Chapter 05
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(SD-UX)
HP-UX Handbook
Revision 13.00
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Software Distributor (SD-UX)
October 29, 2013
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ______________________________________________________________________ 5
Patches for SD-UX _________________________________________________________________ 5
The Basic SD-UX Object Types ________________________________________________________ 5
Fileset _________________________________________________________________________________5
Product ________________________________________________________________________________6
Bundle _________________________________________________________________________________6
Depot__________________________________________________________________________________6
Software Specifications ____________________________________________________________________6
The IPD – Installed Product Database __________________________________________________ 7
IPD File listing ___________________________________________________________________________7
Master Index ____________________________________________________________________________8
Session Files ______________________________________________________________________ 8
Setting Default Values for Command Options ___________________________________________ 9
SD-UX Commands ________________________________________________________________ 10
swinstall Command ______________________________________________________________________11
swcopy Command _______________________________________________________________________13
swremove Command ____________________________________________________________________16
swlist Command ________________________________________________________________________18
swreg Command ________________________________________________________________________21
swmodify Command _____________________________________________________________________21
swpackage Command ____________________________________________________________________23
swverify Command ______________________________________________________________________26
swconfig Command ______________________________________________________________________27
Troubleshooting __________________________________________________________________ 28
Error Logging ___________________________________________________________________________28
swinstall/swremove Fails With a Lock Error or Hangs ___________________________________________30
Cannot Contact Target Host's Daemon or Agent _______________________________________________30
Slow Network Performance _______________________________________________________________ 31
Debugging SD-UX Commands ______________________________________________________________ 31
swinstall in Single User Mode ______________________________________________________________ 32
Rebuilding the Master INDEX file ___________________________________________________________ 33
Patch Introduction ________________________________________________________________ 34
Differences in patching between the HP-UX releases ____________________________________ 34
Changes from UX 10.20 to UX 11.00 - Patch as individual ________________________________________34
Changes from UX 11.00 to UX 11.ix - Patch dependencies ________________________________________35
Listing Patches ___________________________________________________________________ 35
Installing Patches _________________________________________________________________ 36
From the IT Resource Center ______________________________________________________________ 37
from CD, DVD or DDS tape ________________________________________________________________ 38
Verifying Patch Installation ________________________________________________________________ 39
Removing Patches ________________________________________________________________ 39
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Patch Text _______________________________________________________________________ 39
Patch Ratings___________________________________________________________________________40
Patch Category Tags _____________________________________________________________________41
Patch Rollback ___________________________________________________________________ 41
Patch Tools: show_patches, check_patches and cleanup _________________________________ 43
show_patches Command _________________________________________________________________43
check_patches Command _________________________________________________________________43
cleanup Command ______________________________________________________________________44
Standard Patch Bundles - Support Plus ________________________________________________ 44
What is a “Line in the Sand” Patch? __________________________________________________ 47
Patch Utilities on the Intranet _______________________________________________________ 48
The Patch Hub Management and Services (HP Internal Only) site provides patch information, metrics, patch
catalogs and patch tools. Several tools are available for researching, obtaining, installing, removing and
managing patches on all HP-UX systems. ____________________________________________________48
Additional Information ____________________________________________________________ 48
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Introduction
This chapter provides an overview of Software Distributor for HP-UX 11i (SD-UX) commands
and concepts.
SD-UX is included with the HP-UX Operating System and by default manages software on the
local host only. You can also enable SD-UX to install and manage software simultaneously on
multiple remote hosts from a central controller. This chapter does not present a comprehensive
view of SD-UX. For in-depth information, consult the below SD-UX manuals:
Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3 (Sept 2011)
Patch Management User Guide for HP-UX 11.x Systems (Sept 2011)
Patches for SD-UX
The current SD-UX Patches are:
UX 11.11 PHCO_41200 (or newer)
UX 11.23 PHCO_41201 (or newer)
UX 11.31 PHCO_41202 (or newer)
The Basic SD-UX Object Types
Software Distributor uses a variety of object types. This section gives you a simplified view of
the object types. You can find formal definitions in the “Software Distributor Administration
Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3” or the sd(4) man pages.
Fileset
A fileset is one or more related files, grouped into a manageable unit. It describes a unique subset
of the files that make up a product. A fileset may include scripts that control installation and
removal. In general, patches are created and managed at the product level, and patch filesets are
delivered only within a patch product. Therefore, you should avoid selecting patches at the fileset
level, even though SD-UX permits this kind of selection. Selecting patches by fileset level may
cause a fix to be only partially applied.
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Product
An HP-UX patch is structured as a single SD-UX product that contains one or more filesets. HPUX 11.X patches that require customization include SD-UX control scripts at the product level.
Bundle
A bundle encapsulates products and filesets into a single software object. Bundles provide a
convenient way to group software objects together for easy selection. More than one bundle can
contain the same software objects. A bundle can be thought of as a virtual “configuration” of
software. HP provides several types of standard patch bundles.
Depot
A depot is a directory that contains software products or bundles that are available for direct or
remote installation. You can change the contents of a depot. A depot can also be a distribution
media (e.g., CD or tape) or a single, serial file that contains products or bundles.
Software Specifications
When an SD-UX command is applied to a software selection, the selection is comprised of one
or more software specifications. A software specification is a unique identifier for an SD-UX
software object. A software specification must name either a product or a bundle, and filesets can
be specified only within a product. If you explicitly select a bundle, all products within the
bundle are also selected. If you select a product, all filesets within that product are also selected.
Example of HP-UX Software Structure
For patch operations, you usually only need to refer to a patch or bundle name.
The software specification takes one of the following formats:
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product[.fileset][, version]
bundle[.product[.fileset]][, version]
where the version has the form:
[r= revision][,a= arch][,v= vendor][,c= category]
(The version may also have a l= locationcomponent that applies only to installed software and
refers to software installed to a location other than the default product directory.)
The software_spec attribute contains the full software specification for any bundle, product, or
patch. You can use the swlist command to display this information. The following example
shows how swlist can create a list of the software specifications for a patch at the fileset level.
The software specification for the patch product appears in the output as a comment.
# swlist -l fileset -a software_spec PHKL_18543
# PHKL_18543 PHKL_18543,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP
PHKL_18543.C-INC PHKL_18543.C-INC,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64
PHKL_18543.CORE-KRN PHKL_18543.CORE-KRN,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32/64
PHKL_18543.CORE2-KRN PHKL_18543.CORE2-KRN,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32
PHKL_18543.KERN2-RUN PHKL_18543.KERN2-RUN,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32
PHKL_18543.VXFS-ADV-KRN PHKL_18543.VXFS-ADV-KRN,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32
PHKL_18543.VXFS-BASE-KRN PHKL_18543.VXFS-BASE-KRN,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32
PHKL_18543.VXFS-PRG PHKL_18543.VXFS-PRG,l=/,r=1.0,a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64,v=HP,fa=HPUX_B.11.00_32/64
The IPD – Installed Product Database
An SD “catalog” is a database of information about software. For example, a depot is a “catalog”
plus the set of files described by the catalog. The IPD (Installed Product Database) is a specific
instance of an SD catalog found at /var/adm/sw/products. This database (or catalog) does not
contain the software itself. It only contains the meta data, i.e. data about SD objects. The kind of
data kept in the catalog are all the object attributes (i.e. “revision=1.2”), all the control scripts
(preinstall, postremoved, ...), swask response files, permission (swacl) files, etc.
IPD File listing
The IPD is not a single file but a hierarchy of files located in /var/adm/sw/products. In the top
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IPD directory, each bundle and product gets its own directory.
# ll /var/adm/sw/products
total 6648
dr-x------ 473 root
drwxr-xr-x 13 bin
drwxr-xr-x
7 root
drwxr-xr-x
5 root
drwxr-xr-x 11 root
...
-rw-r--r-- 1 root
sys
sys
bin
sys
sys
sys
11264 Apr 9 12:24 ./
1024 Apr 9 16:08 ../
1024 Apr 25 2002 Accounting/
96 Apr 25 2002 ApacheStrong/
1024 Apr 25 2002 Asian-Core/
1960447 Apr 4 10:34 INDEX
Underneath those directories for all products and bundles one will find the control directories.
Control directories have names like “?files”. For example “ifiles” which is the IPD control
directory, “pfiles” which are bundle and product control directories and “dfiles” which are
depot control directories. Control directories contain control information for the object they refer
to. Here is the type of information that is saved and what file it is contained in:
File
Control Information
INDEX
Bundle, product, subproduct, fileset and IPD attributes (revision, architecture,
is_patch, …). These are the fragment INDEX files from which the master
INDEX file gets created.
INFO
File attributes (path, cksum, mode, …)
file
Files referred to by an attribute. For example, "readme README". The file
README is saved in the control directory.
control scripts
preinstall, postinstall, configure, …
response file
swask response files are saved in the control directory.
_ACL
root ACL file (in IPD control dir only)
_OWNER
root owner file (in IPD control dir only)
Master Index
The master index is a single file – /var/adm/sw/products/INDEX – containing all the attributevalue pairs from each control directory INDEX file. Frequently, if the master INDEX is
corrupted, it may be rebuilt by concatenating all the good fragment INDEX's, see rebuild the
Master INDEX file..
Session Files
Session files let you save your work from a command session. Each invocation of an SD-UX
command defines a session. The invocation options, source information, software selections, and
target hosts are saved before command execution actually commences. This lets you re- execute
the command even if the session ends before proper completion. Each session is saved to the file
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$HOME/.sw/sessions/{ command}.last. This file is overwritten on
each invocation.
You can also save session information from interactive or command-line sessions. From an
interactive session, you can save session information into a file at any time by selecting the Save
Session or Save Session As option from the File menu. From a command-line session, save
session information by executing swinstall or swcopy with the -C session_file option.
A session file uses the same syntax as the defaults files. You can specify an absolute path for a
session file. If you do not specify a directory, the default location for a session file is
$HOME/.sw/sessions/.
To re-execute a saved session from an interactive session, use the Recall Session option from the
File menu. To re-execute a session from a command-line, specify the session file as the argument
for the -S session_file option of swinstall or swcopy.
Note that when you re-execute a session file, the values in the session file take precedence over
values in the system defaults file. Likewise, any command line options or parameters that you
specify when you invoke swinstall or swcopy take precedence over the values in the session
file.
NOTE: Use of session files is not recommended with swremove because the session file could
include software selections that you do not want included in the removal operation.
Setting Default Values for Command Options
SD-UX
commands
have
extensive
options
that
alter
command
behavior.
The
/usr/lib/sw/sys.defaults file is a template that lists and explains each option, default values,
all other allowable values, and the resulting system behavior for each. These options are listed as
comments that you can copy into the system defaults file ( /var/adm/sw/defaults) or your
personal defaults file ($HOME/.sw.defaults).
Values in these option files are specified using this syntax:
[command.]option=value
These rules govern the way the defaults work:
1. Option values in /usr/lib/sw/sys.defaults is only usable as a template for copying to
other option files.
2. Option values in /var/adm/sw/defaults file affect all users in a system.
3. Option values in your personal $HOME/.sw.defaults file affect only you and not the
entire system.
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4. Option values in a session file affect activities only for that session and revert when that
session is completed.
5. Option values changed on the command line affect only that activity.
For system-wide policy setting, use the /var/adm/sw/defaults file. Keep in mind, however,
that individual users may override these values with their own $HOME/.sw.defaults file,
session files, or command line changes.
These values can also be overridden by specifying an options file with the -X option_file
command-line option or with one or more -x option=value options directly on the command
line. They can also be changed using the GUI Options Editor.
Altering option values and storing them in a defaults file can help when you want the SD-UX
command to behave the same way each time the command is invoked. Options in the defaults
file are read as part of command initialization. Because the daemon is already running, after
changing daemon options, the daemon must be restarted for these options to be recognized. To
restart the daemon, type:
/usr/sbin/swagentd –r
SD-UX Commands
The following section discusses the most commonly used SD-UX commands:











swinstall
swcopy
swremove
swlist
swreg
swmodify
swpackage
swverify
swconfig
cleanup
show_patches
installs and configures software products.
copies software products for subsequent installation or distribution.
unconfigures and removes software products.
displays information about software products.
registers or unregisters depots or roots.
modifies software product information in a target root or depot.
packages software products into a depot (directory or tape).
verifies available (copied), installed, or configured software products.
configure, unconfigure and reconfigure software products.
removes patch rollbacks.
displays patches.
All SD-UX commands run from the command line. swinstall, swcopy, swremove, and swlist
have an optional GUI mode.
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swinstall Command
The swinstall command is used to load software from a source depot and onto a target system.


Because many patches aren’t designed for individual installation, the automatic matching
options(autoselect_patches, patch_match_target) should be the preferred method
for installing patches.
swinstall has numerous options that you should not use for patching because they lack
dependency support. HP recommends that you use only the options discussed below.
Synopsis
swinstall [-i] [-p] [-v] [-s source] [-x option=value]...
[s/w_selections]
Command Line Arguments
-i
Use an interactive user interface. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a
valid X windows display, a graphical user interface is invoked. Otherwise a
terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. The
GUI starts by default if you enter swinstall without any s/w_selections.
-p
Previews the install operation without performing the actual installation. Preview
mode is not enabled by default.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log
files.
-s source
Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be installed.
-x option=value
Sets the specified command option to the value given, overriding any other values
for that option. Patch related command options are specified below.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
The following options have the most relevance to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swinstall(1m) man pages or the “
Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3 (Sept 2011)”.
swinstall Command Options and Default Values
max_targets=25
mount_all_filesystems=true
os_name
os_release
patch_filter=software_specification
patch_match_target=false
patch_save_files=true
polling_interval=2
preview=false
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recopy=false
register_new_root=true
reinstall=false
reinstall_files=false
reinstall_files_use_cksum=true
retry_rpc=1
retry_rpc_interval=
reuse_short_job_numbers=true
rpc_binding_info=ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121]
ncadg_ip_udp:[2121]
rpc_binding_info_source=
rpc_binding_info_target=
rpc_timeout=5
run_as_superuser=true
run_scripts=true
select_local=true
software=
software_view=all_bundles
source=
source_cdrom=/SD_CDROM
source_directory=
source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m
source_type=directory
targets=
use_alternate_source=false
verbose=1
write_remote_files=true
admin_directory=/var/adm/sw
agent_auto_exit=true
agent_timeout_minutes=10000
allow_downdate=false
allow_incompatible=false
allow_multiple_versions=false
allow_split_patches=false
ask=false
autoreboot=false
autorecover_product=false
autoremove_job=false
autoselect_dependencies=true
autoselect_minimum_dependencies=false
autoselect_patches=true
autoselect_reference_bundles=true
codeword=
compress_index=false
controller_source=
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create_target_path=true
customer_id=
defer_configure=false
distribution_source_directory=/var/spool/sw
enforce_dependencies=true
enforce_dsa=true
enforce_kernbld_failure=true
enforce_scripts=true
enforce_selections=false
installed_software_catalog=products
job_title=
layout_version=1.0
loadorder_use_coreqs=true
log_msgid=0
logdetail=false
logfile=/var/adm/sw/swinstall.log
loglevel=1
lookupcache_timeout_minutes=10
match_target=false
Examples
Install from a CD mounted and registered on the system grendel:
swinstall -s grendel:/cdrom/QPK1100 \
-x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true
Use the swinstall command’s preview mode (-p option) to get an idea of what to expect for
the bundle you want to install. For example:
swinstall -p -s grendel:/cdrom/QPK1100 \
-x patch_match_target=true
-x autoreboot=true
Install of product A1234AA from registered depot /var/spool/sw on the system grendel:
swinstall –s grendel:/var/spool/sw A1234AA
swcopy Command
The swcopy command copies software from one depot to another. This can be particularly useful
if software exists in several depots. For example, you can copy all of the contents of individual
patches into a single depot from which the group can be loaded in a single session and with a
single reboot (if needed).
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Note that the swcopy command automatically registers (enables remote access to) any depot that
it creates. You do not need to use the swreg command on depots created by swcopy.
Synopsis
swcopy [XToolkit Options] [-i] [-p] [-v] [-C session_file ] [-f software_file ] [-J jobid ]
[-Q date ] [-s source ] [-S session_file ] [-t target_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ]
[software_selections] [@ target_selections]
Command Line Arguments
-i
Use an interactive user interface. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a
valid X windows display, a graphical user interface is invoked. Otherwise a terminal
user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. The GUI starts
by default if you enter swcopy without any s/w_selections.
-p
Previews the install operation without performing the actual copy. Preview mode is
not enabled by default.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log files.
-s source
Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be copied.
-x option=value
Sets the specified command option to the value given, overriding any other values for
that option. Patch related command options are specified below.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
target_selections The absolute path name (directory location) to which you want the
s/w_selections to be copied. If you specify a host with the directory, the
syntax is host:/directory where the host name can be a name, domain name,
or internet address.
The following options have the most relevance to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swcopy(1m) man page or refer to the
“ Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3 (Sept 2011)”.
Options
option=default value
Menu Path in Interactive Interface
Description
autoselect_dependencies=true
ActionsMark for Install
(when marking software)
When software is selected for copying with a registered dependency on other software, other software will
automatically be selected to be copied if present in the source depot and autoselect_dependencies is
set to true.
autoselect_reference_bundles=true
None (default cannot be changed within GUI)
When set to true, any bundle wrappers within the source depot that contain software selected for installation will
be automatically selected if the is_reference attribute is set to true. Note that this does not mean all of the
software listed in the wrapper will be selected, only the bundle wrapper itself.
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compress_files=false
OptionsChange
transfer
October 29, 2013
OptionsCompress
files
during
Setting this option to true causes swcopy to compress file before transfer to the target depot. This will conserve
disk space and can enhance performance on slower networks (50 Kilobytes/second or less), although it may not
improve fast networks.
OptionsChange OptionsEnforce dependency analysis
enforce_dependencies=true
errors in agent
Enforces software dependencies. When software to be copied has an SD-UX-enforced dependency, if that
