learn to turn - Society of Aviation and Flight Educators

LEARN TO TURN
Reducing Loss of Control through an Improved Training Methodology
by Rich Stowell and Billy Winburn
August 4, 2016
Rich@RichStowell.com, mobile 805-218-0161
BillyWin@MindstarAviation.com, mobile 703-608-2226
Join the discussion: www.CommunityAviation.com/Slack-LTT
www.CommunityAviation.com
Based on the entry submitted as part of the 2015–2016 EAA Founder’s Innovation Prize competition
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ....................................................................................................... 3
Glossary ...................................................................................................... 6
The Problem ................................................................................................ 8
Stubbornly Recurrent ...................................................................... 9
Flawed Assumptions ....................................................................... 9
Operational Errors ......................................................................... 11
Acknowledging the Hazard........................................................... 15
The Solution .............................................................................................. 16
Outline ......................................................................................... 19
Sampling of LTT Content ........................................................... 20
Learn ................................................................................. 21
Do...................................................................................... 24
Fly ..................................................................................... 24
Share ................................................................................. 26
Key Considerations ................................................................................... 28
Effectiveness in Reducing LOC .................................................. 28
Applicability ................................................................................ 28
Ease of Implementation ............................................................... 28
Cost to Participants ...................................................................... 30
Conclusion ................................................................................................ 31
Author Bios ............................................................................................... 32
Appendixes
Appendix 1–Forum PowerPoint Slides......................................... 33
Appendix 2–Sim Training Pre-Brief Lesson Plan ........................ 40
Appendix 3–Online Video ............................................................ 42
Appendix 4–Some Supporters of LTT.......................................... 43
Endnotes.................................................................................................... 44
3
ABSTRACT
Loss of Control Inflight (LOC-I) is the primary cause of fatalities in aviation. It dominates
among homebuilts, in general aviation as a whole, and in the commercial jet fleet worldwide.
National Transportation Safety Board Member Earl Weener has called LOC-I a “stubbornly
recurrent safety challenge.”
Stubborn indeed. Wolfgang Langewiesche wrote in Stick and Rudder in 1944, “Almost all
fatal flying accidents are caused by loss of control during a turn.” He concluded, “pilots, as a
group, simply don’t know how to turn right or left.” More recently, nearly 900 pilots were asked,
“What is the primary control surface you use when turning an airplane?” The answers:
•! Elevator, 14 percent
•! Rudder, 23 percent
•! Ailerons, 63 percent
Eighty-six percent did not recognize “elevator” as the correct answer. Nearly 1-in-4 believed
the rudder turned the airplane despite multiple warnings to the contrary in the Federal Aviation
Administration’s (FAA’s) Airplane Flying Handbook. Pilots historically have been shown how
to mimic only the most basic turns. Many never reach the application or correlation levels of
learning vis-à-vis the maneuvering flight envelope. It is easy to see why LOC-I while
maneuvering has persevered as the top phase of flight where fatal loss of control occurs.
The general aviation fleet will continue to be diverse. Improved standards, technology, and
products will continue to be pushed into the aviation pipeline. But not every airplane will end up
with a supplemental angle of attack system, and not everyone will be able to afford the latest
technologies or products. Absent a concerted effort to improve pilot performance during turns,
these enhancements alone are unlikely to yield the desired safety dividends. The reason: whether
the airplane is commercially manufactured or homebuilt, powered by reciprocating or jet
engines, or equipped with or without the latest technology, human behavior ultimately
determines the fate of each flight.
4
Pilots are the common thread. Consequently, the Learn to Turn (LTT) initiative takes a
decidedly stick-and-rudder approach to LOC-I mitigation. Three performance diagrams inform
LTT content, while three factors that motivate pilots to fly inform LTT marketing.
LTT offers a skills-based solution for any pilot to reduce the threat of LOC-I. It is a joint
effort between Master Instructor Rich Stowell and Billy Winburn, President of Mindstar’s
Community Aviation. The LTT approach is consistent with best practices outlined in the
International Civil Aviation Organization’s Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and
Recovery Training (UPRT), recommendations in FAA publications, and output from the Society
of Aviation and Flight Educators’ Pilot Training Reform Symposium. These include:
•! Incorporating UPRT language and concepts;
•! Combining scenario- and maneuvers-based training;
•! Expanding angle of attack and G-load awareness;
•! Addressing human factors and accident causes;
•! Improving manual handling and LOC-I recognition, prevention, and recovery skills;
•! Teaching energy and flight path management;
•! Training in spiral dives, steep turns, high angle of bank recoveries, accelerated stalls, and
slow flight; and,
•! Integrating academic and practical training using Community Aviation’s “Learn-Do-Fly”
framework.
LTT addresses two special emphasis areas in the FAA WINGS program as well: basic flying
skills and stall/spin awareness. It is consistent with the FAA’s belief that improving knowledge
and skills for manual flight operations are necessary for safe flight.
LTT targets the primary driver of LOC-I; therefore, it should be highly effective in reducing
its occurrence. A preliminary study will be undertaken to validate LTT as a deterrent against loss
of control and identify areas for improvement.
LTT is independent of airplane type. Any pilot can benefit from this training initiative;
hence, it has the widest possible applicability.
5
Every pilot interacts with an educator, flight school, flight instructor (CFI), or designated
pilot examiner (DPE) at some point. These interactions provide opportunities to educate pilots
about LOC-I mitigation using LTT concepts. Accordingly, implementation of this initiative will
be widespread and will include:
•!
Internet-based content
•!
WINGS programs for FAA Safety Team Representatives
•! Exercises that can be incorporated into flight reviews as well as simulation, transition,
and recurrent training sessions
•! Outreach to:
o! EAA Chapters
o! type clubs
o! aviation organizations
o! flight schools
o! university aviation programs
o! CFIs and DPEs
o! flight instructor refresher clinics
o! pilot proficiency programs
•! Recognition for those who satisfactorily complete LTT programs
LTT-101 in particular will rely on industry collaboration and sponsorship to ensure access to
online content and exercises that can be incorporated into training and evaluation flights.
Consequently, the incremental cost to pilots (especially instructors) would be low.
Hundreds of individuals representing several countries have registered their support for the
“Learn to Turn” concept already. Hundreds more were exposed to LTT with an FAA Wingsapproved forum and simulator training exercises at the EAA Pilot Proficiency Center during
AirVenture 2016. Recognition and funding of LTT-101 by key stakeholders will facilitate
increased support for, and positive action toward, reducing LOC-I.
