Zenoss Core Administration Guide

Zenoss Core
Administration Guide
Release 6.0.0
Zenoss, Inc.
www.zenoss.com
Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Copyright © 2017 Zenoss, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zenoss, Own IT, and the Zenoss logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Zenoss, Inc., in the United States and other countries. All other
trademarks, logos, and service marks are the property of Zenoss or other third parties. Use of these marks is prohibited without the express written
consent of Zenoss, Inc., or the third-party owner.
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Flash is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Oracle, the Oracle logo, Java, and MySQL are registered trademarks of the Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
RabbitMQ is a trademark of Pivotal Software, Inc.
SNMP Informant is a trademark of Garth K. Williams (Informant Systems, Inc.).
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VMware is a registered trademark or trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions.
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All other companies and products mentioned are trademarks and property of their respective owners.
Part Number: 1611.17.311
Zenoss, Inc.
11305 Four Points Drive
Bldg 1 - Suite 300
Austin, Texas 78726
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Contents
About this guide.......................................................................................................................7
Chapter 1: Using Zenoss Core..........................................................................8
Initial login...................................................................................................................................................8
Interface and navigation............................................................................................................................ 10
Customizing the dashboard........................................................................................................................13
Search......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Navigating the event console.................................................................................................................... 18
Running a command from the browser interface......................................................................................21
Working with triggers and notifications................................................................................................... 22
Advanced user interface configuration......................................................................................................34
Chapter 2: Adding, discovering and modeling devices................................ 36
Add a single device................................................................................................................................... 36
Add multiple devices................................................................................................................................. 37
Discovering devices................................................................................................................................... 37
Modeling devices....................................................................................................................................... 40
About modeler plugins.............................................................................................................................. 42
Debugging the modeling process.............................................................................................................. 43
Chapter 3: Working with devices...................................................................44
Viewing the device list..............................................................................................................................44
Working with devices................................................................................................................................44
Managing devices and device attributes................................................................................................... 54
Chapter 4: Configuration properties............................................................. 60
Configuration property types.....................................................................................................................60
Configuration properties inheritance and override....................................................................................60
Viewing and overriding device properties................................................................................................ 62
Viewing and overriding event properties.................................................................................................. 75
Viewing and overriding network properties..............................................................................................77
Chapter 5: Monitoring templates................................................................... 79
Creating templates......................................................................................................................................79
Renaming templates...................................................................................................................................79
Template binding....................................................................................................................................... 79
Example: Defining templates in the device hierarchy.............................................................................. 81
Example: Applying templates to multiple areas in the device hierarchy..................................................81
Chapter 6: Basic monitoring...........................................................................82
Availability monitoring..............................................................................................................................82
Monitoring using ZenCommand................................................................................................................91
SNMP monitoring...................................................................................................................................... 93
Monitoring devices remotely through SSH...............................................................................................94
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Network map..............................................................................................................................................95
Chapter 7: Performance monitoring..............................................................98
Monitoring templates................................................................................................................................. 99
Template binding....................................................................................................................................... 99
Data sources............................................................................................................................................. 100
Data points............................................................................................................................................... 101
Data point aliases.....................................................................................................................................102
Thresholds................................................................................................................................................ 105
Performance Graphs.................................................................................................................................109
Performance data retention...................................................................................................................... 111
Chapter 8: Event management..................................................................... 112
Basic event fields.....................................................................................................................................112
Other fields...............................................................................................................................................114
Details.......................................................................................................................................................115
De-duplication.......................................................................................................................................... 115
Auto-clear correlation.............................................................................................................................. 116
Event consoles......................................................................................................................................... 117
Event sources........................................................................................................................................... 122
Creating events manually........................................................................................................................ 123
Event classes............................................................................................................................................ 124
Mapping and transformation....................................................................................................................125
Event life cycle........................................................................................................................................ 128
Capturing email messages as events....................................................................................................... 130
SNMP traps and event transforms.......................................................................................................... 131
Chapter 9: Production states and maintenance windows...........................136
Production states...................................................................................................................................... 136
Maintenance windows..............................................................................................................................137
Chapter 10: Organizers and path navigation..............................................140
Classes...................................................................................................................................................... 140
Groups...................................................................................................................................................... 142
Systems.....................................................................................................................................................143
Locations.................................................................................................................................................. 143
Inheritance................................................................................................................................................ 146
Chapter 11: User commands.........................................................................148
Defining global user commands..............................................................................................................148
Running global user commands.............................................................................................................. 149
Defining user commands for a single device..........................................................................................149
Running user commands for a single device.......................................................................................... 150
Defining user commands for all devices in an organizer....................................................................... 150
Running user commands for devices in an organizer............................................................................. 151
User command example: Echo command...............................................................................................151
Chapter 12: Managing users.........................................................................152
Creating user accounts.............................................................................................................................152
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Editing user accounts...............................................................................................................................152
User groups.............................................................................................................................................. 155
Roles......................................................................................................................................................... 156
Device access control lists.......................................................................................................................156
Chapter 13: Reporting...................................................................................159
Organizing reports....................................................................................................................................160
Device reports.......................................................................................................................................... 160
Event reports............................................................................................................................................ 162
Performance reports................................................................................................................................. 163
Graph reports........................................................................................................................................... 170
Multi-Graph reports................................................................................................................................. 172
Creating a custom device report..............................................................................................................176
Scheduling reports....................................................................................................................................177
Chapter 14: ZenPacks....................................................................................178
Displaying the list of installed ZenPacks................................................................................................178
ZenPack information resources............................................................................................................... 179
Preparing to install or upgrade a ZenPack..............................................................................................179
Installing or upgrading a ZenPack.......................................................................................................... 180
Removing a ZenPack...............................................................................................................................181
Creating a ZenPack..................................................................................................................................182
Chapter 15: General administration and settings.......................................183
Events settings......................................................................................................................................... 183
Rebuilding the events index.................................................................................................................... 184
Working with the job manager................................................................................................................185
Appendix A: Using the Appliance Administration menu...........................187
Configure Network and DNS.................................................................................................................. 187
Configure IPv6 Network CIDR...............................................................................................................194
Configure Timezone................................................................................................................................ 194
Change Root Password............................................................................................................................ 195
Change ccuser Password......................................................................................................................... 195
Update System......................................................................................................................................... 196
Change SSL settings................................................................................................................................196
Root Shell.................................................................................................................................................197
Reboot / Poweroff System.......................................................................................................................197
Appendix B: SNMP device preparation...................................................... 199
Net-SNMP................................................................................................................................................ 199
SNMP v3 support.................................................................................................................................... 199
Community information...........................................................................................................................200
System contact information..................................................................................................................... 201
Extra information..................................................................................................................................... 201
Appendix C: Syslog device preparation.......................................................202
Forwarding syslog messages from UNIX/Linux devices........................................................................202
Forwarding syslog messages from a Cisco IOS router...........................................................................202
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Forwarding syslog messages from a Cisco CatOS switch......................................................................203
Forwarding syslog messages using syslog-ng.........................................................................................203
Appendix D: TALES expressions................................................................. 205
Examples.................................................................................................................................................. 205
TALES device attributes..........................................................................................................................206
TALES event attributes........................................................................................................................... 207
Appendix E: Monitoring large file systems................................................. 209
Procedure..................................................................................................................................................209
Glossary.................................................................................................................................210
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About this guide
About this guide
Zenoss Core Administration Guide provides an overview of Zenoss Core architecture and features, as well as
procedures and examples to help use and configure the system.
