•
A maximum of 256 read/write virtual copies can be made from one read-only virtual volume.
•
A maximum of 500 virtual copies can be made from one base volume.
•
A virtual volume cannot be deleted if a child copy of it exists. For example, S1 cannot be
removed unless S1_0, S1_0_0, and S1_0_1 are deleted first.
Copy-of and Parent Relationships
In the example in Figure 9 (page 48), there are two different tree structures: the solid arrows show
the copy-of relationships, and the dashed arrows show the parent relationship. For example, S0
is a read-only copy of BaseVV, and S1 is the parent of S0. The copy-of relationship simply shows
48
Virtual Volumes
that the snapshot was created by copying another virtual volume. The parent relationship refers to
the internal organization of the administration space. The parent volume contains information
needed to reconstruct the snapshot represented by the child volume. A parent volume can have a
creation date after that of its child if the parent volume was modified.
The parent relationship is useful for two reasons:
•
Understanding the performance consequences of virtual copies. The tree representing the
parent relationship shows the look-up paths in the administration space needed to reconstruct
the earlier state of the virtual volume. The farther away a virtual copy is from the base volume,
the longer it will take to retrieve it. If a snapshot is expected to be kept in use for a long time,
consider making a physical copy instead of a virtual copy.
•
Understanding which virtual copies become stale if the administration space is full and the
copy-on-write data cannot be written. A stale snapshot is one that cannot be completely
recreated because the most recent changes will not be included. The current snapshot and all
its children become stale when a write fails. For example, if there is no space to write the
copy-on-write data when a host writes to S1_0, then S1_0, S1_0_1, and S1_0_0 become stale.
Exporting Virtual Volumes
Virtual volumes are the only data layer component visible to hosts. You export a virtual volume to
make it available to one or more hosts by creating an association between the volume and a
logical unit number (LUN). The characteristics of this association are defined when you create a
Virtual Volume-LUN pairing (VLUN). A VLUN is a pairing between a virtual volume and a LUN
expressed as either a VLUN template or an active VLUN. For the maximum number of VLUNs
supported for each host with your specific system configuration, go to the Single Point of Connectivity
Knowledge (SPOCK) website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
Exporting virtual volumes can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line Interface
(CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI
Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console Online Help for
instructions on how to perform this task.
VLUN Templates and Active VLUNs
A VLUN template sets up an association between a virtual volume and a LUN-host, LUN-port, or
LUN-host-port combination by establishing the export rule. When you create a VLUN template, if
the current system state meets the conditions established by the VLUN template, that template is
immediately applied to create one or more active VLUNs. These active VLUNs enable virtual
volumes to be exported to hosts. If the current system state does not meet the conditions of the
VLUN template, no active VLUNs are created until the conditions of the template are met.
Once a VLUN template is applied to create one or more active VLUNs, hosts continue to be able
to access volumes based on the export rule established by that template. Removing VLUNs associated
with a volume halts host access to that volume. Removing all VLUNs for a host stops the host from
accessing all volumes.
VLUN Template Types
A VLUN template sets up an association between a virtual volume and a LUN-host, LUN-port, or
LUN-host-port combination by establishing the export rule, or the manner in which the volume is
exported. A VLUN template enables the export of a virtual volume as a VLUN to a host or hosts.
Those volume exports, which are seen as LUNs by the host or hosts, are active VLUNs.
A VLUN template can be one of the following types:
•
Host sees allows only a specific host to see a volume.
•
Host set allows any host that is a member of the host set to see a volume.
Exporting Virtual Volumes
49
•
Port presents allows any host on a specific port to see the volume.
•
Matched set allows only a specific host on a specific port to see the volume.
Host Sees
A host sees VLUN template allows only a particular host connected to any port to see a virtual
volume. The system makes the virtual volume visible as a LUN to all the host’s WWNs, regardless
of which controller node port the WWNs appear on. If the host has more than one WWN, active
VLUNs are created for each host WWN. However, for any single host, there can only be one host
sees VLUN template for a given LUN.
If a WWN is added to an existing host definition, all virtual volumes that are exported to the host
using the host-sees VLUN template are exported to the new WWN. However, WWNs cannot be
removed from a host definition if a LUN is exported to the host.
Host Set
A host set VLUN template allows any host that is a member of the host set to see a volume. The
system makes the virtual volume visible as a LUN to all the members of the host set. Any hosts
added to the host set automatically see the VLUN, provided there are no conflicting LUN IDs. If
the added host has an exported LUN ID in the LUN ID range of the host set, the host cannot see
the LUN and must be assigned a new ID. If a host is removed from a host set, the removed host
loses all rights of the host set and cannot access volumes exported to the host set.
Port Presents
A port presents VLUN template allows any host connected to a particular port to see a virtual
volume. The system makes the virtual volume visible as a LUN to any of the host’s WWNs that
appear on the controller node port. As long as the VLUN template remains on the system, additional
active VLUNs are created when the port is attached to additional hosts. However, there can only
be one port presents VLUN template per port LUN combination.
The same virtual volume can be exported as different LUNs on the same or different ports.
CAUTION: If the system is operating in Common Criteria mode, there may be security risks with
port presents. For more information about Common Criteria, see the HP 3PAR InForm OS Common
Criteria Administrator’s Reference.
Matched Set
A matched set VLUN template is a combination of the host sees and port presents template types.
A matched set VLUN allows a particular host on a specified port to see a virtual volume. For any
single LUN, there can only be one matched set VLUN template with the same host-port combination.
50
Virtual Volumes
11 Reclaiming Unused Space
Overview
The InForm OS space consolidation features allow you to change the way that virtual volumes are
mapped to logical disks in a Common Provisioning Group (CPG). Moving virtual volume regions
from one logical disk to another enables you to compact logical disks, and free up disk space so
that it can be reclaimed for use by the system. For more information about virtual volumes, see
“Virtual Volumes” (page 43).
Mapping is the correspondence of Logical Disk (LD) regions to the virtual volume regions. Virtual
volumes are made up of multiple logical disks, and each logical disk contains regions that are
mapped to the virtual volume. All types of volumes are created by mapping data from one or more
logical disks to the virtual volume. Figure 10 (page 51) shows how data mapped in regions from
logical disks onto a base volume.
Figure 10 Data is mapped from logical disks onto a virtual volume in regions
Logical disks can be shared by multiple virtual volumes. As volumes are deleted or as volume copy
space grows and then shrinks, logical disks can use space less efficiently. When logical disks do
not efficiently use space, the unused space consumes regions on the LD that are not available for
use by the system when creating new logical disks. The space management features enable you
to consolidate used space onto fewer fully-used logical disks so that unused regions are forced
onto one or more logical disks that are then deleted. Deleting these logical disks frees the unused
space for general use by the system. You can also truncate LDs to free up space. The LD’s used
regions are compacted by moving them to the beginning of the LD and then the LD is shortened
so that unused space can be returned to the system’s free chunklet pool.
Reclaiming Unmapped Logical Disk Space from CPGs
Common Provisioning Groups (CPGs) provide a shared pool of logical disk capacity for use by
all virtual volumes that draw space from that pool. See “Virtual Volume Types” (page 43) for a
discussion of volumes that can draw space from a CPG. If volumes that draw from a CPG are
deleted, or if copy space for these volumes grows and then shrinks, the underlying logical disks
in the CPG pool can become less efficient in space usage. One or more logical disks in the CPG
pool may have only a small portion of their regions mapped to existing virtual volumes. However,
the logical disk’s unused regions are not available for use by the volumes mapped to the CPG.
Compacting the logical disk regions mapped to these volumes may recover and free logical disk
space.
Overview
51
Compacting a CPG allows you to reclaim space from a CPG that has become less efficient in
space usage from creating, deleting, and relocating volumes. Compacting consolidates logical
disk space in CPGs into as few logical disks as possible. Compacting CPGs can be performed
with both the HP 3PAR InForm OS Command Line Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm
Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP
3PAR InForm Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to perform this task.
Reclaiming Unmapped Logical Disk Space from Volumes
When multiple identical virtual volumes are created as a result of a single volume creation operation,
the underlying logical disks that support those volumes are shared by the volume group. If several
of the members of that volume group are later deleted, the underlying logical disks may become
less efficient in the usage of space. One or more logical disks shared by the volume group may
have only a small portion of their regions mapped to existing virtual volumes. However, their
unused regions are not available to the system for use in creating new logical disks. Compacting
the logical disk regions mapped to these volumes may recover and free logical disk space.
