code of hygienic practice for precooked and cooked foods in mass

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CAC/RCP 39-1993 1
EXPLANATORY PREFACE ............................................................................................................................. 2
Section I
SCOPE ...................................................................................................................... 2
Section II
DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................. 3
Section III
Section IV
AND FACILITIES......................................................................................................... 4
(B) SERVING ROOMS: DESIGN AND FACILITIES.......................................................... 9
Section V
ESTABLISHMENT: HYGIENE REQUIREMENTS ............................................................. 9
Section VI
PERSONNEL HYGIENE AND HEALTH REQUIREMENTS................................................12
Section VII
ESTABLISHMENT: HYGIENIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS .......................................13
The Code of Hygienic Practice for Precooked and Cooked Foods in Mass Catering was adopted by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission at its 20th Session in 1993. The Code has been sent to all Member Nations and Associated
Members of FAO and WHO as an advisory text, and it is for individual governments to decide what use they wish to
make of it. The Commission has expressed the view that codes of practice might provide useful checklists of
requirements for national food control or enforcement authorities.
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CAC/RCP 39-1993
This Code has, as far as possible, been made consistent with the format and content of the General
Principles of Food Hygiene.
The need for this Code is based on the following considerations:
1. Epidemiological data show that many outbreaks of food poisoning are caused by food produced
in mass catering.
2. Large-scale catering operations are particularly hazardous because of the way the food is stored
and handled.
3. Outbreaks can involve large numbers of people.
4. Persons fed by mass catering are often especially vulnerable - for instance children, the elderly
and hospital patients, especially those who are immuno-compromised.
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system has been applied to the Code.
The HACCP System consists of:
1. An assessment of hazards associated with growing, harvesting, processing/manufacturing,
marketing, preparation and/or use of a given raw material or food product.
2. Determination of critical control points required to control any identified hazard(s).
3. Establishment of procedures to monitor critical control points.
The critical control points have been identified in the Code and explanatory notes describing the risk
and giving the type and frequency of controls to be applied, have been inserted in connection with the
relevant paragraphs. (CCP - Notes) WHO/ICMSF 1982. Report of the WHO/ICMSF Meeting on
Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Point System in Food Hygiene. World Health Organization VPH
82/37, Geneva, and also the ICMSF handbook on the principles and application of HACCP).
Properly trained inspectors and personnel and an adequate sanitary infrastructure are necessary in
order to implement the Code satisfactorily.
This Code deals with the hygienic requirements for cooking raw foods and handling cooked and
precooked foods intended for feeding large groups of people, such as children in schools, the elderly either in
old peoples homes or by means of "meals on wheels", patients in nursing homes and hospitals, persons in
prisons, schools and similar institutions. These categories of people are supplied as groups with the same
types of foods. In this social type of mass catering the consumer has limited choice in the food, he or she eats.
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This Code is not intended for industrial production of complete meals, but may give guidance on specific
points to those who are involved. For reasons of simplicity, foods served raw to the consumer, are not
included. This does not necessarily mean that these foods will not constitute a hazard to health.
The foods covered in this code are defined at Section II paragraphs 2.6.a and 2.6.b. The information
in the following paragraphs refers only to precooked foods as defined at paragraphs 2.6.b: Paragraphs,,, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9.4 and 7.9.5.
For the purposes of this Code the following expressions have the meaning stated:
Catering - the preparation, storage and, where appropriate, delivery of food for consumption by the
consumer at the place of preparation or at a satellite unit.
Catering Establishment - a kitchen where food is prepared or reheated for catering.
Chilled Food - product intended to be maintained at temperatures not exceeding 4°C in any part of
the product and stored for no longer than five days.
Cleaning - the removal of soil, food residues, dust, grease or other objectionable matter.
Contamination - the occurrence of any objectionable matter in the product.
a) Cooked Food - foods cooked and kept hot or reheated and kept hot for serving to the consumer.
b) Precooked Foods - foods cooked, rapidly chilled and kept refrigerated or frozen.
Disinfection - the reduction, without adversely affecting the food by means of hygienically
satisfactory chemical agents or physical methods, of the number of micro-organisms to a level that will not
lead to harmful contamination of food.
Establishment - any building(s) or areas(s) in which food is handled after harvesting and the
surroundings under the control of the same management.
Food Handling - any operation in the preparation, processing, cooking, packaging, storage,
transport, distribution and service of food.
Food Handler - every person handling or coming into contact with food, or with any equipment or
utensil used in food handling.
Food Hygiene - all measures necessary to ensure the safety, soundness and wholesomeness of food at
all stages from its growth, production or manufacture until its final serving to individuals.
