December 2010
Exposure Draft
ED/2010/13
Hedge Accounting
Comments to be received by 9 March 2011
Exposure Draft
HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Comments to be received by 9 March 2011
ED/2010/13
This exposure draft Hedge Accounting is published by the International
Accounting Standards Board (IASB) for comment only. The proposals may be
modified in the light of the comments received before being issued in final form
as amendments to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. Comments on the exposure draft
and the Basis for Conclusions should be submitted in writing so as to be received
by 9 March 2011. Respondents are asked to send their comments electronically
to the IFRS Foundation website (www.ifrs.org), using the ‘Comment on a proposal’
page.
All responses will be put on the public record unless the respondent requests
confidentiality. However, such requests will not normally be granted unless
supported by good reason, such as commercial confidence.
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responsibility for loss caused to any person who acts or refrains from acting in
reliance on the material in this publication, whether such loss is caused by
negligence or otherwise.
Copyright © 2010 IFRS Foundation®
ISBN for this part: 978-1-907026-96-6
ISBN for complete publication (set of two parts): 978-1-907026-95-9
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
CONTENTS
paragraphs
INTRODUCTION AND INVITATION TO COMMENT
IN1–IN48
[DRAFT] IFRS HEDGE ACCOUNTING
HEDGE ACCOUNTING
1–4
HEDGING INSTRUMENTS
5–11
HEDGED ITEMS
12–18
QUALIFYING CRITERIA FOR HEDGE ACCOUNTING
19
ACCOUNTING FOR QUALIFYING HEDGES
20–33
HEDGES OF A GROUP OF ITEMS
34–39
DISCLOSURES
40–52
EFFECTIVE DATE AND TRANSITION
53–55
APPENDICES
A
Defined terms
B
Application guidance
C
[Draft] Amendments to other IFRSs
APPROVAL BY THE BOARD OF HEDGE ACCOUNTING
BASIS FOR CONCLUSIONS see separate booklet
[DRAFT] ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES see separate booklet
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EXPOSURE DRAFT DECEMBER 2010
Introduction and invitation to comment
Reasons for publishing the exposure draft
IN1
The exposure draft Hedge Accounting is the third phase of the International
Accounting Standards Board’s project to replace IAS 39 Financial
Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. The other phases are:
(a)
Phase 1: Classification and measurement of financial assets and
financial liabilities. In November 2009 the Board issued the chapters
of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments setting out the requirements for the
classification and measurement of financial assets. In October 2010
the Board added to IFRS 9 the requirements for the classification and
measurement of financial liabilities.
(b)
Phase 2: Amortised cost and impairment. In June 2009 the Board
published a Request for Information on the feasibility of an expected
loss model for the impairment of financial assets. This formed the
basis of an exposure draft, Financial Instruments: Amortised Cost and
Impairment, published in November 2009. The Board is redeliberating
the proposals in the exposure draft to address the comments
received from respondents and suggestions made by a panel of credit
and risk experts that the Board set up to consider and advise it on
the operational issues arising from an expected cash flow approach
and views received through various outreach activities.
IN2
The IASB has published this exposure draft to propose significant changes
to the general hedge accounting requirements in IAS 39 in order to
provide more useful hedge accounting information. Many users and
preparers of financial statements describe hedge accounting today as
complex and criticise it for not reflecting an entity’s risk management
activities nor to what extent those activities are successful in meeting the
entity’s risk management objectives. Many also find the requirements in
IAS 39 excessively rule-based, resulting in arbitrary outcomes.
IN3
The proposals in the exposure draft amount to a comprehensive review of
hedge accounting requirements (apart from some portfolio hedge
accounting requirements, see paragraph IN7), and the proposals in this
exposure draft, if confirmed, would:
(a)
align hedge accounting more closely with risk management and
hence result in more useful information.
(b)
establish a more objective-based approach to hedge accounting.
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(c)
IN4
address inconsistencies and weaknesses in the existing hedge
accounting model.
The Board intends that IFRS 9 will ultimately replace IAS 39 in its entirety.
As the Board completes each subsequent phase of its project to replace
IAS 39, it deletes the relevant portions of IAS 39 and creates chapters in
IFRS 9 that replace the requirements in IAS 39.
Contents of this exposure draft
IN5
This exposure draft proposes requirements in the following areas:
(a)
what financial instruments qualify for designation as hedging
instruments;
(b)
what items (existing or expected) qualify for designation as hedged
items;
(c)
an objective-based hedge effectiveness assessment;
(d)
how an entity should account for a hedging relationship (fair value
hedge, cash flow hedge or a hedge of a net investment in a foreign
operation as defined in IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange
Rates); and
(e)
hedge accounting presentation and disclosures.
It also proposes application guidance for the proposed hedge accounting
model.
IN6
The Board also proposes an objective for hedge accounting that relates to
linking accounting with risk management.
IN7
The Board decided not to address open portfolios or macro hedging as
part of this exposure draft. The Board considered hedge accounting only
in the context of groups of items that constitute a gross position or a net
position in closed portfolios (in which hedged items and hedging
instruments can be added or removed by de-designating and
redesignating the hedging relationship). The Board is continuing to
discuss proposals for hedge accounting for open portfolios.
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IN8
For the convenience of the reader, the proposals in this exposure draft are
presented as a self-contained proposal rather than as an amendment to
IFRS 9. However, any finalised requirements would be included in
chapter 6 Hedge accounting of IFRS 9, apart from any finalised disclosure
requirements, which would be included in IFRS 7 Financial Instruments:
Disclosures.
Invitation to comment
IN9
The Board invites comments on all matters in this exposure draft, and in
particular on the questions set out in the following paragraphs.
Comments are most helpful if they:
(a)
respond to the questions as stated.
(b)
indicate the specific paragraph or paragraphs to which the
comments relate.
(c)
contain a clear rationale.
(d)
describe any alternatives the Board should consider.
IN10
Respondents need not comment on all of the questions and are
encouraged to comment on any additional matters. However, the Board
is not seeking comments on aspects of IFRS 7, IAS 39 or IFRS 9 not
addressed in this exposure draft.
IN11
The Board will consider all comments received in writing by 9 March
2011. In considering the comments, the Board will base its conclusions
on the merits of the arguments for and against each approach, not on the
number of responses supporting each approach.
Objective of hedge accounting (paragraphs 1 and
BC11–BC16)
IN12
This exposure draft proposes that the objective of hedge accounting is to
represent in the financial statements the effect of an entity’s risk
management activities that use financial instruments to manage
exposures arising from particular risks that could affect profit or loss.
This aims to convey the context of hedging instruments in order to allow
insight into their purpose and effect.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
IN13
The Board believes that an objective would be helpful in setting the scene
for hedge accounting and to lay the foundation for a more principle-based
approach. An objective also assists the understanding and interpretation
of requirements.
Question 1
Do you agree with the proposed objective of hedge accounting? Why or
why not? If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
Instruments that qualify for designation as hedging
instruments (paragraphs 5–7 and BC28–BC47)
IN14
The exposure draft proposes that a non-derivative financial asset and a
non-derivative financial liability measured at fair value through profit or
loss may be eligible for designation as a hedging instrument.
IN15
The Board believes that extending eligibility to non-derivative financial
instruments in categories other than fair value through profit or loss
would give rise to operational problems and be inconsistent with its
decision not to allow hedge accounting for investments in equity
instruments designated as at fair value through other comprehensive
income. However, the Board believes that extending eligibility to
non-derivative financial instruments that are measured at fair value
through profit or loss, if designated in their entirety, would not give rise
to the need to change the measurement basis of the financial instrument.
The Board also believes that extending eligibility to these financial
instruments would align more closely with the classification model of
IFRS 9.
Question 2
Do you agree that a non-derivative financial asset and a non-derivative
financial liability measured at fair value through profit or loss should
be eligible hedging instruments? Why or why not? If not, what changes
do you recommend and why?
Derivatives that qualify for designation as hedged
items (paragraphs 15, B9 and BC48–BC51)
IN16
The exposure draft proposes that an aggregated exposure that is a
combination of an exposure and a derivative may be designated as a
hedged item.
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IN17
The Board believes that an entity is often economically required to enter
into transactions that result in, for example, interest rate risk and foreign
currency risk. Even though these two exposures can be managed together
at the same time and for the entire term, the Board believes that entities
often use different risk management strategies for the interest rate risk
and foreign currency risk. The Board believes that the fact that an
aggregated exposure is created by including an instrument that has the
characteristics of a derivative should not, in itself, preclude designation
of that aggregated exposure as a hedged item.
Question 3
Do you agree that an aggregated exposure that is a combination of
another exposure and a derivative may be designated as a hedged item?
Why or why not? If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
Designation of risk components as hedged items
(paragraphs 18, B13–B18 and BC52–BC60)
IN18
The exposure draft proposes that an entity may designate all changes in
the cash flows or fair value of an item as the hedged item in a hedging
relationship. An entity may also designate as the hedged item something
other than the entire fair value change or cash flow variability of an item,
ie a component. However, the exposure draft proposes that when an
entity designates only changes in the cash flows or fair value of an item
attributable to a specific risk or risks (ie a risk component) that risk
component must be separately identifiable and reliably measurable.
IN19
The Board believes that it is not appropriate to limit the eligibility of risk
components for designation as hedged items on the basis of whether the
risk component is part of a financial or a non-financial item (as is the case
in IAS 39). The Board believes that it is more appropriate to permit the
designation of risk components as hedged items if they are separately
identifiable and reliably measurable—irrespective of whether the item
that includes the risk component is a financial or non-financial item.
This would also more closely align hedge accounting with risk
management. The determination of appropriate risk components
requires an evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances.
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Question 4
Do you agree that an entity should be allowed to designate as a hedged
item in a hedging relationship changes in the cash flows or fair value of
an item attributable to a specific risk or risks (ie a risk component),
provided that the risk component is separately identifiable and reliably
measurable? Why or why not? If not, what changes do you recommend
and why?
Designation of a layer component of the nominal
amount (paragraphs 18, B19–B23 and BC65–BC69)
IN20
The exposure draft proposes that a layer component of the nominal
amount of an item should be eligible for designation as a hedged item.
However, a layer component of a contract that includes a prepayment
option is not eligible as a hedged item in a fair value hedge if the option’s
fair value is affected by changes in the hedged risk.
IN21
Hedging a layer of the nominal amount addresses the fact that there may
be a level of uncertainty surrounding the hedged item. The Board
believes that designating a percentage component of a nominal amount
as the hedged item can give rise to an accounting outcome different from
designating a layer component of a nominal amount as a hedged item.
If the designation of the component of a nominal amount is not aligned
with the risk management strategy of the entity, it might result in less
useful information to users of financial statements. In the Board’s view
there might be circumstances in which it is appropriate to designate as a
hedged item a layer component of the nominal amount.
IN22
The Board believes that if the prepayment option’s fair value changed in
response to the hedged risk, a layer approach would be tantamount to
identifying a risk component that was not separately identifiable
(because the change in the value of the prepayment option owing to the
hedged risk would not be part of how hedge effectiveness would be
measured).
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Question 5
(a)
Do you agree that an entity should be allowed to designate a layer
of the nominal amount of an item as the hedged item? Why or
why not? If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
(b)
Do you agree that a layer component of a contract that includes a
prepayment option should not be eligible as a hedged item in a
fair value hedge if the option’s fair value is affected by changes in
the hedged risk? Why or why not? If not, what changes do you
recommend and why?
Hedge effectiveness requirements to qualify for hedge
accounting (paragraphs 19, B27–B39 and BC75–
BC90)
IN23
The exposure draft proposes that a hedging relationship should meet the
hedge effectiveness requirements as one of the requirements to qualify for
hedge accounting. Those qualifying criteria are set out in paragraph 19.
IN24
IAS 39 permits hedge accounting only if a hedge is highly effective, both
prospectively and retrospectively. IAS 39 regards a hedge as highly
effective if the offset is within the range of 80–125 per cent. The Board
proposes to eliminate the 80–125 per cent ‘bright line’ for testing
whether a hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting. Instead,
the Board believes that an objective-based assessment would enhance the
link between hedge accounting and an entity’s risk management
activities. The proposed hedge effectiveness requirements are that a
hedging relationship:
(a)
meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment (ie to
ensure that the hedging relationship will produce an unbiased
result and minimise expected hedge ineffectiveness); and
(b)
is expected to achieve other than accidental offsetting.