dependency is not present on the target system and is not marked for copying from the source depot the copy
will only proceed if enforce_dependencies is set to false.
While few 11.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools, those that do employ
them to enforce critical requirements of content and load order. The majority of 11i patches have SD-UXenforced dependencies, making this option very useful. This option should not be set to false unless directed by
an HP Support Engineer.
mount_all_filesystems=true
OptionsChange
OptionsMount
filesystems
in
/etc/fstab or /etc/checklist
By default, swcopy requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to
installation. Setting this option to false removes this restriction.
reinstall=false
OptionsChange Options Recopy filesets even if the
same revision exists
Prevents SD-UX from overwriting an existing revision of a fileset. If set to true, filesets will be recopied.
source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m
None (default cannot be changed within GUI)
Specify the device file of the tape drive to be used as the default.
uncompress_files=false
OptionsChange
transfer
OptionsUncompress
files
after
When set to true, files are uncompressed before swcopy puts them into the target depot. See also the
compress_files option.
write_remote_files=false
None
Prevents copying of files to a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. By default, swcopy skips files
that would be copied to an NFS file system (or that are already there). When set to true and superuser has write
permission on the remote file system, files are copied to remote systems.
Examples
With the CD mounted at /cdrom, copy the contents of the QPK1100 depot to the local system
under the /var/tmp/MyDepot directory.
swcopy -s /cdrom/QPK1100 \* @ /var/tmp/MyDepot
Invoke an interactive session, using the default depot at hostX as the source:
swcopy -i -s hostX
Copy all patches in current directory to the depot /hub/patches (assuming root shell is
/sbin/sh):
for PATCHDEPOT in *.depot
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do
swcopy -s $PATCHDEPOT \* @ /hub/patches
done
swremove Command
The swremove command deletes software that has been installed on your system. It also removes
software from depots.
You might occasionally want to remove a patch and restore the system to its prepatched state.
This process is known as patch rollback. For example, if you installed a patch that resulted in
unacceptable system behavior, you might choose to roll back this patch. However, rollback is
possible only if certain files were saved as part of the patch installation process. During patch
installation, the default behavior is to save copies of all files that are replaced by the new patch
before the new versions of these files are loaded. These saved files are called rollback files and
are the key to making patch rollback possible. When you roll back a patch, these rollback files
are restored to the system. You should override the default behavior only if you have a complete
understanding of the patch rollback process.
You cannot roll back a patch unless one of the following is true:
• Rollback files corresponding to the patch are available for reinstallation.
• Base software and the patch that modifies the software are removed at the same time
(removing the base software also removes the patches associated with that software).
• For superseded patches, you must first roll back the superseding patch.
You can use the swremove command to roll back a patch (if no dependencies exist for the patch).
Use the following command to roll back the patch patch_id:
swremove patch_id
As is true for many SD-UX commands, you can add the -p option to execute the command in
preview-only mode. This mode allows you to view output from the command without actual
changes occurring. You should initially execute the command in preview mode:
swremove -p patch_id
Advanced topic: patch installation and rollback files When installing patches, you can explicitly
specify that rollback files not be saved. To do this,
you add the -x patch_save_files=false option to the swinstall command:
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$ swinstall -s /tmp/temporary_depot/depot -x autoreboot=true \
-x patch_match_target=true x patch_save_files=false
Only use the false option if you will never remove a patch under any circumstances
Synopsis
swremove [XToolkit Options] [-d|-r] [-i] [-p] [-v] [-C session_file] [-f software_file]
[-J jobid] [-Q date] [-S session_file] [-t target_file] [-x option=value] [-X option_file]
[software_selections] [@ target_selections]
Command Line Arguments
-i
Use an interactive user interface. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a
valid X windows display, a graphical user interface is invoked. Otherwise a terminal
user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. The GUI starts
by default if you enter swremove without any software_selections.
-d
Operate on a depot rather than installed software.
-p
Previews the remove operation without performing the actual removal. Preview mode
is not enabled by default.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the logfiles.
Verbose mode is enabled by default.
-x option=value
Sets the specified command option to the value given, overriding any other values for
that option. Patch related command options are specified below.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
target
The depot from which software is to be removed. If not specified, the target is
assumed to be the system itself.
The following options have the most relevancy to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swremove(1m) man page or refer to
the Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3.
Options
option=default value
Menu Path in Interactive Interface
Description
autoselect_reference_bundles=true
None
If true, bundles that have the is_reference attribute set to true will be automatically removed when the last
of its contents is removed. If false, the bundles will not be automatically removed.
enforce_dependencies=true
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Enforces software dependencies. When software selected for removal has a registered dependency, if the
dependencyis not present on the target system or also selected for removal from the source depot, removal only
proceeds if enforce_dependencies is set to false.
While few 11.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools, those that do employ
them to enforce critical requirements of content and removal order. However, since all 11i patches enforce
depen-dencies, this option is very useful in maintaining patch integrity and system stability. Do not set this
option to false unless directed to do so by an HP Support Engineer.
enforce_scripts=true
OptionsChange OptionsEnforce script failures
Each patch may have several removal scripts associated with it. These scripts may issue errors to protect the
system from incorrect patch usage. This option should not be used unless directed by an HP Support Engineer.
mount_all_filesystems=true
OptionsChange
OptionsMount
/etc/fstab or /etc/checklist
filesystems
in
By default, SD-UX requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to
removal. Setting this option to false removes this restriction.
write_remote_files=false
None (default cannot be changed within GUI)
Prevents removal of files from a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. By default, swremove skips
files that would be removed from an NFS file system. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the
remote file system, files are removed from remote systems.
Examples
Remove only the bundle wrapper XSWHWCR11.11 from the system, leaving any contents
present (Note that the trailing period (.) is essential to removing the wrapper only):
swremove XSWHWCR1100.
Remove all contents of the depot, /depots/MyDepot:
swremove -d \* @ /depots/MyDepot
swlist Command
The swlist command provides information on software installed on a system or located in a
depot. More specifically:





See what’s installed on a system.
See what software is in a depot.
Check attributes of software.
Browse the patch documentation.
See what depots are available on remote systems.
Synopsis
swlist [-d|-r] [-i] [-R] [-v] [-a attribute ] [-C session_file ] [-f software_file ] [-l level ]
[-s source ] [-S session_file ] [-t target_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ]
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[software_selections] [@ target_selections]
Command Line Arguments
-i
Invokes a GUI interface that lets you perform interactive software selections. If the
environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display, a graphical user
interface is invoked. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on
ASCII terminals is invoked. You must specify -i to invoke the GUI; it never starts by
default.
-d
Lists software depots instead of software currently installed on the target system.
-v
If no -a options are specified, then list all the attributes for an object, one attribute
per line. The attributes are listed in the format:
keyword value
If one or more -a options are specified, then list the selected attributes in the above
format.
-a attribute
The named attribute is included in the listing when defined at the specified level.
While this option may be specified multiple times, the ordering of the arguments
does not control the format of the list.
-s source
Specifies the software source to list. This is an alternative way to list a source depot.
You can also specify the sources as target depots and list them using the –d option.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
target
The depot to be listed. If not specified, the target is assumed to be the system itself.
-l level
Specifies the detail of the swlist output. The values used include:
 file
List all files recorded in the IPD. The listing may be limited in scope by the
s/w_selections specification. Each file is preceded by the product and fileset that is
the registered owner of that file. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes
each block giving the name, revision, and description of the product or fileset to be listed.
 fileset
List all filesets recorded in the IPD (in product.fileset format) with the associated
revision and description. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes each block
giving the name, revision, and description of the product.
 product
List all products with revision and description for each.
 bundle
List all bundles with revision and description for each.
 depot
List all registered depots on the target system.
 patch
List all patch filesets using the full software specification, followed by the associated
description and current patch_state. The listing is sorted by ancestor, and all products
and filesets are listed as a comment showing revision and description before any patch
fileset that apply to it.
 category
List all category tags currently defined within the target depot.
 default
(no
level
specified)
When no level is specified, swlist displays all bundles within the depot followed by any
products not contained within a bundle. As is the case with their respective levels, the
bundles and products are listed with revision and one-line description.
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The following options have the most relevancy to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swlist(1m) man page or refer to the
Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3.
Options
option=default value
Menu Path in Interactive Interface
Description
show_superseded_patches=false
The swlist command lists the contents of the IPD. In 11.00 systems, swlist lists all patches in the IPD, whether or
not they are superseded. In 11i, swlist only lists those patches which are active on the system. By setting this
option to true the 11.00 swlist functionality can be turned on in an 11i system (all patches in the IPD are listed).
However, to get the 11i functionality on an 11.00 system, patch PHCO_22526 must be installed and
swlist.show_superseded_patches=false must be added to the /var/adm/sw/defaults file.
Examples
List all products with revision and description for each:
swlist –l product | more
List all filesets which have a state other than configured:
swlist –l fileset –a state | grep –v –e ’^#’ –e configured
List all patches in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel:
swlist -d -l product *,c=patch @ grendel:/var/MyDepot
List the filesets modified by installed patch PHSS_8675
swlist -a ancestor PHSS_8675
List all of the files delivered within patch PHCO_12140 after downloading from the ITRC:
swlist -d -l file @ /tmp/PHCO_12140.depot
List all patches that have modified the LVM product
swlist -l patch LVM
Display the documentation for all patches containing critical functionality
swlist -a readme -l product *,c=critical
List all category tags defined in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel
swlist -d -l category @ grendel:/var/MyDepot
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swreg Command
The swreg command registers or unregisters an existing depot. When a depot is registered, it can
be accessed from remote systems. Unregistration of a depot can be a convenient way to limit
access during development. (Note that unregistered depots are still available locally.)
Synopsis
swreg -l level [-u] [-v] [-C session_file] [-f object_file] [-S session_file] [-t target_file]
[-x option=value] [-X option_file] [objects_to_(un)register] [@ target_selections]
Command Line Arguments
-l depot
Perform operations on depots. While other levels of SD-UX objects may be modified
by swreg, they are not within the scope of this tutorial.
-u
Causes swreg to unregister the specified objects instead of registering them.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log files.
objects
Specifies the path to the object[s] to be registered or unregistered.
For the full set of available options, consult the swreg(1m) man page or the Software Distributor
Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3.
Examples
Register the patch depot QPK1100:
swreg -l depot /cdrom/QPK1100
Disable remote access by unregistering the depot QPK1100 (local access is still enabled):
swreg -u -l depot /cdrom/QPK1100
swmodify Command
SD-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an
Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the
software on the system. Although you cannot edit the IPD or catalog files directly, the swmodify
command lets you change the contents of these files via the command line.
WARNING: With the exception of committing patches and
creating category tags, the swmodify command is not
recommended for general usage. Improper alteration of the
information in the IPD could cause unexpected behavior during
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subsequent patching or system updates and leave your system
in an unsupportable state.
NOTE: You may choose the cleanup utility as a front-end to the patch_commit option of
swmodify that provides an easier interface to commit multiple patches at once.
Synopsis
swmodify [-d|-r] [-p] [-u] [-v] [-V] [-a attribute =[value ]] [-c catalog ] [-C session_file ]
[-f software_file ] [-P pathname_file ] [-s product_specification_file| [-S session_file ]
[-x option=value ] [-X option_file ] [software_selections] [@ target_selection]
Command Line Arguments
-a
Add, modify, or delete the value of the given attribute. If the -u option is specified,
attribute[=value] then delete the attribute from the given software_selections (or delete the
value from the set of values currently defined for the attribute). Otherwise
add/modify the attribute for each software_selection by setting it to the
given value. Multiple -a options can be specified. Each attribute modification will
be applied to every software_selection.
-d
Perform modifications on a depot. The given target must be a depot.
-p
Previews the modify operation without modifying anything. Preview mode is not
enabled by default.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log files.
-x option=value
Sets the specified command option to the value given, overriding any other values for
that option. Patch related command options are specified below.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
The depot to be modified. If not specified, the target is assumed to be the system
itself.
target
The following options have the most relevancy to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swmodify(1m) man page or refer to
the Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3.
Options
option=default value
Description
patch_commit=false
Commits a patch by removing files saved for patch rollback. The default value is false. When set to true, this
option removes the saved files for the patches specified in the software selections for the command. Once you
have run this option on a patch, you cannot remove the patch unless you remove the associated base software
that
the
patch
modified.
See also the cleanup utility described below.
Examples
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Add additional files to an existing fileset:
swmodify -xfiles='/tmp/a /tmp/b /tmp/c' PRODUCT.FILESET
Replace the definitions of existing files in an existing fileset (for example, to update current
values for the
files’ attributes):
chown root /tmp/a /tmp/b
swmodify -x files='/tmp/a /tmp/b' PRODUCT.FILESET
Delete control files from a fileset in an existing depot:
swmodify -d -u -x control_files='checkinstall subscript' \
PRODUCT.FILESET @ /var/spool/sw
Create a new fileset definition where the description is contained in the PSF file
new_fileset_definition:
swmodify -s new_fileset_definition
Delete an obsolete fileset definition:
swmodify -u PRODUCT.FILESET
Commit a patch (remove files saved for patch rollback):
swmodify -x patch_commit=true PATCH
Create some new bundle definitions for products in an existing depot:
swmodify -d -s new_bundle_definitions \* @ /mfg/master_depot
swpackage Command
While primarily used to create depots from source files, this command allows the transfer of
software onto a tape or into a disk depot which can then be used as a software source. Either
method can be used to transport the contents of a depot to another system for local access. The
tape can be used in the absence of networking support, and the tape depot could be provided via
ftp(1).
Synopsis
swpackage
[-p] [-v] [-V] [-C session_file ] [-d directory |device ] [-f software_file ]
[-s product_specification_file|directory ] [-S session_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ]
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[software_selections] [@ directory |device ]
Command Line Arguments
-p
Previews the package operation without performing the actual packaging. Preview
mode is not enabled by default.
-v
Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log files.
-s directory
An existing directory depot (which already contains products) to be used as the
source.
-x option=value
Sets the specified command option to the value given, overriding any other values for
that option. Patch related command options are specified below.
s/w_selections
One or more software specifications.
If you are creating a distribution depot (directory), this operand defines the location
of the directory. Without this operand, /var/spool/sw is used as the default
depot directory.
If you are creating a distribution tape, this operand names the device file on which to
write the tar archive. The device file must exist so that swpackage can determine if
the media is a DDS tape or a disk file. Without this operand, swpackage uses the
device file /dev/swtape.
Target
The following options have the most relevancy to patching. Where appropriate, default values
are shown. For the full set of available options, consult the swpackage(1m) man page or refer to
the Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3.
Options
option=default value
Description
compress_files=false
Setting this option to true causes swpackage to compress files before packaging them. This creates smaller
depots.
layout_version=1.0
Specifies the POSIX layout version to which the SD-UX commands conform when writing distributions.
Supported values are 1.0 (default) and 0.8. Refer to the swpackage(1m) manpage or the Software Distributor
Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3 for more information.
target_type=directory
Defines the type of distribution to create. The recognized types are directory and tape.
Examples
Package the products defined in the PSF products into the default target depot:
swpackage -s products
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Preview the same operation (do not create the target depot), and generate very verbose output:
swpackage -p -vv -s products
Package the products into the target depot no_files, insert references to the source files instead of
copying
them into the depot:
swpackage -s products -x package_in_place=true @ no_files
Re-package a specific fileset:
swpackage -s products -x package_in_place=true product.fileset @ no_files
Re-package the entire contents of the depot /var/spool/sw onto the tape at /dev/rmt/0m:
swpackage -s /var/spool/sw -x media_type=tape @ /dev/rmt/0m
Create a depot on tape

Which depots are on the server?
# swlist -l depot –s myserver
/depots/11.11_AppDART56_Mar02
...
In this example, is Glance in a certain depot?
# swlist -l bundle
-s
grep -i glance
B3701AA_TRY
C.03.55.00
...

myserver:/depots/11.11_AppDART56_Mar02
Trial HP GlancePlus/UX Pak for s800 11i
Copy Glance to a local depot, as it is not possible to copy it directly to tape:
# swcopy -s myserver:/depots/11.11_AppDART56_Mar02
/tmp/glance_depot

B3701AA_TRY
Add a patch to the depot:
# swcopy -s server2:/PATCHDEPOT/PHSS_24864 \* @ /tmp/glance_depot

|\
Check depot contents:
# swlist -d -l product @ /tmp/glance_depot
Glance
C.03.55.00
HP GlancePlus/UX
MeasureWare
C.03.55.00
MeasureWare Software/UX
...
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PHSS_24864

1.0
October 29, 2013
PRM C.01.08.2 Cumulative Patch
Insert a DDS tape and copy the depot to the tape:
# swpackage -x target_type=tape -s /tmp/glance_depot \* @ /dev/rmt/0m

or to a depot file:
#
swpackage
-x
target_type=tape
/tmp/glance_depot.depot

-s
/tmp/glance_depot
\*
@
\
Check depot contents:
# swlist -d -l product @ /dev/rmt/0m
Glance
MeasureWare
...
PHSS_24864