Frozen Food - product maintained at a temperature equal to or below -18°C in any part of the
Lot - a definitive quantity of a cooked or pre-cooked food produced under essentially the same
conditions at the same time.
Mass Catering - the preparation, storage and/or delivery and serving of food to a large number of
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Packaging Material - any containers such as cans, bottles, cartons, boxes, cases and sacks, or
wrapping and covering material such as foil, film, metal, paper, wax-paper and cloth.
Pests - Insects, birds, rodents and any other animal capable of directly or indirectly contaminating
Meal Assembly - composing or placing food for one person in or on a suitable container, where it
will be kept until delivery to the consumer.
Portioning - division of food before or after cooking into single or multiple portions.
Potentially Hazardous Food - food capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious
or toxigenic microorganisms.
Are not covered in this Code.
For raw material Requirements: See Section VII.
This section covers the areas where the food is prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen and stored.
Location - Establishments should be located in areas which are free from objectionable odours,
smoke, dust or other contaminants and are not subject to flooding.
Roadways and areas used by wheeled traffic - Roadways and areas serving the establishment which
are within its boundaries or in its immediate vicinity should have a hard paved surface suitable for wheeled
traffic. There should be adequate drainage and provision should be made to allow for cleaning.
Buildings and facilities
Buildings and facilities should be of sound construction and maintained in good repair.
construction materials should be such that they do not transmit any undesirable substances to the food.
Adequate working space should be provided to allow for satisfactory performance of all operations.
Buildings and facilities should be designed to permit easy and adequate cleaning and to facilitate
proper supervision of food hygiene.
Building and facilities should be designed to prevent the entrance and harbouring of pests and the
entry of environmental contaminants such as smoke, dust, etc.
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Buildings and facilities should be designed to provide separation, by partition, location or other
effective means, between those operations which may cause cross contamination.
Cross-contamination is an important factor that contributes to foodborne
outbreaks. Food can be contaminated with harmful organisms after cooking sometimes
from a food handler, and often directly or indirectly from raw food. Operations such as
the cleaning and washing of vegetables, the washing up of equipment, utensils, crockery
and cutlery, and the unpacking, storage or refrigeration of raw materials should be
performed in separate rooms or locations especially designed for that purpose. Managers
and food inspectors should regularly check that the separation principle is properly
applied. (See also CCP-Note in 4.4.1)
Buildings and facilities should be designed to facilitate hygienic operations by means of a controlled
and regulated flow in the process from the arrival of the raw material at the premises to the finished product,
and should provide for appropriate temperature for the process and product.
In food handling areas:
Floors, where appropriate, should be of waterproof, non-absorbent, washable, and non-slip materials
without crevices, and should be easy to clean and disinfect. Where appropriate, floors should slope
sufficiently for liquids to drain to trapped outlets.
Walls, where appropriate, should be of waterproof, non-absorbent and washable sealed materials and
should be light coloured. Up to a height appropriate for the operation they should be smooth and
without crevices, and should be easy to clean and disinfect. Where appropriate, angles between
walls, between walls and floors, and between walls and ceilings should be sealed and coved to
facilitate cleaning.
Ceilings should be designed, constructed and finished to prevent accumulation of dirt and minimize
condensation, mould development and flaking, and should be easy to clean.
Windows and other openings should be constructed to avoid accumulation of dirt and those which
open should be fitted with insect-proof screens. Screens should be easily movable for cleaning and
kept in good repair. Internal window sills, if present, should be sloped to prevent use as shelves.
Doors should have smooth, non-absorbent surfaces and, be self-closing and close fitting.
Stairs, lift cages and auxiliary structures such as platforms, ladders, chutes, should be situated and
constructed to prevent contamination to food. Chutes should be constructed with inspection and
cleaning hatches.
In food handling areas all overhead structures and fittings should be installed in a manner to avoid
contamination directly or indirectly of food and raw materials by condensation and drip, and should not
hamper cleaning operations. They should be insulated where appropriate and be so designed and finished as to
prevent the accumulation of dirt and to minimize condensation, mould development and flaking. They should
be easy to clean.
Living quarters, toilets and areas where animals are kept should be completely separated from and
should not open directly into food handling areas.
Where appropriate, establishments should be designed so that access can be controlled.
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The use of material which cannot be adequately cleaned and disinfected, such as wood, should be
avoided unless its use would clearly not be a source of contamination.
Water Supply An ample supply of water, in compliance with the WHO "Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality",
under adequate pressure and of suitable temperature should be available with adequate facilities for its
storage, where necessary, and distribution, and with adequate protection against contamination.