Question 6
Do you agree with the hedge effectiveness requirements as a qualifying
criterion for hedge accounting? Why or why not? If not, what do you
think the requirements should be?
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Rebalancing of a hedging relationship
(paragraphs 23, B46–B60 and BC106–BC111)
IN25
The exposure draft proposes that when a hedging relationship no longer
meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment but the risk
management objective for that designated hedging relationship remains
the same, an entity should rebalance the hedging relationship so that it
meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment again. When
an entity expects that a hedging relationship might cease to meet the
objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment in the future, it may
proactively rebalance the hedging relationship.
IN26
The Board believes that there are instances in which, although the risk
management objective remains the same, adjustments are required to the
existing hedging relationship to maintain the alignment to risk
management policies. The adjustments to the hedged item or hedging
instrument do not change the original risk management objective as
stated in the documentation supporting the designation. The Board
believes that in these circumstances the revised hedging relationship
should be accounted for as a continuation of an existing hedge rather than
as a discontinuation. The Board calls this adjustment rebalancing.
Question 7
(a)
Do you agree that if the hedging relationship fails to meet the
objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment an entity should
be required to rebalance the hedging relationship, provided that
the risk management objective for a hedging relationship
remains the same? Why or why not? If not, what changes do you
recommend and why?
(b)
Do you agree that if an entity expects that a designated hedging
relationship might fail to meet the objective of the hedge
effectiveness assessment in the future, it may also proactively
rebalance the hedge relationship? Why or why not? If not, what
changes do you recommend and why?
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Discontinuing hedge accounting
(paragraphs 24, B61–B66 and BC112–BC118)
IN27
The exposure draft proposes that an entity shall discontinue hedge
accounting prospectively only when the hedging relationship (or a part of
a hedging relationship) ceases to meet the qualifying criteria (after taking
into account any rebalancing of the hedging relationship, if applicable).
This includes when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated
or exercised (for this purpose, the replacement or rollover of a hedging
instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or
termination if such replacement or rollover is part of the entity’s
documented hedging strategy). This may affect the entire hedging
relationship or a part of it.
IN28
The Board believes that hedge accounting should reflect an entity’s risk
management activities. Therefore, an entity should only discontinue
hedge accounting when it no longer reflects the risk management
strategy. Consequently, the Board believes that it is inappropriate for an
entity to discontinue hedge accounting for a hedging relationship that
still meets the risk management objective and strategy on the basis of
which it qualified for hedge accounting and that continues to meet all
other qualifying criteria (after taking into account any rebalancing of the
hedging relationship, if applicable).
Question 8
(a)
Do you agree that an entity should discontinue hedge accounting
prospectively only when the hedging relationship (or part of a
hedging relationship) ceases to meet the qualifying criteria (after
taking into account any rebalancing of the hedging relationship,
if applicable)? Why or why not? If not, what changes do you
recommend and why?
(b)
Do you agree that an entity should not be permitted to
discontinue hedge accounting for a hedging relationship that
still meets the risk management objective and strategy on the
basis of which it qualified for hedge accounting and that
continues to meet all other qualifying criteria? Why or why not?
If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
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Accounting for fair value hedges
(paragraphs 26–28 and BC119–BC129)
IN29
The exposure draft proposes that for fair value hedges, the gain or loss on
the hedging instrument and the hedged item should be recognised in
other comprehensive income. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss
shall be transferred to profit or loss. In addition, the gain or loss on the
hedged item shall be presented as a separate line item in the statement of
financial position.
IN30
The Board believes that the proposed accounting treatment:
(a)
eliminates the mixed measurement for the hedged item (eg an
amount that is amortised cost with a partial fair value
adjustment);
(b)
avoids volatility in other comprehensive income and equity that
some consider artificial;
(c)
presents in one place (ie other comprehensive income) the effects
of risk management activities (for both cash flow and fair value
hedges); and
(d)
provides information in the statement of comprehensive income
about the extent of the offsetting achieved by fair value hedges.
IN31
The Board also discussed linked presentation as an alternative for
presenting information in the statement of financial position for fair
value hedges. Linked presentation is a way to present information
together in the statement of financial position to show how a particular
asset and liability are related. Linked presentation is not the same as
offsetting. This is because linked presentation displays the gross amounts
together in the statement of financial position.
IN32
The Board believes that although linked presentation could provide some
useful information about a particular relationship between an asset and
a liability, it does not differentiate between the types of risk that are
covered by that relationship and those that are not. Consequently, linked
presentation could result in one net amount for an asset and a liability
that are ‘linked’ even though that link (ie the relationship) affects only
one of several risks underlying the asset or liability (eg only currency risk
but not credit risk or interest rate risk). Furthermore, the Board does not
believe that linked presentation would result in more appropriate totals
of assets and liabilities for the purpose of ratio analysis because the
hedging affects only one risk but not all risks. Instead, the Board believes
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that disclosures about hedging would be a better alternative to provide
information about the relationship between hedged items and hedging
instruments that allows users of financial statements to assess the
relevance of the information for their own analysis.
Question 9
(a)
Do you agree that for a fair value hedge the gain or loss on the
hedging instrument and the hedged item should be recognised in
other comprehensive income with the ineffective portion of the
gain or loss transferred to profit or loss? Why or why not? If not,
what changes do you recommend and why?
(b)
Do you agree that the gain or loss on the hedged item
attributable to the hedged risk should be presented as a separate
line item in the statement of financial position? Why or why not?
If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
(c)
Do you agree that linked presentation should not be allowed for
fair value hedges? Why or why not? If you disagree, when do you
think linked presentation should be allowed and how should it
be presented?
Accounting for the time value of options for cash flow
and fair value hedges (paragraphs 33, B67–B69 and
BC143–BC155)
IN33
In IAS 39 the undesignated time value of an option is treated as held for
trading and is accounted for at fair value through profit or loss. The
Board believes that this accounting treatment is not aligned with an
entity’s risk management activities. The Board noted that the time value
of an option is a cost of obtaining protection against unfavourable
changes of prices or rates.
IN34
The exposure draft proposes that an entity should distinguish the time
value of options by the type of hedged item that the option hedges: a
transaction related hedged item or a time period related hedged item.
IN35
The exposure draft proposes specific accounting requirements for the
time value of an option when an entity separates the intrinsic value and
time value of an option contract and designates as the hedging
instrument only the change in the intrinsic value.
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Question 10
(a)
Do you agree that for transaction related hedged items, the
change in fair value of the option’s time value accumulated in
other comprehensive income should be reclassified in
accordance with the general requirements (eg like a basis
adjustment if capitalised into a non-financial asset or into profit
or loss when hedged sales affect profit or loss)? Why or why not?
If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
(b)
Do you agree that for period related hedged items, the part of the
aligned time value that relates to the current period should be
transferred from accumulated other comprehensive income to
profit or loss on a rational basis? Why or why not? If not, what
changes do you recommend and why?
(c)
Do you agree that the accounting for the time value of options
should only apply to the extent that the time value relates to the
hedged item (ie the ‘aligned time value’ determined using the
valuation of an option that would have critical terms that
perfectly match the hedged item)? Why or why not? If not, what
changes do you recommend and why?
Hedges of a group of items
(paragraphs 34–39, B70–B82 and BC156–BC182)
Eligibility of a group of items as the hedged item
(paragraphs 34, B70–B76, BC163, BC164 and BC168–BC173)
IN36
The exposure draft proposes that a group of items is an eligible hedged
item only if:
(a)
it consists of items (including components of items) that
individually are eligible hedged items;
(b)
the items in the group are managed together on a group basis for
risk management purposes; and
(c)
for the purpose of cash flow hedge accounting only, any offsetting
cash flows in the group of hedged items exposed to the hedged risk
affect profit or loss in their entirety in the same reporting period
(including interim periods as defined in IAS 34 Interim Financial
Reporting).
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IN37
An individual hedging approach involves an entity entering into one or
more hedging instruments to manage the risk exposure attributable to
an individual hedged item to achieve a desired outcome. This is similar
for a group hedge approach. However, in a group hedge approach an
entity seeks to manage the residual risk exposure from a group of items.
Some of the risks in the group may offset (for their full term or for a
partial term) and provide a hedge against each other, leaving the group
residual risk to be hedged by the hedging instrument. An individual
hedge approach and a group hedge approach are similar in concept, and
so the Board believes that the requirements for qualifying for hedge
accounting should also be similar. Consequently, the exposure draft
proposes that the eligibility criteria that apply to individual hedged items
should also apply to hedges of groups of items. However, some
restrictions are retained for cash flow hedges of net positions for which
the offsetting risk positions affect profit or loss in different reporting
periods.
Question 11
Do you agree with the criteria for the eligibility of groups of items as a
hedged item? Why or why not? If not, what changes do you
recommend and why?
Presentation (paragraphs 37, 38, B79–B82 and BC174–BC177)
IN38
The exposure draft proposes that for a hedge of a group of items with
offsetting hedged risk positions that affect different line items in the
statement of comprehensive income (eg in a net position hedge), any
hedging instrument gains or losses recognised in profit or loss shall be
presented in a separate line from those affected by the hedged items.
IN39
For cash flow hedges of groups of items with offsetting risk positions
(eg net positions) the hedged items may affect different income statement
line items. Consequently, a cash flow hedge of such a group creates a
presentation problem when amounts are reclassified from other
comprehensive income to profit or loss. This is because the reclassified
amounts would need to be grossed up to offset the hedged items effectively.
The Board concluded that if it proposed to adjust (gross up) all the affected
line items in the income statement the result would be the recognition of
gross (partially offsetting) gains or losses that do not exist. This is not
consistent with basic accounting principles. Consequently, the exposure
draft proposes that amounts that are reclassified from other
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comprehensive income to profit or loss should be presented in a separate
line item in the income statement for cash flow hedges of a net position.
The Board believes that this avoids the problem of distorting gains or losses
with amounts that do not exist.
Question 12
Do you agree that for a hedge of a group of items with offsetting risk
positions that affect different line items in the income statement
(eg in a net position hedge), any hedging instrument gains or losses
recognised in profit or loss should be presented in a separate line from
those affected by the hedged items? Why or why not? If not, what
changes do you recommend and why?
Disclosures (paragraphs 40–52 and BC183–BC208)
IN40
The exposure draft proposes disclosure requirements that provide
information about:
(a)
an entity’s risk management strategy and how it is applied to
manage risk;
(b)
how the entity’s hedging activities may affect the amount, timing
and uncertainty of its future cash flows; and
(c)
the effect that hedge accounting has had on the entity’s statement
of financial position, statement of comprehensive income and
statement of changes in equity.
IN41
The exposure draft also proposes that in the reconciliation of
accumulated other comprehensive income in accordance with IAS 1
Financial Statement Presentation, an entity should provide sufficient detail to
allow users to identify related amounts disclosed as part of the
information to explain the effects of hedge accounting on the statement
of comprehensive income. Furthermore, in the reconciliation of
accumulated other comprehensive income, an entity should differentiate
amounts recognised regarding the time value of options between
transaction related hedged items and time period related hedged items.
IN42
The Board believes that the proposed disclosures provide relevant
information that enhances the transparency regarding an entity’s
hedging activities.
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Question 13
(a)
Do you agree with the proposed disclosure requirements? Why
or why not? If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
(b)
What other disclosures do you believe would provide useful
information (whether in addition to or instead of the proposed
disclosures) and why?
Accounting alternatives to hedge accounting
(paragraphs BC208–BC246)
Accounting for a contract for a non-financial item that can be
settled net in cash as a derivative (Appendix C and paragraphs
BC209–BC218)
IN43
The exposure draft proposes that if it is in accordance with the entity’s
fair value-based risk management strategy derivative accounting shall
apply to contracts that can be settled net in cash that were entered into
and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a nonfinancial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or
usage requirements.