Compacting logical disks can only be performed with the HP 3PAR InForm Command Line Interface
(CLI). Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual for instructions on how to perform
this tasks.
You can use the optional HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization Software feature to configure volumes
to use space more efficiently. To learn about tuning volumes for optimal performance, see “Enhanced
Storage Applications” (page 53).
Automatically Reclaiming Unused Snapshot Space from Volumes
The InForm OS automatically reclaims unused snapshot and administration space from
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) and fully-provisioned virtual volumes and returns the
space to the LDs. The system examines the snapshot and administration space for large areas of
unused space. The identified areas are unmapped from the corresponding LD regions and the
space is returned to the LDs.
Manually Reclaiming Unused Snapshot Space from Volumes
You cannot manually remove snapshot and administration space from a Thinly-Provisioned Virtual
Volume because the InForm OS automatically removes any unused space.
Reclaiming dormant snapshot and administration space from a fully-provisioned virtual volume and
returning the space to the LD can only be performed when the volume is not exported to a host,
and if there are no snapshots of the volume. Creating physical copies of the volume does not
prevent you from reclaiming space.
You can reclaim snapshot space from a virtual volume with both the HP 3PAR InForm Command
Line Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR InForm
OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console Online Help for
instructions on how to perform this task.
Deleted Volume’s Snapshot Space
The unused space associated with deleted snapshots of Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs)
and fully-provisioned virtual volumes is automatically returned to the pool of logical disks used by
the CPG.
52
Reclaiming Unused Space
12 Enhanced Storage Applications
Overview
HP offers several enhanced storage features for managing data and improving system performance.
Optional features require you to purchase a separate license. You can use the HP 3PAR OS
Command Line Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR Management Console to view the licenses currently
enabled on your systems. For a list of default HP 3PAR OS Software Suite features and optional
features, see “HP 3PAR InForm OS Software” (page 15).
NOTE: Contact your local service provider to learn about adding optional features to enhance
your HP 3PAR storage systems.
mySnapshot Software
The HP 3PAR mySnapshot Software utility does not require a separately purchased license. The
mySnapshot utility enables safe and easy copy and provisioning access to non-storage professionals
such as database administrators, software developers, and test engineers working with systems.
Users can safely and easily restore their own copies of test data in seconds without relying on the
storage administrator.
The mySnapshot utility uses an access control list to associate a user with certain administrative
permissions and specified storage resources. Once these administrative permissions are granted
for the specified resources, the user can easily replace and restore copies of their own test database.
This enables users who normally only have Browse capabilities on the system to be able to update
specific snapshots with more recent snapshots. This enables faster turnaround times for developers
who need to have their snapshots refreshed and alleviates workload for storage administrators.
For more information about roles and rights, see “HP 3PAR Storage System Users” (page 19).
Configuring the mySnapshot utility can only be performed with the HP 3PAR OS Command Line
Interface (CLI). Refer to the HP 3PAR OS CLI Administrator’s Manual for instructions on how to
perform this task.
HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization Software
HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization Software is an optional feature that allows you to improve the
performance of virtual volumes without interrupting access. Use this feature to avoid over provisioning
for peak system usage by optimizing the layout of your virtual volumes. With Dynamic Optimization
you can change the virtual volume’s parameters, RAID levels and set sizes by associating the virtual
volume with a new CPG. You must purchase an HP 3PAR Dynamic Optimization license to use
this feature.
Dynamic Optimization enables you to change volume parameters and update the layout of volumes
to take advantage of the current system configuration. For example, when a system is upgraded
by adding nodes, cages, or physical disks, the initial volume and logical disk layouts may no
longer be optimal for the new system configuration. Updating the system layout optimizes the use
of all physical resources in the system at a given time.
Overview
53
There are several ways Dynamic Optimization may improve system performance:
•
Volume layout changes after hardware upgrades. Existing virtual volumes only take advantage
of resources that were present at the time of volume creation. When a system is upgraded by
adding nodes, cages, or disks, the original volume and logical disk layouts may no longer
be optimal. Changing the layout of a virtual volume enables volumes to take full advantage
of new system resources.
By default, Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) and their underlying Common
Provisioning Groups (CPGs) dedicate space from all available resources as they grow, both
from pre-existing and new drive capacity resources. This natural expansion capability of TPVVs
reduces the need for Dynamic Optimization to change the layout of TPVVs after adding disks.
•
Volume RAID level changes. Since different RAID levels have varying capacity requirements
and offer different degrees of performance, you may desire to convert volumes from one RAID
type to another when system requirements change.
•
Volume fault-tolerance changes. A volume with a cage-level availability can tolerate the failure
of a drive cage because its RAID sets use chunklets from different drive cages. A volume with
a magazine-level availability can tolerate the failure of a drive magazine because its RAID
sets use chunklets from different magazines. As applications and business requirements change,
it may be desirable to update the fault-tolerance characteristics of existing virtual volumes.
•
CPG and volume growth configuration changes. Changing the characteristics of CPGs and
changing virtual volume growth patterns can also reduce system performance over time. Tuning
optimizes the system layout by balancing the use of all available resources.
With Dynamic Optimization you can manually change specific parameters on any specified virtual
volumes. This feature also analyzes your entire system and automatically corrects space usage
imbalances in the system. Virtual volume and physical disk capacity are analyzed and rebalanced
for optimal performance.The Dynamic Optimization automated tuning process has three phases:
1. Analyze the system and detect virtual volumes which are not correctly balanced between
nodes. If virtual volumes are not balanced correctly, the volumes are tuned to correct the
imbalance. This is the internode tuning phase.
2. Analyze the system and detect any chunklet imbalance between physical discs associated
with the same node. After the analysis, chunklets are moved from overused physical discs to
under used physical discs associated with the same node. This is the intranode tuning phase.
3. Analyze the system and verify that logical disks associated with a CPG have the same
characteristics as the CPG. If the logical disk characteristics do not match the CPG, the logical
disk is modified to match the CPG characteristics.
Dynamic Optimization tasks can be performed with both the HP 3PAR OS Command Line Interface
and the HP 3PAR Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR OS CLI Administrator’s Manual
and the HP 3PAR Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to perform these tasks
HP 3PAR System Tuner Software
HP 3PAR System Tuner Software is an optional feature that improves performance by identifying
over-used physical disks, and performing load balancing on those disks without interrupting access.
You must purchase the HP 3PAR System Tuner license to use this feature.
The HP 3PAR OS automatically creates a balanced system layout by mapping virtual volumes to
many logical disks, and creating logical disks from chunklets drawn from many physical disks. The
I/O for each volume is striped across many physical disks, increasing the throughput of the volume.
As the system grows and new applications are introduced, new storage usage patterns can emerge
and the system performance can degrade. System Tuner maintains peak system performance by
automatically detecting and resolving bottlenecks without interrupting access.
54
Enhanced Storage Applications
If the performance of one or more physical disks degrades, the throughput of the logical disks is
reduced and the entire system performance may decline. There are two general reasons why a
physical disk may have degraded performance:
•
The physical disk has reached its maximum throughput due to an unbalanced load. A disk in
this state typically has unusually high average service times when compared to other disks.
•
The physical disk is a bad disk. A bad disk typically has unusually high maximum service
times when compared to other disks.
System Tuner allows you to:
•
Perform physical disk performance tuning on an entire system or on a specified subset of disks.
•
Set performance thresholds for physical disk tuning.
•
Identify and relocate under-performing chunklets.
System Tuner tasks can only be performed with the HP 3PAR OS Command Line Interface (CLI).
Refer to the HP 3PAR OS CLI Administrator’s Manual for instructions on how to perform these tasks.
HP 3PAR Thin Conversion Software
HP 3PAR Thin Conversion Software is an optional feature that converts a fully-provisioned volume
to a Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volume (TPVV). Virtual volumes with large amounts of allocated but
unused space are converted to TPVVs that are much smaller than the original volume. During the
conversion process, allocated but unused space is discarded and the result is a TPVV that uses less
space than the original volume. To convert volumes located on a system, you must have an F-Class,
T-Class, or P10000 Storage System to perform the copy operation.
The conversion process has four steps.
Procedure 2
1.
Assessment.
2.
3.
4.
Data preparation.
Zeroing unused space.
Creating a physical copy.