Note: Samples should be taken regularly, but the frequency should depend upon the
origin and the usage of the water, e.g. more frequent from private supplies than from
public supplies. Chlorine or other suitable disinfectants may be used. If chlorination
has been employed checks should be made daily by chemical tests for available
chlorine. The point of sampling should preferably be at the point of usage, but
occasionally it would be useful to sample at the point of entry of the water to the
There should be a system to ensure an adequate supply of hot potable water. Ice shall be made from potable water and should be manufactured, handled and stored so as to
protect it from contamination. Steam used in direct contact with food or food contact surfaces should contain no substance which
may be hazardous to health or may contaminate the food. Non-potable water used for steam production, refrigeration, fire control and other similar purposes
not connected with food should be carried in completely separate lines, identifiable preferably by colour, and
with no cross-connection with or back-siphonage into the system carrying potable water.
Effluent and waste disposal. Establishments should have an efficient effluent and waste disposal
system which should at all times be maintained in good order and repair. All effluent lines (including sewer
systems) should be constructed to avoid contamination of potable water supplies. All wastepipes should be
properly trapped and lead to a drain.
Refrigeration Establishments should have refrigerating and/or freezing cabinets large enough to accommodate
raw materials at adequate temperature in order to comply with the requirements of Section 7.1.4 and 7.1.5.
Note: Cross contamination of pathogens from raw commodities to prepared foods
frequently occurs in the refrigerator. Therefore, raw foods, particularly meat, poultry,
liquid egg products, fish and shellfish, must be strictly separated from prepared foods,
preferably by the use of different refrigerators. Establishments should have refrigerating and/or freezing cabinets or equipment (freeze tunnel) for
chilling and/or freezing in order to comply with requirements of Sections 7.7 and 7.8.
Note: A specially designed rapid chilling system is desirable. Rapid chilling or
freezing of large quantities of food requires proper equipment capable of extracting
the heat rapidly from the largest quantity of food likely to be produced.
Page 7 of 18 Establishments should also have refrigerating and/or freezing cabinets or equipment for chilled
and/or frozen storage of prepared food corresponding to thee maximum daily activity of the establishment and
in order to comply with requirements of Sections 7.7 and 7.8. All refrigerated spaces should be equipped with temperature measurement devices. Where
appropriate the use of temperature recording devices is recommended. They should be clearly visible when
used and should be placed in a manner to record the maximum temperature of the refrigerated space as
accurately as possible. If possible cabinets for chilled and or/frozen storage of food should be equipped with
temperature alarms.
Note: The accuracy of the temperature-recording devices should be checked at regular
intervals and tested for accuracy against a standard thermometer of known accuracy.
Such tests should be performed prior to installation, and at least once a year thereafter
or more frequently as may be necessary to assure their accuracy. A dated record of
such tests should be kept.
Changing facilities and toilets
Adequate, suitable, and conveniently located changing facilities and toilets should be provided in all
establishments. Toilets should be designed to ensure hygienic removal of waste matter. These areas should be
well lit, ventilated and appropriately heated and should not open directly on to food handling areas. Hand
washing facilities with warm or hot and cold water, a suitable hand-cleaning preparation, and with suitable
hygienic means of drying hands, should be provided adjacent to toilets and positioned so that the employee
must pass them when returning to the processing area. Where hot and cold water are available mixing taps
should be provided. Where paper towels are used, a sufficient number of dispensers and receptacles should be
provided near to each washing facility. Taps of a non-hand operable type are desirable. Notices should be
posted directing personnel to wash their hands after using the toilet.
Hand washing facilities in processing areas
Adequate and conveniently located facilities for hand washing and drying should be provided
wherever the process demands. Where appropriate, facilities for hand disinfection should also be provided.
Warm or hot and cold water and suitable hand-cleaning preparation should be provided. Where hot and cold
water are available mixing taps should be provided. There should be suitable hygienic means of drying hands.
Where paper towels are used, a sufficient number of dispensers and receptacles should be provided adjacent
to each washing facility. Taps of a non-hand operable type are preferable. The facilities should be furnished
with properly trapped waste pipies leading to drains.
Disinfection facilities
Where appropriate adequate facilities for cleaning and disinfection of working implements and
equipment should be provided. These facilities should be constructed of corrosion resistant materials, capable
of being easily cleaned, and should be fitted with suitable means of supplying hot and cold water in sufficient
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Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided throughout the establishment. Where
appropriate, the lighting should not alter colours and the intensity should not be less than:
540 lux (50 foot candles) at all food preparation and inspection points
220 lux (20 foot candles) in work rooms
110 lux (10 foot candles) in other areas.
Light bulbs and fixtures suspended over food materials in any stage of production should be of a
safety type and protected to prevent contamination of food in case of breakage.