IN44
The Board believes that hedge accounting does not necessarily provide
appropriate accounting for hedging relationships that include
commodity contracts. Consequently, the Board proposes to amend the
scope of IAS 39 to allow a commodity contract to be accounted for as a
derivative in appropriate circumstances. The Board believes that this
approach combines the purpose for a contract that can be settled net to
buy or sell non-financial items (normally commodities) that are entered
into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of
a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase,
sale or usage requirements and also how they are managed. This better
reflects the contract’s effect on the entity’s financial performance and
provides more useful information.
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Question 14
Do you agree that if it is in accordance with the entity’s fair value-based
risk management strategy derivative accounting would apply to
contracts that can be settled net in cash that were entered into and
continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a
non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase,
sale or usage requirements? Why or why not? If not, what changes do
you recommend and why?
Accounting for credit risk using credit derivatives
(paragraphs BC219–BC246)
IN45
Many financial institutions use credit derivatives to manage credit risk
exposures arising from their lending activities. For example, hedges of
credit risk exposure allow financial institutions to transfer to a third
party the risk of credit loss on a loan or a loan commitment. Hedges of
credit risk might also reduce the regulatory capital requirement for the
loan or loan commitment while allowing the financial institution to
retain nominal ownership of the loan and the relationship with the
client. Credit portfolio managers frequently use credit derivatives to
hedge the credit risk of a proportion of a particular exposure (eg a facility
for a particular client) or the bank’s overall lending portfolio.
IN46
However, financial institutions that manage credit risk using credit
derivatives generally do not achieve hedge accounting because it is
operationally difficult (if not impossible) to isolate and measure the
credit risk component of a financial item as a component that meets the
eligibility criteria for hedged items. The spread between the risk-free rate
and the market interest rate incorporates credit risk, liquidity risk,
funding risk and any other unidentified risk component and margin
elements. Although it is possible to determine that the spread includes
credit risk, it is operationally difficult to isolate and measure the changes
in fair value that are attributable solely to credit risk for the purpose of
hedge accounting.
IN47
The Board considered three possible alternative approaches to hedge
accounting when credit derivatives are used to hedge credit risk. Because
of the complexities involved, the Board decided not to propose an
alternative accounting treatment to account for hedges of credit risk
using credit derivatives.
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Question 15
(a)
Do you agree that all of the three alternative accounting
treatments (other than hedge accounting) to account for hedges
of credit risk using credit derivatives would add unnecessary
complexity to accounting for financial instruments? Why or why
not?
(b)
If not, which of the three alternatives considered by the Board in
paragraphs BC226–BC246 should the Board develop further and
what changes to that alternative would you recommend and
why?
Effective date and transition
(paragraphs 53–55 and BC247–BC254)
IN48
The Board proposes that the proposed requirements for hedge accounting
be applied prospectively.
Question 16
Do you agree with the proposed transition requirements? Why or why
not? If not, what changes do you recommend and why?
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Proposals for hedge accounting
Hedge accounting
1
The objective of hedge accounting is to represent in the financial
statements the effect of an entity’s risk management activities that use
financial instruments to manage exposures arising from particular risks
that could affect profit or loss. This approach aims to convey the context
of hedging instruments in order to allow insight into their purpose and
effect.
2
An entity may choose to designate a hedging relationship between a
hedging instrument and a hedged item in accordance with paragraphs
5–18 and B1–B26. An entity shall account for the gain or loss on the
hedging instrument and the hedged item in accordance with
paragraphs 20–33. When the hedged item is a group of items an entity
shall comply with the additional requirements in paragraphs 34–39.
3
For a fair value hedge of the interest rate exposure of a portion of a
portfolio of financial assets or financial liabilities an entity shall apply
the requirements of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and
Measurement for fair value hedge accounting for a portfolio hedge of
interest rate risk (see paragraphs 81A, 89A and AG114–AG132 of IAS 39)
instead of this [draft] IFRS.
4
Hedge accounting shall not be applied to investments in equity
instruments designated as at fair value through other comprehensive
income.
Hedging instruments
Qualifying instruments
5
A financial asset or a financial liability measured at fair value through
profit or loss may be designated as a hedging instrument, except for some
written options (see paragraph B4).
6
For a hedge of foreign currency risk, a financial asset or financial liability
may be designated as a hedging instrument provided that it is not
designated as at fair value through other comprehensive income
(see paragraph 4).
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7
For hedge accounting purposes, only contracts with a party external to
the reporting entity (ie external to the group or individual entity that is
being reported on) can be designated as hedging instruments.
Designation of hedging instruments
8
A hedging instrument must be designated in its entirety in a hedging
relationship. The only exceptions permitted are:
(a)
separating the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract
and designating as the hedging instrument only the change in
intrinsic value of an option and not the change in its time value
(see paragraph 33); and
(b)
separating the interest element and the spot price of a forward
contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the
change in the spot element of a forward contract and not the
interest element.
9
A percentage of the nominal amount of the entire hedging instrument,
such as 50 per cent of the nominal amount, may be designated as the
hedging instrument in a hedging relationship. However, a hedging
relationship may not be designated for only a portion of the time period
during which a hedging instrument remains outstanding.
10
An entity may view in combination and jointly designate as the hedging
instrument any combination of the following (including those
circumstances when the risk or risks arising from some hedging
instruments offset those arising from others):
11
(a)
derivatives or a percentage of their nominal amounts.
(b)
non-derivatives or a percentage of their nominal amounts.
However, a derivative instrument that combines a written option and a
purchased option (eg an interest rate collar) does not qualify as a hedging
instrument if it is, in effect, a net written option. Similarly, two or more
instruments (or proportions of them) may be designated as the hedging
instrument only if none of them is a written option or a net written
option.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Hedged items
Qualifying items
12
A hedged item can be a recognised asset or liability, an unrecognised firm
commitment, a highly probable forecast transaction or a net investment
in a foreign operation. The hedged item can be:
(a)
a single asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast
transaction or net investment in a foreign operation, or
(b)
a group of assets, liabilities, firm commitments, highly probable
forecast transactions or net investments in foreign operations
(subject to paragraphs 34–39).
A hedged item can also be a component of these items (see paragraph 18).
13
The hedged item must be reliably measurable.
14
If a hedged item is a forecast transaction (or a component thereof), that
transaction must be highly probable.
15
An aggregated exposure that is a combination of an exposure and a
derivative may be designated as a hedged item (see paragraph B9).
16
For hedge accounting purposes, only assets, liabilities, firm
commitments or highly probable forecast transactions with a party
external to the entity can be designated as hedged items. Hedge
accounting can be applied to transactions between entities in the same
group only in the individual or separate financial statements of those
entities and not in the consolidated financial statements of the group.
17
However, as an exception, the foreign currency risk of an intragroup
monetary item (eg a payable/receivable between two subsidiaries) may
qualify as a hedged item in the consolidated financial statements if it
results in an exposure to foreign exchange rate gains or losses that are not
fully eliminated on consolidation in accordance with IAS 21 The Effects of
Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. In accordance with IAS 21, foreign
exchange rate gains and losses on intragroup monetary items are not
fully eliminated on consolidation when the intragroup monetary item is
transacted between two group entities that have different functional
currencies. In addition, the foreign currency risk of a highly probable
forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in
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consolidated financial statements provided that the transaction is
denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the
entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will
affect consolidated profit or loss.
Designation of hedged items
18
An entity may designate all changes in the cash flows or fair value of an
item as the hedged item in a hedging relationship. An entity may also
designate as the hedged item something other than the entire fair value
change or cash flow variability of an item, ie a component. An entity may
designate the following types of components (including combinations) as
hedged items:
(a)
only changes in the cash flows or fair value of an item attributable to
a specific risk or risks (risk component), provided that the risk
component is separately identifiable and reliably measurable
(see paragraphs B13–B18); risk components include a designation of
only changes in the cash flows or the fair value of a hedged item
above or below a specified price or specified rate (ie a ‘one-sided’ risk).
(b)
one or more selected contractual cash flows.
(c)
nominal components, ie a specified part of the amount of an item
(as set out in paragraphs B19–B23).
Qualifying criteria for hedge accounting
19
A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting only if all the
following criteria are met:
(a)
The hedging relationship consists only of eligible hedging
instruments and hedged items.
(b)
At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and
documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity’s risk
management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge.
That documentation includes identification of the hedging
instrument, the hedged item, the nature of the risk being hedged
and how the entity will assess whether the hedging relationship
meets the hedge effectiveness requirements (including its analysis
of the sources of hedge ineffectiveness and how it determines the
hedge ratio).
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
(c)
The hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness
requirements (see paragraphs B27–B39). A hedging relationship
meets the hedge effectiveness requirements if it:
(i)
meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment;
and
(ii)
is expected to achieve other than accidental offsetting.
Accounting for qualifying hedges
20
An entity applies hedge accounting to hedging relationships that meet
the qualifying criteria in paragraph 19 (which include the entity’s
decision to designate the hedging relationship).
21
There are three types of hedging relationships:
(a)
fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a
recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment,
or a component of any such item, that is attributable to a
particular risk and could affect profit or loss.
(b)
cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows
that is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised
asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on
variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and
could affect profit or loss.
(c)
hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation as defined in IAS 21.
22
A hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment may be
accounted for as a fair value hedge or as a cash flow hedge.
23
If a hedging relationship ceases to meet the objective of the hedge
effectiveness assessment but the risk management objective for that
designated hedging relationship remains the same, an entity shall
rebalance the hedging relationship so that it meets the qualifying criteria
again (see paragraphs B46–B60). When an entity expects that a hedging
relationship might cease to meet the qualifying criteria of hedge
accounting in the future, it may proactively rebalance the hedging
relationship.
24
An entity shall discontinue hedge accounting prospectively only when
the hedging relationship (or a part of a hedging relationship) ceases to
meet the qualifying criteria (after taking into account any rebalancing of
the hedging relationship, if applicable). This includes when the hedging
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instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised (for this purpose,
the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another
hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such
replacement or rollover is part of the entity’s documented hedging
strategy). This might affect the entire hedging relationship or a part of it.
25
An entity shall apply:
(a)
paragraph 28 when it discontinues hedge accounting for a fair
value hedge for which the hedged item is (or is a component of) a
financial instrument measured at amortised cost; and
(b)
paragraph 30 when it discontinues hedge accounting for cash flow
hedges.
Fair value hedges
26
While a fair value hedge meets the qualifying criteria in paragraph 19
during the hedged period, the hedge relationship shall be accounted for
as follows:
(a)
The gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument shall be
recognised in other comprehensive income.
(b)
The hedging gain or loss on the hedged item shall be recognised
and presented as a separate line item in the statement of financial
position, and be recognised in other comprehensive income.
The separate line item shall be presented next to the line item
that includes the hedged asset or liability. The separate line item
is presented within assets for those reporting periods for which the
hedged item is an asset and within liabilities for those reporting
periods for which the hedged item is a liability. Amounts included
in these line items shall not remain in the statement of financial
position when the assets or liabilities to which they relate are
derecognised. When a hedged item is an unrecognised firm
commitment (or a component thereof), the subsequent cumulative
change in the fair value of the hedged item is recognised as an asset
or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in other
comprehensive income.
(c)
The ineffective portion of the gain or loss from remeasuring the
hedging instrument and the hedged item shall be transferred from
other comprehensive income to profit or loss.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
27
When a hedged item in a fair value hedge is a firm commitment (or a
component thereof) to acquire a non-financial asset or assume a
non-financial liability, the initial carrying amount of the non-financial
asset or non-financial liability that results from the entity meeting the
firm commitment is adjusted to include the cumulative change in the
fair value of the hedged item that was recognised in the statement of
financial position.
28
The separate line item in the statement of financial position described in
paragraph 26(b) shall be amortised to profit or loss if the hedged item is a
financial instrument (or a component thereof) measured at amortised
cost. Amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and shall
begin no later than when the separate line item ceases to be adjusted for
changes in the fair value of the hedged item. The amortisation is based
on a recalculated effective interest rate at the date amortisation begins
(taking into account the carrying amounts of the separate line item and
the financial instrument that it relates to).