C.03.55.00
C.03.55.00
HP GlancePlus/UX
MeasureWare Software/UX
1.0
PRM C.01.08.2 Cumulative Patch
Eject the tape:
# mt -t /dev/rmt/0m offl
swverify Command
The SD-UX swverify command verifies available (copied), installed, or configured software
products on the specified host. swverify also:




Determines whether installed or configured software is compatible with the host on
which that software is installed.
Makes sure that all dependencies (prerequisites, corequisites) are being met (for installed
software) or can be met (for copied software).
Executes vendor-specific verification scripts (that is, scripts that testify to the correctness
of the product's configuration) if the installed state of the software is configured.
Reports missing files, checks all file attributes including permissions, file types, size,
checksum, mtime, link source and major/minor attributes.
Synopsis
swverify [-d|-r] [-F] [-v] [-C session_file] [-f software_file] [-J jobid] [-Q date ]
[-S session_file] [-t target_file] [-x option=value] [-X option_file] [software_selections] [@
target_selections]
The swverify command does not feature a GUI. All verify interaction with the system is done on
the command line.
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Command Line Arguments
-d
Operate on a depot rather than installed software.
-v
Turn on verbose output to stdout and display all activity to the screen. Lets you
see the results of the command as it executes.
-f software file
Read a list of software selections from a separate file instead of from the command
line.
-x option=value
Specify a value to override a default value or a value in an options file.
Examples
To verify an installed fileset mysoft.myfileset located on the default depot at myhosts, you
would type (You could also omit the @ sign and the myhost designation since the software being
verified is assumed to be located in the default depot on the local host.):
swverify -d mysoft.myfileset @ myhosts
To verify the C and Pascal products that are installed on the local host:
swverify –v C Pascal
Verify the entire contents of a local depot:
swverify -d \* @ /var/spool/sw
NOTE: Look for errors in the /var/adm/sw/swagent.log file.
swconfig Command
The swconfig command lets you explicitly configure, unconfigure and reconfigure software
products that are installed on a local host by executing the configure script. These scripts are
only executed on the host that will actually be running the software.
You can use the swinstall and swremove commands to perform many configuration or
unconfiguration tasks. However, the swconfig command lets you work independently of these
commands. swconfig can also be useful when a configuration fails, is deferred, or must be
changed. It runs only from the command line interface.
Synopsis
swconfig [-p] [-u] [-v] [-c catalog ] [-C session_file ] [-f software_file ] [-J jobid ] [-Q date ] [S session_file ] [-t target_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ]
[software_selections] [@ target_selections]
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Selected Command Line Arguments
-p
Preview a configuration task from the command line by running it through the
Analysis Phase and then exiting.
-v
Turn on verbose output to stdout and display all activity to the screen. Lets you see
the results of the command as it executes.
-f software file
Read a list of software selections from a separate file instead of from the command
line.
-x option=value
Specify a value to override a default value or a value in an options file.
Examples
To configure productA, located in the default depot on the local host:
swconfig productA
Reconfigure the HP Omniback product:
swconfig -x reconfigure=true Omniback
Configure the version of HP Omniback that was installed at /opt/Omniback_v2.0:
swconfig Omniback,l=/opt/Omniback_v2.0
Unconfigure the software_selections listed in the file /tmp/install.products on the hosts listed in
the file /tmp/install.hosts:
swconfig -u -f /tmp/install.products -t /tmp/install.hosts
Configure the C and Pascal products on remote hosts:
swconfig cc pascal @ hostA hostB hostC
Troubleshooting
Error Logging
All SD-UX commands (except swlist and swacl) log summary information about the session,
and operation details to a command-specific logfile located (by default) in
/var/adm/sw/<command>.log. For example, if you wanted to examine the logfile for
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swinstall, you would look in the file /var/adm/sw/swinstall.log.
Of more interest in case of troubleshooting is to examine target agent logfiles for a current
session. The location of the agent logfile varies, depending on the type of target:



/var/adm/sw/swagent.log when operating on a host's primary root.
/<root_path>/var/adm/sw/swagent.log for an alternate root.
/<depot_path>/swagent.log for a target or source depot.
The default location of a host's daemon logfile is /var/adm/sw/swagentd.log. This logfile
contains information for problems starting agents, particularly for problems where you have
access denied to a depot or root.
Error Messages
SD-UX error messages indicate that a problem occurred that will influence the overall outcome
of an operation.
For example, if a target in an install session fails the analysis phase due to insufficient disk
space, you would find the following error message in the agent log file:
ERROR: The estimated disk space used on filesystem "/" is
14104 Kbyte blocks. This operation will exceed the
minimum free space for this disk. You should free up at
least 2280 Kbyte blocks to avoid installing beyond this
threshold of available user disk space. If you are
running interactive "swinstall", you must return to the
Selection Window and Unmark this target before using
"swremove" to free disk space.
Warning Messages
Warning messages let you know that something unexpected and potentially undesirable
occurred. A warning does not prevent the SD session from continuing. Warning messages during
analysis of an interactive session give you the chance to continue or stop.
For example, if the fileset SD-DATABASE.SD-DATABASE2 is being installed in multiple locations
on a target system, you would find the following warning message in the agent log file:
WARNING: A version of fileset "SD-DATABASE.SD-DATABASE2,r=9.00.1C"
is already installed in another location (see previous
lines). Installing this version will create multiple
installed versions. This new multiple version will be
installed because the "allow_multiple_versions" option is
set to "true".
Notes
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Notes are used to notify you of an event that is not erroneous, unexpected or undesirable, but that
you should be aware of:
NOTE: The fileset "SD-DATABASE.SD-DATABASE1,r=9.00.1C" is
already installed. If you wish to reinstall this
fileset, change the "reinstall" option to "true".
swinstall/swremove Fails With a Lock Error or Hangs
Swinstall or swremove fails with the following message:
Cannot lock "/" because another command holds a conflicting lock. The
process id of that command is ####.
Another SD command is running that prevents the swinstall or swremove command from
running. Wait for that command to finish and try again. It may be necessary to kill broken
sessions and to restart the swagentd as described below (swagentd –r).
Sometimes it is necessary to configure some installed software, first:
swconfig \*
Cannot Contact Target Host's Daemon or Agent
If you see the following error message:
ERROR: Could not contact host <hostname>. Make sure the hostname is
correct.
It means that the hostname you specified could not be found in the hosts database. Make sure
you have typed the hostname correctly and verify hostnames:
# hostname
# ping [hostname]
# nslookup [hostname]
# nslookup [IP adress]
If the target hostname is not in the hosts database, but you know its network address, you can use
it (in standard "dot" notation) in place of the hostname.
If you see this error message:
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ERROR:Remote Procedure Call to a daemon has failed.
Could not start a management session for <target>.
Make sure the host is accessible from the network,
and that its daemon, swagentd, is running. If the
daemon is running see the daemon logfile
on this target for more information.
It means SD-UX could not contact the daemon program on a specific target system. Note that
this may occur even if you haven't specified any targets, for example, if the daemon on your
local host is not running.
On the target system, type:
ps -e | grep swagentd
If the daemon does not appear to be running, you can start it by typing (as root on the target
system):
/usr/sbin/swagentd
If you attempt to start a daemon when one is already running, you will see a message about the
other daemon; this is harmless. You can also kill and restart a currently running daemon by
typing:
/usr/sbin/swagentd –r
Slow Network Performance
When using swinstall or swcopy in an environment where network bandwidth is the
"bottleneck," the file transfer rate between source and target can become very slow.
The compress_files=true (OptionsChange OptionsCompress files during transfer) option
compresses files transferred from a source depot to a target. This can reduce network usage by
approximately 50%; the exact amount of compression depends on the type of files. Binary files
compress less than 50%, text files more.
Sometimes, the network affects the installation or copy of software even if it is done locally, e.g.
from the local tape or CD. The use_alternate_source=true option (GUI: OptionsChange
OptionsAll targets to resolve the source locally) can help.
Debugging SD-UX Commands
Many times, if SD-UX is hanging in a particular function or for a variety of other reasons, SDUX debug variables can be turned on to get more information generated to the
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/var/adm/sw/sw*.log files.
Example:
# export SDU_DEBUG=1
# export SDU_DEBUG_TIMESTAMP=hour:minute:second:millisecond
# script -a /tmp/SDdebug.out
Perform SD-UX command.
# exit
# unset SDU_DEBUG
# unset SDU_DEBUG_TIMESTAMP
Analyze /tmp/SDdebug.out.
The variable SDU_DEBUG can have a value between 1 and 4:
Level 1:
Level 2:
Level 3:
Level 4:
Trace entry to major function calls.
Add trace of exit from major function calls.
Add trace of some internals or variables in major function calls.
Add tracing in functions that are called frequently.
Please remember that the SDU_DEBUG variables are neither officially supported nor documented,
and their behavior may change without notice.
swinstall in Single User Mode
swinstall needs the Core networking functionality. So it won´t work in single user mode.
1st of all, try to bring up minimum networking functionality after booting into single user mode:
#
#
#
#
init 1
/sbin/init.d/net start
/sbin/init.d/swagentd start
/sbin/init.d/swconfig start
Now, try to swinstall. If it is still impossible, you may try the following unsupported procedure
in single user mode:
dlpi and lan0 drivers must be in the kernel. Then backup the following files:
# cp /etc/hosts /etc/hosts.org
# mv /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf.org (move!)
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It might be necessary to kill the named process in order to switch off DNS.
vi the /etc/hosts and replace the localhost entry by the actual hostname:
127.0.0.1
hostname
loopback
(Re-)start the swagentd:
# /usr/sbin/swagentd –r
Then use swinstall with the use_alternate_source=true option:
# swinstall –x use_alternate_source=true ...
Good luck! Don´t forget to reboot into single user mode and move the hosts.orig and
resolv.conf.orig files back.
Rebuilding the Master INDEX file
Did you ever had one of the following SD-UX messages?
Incomplete definition for the product …
The expected depot or root does not exist at "/".
There is currently no installed software on host…
Ignoring duplicate definition …
Ignoring unknown keyword …
It may come from the removal or corruption of the master INDEX file.
The following unsupported procedure should work for HP-UX 10.20, 11.0 and 11i:
# mv /var/adm/sw/products/INDEX /tmp/INDEX.bak
# echo fileset > /var/adm/sw/products/INDEX
# swmodify -a title
Unbelievable, isn’t it?
NOTE: If for some reason not only the master INDEX file got lost but the IPD got corrupted
anywhere, it might be necessary to restore /var/adm/sw/products from backup.
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Patch Introduction
HP-UX patch names have the following format:
PHxx_yyyyy
where:
PH
Patch HP-UX
xx
area patched
CO
general HP-UX commands
KL
Kernel Patch
NE
network specific patches
SS
all other subsystems: X11, Starbase, etc
yyyyy
unique number
The number yyyyy is unique across all areas (or categories). The installation of kernel and
networking patches modifies the kernel (/stand/vmunix) and is therefore always followed by a
reboot.
Commands and subsystem patches do not enforce a reboot of the system but applications
depending on the patched files may need to be restarted. You will find detailed information about
this in the “special installation section” of the patch text.
Differences in patching between the HP-UX releases
Changes from UX 10.20 to UX 11.00 - Patch as individual
There has been a significant change in the way patching works from HP-UX 10.X to 11.X.
Whereas with 10.X a patch was nothing more than a regular product we can distinguish between
regular products and patches at UX 11.X. This has several advantages. The basic differences
between 10.X and 11.X patching are:

Patches are recognized by their „patch“ attribute and not by their naming (eg. PHKL_12345).

There is a strict relation between a product and the patch that affects the filesets of this
product. So each time you install, update or remove a product the corresponding patch(es) are
also installed, updated or removed. E.g. if you install a product from a certain depot, SD-UX
automatically installs the appropriate patches for the product if they are also contained in the
depot.

Patches are classified into certain categories which allows a more flexible way of patch
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management.

Each patch has a superseeding flag which eases the administration, especially if a product has
been patched more than one time.

the swinstall option
-x
match_target is replaced by the more specific option
-x patch_match_target for 11.X patches.

swlist displays patches even if their successor(s) is installed. Such patches have the
superseded flag.

swlist displays exactly which filesets are patched by a patch and which revision and
architecture we’re dealing with.
ATTENTION: A consequence of these enhancements is that 11.X patches and products can
only be handled by 11.X systems. 11.X software depots must not be handled or even stored on
10.X systems. The downward compatibility is given, i.e 10.X depots can be handled and stored
on 11.X systems!
Detailed information about what changed from 10.X to 11.X patching can be found in the "HPUX 11.X Patch Program White Paper" in the file /usr/share/doc/patch_pgrm.txt on any
UX 11.00 system.
Changes from UX 11.00 to UX 11.ix - Patch dependencies
At HP-UX 11.00 all patch dependencies described in the patch text had to be verified manually.
As of HP-UX 11.11 patch dependencies are enforced by prerequisite attributes in the patch
depot.
As of HP-UX 11.11 SD-UX is patch supersession aware, i.e. if a dependent patch or a patch that
supersedes it is installed on the system then the prerequisite will be satisfied. Since patches must
be cumulative this will work.
Unfortunately prior to HP-UX 11.11 SD-UX was not patch supersession aware and therefor no
prerequisites could be set. Doing so would make it impossible to install a patch unless the
specified dependency is installed on the system and is not yet superseded by another patch as
else the prerequisite no longer is satisfied.
Listing Patches
A patch can have the follwing state (as of UX 11.00):
applied
The patch is currently installed and can be rolled back using the
swremove command.
committed
The patch is currently installed, but the patch's rollback files have
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were never created, since the flag -x
patch_save_files=false was set during installation. Refer to the
Patch Rollback section.
been removed or
superseded
The patch is superseded by another installed patch. The superseding
patch can be found using the -a superseded_by command-line
option of swlist. It will switch back to applied or committed if you
swremove (roll back) all superseding patch(es).
For troubleshouting we would like to get a complete view of the system, i.e. products and
patches. Simply do:
# swlist -l product >swlist.out
You may also list the patches from the fileset point of view. To list all filesets on the system and
the patch filesets that affect them including status, revision, etc. do:
# swlist -l patch
you may grep for all applied patches
# swlist -l patch | grep applied
and/or omit the superseeded patches:
# swlist -l patch -x show_superseded_patches=false | grep applied
Remember that a patch may be listed more than once because it may affect multiple filesets
What patches are applied to a product or fileset. e.g. LVM:
# swlist -l fileset -a applied_patches LVM
Which filesets are patched by which patch:
# swlist -l patch -a applied_to \*.\*,c=patch
Is a specific patch or one of its successors installed:
# swlist -l patch -a supersedes -x show_superseded_patches=false | grep patch
NOTE: Listing patches can be eased with the show_patches tool. Invoke show_patches
without options to obtain a neat list of all active patches on the system.
Installing Patches
SD-UX can handle patches (as well as regular products) in two different formats:
SD directory format or SD file format. Refer to the Software Distributor Chapter for details.
Which format you deal with depends on the source where you got the patches from.
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The SD file as a shell archive (shar) in compressed form comparable to tar.
From the IT Resource Center
The support portal HP IT Resource Center (ITRC) reached its end of life in June 2011. The HP
Support Center portal now provides you with the capabilities you used and valued in ITRC, as
well as new and enhanced features.
The following ITRC users should migrate to the HP Support Center:
* Those who had linked entitlements on ITRC.
* Those who have previously logged a case on the ITRC.
If you do not need to migrate, you may still take advantage of HP Support Center personalized
features by signing in with HP Passport (steps 1 and 2 below).
Migration Steps
Follow the four steps below to migrate to HP Support Center:
Step 1 - Go to HP Support Center:
Step 2 - Sign in to HP Support Center with your HP Passport Username and Password.
(Note: This is different from your ITRC User ID and Password. If you do not yet have an HP
Passport account, you can create one by clicking on "Register" underneath the sign-in prompt.)
If you have already established an HP Passport account, please ensure that your profile has a
value in the "Company name" field. Click on "Edit your profile" after you have signed in with
HP Passport to view or update your profile.
Step 3 - Click on the "ITRC Users" graphic.
Step 4 - Supply your ITRC username and password.
The Migration Tool will verify your account, move your information to HP Support Center and
associate it to your HP Passport account.
If you had more than one account on ITRC, you can repeat the process above to associate all of
these accounts to one single profile on HP Support Center.
You may access the following resources to assist with your migration:
* View the Migration Presentation.
* Get assistance on the HP Support Center.
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* See the updated HP Support Center – Frequently Asked Questions document.
* Videos are also available on the HP Support Center Overview page.
We also recommend that you review the "Get Started with HP Support Center"
information available from the HP Support Center Home Page.
For more information regarding HP's privacy policy or to obtain contact
information please visit our privacy statement or write to us at:
Privacy Mailbox
ATTN: HP Privacy Mailbox
20555 SH 249,
Houston, Texas 77070
Hewlett-Packard website
Sign-up for Driver and Support Alerts
Downloading patches from the HP Support center
1) User signs in to the new HP support center.
2) Under the “Featured support services” tab select the “ patch management” area to get
patch information or download patches.
from CD, DVD or DDS tape
Whereas the patches downloaded from the ITRC website are stored in SD file format, the
patches on CD, DVD or (as usually deliverd from the HP Response Centers) on DDS tape are
stored in SD depot format. Hence you can install directly from these media without having to
copy the patches to a local depot on the system.
Here’s how to install patches from a CD-ROM:
1) Mount CD-ROM:
# mount /dev/cdrom /SD_CDROM
NOTE: As of UX 11.00 the swinstall/swcopy command automatically mounts a CD if one is
inserted.
2) Install a bundle (from the command line):
#
swinstall
-x
patch_match_target=true
-s /CD_CDROM/GOLDQPK11i
-x
autoreboot=true
You have the possibility to order customized patch bundles from the HP Response Center, e.g. a
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set of mass storage related patches. Generally the Response Center delivers the patches in SD
format on DDS tape. Install the patches using:
# swinstall -x autoreboot=true -x patch_match_target=true
-s /dev/rmt/0m
Verifying Patch Installation
The result of the patch installation can be seen in the swagent log / var/adm/sw/swagent.log.
If any critical warnings or errors appear we strongly recommend to use the powerful
check_patches utility in order to find the cause.
Removing Patches
In general we would recommend not to remove patches, if possible. Installing a successor is
usually less risky, since patch dependencies may be violated by a patch removal.
Only if a patch is known to cause problems which are not fixed by any available successor the
patch should be removed:
# swremove PHxx_yyyyy [PHxx_yyyyy ...]
If there are problems after installing a whole patch bundle and it is not possible to locate the
patch(es) that causes the trouble, the bundle may be removed:
# swremove HWEnable11i
Note that the standard patch bundles have undergone an intense testing phase and it is very
unlikely that such a bundle causes trouble. It is more likely that certain patches in the bundle
uncover a hardware problem that was hidden before.
Patch Text
The patchtext is an ASCII file that describes the patch in detail. It provides information about the
patch in the following patch text fields:






Name or 1Liner
Size
Rating
Status
Creation and post date
Affected files
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




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Description of enhancements and bugfixes
Dependencies
Warnings
Special installation instructions
OS that incorporates the fix
A detailed description of all patch fields can be found here (HP Internal only)
For UX 11.X the patchtext is stored to /var/adm/sw/products/PHxx_yyyy/pfiles/README
during installation. It can be displayed using:
# swlist -a readme PHxx_yyyyy
NOTE: For UX 10.X the patchtext is handled separately.
The HP Internal patch catalog browser at:
http://patch-hub.corp.hp.com/wtec/catalog/index.html provides a neater html version of the
patch texts.
Patch Ratings
The Rating field in the patch text will contain one of the following confidence ratings for each
platform/OS combination for which the patch applies, as well as the date the rating was achieved
(initially set on 00/03/10):
Rating 1 (1 star)
The patch has successfully completed testing by the developing lab. Patches with a rating of '1'
are recommended for reactive situations when a patch with a higher rating is not available to
address the problem.
Rating 2 (2 stars)
The patch has successfully completed testing by the developing lab -AND- is at least 21 days old
and has been distributed at least 50 times by the Worldwide Response Centers -OR- is at least 90
days old and has been distributed at least 5 times by the Worldwide Response Centers (prior to
March 12, 2002 the latter criteria was 46 days old with 5 downloads). Patches with a rating of '2'
are recommended for reactive and proactive situations when a patch with a higher rating is not
available.
Rating 3 (3 stars)
The patch has successfully completed testing by the developing lab -AND- by the Enterprise
Patch Test Center. Patches with a rating of '3' are recommended in all reactive and proactive
situations.
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Patch Category Tags
Category tags identify the type of patch. Possible values can be one or combinations of:
 critical
Fixes one or more of the critical conditions depicted above under
"Critical:".
 panic
Fixes a system panic.
 halts_system
Fixes a problem that leads to a system halt or hang.
 corruption
Fixes a data corruption problem.
 memory_leak
Fixes a memory loss problem that may lead to severe performance
degradation and/or system halt.
 defect_repair
Fixes a software defect.
 hardware_enablement
Provides support for new hardware.
 enhancement
Provides new functionality.
 general_release
Should be installed on any system with the appropriate software
installed.
 special_release
Should only be installed under specific conditions.
 trial_patch
Preliminary patch. Should be replaced by the general_release or
special_release version as it becomes available.
Patch Rollback
All files that have been overwritten by a patch will be backed up in the directory
/var/adm/sw/patch/PHxx_yyyyy/
/var/adm/sw/save/PHxx_yyyyy/
for UX 10.X
for UX 11.X
When you remove a patch (swremove) these files will be restored to their original locations.
They are called patch rollbacks.
To avoid the original files from beeing backed up (which is a little bit risky) you have to do the
following:
for 10.X
create a dummy file PATCH_NOSAVE before swinstall:
# touch /var/adm/sw/PATCH_NOSAVE
for 11.X
use a special swinstall option:
# swinstall -x patch_save_files=false
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To delete existing patch rollbacks in order to save disk space you can use the cleanup(1M)
command:
for 10.X
# cleanup -F
for 11.X
To remove (commit) patches that have been superseeded at least two times do:
# cleanup –c 2
### Cleanup program started at 02/20/02 13:15:43
Commit patches superseded at least 2 time(s) on 'grcdg319'.
Obtaining superseded patch information...done.
The following patches superseded at least 2 time(s) can be committed:
Superseded
==========
PHCO_23427
PHCO_23772
PHKL_23313
PHKL_23445
PHKL_23609
PHKL_23642
# Times Superseded
==================
2
3
2
2
2
2
Disk Space in /var/adm/sw/save
==============================
23646208 bytes
23476224 bytes
66560 bytes
133120 bytes
229376 bytes
131072 bytes
Superseded By
=============
PHCO_24400
PHCO_23427
PHKL_25165
PHKL_24566
PHKL_24550
PHKL_24046
WARNING: When a patch is committed, the files saved to /var/adm/sw/save
during the installation of the patch are removed. If
these saved files are not present, then the patch cannot
be removed from the system via swremove(1M).
If these files in /var/adm/sw/save must be removed, HP
recommends that the /var/adm/sw/save directory first be
backed up. If it should become necessary to remove the
patch in the future, the files must be recovered from the
backup prior to removing the patch.
If you have not already created a backup of /var/adm/sw/save,
you may wish to do so before proceeding with the patch
commit operation.
Would you still like to commit these patches? y
Committing patches superseded at least 2 time(s) ...done.
All information has been logged to /var/adm/cleanup.log.
### Cleanup program completed at 02/20/02 13:15:43
NOTE: cleanup is just a frontend to swmodify:
# cleanup -c 1
would do the same as
# swmodify -x patch_commit=true \*\.*
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Patch Tools: show_patches, check_patches and cleanup
These useful tools are not delivered on HP-UX o/s versions 11.0 and 11.11 but are available as a
patch. At HP-UX o/s 11.23 and 11.31 the patch tools are part of the core o/s.
PHCO_24347 (or newer)
PHCO_24630 (or newer)
for UX 11.00
for UX 11.11
show_patches Command
The show_patches utility displays active and superseded patches in a formatted output, which
may be easier to interpret than the output of the swlist command. The utility uses the SD-UX
patch attributes patch_state and superseded_by to determine which patches are active and
which are superseded.
To display only the active (non superseeded) patches do
# show_patches
Active
Patch
---------PHCO_22958
PHCO_22989
PHCO_23004
PHCO_23083
PHCO_23150
Patch
Description
----------------------------------------set_parms
Som2elf Patch
cumulative SAM/ObAM patch
newgrp(1) patch
HP Array Manager/60 cumulative patch
Refer to the show_patches manual page for details.
check_patches Command
The check_patches script does a general sanity check on the whole patch database.It checks for
patches missing the SD-UX patch attributes, missing patch filesets, patch object modules missing
from archive libraries, patch filesets with the incorrect patch_state, patch filesets not in the
configured state, and patch filesets that fail swverify(1M).
The check_patches utility logs all information to /tmp/check_patches.report.
Invoke check_patches with no options to perform all checks.
# check_patches
Obtaining information on installed patches
Checking for invalid patches
Checking for ar(1) patches
Checking object module checksums for active patch fileset
Checking patch filesets for active patch
156 of
156
Checking state for patch fileset
573 of
573
Checking patch_state for patch fileset
573 of
573
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Running swverify on all patch filesets, this may take several minutes
RESULT: Problems found, review /tmp/check_patches.report for details.
Refer to the check_patches manual page for details.
cleanup Command
The cleanup utility is used:
 to remove any patches for earlier releases from the Installed Product Database (IPD) after
updating to a newer version of HP-UX.
 to commit patches across the entire system, i.e to remove patch rollbacks.
 to remove patches from a software depot if they have been superseded by patches also
available in the same depot.
cleanup logs all information to /var/adm/cleanup.log.
Refer to the cleanup manual page for details.
Standard Patch Bundles - Support Plus
The standard patch bundles are included in the Support Plus Pack. It replaces the Extension
Software (XSW) and Independent Product Release (IPR) products.
HP-UX Support Plus contains:

Quality Pack (QPK) bundles which include all stable defect-fix patches for core HPUX, graphics, and key networking drivers.