Related Zenoss Core publications
Title
Description
Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Provides an overview of Zenoss Core architecture and
features, as well as procedures and examples to help
use the system.
Zenoss Core Configuration Guide
Provides required and optional configuration
procedures for Zenoss Core, to prepare your
deployment for monitoring in your environment.
Zenoss Core Installation Guide
Provides detailed information and procedures for
creating deployments of Control Center and Zenoss
Core.
Zenoss Core Planning Guide
Provides both general and specific information for
preparing to deploy Zenoss Core.
Zenoss Core Release Notes
Describes known issues, fixed issues, and latebreaking information not already provided in the
published documentation set.
Zenoss Core Upgrade Guide
Provides detailed information and procedures for
upgrading deployments of Zenoss Core.
Additional information and comments
Zenoss welcomes your comments and suggestions regarding our documentation. To share your comments,
please send an email to docs@zenoss.com. In the email, include the document title and part number. The
part number appears at the end of the list of trademarks, at the front of this guide.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Using Zenoss Core
1
The browser interface of Zenoss Core provides a variety of means for navigating and managing your
environment.
Initial login
The first time you log in to Zenoss Core, you will immediately be taken to a startup wizard where you will
perform the following tasks:
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■
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Set your admin password
Set your personal login
Discover devices (optional)
Add Infrastructure (optional)
1 Launch your Zenoss Core application the first time by clicking on the Virtual Host Name in Control Center.
You will be presented with the following page showing you the initial steps to follow:
Figure 1: Installation Wizard
2 Click Get Started to begin the wizard. The Setup Users page appears.
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Using Zenoss Core
Figure 2: Setup Users
3 Set your admin password and create your personal user account. Click Next. The Network Discovery page
appears.
Figure 3: Network Discovery
4 You can discover devices by setting networks or IP ranges on this page. If you are not ready to discover
devices, you can skip this page and add devices later. For more information about the fields on this page see
Adding, discovering and modeling devices on page 36. When you are ready to continue, click Next. The
Add Infrastructure page appears.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Figure 4: Add Infrastructure
5 You can add devices from different categories on this page. For each device, select the category, type and
enter the connection information. If you are not ready to add devices, you can skip this page. When you are
ready to continue, click Done. You will be taken to the Dashboard view of Zenoss Core.
Note
When you launch Zenoss Core in the future, you will go directly to the login screen.
Interface and navigation
After you install the system and navigate to the interface from your Web browser, the Dashboard appears. The
Dashboard provides at-a-glance information about the status of your IT infrastructure. It is the primary window
into devices and events that the system enables you to monitor.
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Using Zenoss Core
Figure 5: Dashboard
The Dashboard can be customized to display a variety of information including:
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■
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System information resources and other Web pages, such as internal portal pages
Important error-level device events
Geographical high-level view
"Troubled" devices
Devices in a certain production state You can also create additional dashboards that can be cloned from
existing dashboards and can also be restricted to certainly users or user groups.
Key Dashboard and interface areas include:
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■
■
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Navigation menu
User information area
Portlets
System Network Map
Navigation
The Navigation menu lets you access major system features. In addition to the Dashboard, the menu is divided
among several functional areas:
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■
■
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EVENTS- Guides you to the event management area, where you can monitor event status, triggers, and
event transforms. You also can track changes made to events.
INFRASTRUCTURE- Offers access to network infrastructure, including, devices, networks, processes, and
services.
REPORTS- Allows you access to pre-defined and configurable reports.
ADVANCED- Provides access to monitoring templates, collectors, MIBs, system settings, and tuning.
User information area
Figure 6: User information area
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
The user information area offers information and selections:
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■
■
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Search- Search area to find information within the application. Click the down arrow in the search box to
manage your saved searches.
Login ID- The ID of the user currently logged in appears at the far left of this area. Click the ID to edit user
settings, such as authentication information, roles, and groups. (You also can access user settings from the
ADVANCED > Settings > Users page.)
Sign Out- Click to log out of the system.
Help icon - Click to access product documentation.
Portlets
The main content of the Dashboard contains portlets that provide information about the system and
infrastructure.
Available portlets are as follows, listed alphabetically:
Daemon Processes Down
Contains system self-monitoring information.
Device Chart
Allows the display of a graph of multiple data points for a selected device class.
Device Issues
Displays a list of devices associated with color-coded events of critical, error, or warning severity levels. To
view details, click a device name. To go to the event console for the device, click an event.
Figure 7: Device Issues Portlet
Event View
Displays the list of events similar to the view on the Event console.
Google Maps
Shows configured device locations and configured network connections.
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Using Zenoss Core
Figure 8: Google Maps Portlet
HTML Portlet
Displays HTML content. You must use HTML markup in this portlet. If you want to populate a portlet with
content from a specific URL, use the Site Window portlet instead.
Multi-Graph Report
Displays an existing Multi-Graph Report (created by using the Reports page). You can choose a specific
graph group from the multi-graph report and select the time range for the portlet.
Network Map
Displays a network map for a defined network that is being monitored. You can define the refresh interval
and level of depth of the map.
Open Events Chart
Displays a chart of the number of open events grouped by severity. You can define the event class to be
used and the number of past days for which to show events.
Organizers
Choose the root organizer (devices, locations, systems, groups) and then child organizer options are
enabled.
Past Events Line Chart
Displays a line chart of past events grouped by severity. You can define the event class to be used and the
number of past days for which to show events.
Production States
Shows devices assigned to a particular production state. If needed, you can define multiple production states
to display.
Site Window
Initially provides links to resources such as product guides, forums, and training events.