6
GLOSSARY
Academic training. Training that places an emphasis on studying and reasoning designed to
enhance knowledge levels of a particular subject.1 This is “Learn” in Community Aviation’s
training framework.
AOA (α). Angle of Attack. Most commonly the angle formed between the relative wind and the
chord line of the main wing of an airplane.
AOB (ø). Angle of Bank. The position of the wings relative to the horizon.
AOS. Angle of Sideslip. Typically described as either skidded, slipped, or coordinated flight.
AOPA. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association.
Bridge training. Additional training designed to address shortfalls in knowledge and skill levels
so that all trainees possess the prerequisite levels upon which a given training program was
designed.2 “Learn to Use the Primary Controls” is bridge training for “Learn to Turn 101.”
CFI. Certificated Flight Instructor.
DPE. Designated Pilot Examiner.
EAA. Experimental Aircraft Association.
FAA. Federal Aviation Administration.
FSTD. Flight Simulation Training Device.3
GAJSC. General Aviation Joint Steering Committee.
GCockpit (GC). The load factor that would be registered on a typical G-meter installed in the
cockpit; the G felt by the pilot as a result of elevator inputs (i.e., GC = L/W). Also denoted as n,
GZ, or just G.
Ggravity (Gg). Represented as the ratio W/W acting toward the center of the earth. By definition,
Gg = +1.0.
GRadial (GR). The portion of GC acting in the plane of turn; the centripetal or radial G acting
toward the center of a curving flightpath. The “result of a change in direction such as when a
pilot performs a sharp turn, pushes over into a dive, or pulls out of a dive.”4
7
HOV. Horizontal, Oblique, and/or Vertical.
IAC. International Aerobatic Club.
ICAO. International Civil Aviation Authority.
ICAS. International Council of Air Shows
L. The total lift produced by the main wing of an airplane.
LOC-I. Loss of Control-Inflight.
LTT. Learn to Turn.
Negative G (−G). Results when pushing on the elevator control causes the Lift vector to emanate
from the bottom surface of the wing, regardless of airplane attitude relative to the horizon.
Negative training. Training which unintentionally introduces incorrect information or invalid
concepts, which could actually decrease rather than increase safety.5
NTSB. National Transportation Safety Board.
Positive G (+G). Results when pulling on the elevator control causes the Lift vector to emanate
from the top surface of the wing, regardless of airplane attitude relative to the horizon.
Practical training. Describes training that places an emphasis on the development of specific
technical or practical skills, which is normally preceded by academic training.6 This
encompasses “Do” and “Fly” in Community Aviation’s training framework.
Spin. The helical descending flight path resulting from simultaneously (or near-simultaneously)
stalling and yawing an airplane.
Stall. Most commonly, the turbulent separation of otherwise smooth airflow from the main wing
of an airplane.
UPRT. Upset Prevention and Recovery Training.
V. Airspeed. On most performance diagrams, either calibrated or true airspeed.
VFR in VMC. Visual Flight Rules in Visual Meteorological Conditions.
W. The weight of the airplane.
8
THE PROBLEM
Inflight loss of control is the leading cause of fatalities in aviation. It dominates among
homebuilts, in general aviation as a whole, and in the commercial jet fleet worldwide. For the
period 2001–2010, the GAJSC found that more fatal general aviation accidents resulted from
LOC-I than from the next five occurrence categories combined.7
One-in-four fatal LOC-I accidents occurred during the maneuvering phase of flight—more
than during any other phase. (If separated into its own broad occurrence category, LOC-I while
maneuvering would rank third overall, behind CFIT.)
Accordingly, LOC-I has been a focus not only of FAA Safety Stand Downs since 2012, but
also of NTSB’s Most Wanted Lists for the last two years.8,9 In 2015, NTSB hosted the forum
“Humans and Hardware: Preventing General Aviation Inflight Loss of Control.”10
9
Stubbornly Recurrent
NTSB Member Earl Weener has called LOC-I a “stubbornly recurrent safety challenge.”11
Stubborn indeed. In addition to the findings for 2001–2010, consider this:
1993–2001: Twenty-seven percent of all fatal accidents and 41 percent of fatal stall/spins
occurred while maneuvering.12,13
1965–1973: Fifty-four percent of fatal stall/spins occurred while maneuvering/inflight.14
1944: “Almost all fatal flying accidents are caused by loss of control during a turn.”15
“Every one of these pilots who has spun in was a product of the system, the product of a
certificated instructor, and he had been checked by a [DPE] before getting his certificate.”16
Sadly, this observation by Wolfgang Langewiesche has rung true now for 72 years. What is it
about turning flight that has entrenched it as the top cause of fatal LOC-I in general aviation?
Flawed Assumptions
While attempts to improve stall/spin awareness and encourage technologies to reduce LOC-I
certainly have merit, what if the underlying issue is more basic than that? We have been teaching
turns the same way for decades, with the same results. Perhaps it is time to critique the
methodology.
We assume pilots are competent at turning. After all, turning is fundamental to flying. Turns
are introduced practically on day one of flight training. Pilots do turns all the time. But if pilots
thoroughly understood and were competent with turns, why do too many of them intentionally
skid into a spin when overshooting the turn to final, or when attempting to turn back to the
runway following engine failure on takeoff? These pilots actively drove the loss of control
process by applying precisely the inputs necessary for a stall/spin. As the data have been telling
us for a long time, “the best of us sometimes make bad turns,” especially when under pressure.17
During safety programs over the last couple of years, nearly 900 pilots were asked, “What is
the primary control surface you use when turning an airplane?” The answers:
•! Elevator, 14 percent
•! Rudder, 23 percent
•! Ailerons, 63 percent
10
Eighty-six percent did not recognize “elevator” as the correct answer. Nearly 1-in-4 believed
the rudder turned the airplane despite multiple warnings to the contrary in the FAA’s Airplane
Flying Handbook.18 Even while in an established turn, trainees often fail to identify the elevator
as the control being used at that moment to curve the flight path. Hence Langewiesche’s
conclusion, “pilots, as a group, simply don’t know how to turn.”19
Evidence suggests the flight training industry long ago succumbed to Tony Kern’s twin
demons of complacency and perceived competence.20 We have been complacent about the way
we teach turns, thereby leaving pilots with a false sense of competency.
Pilots historically have been shown how to mimic only the most basic turns. Many never
reach the application or correlation levels of learning vis-à-vis the maneuvering flight envelope.