Ventilation Adequate ventilation should be provided to prevent excessive build-up of heat, steam condensation
and dust and to remove contaminated air. The direction of the air flow within the plant should never be from a
dirty area to a clean area. Ventilation openings should be provided with a screen or other protecting enclosure
of non-corrodible material. Screens should be easily removable for cleaning.
A device for effectively removing cooking steam and vapors should be installed above cooking units.
In rooms where food is being handled after chilling the temperature should not exceed 15ºC.
However, if the temperature of 15ºC cannot be maintained, food being handled or prepared should be exposed
to room temperature for as short a time as possible; ideally, 30 minutes or less. (see 7.6)
Facilities for storage of waste and inedible material
Facilities should be provided for the storage of waste and inedible material prior to removal from the
establishment. These facilities should be designed to prevent access to waste or inedible material by pests and
to avoid contamination of food, potable water, equipment, building or roadways on the premises.
Equipment and Utensils
All equipment and utensils used in food handling areas and which may contact food should be made
of material which does not transmit toxic substance, odour or taste, is non-absorbent, is resistant to corrosion
and is capable of withstanding repeated cleaning, and disinfection. Surfaces should be smooth and free from
pits and crevices. Suitable materials include stainless steel, synthetic wood and rubber substitutes. The use of
wood and other materials which cannot be adequately cleaned and disinfected should be avoided except when
their use would clearly not be source of contamination. The use of different metals in such a way that contact
corrosion can occur should be avoided.
Equipment and utensils constitute a source of potential
CCP Note:
cross-contamination. In addition to regular routine cleaning, it is essential that all
equipment and utensils used for raw foods be thoroughly disinfected before they are
used for cooked and precooked foods. If at all possible, separate utensils should be
used for raw and cooked products. If this is not possible, thorough cleaning and
disinfection is necessary.
Sanitary design, construction and installation
Page 9 of 18 All equipment and utensils should be designed and constructed to prevent hygienic hazards and
permit easy and thorough cleaning and disinfection and, where practicable, be visible for inspection.
Stationary equipment should be installed in a manner to permit easy access and thorough cleaning.
Only properly designed equipment is satisfactory for bulk cooking.
Mass-catering cannot be performed safely merely by increasing size or quantity of the
type of equipment traditionally used in conventional kitchens for preparation of
individual dishes. The capacity of the equipment used should be adequate to permit the
hygienic production of food. Containers for inedible material and waste should be leak proof, constructed of metal or other
suitable impervious material which should be easy to clean or disposable and able to be closed securely.
Equipment identification
Equipment and utensils used for inedible materials or waste should be so identified and should not be
used for edible products.
Equipment and utensil storage
Portable equipment such as spoons, beaters, pots and pans, etc., should be protected from
This section covers the area where food is served which may include re-heating and storage.
In principle, the requirements mentioned in Section IV - A. apply also to serving rooms.
Where the foods served are those defined in paragraph 2-6 a, paragraphs, and do not apply.
The buildings, equipment, utensils and all other physical facilities of the establishment, including
drains, should be maintained in good repair and in an orderly condition. As far as practicable, rooms should
be kept free from steam, vapour and surplus water.
Cleaning and Disinfection - Washing up
Cleaning and disinfection should meet the requirements of this Code.
For further information on cleaning and disinfection procedures, see Annex I of the General
Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/VOL. A-Ed. 2, 2nd Rev. (1985)).
To prevent contamination of food, all equipment and utensils should be cleaned as frequently as
necessary and disinfected whenever circumstances demand.
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Note: Equipment, utensils etc. in contact with food, particularly raw food, (Fish, meat,
vegetables) will be contaminated with micro-organisms. This may adversely affect
products handled subsequently. Therefore, cleaning including dismantling is necessary
at frequent intervals during the day, at least after every break and when changing from
one food product to another. The purpose of dismantling cleaning and disinfection at
the end of each working day is to hinder build-up of possibly pathogenic microflora.
Monitoring should be done by regular inspection.
Adequate precautions should be taken during cleaning or disinfection of rooms, equipment or
utensils to prevent food from being contaminated by wash water, detergents and disinfectants. Cleaning
solutions should be stored in adequately marked non-food containers. Detergents and disinfectants should be
suitable for the purpose intended and should be acceptable to the official agency having jurisdiction. Any
residues of these agents on a surface which may come in contact with food should be removed by thorough
rinsing with potable water before the area or equipment is again used for handling food.
Note: High pressure hoses produce aerosols and therefore should not be used during
production. Care should be taken when using high pressure hoses not to contaminate
food contact surfaces with organisms from floors, drains, etc. Presence of moisture may
promote the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic microorganisms
and, therefore, equipment and floors should be kept as dry as possible.