You can customize the portlet to display content from any URL. However, Zenoss recommends that you
keep a portlet with the default URL so that you can stay up-to-date with Zenoss training and product
updates. You can have multiple Site Window portlets defined on your Dashboard.
Watch List
Allows the display of high-level status device classes, groups, systems, event classes, and locations that you
select.
Customizing the dashboard
You can customize the dashboard by:
■
■
Creating multiple dashboards
Selecting the portlets you want to view
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
■
■
■
Arranging portlets
Defining who can view the dashboard
Changing the dashboard column layout
The following image shows the Add menu.
Adding a dashboard
A default admin dashboard is created when you launch the system. Administrators can customize this
dashboard. However, the default dashboard cannot be deleted.
Users that are not administrators initially see a read-only version of the default admin dashboard. Nonadministrators can create dashboards that display distinctive information or are targeted to a specific type of user
or to only themselves. To customize a dashboard, select who can view it, and select and customize portlets to
display the most important information. The number of customized dashboards is not limited.
To create a dashboard:
1 From the Add icon on the Dashboard controls, select New Dashboard.
2 Complete fields in the Add a New Dashboard dialog box as follows:
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Using Zenoss Core
Dashboard Name
When this dashboard name is displayed in the Dashboards drop-down list, the user name who created
it is appended as part of the name. This convention gives everyone who can see the dashboard an
indication of who created it.
Who can view this Dashboard?
Choose who can view this dashboard. To specify a User Group, the group must exist in the system
and the user name used to create this dashboard must be a member of the group. You can only assign
dashboards to groups to which you belong.
Number of Columns
Choose the number of columns to display in the dashboard. The default is 3.
Clone from dashboard
If you want the new dashboard to be a clone of the dashboard you were previously viewing, select the
check box. Otherwise, you begin with a completely blank dashboard.
3 Click Create.
Adding portlets
You can customize your dashboard by adding portlets that display information you are interested in. Your
dashboard can display more than one of the same portlet type. For example, you could have several Device
Chart portlets with each one showing a different device class.
To add a portlet to the Dashboard:
1 Click the Add icon in the top right of the Dashboard main area and select Add portlet.
2 Select a portlet from the drop-down list. The portlet appears at the top right of the Dashboard main area
Arranging portlets
To arrange portlets, click the portlet header and drag the portlet to any location on the dashboard. The other
portlets are automatically rearranged.
Editing the dashboard settings
Customize your dashboard to display a different number of columns or limit access to the dashboard.
1 Click the Action icon in the upper-right side of the dashboard. The Edit Dashboard window appears.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
2 Change the value of the users who can view this dashboard.
3
4
5
6
User groups: To enable a user group to view the dashboard, the group must exist in the system and you
must be logged in with credentials of a member of the user group.
Change the number of columns to use in this dashboard if needed.
To ensure that changes are logged properly, verify the Audit logs setting. Clear the check box if you do not
want logging on any changes.
Select Lock from updates to prevent editing of the dashboard.
Click Save.
Working with portlets
There are several options to control the portlet display.
Figure 9: Dashboard Portlet Controls
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■
■
■
Click the Collapse icon to collapse the portlet so that only the title appears on the dashboard.
Click the Pop Out icon to show the portlet in a full screen view. Click Close to return to the dashboard view.
Click the Edit icon to edit the portlet settings. You can edit the title of the portlet, its height and how often it
refreshes. Some portlets may have additional configuration options. A preview of the portlet is provided on
the right side of the dialog box. Click Save to update the portlet configuration.
Click the Close icon to remove the portlet from the dashboard.
In tabular portlets, you can control the display by sorting columns as well as adding and hiding columns.
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■
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To sort based on a column, hover over the column header and click the arrow to display the sort and display
options.
To add or hide columns, hover over the Columns entry and check or clear the boxes of the columns to add
or hide.
Using Zenoss Core
Search
The Zenoss Core search facility supports locating devices and other system objects, as well as events and
services.
In the Zenoss Core interface, the search feature is part of the user information area. Enter part or all of a name in
the search box at the top right of the interface. The system displays matches, categorized by type.
Figure 10: Search Results
To view all search results, click the indicator at the top of the list.
Figure 11: All Search Results
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
From here, you can display search results by category. Click in the left panel to filter search results by a
selection.
You can save the search to access later.
1 Click Save As (at the bottom left of the Search Results page). The Save Search As dialog box appears.
2 Enter a name for the search, and then click Submit.
You can access saved searches from:
■
■
Action menu located at the bottom of the Search Results page.
Search box located at the top of the interface. Click the arrow, and then select Manage Saved Searches.
Navigating the event console
The event console is the system's central nervous system, enabling you to view and manage events. It displays
the repository of all events that are detected by the system.
To access the event console, click Events in the Navigation menu. The Event Console appears.
Figure 12: Event Console
Sorting and filtering events
You can sort and filter events that appear in the event console to customize your view.
You can sort events by any column that appears in the event console. To sort events, click a column header.
Clicking the header toggles between ascending and descending sort order.
Filter options appear below each column header. A match value can be any full string or a subset of a string,
optionally with the wildcard (*) contained in the values in that column. You can also use "||" (OR), or
"!!" (NOT) expressions to further target your filters. For example, typing !!windows in the Event Class filter
will return all the non-Windows device events.
Figure 13: Event Console filter options
You can filter the events that appear in the list in several ways, depending on the field type:
■
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Resource - Enter a match value to limit the list.
Using Zenoss Core
■
■
■
■
■
■
Component - Enter a match value to limit the list.
Event Class - Enter a match value to limit the list.
Summary - Enter a match value to limit the list.
First Seen - Enter a value or use a date selection tool to limit the list.
Last Seen - Enter a value or use a date selection tool to limit the list.
Count - Enter a value to filter the list, as follows:
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N - Displays events with a count equal to N.
:N - Displays events with a count less than or equal to N.
M:N - Displays events with a count between M and N (inclusive).
M: - Displays events with a count greater than or equal to M.
To clear filters, select Configure > Clear filters.
You also can re-arrange the display order of columns in the event console. Click-and-drag column headers to
change their display.
Creating an actionable view
For users that are not Administrators, an option filters the list of events to show only those that are not read-only
for the user's permission level, and enable the action buttons above the event table header.
To turn on the actionable view, click Configure and select the Only show actionable events check box. The
view is changed to show only events that can have an action performed on them based on the user's permission
level. For more information, see Managing events on page 20.
Saving a custom view
Save a custom event console view by bookmarking it for quick access.
1 Select Configure > Save this configuration.
2 In the dialog box, select the link, and then drag it to the bookmarks area of the browser window.
Figure 14: Saving a custom view (bookmark)
The browser adds a link to the bookmarks list.