Details matter, yet many pilots—including CFIs—are unable to visualize various maneuvers by
positioning the control surfaces accurately on a model airplane. Control positions are not clear
even to the FAA as evidenced in the following graphic of a Chandelle to the left.21
The result according to Juan Merkt is often “a pilot who possesses basic flying skills but
lacks satisfactory understanding of aircraft performance and its underlying principles.”22
Deficiencies in knowledge and experience are magnified during critical flight operations. Absent
better turn awareness, the ability to prevent or recover from LOC-I while maneuvering will
continue to be compromised.
11
We also tend to be quick to assume that technology is the best solution to the problem; that
what works in military and airline flight environments will be equally effective in general
aviation. When used appropriately, technology certainly can reduce accidents. However, as long
as a human is an active part of the system, Kern advises, “Error control will never be engineered
out of existence with technology.”23 Further, the airline and military flight environments are
highly structured; the pilots, selectively chosen, extremely well trained, and engaged in
continuous recurrent training and evaluation. Technology applied in that context would be
expected to enhance already superior levels of knowledge and skill.
In contrast, general aviation is far less structured. It has a significantly larger pilot
population. It is open to anyone who can meet minimum (and varying) standards of skill and
precision. Recurrent training is largely optional. Contact flying is the norm (i.e., daytime VFR in
VMC using outside visual references). Add in the knowledge and skill deficiencies regarding
turns and it is unlikely the full benefits of any technological improvements will be realized.
Instead, technology could end up being used as another band aid covering the real problem.
Operational Errors
Pilot error is listed as a cause or factor in more than 80% of aviation accidents.24 In
commercial aviation, pilot-induced accidents are the most frequently-identified cause of LOC-I,
with four of the top five reasons sharing common ground with general aviation accidents,
specifically:25
•! application of inappropriate control inputs;
•! poor energy management;
•! distraction;
•!
improper training.
Operational pilot errors in particular can be traced back to errors or omissions committed
during the transfer of knowledge between aviation educators and their students. A common
example of an error during instruction is the false notion of centrifugal force in turns. Not only is
this incorrect, but it also adds nothing of value to the academic discussion. Nonetheless, it has
appeared in FAA publications for decades.
12
To answer the obligatory question “what turns an airplane,” pilots memorize “the horizontal
component of lift.” That is an acceptable answer provided you are talking only about level turns,
but airplanes are capable of climbing and descending turns, too. In the broadest sense, turns can
occur in the horizontal, oblique, or vertical planes, and they occur for one simple reason: excess
Lift (or alternatively, excess G).26
An area where discussion becomes vague involves the familiar graph of bank angle versus
G-load (ø-G) for level turns. 27
13
Sixty degrees of bank is a popular reference point to illustrate the relationship between bank
angle and G-load. Consider these representative examples found in aviation publications:
1.! “A 2g turn is achieved by banking the airplane at an angle of 60 degrees”28
2.! “in a 60-degree bank, the airplane is experiencing a 2-g acceleration.”29
3.! “increasing the bank angle increases the load factor.”30
The implication in each case is that the 2G turn happens by virtue of the 60-degree bank;
ignored is the role of the pilot as the lead actor in the process. Turns do not happen to the pilot,
but because of the pilot. In the first example, a 2G turn (given sufficient energy) is initiated any
time the pilot pulls 2G, regardless of bank angle. In the second example, the airplane does not
experience a 2G acceleration unless the pilot commands it. In the third example, increasing the
bank angle does not increase the load factor—it increases the load factor required of the pilot in
order to sustain a level turn.
The pilot must command not only the desired angle of bank, but the commensurate G as well.
The pilot must roll to 60 degrees of bank and must pull 2G. Failure to apply the requisite G
results in a different kind of turn: a climbing turn with more than the required G; a descending
turn with less than the required G.
A lot of operationally useful information can be coaxed out of the traditional ø–G diagram to
provide the trainee with deeper insight. For instance, an aviation educator should be able to
superimpose layer upon layer of information to create a composite graphic similar to the one that
follows:
14
The most egregious error committed by our flight training industry is the unnecessary
ambiguity in identifying which control is used to turn the airplane. The information, however,
can be found if one is looking for it. For example:
•! “The elevator…‘pulls’ the nose of the airplane around the turn.”31
•! “It is back pressure applied after the bank is established that makes the plane turn.”32
•! “An airplane is turned by laying it over on its side and lifting it around through back
pressure on the stick.”33
•! “Use just enough back pressure on the stick to make the nose follow the horizon.”34
•! Regarding accelerated stalls in coordinated turns at 30 degrees of bank: “Reduce speed
by steadily and progressively tightening the turn with the elevator”35
•! Chandelle: “After the appropriate bank is established, a climbing turn should be started
by smoothly applying back-elevator pressure”36
The reality is surprisingly straightforward. Airplanes are relegated to flight along either
straight lines or curves, and those paths are controlled by the elevator. At the correlation level of
learning, the myriad flight paths possible at a given angle of bank become readily apparent.
15
Acknowledging the Hazard
According to Kern, “inadequate knowledge or training to conduct a specific task” creates a
hazard; moreover, the hazard “becomes more risky when it is unknown, unaccounted for or
underappreciated.” 37,38 The overabundance of low quality, fragmentary information about turns
disseminated by the flight training industry has been creating a quantifiable hazard. Poor
communications/information transfer, for example, raises the probability of pilot error by a factor
of 5.5, while faulty risk perception raises it by a factor of four.39
The risk associated with maneuvering flight has been well documented. It is not as if pilots
have been superbly trained and are doing the absolute best they can, yet are falling victim to
random circumstances beyond their control. Rather, pilots actively (even if accidentally)
continue to propel themselves into LOC-I while maneuvering. Even though pilots can cause
rudimentary turns to happen usually without getting into trouble, they have not been given the
education and experience to master turns. The fact that pilots have been left unaware of the
elevator-as-turn-control unquestionably has compounded the risk involved.
“Risk management begins with hazard identification.”40 With the hazard now identified, a
targeted solution to the problem of LOC-I is proposed.
16
THE SOLUTION
According to NTSB, we can reduce LOC-I accidents through “education, technologies, flight
currency, self-assessment, and vigilant situational awareness in the cockpit.”41 Four of these
elements point directly at the pilot; hence, “Learn to Turn” takes a decidedly pilot-centric, stickand-rudder approach to mitigating LOC-I.
The general aviation fleet will continue to be diverse. Improved standards, technology, and
products will continue to be pushed into the aviation pipeline. But not every airplane will end up
with supplemental angle of attack or similar technologies, and not everyone will be able to afford
the latest technologies or products. Absent a concerted effort to improve pilot performance
during turns, these enhancements alone are unlikely to yield the desired safety dividends. The
reason: whether the airplane is commercially manufactured or homebuilt, powered by
reciprocating or jet engines, or equipped with or without the latest technology, human behavior
ultimately determines the fate of each flight.