Either immediately after cessation of work for the day or at such other times as may be appropriate,
floors, including drains, auxiliary structures and walls of food handling areas should be thoroughly cleaned.
Maintenance, cleaning tools and cleaning chemicals such as brooms, mops, vacuum cleaners,
detergents, etc. should be maintained and stored in a way that does not contaminate food, utensils, equipment
or linens.
Changing facilities and toilets should be kept clean at all times.
Roadways and yards in the immediate vicinity of and serving the premises should be kept clean.
Hygiene Control Programme
A permanent written cleaning and disinfection procedure schedule should be drawn up for each
establishment to ensure that all areas are appropriately cleaned and that critical areas, equipment and material
are designated for special attention. A single individual who should preferably be a permanent member of the
staff of the establishment and whose duties should be independent of production, should be appointed to be
responsible for the cleanliness of the establishment. He should have a thorough understanding of the
significance of contamination and the hazards involved. All cleaning personnel should be well-trained in
cleaning techniques.
Storage and Disposal of Wastes
In kitchen and food preparation rooms, by-products and waste products should be collected in
single-use leak-proof bags or in properly labelled re-usable containers. These should be sealed or covered and
taken from the working area as soon as they are full or after each working period and placed (single-use bags)
or emptied (re-usable containers) in covered waste bins which must never be introduced into the kitchen.
Re-usable containers should be cleaned and disinfected each time they are taken back into the kitchen.
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Waste bins should be kept in a closed area reserved for the purpose separate from the food storage
rooms. The area should be kept at as low a temperature as possible, well ventilated, protected from insects
and rodents and should be easy to clean, wash and disinfect. The waste bins should be cleaned and disinfected
each time after use.
Cartons and wrappers should, as soon as they are empty, be removed under the same conditions as
waste materials. Waste compressing equipment should be separated from any food handling area.
If a system of ducted waste disposal is in use, it is imperative that offal, scraps and waste be placed
in closed single-use bags. The duct opening should be cleaned and disinfected daily.
Exclusion of Domestic Animals
Animals that are uncontrolled or that could be a hazard to health should be excluded from
Pest Control
There should be an effective and continuous programme for the control of pests. Establishments and
surrounding areas should be regularly examined for evidence of infestation.
Note: Insects and rodents are known carriers of pathogenic bacteria from areas of
contamination to prepared foods and food contact surfaces therefore their presence in
food preparation areas should be prevented.
Should pests gain entrance to the establishment, eradication measures should be instituted. Control
measures involving treatment with chemical, physical or biological agents should only be undertaken under
direct supervision of personnel who have a thorough understanding of the potential hazards to health resulting
from the use of these agents including those hazards which may arise from residues retained in the product.
Such measures should only be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the official agency
having jurisdiction. Appropriate records of pesticide usage should be maintained.
Pesticides should only be used if other precautionary measures cannot be used effectively. Before
pesticides are applied, care should be taken to safeguard all food, equipment and utensils from contamination.
After application, contaminated equipment and utensils should be thoroughly cleaned to remove residues prior
to being used again.
CCP-Note: Records of pesticide usage should be kept and periodically checked by a
responsible supervisor.
Storage of Hazardous Substances
Pesticides or other non-food substances which may represent a hazard to health should be suitably
labelled with a warning about their toxicity and use. They should be stored in locked rooms or cabinets used
only for that purpose and disposed and handled only by authorized and properly trained personnel. Extreme
care should be taken to avoid contamination of food. Food containers or containers which are used to handle
food, should not be used to measure, dilute, dispense or store pesticides or other substances.
Except when necessary for hygienic or processing purposes, no substance which could contaminate
food should be used or stored in food handling areas.
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Personnel Effects and Clothing
Personal effects and clothing should not be deposited in food handling areas.
Hygiene Training
Managers of establishments should arrange for adequate and continuing training of every food
handler in hygienic handling of food and in personal hygiene so that they understand the precautions necessary
to prevent contamination in food. Instruction should include relevant parts of this Code.
Medical Examination
Persons who come in contact with food in the course of their work should have a medical
examination prior to their employment if the official agency having jurisdiction, acting on medical advice,
considers that this is necessary, whether because of epidemiological considerations, the nature of food
prepared in a particular establishment of the medical history of the prospective food handler. Medical
examination of a food handler should be carried out at other times when clinically or epidemiologically
Communicable Diseases
The management should take care to ensure that no person, while known or suspected to be suffering
from, or to be a carrier of a disease likely to be transmitted through food or while afflicted with infected
wounds, skin infections, sores, or with diarrhoea, is permitted to work in any food handling area in any
capacity in which there is any likelihood of such a person directly or indirectly contaminating food with
pathogenic microorganisms. Any persons so affected should immediately report to the management that
he/she is ill.