Assessment
Before converting your volumes you must determine the benefits of the conversion process. The
potential benefits of zeroing free space prior to copying or migrating the data to a TPVV depends
on the amount of allocated but unused space. If there is relatively little unused space in the allocated
physical space then there is little benefit to zeroing the free space to recapture this relatively small
amount of space. Many volumes that have been in use for a long time have significant amounts
of allocated but unused space. If there is a large amount of unused space in the allocated physical
space then zeroing the data prior to copying the data results in a substantial reduction in the
amount of used space.
Data Preparation
Prepare your data for copying by removing unnecessary data. Perform clean-up tasks on the source
volume by:
•
Emptying trash cans or permanently deleting files.
•
Archiving unused files.
•
Shrinking databases.
•
Deleting temporary files.
HP 3PAR Thin Conversion Software
55
Zeroing Unused Space
Use a host application to write zeros to the allocated but unused volume space. F-Class, T-Class,
and P10000 Storage Systems detect and discard the zeros during the volume copy operation.
Creating a Physical Copy
After writing zeros to the allocated but unused space, the source volume is ready for the final phase
of conversion. You create a TPVV physical copy of the source volume to convert the source volume
to a TPVV. When you create a physical copy, F-Class, T-Class, and P10000 Storage Systems
automatically detect the zeros and do not allocate space for them in the physical copy. The result
is a TPVV that is much smaller than the original volume.
Thin Conversion tasks can be performed with both the HP 3PAR OS Command Line Interface (CLI)
and the HP 3PAR Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR OS CLI Administrator’s Manual
and the HP 3PAR Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to perform these tasks.
NOTE: Converting fully-provisioned volumes to Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes (TPVVs) with
the Thin Conversion feature requires an F-Class, T-Class, or P10000 Storage System, an HP 3PAR
Thin Provisioning license, and an HP 3PAR Thin Conversion license. Contact your HP representative
for more information.
HP 3PAR Thin Persistence Software
HP 3PAR Thin Persistence Software is an optional feature that keeps TPVVs and read/write snapshots
of TPVVs small by detecting pages of zeros during data transfers and not allocating space for the
zeros. This feature works in real-time and analyzes the data before it is written to the source TPVV
or read/write snapshot of the TPVV. Freed blocks of 16 KB of contiguous space are returned to
the source volume, freed blocks of 128 MB of contiguous space are returned to the CPG for use
by other volumes.
To use Thin Persistence functions, you must have an F-Class, T-Class, or P10000 Storage System.
The Thin Persistence feature is automatically enabled on F-Class, T-Class, and P10000 Storage
Systems. Thin Persistence tasks can be performed with both the HP 3PAR OS Command Line
Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR Management Console. Refer to the HP 3PAR OS CLI Administrator’s
Manual and the HP 3PAR Management Console Online Help for instructions on how to perform
these tasks.
NOTE: Maintaining TPVV and read/write snapshot size with the Thin Persistence feature requires
an F-Class, T-Class, or P10000 Storage System, an HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning license, an HP
3PAR Thin Conversion license, and an HP 3PAR Thin Persistence license. Contact your HP
representative for more information.
Thin Copy Reclamation Software
Thin Copy Reclamation Software is an optional feature that reclaims space when snapshots are
deleted from a system. As snapshots are deleted, the snapshot space is reclaimed from a
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volume (TPVV) or fully-provisioned virtual volume and returned to the
CPG for reuse by other volumes. Deleted snapshot space can be reclaimed from virtual copies,
physical copies, or remote copies. The Thin Copy Reclamation feature works on any class of system.
The HP 3PAR OS automatically reclaims snapshot space if the Virtual Copy, Remote Copy, or Thin
Provisioning license is enabled. For more information about snapshots, see “Virtual Copy Snapshots”
(page 15).
NOTE: Reclaiming space when snapshots are deleted with the Thin Copy Reclamation feature
requires the Virtual Copy, Remote Copy, or Thin Provisioning license. Contact your HP representative
for more information.
56
Enhanced Storage Applications
HP 3PAR Virtual Lock Software
HP 3PAR Virtual Lock Software is an optional feature that enforces the retention period of any
volume or copy of a volume. You must purchase the HP 3PAR Virtual Lock license to use this feature.
Locking a volume prevents the volume from being deleted intentionally or unintentionally before
the retention period elapses. You can use Virtual Lock to specify the retention period for each
volume or copy of a volume.
Adaptive Optimization Software
Adaptive Optimization analyzes sub-volume, region-level disk access rates for each Adaptive
Optimization configuration over a scheduled period of time and then performs a data migration
of regions between tiers according to a cost versus performance preference. Disk usage is optimized
by having frequently accessed data moved to the higher performance tier (for example, RAID 1
using Solid State Disks, or SSDs) while infrequently accessed data is moved to the lower cost tier
(for example, RAID 6 on Nearline disks).
HP 3PAR Virtual Lock Software
57
13 HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware
Overview
HP 3PAR Storage Systems are available in a variety of hardware configurations. Different models
address different levels of storage capacity and anticipated growth requirements. All models use
the InForm® Operating System (OS).
Hardware monitoring and configuration tasks can be performed with both the HP 3PAR InForm
Command Line Interface (CLI) and the HP 3PAR InForm Management Console. Refer to the HP
3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator’s Manual and the HP 3PAR InForm OS Management Console
Online Help for instructions on how to perform hardware management tasks. For detailed information
about ports, network adapters, cabling, and cable configurations, see the physical planning manual
for your storage system model.
!
The servicing of HP hardware is to be performed by authorized technicians, including HP field
engineers, Value Added Resellers (VARs), certified self-maintaining customers, and, in some cases,
authorized third-party field technicians, who are authorized by HP to install HP 3PAR Storage
Systems and their hardware components.
Identifying System Components
Figure 11 (page 58) and Figure 12 (page 59) identify the major hardware components of a system.
Different models have different hardware configurations.
Figure 11 P10000 Front View
58
HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware
Figure 12 P10000 Rear View
Physical Disks
A physical disk is a hard drive mounted on a drive magazine or module located in drive cages in
HP 3PAR Storage Systems. There are three types of physical disks: Fibre Channel (FC), Near Line
(NL) and Solid State Drives (SSD).
In DC4 drive cages, each drive magazine holds four disks numbered 0 through 3 from the rear
to the front of the magazine. The DC4 drive cages contain a maximum of ten drive magazines for
a maximum of 40 physical disks in each drive cage. See Figure 13 (page 59).
Figure 13 DC4 Drive Magazine with Physical Disks
In a DC3 drive cage, each plug-in drive module holds a single disk numbered 0 through 15. The
DC3 drive cage contains 16 drive bays and holds up to 16 drive magazine modules for a maximum
of 16 physical disks in each drive cage. See Figure 14 (page 60).
Physical Disks
59
Figure 14 DC3 Drive Magazine Module with One Physical Disk
Drive Cage Models
•
The T-Class and P10000 systems contain both DC4 drive cages. The DC4 is a 40 disk, 4
Gbps drive cage.
•
The F-Class systems only contain DC3 drive cages. The DC3 is a 16 disk, 4 Gbps drive cage.
DC4 Drive Cages and Ports and Cabling
The DC4 drive cages house ten drive bays numbered 0 through 9. Each drive bay accommodates
a single drive magazine that holds four disks. Figure 15 (page 61) shows a DC4 drive cage which
contain two Fibre Channel-Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) modules:
•
The left side FC-AL has two ports: A0 and B0.
•
The right side FC-AL has two ports: A1 and B1.
Fibre Channel cables connect the ports in the drive cage to the ports on the controller nodes. Each
cable is labeled to indicate the ports it uses.
60
HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware
Figure 15 DC4 Drive Cage
NOTE:
Daisy chaining is not supported for the DC4 drive cages.
DC3 Drive Cage and Ports and Cabling
The DC3 drive cage contains 16 drive bays at the front, each accommodating the appropriate
plug-in drive magazine module. The 16 drive bays are arranged in four rows of four drives.
Figure 16 (page 61) shows the front view of a DC3 drive cage.
Figure 16 DC3 Drive Cage (Front View)
In the DC3 drive cage, two FC-ALs, each providing four small form-factor pluggable (SFP) modules
to service the drive cage. Figure 17 (page 62) shows the rear view of a DC3 drive cage.
•
FC-AL B has four ports, labeled Port B0 through Port B3, from bottom to top.