Pilots are the common thread. Consequently, LTT offers a knowledge- and skills-based
solution for any pilot to reduce the threat of LOC-I. The LTT approach is consistent with best
practices outlined in ICAO’s Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training,
recommendations in FAA publications, and output from the Society of Aviation and Flight
Educators’ Pilot Training Reform Symposium. The goals of the LTT initiative include:
•! Incorporating UPRT language and concepts;
•! Combining scenario- and maneuvers-based training;
•! Expanding angle of attack and G-load awareness;
•! Addressing human factors and accident causes;
•! Improving manual handling and LOC-I recognition, prevention, and recovery skills;
•! Teaching energy and flight path management; and
•! Training in spiral dives, steep turns, high angle of bank recoveries, accelerated stalls, and
slow flight.
17
Moreover, Community Aviation’s “Learn-Do-Fly” framework will be used to integrate
academic and practical training into a cohesive methodology for the delivery of LTT content.
18
Developing the core competencies suggested by ICAO is an objective as well:42
Competency*
Application!of!
Procedures!
Manual!
Flight!Path!
Management!
Competency*Description*
Identifies!and!applies!
procedures!in!accordance!
with!published!operating!
instructions!and!applicable!
regulations,!using!the!
appropriate!knowledge!
Controls!the!airplane!flight!
path!through!manual!flight,!
including!appropriate!use!of!
flight!management!systems!
and!flight!guidance!
Behavioral*Indicator*
Follows!SOPs!unless!a!higher!degree!of!safety!dictates!an!
appropriate!deviation!
Identifies!and!follows!all!operating!instructions!in!a!timely!
manner!
Correctly!operates!aircraft!systems!and!associated!equipment!
Complies!with!applicable!regulations!
Applies!relevant!procedural!knowledge!
Controls!the!airplane!manually!with!accuracy!and!smoothness!
as!appropriate!to!the!situation!
Detects!deviations!from!the!desired!airplane!trajectory!and!
takes!appropriate!action!
Admits!mistakes!and!takes!responsibility!
Leadership!
and!Teamwork!
Demonstrates!effective!
leadership!and!team!working!
Carries!out!instructions!when!directed!
Communicates!relevant!concerns!and!intentions!
Gives!and!receives!constructive!feedback!
Confidently!intervenes!when!important!for!safety!
Seeks!accurate!and!adequate!information!from!appropriate!
sources!
Employs!proper!problemIsolving!strategies!
Problem!
Solving!
and!
Decision!
Making!
Accurately!identifies!risk!and!
resolves!problemsG!uses!
appropriate!decision!making!
processes!
Perseveres!in!working!through!problems!without!reducing!
safety!
Uses!appropriate!and!timely!decisionImaking!processes!
Sets!priorities!appropriately!
Identifies!and!considers!options!effectively!
Monitors,!reviews,!and!adapts!decisions!as!required!
Identifies!and!manages!risk!effectively!
Improvises!when!faced!with!unforeseeable!circumstances!to!
achieve!the!safest!outcome!
Identifies!and!assesses!accurately:!
•!
•!
Situational!
Awareness!
Perceives!and!comprehends!
all!of!the!relevant!information!
available!and!anticipates!
what!could!happen!that!may!
affect!the!operation!
•!
the!state!of!the!airplane!and!its!systems!
the!airplane’s!vertical!and!lateral!position,!as!well!as!its!
anticipated!flight!path!
the!general!environment!and!how!it!might!affect!the!
operation!
Keeps!track!of!time!and!fuel!
Maintains!awareness!of!the!people!involved!in!or!affected!by!
the!operation!
Anticipates!accurately!what!could!happen,!plans!ahead!and!
stays!ahead!of!the!situation!
Maintains!selfIcontrol!in!all!situations!
Workload!
Management!
Manages!available!resources!
efficiently!to!prioritize!and!
perform!tasks!in!a!timely!
manner!under!all!
circumstances!
Plans,!prioritizes,!and!schedules!tasks!effectively!
Manages!time!efficiently!when!carrying!out!tasks!
Offers!and!accepts!assistance,!delegates!when!necessary,!
asks!for!help!early!
Reviews,!monitors,!and!crossIchecks!actions!conscientiously!
Verifies!tasks!are!completed!to!the!expected!outcome!
Manages!and!recovers!from!interruptions,!distractions,!
variations,!and!failures!effectively!
19
LTT also addresses two special emphasis areas in the FAA WINGS program: basic flying
skills and stall/spin awareness. It is consistent with the FAA’s belief that improving knowledge
and skills for manual flight operations are necessary for safe flight.43
Outline
The information in this section presents the general scope of LTT-101.
Gateway
•! Online Access to LTT Content (LearnToAviate.tips, Community Aviation, etc.)
•! How to Use & FAQs
Learn to Use the Primary Controls
•! Bridge Training
•! Pilot-Oriented Approach
o! Developing Visual References
!! Internal vs. External Cues
o! Thinking in Terms of “Action " Consequence”
!! Aileron, Rudder, Elevator, Throttle
20
Learn to Turn 101
•! Introduction
•! Objectives & Course Format
Learn
•! Webinar & Video
•! Text & Graphics
•! Interactive Content
•! Lesson Plans for Aviation Educators
•! Safety Seminar-in-a-Box for FAA Safety Team Programs
Do
•! Simulated Scenarios
o! Flight Simulation Training Devices
o! Thought Experiments
o! Visualization Techniques
Fly
•! In-Airplane Exercises
o! Generic & Airplane-specific Exercises
o! Performance Standards
o! Self-Critiquing
Share
•! Recognizing Achievement
o! Completion Certificate/Badge
o! FAA Wings Program Credit
o! Insurance Industry Discounts/Incentives
•! Building a Community
o! Networking
!! Forums, Meet-ups, Fly-outs
!! Group Training Opportunities
o! Advocating
LTT content is informed by three performance diagrams:
1.! G-Loads in Turns
2.! Bank Angle versus G-Load (ø-G)
3.! Speed versus G-load (V-G)
Sampling of LTT Content
The graphics in this section, admittedly crude at this point, provide insight into our vision for
LTT content.
21
Learn: A pilot’s “knowledge of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and aeroplane design
principles” is essential to the prevention of upsets.44 LTT begins with the bridge training, “Learn
to Use the Primary Controls.” Trainees are taught about the primary controls using the following
template. Emphasis is placed on how the airplane moves relative to the pilot.