Note: If an employee is restricted from working in a food handling area because of a
communicable disease, he/she should receive clearance from a competent medical
professional before returning to work.
Any person who has a cut or wound should not continue to handle food or food contact surfaces
until the injury is completely protected by a waterproof covering which is firmly secured, and which is
conspicuous in colour. Adequate first aid facilities should be provided for this purpose.
Washing of Hands
Every person engaged in a food handling area should wash his/her hands frequently and thoroughly
with a suitable cleaning preparation under running warm, potable water while on duty. Hands should always
be washed before commencing work, immediately after using the toilet, after handling contaminated material
and whenever else necessary.
Hands should be washed and disinfected immediately after handling any material which might be
capable of transmitting disease, or contaminating food or equipment. Notices requiring hand-washing should
be displayed. There should be adequate supervision to ensure compliance with this requirement.
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Personal Cleanliness
Every person engaged in a food handling area should maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness
while on duty, and should at all times while so engaged wear suitable protective clothing including head
covering and footwear, all of which articles should be cleanable unless designed to be disposed of and should
be maintained in a clean condition consistent with the nature of the work in which the person is engaged.
Aprons and similar items should not be washed and/or dried in food handling or preparation areas.
During periods where food is manipulated by hand, any jewellery that cannot be adequately disinfected should
be removed from the hands. Personnel should not wear any insecure jewellery when engaged in food handling.
Personal Behaviour
Any behaviour which could result in contamination of food, such as eating, use of tobacco, chewing
(e.g. gum, sticks, betel nuts, etc.) or unhygienic practices such as spitting should be prohibited in food
handling areas.
Gloves, if used in the handling of food products, should be maintained in a sound, clean and sanitary
condition. The wearing of gloves does not exempt the operator from having thoroughly washed hands.
Note: Gloves may be useful in protecting the food handler from the product and also
may improve the sanitary handling of food. Torn or punctured gloves should be
discarded to avoid leakage of any accumulated perspiration, which will contaminate
food with high numbers of micro-organisms. Chain mail gloves are particularly
difficult to clean and disinfect because of their construction: careful cleaning followed
by heating or prolonged immersion in disinfectant is necessary. Gloves must be made
from materials suitable for food contact. Some gloves made from reprocessed fibres
may not be suitable when handling food.
Precautions should be taken to prevent visitors to food handling areas from contaminating food.
These may include the use of protective clothing. Visitors should observe the provisions recommended in
paragraphs 5.8, 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7.
Responsibility for ensuring compliance by all personnel with all requirements of paragraphs 6.1 6.9 inclusive should be specifically allocated to competent supervisory personnel.
Raw Material Requirements
No raw materials or ingredient should be accepted by the establishment if known to contain
parasites, microorganisms or toxic, decomposed or extraneous substances which will not be reduced to
acceptable levels by normal plant procedures of sorting and/or preparation or processing.
Raw materials or ingredients should be inspected and sorted prior to the cooking process and where
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necessary laboratory tests should be made. Only clean sound raw materials or ingredients should be used in
preparation of food.
Raw materials and ingredients stored on the premises of the establishment should be maintained
under conditions that will prevent spoilage, protect against contamination and minimize damage. Stocks of
raw materials and ingredients should be supplied frequently and regularly, and excessive quantities should not
be stored.
Chill stored raw foods of animal origin between 1 and 4°C. Other raw foods which require
refrigeration, such as certain vegetables, should be stored at as low a temperature as quality permits.
Note: First in - first out is a good general principle. But age alone may be an imperfect
indication of quality. The history of raw materials in terms of intrinsic quality and
temperature history also needs to be taken into account so that different batches can be
used in proper sequence. For chilled raw materials the colder the storage temperature,
without freezing, the better. Some common human pathogens can grow, albeit slowly, at
chill temperatures. Yersinia enterocolitica can grow very slowly at 0°C, Clostridium
botulinum type E and non-proteolytic types B and F at 3.3°C and Listeria
monocytogenes at 0°C.
Frozen raw materials which are not immediately used should be maintained or stored at or below -18
Prevention of Cross-Contamination
Effective measures should be taken to prevent contamination of cooked and pre-cooked foods by
direct or indirect contact with material at an earlier stage of the process. Raw food should be effectively
separated from cooked and pre-cooked foods. (See also 4.4.1).
Note: Raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish and shellfish and rice are frequently contaminated
with food-borne pathogens when they reach food service establishments. Poultry, for
example, frequently harbours salmonellae which may be spread to surfaces of
equipment, to the hands of workers and to other materials. The possibility of
cross-contamination should always be considered.