•
FC-AL A has four ports, labeled Port A0 through Port A3, from top to bottom.
Fibre Channel cables connect the ports in the drive cage to the ports on the controller nodes. Each
cable is labeled to indicate the ports it uses.
Drive Cage Models
61
Figure 17 DC3 Drive Cage (Rear View)
Controller Nodes
System controller nodes use Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet, and iSCSI ports to connect the storage
sever to your network, host computers, storage sever components, and to other systems.
Inside each controller node there are slots for network adapters, control cache DIMMs, and data
cache DIMMs. The number of controller nodes in each system, and the type and number of network
adapters is configurable. The number of controller nodes each system model can accommodate
is summarized in Table 6 (page 62).
Table 6 System Models and Number of Controller Nodes
Storage System Model
Number of Controller Nodes
P10000
2, 4, 6, or 8
T400
2 or 4
T800
2, 4, 6, or 8
F200
2
F400
4
Port Numbering
The number of host ports each storage system model can accommodate is summarized in Table 7
(page 62).
Table 7 Storage System Models and Number of Ports
62
Storage System Model
Number of FC Ports
Number of iSCSI Ports
P10000
0-288
0-18
T400
0-64
0-16
T800
0-128
0-32
F200
0-8
0-4
F400
0-16
0-8
HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware
NOTE:
For information about port location and numbering, see “Port Location Formats” (page 29).
NOTE: For information about how to view the control cache DIMM and data cache DIMM
configurations for each controller node, see the HP 3PAR HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator's
Manual and InForm OS Management Console Online Help. For information about memory
expansion, contact your HP representative.
NOTE: For a complete list of supported third-party hardware and software, go to the Single Point
of Connectivity Knowledge (SPOCK) website http://spock.corp.hp.com/index.aspx.
P10000 Controller Node Numbering
The P10000 system may contain two, four, six or eight controller nodes per system configuration.
The controller node chassis is located at the rear of the storage cabinet.
From the rear of the storage cabinet, component numbering starts with zero (0) at the bottom-left
corner and advances right and upward. For example, the node in the lower left position is identified
as node 0 and the adjacent node (right) is identified as node 1. When two node chassis are
present, the orientation of the lower and upper nodes becomes inverted. The node located in upper
right corner of a P10000 with 8 nodes is identified as node 7.
The following figure shows the numbering and positioning of the controller nodes in a P10000
chassis:
Figure 18 P10000 Controller Node Numbering
T-Class Controller Node Numbering
T-Class systems contain two, four, six, or eight controller nodes per system and only use T-Class
controller nodes. Controller nodes are loaded into the system backplane enclosure from bottom to
top.
For a T800 storage system with only two controller nodes installed, those controller nodes would
occupy the lowest 4U of the backplane and would be numbered node 6 and node 7.
Controller Nodes
63
A controller node takes on the number of the bay that it occupies in the system backplane, as
shown in Figure 19 (page 64).
Figure 19 T-Class Controller Node Numbering
F-Class Controller Node Numbering
The F-Class systems contains two or four nodes per system. Controller nodes are numbered from
top to bottom node 0 and node 1 for a two node system, and node 0- 3 for a four node system.
See Figure 20 (page 65) for an example of controller node numbering in an F-Class system.
64
HP 3PAR Storage System Hardware
Figure 20 F-Class Controller Node Numbering
Controller Nodes
65
14 InForm OS SNMP Infrastructure
Overview
In addition to managing the system with the InForm Management Console and the InForm OS CLI,
the HP 3PAR InForm OS includes an SNMP agent that allows you to perform some basic
management functions via network management software running on a management station. These
SNMP management functions require that you have SNMP management software not provided
by HP.
CAUTION:
The SNMP agent is not part of the evaluated Common Criteria storage system
configuration and should not be used when operating in Common Criteria mode. For more
information about Common Criteria, see the HP 3PAR InForm OS Common Criteria Administrator’s
Reference.
About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard management interface used by many
software frameworks to manage hardware devices. Use of SNMP requires two components, an
agent and a manager. The manager is the management process that sends requests to the agent.
The host that the manager runs on is called the management station.
SNMP Managers
There are four types of requests that an SNMP manager can send to an agent:
•
SET. The SET request writes an object value in the agent. The SET request includes the object
ID and a new value for the object. The agent will change the value of the object and save it
in the persistent store. Not all objects are changeable. The MIB contains access information.
•
GET. The GET request reads an object value in the agent. The GET request includes the object
ID to be retrieved. The agent returns the value of the object.
•
GETNEXT. The GETNEXT request reads the object instance that is next in lexicographical order
to the object ID in the request. For example, if the object ID specified in the request is
.12925.0, the returned object ID should be .12925.1, if it exists.
•
GETBULK. The GETBULK operation is an optimization of the GETNEXT operation, that allows
multiple instances of objects to be returned.
In addition, the manager can register with the agent to receive notifications (traps) for critical events
(alerts) and alert state changes. These traps include the same information as the alerts described
in the HP 3PAR InForm OS Messages and Operator’s Guide, but they are in standard SNMP
format. Before an SNMP manager can receive the traps generated by the SNMP agent, you must
register your manager with the agent. Refer to Chapter 14, Using SNMP, in the InForm OS CLI
Administrator’s Manual for instructions on registering an SNMP manager with the SNMP agent.
The HP 3PAR SNMP Agent
The HP 3PAR SNMP agent runs on the system and provides a management interface to enable
other software products to manage HP hardware using SNMP. The SNMP agent responds to GET,
SET, GETNEXT, and GETBULK SNMP requests and also generates notification messages (traps)
for critical events (alerts) and alert state changes. The SNMP agent converts all system alerts and
alert state changes into SNMPv2 traps and forwards them to all SNMP management stations that
have previously registered with the agent. These notifications contain detailed information describing
critical events and are generated for every alert and alert state change issued by the system. The
exact message formats are described in the HP 3PAR MIB. See the Using SNMP Chapter in the
HP 3PAR HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator's Manual for instructions on locating this file.
66
InForm OS SNMP Infrastructure
Standard Compliance
The HP 3PAR SNMP agent supports the following standards:
•
SNMPv2c
This version refers to a widely used administrative framework for SNMPv2, also known as
“community-based SNMPv2.” Although this version includes SNMPv2 enhancements like notification
and GETBULK requests, it still relies on the SNMPv1 community concept for security.
•
Standard Management Interface-v2 (SMIv2)
This standard specifies the format of the MIB. The HP 3PAR MIB definition uses SMIv2 conventions.
•
SNMPv3
This version provides stronger security with user-based authentication and Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
or packet encryption.
Supported MIBs
You can find the MIB files on the InForm OS CLI and SNMP CD. The HP 3PAR SNMP agent supports
the following MIBs:
•
SNMPv2-MIB
•
Management Information Block-II (MIB-II), system group.
For discovery and basic information, the HP 3PAR SNMP agent supports the MIB-II system group.
•
snmpTrap group, snmpTrapOID only.
This is the authoritative identification of the notification currently being sent. This variable occurs
as the second varbind in every SNMPv2 trap.
•
HP 3PAR MIB
This is the HP 3PAR proprietary MIB.
MIB-II
MIB-II defines several groups of standard information to be provided by the agent. The SNMP
agent supports only the system group objects. Table 8 (page 67) summarizes the MIB-II information
provided by the SNMP agent. See Registering a Management Console in Chapter 14, Using
SNMP, of the HP 3PAR HP 3PAR InForm OS CLI Administrator's Manual for detailed descriptions
of these MIB-II system group objects.
Table 8 MIB-II Objects Supported by the SNMP Agent
Object Descriptor
Description
Access
sysDescr
Describes the system using the model Read-only
number, system ID, serial number, and
master node’s InForm OS version.
sysObjectID
The HP registration object ID for the
Read-only
system is 12925.1. This is comprised
of a company-unique ID (12925) and
a product ID (1).
sysUpTime
Gives the time interval (within 1/100
of a second) since the system was
initialized.
sysContact
User-defined name of the person or
Read/write
group responsible for maintaining the
system.
Read-only
The HP 3PAR SNMP Agent
67
Table 8 MIB-II Objects Supported by the SNMP Agent (continued)
Object Descriptor
Description
Access
sysName
Name of the system. This helps to
Read-only
identify the storage system. This name
cannot be set via SNMP.
sysLocation
User-defined system location. For
example: Building 1, room 4,
rack 3.