Correlating pilot actions directly with performance consequences “leads not only to better
understanding of the subject matter but also to greater motivation to learn.”45 Using such a
template ensures a consistent and operationally relevant presentation of pitch, roll, and yaw:
22
Coupling the use of training aids (e.g., a model airplane with moveable control surfaces)
reinforces the concepts and helps the trainee build the proper mental model of cause-and-effect
between pilot inputs and airplane responses. Visualizing the mental model during the Do and Fly
stages further cements the learning.
In “Learn to Turn 101,” the key attributes of turning flight are identified, namely: curving
flight path, G-load, turn radius, and rate of turn. Turn performance is generalized to encompass
curved flight whether in the horizontal, oblique, or vertical plane. Discussion can shift naturally
to specific cases such as level turns, Chandelles, even loops. This is consistent with the Navy’s
approach to instruction in air combat maneuvering, the International Council of Air Shows’
approach to air show performer safety and education, the RV-Type Training Guide’s approach to
transition training (freely available to the nearly 10,000 RV aircraft currently flying), and the Air
Force Test Pilot School’s approach to teaching performance flight testing.46,47,48,49
Also consistent with the above-mentioned approaches, turn performance is presented in terms
of G-load rather than just the forces of Lift and Weight. This offers several advantages:
1.! Our proprioception is attuned to changes in G-load
2.! The link between elevator inputs and G-load is intuitive
3.! G-load appears on the y-axis on ø-G and V-G diagrams
Modifying the traditional “forces in a level turn” graphic to “G-loads in a level turn” (where
radial G points toward the center of the turn) ensures continuity with ø-G and V-G diagrams.
23
Just as the ø-G diagram has been underutilized in training, the potential of the V-G diagram
as a powerful teaching tool has been underappreciated as well. V-G defines the maneuvering
envelope of the airplane. It offers a perfect opportunity to tie together stall speeds, design limits,
and key V-speeds in a single, convenient graphic. And just like ø-G, the diagram can be built up
with operationally relevant information as needed. A generic yet information-rich picture for the
case of positive G with flaps-up and no rolling might look this:
A current application of V-G information synchs in-flight video with an animated graphic.
The screenshot on the following page is a PowerPoint slide used during safety seminars. The
video portion shows the change in pitch attitude looking down the left wing in a Decathlon
during a power off, ≈1G deceleration. As pitch attitude increases and speed decays, the black dot
on the V-G graphic simultaneously slides to the left along the 1G line. As the dot crosses the red
aerodynamic limit line (αcrit), the wing is seen pitching forward due to the separation of airflow.
Presented this way, a clear link is made between academics and practical experience. Similar
examples are planned for accelerated stalls from various turns to illustrate that “back pressure on
the stick, tightness of turn, g load, nearness to the stall, are all really the same thing.”50
24
Do: Merkt states, “an integrated, energy-centered, top-down training approach will lead to a
better mental model of how the airplane works…for safe and efficient operation.”51 The LearnDo-Fly framework promotes consistency from academic through practical training. The Do stage
focuses on the use of FSTDs (all levels, including desktop PCs) to deliver challenging training
scenarios targeting risk management and decision making, among other skills. Community
Aviation has created the virtual airport KLOC to serve as a base of operations for LTT simulator
scenarios that will include distractions in the pattern, overshoots, crosswinds, engine failures on
takeoff, and more.
Fly: “The practice and application of skills acquired during on-aeroplane UPRT provides
experience and confidence that cannot be fully acquired in the simulated environment alone.”52
LTT training is not complete until its concepts and the lessons learned during simulation are
applied in an airplane in flight. For nearly 30 years, LTT exercises have been an integral part of
the Emergency Maneuver Training program taught to military, government, and civilian pilots
from around the world. Outlines for several of those exercises follow.
25
•! Climbing Dutch Rolls.
a)! Demonstrate adverse yaw.
b)! Develop visual references over the nose and at the wing tips.
c)! Develop control feel and interaction of aileron and rudder inputs.
•! Level Turns.
a)! Demonstrate the actual turn process.
b)! Identify the primary role of elevator during turns.
c)! Develop visual scan for traffic.
d)! Demonstrate the roles of ailerons and rudder once turning has begun.
e)! Emphasize coordination of aileron and rudder when changing bank angle.
•! Aerobatic-style Level Turns.
a)! Separate roll actions used to bank from elevator actions used to turn.
b)! Emphasize control discipline: bank " stop " turn " stop " bank.
c)! Perform medium-banked turns left and right.
•! Turning Dutch Rolls.
a)! Combine Dutch Rolls with Aerobatic-style Turns.
b)! Look at nose and wing references.
c)! Note effect of variable bank angles on turn performance.
d)! Perform to the left and to the right.
•! Spirals.
a)! Illustrate aerodynamic differences between spirals, stalls, and spins.
b)! Perform descending spirals with Power–Push–Roll recovery actions.
c)! Emphasize how aft elevator aggravates spiral/turn characteristics.
•! Skidded Turns.
a)! Demonstrate the classic skid/spin scenario from simulated base-to-final turns.
b)! Emphasize the importance of proper yaw control in the traffic pattern.
c)! Develop visual and kinesthetic cues of the skid/spin process.
d)! Initiate PARE spin recovery at spin entry (spins-approved airplanes only).
•! Slipping Turns Left and Right.
a)! Change headings while in a slip.
b)! Vary rudder, elevator, and aileron pressures to start and stop slipping turns.
c)! Perform S-turns while slipping.
26
Share: Improving safety vis-à-vis a reduction in loss of control accidents is the desired
outcome. But according to Ed Wischmeyer, “The key to successfully marketing safety is to
appeal to the underlying desires of the pilots.”53 Given that flying has a significant cognitive
component, we need to engage pilots by appealing to their primary motivations to fly, namely:
autonomy, mastery, and purpose.54 Further, if we can “provide them with the knowledge and
tools to recognize and prevent their personal mistakes,” Kern says, “most people who care about
their performance will do so of their own accord.”55
We believe the majority of pilots want better information about flying techniques and aspire
to improve their skills. To invest them in LTT and foster a mindset of lifelong learning,
Community Aviation is building a network where participants will be able to:
•! Pick and choose their entry points, levels of participation, and desired depth of
knowledge (autonomy);
•! Challenge themselves with skill-building experiences designed to expand their
personal operating envelopes, improve awareness, and bolster confidence (mastery);
•! Share their experiences with like-minded individuals and be acknowledged for their
commitment to recurrent training (purpose).