Persons handling raw materials or semi-processed products capable of contaminating the end
product should not come into contact with any end product unless and until they discard all protective clothing
worn by them during the handling of raw materials or semi-processed products which have come into direct
contact with or have been soiled by raw materials or semi-processed products and have changed into clean
protective clothing.
Hands should be washed thoroughly between handling products at different stages of processing.
Note: Food handlers can be a source of contamination. For example, cooked
ingredients in potato salad can become contaminated by food handlers during mixing
and preparation. Hazard analysis should therefore include observations of food
handling and hand-washing practices of the kitchen staff.
Potentially hazardous raw products should be processed in separate rooms, or in areas that are
separated by a barrier, from areas used for preparing ready to eat foods.
All equipment which has been in contact with raw materials or contaminated material should be
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior to being used for contact with cooked or pre-cooked foods. It is
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preferable to have separate equipment for handling of raw materials and cooked pre-cooked foods, in
particular apparatus for slicing and mincing.
Use of Water in the Food Process
Raw fruits and vegetables to be used in meals should be thoroughly washed in potable water before
addition to the meals.
Frozen products, especially frozen vegetables can be cooked without thawing. However, large
pieces of meat or large poultry carcasses often do need to be thawed before cooking.
only in:
When thawing is carried out as an operation separated from cooking this should be performed
a) a refrigerator or purpose-built thawing cabinet maintained at a
temperature of 4°C or
b) running potable water maintained at a temperature not above 21°C for a period not exceeding 4
c) a commercial microwave oven only when the food will be immediately transferred to conventional
cooking units as part of a continuous cookingprocess or when the entire, uninterrupted cooking
process takes place in the microwave oven.
CCP Note: Hazards associated with thawing include cross-contamination from drip
and growth of micro-organisms on the outside before the inside has thawed. Thawed
meat and poultry products should be checked frequently to make sure the thawing
process is complete before further processing or the processing time should be
increased to take into account the temperature of the meat.
Cooking Process
Note: The cooking process should be designed to maintain as far as possible the
nutritional value of the food.
Note: Use only fats or oils destined for this purpose. Frying fats and oils should not be
overheated. The temperature is dependent on the nature of the oil or fat used. Follow
the instructions of the supplier or the jurisdictionalrequirements if they exist, but frying
fats or oils should not be heated above 180°C.
Fats and oils should be filtered before each frying operation to remove particles of food
with a filter especially adapted for this purpose. (Deep-fryer should be equipped with a
tap to allow for evacuation of oil from the bottom). The quality of oil or fat should
regularly be checked for odour, taste and smoking colour, and if necessary, changed. If
the quality is suspect, the frying oil can be checked by commercial test kit. If the result
of this test is positive, a sample can be further examined for smoke point, free fatty acids
and especially for polar compounds.
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CCP Note: Frying fats or oils can become dangerous for consumer's health. Quality of
frying fats or oils should be strictly controlled.
Note: Frying fats and oils should not be over-heated. Fats and oils should be changed
immediately as soon as any changes in colour, flavour or odour are evident.
The time and temperature of cooking should be sufficient to ensure the destruction of non-sporing
pathogenic micro-organisms.
Note: Boned rolled joints of meat are convenient for cooking, but the operation of
removing the bone and rolling the meat will transfer microbes from the surface to the
centre, where they are better protected from the heat of cooking. For the safe
production of rare cooked beef, the centre of joints must reach a minimum of 63°C in
order to eliminate contaminating salmonellae.
The proper use of other
time/temperature combinations which would ensure safety is acceptable.
For large poultry carcasses which are not normally cooked to a rare state or eaten rare, and where
salmonellae are also a hazard, salmonellae will be killed if a temperature of 74°C is achieved in the deep thigh
muscle. It is not advisable to stuff the body cavity of large poultry carcasses because (a) the stuffing can be
contaminated with salmonellae and may not achieve a temperature high enough to kill them, and (b) spores of
Clostridium perfringens will survive cooking. Other techniques are available to allow for safe preparation of
stuffed carcasses, such as limiting volume, establishing geometric center time/temperature controls and
immediate removal of stuffing for service or to facilitate cooling. Stuffed birds cool very slowly and
Clostridium perfringens will germinate and multiply during this time. The effectiveness of the cooking
process should be checked regularly by measuring the temperature in the relevant parts of the foods.
When grilled, roasted, braised, fried, blanched, poached, boiled, or cooked products are not intended
for consumption on the day they are prepared, the cooking process should be followed by cooling as quickly as
Portioning Process
Strict conditions of hygiene should apply at this stage in the process. The portioning process should
be completed within the minimum practicable period of time which should not exceed 30 minutes for any
chilled product.
Only well cleaned and disinfected containers should be used.