Hardware Enablement (HWE) bundles which provide patches required for new
systems and for add-on hardware supported on HP-UX 11.00 and HP-UX 11i OE. The
HWE bundles also provide patches that support the latest boot devices and I/O adapters
with
the
Ignite-UX
tools.

General Release (GR) bundles which provide 10.20 general release patches. These
bundles are a tested set of HP-UX core patches.

Hardware/Critical (HWCR) bundle which delivers hardware enablement and critical
patches for your HP-UX 10.20 server. Hardware enablement patches are required to
update existing systems and new devices while the critical patches fix problems that
could cause data loss or corruption.
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Diagnostics, including Support Tool Manager (STM) for online diagnostics, ODE (offline diagnostics), EMS hardware monitors, Predictive Support, EMS Kernel Resource
Monitor, and the Instant Capacity on Demand (iCOD) client products.
You can download Support Plus directly from the HP Patch Program website (HP internal), or
install it from the quarterly media shipped to you if your HP-UX support contract is current. The
HP Patch Program website (HP internal) additionally lists all the former Support Plus releases as of
Sep.99.
Here’s an overview of the currently available patch bundles that are included in Support Plus:
UX 10.20
700QPK1020
XSW700GR1020
XSW800GR1020
XSW700HW1020
XSW800HWCR1020
Workstation Quality Pack for HP-UX 10.20 (Sep 00)
General Release Patches for HP-UX 10.20 Workstations
General Release Patches for HP-UX 10.20 Servers
Hardware Enablement Patches for HP-UX 10.20 Workstations
Hardware Enablement and Critical Patches for HP-UX 10.20 Servers
UX 11.00
QPK1100
HWE1100
Quality Pack for HP-UX 11.00
Hardware Enablement Patches for HP-UX 11.00
UX 11.11
NOTE: Both the GOLDBASE11i and GOLDAPPS11i bundles including their respective patches
are delivered in the same depot and share the same README file.
Patch
Content
Bundle
Bundle READ Refresh
Bundle
READ ME File ed
in
Revision
ME File (HTML Release
)
Archive Depot
GOLDBAS
E11i
Decem
B.11.11.0912. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP0912/GO
ber
483
LDQPK11i
2009
GOLDAPPS
11i
Decem
B.11.11.0912. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP0912/GO
ber
483
LDQPK11i
2009
HWEnable1
1i
Decem
B.11.11.0612. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP0612/HW
ber
458
Enable11i
2006
BUNDLE11
i
June
2003
HP-UX Handbook – Rev 13.00
B.11.11.0306. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP61/BUN
1
DLE11i
Page 45 (of 49)
Chapter 05
Software Distributor (SD-UX)
October 29, 2013
Document Title
Date
Links
Part Number
Support Plus User's Guide
December 2006
[PDF] 5991-7358
Support Plus Read Before Installing
December 2009
[PDF] B3920-90000
HP-UX Patch Management User Guide
September 2007
[PDF] 5992-0674
UX 11.22 (Itanium release)
MAINTPACK
Collection of defect-fix patches
UX 11.23 (Itanium release)
NOTE: Both the QPKBASE and QPKAPPS bundles including their respective patches are
delivered in the same depot and share the same README file.
.
Bundle
Bundle READ Refresh
Patch
Bundle
READ ME File ed
in
Archive Depot
Content
Revision
ME File (HTML Release
)
QPKBASE
Decemb B.11.23.1012. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1012/QP
er 2010 086a
K1123
QPKAPPS
Decemb B.11.23.1012. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1012/QP
er 2010 086a
K1123
FEATURE
11i
Septem
B.11.23.1009. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1012/FE
ber
083
ATURE11i
2010
HWEnable
11i
Decemb B.11.23.1012. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1012/HW
er 2010 085a
Enable11i
Document Title
Date
Links
Part Number
Install and Update Guide
December 2007
[PDF]
5992-1978
Read Before Installing or Updating OE
June 2008
[PDF]
5992-4137
Read Before Installing Support Pack
December 2010
[PDF]
5900-1106
HP-UX Patch Management User Guide
September 2009
[PDF]
5992-6582
HP-UX Patch Management User Guide
September 2009
[PDF]
5992-6582
UX 11.31 (Itanium release)
NOTE: Both the QPKBASE and QPKAPPS bundles including their respective patches are
delivered in the same depot and share the same README file.
HP-UX Handbook – Rev 13.00
Page 46 (of 49)
Chapter 05
Patch
Content
Software Distributor (SD-UX)
Bundle
Bundle READ Refresh
Bundle
READ ME File ed
in
Revision
ME File (HTML Release
)
October 29, 2013
Archive Depot
FEATURE
11i
Septem
B.11.31.1109. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1109/FE
ber
367a
ATURE11i
2011
HWEnable
11i
Septem
B.11.31.1109. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1109/HW
ber
367a
Enable11i
2011
QPKAPPS
Septem
B.11.31.1109. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1109/QP
ber
367a
K1131
2011
QPKBASE
Septem
B.11.31.1109. patchsvr.fc.hp.com:/depots/SP1109/QP
ber
367a
K1131
2011
Document Title
Date
Links
Part Number
Install and Update Guide
September 2011
[PDF]
BA927-90078
Read Before Installing
September 2011
[PDF]
BA927-90090
Release Notes
September 2011
[PDF]
BA927-90087
HP-UX Patch Management User Guide
September 2009
[PDF]
5992-6582
What is a “Line in the Sand” Patch?
A line in the sand patch is a kernel patch (PHKL) that combines many kernel fixes at once. The
intention is to have a base patch that puts the OS to a certain level. A line in the sand patch will
never be succeeded by another patch and there will only be one line in the sand patch for each
HP-UX release. HP asked all customers to install this patch so you should not find any system
without this patch.
Up to the present there are three of such patches:
PHKL_18543
UX 11.00 - s700_s800
Of course the object files, that are fixed with such a patch are subjected to change over time.
There are many newer patches that overwrite parts of it. This is not a problem as long as you
avoid reinstalling it. And this is exactly what happened lots of times in the past. Reinstalling a
line in the sand patch is not permitted since it puts the OS into a corrupted state resulting in
problems during kernel generation (see Kernel Chapter for an example).
HP-UX Handbook – Rev 13.00
Page 47 (of 49)
Chapter 05
Software Distributor (SD-UX)
October 29, 2013
There check_patches utility (see above) allows you to check for all overwritten files on the
system and detect if a line in the sand patch had been reinstalled.
If this is the case the safest way to repair it is to reinstall ALL kernel patches (PHKL) that are
shown by swlist (minus the line in the sand patch itself).
I recommend to feed the PatchWork utility (see section Patch Utilities below) with the output of
swlist -l product | grep PHKL
Now run “update & dependency check”. Create a patch bundle that contains all the resulting
patches minus the line in the sand patch. Install the bundle using swinstall options
reinstall=TRUE and reinstall_files=TRUE.
Patch Utilities on the Intranet
The Patch Hub Management and Services (HP Internal Only) site provides patch information, metrics,
patch catalogs and patch tools. Several tools are available for researching, obtaining, installing,
removing and managing patches on all HP-UX systems.
Patch Management and Availability:
The Patch Hub Team manages the patch release process for the BSC and HP Software
organizations; this includes quality assurance and release control. The team also manages the
Patch Hub server, which is the central distribution point of patches for internal and external
customers.
Additional Information
Software Distributor Website:
Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3
http://bizsupport1.austin.hp.com/bc/docs/support/SupportManual/c02023876/c02023876.
pdf
Valuable information can be found in the files under the /usr/share/doc directory on any
UX 11ix system.
Related manual pages are:
swacl(1M), swagentd(1M), swask(1M), swconfig(1M), swjob(1M), swlist(1M), swmodify(1M),
swpackage(1M), swreg(1M), swremove(1M), swverify(1M), update-ux(1M), sd(4),
swpackage(4), sd(5).
HP-UX Handbook – Rev 13.00
Page 48 (of 49)
Chapter 05
Software Distributor (SD-UX)
October 29, 2013
Patch Management document:
http://docs.hp.com/hpux/os/11.0/index.html#Patch%20Management
The HP-UX patch tools:
http://patch-hub.corp.hp.com/wtec/tools/default.shtml
Patch white papers at this website:
http://patch-hub.corp.hp.com/wtec/wp/default.shtml
Sources:
Software Distributor Administration Guide HP-UX 11i v1, 11i v2, and 11i v3 (Sept 2011)
Patch Management User Guide for HP-UX 11.x Systems (Sept 2011)
HP-UX Handbook – Rev 13.00
Page 49 (of 49)
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