In addition to an online presence, Community Aviation will facilitate meet-ups, group
training opportunities, and other face-to-face interactions. Actively promoting the EAA Pilot
Proficiency Center during AirVenture is one high-profile example.
27
As a result of this and other marketing efforts, more than 200 people attended the FAA
Wings-approved “Learn to Turn” forum presented at the EAA Pilot Proficiency Center during
AirVenture 2016 (see Appendix 1–Forum PowerPoint Slides). Ten-minute “Learn to Turn”
training sessions were offered in a Redbird motion simulator at the Proficiency Center as well
(see Appendix 2–Sim Training Pre-Brief Lesson Plan).
As an example of the potential reach of social media, the first generation “Learn to Turn”
YouTube video has been viewed more than 5,000 times (see Appendix 3–Online Video).
Hundreds of people have submitted an online form registering support for, and offering help
with, the LTT concept as well (see Appendix 4–Some Supporters of LTT).
28
KEY CONSIDERATIONS
Effectiveness in Reducing LOC
LTT targets maneuvering flight, which is the primary driver of LOC-I. Therefore, it should
be highly effective in reducing the number of fatal LOC-I accidents. A preliminary study will be
undertaken to validate LTT as a deterrent against loss of control and identify areas for
improvement.
Applicability
LTT is independent of airplane type. Any pilot can benefit from this training initiative;
hence, it has the widest possible applicability.
Ease of Implementation
Every pilot interacts with an educator, flight school, CFI, or DPE at some point. These
interactions provide opportunities to educate pilots about LOC-I mitigation using LTT concepts.
Accordingly, implementation of LTT-101 in particular will include:
•!
Internet-based content
•!
WINGS programs for FAA Safety Team Representatives
•! Exercises that can be incorporated into flight reviews as well as simulation, transition,
and recurrent training sessions
•! Outreach to:
o! EAA Chapters
o! type clubs
o! aviation groups and organizations
o! flight schools
o! college aviation programs
o! CFIs and DPEs
o! flight instructor refresher clinics
o! pilot proficiency programs
•! Recognition for those who satisfactorily complete LTT programs, including seeking
incentives from the insurance industry for those who participate in LTT programs
29
For instance, by leveraging the diverse network of EAA chapters—homebuilders, ultralights,
light-sports, warbirds, vintage aircraft, aerobatics, IMC clubs—LTT-101 can be distributed
directly to EAA members. EAA members then can become ambassadors for the initiative,
spreading LTT information to others through outreach efforts at the chapter level.
Effectively reaching aviation educators creates another powerful multiplier effect for the
dissemination of LTT concepts; hence, instructor groups and university aviation programs will
be targeted. Even so, the use of proven distance learning tools will ensure accessibility to LTT
content by anyone anytime and anywhere.
!
30
Cost to Participants
LTT-101 will rely on industry collaboration and sponsorship to ensure easy access to online
content and exercises that can be incorporated into training and evaluation flights. Consequently,
the incremental cost to pilots (especially aviation educators) would be low. Further, LTT-101
will take advantage of existing networks of educators and instructors, FSTDs (all levels,
including desktop PCs), and associations and clubs. The use of the internet as the primary
knowledge distribution system provides LTT-101 with a decidedly low cost opportunity with a
wide reach.
31
CONCLUSION
Unwittingly, the flight training industry has created a hazard through inadequate training on
turn performance. We now need to summon the willpower to attack LOC-I in a meaningful way.
We also need to recognize that the pilot is “the strongest part of the safety and performance
equation.”56 Addressing LOC-I must begin with a critical look at what and how we have been
teaching general aviation pilots. At a minimum, we need to provide pilots with more complete,
more accurate information about turns, while encouraging higher standards of performance. LTT
accomplishes this using three insightful diagrams as lynchpins for academic and practical
training content: G-loads in turns, ø-G, and V-G. It also appeals directly to the primary
motivations pilots have for flying, namely: autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
Hundreds of individuals representing several countries have registered their support for the
“Learn to Turn” concept already. At the 2016 EAA Pilot Proficiency Center, more than 200
people attended the FAA Wings-approved “Learn to Turn” forum, and ten-minute “Learn to
Turn” training sessions were delivered in a Redbird motion simulator. Recognition and funding
of LTT-101 by key stakeholders will allow us to create content and bring the myriad pieces
together into a cohesive training initiative capable of reaching multiple thousands of pilots.
Further, it will facilitate increased support for, and positive action toward, reducing LOC-I.
***
32
AUTHOR BIOS
Rich Stowell is a 32-year member of AOPA, EAA, and IAC. He has
specialized in spin, emergency maneuver, and aerobatic training for
29 years, and is a nine-time Master Instructor. He is also the 2014
National FAA Safety Team Representative of the Year and the 2006
National Flight Instructor of the Year. Among other honors, Stowell
has been designated an “Official Spin Doctor” by the IAC. For his
dedication to aviation safety and education, he has received an IAC
President’s Award and was made an honorary member of the International Association of
Natural Resource Pilots. Stowell has authored three aviation books, published more than 80
aviation-related articles, and delivered more than 350 aviation talks. He has logged just shy of
10,000 flight hours with 8,900 hours of dual instruction given, performing 24,800 landings and
34,100 spins along the way. Stowell is a Charter and Life member of the Society of Aviation and
Flight Educators, and holds a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute.
Billy Winburn is an instrument rated pilot and the president of
Community Aviation, a virtual learning community for pilots,
educators and aviation enthusiasts. Winburn has been an active
leader in business and real estate ventures since 1995 with the
creation of CityLynx, the first local digital community on AOL.
Since then he has founded or participated in more than five start-ups
ranging from an online home furnishings company acquired by
Hearst New Media, to a local co-working community in the Washington, DC area. Winburn was
a member of the original development team for the Kentlands community in Gaithersburg, MD,
a new urbanist project designed by the architectural firm Duany Plater-Zyberk. He is also the
CEO of Mindstar Solutions. Winburn lives in Alexandria, VA in a very small house.