Containers with lids are preferred so that the food is protected against contamination.
In large scale systems where the portioning process of cook-chilled foods can not be performed in 30
minutes, this portioning should take place in a separate area in which the ambiant temperature should be 15°C.
The temperature of the food should be monitored by temperature probes. The product should be served
immediately or placed in cold storage at 4°C.
Chilling Process and Storage Conditions of Chilled Food
Immediately after preparation chilling should be carried out as quickly and efficiently as possible.
The temperature in the center of the food product should be reduced from 60°C to 10°C in less than
two hours; the product should then be immediately stored at 4°C.
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Epidemiological information indicates that the most important factors
contributing to the occurrence of food-borne disease outbreaks are related to operations
that follow cooking; for instance, if cooling is far too slow, so that any part of the food
stays for a dangerously long time in the temperature range between 60°C and 10°C
where harmful micro-organisms may grow; therefore, the product should not be
maintained in this temperature range for more than 4 hours. Hazard analysis must
assess conditions of chilling.
As soon as the chilling is complete the products should be put into a refrigerator. The temperature
should not exceed +4°C in any part of the product and should be maintained until final use. Regular
monitoring of the storage temperature is necessary.
The storage period between the preparation of chilled food and consumption should not be longer
than five days including both the day of cooking and the day of consumption.
Note: The storage period of five days is directly related to the storage temperature of
Freezing Process and Storage Conditions of Frozen Food
Immediately after preparation freezing should be carried out as quickly and
efficiently as possible.
Cooked-frozen foods should be kept at or below -18°C. Regular monitoring of the storage
temperature is necessary.
Cooked-frozen foods can be stored at or below 4°C but for not more than five days and should not
be refrozen.
Hygienic requirements inside vehicles transporting cooked and precooked foods are also applicable.
During transport the food should be protected against dust and other pollution.
Vehicles and/or containers intended for transporting heated food should be designed to maintain food
at at least 60°C.
Vehicles and/or containers intended for transporting cooked-chilled food should be appropriate for
this transport. The transport vehicle is designed to maintain the temperature of the already chilled food and
not to chill the food. The temperature of the cooked-chilled foods should be maintained at 4°C but may rise to
7°C for a short period during transport.
Vehicles and/or containers intended for transporting cooked-frozen food should be appropriate for
this transport. The temperature of the cooked-frozen food should be maintained at or below -18°C, but may
rise to -12°C for a short period of time during transport.
Page 18 of 18
Reheating and Service
7.10.1 Reheating the food should be carried out rapidly. The reheating process must be adequate: a
temperature of at least 75°C should be reached in the centre of the food within one hour of removing the food
from refrigeration. Lower temperatures may be used for reheating providing the time/temperature
combinations used are equivalent in terms of destruction of microorganisms to heating to a temperature of 75°
Note: Reheating must also be rapid so that the food passes quickly through the
hazardous temperature range between 10°C and 60°C. This will usually require the use
of forced air ovens, infrared or microwave reheaters. The temperature of the heated
food should regularly be checked.
The reheated food should reach the consumer as soon as possible and at a temperature of at least 60
Note: To minimize the loss of the organoleptic properties of the food it should be kept
at or above 60°C for as short a time as possible.
7.10.3 Any food not consumed should be discarded and neither reheated nor returned to chilled or frozen
7.10.4 In self-service establishments the serving system should be such that the foods offered are protected
from direct contamination which could result from the proximity or the action of the consumer. The
temperature of the food should be either below 4°C or above 60°C.
Identification and Quality Control System
7.11.1 Each container of food should be labelled with the date of production, type of food, establishment
name and lot number.
Note: Lot identification is essential for implementing any product recall which may be
required. It is also required to enable the "First-in/First-out Principle" to be
7.11.2 Quality control procedures should be carried out by technically competent personnel who possess an
understanding of the principles and practice of food hygiene, a knowledge of the provisions of this code and
who employ the HACCP approach in the control of hygienic practice.
Note: The control of temperature and time at critical control points is the key to
producing a sound product. Access to a food microbiology laboratory is useful in
establishing the validity of the procedures instituted. Occasional checking at critical
control points serves to monitor the continuing efficacy of the management systems.
7.11.3 Where appropriate for safety a sample of at least 150 g of each item of food taken from each lot
should be kept in a sterile contained at 4°C or below until at least three days after that whole lot has been
consumed. Some organisms do not tolerate freezing and thus refrigeration of samples is recommended in lieu
of freezing. The sample should be obtained from the lot at the end of the portioning period. These samples
should be available for investigation in the event of any suspected food-borne disease.
7.11.4 The health authority will need for its own purposes a record of the catering establishments for which
it is responsible and a registration scheme seems most appropriate.
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