Cash flow hedges
29
While a cash flow hedge meets the qualifying criteria in paragraph 19, it
shall be accounted for as follows:
(a)
The separate component of equity associated with the hedged item
(cash flow hedge reserve) is adjusted to the lower of the following
(in absolute amounts):
(i)
the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument from
inception of the hedge; and
(ii)
the cumulative change in fair value (present value) of the
hedged item (ie the present value of the change in the hedged
expected future cash flows) from inception of the hedge.
(b)
The portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is
determined to be an effective hedge (ie the change in the cash flow
hedge reserve calculated in accordance with (a)) shall be recognised
in other comprehensive income.
(c)
Any remaining gain or loss (ie hedge ineffectiveness) is recognised
in profit or loss.
(d)
The amount that has been accumulated in the cash flow hedge
reserve in accordance with (a) shall be accounted for as follows:
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30
(i)
If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the
recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability,
or a forecast transaction for a non-financial asset or
non-financial liability becomes a firm commitment for which
fair value hedge accounting is applied, the entity shall
remove that amount from the cash flow hedge reserve and
include it directly in the initial cost or other carrying amount
of the asset or liability. This is not a reclassification
adjustment (see IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements) and
hence it does not affect other comprehensive income.
(ii)
For cash flow hedges other than those covered by (i) that
amount shall be reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve
to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1) in
the same period or periods during which the hedged expected
future cash flows affect profit or loss (for example, in the
periods that interest income or interest expense is recognised
or when a forecast sale occurs).
(iii)
However, if that amount is a loss and an entity expects that all
or a portion of that loss will not be recovered in one or more
future periods, it shall reclassify into profit or loss as a
reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1) the amount that is not
expected to be recovered.
When an entity discontinues hedge accounting for a cash flow hedge
(see paragraphs 24 and 25) it shall account for the amount that has been
accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve in accordance with
paragraph 29(a) as follows:
(a)
If the hedged future cash flows are still expected to occur, that
amount shall remain in the cash flow hedge reserve until the
future cash flows occur. When the future cash flows occur,
paragraph 29(d) applies.
(b)
If the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, that
amount shall be reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve to
profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1). A hedged
future cash flow that is no longer highly probable of occurring may
still be expected to occur.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation
31
32
Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, including a hedge of a
monetary item that is accounted for as part of the net investment
(see IAS 21), shall be accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges:
(a)
The portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is
determined an effective hedge (see paragraph 29) shall be
recognised in other comprehensive income.
(b)
The ineffective portion shall be recognised in profit or loss.
The gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective
portion of the hedge that has been accumulated in the cash flow hedge
reserve shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a
reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1) in accordance with paragraphs
48–49 of IAS 21 on the disposal or partial disposal of the foreign
operation.
Accounting for the time value of options
33
When an entity separates the intrinsic value and time value of an option
contract and designates as the hedging instrument only the change in
intrinsic value of the option (see paragraph 8(a)), it shall account for the
time value of the option as follows (see paragraphs B67–B69):
(a)
(b)
An entity shall distinguish the time value of options by the type of
hedged item that the option hedges:
(i)
a transaction related hedged item; or
(ii)
a time period related hedged item.
The change in fair value of the time value of an option that hedges
a transaction related hedged item shall be recognised in other
comprehensive income to the extent that it relates to the hedged
item. The cumulative change in fair value arising from the time
value of the option that has been accumulated in a separate
component of equity (the amount) shall be accounted for as
follows:
(i)
If the hedged item subsequently results in the recognition of
a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, or a firm
commitment for which fair value hedge accounting is
applied, the entity shall remove the amount from the
separate component of equity and include it directly in the
initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or liability.
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This is not a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1) and hence
does not affect other comprehensive income.
(c)
(ii)
For hedging relationships other than those covered by (i),
the amount shall be reclassified from the separate
component of equity to profit or loss as a reclassification
adjustment (see IAS 1) in the same period or periods during
which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or
loss (for example, when a forecast sale occurs).
(iii)
However, if all or a portion of that amount is not expected to
be recovered in one or more future periods, the amount that
is not expected to be recovered shall be reclassified into profit
or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1).
The change in fair value of the time value of an option that hedges
a time period related hedged item shall be recognised in other
comprehensive income to the extent that is relates to the hedged
item and be accumulated in a separate component of equity. The
original time value paid to the option writer or seller, to the extent
that it relates to the hedged item, shall be amortised on a rational
basis over the term of the hedging relationship. Hence, in each
period the amortisation amount shall be reclassified from the
separate component of equity to profit or loss as a reclassification
adjustment (see IAS 1).
However, if hedge accounting is
discontinued for the hedging relationship that includes the change
in intrinsic value of the option as the hedging instrument, the net
amount (ie including cumulative amortisation) that has been
accumulated in the separate component of equity shall be
immediately reclassified into profit or loss as a reclassification
adjustment (see IAS 1).
Hedges of a group of items
Eligibility of a group of items as the hedged item
34
A group of items (including a group of items that constitute a net
position, see paragraphs B70–B76) is an eligible hedged item only if:
(a)
it consists of items (including components of items) that
individually are eligible hedged items;
(b)
the items in the group are managed together on a group basis for
risk management purposes; and
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
(c)
for the purpose of cash flow hedge accounting only, any offsetting
cash flows in the group of hedged items, exposed to the hedged
risk, affect profit or loss in the same and only in that reporting
period (including interim periods as defined in IAS 34 Interim
Financial Reporting).
Designation of a component of a nominal amount
35
A percentage component of an eligible group of items is an eligible
hedged item provided that designation is consistent with the entity’s risk
management objective.
36
A layer component of an overall group of items (eg a bottom layer) is
eligible for hedge accounting only if:
(a)
it is separately identifiable and reliably measurable;
(b)
the risk management objective is to hedge a layer component;
(c)
the items in the overall group from which the layer is identified are
exposed to the same hedged risk (so that the measurement of the
hedged layer is not dependent on which items from the overall
group form part of the hedged layer);
(d)
for a hedge of existing items (eg an unrecognised firm
commitment or a recognised asset) an entity can identify and track
the overall group of items from which the hedged layer is defined
(so that the entity is able to comply with the requirements
regarding the accounting for qualifying hedges); and
(e)
the items in the group do not contain prepayment options other
than those whose fair value is not affected by the hedged risk.
Presentation
37
For a hedge of a group of items with offsetting hedged risk positions that
affect different line items in the income statement (eg in a net position
hedge), any hedging instrument gains or losses recognised in profit or
loss shall be presented in a separate line from those affected by the
hedged items.
38
For assets and liabilities that are hedged together as a group in a fair value
hedge, the gain or loss on the assets and liabilities shall be recognised in
the statement of financial position in accordance with paragraph 26(b).
The gain or loss shall be presented on a gross basis next to each line item
that includes the related asset or liability.
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Nil net positions
39
When the hedged item is a group that is a nil net position (ie the hedged
items among themselves fully offset the risk that is managed on a group
basis) an entity is permitted to designate it in a hedging relationship that
does not include a hedging instrument provided that:
(a)
the hedge is part of a rolling net risk hedge strategy for a hedged
position that changes in size over time;
(b)
over the life of the rolling net risk hedge strategy eligible hedging
instruments will be used to hedge the net risk (ie when the net
position is not nil);
(c)
hedge accounting is normally applied to such net positions when
the net position is not nil and it is hedged with eligible hedging
instruments; and
(d)
not applying hedge accounting to the nil net position would give
rise to inconsistent accounting outcomes as the accounting would
not recognise the offsetting risk position that would otherwise be
recognised in a hedge of a net position.
Disclosures
40
41
Hedge accounting disclosures shall provide information about:
(a)
an entity’s risk management strategy and how it is applied to
manage risk;
(b)
how the entity’s hedging activities may affect the amount, timing
and uncertainty of its future cash flows; and
(c)
the effect that hedge accounting has had on the entity’s statement
of financial position, statement of comprehensive income and
statement of changes in equity.
An entity shall present the required disclosures in a single note or
separate section in its financial statements. However, an entity need not
duplicate information that is already presented elsewhere, provided that
the information is incorporated by cross-reference from the financial
statements to some other statement, such as a management commentary
or risk report, that is available to users of the financial statements on the
same terms as the financial statements and at the same time. Without
the information incorporated by cross-reference, the financial statements
are incomplete.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
42
When paragraphs 44–52 require the entity to separate by risk category
the information disclosed, the entity shall determine each category of
risk on the basis of the risk exposures an entity decides to hedge and for
which hedge accounting is applied. An entity shall determine risk
categories consistently for all hedge accounting disclosures.
43
To meet the objectives in paragraph 40, an entity shall (except as
otherwise specified below) determine how much detail to disclose, how
much emphasis to place on different aspects of the disclosure
requirements, the appropriate level of aggregation or disaggregation,
and whether users of financial statements need any additional
information to evaluate the quantitative information disclosed.
However, when an entity determines the level of aggregation or
disaggregation, it shall consider the level of aggregation or
disaggregation it uses for other disclosure requirements in IFRS 7
Financial Instruments: Disclosures.
The risk management strategy
44
An entity shall explain its risk management strategy for each category of
risk exposure that it decides to hedge and for which hedge accounting is
applied. This explanation should enable users of financial statements to
evaluate (for example):
(a)
how each risk arises.
(b)
how the entity manages each risk; this includes whether the entity
hedges an item in its entirety for all risks or hedges a risk
component (or components) of an item.
(c)
the extent of risk exposures that the entity manages.
The amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash
flows
45
For each category of risk exposure, an entity shall disclose quantitative
information to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the
types of risk exposures being managed in each risk category, the extent to
which each type of risk exposure is hedged and the effect of the hedging
strategy on each type of risk exposure.
46
An entity shall provide a breakdown that discloses, for each subsequent
period that the hedging relationship is expected to affect profit or loss,
the following:
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(a)
the monetary amount or other quantity (eg tonnes, cubic metres)
to which the entity is exposed for each particular risk (for hedges of
groups of items, an entity shall explain the risk exposure in the
context of a group or net position);
(b)
the amount or quantity of the risk exposure being hedged; and
(c)
in quantitative terms, how hedging changes the exposure (ie the
exposure profile after hedging such as the average rate at which
the entity has hedged that exposure).
47
For each category of risk, an entity shall disclose a description of the
sources of hedge ineffectiveness that are expected to affect the hedging
relationship during its term.
48
If other sources of hedge ineffectiveness emerge in a hedging
relationship, an entity shall disclose those sources and explain the
resulting hedge ineffectiveness.
The effects of hedge accounting on the primary
financial statements
49
50
An entity shall disclose, in a tabular format, the following amounts
related to items designated as hedging instruments separately by
category of risk for each type of hedge (fair value hedge, cash flow hedge
or hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation):
(a)
the carrying amount of the hedging instruments (financial assets
separately from financial liabilities); and
(b)
the notional amounts or other quantity (eg tonnes or cubic metres)
related to the hedging instruments.
An entity shall disclose, in a tabular format, the following amounts
related to hedged items separately by category of risk for each type of
hedge (fair value hedge, cash flow hedge or hedge of a net investment in
a foreign operation):
(a)
for fair value hedges:
(i)
© IFRS Foundation
the carrying amount of the accumulated gains or losses on
the hedged item presented in a separate line item in the
statement of financial position, separating assets from
liabilities; and
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
(ii)
(b)
51
the balance remaining in the statement of financial position
of any hedges for which hedge accounting has been
discontinued.
for cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a foreign
operation:
(i)
the balance in the cash flow hedge reserve for continuing
hedges that will be reclassified when the hedged item affects
profit or loss; and
(ii)
the balance remaining in the cash flow hedge reserve from
any hedges for which hedge accounting has been
discontinued.
An entity shall disclose, in tabular format, the following amounts
separately by category of risk for each type of hedge (fair value hedge,
cash flow hedge or hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation):
(a)
for fair value, cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a
foreign operation:
(i)
changes in the value of the hedging instrument recognised in
other comprehensive income;
(ii)
hedge ineffectiveness recognised in profit or loss;
(iii)
a description of the line item(s) in the income statement in
which hedge ineffectiveness is included.
(b)
for fair value hedges, the change in the value of the hedged item.