33
APPENDIX 1
More than 200 people attended the FAA Wings-approved “Learn to Turn” forum at the EAA
Pilot Proficiency Center in July 2016. Following are screenshots of the PowerPoint slides used
(slide progression: top row, left–right; middle row, left–right; bottom row, left–right):
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
APPENDIX 2
A “Learn to Turn” lesson plan was provided for the Redbird MCX simulator at the 2016
EAA Pilot Proficiency Center. To ensure the motion simulator more accurately modeled the
behavior of a real airplane, the authors worked with Redbird CEO Todd Willinger on-site to
adjust the simulator software. Consequently, the MCX was able to deliver a worthwhile LTT
experience for participants. The instructor lesson plan follows:
EAA*PILOT*PROFICIENCY*CENTER*
*
AIRCRAFT*CONTROL*#1*–*“LEARN*TO*TURN”*LESSON*PLAN*
*
*
OBJECTIVE:!Instill!in!the!PilotIinITraining!(PIIIT)!that!the!elevator!is!the!turn!control.!
!
INSTRUCTOR*NOTES:!
•! This!is!part!of!a!safety!initiative!described!in!the!white!paper,!“LEARN!TO!TURN!–!Reducing!Loss!
of!Control!through!an!Improved!Training!Methodology”!submitted!as!part!of!the!2015–2016!EAA!
Founder’s!Innovation!Prize!competition.!
•! If!any!question!exists!about!the!veracity!of!“elevator!as!the!turn!control,”!please!refer!to!the!white!
paper.!If*any*doubt*about*elevatorMasMturnMcontrol*remains*after*reading*the*paper,*you*are*
not*authorized*to*instruct*in*this*exercise.!
•! Please!be!consistent!and!specific!about!what!the!primary!controls!do:!
•! Ailerons!roll/bank!the!airplane!(and!that’s!all!they!do).!
•! Rudder!is!used!mostly!to!cancel!yawG!otherwise,!the!result!is!a!skid/spin!or!a!slip.!
•! Elevator!controls!AOA,!which!manifests!as!changes!in!some!or!all!of!the!following:!
airspeed,!GIload,!attitude,!flight!path.!
•! Note!there!are!only!two!flight!paths!an!airplane!can!follow:!either!a!straight!line!or!a!curved!path.!
At!the!correlation!level!of!learning,!it!does!not!matter!where!or!how!these!lines!and!curves!are!
oriented!in!space—they!can!be!in!the!horizontal,!the!vertical,!or!anywhere!in!between.!
•! Regardless!of!bank!angle!(within!energy!and!AOA!constraints),!what!the!PIIIT!does!with!
the!elevator!largely!determines!whether!the!airplane!follows!a!straight!line!or!a!curved!
flight!path.!
!
TRAINING*ELEMENTS:!!
•! Introduction!!
•! Demonstrate!the!controllability/maneuverability!of!the!ATD.!
•! Coordination!Exercise!
•! Demonstrate!banking!without!turning!
•! Rock!the!wings!smoothly!and!continuously!left!and!right,!remaining!on!heading!
•! Apply!coordinated!aileron!and!rudder!inputs!
•! Same!time!and!same!side!(left!aileron!and!left!rudder,!right!and!right,!etc.)!
•! More!aileron!than!rudder!
•! Visual!references!(ignore!the!slip/skid!ball)!
•! Symmetry,!e.g.,!30–45!degrees!of!bank!left!and!right!
41
•!
•!
Normal!Coordinated!Turn!
•! Demonstrate!the!effect!elevator!has!on!flight!path!
•! Establish!a!level,!coordinated!turn!(i.e.,!horizontal!turn)!
•! Note!the!amount!of!aft!elevator!needed!for!the!nose!of!the!airplane!to!track!
parallel!to!the!horizon!at!the!given!angle!of!bank!
•! Then!apply!more!aft!elevator!than!necessary!
•! Note!the!initiation!of!a!climbing!turn!(i.e.,!oblique!turn)!
•! Adjust!elevator!to!reacquire!the!level!turn!again!
•! Then!release!some!aft!elevator,!allowing!the!nose!to!drop!
•! Note!the!initiation!of!a!descending!turn!(i.e.,!oblique!turn)!
•! Reapply!enough!aft!elevator!to!reacquire!the!level!turn!again!
AcroIStyle!Turn!
•! Demonstrate!an!alternative!method!for!practicing!level!turns!
•! Separate!the!roll!inputs!(aileron!&!rudder)!from!the!turn!input!(elevator)!
•! Develop!precision!and!discipline!with!the!control!movements!
•! Use!visual!references!only!
•! Ignore!the!slip/skid!ball,!as!well!as!the!DG/compass!
•! Sequence!of!inputs:!Roll*"*Stop*"*Turn*"*Stop*"*Roll!
•! Roll!–!coordinate!aileron!and!rudder!inputs!to!establish!the!bank!
•! Stop!–!neutralize!aileron!and!rudder!at!the!desired!angle!of!bank!
•! Turn!–!pull!sufficient!aft!elevator!so!the!nose!tracks!along!the!horizon!
•! Stop!–!release!aft!elevator!to!stop!the!turn!on!a!point!on!the!horizon!
•! Roll!–!coordinate!aileron!and!rudder!inputs!to!level!the!wings!
•! Important!Points!
•! “Roll”!and!“Turn”!actions!are!applied!IN!SEQUENCE,!not!simultaneously!
•! Each!“Stop”!represents!a!positive!movement!of!the!control(s)!to!neutral!before!
commencing!the!next!input(s)!in!the!sequence!
!
COMMON*ERRORS:!
•! Coordination!Exercise!
•! Too!little!aileron!deflection!(more!is!better!during!this!exercise)!
•! Too!much!rudder!applied!too!late!(add!just!enough!rudder!simultaneously!with!the!aileron!
input)!
•! Failing!to!reverse!rudder!with!aileron,!i.e.,!lagging!with!the!rudder!
•! Normal!Coordinated!Turn!
•! Improper!coordination!
•! Inadvertently!returning!to!wings!level!while!manipulating!the!elevator!
•! AcroIStyle!Turn!
•! Blending!roll!and!turn!inputs!(separate!these!actions!from!each!other)!
•! Failing!to!neutralize!rudder!when!neutralizing!aileron!once!the!bank!is!established,!i.e.,!
dragging!the!inside!rudder/skidding!the!turn!(move!the!rudder!simultaneously!with!the!
aileron!–!same!time,!same!side)!
•! At!the!end!of!the!turn,!forgetting!to!release!aft!elevator!before!rolling!to!wings!level!
42
APPENDIX 3
The first generation “Learn to Turn” video was uploaded to YouTube in March 2014 and has
been viewed more than 5,000 times. The Community Aviation website has a video trailer on its
“Learn to Turn” landing page as well.