Read/write
Exposed Objects
The 3PAR SNMP agent supports MIB-II system group objects. This section describes each of those
objects in detail.
System Description
Access: Read-only
MIB definition: sysDescr
Data type: Display string (max. 255 characters)
Default value: 3PAR InServ
Description: Identifies system model, system ID, serial number and InForm OS version of the master
node. For example, if the system has four nodes, the sysDescr may resemble the following:
3PAR InServT400, serial number 876541, InForm OS version x.x.x. This is only
a brief system description. Use the InForm OS CLI to obtain further details about the system and
each node. This is a read-only attribute.
System Object ID
Access: Read-only
MIB definition: sysObjectID
Data type: integer
Default value: 12925.1
Description: Identifies the unique product ID for the HP 3PAR Storage System. The first part of this
ID is the unique enterprise ID assigned to HP, Inc. by ICANN (12925). The second part of this ID
is the product ID assigned to the system (1). If there are future products other than the system, they
will be assigned incremental integers (2, 3, and so on). The manager uses this ID to identify products
manufactured by HP. This is a read-only attribute.
System Up Time
Access: Read-only
MIB definition: sysUpTime
Data type: time-tick (1/100 second)
Default value: 0
Description: Indicates how long the system has been operational, beginning with system initialization.
This is a read-only attribute.
System Contact Information
Access: Read/write
MIB definition: sysContact
Data type: Display string (max. 255 characters)
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InForm OS SNMP Infrastructure
Default value: Please provide contact information such as name, phone number,
and e-mail address
Description: Specifies the name of a person or group responsible for maintaining the storage. This
value can be changed via the manager at any time.
System Name
Access: Read-only
MIB definition: sysName
Data type: Display string (max. 255 characters)
Default value: None
Description: Indicates the system name, which is set during initialization and setup of the system.
This helps to identify this system from other systems. The value cannot be changed by the manager.
System Location
Access: Read/write
MIB definition: sysLocation
Data type: Display string (max. 255 characters)
Default value: Please provide location description where the device resides
such as building, room, and rack number
Description: Contains the user-defined location of the system. This helps to indicate where the
storage system is located. For example, the location may be indicated as follows: Building 1,
room 4, rack 3. This value can be changed via the manager at any time
The HP 3PAR MIB
The HP 3PAR MIB contains proprietary information that reflects the configuration and behavior of
the system and may be useful for network management. Currently, the HP 3PAR MIB only contains
the alertNotify trap definition. Table 9 (page 69) summarizes the contents of this trap.
Table 9 Contents of the alertNotify trap
Object Descriptor
Description
Access
component
Tells you which system hardware,
Read-only
software, or logical component caused
the alert or alert state change.
details
Detailed description of the alert or
Read-only
alert state change, displayed as an
alert string (for example: PR table
<table_name> is corrupt). See
the HP 3PAR InForm OS Messages
and Operator’s Guide for exact
content of all possible alert strings. See
alertNotify Traps“alertNotify Traps”
(page 70) for the exact content of the
alert state change notification string.
nodeID
Node identification number, an
Read-only
integer from 0 through 7 that indicates
which system controller node reported
the alert or alert state change.
severity
Severity level of the alert or alert state Read-only
change, which is an integer from 0 to
5. See the HP 3PAR MIB for definitions
for each integer.
The HP 3PAR SNMP Agent
69
Table 9 Contents of the alertNotify trap (continued)
Object Descriptor
Description
Access
timeOccurred
Time the alert or alert state change
Read-only
occurred, in DDD mmm dd
hh:mm:ss ZZZ yyyy format (for
example: Mon, Jan 01 12:30:34
PST 2005).
id
Alert ID. The alert ID uniquely
Read-only
identifies an outstanding alert on some
object within the system. Alert IDs are
automatically generated by the InForm
OS and increment when a new alert
on a new object is detected. Note also
that if an alert is generated on an
object and alerts already exist in the
system, the alert ID is removed. For
alert state traps, the alert ID will be the
same as the ID of the trap that
indicated the original problem.
messageCode
Code that identifies the specific type
of alert or alert state change. For
example, the message code for the
alert state change is 1245186. For
alerts, use the message code in
referring to the HP 3PAR InForm OS
Messages and Operator’s Guide for
instructions on prescribed operator
actions.
state
Current alert state, which is an integer Read-only
between 0 and 5. See the HP 3PAR
MIB for definitions for each integer.
Alert states enable users to maintain
detailed tracking of alerts throughout
their life cycle.
Read-only
alertNotify Traps
An alertNotify trap contains details about an event that may affect system operations and
performance. All alerts generated by the system as well as all alert status change events are
translated into alertNotify traps.
The following example shows an alertNotify trap translated from an alert:
sysUpTime.0:0 hours, 28 minutes, 1 seconds.
snmpTrapOID.0:.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.threepar.inserv.alertNotify
component.1:comp_hw_node
details.1:Node 7 is offline
nodeID.1:0
severity.1:major(2)
timeOccurred.1:Wed Dec 15 16:58:20 PST 2004
id.1:647
messageCode.1:1703938
state.1:new(1)
For this and for all alerts, use the message code provided (e.g., 1703938) to refer to the HP 3PAR
InForm OS Messages and Operator’s Guide for instructions regarding required operator actions
pertaining to the alert.
70
InForm OS SNMP Infrastructure
NOTE: If you receive a trap with messageCode == 1245186, this is to notify you that an alert
has changed state. In order to find out which alert has changed state, you must extract the alert
ID from the id trap field.
An alert status change event is not an alert. It notifies you that an alert has changed status (e.g.,
from New to Resolved by System). The following example shows an alertNotify trap
translated from an alert status change event:
sysUpTime.0:0 hours, 5 minutes, 26 seconds.
snmpTrapOID.0:.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises.threepar.inserv.alertNotify
component.1:comp_sw_alert
details.1:Alert 647 changed from state New to Resolved by System
nodeID.1:1
severity.1:info(5)
timeOccurred.1:Thu Dec 16 14:06:36 PST 2004
id.1:647
messageCode.1:1245186
state.1:autofixed(5)
The following information describes these alert status change events:
Message Code
1245186
Severity
Info
Type
Change in alert state
Alert String
Alert <alert_id> changed from state <old_state> to <new_state>
Operator Action
The alert has changed state. This can be used to track the state of the existing alerts in a system.
The HP 3PAR SNMP Agent
71
15 The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API
Overview
This chapter describes the HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Application Programming Interface (API), HP’s
industry-standard API based on SNIA’s Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S). For
detailed information about the HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API, refer to the HP 3PAR CIM API
Programming Reference.
CAUTION: The CIM API is not part of the evaluated Common Criteria storage system configuration
and should not be used when operating in Common Criteria mode. For more information about
Common Criteria, see the HP 3PAR InForm OS Common Criteria Administrator’s Reference.
About SMI-S
SMI-S enables management of storage area networks (SANs) in a heterogeneous multi-vendor
environment. SMI-S uses an object-oriented model based on the Common Information Model (CIM)
to define objects and services which comprise a SAN. By leveraging vendor and technology
independent standards, SMI-S allows management application vendors to create applications that
work across products from multiple vendors.
The SMI-S model is divided into several profiles, each of which describes a particular class of SAN
entities (such as disk arrays). These profiles allow for differences in implementations but provide
a consistent approach for clients to discover and manage SAN resources and facilitate
interoperability across vendor products within the SAN.
SMI-S also defines an automated resource discovery process using Service Location Protocol version
2 (SLPv2). This allows management applications to automatically find SAN resources and then
probe them to determine which of the SMI-S profiles and features they support.
For more information about SMI-S, refer to the Storage Management Initiative web site at http://
www.snia.org/smi/home.
About the WBEM Initiative
SMI-S is based on the Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) Initiative, which is defined by
the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF). WBEM is a set of management and Internet
standard technologies developed to unify the management of distributed computing environments.
The DMTF has developed a core set of standards that make up WBEM:
•
The Common Information Model (CIM) standard
The CIM standard is the data model for WBEM. CIM provides a conceptual framework for
describing management data for systems, networks, applications and services, and allows for
vendor extensions. SMI-S uses CIM to model those objects and relationships that comprise a SAN.
•
CIM-XML
CIM-XML is a method of exchanging CIM management data. CIM-XML uses an xmlCIM payload
and HTTP(s) as the transport mechanism.