(c)
for cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a foreign
operation:
(i)
for hedges of net positions, the hedging gains or losses
recognised in a separate line item in the income statement
(see paragraph 37);
(ii)
the amount reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve into
profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1)
(differentiating between amounts for which hedge
accounting had previously been used, but for which the
hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, and
amounts that have been transferred because the hedged item
has affected profit or loss); and
(iii)
a description of the line item in the income statement
affected by the reclassification adjustment (see IAS 1).
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52
An entity shall provide a reconciliation of accumulated other
comprehensive income in accordance with IAS 1, either in the statement
of changes in equity or in the notes to the financial statements, that:
(a)
allows users of its financial statements to identify the amounts
that relate to the disclosures in paragraph 51(a)(i), (c)(i) and (c)(ii);
(b)
differentiates between amounts associated with the time value of
options that hedge transaction related hedged items and amounts
associated with the time value of options that hedge time period
related hedged items when an entity accounts for the time value
of an option in accordance with paragraph 33 (see paragraphs
B67–B69).
Effective date and transition
53
An entity shall apply this [draft] IFRS prospectively for annual periods
beginning on or after 1 January 2013 with earlier application permitted.
The disclosure requirements of this [draft] IFRS need not be applied in
comparative information provided for periods before initial application
of the [draft] IFRS. However, the hedge accounting requirements in this
[draft] IFRS can be applied only if all existing IFRS 9 requirements are
adopted at the same time or have already been adopted.
54
To apply hedge accounting from the date of adoption of this [draft] IFRS,
all qualifying criteria must be met as at that date.
55
Hedging relationships that qualified for hedge accounting in accordance
with IAS 39 that also qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with the
criteria of this [draft] IFRS (see paragraph 19) shall be regarded as
continuing hedging relationships.
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Appendix A
Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS.
The following terms are defined in Appendix A of IFRS 9, paragraph 11 of IAS 32
or paragraph 9 of IAS 39 and are used in this IFRS with the meaning specified in
those IFRSs:
(a)
derivative
(b)
effective interest method
(c)
equity instrument
(d)
fair value
(e)
financial asset
(f)
financial instrument
(g)
financial liability
firm commitment
A binding agreement for the exchange of a
specified quantity of resources at a specified
price on a specified future date or dates.
forecast transaction
An uncommitted future transaction that is
expected.
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Appendix B
Application guidance
This appendix is an integral part of the [draft] IFRS.
Hedging instruments
Qualifying instruments
B1
Derivatives that are embedded in hybrid contracts but are not separately
accounted for cannot be designated as hedging instruments.
B2
An entity’s own equity instruments are not financial assets or financial
liabilities of the entity and therefore cannot be designated as hedging
instruments.
B3
For hedges of foreign currency risk, an entity may designate as the hedging
instrument a foreign currency risk component of a non-derivative financial
instrument determined in accordance with IAS 21.
Written options
B4
This [draft] IFRS does not restrict the circumstances in which a derivative
may be designated as a hedging instrument, except for some written
options. A written option does not qualify as a hedging instrument
unless it is designated as an offset to a purchased option, including one
that is embedded in another financial instrument (for example, a written
call option used to hedge a callable liability).
Designation of hedging instruments
B5
For hedges other than hedges of foreign currency risk, when an entity
designates a non-derivative financial asset or a non-derivative financial
liability measured at fair value through profit or loss as a hedging
instrument, it shall designate the non-derivative financial instrument in
its entirety.
B6
A single hedging instrument may be designated as a hedging instrument
of more than one type of risk provided that the different risk positions are
designated as hedged items.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Hedged items
Qualifying items
B7
A firm commitment to acquire a business in a business combination
cannot be a hedged item, except for foreign currency risk, because the
other risks being hedged cannot be specifically identified and measured.
Those other risks are general business risks.
B8
An equity method investment cannot be a hedged item in a fair value
hedge. This is because the equity method recognises in profit or loss the
investor’s share of the associate’s profit or loss, rather than changes in the
investment’s fair value. For a similar reason, an investment in a
consolidated subsidiary cannot be a hedged item in a fair value hedge.
This is because consolidation recognises in profit or loss the subsidiary’s
profit or loss, rather than changes in the investment’s fair value. A hedge
of a net investment in a foreign operation is different because it is a hedge
of the foreign currency exposure, not a fair value hedge of the change in
the value of the investment.
B9
Paragraph 15 permits an entity to designate as hedged items aggregated
exposures that are a combination of an exposure and a derivative. When
designating such a hedged item an entity assesses whether the
aggregated exposure combines an exposure with a derivative so that it
creates a different aggregated exposure that is managed as one exposure
for a particular risk (or risks). In that case the entity may designate the
hedged item on the basis of the aggregated exposure. For example:
(a)
An entity may hedge a given quantity of expected coffee purchases
in two years against price risk (based on US dollars) using a two-year
futures contract for coffee. The expected coffee purchases and the
futures contract for coffee in combination can be viewed as a
two-year fixed amount US dollar foreign currency risk exposure for
risk management purposes (ie like any fixed amount US dollar cash
outflow in two years’ time).
(b)
An entity may hedge the foreign currency risk for the entire term of
a 10-year fixed rate debt denominated in a foreign currency.
However, the entity requires fixed rate exposure in its functional
currency only for a short to medium term (say two years) and
floating rate exposure in its functional currency for the remaining
term to maturity. At the end of each of the two-year intervals (ie on a
two-year rolling basis) the entity fixes the next two years’ interest
rate exposure (if the interest level is such that the entity wants to fix
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interest rates). In such a situation it is common for an entity to enter
into a 10-year fixed-to-floating cross-currency interest rate swap that
swaps the fixed rate foreign currency debt into a variable rate
domestic currency exposure. This is overlaid with a two-year
domestic interest rate swap that—on the basis of the domestic
currency—swaps variable rate debt into fixed rate debt. In effect, the
fixed rate foreign currency debt and the 10-year fixed-to-floating
cross-currency interest rate swap in combination are viewed as
domestic 10-year variable rate debt for risk management purposes.
B10
Paragraph 17 states that in consolidated financial statements the foreign
currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may
qualify as a hedged item in a cash flow hedge, provided the transaction is
denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the
entity entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will
affect consolidated profit or loss. For this purpose an entity can be a
parent, subsidiary, associate, joint venture or branch. If the foreign
currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction does not affect
consolidated profit or loss, the intragroup transaction cannot qualify as a
hedged item. This is usually the case for royalty payments, interest
payments or management charges between members of the same group
unless there is a related external transaction. However, when the foreign
currency risk of a forecast intragroup transaction will affect consolidated
profit or loss, the intragroup transaction can qualify as a hedged item.
An example is forecast sales or purchases of inventories between
members of the same group if there is an onward sale of the inventory to
a party external to the group. Similarly, a forecast intragroup sale of
plant and equipment from the group entity that manufactured it to a
group entity that will use the plant and equipment in its operations may
affect consolidated profit or loss. This could occur, for example, because
the plant and equipment will be depreciated by the purchasing entity and
the amount initially recognised for the plant and equipment may change
if the forecast intragroup transaction is denominated in a currency other
than the functional currency of the purchasing entity.
B11
If a hedge of a forecast intragroup transaction qualifies for hedge
accounting, any gain or loss that is recognised in other comprehensive
income in accordance with paragraph 29 shall be reclassified from equity
to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment in the same period or
periods during which the foreign currency risk of the hedged transaction
affects consolidated profit or loss.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Designation of hedged items
B12
A component is a hedged item that is something less than the entire item.
Therefore, a component reflects only some of the risks of the item of
which it is a part or reflects the risks only to some extent (eg when
designating a percentage of an item).
Risk components
B13
To be eligible for designation as a hedged item, a risk component must be
a separately identifiable component of the financial or non-financial item
and the changes in the cash flows or fair value of the item attributable to
changes in that risk component must be reliably measurable.
B14
When identifying what risk components are eligible for designation as a
hedged item, an entity assesses such risk components in the context of
the particular market structure to which the risk or risks relate and in
which the hedging activity takes place. Such a determination requires an
evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances, which differ by risk
and market.
B15
When designating risk components as hedged items, an entity considers
whether the risk components are explicitly specified in a contract
(contractually specified risk components) or whether they are implicit in
the fair value or cash flows of an item of which they are a part
(non-contractually specified risk components).
Non-contractually
specified risk components can relate to items that are not a contract
(eg forecast transactions) or contracts that do not explicitly specify the
component (eg a firm commitment that includes only one single price
instead of a pricing formula that references different underlyings).
For example:
(a)
Entity A has a long-term supply contract for natural gas that is
priced using a contractually specified formula that references
commodities and other factors (eg gas oil, fuel oil, and other
components such as transport charges). Entity A hedges the gas oil
component in that supply contract using a gas oil forward contract.
Because the gas oil component is specified by the terms and
conditions of the supply contract it is a contractually specified risk
component. Hence, because of the type of pricing formula,
Entity A concludes that the gas oil price exposure is separately
identifiable. At the same time there is a market for gas oil forward
contracts. Hence, Entity A concludes that the gas oil price exposure
is reliably measurable. Therefore, the gas oil price exposure in the
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supply contract is a risk component that is eligible for designation
as a hedged item.
(b)
Entity B hedges part of its future jet fuel purchases on the basis of
its consumption forecast up to 24 months before delivery and
increases the coverage volume over time. Entity B hedges this
exposure using different types of contracts depending on the time
horizon of the hedge, which affects the market liquidity of the
derivatives. For the longer time horizons (12–24 months) Entity B
uses crude oil contracts because only these have sufficient market
liquidity. For time horizons of 6–12 months Entity B uses gas oil
derivatives because they are sufficiently liquid. For time horizons
up to 6 months Entity B uses jet fuel contracts. On the basis of its
analysis of the market structure for oil and oil products and its
evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances, Entity B
concludes that although crude oil and gas oil are not specified in
any contractual arrangement there is a relationship between their
prices and the jet fuel prices. This relationship results from
different refining margins (also known as cracking spreads) that
allow the entity to look at the hedging relationship as a ‘building
block’. Therefore, Entity B is exposed to two different risks: the
crude oil price and the refining margins for different types of
distillates. Entity B concludes that these are two risk components
that are separately identifiable and reliably measurable even
though they are not contractually specified. Therefore, Entity B
may designate hedging relationships for forecast jet fuel purchases
on a risk components basis (for crude oil or gas oil).
B16
When designating a risk component as a hedged item, the hedge
accounting requirements apply to that risk component in the same way
as they apply to other hedged items that are not risk components.
For example, the hedging relationship must meet the hedge effectiveness
requirements, including determining a hedge ratio so that the hedging
relationship will produce an unbiased result and minimise expected
hedge ineffectiveness, and any hedge ineffectiveness must be measured
and recognised.
B17
An entity can also designate only changes in the cash flows or fair value
of a hedged item above or below a specified price or other variable
(a one-sided risk). The intrinsic value of a purchased option hedging
instrument (assuming that it has the same principal terms as the
designated risk), but not its time value, reflects a one-sided risk in a
hedged item. For example, an entity can designate the variability of
future cash flow outcomes resulting from a price increase of a forecast
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
commodity purchase. In such a situation, the entity designates only cash
flow losses that result from an increase in the price above the specified
level. The hedged risk does not include the time value of a purchased
option because the time value is not a component of the forecast
transaction that affects profit or loss.
B18
Inflation is not separately identifiable and reliably measurable and
cannot be designated as a risk component of a financial instrument
unless it is contractually specified. A contractually specified inflation
component of the cash flows of a recognised inflation-linked bond
(assuming there is no requirement to account for an embedded derivative
separately) is separately identifiable and reliably measurable as long as
other cash flows of the instrument are not affected by the inflation
component.
Components of a nominal amount
B19
There are two types of components of nominal amounts that can be
designated as the hedged item in a hedging relationship: a percentage
component of a nominal amount or a layer component. The type of
component changes the accounting outcome. An entity shall designate
the component for accounting purposes consistently with its risk
management objective.
B20
An example of a percentage component of a nominal amount is 50 per cent
of the contractual cash flows of a loan.