Watch the Community Aviation trailer: http://www.communityaviation.com/rich-stowell
Watch the full version YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWbk3jn0GK4
43
APPENDIX 4
Several hundred individuals have submitted an online form in support of the “Learn to Turn”
concept. Some of those supporters are listed below:
Mark Dukorsky
Colt Feimster
Rob Bremmer
Michael Wilson
Amy Hoover
Chris Front
David St. George
Gerry Dick
Clay Phelps
Sean VanHatten
Russ Still
Jim Foster
Dudley Henriques
Bill Montagne
Jerry Marshall
Andy Davis
Doug Auclair
Don Cummins
Lukasz Gancarz
Ken Mercer
Garry Wing
John Kolmos
Chris Ricci
Minard Thompson
Jacob Canty
Ben Sclair
Dale Armstrong
Gene Benson
Alan Davis
Doug Stewart
Founder
CFI
Owner
Aerobatic Instructor
Owner
Aerospace Medicine
Manager
Chief Instructor
President
Instructor Pilot
President
Instructor
Flight Safety Consultant
CEO
Founder
CEO
President
Owner
Executive Director
President
CFI
Aviation Safety Officer
Chief Instructor
FAASTeam Manager
Assistant Site Manager
Publisher
Owner
CEO
Charter Member
President
SafeFlight Alliance, Inc.
Liberty University
Bremmer Learning
Namao Flying Club in Canada
Canyon Flying
FAA
East Hill Flying Club
Aerobatics Australia PTY Ltd
CP Aviation, Inc.
Advanced Flight Dynamics
Gold Seal Online Ground School
Red Arrow Flight Academy
ICAS
Montagne Aircraft LLC
Pilot Disorientation Prevention Technologies
Trig Avionics Limited
Air Ventures Flying School LLC
Air Data Solutions LLC
Warter Aviation in Europe
Gnoss Field Community Association
Fly The Wing Flight Training
Farmingdale State College
Rockcliffe Flying Club in Canada
FAA Spokane FSDO
UND Aerospace
General Aviation News
Aviation Incident Investigations, Inc.
Bright Spot, Inc.
Society of Aviation and Flight Educators
DSFI, Inc.
44
ENDNOTES
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (www.icao.int, First
Edition 2014), x
2
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, x
3
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, viii
4
FAA, Acceleration in Aviation: G-Force (Publication AM-400-09/14), 2
5
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, xii
6
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, xiii
7
FAA, GAJSC Accident Data Set, available
http://www.safepilots.org/documents/GAJSC_Accident_Data_Set.pdf
8
FAA, available https://www.faasafety.gov/standdown/ (2012)
9
NTSB, available http://www.ntsb.gov/safety/mwl/Documents/MWL_2015_brochure.pdf and
http://www.ntsb.gov/safety/mwl/Documents/MWL2016_Brochure_web.pdf
10
NTSB, available
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5aVmmm4Qt9Et0rBM7CwXdX5C9o2jxudh
11
Earl F. Weener, available http://www.ntsb.gov/news/press-releases/Pages/PR20150908.aspx
12
AOPA Air Safety Institute, Stall/Spin: Entry Point for Crash and Burn? Available
https://www.aopa.org/asf/ntsb/stall_spin.html
13
AOPA Air Safety Foundation, Maneuvering Flight – Hazardous to Your Health? (Frederick,
MD: AOPA Air Safety Foundation, 2005), 1, 5
14
Brent W. Silver, Statistical Analysis of General Aviation Stall Spin Accidents (SAE, 1976)
15
Wolfgang Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1944), 190
16
Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, 344
17
Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, 350
18
FAA, Airplane Flying Handbook (USDOT, FAA-H-8083-3A, 2004), 3-7, 3-8
19
Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, 190
20
Tony Kern, Blue Threat–Why to Err is Inhuman (Colorado Springs: Pygmy Books, 2009), 57
21
FAA, Airplane Flying Handbook, 9-4
22
Juan R. Merkt, Flight Energy Management Training (Journal of Aviation Technology and
Engineering, 3:1, 2013), 34
23
Kern, Blue Threat, 23
24
FAA, 2010 FAASTeam Safety Stand Down, available
https://www.faasafety.gov/files/notices/2010/May/FAA_Safety_Stand_Down_Brochure.pdf
25
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, 1-2
26
Maj Charles Bretana, Jr. and LtCol Edward Tomme, RT-13 Air-to-Air Reference Text
(2002), 7
27
FAA, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (USDOT, FAA-8083-25A, 2008), 4-29
28
David F. Anderson and Scott Eberhardt, Understanding Flight (NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001), 7
45
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
29
H.C. “Skip” Smith, The Illustrated Guide to Aerodynamics (Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab
Books, 1992), 183
30
Dave Higdon, Turn Fundamentals (Aviation Safety, June 2016), 9
31
FAA, Airplane Flying Handbook (U.S. DOT, 2004), 3-7
32
Bill Thomas, Fly for Fun (1985), 12
33
Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, 198
34
Civil Aeronautics Bulletin No. 23, Civil Pilot Training Manual (U.S. Department of
Commerce, 1941), 130
35
FAA, Part 23–Airworthiness Standards (eCFR, May 23, 2016), 23.203(a)
36
FAA, Airplane Flying Handbook, 9-4
37
Kern, Blue Threat, 52
38
Kern, Blue Threat, 135
39
Kern, Blue Threat, 132–134
40
Kern, Blue Threat, 134
41
NTSB, available http://www.ntsb.gov/safety/mwl/Documents/MWL2016_Brochure_web.pdf
42
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, A-3 through A-6
43
FAA, Manual Flight Operations (AFS-200, SAFO 13002, 2013), 1
44
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, 3-1
45
Merkt, Flight Energy Management Training, 34
46
Naval Air Training Command, Air Combat Maneuvering Flight Training Instruction
(1998), 4–5
47
ICAS, Air Show Performers Safety Manual (downloaded www.airshows.aero/GetDoc/3444),
11–14
48
Michael Vaccaro, RV-Type Training Guide (Draft version 3.1, 15 May 2016), 338–342
49
USAF Test Pilot School, Performance Flight Test Phase (Volume I, 1991), 9.47–9.55
50
Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder, 225–226
51
Merkt, Flight Energy Management Training, 24
52
ICAO, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, 3-3
53
Ed Wischmeyer, Technologies to Reduce Fatal Loss of Control Accidents in Experimental,
Amateur-Built Aircraft (2015–2016 EAA Founder’s Innovation Prize competition entry), 19
54
Wischmeyer, Technologies to Reduce Fatal Loss of Control Accidents in Experimental,
Amateur-Built Aircraft, 19!
55
Kern, Blue Threat, xi
56
Kern, Blue Threat, 35
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