3 Change the title of the bookmark to distinguish this event console view.
Refreshing the view
You can refresh the list of events manually or specify that they refresh automatically. To manually refresh the
view, click Refresh. You can manually refresh at any time, even if you have an automatic refresh increment
specified.
To configure automatic refresh, select one of the time increments from the Refresh list. By default, automatic
refresh is enabled and set to refresh each minute.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Figure 15: Automatic refresh selections
Viewing event details
You can view details for any event in the system. To view details, double-click an event row.
Note
Do not double-click on or near the device (resource) name, component, or event class in the row.
Doing this displays details about that entity, rather than information about the event.
The Event Detail area appears.
Figure 16: Event Detail
To see more information about the event, click Event Details.
You can use the Log field (located at the bottom of the area) to add specific information about the event. Enter
details, and then click Add.
Selecting events
To select one or more events in the list:
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■
To select a single event, click a row.
To select multiple events, Ctrl-click each row or Shift-click rows to select a range of events.
To select all events, click Select > All.
Managing events
Use the event console to manage events or add an event. Click an event row and use the following tools to
perform actions.
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Using Zenoss Core
Figure 17: Event Management Options
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Acknowledge the event.
Close the event.
Reclassify the event by associating it with a specific event class.
Return the event to New status (revoke its Acknowledged status).
Reopen the event.
Add a note to the log.
Add an event. This feature is useful for testing a specific condition by simulating an event.
You also can
Running a command from the browser interface
Zenoss Core allows commands to be run though the browser interface. You can run commands on a single
device or on a group of devices.
The system includes several built-in commands, such as ping and traceroute.
To run commands from the browser interface:
1 Navigate to the INFRASTRUCTURE tab.
2 In the Devices list, select one or more devices.
To select a device, click anywhere in the row—except on the link.
3 Click Commands and select a command from the list.
Figure 18: Command Output
You can resize the command output window. You also can stop automatic scrolling by de-selecting the
Autoscroll option at the bottom right corner of the output window.
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Working with triggers and notifications
You can create notifications to send email or pages, create SNMP traps, or execute arbitrary commands in
response to an event. Use notifications to notify other management systems and execute arbitrary commands to
drive other types of integration. How and when a notification is sent is determined by a trigger that specifies a
rule (one or more conditions).
To set up a notification:
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Create a trigger by defining rules.
Create a notification by selecting one or more triggers that cause it to run.
Choose appropriate options and subscribers depending on the notification type.
Working with triggers
Setting up a trigger involves:
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Creating the trigger and the rules that define it
Setting trigger permissions
Creating a trigger
This procedure describes how to create a trigger.
1 Select EVENTS > Triggers.
The Triggers page displays all defined triggers.
2 Click the Add icon.
3 In the Add Trigger dialog, enter a name for the trigger, and then click Submit.
Only uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits, and underscrores are allowed in trigger names.
The trigger is enabled and added to the list.
To complete the trigger, proceed to the next task.
Editing a trigger
This procedure describes how to edit a trigger.
1 Select EVENTS > Triggers.
The Triggers page displays all defined triggers.
2 Open the Edit Trigger dialog box of the trigger to edit.
In the Triggers table, double-click a trigger, or select a trigger and then click the Action icon.
Figure 19: Edit Trigger dialog box
3 Define rules for the trigger, and then click SUBMIT.
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Using Zenoss Core
Trigger rules combine Boolean logic with event values to decide whether to send notifications. A trigger
can use any or all of its rules to make a decision, and each rule can have subordinate rules or branches. If
a trigger rule contains text, note that text string evaluation is case-sensitive, so take this into consideration
when adding a text-based trigger rule.
Note Device production states can change during maintenance windows. If you want the same trigger to
apply during maintenance windows, be sure to edit your trigger to account for all production states that apply
to your trigger.
Setting global trigger permissions
You can set global permissions for viewing, editing, and managing triggers. Global permissions are given to any
user with "manage" permission, which includes:
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Admin, Manager, and ZenManager roles
Trigger owner
Edit global permissions from the Users tab on the Edit Trigger dialog.
Global options are:
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Everyone can view - Provides global view permission.
Everyone can edit content - Provides global update permission.
Everyone can manage users - Provides global manage permission.
Figure 20: Edit Trigger - Users tab
Setting individual trigger permissions
You can grant permissions to individual users.
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■
Write - Select this option to grant the user permission to update the trigger.
Manage - Select this option to grant the user permission to manage the trigger.
To set an individual's trigger permissions:
1 In the Edit Trigger dialog box Users section, choose a user.
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2
3
4
5
Click Add.
Select check boxes for the permissions to assign.
Repeat these steps to add more user trigger permissions.
Click Submit.
To remove an individual's trigger permissions:
1
2
3
4
Select the row of the user's permissions.
Click the Remove icon.
Repeat these steps to remove other user trigger permissions.
Click Submit.
Working with notifications
Setting up a notification includes the following tasks:
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Create the notification.
Define notification content (for email- or page-type notifications).
Define the SNMP trap host (for SNMP trap-type notifications).
Define commands to run (for command-type notifications).
Set notification permissions.
Set up notification schedules.
Creating a notification
This procedure describes how to edit a notification.
1 Select EVENTS > Triggers.
2 In the left panel, select Notifications.
Figure 21: Notifications
The Notifications area includes a table of notifications and a table of notification schedules.
3 Click the Add icon.
4 In the Add Notification dialog, provide a name and specify an action.
a Enter the Id of the notification.
Spaces are not allowed in notification Ids.
b Associate an action with the notification.
For more information, see Notification actions on page 24.
c Click SUBMIT.
To complete the notification, proceed to the next task.
Notification actions
24
Action
Description
Command
Invoke a shell command when events occur. Common uses of this action include:
Using Zenoss Core
Action
Description
■
■
■
Auto-remediation of events. You can use ssh or wincommand to restart services
on Linux and Windows devices.
Integration with external systems. For example, opening tickets in an incident
management system.
Extending alerting mechanisms. Zenoss Core supports email and pagers as alerting
mechanisms "out of the box" through normal alerting rules.
Email
Sends an HTML or text email message to authorized subscribers when an event matches
a trigger rule.
Syslog
Sends a message to the syslog.
SNMP Trap
Sends an SNMP trap when an event matches a trigger rule.
WinCommand
Sends or clears a Windows CMD command.
Editing a notification
This procedure describes how to edit a notification.
1 Select EVENTS > Triggers.
2 In the left panel, select Notifications.
Figure 22: Notifications
The Notifications area includes a table of notifications and a table of notification schedules.