B21
A layer component may be specified from a defined, but open, population
or from a defined nominal amount. Examples include:
*
(a)
a part of a monetary transaction volume, eg the next FC10* cash
flows from sales denominated in a foreign currency after the first
CU20* in March 201X;
(b)
a part of a physical volume, eg 50,000 cubic metres of the natural
gas stored in location XYZ;
(c)
a part of a physical or other transaction volume, eg the first 100
barrels of the oil purchases in June 201X or the first 100 MWh of
electricity sales in June 201X; or
(d)
a layer of the nominal amount of the hedged item, eg the last CU80
million of a CU100 million firm commitment or the bottom layer
In this [draft] IFRS monetary amounts are denominated in ‘currency units (CU)’ and
‘foreign currency units (FC)’.
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of CU20 million of a CU100 million fixed rate bond (the defined
nominal amount is CU100 million).
B22
If a layer component is designated in a fair value hedge, an entity shall
specify it from a defined nominal amount. To comply with the
requirements for qualifying fair value hedges, an entity shall remeasure
the hedged item for fair value changes (ie remeasure the item for fair
value changes attributable to the hedged risk). The change in fair value
of the hedged item is recognised as a separate asset or liability. It must be
recognised in profit or loss no later than when the item ceases to exist or
is transferred and derecognised. Therefore, it is necessary to track the
item to which the fair value hedge adjustment relates. For a layer
component in a fair value hedge, this requires an entity to track the
nominal component from which it is defined. For example in paragraph
B21(d), the total fixed rate bond must be tracked in order to track the
bottom layer of CU20 million.
B23
A layer component of a contract that includes a prepayment option is not
eligible to be designated as a hedged item in a fair value hedge if the
option’s fair value is affected by changes in the hedged risk.
Relationship between components and the total cash flows of
an item
B24
B25
If a component of the cash flows of a financial asset or financial liability
is designated as the hedged item, that component must be less than or
equal to the total cash flows of the asset or liability. For example, in the
case of a liability whose effective interest rate is below LIBOR, an entity
cannot designate
(a)
a component of the liability equal to the principal amount plus
interest at LIBOR; and
(b)
a negative residual component.
However, the entity may designate all of the cash flows of the entire
financial asset or financial liability as the hedged item and hedge them
for only one particular risk (eg only for changes that are attributable to
changes in LIBOR). For example, in the case of a financial liability whose
effective interest rate is 100 basis points below LIBOR, an entity can
designate as the hedged item the change in the value of the cash flows of
that entire liability (ie principal plus interest at LIBOR minus 100 basis
points) that is attributable to changes in LIBOR. The entity would choose
a hedge ratio that meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness
assessment (see paragraph B29).
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
B26
If a fixed rate financial instrument is hedged some time after its
origination and interest rates have changed in the meantime, the entity
can designate a component equal to a benchmark rate that is higher than
the contractual rate paid on the item. The entity can do so provided that
the benchmark rate is less than the effective interest rate calculated on
the assumption that the entity had purchased the instrument on the day
when it first designates the hedged item. For example, assume that an
entity originates a fixed rate financial asset of CU100 that has an effective
interest rate of 6 per cent at a time when LIBOR is 4 per cent. It begins to
hedge that asset some time later when LIBOR has increased to 8 per cent
and the fair value of the asset has decreased to CU90. The entity
calculates that if it had purchased the asset on the date it first designates
the related LIBOR interest rate risk as the hedged item, the effective yield
of the asset based on its then fair value of CU90 would have been
9.5 per cent. Because LIBOR is less than this effective yield, the entity can
designate a LIBOR component of 8 per cent that consists partly of the
contractual interest cash flows and partly of the difference between the
current fair value (ie CU90) and the amount repayable on maturity
(ie CU100).
Qualifying criteria for hedge accounting
Hedge effectiveness
B27
Hedge effectiveness is the extent to which changes in the fair value or
cash flows of the hedging instrument offset changes in the fair value or
cash flows of the hedged item (eg when the hedged item is a risk
component the change in fair value or cash flows of an item attributable
to the hedged risk). Hedge ineffectiveness is the extent to which there is
no such offset or the changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedging
instrument more than offset those on the hedged item.
B28
When designating a hedging relationship and on an ongoing basis, an
entity shall analyse the sources of hedge ineffectiveness that are expected
to affect the hedging relationship during its term. This analysis
(including any updates in accordance with paragraph B60 arising from
rebalancing a hedging relationship) is the basis for the entity’s
expectations of hedge ineffectiveness for the hedging relationship.
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Objective and extent of offset
B29
The objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment is to ensure that the
hedging relationship will produce an unbiased result and minimise
expected hedge ineffectiveness. Therefore, a hedging relationship shall
not reflect a deliberate mismatch between the weightings of the hedged
item and the hedging instrument that would create hedge
ineffectiveness. This means an entity has no expectation that changes in
the value of the hedging instrument will systematically either exceed or
be less than the change in value of the hedged item such that they would
produce a biased result. However, this does not mean that a hedging
relationship has to be expected to be perfectly effective in order to qualify
for hedge accounting.
B30
An entity considers the relationship between the weightings of the hedging
instrument and the hedged item (the hedge ratio) when assessing whether
the hedging relationship will minimise the expected ineffectiveness.
For example, an entity wants to hedge a forecast purchase of 100 tonnes of
a commodity of a particular grade in Location A and that commodity
usually trades at about 90 per cent of the price for the exchange-traded
benchmark grade of the same commodity in Location B. If the entity wants
to hedge the forecast purchase of 100 tonnes with exchange-traded forward
contracts then a forward contract volume to purchase 90 tonnes of the
benchmark grade of the commodity in Location B would be expected to
offset best the entity’s exposure to changes in the cash flows for the hedged
purchase. Hence, a hedge ratio of 1.11:1 would minimise expected hedge
effectiveness.
B31
An entity also assesses whether the expected offsetting between the
changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument and the hedged
item’s fair value or cash flows is other than accidental by analysing the
economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging
instrument. This includes an analysis of the possible behaviour of the
hedging relationship during its term to ascertain whether it can be
expected to meet the risk management objective. Hence, for example, a
statistical correlation between two variables that have no substantive
economic relationship would not support a valid expectation of other
than accidental offsetting. Another example of a lack of a valid
expectation of other than accidental offsetting is when the relationship
between the changes in the value of the hedging instrument and the
hedged item breaks down. For example, an entity hedges an exposure to
commodity price risk using an uncollateralised derivative. If the
counterparty to that derivative experiences a severe deterioration in its
credit standing, any offsetting between the change in the fair value of the
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
hedging instrument and the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows might
become accidental. This is because the effect of the changes in the credit
standing of the counterparty is unrelated to the hedged commodity price
risk and affects only the hedging instrument. Hence, that effect might
outweigh the effect of changes in the commodity price, which affects
both the hedging instrument and the hedged item.
Frequency of assessing whether the hedge effectiveness
requirements are met
B32
An entity shall assess at the inception of the hedging relationship and on
an ongoing basis whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge
effectiveness requirements. At a minimum, an entity shall perform the
ongoing assessment at each reporting date or upon a significant change
in the circumstances affecting the hedge effectiveness requirements,
whichever comes first. The assessment relates to expectations about
hedge ineffectiveness and offsetting and therefore is only forwardlooking.
Methods for assessing whether the hedge effectiveness
requirements are met
B33
This [draft] IFRS does not specify a method for assessing whether a
hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements,
including determining the hedge ratio. However, an entity shall use a
method that captures the relevant characteristics of the hedging
relationship including the sources of hedge ineffectiveness. Depending
on those factors the method can be a qualitative or a quantitative
assessment.
B34
For example, when the critical terms (such as the nominal amount,
maturity and underlying) of the hedging instrument and the hedged item
match or are closely aligned, it might be possible for an entity to conclude
on the basis of a qualitative assessment of those critical terms that the
hedging relationship will probably achieve systematic offset and that the
hedge ineffectiveness, if any, would not be expected to produce a biased
result. This qualitative assessment might also allow the entity to
determine an appropriate hedge ratio (eg 1:1 or as determined by simple
ratio calculation) and also support an expectation that that hedge ratio
would minimise any hedge ineffectiveness.
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B35
The fact that a derivative is in or out of the money when it is designated
as a hedging instrument does not in itself mean that a qualitative
assessment is inappropriate. It depends on the circumstances whether
the hedge ineffectiveness arising from that fact could have a magnitude
that a qualitative assessment would not adequately capture.
B36
Conversely, if the critical terms of the hedging instrument and the
hedged item are not closely aligned, there is an increased level of
uncertainty regarding the extent of offset. Consequently, the hedge
effectiveness during the term of the hedging relationship is more
difficult to predict. In such a situation it might only be possible for an
entity to conclude on the basis of a quantitative assessment that the
hedging relationship is likely to achieve systematic offset and that the
hedge ineffectiveness would not be expected to produce a biased result.
Similarly, the entity might also need a quantitative assessment to
determine an appropriate hedge ratio (eg determined by regression
analysis or on the basis of a long-term average ratio between variables)
and to support an expectation that that hedge ratio would minimise any
hedge ineffectiveness. An entity can use the same or different methods
for the different purposes (eg to determine the hedge ratio and to
ascertain whether the hedging relationship is expected to achieve other
than accidental offsetting).
B37
If there are changes in circumstances that affect hedge effectiveness, an
entity might have to change the method for assessing whether a hedging
relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements in order to
ensure that the relevant characteristics of the hedging relationship
including the sources of hedge ineffectiveness are still captured.
B38
An entity’s risk management is the main source of information to perform
the assessment whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge
effectiveness requirements.
This means management information
(or analysis) used for decision-making purposes can be used as a basis to
assess whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness
requirements.
B39
An entity’s documentation of the hedging relationship includes how it
will assess the hedge effectiveness requirements including the method or
methods used.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
Accounting for qualifying hedges
B40
An example of a fair value hedge is a hedge of exposure to changes in the
fair value of a fixed rate debt instrument arising from changes in interest
rates. Such a hedge could be entered into by the issuer or by the holder.
B41
An example of a cash flow hedge is the use of a swap to change floating
rate debt to fixed rate debt (ie a hedge of a future transaction in which the
future cash flows being hedged are the future interest payments).
B42
A hedge of a firm commitment (eg a hedge of the change in fuel price
relating to an unrecognised contractual commitment by an electric
utility to purchase fuel at a fixed price) is a hedge of an exposure to a
change in fair value. Accordingly, such a hedge is a fair value hedge.
However, in accordance with paragraph 22 a hedge of the foreign
currency risk of a firm commitment could alternatively be accounted for
as a cash flow hedge.
Measurement of hedge ineffectiveness
B43
When measuring hedge ineffectiveness, an entity shall consider the time
value of money. Hence, the entity determines the value of the hedged
item on a present value basis and therefore the change in the value of the
hedged item also includes the effect of the time value of money.
B44
To calculate the change in the value of the hedged item for the purpose
of measuring hedge ineffectiveness, an entity may use a derivative that
would have terms that match the critical terms of the hedged item and
would be at the money at the time of designation of the hedging
relationship (this is commonly referred to as a ‘hypothetical derivative’).
This is one possible way of calculating the change in the value of the
hedged item. The hypothetical derivative replicates the hedged item and
hence results in the same outcome as if that change in value was
determined by a different approach.
B45
The change in the value of the hedged item determined using a
hypothetical derivative may also be used for the purpose of assessing
whether a hedging relationship meets the hedge effectiveness
requirements.
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Rebalancing the hedging relationship and changes to
the hedge ratio
B46
The following flow chart illustrates the evaluation when a hedging
relationship is rebalanced.
Does the hedging
relationship meet the
qualifying criteria for
hedge accounting?
no
Did the risk
management objective
remain the same for the
hedging relationship?
yes
yes
Continue hedge
accounting (ie no voluntary
dedesignation)
Proactive rebalancing
of the hedging relationship
because it is expected to
fail the objective of the
hedge effectiveness
assessment?