72
The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API
This protocol is defined by the following specifications:
•
Specification for the Representation of CIM in XML
Defines a standard for the representation of CIM elements and messages in XML, written in Document
Type Definition (DTD).
•
CIM Operations over HTTP
Defines a mapping of CIM Messages onto HTTP that allows implementations of CIM to interoperate
in an open, standardized manner. It uses the CIM XML DTD that defines the XML Schema for CIM
objects and messages.
•
WBEM Discovery using Service Location Protocol (SLP)
WBEM Discovery using SLP is a method for applications to identify WBEM-based management
systems.
For more information regarding WBEM and CIM, please refer to the DMTF web site at http://
www.dmtf.org.
HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Support
The following sections provide information about the HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API provided with
InForm OS Version 3.1.1.
Standard Compliance
•
The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Server supports SMI-S version 1.1.0.
•
The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM API passes SNIA-CTP conformance. For additional information,
see http://www.snia.org.
SMI-S Profiles
SMI-S defines a number of profiles that are used to manage elements of a SAN. These SMI-S
Profiles are described in detail in the HP 3PAR CIM API Programming Reference.
Supported Extensions
The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Server supports additional classes that provide management for
system specific features not covered by SMI-S. Refer to the HP 3PAR CIM API Programming Reference
for complete information.
CIM Indications
SMI-S provides for asynchronous notification of events that indicate changes in the CIM server or
the managed elements controlled by the CIM server. CIM Indications are the mechanism for delivery
of such events. A CIM client must subscribe to indications that it wants to receive the event
notifications from the CIM server. For detailed information regarding Indications, refer to SMI-S at
http://www.snia.org.
The HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Server currently supports indication subscriptions for changes in the
operational status of fibre channel ports. Refer to the HP 3PAR CIM API Programming Reference
for complete information.
HP 3PAR InForm OS CIM Support
73
Glossary
Access Guard
A software component that provides volume security at logical and physical levels. Access Guard
is part of the HP 3PAR OS Software Suite.
active VLUN
The pairing of a virtual volume and a LUN so the host can access its virtual volume and I/O
writes can be saved to the virtual volume. The VLUN parameters determine whether a virtual
volume is expressed as an active VLUN. VLUNs that are not active will not communicate with the
storage system.
admin volume
The base volume that is used by the system to store administration data such as the system event
log. The admin volume is created as part of the system installation and setup process.
AL_PA
Arbitrated Loop Physical Address. A unique 8-bit value used to identify Fibre Channel devices
on an arbitrated loop.
alert
A system event that requires the immediate attention of the user and might also require user
intervention.
alert pane
Area at the bottom of the HP 3PAR Management Console main window that displays information
about system alerts.
allocation limit
User-defined threshold that can be set for Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes and fully-provisioned
virtual volumes to cap their potential size.
allocation warning
User-defined threshold that can be set for Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes and fully-provisioned
virtual volumes to alert users when the volumes reach a certain size.
availability
Level of fault-tolerance for a logical disk. For example, magazine-level availability means that the
logical disk can tolerate a drive magazine failure. Cage-level availability means that the logical
disk can tolerate a drive cage failure.
base volume
A Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volume (TPVV) or fully-provisioned virtual volume that has been
copied.
battery tray
An enclosure that inserts into an EIA-standard rack to house a maximum of four battery backup
units.
BBU
Battery Backup Unit. A unit containing two batteries. Each Battery Backup Unit supplies two
controller nodes with enough current to write the cache to ATA disks if power is interrupted.
cabinet
An enclosure that houses the components of a system. A cabinet is made up of a frame on four
wheels, cosmetic panels, a rear door, an EIA-standard rack, PDUs, power cords, and bezels.
child volume
A virtual volume (virtual or physical copy) created from a parent volume.
chunklet
A block of contiguous storage space on a physical disk. On F-Class and T-Class systems, all
chunklets are 256 MB. On HP 3PAR 10000 systems, all chunklets are 1 GB.
chunklet logging
The process of writing data to a log rather than a chunklet when a chunklet is unavailable (for
example, when the disk is not ready). If the chunklet becomes available, the system places the
chunklet in playback mode, reads the logged data, and writes the data to the chunklet.
classes of service
The characteristics and guarantees of the transport layer of a Fibre Channel circuit. These classes
include connection services (Class 1), guaranteed frame delivery with end-to-end flow control
(Class 2), and packetized frame datagrams (Class 3).
clean chunklet
A chunklet that is set to all zeros, and therefore does not contain any data.
cluster
A group of controller nodes connected via the same system backplane. The nodes in a cluster
operate as a unified system, separate from any other clusters that may share the same service
processor.
CMP
Cache Memory Page. A 16 KB block of control cache memory where I/O requests are stored.
component
indicator
HP 3PAR Management Console alert pane icon that represents a logical or physical system
component.
control cache
Memory modules that support the microprocessors located in a controller node.
control cache
DIMM
A single control cache memory module.
74
Glossary
controller node
An individual device that works with other controller nodes to cache and manage data in a system
and to provide hosts with a coherent, virtualized view of the storage system.
controller node
chassis
An enclosure that houses all the controller nodes of a system.
copy data
Data that occupies the snapshot data space (virtual copy space) on a virtual volume.
copy size
The amount of snapshot data space (the logical disk space reserved for snapshots) in a virtual
volume.
copy-on-write
snapshot
A snapshot of a virtual volume made with the copy-on-write technique. This type of snapshot
consists of a pointer to the source volume and a record of every change made to the source
volume since the snapshot was created.
CPG
Common Provisioning Group (also known as a storage pool or logical disk pool). A set of logical
disks from which you can create virtual volumes and virtual copies that are capable of allocating
storage on demand.
CPG template
Common Provisioning Group template. A CPG template contains a set of common provisioning
group and logical disk parameters that HP 3PAR Management Console users can apply in order
to create a new Common Provisioning Group.
created host
A host that is defined on the system but does not necessarily have any physically connected host
paths or WWNs assigned to it.
Customer
Controlled Access
A software tool that restricts connections between the service processor and the HP 3PAR technical
support center. Customer Controlled Access is independent of the user's network firewall and
works whether the connections are made through the Internet or through a point-to-point modem
connection.
daisy chaining
Cabling configuration where components such as BBUs or drive cages are connected in succession.
data cache
The dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) that support the HP 3PAR ASIC located in a controller
node.
data cache DIMM
A single data cache memory module.
data cache riser
card
A printed circuit board with DIMM sockets that hold data cache memory modules.
destination volume
The virtual volume to which data is copied during a virtual or physical copy operation.
disk scrub
System functionality that scans physical disks for defects by reading and writing to the system's
IDE disk.
drive bay
The space in a drive chassis into which a drive magazine is inserted.
drive chassis
An enclosure that houses drive cages.
drive chassis
cabinet
In a multicabinet system, any cabinet that is connected to a node cabinet but does not contain
controller nodes.
drive chassis
housing
The enclosure that houses the components of a drive chassis.
drive magazine
An electronic circuit board mounted on a mechanical structure that is inserted into a drive bay
in a drive cage. A drive magazine holds up to four physical disks.
drive magazine
filler panel
The panel used to seal off an empty drive bay. All drive bays in a drive cage must be sealed for
EMI and airflow considerations.
drive mount
A metal bracket used to secure a physical disk to a drive magazine. Each disk must be secured
by two drive mounts.
ESI
Enclosure Services Interface. Interface on the DC2 and DC4 drive cages through which the node
software communicates to the cage enclosure services controller to obtain enclosure and cage
status and control the cage behaviors.
event
A detectable system occurrence.
export
To present a virtual volume to a host. Exporting makes a volume available to a host by creating
an association between the volume's name and a LUN (logical unit number) for the specified host
and port.
75
FC-AL
Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop. A fast serial bus interface standard used to connect storage
devices to servers.
Fibre Channel
adapter
A Fibre Channel PCI host bus adapter (HBA) located in a controller node. The Fibre Channel
adapter connects a controller node to a host or to a drive chassis.
fully provisioned
virtual volume
A virtual volume (snapshot) with a set amount of user space and for which snapshot administration
space and snapshot data space draw resources from a Common Provisioning Group (CPG).