3 Open the Edit Notification dialog of the notification to edit.
In the Notifications table, double-click a notification, or select a notification and then click the Action icon.
Figure 23: Edit Notification
4 Define the settings for the notification.
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For more information, see Notification settings on page 26.
Notification settings
Setting
Description
Enabled
Check the checkbox to enable the notification.
Send Clear
Send a notification when the problem is resolved by a clearing event.
Send only on Initial
Occurrence
Send a notification only when the first triggering event occurs.
Delay (seconds)
The minimum number of seconds to wait before performing a notification. A delay
prevents notifications of transient problems and multiple notifications of the same
problem.
For example, if five events that match the trigger occur in 45 seconds, a delay
of 60 seconds ensures that only one notification is sent. Also, if a triggering
event repeats 15 seconds after the initial event, followed by a clearing event at 45
seconds, a 60-second delay ensures that no notifications are sent.
Repeat (seconds)
The interval between repititions of the notification, in seconds. The notifications
repeat until the triggering event is resolved.
Defining notification content
To define notification content, click the Content tab.
For email-type notifications, you can use the default configuration for the following fields, or customize them:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
26
Body Content Type - Select HTML or text.
Message (Subject) Format - Sent as the subject of the notification.
Body Format - Sent in the notification.
Clear Message (Subject) Format - Sent when a notification clears.
Body Format - Sent when a notification clears.
From Address for Emails - Sent as the sender's email address.
Various SMTP settings - Used to define SMTP host, port, user name, and password. To set these systemwide, use the ADVANCED > Settings page.
Using Zenoss Core
Figure 24: Define notification content (email)
For page-type notifications, you can use the default configuration for the following fields, or customize them:
■
■
Message (Subject) Format - Sent as the subject of the notification.
Clear Message (Subject) Format - Sent when a notification clears.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Figure 25: Edit Notification content (page)
Notification content variables
Within the body of email, page, and command notifications, you can specify information about the current event
in the following form:
'${objectname/objectattribute}'
Note
Do not escape event command messages and event summaries. For example, write this command as:
${evt/summary} (rather than echo '$evt/summary').
Object names can be evt, evtSummary, or urls; or for clearing event context, clearEvt and
clearEventSummary. For each object name, the following lists show valid attributes (for example,
'${evt/DevicePriority}'):
Table 1: evt/ and clearEvt/
28
Value
Description
DevicePriority
value of the priority of the device
agent
Typically the name of the daemon that generated the event. For example,
an SNMP threshold event has zenperfsnmp as its agent.
clearid
id of the event this clear event will clear
component
component this event is related to
count
how many times this event occurred
created
when the event was created
dedupid
dynamically generated fingerprint that allows the system to perform deduplication on repeating events that share similar characteristics
Using Zenoss Core
Value
Description
device
device this event is related to
eventClass
class of this event
eventClassKey
Free-form text field that is used as the first step in mapping an unknown
event into an event class.
eventGroup
Free-form text field that can be used to group similar types of events.
This is primarily an extension point for customization. Currently not used
in a standard system.
eventKey
Free-form text field that allows another specificity key to be used to drive
the de-duplication and auto-clearing correlation process.
eventState
state of the event
evid
unique id for the event
facility
the syslog facility
firstTime
First time that the event occurred.
ipAddress
IP address
lastTime
Most recent time that the event occurred.
manager
value of manager
message
a message communicated by the event
ntevid
windows event id
ownerid
ownerid
priority
syslog priority
prodState
production state of the device
severity
the severity of the event expressed as a number (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)
severityString
the severity of the event expressed as a string (Clear, Debug, Info,
Warning, Error, or Critical)
stateChange
last time that the event status changed
status
the status of the event
summary
a short message summarizing the event
Note
Some of the values in the following table are direct duplicates of fields on evt. For example, uuid
-> evt.evid.
Table 2: eventSummary/ and clearEventSummary/
Value
Description
uuid
evt.evid
occurrence
evt.count
status
evt.eventState
first_seen_time
evt.firstTime
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Value
Description
status_change_time
evt.stateChange
last_seen_time
evt.lastTime
count
evt.count
current_user_uuid
UUID of the user who acknowledged this event
current_user_name
name of the user who acknowledged this event
cleared_by_event_uuid
UUID of the event that cleared this event (for events with status ==
CLEARED)
notes
event notes
audit_log
event audit log
update_time
last time a modification was made to the event
created_time
evt.lastTime
fingerprint
evt.dedupid
event_class
evt.eventClass
event_class_key
evt.eventClassKey
event_class_mapping_uuid
If this event was matched by one of the configured event class mappings,
it contains the UUID of that mapping rule.
actor
event actor
summary
evt.summary
message
evt.message
severity
evt.severity
event_key
evt.eventKey
event_group
evt.eventGroup
agent
evt.agent
syslog_priority
evt.priority
syslog_facility
evt.facility
nt_event_code
evt.ntevid
monitor
evt.monitor
tags
event tags
Table 3: urls/
30
Value
Description
ackUrl
URL for acknowledging the event
closeUrl
URL for closing the event
reopenUrl
URL for reopening the event
eventUrl
URL for viewing the event
Using Zenoss Core
Value
Description
eventsUrl
URL for viewing events for the relevant device, or all events
ZenPacks can define additional notification actions and can extend the context that is available to notifications
to add objects or attributes.
Defining the SNMP trap host
For SNMP trap-type notifications, on the Edit Notification Content tab, provide the following information:
■
■
■
■
SNMP Trap Destination - Specify the host name or IP address to which the trap should be sent.
SNMP Community- Specify the SNMP community. By default, this is public.
SNMP Version- Select v2c (default) or v1.
SNMP Port- Specify the SNMP port. Typically, this is 162.
SNMP traps sent as a result of this notification are defined in the ZENOSS-MIB file. You can find this MIB file
on any Zenoss Core server at $ZENHOME/share/mibs/site/ZENOSS-MIB.txt.
Figure 26: Edit Notification Content (SNMP trap)
Defining commands to run
For command-type notifications, specify the command to run when configured triggers are matched. On the
Edit Notification Content tab, provide the following information:
For SNMP trap-type notifications,
■
■
■
■
Command Timeout - By default, 60 seconds.
Command - Command to run when a trigger is matched.
Clear Command - Optional command to run when the triggering event clears.
Environment variables - Optional field to define any environmental variables.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Figure 27: Edit Notification Content (command)
Global notification permissions
By establishing permissions, you can control which users have the ability to view, manage, and update
notifications. Permissions are granted based on the user's assigned role. The following table lists account roles
and their associated notification permissions:
Role
Permissions
Admin, Manager, ZenManager
Users assigned the Admin, Manager, or ZenManager roles can view,
update, and manage any notification.