Does the hedging
relationship still achieve
other than accidental
offsetting?
yes
Mandatory rebalancing
of the hedging
relationship
yes
Partial discontinuation may arise
© IFRS Foundation
no
50
no
Discontinue
hedge
accounting
HEDGE ACCOUNTING
B47
If a hedging relationship ceases to meet the objective of the hedge
effectiveness assessment, or is expected to do so, an entity determines
whether the risk management objective for that hedging relationship
remains unaltered. If so, the hedging relationship is adjusted so that the
new hedge ratio again meets, or is no longer expected to cease to meet,
the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment (rebalancing).
Rebalancing is accounted for as a continuation of the hedging
relationship in accordance with paragraphs B48–B60. On rebalancing,
the hedge ineffectiveness of the hedging relationship is determined and
recognised in profit or loss immediately before adjusting the hedging
relationship.
B48
Adjusting the hedge ratio allows an entity to respond to changes in the
relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item
arising from their underlyings or risk variables. For example, a hedging
relationship in which the hedging instrument and the hedged item have
different but related underlyings changes in response to a change in basis
risk that affects the relationship between these two underlyings
(eg different but related reference indices, rates or prices). Hence,
rebalancing allows continuation of a hedging relationship in situations
in which the relationship between the hedging instrument and the
hedged item changes in a way that can be compensated for by adjusting
the hedge ratio.
B49
For example, an entity hedges an exposure to foreign currency A using a
currency derivative that references foreign currency B and currencies
A and B are pegged (ie their exchange rate is maintained within a band or
at an exchange rate set by a central bank or other authority). If the
exchange rate between currencies A and B were changed (ie a new band
or rate was set) rebalancing the hedging relationship to reflect the new
exchange rate would ensure that the hedging relationship meets the
objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment in the new circumstances.
In contrast, if there were a default on the currency derivative changing
the hedge ratio could not ensure that the hedging relationship meets the
objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment. Hence, rebalancing does
not facilitate continuing a hedging relationship in situations in which
the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item
changes in a way that cannot be compensated for by adjusting the hedge
ratio.
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B50
Not every change in the extent of offset between the changes in the fair
value of the hedging instrument and the hedged item’s fair value or cash
flows constitutes a change in the relationship between the hedging
instrument and the hedged item. An entity analyses the sources of hedge
ineffectiveness that it expected to affect the hedging relationship during
its term and evaluates whether changes in the extent of offset are:
(a)
fluctuations around the hedge ratio that remains valid
(ie continues to appropriately reflect the relationship between the
hedging instrument and the hedged item); or
(b)
an indication that the hedge ratio no longer appropriately reflects
the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged
item.
An entity performs this evaluation against the objective of the hedge
effectiveness assessment, ie whether the hedge ratio still ensures that the
hedging relationship will produce an unbiased result and minimise
expected hedge ineffectiveness.
Hence, this evaluation requires
judgement.
B51
Fluctuation around a constant hedge ratio (and hence the related hedge
ineffectiveness) cannot be minimised by adjusting the hedge ratio in
response to each particular outcome. Hence, in such circumstances, the
change in the extent of offset is a matter of measuring and recognising
hedge ineffectiveness but not of adjusting the hedge ratio, ie it does not
result in rebalancing.
B52
Conversely, if changes in the extent of offset indicate that the fluctuation
is around a hedge ratio that is different from the hedge ratio currently
used for that hedging relationship, or that there is a trend leading away
from that hedge ratio, hedge ineffectiveness can be minimised by
adjusting the hedge ratio whereas retaining the hedge ratio would
increasingly produce a biased result and hedge ineffectiveness. Hence, in
such circumstances, the change in the extent of offset is a matter of
adjusting the hedge ratio and therefore requires rebalancing the hedging
relationship. In addition, it is also a matter of measuring and recognising
hedge ineffectiveness because, on rebalancing, the hedge ineffectiveness
of the hedging relationship must be determined and recognised in profit
or loss immediately before adjusting the hedging relationship in
accordance with paragraph B47.
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B53
If the risk management objective for a hedging relationship has changed
rebalancing does not apply. Instead, hedge accounting for that hedging
relationship shall be discontinued (notwithstanding that an entity might
designate a new hedging relationship that involves the hedging
instrument or hedged item of the previous hedging relationship as
described in paragraph B66).
B54
If a hedging relationship is rebalanced the adjustment of the hedge ratio
can be effected in different ways:
(a)
(b)
The weighting of the hedged item can be increased (which at the
same time reduces the weighting of the hedging instrument) by:
(i)
increasing the volume of the hedged item; or
(ii)
decreasing the volume of the hedging instrument.
The weighting of the hedging instrument can be increased (which
at the same time reduces the weighting of the hedged item) by:
(i)
increasing the volume of the hedging instrument; or
(ii)
decreasing the volume of the hedged item.
Changes in volume refer to the quantities that are part of the hedging
relationship. Hence, decreases in volumes do not necessarily mean that
the items or transactions no longer exist, or are no longer expected to
occur but that they are not part of the hedging relationship. For example,
decreasing the volume of the hedging instrument can result in the entity
retaining a derivative but only part of it might remain a hedging
instrument of the hedging relationship. This could occur if the
rebalancing could be effected only by reducing the volume of the hedging
instrument in the hedging relationship, but the change in the volume is
such that it does not allow the entity to unwind the part of the hedging
instrument that is no longer needed (eg because of the minimum lot size
of a standardised derivative contract). In that case the undesignated part
of the derivative would be accounted for at fair value through profit or
loss (unless it was designated as a hedging instrument in a different
hedging relationship).
B55
Adjusting the hedge ratio by increasing the volume of the hedged item
does not affect how the changes in the fair value of the hedging
instrument are measured. The measurement of the changes in the value
of the hedged item regarding the previously designated volume also
remains unaffected. However, from the date of rebalancing, the changes
in the value of the hedged item also include the change in the value of the
additional volume of the hedged item. These changes are measured
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starting from and by reference to the date of rebalancing rather than the
date on which the hedging relationship was designated. For example, if
an entity originally hedged a volume of 100 tonnes of a commodity at a
forward price of CU80 (the forward price at inception of the hedging
relationship) and added a volume of 10 tonnes on rebalancing when the
forward price was CU90, the hedged item after rebalancing would
comprise two layers: 100 tonnes hedged at CU80 and 10 tonnes hedged at
CU90.
B56
Adjusting the hedge ratio by decreasing the volume of the hedging
instrument does not affect how the changes in the fair value of the
hedged item are measured. The measurement of the changes in the value
of the hedging instrument regarding the volume that continues to be
designated also remains unaffected. However, from the date of
rebalancing, the volume by which the hedging instrument was decreased
is no longer part of the hedging relationship. For example, if an entity
originally hedged the price risk of a commodity using a derivative volume
of 100 tonnes as the hedging instrument and reduces that volume by
10 tonnes on rebalancing, a notional amount of 90 tonnes of the hedging
instrument volume would remain (see paragraph B54 regarding the
consequences for decreasing the derivative volume (ie the 10 tonnes) that
is no longer a part of the hedging relationship).
B57
Adjusting the hedge ratio by increasing the volume of the hedging
instrument does not affect how the changes in the fair value of the
hedged item are measured. The measurement of the changes in the value
of the hedging instrument regarding the previously designated volume
also remains unaffected. However, from the date of rebalancing, the
changes in the value of the hedging instrument also include the change
in the value of the additional volume of the hedging instrument.
The changes are measured starting from and by reference to the date of
rebalancing instead of the date on which the hedging relationship was
designated. For example, if an entity originally hedged the price risk of a
commodity using a derivative volume of 100 tonnes as the hedging
instrument and added a volume of 10 tonnes on rebalancing, the hedging
instrument after rebalancing would comprise a total derivative volume of
110 tonnes. The change in the fair value of the hedging instrument is the
total change in fair value of the derivatives that make up the total volume
of 110 tonnes. These derivatives could (and probably would) have
different critical terms, such as their forward rates, because they were
entered into at different points in time (including the possibility of
designating derivatives into hedging relationships after their initial
recognition).
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
B58
Adjusting the hedge ratio by decreasing the volume of the hedged item
does not affect how the changes in the fair value of the hedging
instrument are measured. The measurement of the changes in the value
of the hedged item regarding the volume that continues to be designated
also remains unaffected. However, from the date of rebalancing, the
volume by which the hedged item was decreased is no longer part of the
hedging relationship. For example, if an entity originally hedged a
volume of 100 tonnes of a commodity at a forward price CU80 and
reduces that volume by 10 tonnes on rebalancing, the hedged item after
rebalancing would be 90 tonnes hedged at CU80. The 10 tonnes of the
hedged item that are no longer part of the hedging relationship would be
accounted for in accordance with the requirements for discontinuation
of hedge accounting (see paragraphs 23, 24, 30 and B61–B66).
B59
An entity may rebalance a hedging relationship if it aims to ensure that
the hedging relationship will continue to meet the objective of the hedge
effectiveness assessment (ie the adjustment aims at reducing the
likelihood of ceasing to meet the objective in the future). For example, an
entity might expect that a hedging relationship will cease to meet the
objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment at a future date.
The entity observes changes in the extent of offset between the changes
in the fair value of the hedging instrument and the hedged item’s fair
value or cash flows that follow an unusual pattern. The entity considers
that the pattern might still reflect fluctuations around the currently used
hedge ratio but that it might also signal that a trend is emerging that
leads away from the currently used hedge ratio. The entity uses its
judgement and decides that although the hedging relationship still
meets the objective of the hedge effectiveness assessment adjusting the
hedge ratio would reduce the likelihood of ceasing to meet the objective
in the medium term. Hence, the entity is permitted to rebalance the
hedging relationship.
B60
When rebalancing a hedging relationship, an entity shall update its
analysis of the sources of hedge ineffectiveness that are expected to affect
the hedging relationship during its (remaining) term (see paragraph B28).
The documentation of the hedging relationship shall be updated
accordingly.
Discontinuation of hedge accounting
B61
Discontinuation of hedge accounting applies prospectively from the date
on which the qualifying criteria are no longer met.
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B62
B63
B64
B65
An entity shall not de-designate and thereby discontinue a hedging
relationship that:
(a)
still meets the risk management objective and strategy on the basis
of which it qualified for hedge accounting (ie the entity still
pursues that risk management objective and strategy); and
(b)
continues to meet all other qualifying criteria (after taking into
account any rebalancing of the hedging relationship, if applicable).
The discontinuation of hedge accounting can affect:
(a)
a hedging relationship in its entirety; or
(b)
a part of a hedging relationship (which means hedge accounting
continues for the remainder of the hedging relationship).
A hedging relationship is discontinued in its entirety when as a whole it
ceases to meet the qualifying criteria. For example:
(a)
The hedging relationship no longer meets the risk management
objective and strategy on the basis of which it qualified for hedge
accounting (ie the entity no longer pursues that risk management
objective and strategy).
(b)
The hedging instrument or instruments have been sold or
terminated (regarding the entire volume that was part of the
hedging relationship).
(c)
The offsetting between the changes in the fair value of the hedging
instrument and the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows is no
longer expected to be other than accidental (eg when the hedging
instrument experiences a severe credit deterioration).
A part of a hedging relationship is discontinued (and hedge accounting
continues for its remainder) when only a part of the hedging relationship
ceases to meet the qualifying criteria. For example:
(a)
On rebalancing of the hedging relationship, the hedge ratio might
be adjusted such that some of the volume of the hedged item is no
longer part of the hedging relationship (see paragraph B58); hence,
hedge accounting is discontinued only for the volume of the
hedged item that is no longer part of the hedging relationship.
(b)
When the occurrence of some of the volume of the hedged item
that is (or is a component of) a forecast transaction is no longer
highly probable, hedge accounting is discontinued only for the
volume of the hedged item whose occurrence is no longer highly
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
probable. However, if an entity has a history of having designated
hedges of forecast transactions and having subsequently
determined that the forecast transactions are no longer expected to
occur, the entity’s ability to predict forecast transactions accurately
is called into question when predicting similar forecast
transactions. This affects the assessment whether similar forecast
transactions are highly probable (see paragraph 14) and hence
whether they are eligible as hedged items.