Gigabit Ethernet
adapter
A network adapter located in a controller node. The Gigabit Ethernet adapter connects a controller
node to a network in order to transfer data via the network.
grow
To increase the size of a virtual volume or CPG.
growth increment
The unit of storage space by which the system creates and allocates additional logical disks to
a Common Provisioning Group (CPG) when the volumes in that CPG require additional resources.
The minimum growth increment varies according to the number of controller nodes in the system
(from 8 GB for a two-node system to 32 GB for a eight-node system).
growth limit
An optional setting that enables you to specify the maximum size to which a CPG can grow.
growth warning
An optional setting that enables you to specify the size at which the system alerts you to the
amount of CPG growth.
host
A path or set of paths, defined as either WWN or iSCSI names, to one or more ports on a system.
host definition
The name of the host and the list of the paths (WWN or iSCSI) assigned to the host, if any. If
you remove all the paths assigned to the host, the host name becomes the host definition.
host-sees VLUN
template
A VLUN template that allows a specified host connected to any port to see a virtual volume as a
specified LUN (logical unit number).
HP 3PAR Recovery
Manager Software
A data-protection solution that provides restore operations for a variety of platforms, such as
Oracle, SQL Server, Exchange, and more.
HP 3PAR Remote
Copy Software
Software that enables you to create and continually update backup remote copies of virtual
volumes and use those copies for disaster recovery, if necessary.
HP 3PAR System
Tuner Software
The utility that enables the system to reallocate space usage in order to take advantage of
additional resources, such as added hardware or updated CPGs. The System Tuner identifies
underused chunklets and overused volumes, and balances the usage.
HP 3PAR Thin
Provisioning
Software
Software that enables you to create a virtual volume that allocates resources from the CPG on
demand and in small increments.
HP 3PAR Virtual
Copy Software
Software that enables you to create virtual copies (aka snapshots) of virtual volumes. To create
a virtual copy, the system uses the copy-on-write technique, which creates an up-to-date snapshot
at the same time as data is written to the host.
HP 3PAR Virtual
Domains Software
Software that enables you to create distinct domains with domain-specific users and objects.
IMP
Initiator Mode Prohibited. A system setting that, when enabled, prevents a port from being set to
initiator mode.
independent
electrical circuit
An electrical circuit that does not share a circuit breaker with another electrical circuit.
initiator mode
The firmware setting for a Fibre Channel port that is connected to a drive cage.
initiator port
A port that is connected to and relays commands to physical disks within a drive cage. Also
known as a disk port.
iSCSI adapter
An iSCSI PCI host bus adapter (HBA) located in a controller node. An iSCSI adapter connects a
controller node on an iSCSI port to a host.
iSCSI name
The name of an iSCSI path. You use an iSCSI name to identify that iSCSI path to a host.
LD
Logical disk. A collection of chunklets that reside on different physical disks and that are arranged
as rows of RAID sets. When you create a CPG, the system creates and groups logical disks and
assigns those logical disks to the CPG.
LIP
Loop Initialization Primitive. The protocol by which a Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
network initializes upon power up or recovers after a failure or other unexpected condition.
76
Glossary
During loop initialization, the nodes present on the arbitrated loop identify themselves and acquire
addresses on the loop. No data can be transferred on an arbitrated loop until initialization
completes.
logging
Temporarily saving data to logging logical disks when physical disks are out of service (due to
failure or during replacement procedures).
logging LD
Logging logical disk. A logical disk used for logging. During system setup, the system creates a
20 GB RAID 10 logging LD for each controller node in the system.
LUN
Logical Unit Number. A number used to access a virtual volume that has been assigned to a
particular host on a particular port.
maintenance PC
A laptop computer running Windows 2000 used by a field technician to initiate direct
communication with the system service processor and controller nodes.
matched-set VLUN
template
A rule that allows a particular host connected to a particular port to see a virtual volume as a
specified LUN.
message code
A keycode that identifies a system alert.
mirror
One member of a group of mirrored chunklets, which is also known as a RAID 1 set.
mirroring
A data redundancy technique used by some RAID levels and in particular RAID 1 to provide data
protection on a storage array.
navigation tree
The navigation tree appears in a pane that occupies the left side of the HP3PAR Management
Console main window. Each system and system object appears as an icon in the navigation tree.
no stale snapshots
Virtual copy policy that prevents changes being written to a base volume when it does not have
enough snapshot data or administration space to prevent virtual copies from becoming invalid,
or stale, as a result.
node cabinet
A cabinet that houses the system backplane and controller nodes.
original parent
base volume
The original base volume from which a series of virtual or physical copies has been created. Any
volume can be the parent from which one or more virtual copies is created, but for each set of
related copies there is only one original parent base volume.
parent volume
A virtual volume from which a virtual or physical copy is made.
parity
A data redundancy technique used by some RAID levels (in particular RAID 5) to provide data
protection on a storage array.
parity set position
The group of chunklets that occupy the same position within a RAID 5 logical disk parity set.
PCI load card
An electronic circuit board that is inserted into a controller node’s PCI slot. The PCI load card
allows the node to recognize an unoccupied PCI slot.
PDU
Power Distribution Unit. A device that takes in AC power from a main power source (for example,
an electrical wall outlet) and distributes the power to the power supplies in a system.
physical copy
A point-in-time copy of an entire virtual volume.
physical disk
A dual-ported Fibre Channel disk mounted onto a drive magazine.
physical parent
The source volume for a physical copy.
physical size
The total actual raw storage allocated to a logical disk, as determined by its size and RAID type.
port-presents
VLUN template
A VLUN template that allows any host connected to a particular port to see a virtual volume as
a specified LUN.
power bank
A group of four connected AC outlets within the power distribution unit (PDU). There are two
power banks in each PDU.
power supply
A device that converts current from an AC line into appropriate DC levels and provides that
power to a system component.
preserved data
Data that is suspended in the system’s cache memory due to backend failure.
preserved data
logical disks
RAID 10 logical disks created by the system during initial system setup to store preserved data.
The logical capacity of the preserved data logical disks is equal to the sum of all data cache
memory of the system.
primary path
Connection between a controller node initiator port and a physical disk that is used by default.
When the primary path cannot be used (a failure condition), the secondary path is used. The
77
primary and secondary paths are not user configurable and are determined by drive magazine
placement.
promote
For physical copies: to break the association between a physical copy and a base volume by
changing the physical copy into an independent base volume. For virtual copies: to copy the
changes from a virtual copy back onto the base volume, therefore overwriting the base volume
with the virtual copy.
rack
The EIA-standard rack within a cabinet that holds the components of a system.
rack filler panel
A panel used to seal off an empty 1U, 2U, or 4U space on the rack. All empty spaces in the rack
must be sealed for EMI and airflow considerations.
rack unit (U)
The standard unit of height for an EIA-standard rack or components housed in an EIA-standard
rack: equivalent to 1.75 in. (4.45 cm).
RAID
Redundant array of independent disks.
RAID 0 set
Striped rows of chunklets on two or more physical disks. A RAID 0 set offers no data redundancy.
RAID 10 (RAID 1)
set
A group of mirrored chunklets.
RAID 50 (RAID 5)
set
A group of parity-protected chunklets. Also known as a parity set.
RAID MP
RAID Multi-Parity. A group of double-parity chunklets.
RAID set
A grouping of mirrored or parity-protected chunklets.
RAID type
RAID 0, RAID 10 (1), RAID 50 (5), and RAID MP (6) are all supported RAID types; however, not
all RAID types may be available on your system.
RCFC
Remote Copy over Fibre Channel. The use of Remote Copy with two systems that are connected
via Fibre Channel ports.
RCIP
Remote Copy over IP. The use of Remote Copy with two systems that are connected via Ethernet
ports.
region
A subdivision of a logical disk or virtual volume. The size of a region is always a multiple of 32
MB.
resynchronize
To copy changes from one volume in a physical copy pair to the other volume because the original
volume was modified at some point after the physical copy operation took place.
roles and rights
The roles and rights assigned to a user determine which tasks the user can perform with a system.
row
A grouping of RAID sets. Data is striped across the rows of RAID 10 and RAID 50 logical disks.
row size
The number of sets in a row. A row is a grouping of RAID sets. Data is striped across the rows
of RAID 10 and RAID 50 logical disks.