Notification owner
When a user creates a notification, that user is designated the owner
of that notification. During the life of the notification, the owner can
view, update, and manage it.
All other users (including those
assigned ZenUser role)
Must be specifically granted permissions through the interface to
view, edit, or manage notifications.
You can set global permissions for viewing, updating and managing a notification. Global permissions are given
to any user with "manage" permission, which includes:
■
■
Admin, Manager, and ZenManager roles
Notification owner
Edit global permissions from the Subscribers tab on the Edit Notification Subscription panel.
Global options are:
■
■
■
Everyone can view - Provides global view permission.
Everyone can edit content - Provides global update permission.
Everyone can manage subscriptions - Provides global manage permission.
Permission checks occur when the data is sent to the browser and when any action occurs. To determine
where a user can make modifications to a particular tab, permission checks are performed on global roles,
32
Using Zenoss Core
then managerial roles, and then individual roles. Any role that provides the required permission will allow that
permission's associated behavior.
Figure 28: Edit Notification
Setting individual notification permissions
You can grant permissions to individual users or groups.
■
■
Write - Select this option to grant the user or group permission to update the notification.
Manage - Select this option to grant the user or group permission to manage the notification.
You can manually enter in the name of a user or group, or select one from the list of options.
Adding notification schedules
You can establish one or more notification schedules for each defined notification. These notification schedules
allow you to receive bulk email notifications at a specific time.
Note
If a notification has a schedule, then notifications are sent only if a schedule is active when a
notification arrives.
To add a schedule:
1 In the Notifications area on the left, select a notification.
2 In the Notification Schedules area on the right, click Add.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Figure 29: Add Schedule Window dialog box
3 In the Add Schedule Window dialog box, enter an identifier for the schedule, and then click Submit.
4 In the Notification Schedules area, double-click the new schedule.
5 In the Edit Notification Schedule dialog box, complete the following fields, and then click Submit.
Field
Description
Enabled
Check the box to enable the schedule.
Start Date
The calendar date of the start of the schedule.
Repeat
The schedule frequency, one of the following values:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Duration (minutes)
Never
Daily
Every Weekday
Weekly
Monthly
First Sunday of the Month
The period of time during which the notification window is active.
Advanced user interface configuration
To access advanced user interface configuration options, select ADVANCED > Settings, and then select User
Interface. Configure options as follows to control how data loads, how much data is loaded, and filter and
search options.
■
■
■
■
■
34
Enable Hyperlinks in Event Fields- Click to enable this option to show hyperlinks in event fields. By
default, this feature is disabled.
Enable Infinite Grids for Events- Disable this option to turn off infinite grids for events. By default, this
feature is enabled.
Enable Infinite Grids for Components- Disable this option to turn off infinite grids for components. By
default, this feature is enabled.
Enable Live Filters- Disable this option to turn off the live filters feature. If you disable this feature, you
will need to press enter on all search and filter inputs.
Enable Incremental Tree Loading on the Infrastructure Page- Enable this option to load the
infrastructure tree one node at a time. If disabled (the default), then the infrastructure tree is loaded all at
Using Zenoss Core
■
■
■
■
■
■
once. You might enable this option if you have a complex hierarchy of organizers and device classes and
want to improve your UI load response time.
Show Tree Event Severity Icons- Disabling this option may speed up page loading.
Load Infrastructure Page's Device Tree from Catalog- Enable this option to load the device tree directly
from the catalog.
Enable Tree Filters- If disabled, then tree filters (the text input area that allows you to filter the information
displayed) are hidden on all pages. This option is enabled by default.
Show Page Statistics- Enable this option to show debugging information. By default, this option is not
enabled.
Default Time Range- Specify the default time range for all graphs. The default amount is Last Hour. Other
possible values include Last 24 Hours, Last Week, Last 30 Days, or Last Year.
Number of Graph Columns- The number of graph columns to display on graphs in the Device Overview
page. Default value is Auto, which means that the number of columns will increase as the browser's width
increases. Other possible values include setting the number of columns to 1, 2, or 3.
Note
■
■
■
■
■
■
Component graphs are always one column regardless of this setting.
Device Grid Buffer Size- Specify the number of device data rows to fetch from the server for each buffer
request. The default buffer size is 100 rows.
Component Grid Buffer Size- Specify the number of component data rows to fetch from the server for each
buffer request. The default buffer size is 25 rows.
Event Console Buffer Size- Specify the number of event rows to fetch from the server for each buffer
request. The default buffer size is 200 rows.
Device Move Job Threshold- Specify the limit at which devices are moved immediately. If the number
of devices to be moved exceeds this threshold, then the move occurs in a job; otherwise, they are moved
immediately. The default value is 5 devices.
Job Notification Refresh Interval- Specify the refresh interval, in seconds, for the job notification dialog .
The default time is 10 seconds.
Job Grid Buffer Size- Specify the number of job data rows to fetch from the server for each buffer request.
The default buffer size is 100 rows.
When complete, click Save.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Adding, discovering and modeling devices
2
Modeling is the process by which the system:
■
■
Populates the device database
Collects information about the devices in the system (such as operating system type or file system capacity)
The system models devices when they are added to the database, either manually or through the discovery
process.
Add a single device
When you manually add a device, information that you provide might conflict with information that the
system discovers about the device. Therefore, you can add a device by providing only the following required
information.
■
■
■
Hostname or IP address - Enter the network (DNS) name or IP address of the device.
Device Class - Select a device class to which this device will belong. For example, if the new device is a
Linux server, then select /Server/Linux.
Collector - By default, this is localhost. Select a collector for the device.
An exception is if you are adding a Cisco router in a device class other than /Network. In this case, before
adding the device, set the value of the zIfDescription configuration property to True. Changing the value
gives you additional information about Cisco routers. By default, this option is set to True for the /Network
class.
without additional information or selections.
1 From the navigation menu, select INFRASTRUCTURE. The Devices page appears.
2 Click the Add Devices icon
and choose Add a Single Device. The Add a Single Device dialog box
appears.
36
Adding, discovering and modeling devices
Figure 30: Add a Single Device
3 Enter information or make selections to add the device.
By default, Model is selected. If you do not want the device to be modeled when it is added, de-select this
option.
4 Optional: To display additional fields that are specific to the chosen device class, click More. For example,
on the expanded page, you can
Enter device-specific details.
■
Edit SNMP settings.