B66
An entity can designate a new hedging relationship that involves the
hedging instrument or hedged item of a previous hedging relationship
for which hedge accounting was (in part or in its entirety) discontinued.
This does not constitute a continuation of a hedging relationship but is a
restart. For example:
(a)
A hedging instrument experiences such a severe credit
deterioration that the entity replaces it with a new hedging
instrument. This means the original hedging relationship failed to
achieve the risk management objective and is hence discontinued
in its entirety. The new hedging instrument is designated as the
hedge of the same exposure that was hedged previously and forms
a new hedging relationship. Hence, the changes in the fair value or
cash flows of the hedged item are measured starting from and by
reference to the date of designation of the new hedging
relationship instead of the date on which the original hedging
relationship was designated.
(b)
A hedging relationship is discontinued before the end of its term.
The item that was the hedging instrument in that hedging
relationship can be designated as the hedging instrument in
another hedging relationship (eg when adjusting the hedge ratio
on rebalancing by increasing the volume of the hedging
instrument or when designating a whole new hedging
relationship).
Accounting for the time value of options
B67
An entity shall assess the type of hedged item (see paragraph 33(a)) on the
basis of the nature of the hedged item (regardless of whether the hedging
relationship is a cash flow hedge or a fair value hedge):
(a)
The time value of an option relates to a transaction related hedged
item if the nature of the hedged item is that of transaction costs.
An example is when the time value of an option relates to a hedged
item that results in the recognition of an item whose initial
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measurement includes transaction costs (eg an entity hedges a
commodity purchase, whether it is a forecast transaction or a firm
commitment, against commodity price risk and includes the
transaction costs in the initial measurement of the inventory).
Similarly, an entity that hedges a sale of a commodity, whether it is
a forecast transaction or a firm commitment, would include the
time value of the option as part of the cost related to that sale
(hence, the time value would be recognised in profit or loss in the
same period as the revenue from the hedged sale).
(b)
The time value of an option relates to a time period related hedged
item if the nature of the hedged item is that of the cost for obtaining
protection against a risk over a particular period of time (but the
hedged item does not result in a transaction that involves the notion
of transaction cost in accordance with (a). For example, if a
commodity inventory is hedged for six months using a commodity
option with a corresponding life, the time value of the option would
be allocated to profit or loss (ie amortised on a rational basis) over
that six-month period.
B68
The accounting for the time value of options in accordance with
paragraph 33 applies only to the extent that the time value relates to the
hedged item (aligned time value). The time value of an option relates to
the hedged item if the critical terms of the option (such as the nominal
amount, life and underlying) are aligned with the hedged item. Hence, if
the critical terms of the option and the hedged item are not fully aligned
an entity shall determine the aligned time value, ie how much of the time
value included in the premium paid (actual time value) relates to the
hedged item (and therefore should be treated in accordance with
paragraph 33). An entity determines the aligned time value using the
valuation of the option that would have critical terms that perfectly
match the hedged item.
B69
If the actual time value and the aligned time value differ an entity shall
determine the amount that is accumulated in a separate component of
equity in accordance with paragraph 33 as follows:
(a)
If, at inception of the hedging relationship, the actual time value is
higher than the aligned time value the entity shall:
(i)
determine the amount that is accumulated in a separate
component of equity on the basis of the aligned time value;
and
(ii)
account for the differences in the fair value changes between
the two time values in profit or loss.
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
(b)
If, at inception of the hedging relationship, the actual time value is
lower than the aligned time value the entity shall determine the
amount that is accumulated in a separate component of equity by
reference to the lower of the cumulative change in fair value of:
(i)
the actual time value; and
(ii)
the aligned time value.
Any remainder of the change in fair value of the actual time value shall
be recognised in profit or loss.
Hedge of a group of items
B70
A net position is eligible for hedge accounting only if an entity hedges on
a net basis for risk management purposes. Whether an entity hedges in
this way is a matter of fact (not only of assertion or documentation).
Hence, an entity cannot apply hedge accounting on a net basis solely to
achieve a particular accounting outcome if that would not reflect its risk
management approach. Net position hedging must form part of an
established risk management strategy. Normally this would be approved
by key management personnel as defined in IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures.
B71
For example, Entity A, whose functional currency is its local currency has
a firm commitment to pay FC150,000 for advertising expenses in nine
months’ time and a firm commitment to sell finished goods for
FC150,000 in 15 months’ time. Entity A enters into a foreign currency
derivative that settles in nine months’ time under which it receives FC100
and pays CU70. Entity A has no other exposures to FC. Entity A does not
manage foreign currency risk on a net basis. Hence, Entity A cannot apply
hedge accounting for a hedging relationship between the foreign
currency derivative and a net position of FC100 (consisting of FC150,000
of the firm purchase commitment—ie advertising services—and
FC149,900 (of the FC150,000) of the firm sale commitment) for a
nine-month period.
B72
If Entity A did manage foreign currency risk on a net basis and did not
enter into the foreign currency derivative (because it increases its foreign
currency risk exposure instead of reducing it) then the entity would be in
a natural hedged position for nine months. Normally this hedged
position would not be reflected in the financial statements because the
transactions are recognised in different reporting periods in the future.
The nil net position would be eligible for hedge accounting only if the
conditions in paragraph 39 are met.
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B73
When a group of items that constitute a net position is designated as a
hedged item, an entity shall designate the overall group of items that
includes the items that can make up the net position. An entity is not
permitted to designate a non-specific abstract amount of a net position.
For example, an entity has a group of firm sale commitments in nine
months’ time for FC100 and a group of firm purchase commitments in 18
months’ time for FC120. The entity cannot designate an abstract amount
of a net position up to FC20. Instead, it must designate a gross amount of
purchases and a gross amount of sales that together give rise to the
hedged net position. An entity shall designate gross positions that give
rise to the net position so that the entity is able to comply with the
requirements for the accounting for qualifying hedges.
Cash flow hedges of groups of items that constitute a
net position
B74
When an entity hedges a group of items with offsetting risks (eg a net
position) that affect profit or loss in different reporting periods, the
eligibility for hedge accounting depends on the type of hedge. If the
hedge is a fair value hedge then the net position may be eligible as a
hedged item. If, however, the hedge is a cash flow hedge then the net
position is not eligible as a hedged item.
B75
Offsetting value changes in a group of hedged items in a cash flow hedge
will naturally offset in net profit or loss if they are recognised in the same
reporting period. If, however, the offsetting risk positions affect profit or
loss in different reporting periods, then this natural offset is not
achieved. An entity cannot gross up net hedging instrument gains or
losses for recognition in different periods, nor can it defer value changes
from one hedged item to match the later recognition of another hedged
item. As a result, cash flow hedge accounting is not permitted for groups
of items with offsetting cash flows that affect profit or loss in different
reporting periods.
B76
For example, an entity has a net position of FC50 consisting of forecast sales
of FC100 in 12 months’ time and forecast purchases of FC150 in 20 months’
time. This could be hedged for 12 months using a forward foreign
exchange contract under which the entity receives FC50 and pays CU25
(ie a 2:1 forward exchange rate). When the sale is recognised in profit or
loss it will be measured at the spot exchange rate in accordance with
IAS 21. Reclassifying, into profit or loss when the sale is recognised, any
amount of the gain or loss deferred in other comprehensive income from
the hedging instrument would exaggerate any variability in profit or loss
arising from changes in the exchange rate over the 12-month period. This
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HEDGE ACCOUNTING
is because the entity receives foreign currency in accordance with both the
sale and the forward foreign exchange contract. To mitigate the variability
arising in profit or loss from the sale, it would be necessary to defer some
of the value change on the sale in other comprehensive income to match
the later recognition of the purchase. This deferral of value changes is not
permitted.
Layers of groups of items designated as the hedged
item
B77
For the same reasons noted in paragraph B22, designating layer
components of groups of existing items requires the specific
identification of the nominal amount of the group of items from which
the hedged layer component is defined.
B78
A hedging relationship can include layers from multiple different groups
of items. For example, in a net position hedge of a group of assets and a
group of liabilities, the hedging relationship can comprise, in
combination, a layer component of the group of assets and a layer
component of the group of liabilities.
Presentation of hedging instrument gains or losses
B79
If items are hedged together as a group in a cash flow hedge, the items
might affect different line items in the income statement. The
presentation in the income statement of the hedging instrument gains or
losses reclassified from other comprehensive income will depend on the
group of items.
B80
If the group of items does not have any offsetting hedged risk positions
(eg a group of foreign currency expenses that affect different line items in
the income statement, hedged for foreign currency risk) then the
reclassified hedging instrument gains or losses shall be apportioned to
the line items affected by the hedged items. This apportionment should
be done on a rational basis and should not result in the grossing up of the
net gains or losses arising from a single hedging instrument.
B81
If the group of items does have offsetting risk positions (eg a group of
sales and expenses denominated in a foreign currency hedged together
for foreign currency risk) then an entity shall present the reclassified
hedging instrument gains or losses in a separate line item in the income
statement. For example, consider a hedge of the foreign currency risk of
a net position of foreign currency sales of FC100 and foreign currency
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expenses of FC80 using a forward exchange contract for FC20. The gain
or loss reclassified from other comprehensive income to profit or loss
(when the net position affects profit or loss) shall be presented in a
separate line item.
B82
For some types of fair value hedges the objective of the hedge is not
primarily to offset the fair value change of the hedged item but rather to
transform the cash flows of the hedged item. For example, an entity
hedges the fair value interest rate risk of a fixed rate debt instrument
using an interest rate swap. The entity’s hedge objective is to transform
the fixed interest cash flows into floating interest cash flows. This
objective is reflected in the accounting for the hedging relationship by
accruing the net interest accrual on the interest rate swap in profit or
loss. In case of a net position hedge (eg a net position of a fixed rate asset
and a fixed rate liability), this net interest accrual must be presented in a
separate line item in the income statement. This is to avoid the grossing
up of a single instrument’s net gains or losses into offsetting gross
amounts and recognising them in different line items (eg this avoids
grossing up a net interest receipt on a single interest rate swap into gross
interest revenue and gross interest expense).
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Appendix C
[Draft] Amendments to other IFRSs
The amendments [outlined] in this [draft] appendix shall be applied for annual periods
beginning on or after January 2013. If an entity applies the [draft] amendments for an earlier
period, it shall apply the amendments in this [draft] appendix for that earlier period.
Standard
Description of amendment
•
IAS 32 Financial
•
Instruments: Presentation
•
IAS 39 Financial
Instruments: Recognition
and Measurement
Amend paragraph 8 of the scope of IAS 32.
The amendment would change the scope
for a contract that was entered into and
continues to be held for the purpose of the
receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in
accordance with the entity’s expected
purchase, sale or usage requirements.
An entity would account for such a contract
as a derivative financial instrument if that
accounting is in accordance with the entity’s
underlying business model and how the
contracts are managed. That would be the
case for a fair value-based risk management
strategy, ie the entire business is managed on
a fair value basis and the net exposure is
maintained close to nil.
•
Retain the hedge requirements in IAS 39 for
fair value hedge accounting for a portfolio
hedge of interest rate risk.
•
Amend paragraph 5 of the scope of IAS 39.
This would be similar to the amendment
proposed for paragraph 8 of IAS 32.
•
IFRS 7 Financial
Instruments: Disclosures
•
Delete the disclosure requirements in
paragraphs 22, 23(a), 23(c)–(e) and 24.
•
IFRS 9 Financial
Instruments
•
Amend references to hedge accounting in
IFRS 9 in chapters other than chapter 6 Hedge
accounting (for example paragraph 5.4.1).
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Approval by the Board of Hedge Accounting published
in December 2010
The exposure draft Hedge Accounting was approved for publication by fourteen of
the fifteen members of the International Accounting Standards Board. Mr Smith
voted against its publication. His alternative view is set out after the Basis for
Conclusions.
Sir David Tweedie
Chairman
Stephen Cooper
Philippe Danjou
Jan Engström
Patrick Finnegan
Amaro Luiz de Oliveira Gomes
Prabhakar Kalavacherla
Elke König
Patricia McConnell
Warren J McGregor
Paul Pacter
Darrel Scott
John T Smith
Tatsumi Yamada
Wei-Guo Zhang
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64
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