RSCN
Registered State Change Notification. A Fibre Channel switch function that allows notification to
registered nodes if a change occurs to other specified nodes.
safety breaker
The device used to power on and power off the power distribution unit. The safety breaker also
prevents power surges in the AC line from damaging a system.
second virtual
volume backup
node
The controller node that takes over for the virtual volume backup node if the virtual volume node
fails.
secondary path
Connection between a controller node initiator port and a physical disk that is used when the
primary path is inaccessible (a failure condition). The primary and secondary paths are not user
-configurable; they are determined by drive magazine placement.
Service Processor
A device inserted into a rack or virtual software that enables you to locally and remotely monitor
and service systems.
set size
The number of chunklets in a set. Also known as mirror depth for RAID 1 sets and parity set for
RAID 5 sets.
severity indicator
Icon in the HP 3PAR Management Console alert pane or on the HP 3PAR Management Console
status bar that shows the seriousness of an alert.
SFP
Small form-factor pluggable transceiver.
78
Glossary
snapshot
A virtual or physical copy of a virtual volume.
snapshot
administration
space
The space on a virtual volume that is used to track changes to the data from the time that a
snapshot of a virtual volume was created.
source volume
The virtual volume from which a copy is made.
spare chunklet
A chunklet that is reserved for use in case of a failure in the system. A certain number of chunklets
are reserved for use as spares during the system setup and installation process; however, the
system may temporarily set aside additional spares even though these chunklets are not
permanently designated for use as spares.
spare status
Indicates whether a chunklet is reserved as a spare or has been selected by the system for use
in sparing on a temporary basis.
sparing
The automatic relocation of chunklets on a physical disk when a logging logical disk becomes
full.
stale data
Snapshot data that is no longer valid because the base volume does not have enough snapshot
administration or snapshot data space to record new changes to the base volume.
stale snapshot
A snapshot that does not track the most recent changes to its base volume. The No Stale Snapshots
virtual copy policy halts writing data to the base volume in order to prevent loss of synchronization
between the volume and any snapshots.
started virtual
volume
A virtual volume that either passed auto-check upon system startup or was created since the system
was last restarted. Started virtual volumes are ready for read/write operations.
status bar
The bar at the bottom of the HP 3PAR Management Console main window that contains messages
and icons. Status bar messages and icons can provide vital information about system status,
including the severity level of the most serious new alert in the alert pane.
step size
The number of contiguous bytes that the system accesses before moving to the next chunklet.
stopped virtual
volume
A virtual volume that has not been started and is therefore not ready for read/write operations.
system backplane
An electronic circuit board that contains sockets into which power supplies and controller nodes
are plugged.
system box
Feature on the HP 3PAR Management Console main window toolbar that enables you to move
quickly between systems.
system manager
Software component that negotiates between the system and the user interfaces such as the HP
3PAR Management Console and HP 3PAR OS CLI.
system view pane
Area in the upper right corner of the HP 3PAR Management Console main window that displays
information about systems and system objects as you select the corresponding icons in the
navigation tree.
target mode
The firmware setting for a port that is connected to a host.
target port
The port that is connected to and receives commands from a host computer. Also known as a
host port.
TOC
Table of Contents. The space on a physical disk that contains the internal description of the system.
The TOCs on all physical disks in the system contain the same information.
TPVV
Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volume. A virtual volume that maps to logical disk space associated
with a Common Provisioning Group (CPG) and is therefore capable of growing on demand.
TSIH
Target Session Identifying Handle. An identifier, assigned by the iSCSI target, for a session with
a specific named initiator.
unspecified
property
When using the HP 3PAR Management Console, a property that has been included in a template
but does not have a defined value. When applying the template, the system will either use the
default value (when applicable) or calculate the optimized setting for you.
user data
For standard base volumes, the data that is written to the user space.
user size
The amount of user space in a virtual volume, or the size of the volume as presented to the host.
user space
The space on a virtual volume that represents the size of the virtual volume as presented to the
host. For standard base volumes, the user space holds all user data. For Thinly-Provisioned Virtual
79
Volumes, no storage is actually allocated to user space, so the user space represents the volume's
virtual size.
virtual copy
A snapshot created using the copy-on-write technique.
virtual copy policy
Policy that determines the course of action to take when a volume's snapshot administration space
or snapshot data space becomes depleted.
virtual size
The size that the volume presents to the host. For standard base volumes, the virtual size is equal
to the user space. For Thinly-Provisioned Virtual Volumes, no storage is actually allocated to user
space, so the virtual size is determined by whatever value is assigned to the user space.
virtual volume
A virtual storage unit created by mapping data from one or more logical disks.
virtual volume
backup nodes
The controller nodes that take over for the virtual volume master node if the virtual volume master
node fails.
virtual volume
master node
The controller node that is responsible for a virtual volume from its creation to its deletion. When
the system builds a virtual volume, the system begins with the logical disk connected to the master
node.
virtual volume
region
A subdivision of a virtual volume. The size of a region is always a multiple of 32 MB.
VLUN
Virtual logical unit number. A VLUN is a virtual volume-LUN pairing expressed as either an active
VLUN or as a VLUN template.
VLUN template
A rule that sets up the association between the name of the virtual volume and a LUN-host,
LUN-port, or LUN-host-port combination. The three types of VLUN templates are host-sees,
port-presents, and matched-set.
VV template
Virtual volume template. The template contains a set of virtual volume parameters that can be
applied to create volumes with the same characteristics using the HP 3PAR Management Console.
write-through
mode
A caching technique in which the completion of a write request is not signaled until data is safely
stored. Write performance with a write-through cache is approximately that of a non-cached
system, but if the data written is also held in cache, subsequent read performance may be
dramatically improved.
WWN
World-Wide Name. A unique 64-bit value used to identify Fibre Channel devices on an arbitrated
loop. The WWN consists of a prefix issued by the IEEE to uniquely identify the company and a
suffix that is issued by the company.
zero fill
To fill unused storage space with the representation of the character denoting “0”.
zone
A unit of physical disk space reserved by a controller node for snapshot or snapshot administration
data. A single zone may occupy space on more than one disk.
80
Glossary
Index
A
Active Directory
Kerberos server, 21
Active Directory LDAP, 21
Active Directory LDAP server, 21
admin volume, 44
advisories, conventions, 11
alerts
when spare and free chunklets are used up, 34
allocation limit, 45
allocation warning, 45
authentication, 21
B
base volumes
retrieval time affected by distance from, 49
virtual copy tree relationships, 48
C
cautions, about, 11
chunklets, 33
free, defined, 33
conventions
advisories, 11
conventions, typographical, 11
copy-on-write
function, 47
D
default domain, 26
degraded performance, 55
DIGEST-MD5 binding, 23
DIGEST-MD5, 23
disks
physical, 13
chunklets, 13
documentation, related, 10
domain
default domain, 26
derived objects, 25
no domain, 26
specified domain, 26
types, 26
users, 20
domain users, 20
Domains, 22
Domains and LDAP, 22
considerations, 41
GSSAPI binding, 23
GSSAPI, 23
I
interfaces, user, 10
K
Kerberos server, 21
L
LDAP
Active Directory, 21
authentication, 23
authorization, 23
binding
SASL, 21
data organization, 22
group-to-role mapping, 23
ldapsearch command, 22
ldp.exe, 22
OpenLDAP, 21
overview, 21
SASL binding, 23
schemas, 21
simple binding, 23
user authentication, 21
user roles, 22
LDAP and Domains
authorization, 24
group-to-domain mapping, 24
LDAP authentication, 23
LDAP users vs. local users, 22
local users, 21
logging logical disk
allocated at set up, 33
M
mapping
overview, 51
mapping parameters, 24
N
naming conventions, virtual volumes, 48
notes, about, 11
O
OpenLDAP, 21
F
P
free chunklets, defined, 33
performance consequences of virtual volumes, 49
PLAIN binding, 23
PLAIN, 23
G
group-to-domain mapping, 24
group-to-role mapping, 23
growth increment
R
related documentation, 10
81
S
schemas, 21
simple binding, 23
snapshots
creation rules, 48
stale
definition, 49
tree view of, 48
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 66
T
typographical conventions, 11
U
user interfaces, 10
user rights
in domains, 26
V
virtual columes
naming conventions, 48
virtual copies
stale
definition, 49
virtual volumes
base
retrieval time affected by distance from, 49
copy-of relationships, 48
definition, 51
deleting
limitations when, 48
mapping, definition, 51
parent relationships, 48
performance consequences, 49
performance consequences of, 49
82
Index
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