■
Set hardware and operating system information.
■
Add device comments.
5 Click ADD.
6 Optional: To view the Add Device job in progress, click View Job Log in the notification that appears when
you add the device.
When the job completes, the device is added in the selected device class.
■
Add multiple devices
Follow these steps to manually add multiple devices:
1 From the Navigation menu, select Infrastructure. The Devices page appears.
2 From the Add Devices icon
, select Add Multiple Devices. The Add Infrastructure page appears.
3 Select the category, type, and connection information for each device you want to add.
4 Click Add to add the device to the system. You will see the status at the bottom of the page. Continue to add
more devices until you are done.
5 When you have completed adding your devices, click Done.
Discovering devices
You can provide network or IP address range information so that the system can discover your devices.
Follow these steps to discover devices:
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
1 From the Navigation menu, select Infrastructure. The Devices page appears.
2 Click the Add Devices icon
and select Discover Networks from the drop-down list. The Network
Discovery page appears.
3 For each network or IP range in which you want the system to discover devices, enter an address or range.
For example, you might enter a network address in CIDR notation 192.0.2.0/24 or a range of IP
addresses 192.0.2.1-50
Note Trying to add a /16 or /8 network can take a very long time, and may have unintended
consequences.
4 For each network or IP range, specify the Windows, SSH, or SNMP credentials you want Zenoss Core
to use on the devices it discovers. You can enter only one of each. Zenoss Core will attempt to use the
same credentials on each device it discovers within the networks or IP ranges specified, but will not try to
automatically classify the devices.
5 Click Discover. The discovery process iterates through every IP address in the networks and IP ranges you
specify, adding each device that responds to a ping request. Further, the process adds information to any
device that responds to an SNMP, WinRM, or SSH request.
Note Zenoss Core uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key size to encrypt all
passwords, and stores them in the Zope object database.
The system places discovered routers in the device path /Network/Router. Devices are placed in the /
Discovered device class.
Classifying discovered devices
Once discovery is complete, you must move discovered devices (placed, by default, in the /Discovered
class) to an appropriate device class in the hierarchy. Moving devices to their correct hierarchy location makes it
possible for monitoring to begin.
Servers are organized by operating system. If the system discovers Windows devices, for example, you might
choose to relocate them to /Server/Windows. Similarly, you might choose to classify discovered Linux
devices in /Server/Linux (if you want to monitor and model using SNMP), or /Server/SSH/Linux (if
you want to monitor and model using SSH).
To classify discovered devices:
1 Select one or more discovered devices (highlight one or more rows) in the device list.
2 Drag the selected devices to the new device class in the tree view.
38
Adding, discovering and modeling devices
Figure 31: Classifying discovered devices
The Move Devices dialog box appears.
3 Click OK. The list of devices refreshes, and the devices now appear in the newly selected class.
Updating device authentication details
For each device added to the database and set to its proper device class, Zenoss Core may require additional or
different authentication information before it can gather device information and monitor the device.
For example, for a device in the /Server/Windows class, you must supply your Windows user name and
password before the system can monitor the device. To do this:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Click a device name in the devices list. The Device summary page appears.
Select Configuration Properties from the left panel.
Double-click the zWinRMUser configuration property to display the Edit Config Property dialog.
Enter your Windows user name in the Value field, and then click Submit.
Double-click the zWinRMPassword configuration property to display the Edit Config Property dialog.
Enter your Windows password in the Value field, and then click Submit.
Similarly, for a device in the /Server/SSH/Linux class, you must supply your SSH user name and
password. Set these values in the device's zCommandUsername and zCommandPassword configuration
properties.
Note
valid.
After making changes, you should remodel the device to ensure the authentication changes are
Note Zenoss Core uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key size to encrypt all
passwords, and stores them in the Zope object database.
Adding or editing information on a device record
To add or edit information:
1 Click a device name in the devices list. The Device overview page appears.
2 You can select values to change, or click the "edit" link adjacent to a label to edit that value. Enter or change
information in one or more areas, and then click Save to save your changes.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Modeling devices
To model devices, the system can use:
■
■
■
SSH
WinRM
SNMP (legacy option)
Note
SSH and WinRM are the recommended options.
The modeling method you select depends on your environment, and on the types of devices you want to model
and monitor.
By default the system remodels each known device every 720 minutes (12 hours).
Note
You can change the frequency with which devices are remodeled. Edit the value of the Modeler Cycle
Interval in the collector's configuration.
For larger deployments, modeling frequency may impact performance. In such environments, you should
set the startat configuration setting inside the zenmodeler.conf file to change the scheduling of the
daemon. The startat value only dictates the initial start time of zenmodeler. Each subsequent run interval
is determined by the zenmodeler cycle time (number of minutes between runs) configured on the daemon
settings page inside the parent's collector folder which can be accessed in Control Center. See the following KB
article for more information: How To Edit The Zenmodeler File To Configure Model Scheduling In Zenoss 5.x
Configuring Windows devices to provide data through SNMP
To monitor Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 systems, Zenoss Core uses SNMP v1/v2 or WinRM. (There is
no SNMP v3 support.) For Windows 2012, there is no SNMP support.
By default, Windows may not have SNMP installed. To install SNMP on your particular version of Windows,
please refer to the Microsoft documentation.
After setting up and configuring the SNMP service, you must set the zSnmpCommunity string in Zenoss Core to
match, to obtain SNMP data.
If you want processor and memory monitoring, install SNMP-Informant on the device.
To collect Windows event logs or log files from a Windows box using syslog, install the SyslogAgent
Windows add-on.
Configuring Linux devices to provide data through SNMP
To configure a Linux machine for monitoring, it must have SNMP installed. A good Linux SNMP application is
net-snmp. Download, install, and configure net-snmp to then use SNMP to monitor Linux devices.
Modeling devices using SSH/COMMAND
You can gather additional information by running commands on the remote device and interpreting the results.
This provides a more scalable and flexible way to gather information that may not be available through any
other means.
Each built-in modeling command plugin is differentiated by the platform on which it runs. To determine the
platform for the device you want to model, run the uname command in a shell on the device.
40
Adding, discovering and modeling devices
To model a device using command plugins, first add the device by using the protocol "none," and then choose
the plugins you want to apply:
1 From the Navigation menu, select Infrastructure.
2 Click the Add Devices
icon and select Add a Single Device from the drop-down list. The Add a Single
Device window appears.
3 Enter values for Name or IP and Device Class.
4 Clear the Model Device option.
5 Click Add.
6 After adding the device, select the device name in the devices list. The Device Overview page appears.
7 In the left panel, select Configuration Properties.
8 If necessary, set the values of the zCommandUsername and zCommandPassword configuration properties to
the user name and password of the device (or set up authentication by using RSA/DSA keys.)
Note
~/.ssh/id_rsa
9 In the left panel, select Modeler Plugins. The list of plugins appears. The left column displays available
plugins; the right column shows those currently selected.
10 Select zenoss.cmd.uname from the Available list, and then use the right arrow control to move it to the
Selected list on the right. Use the controls to place it at the top of the list.
Figure 32: Add plugin
11 Use the left arrow control to move the other Selected plugins from the Selected list to the Available list.
12 Click Save.
13 Model the device by clicking the Model Device button.
Using device class to monitor devices using SSH
The /Server/Cmd device class is an example configuration for modeling and monitoring devices using SSH.
The zCollectorPlugins have been modified (see the section titled "Modeling Using SSH/Command"), and the
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
device, file system, and Ethernet interface templates used to gather data over SSH have been created. You can
use this device class as a reference for your own configuration; or, if you have a device that needs to be modeled
or monitored via SSH/Command, you can place it in this device class to use the pre-configured templates and
configuration properties. You also must set the zCommandUsername and zCommandPassword configuration
properties to the appropriate SSH login information for each device.
Modeling devices using port scan
You can model IP services by doing a port scan, using the Nmap Security Scanner. You must provide the full
path to your system's nmap command.
To determine where nmap is installed, at the command line, enter:
which nmap
If your system returns a result similar to:
/usr/bin/which: no nmap in (/opt/zenoss/bin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/
bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/opt/zenoss/bin)
then nmap is not installed. Install it, and then try again.
After locating the nmap command (including the directory beginning with /), enter the following as the
zenoss user on the Zenoss Core server:
cd $ZENHOME/libexec ln -s
Full_Path_to_nmap
Note
To execute a command using $ZENHOME (/opt/zenoss for the zenoss user), you must be attached
to the container holding the Zenoss Core application. See the Control Center documentation for serviced
commands.
To model a device using a port scan:
1 Select the device in the device list.
2 In the left panel, select Modeler Plugins.
3 Select the zenoss.nmap.ipServiceMap plugin in the list of Available plugins, and then use the right
arrow control to move it to the list of Selected plugins.
4 Click Save.
5 Remodel the device by clicking the Model Device button.
Using the /Server/Scan device class to monitor with port scan
The /Server/Scan device class is an example configuration for modeling devices by using a port scan. You can
use this device class as a reference for your own configuration; or, if you have a device that will use only a port
scan, you can place it under this device class and remodel the device.
About modeler plugins
Zenoss Core uses plug-in maps to map real world information into the standard model. Input to the plug-ins can
come from SNMP, SSH or Telnet. Selection of plug-ins to run against a device is done by matching the plug-in
name against the zCollectorPlugins configuration property.
42
Adding, discovering and modeling devices
■
■
■
■
■
DeviceMap– Collects basic information about a device, such as its OS type and hardware model.
InterfaceMap– Collects the list of network interfaces on a device.
RouteMap– Collects the network routing table from the device.
IpServicesMap– Collects the IP services running on the device.
FileSystemMap– Collects the list of file systems on a device.
Viewing and editing modeler plugins for a device
Plugins are controlled by regular expressions that match their names. To view a list of plugins for any device:
1 Click the device name in the devices list.
2 In the Device summary page, select Modeler Plugins.
The Modeler Plugins page appears.
Adding plugins
To add a plugin to a device:
1 Use the right arrow control to move one or more plugins from the Available list (on the left) to the Selected
list (on the right).
2 Click Save.
Reordering plugins
Plugins run in the order in which they are listed. To re-order plugins, use the up and down arrow controls, and
then click Save.
Deleting plugins from a device
To delete a plugin from a device, use the left arrow control to move the plugin from the Selected list to the
Available list.
Debugging the modeling process
You can run the modeler from the command line against a single device. This feature is useful when debugging
issues with a plugin.
By passing the --collect command to the modeler, you can control which modeler plugins are used. For
example, the following command runs only the interface plugin against the build.zenoss.loc device:
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Attach to the zenmodeler service.
serviced service attach zenmodeler
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Run the zenmodeler command.
$ zenmodeler run -v10 --collect=IpInterface -d build.zenoss.loc
If the command returns any stack traces, check the community forums for assistance.
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Zenoss Core Administration Guide
Working with devices
3
This chapter provides information and procedures for managing devices in the system.
Viewing the device list
The device list shows all devices in the system. From this view, you can search for devices and perform a range
of management tasks on all devices.
To access the device list, from the navigation menu, select INFRASTRUCTURE.
Devices hierarchy
Devices are organized in the tree view by:
■
■
■
■
Devices
Groups
Systems
Locations
Click the indicator next to each category name to expand it and see included devices.
Managing multiple devices from the device list
You can perform some management tasks for more than one device at a time. You can:
■
■
■
■
■
Move devices to a different class
Assign devices to groups, systems, and locations
Remove devices
Perform actions such as assigning priority, production state, or collector
Lock devices
Working with devices
To view details for a single device, click its name in the device list. The device overview page appears.
44
Working with devices
Figure 33: Device overview
Event status is shown in the "event rainbow" at the top of the page. Other key information that appears at the top
of the device overview page includes:
■
■
■
■
■
Device name
IP address used to communicate with the device
Device status (shows the current results of a ping test)
Production state (Pre-Production, Production, Test, Maintenance, or Decommissioned)
Priority
When you open the page, device overview information displays. This view provides classification and status
information. From here, you can edit device information (indicated by text fields or edit links). Editable fields
include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Device Name
Production State
Priority
Tag
Serial Number
Rack Slot
Collector
Hardware and software manufacturer and model
Systems
Groups
Location
The Links area displays links between the device and other external systems. Click Show Links to view the
links.
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The left panel of the device overview page allows you to access other device management views, such as:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Events
Components
Graphs (Performance)
Component Graphs
Modeler Plugins
Software
Custom Properties
Configuration Properties
Device Administration
Monitoring Templates
Information that appears here varies depending on device type.
Dynamic view
Zenoss Core provides a dynamic visualization of system objects and their relationships to other objects.
You can access a dynamic view from a device overview, a group, a system, or a location. Depending on the
object type, different relationships are illustrated. Each dynamic view shows related objects in a graph. Each
object in that graph displays its associated event information.
Figure 34: Dynamic view
When you click an object in the graph, the "inspector" panel appears. This panel provides detailed information
about the object and links directly to it. Information that appears in the inspector depends on the object type
selected.
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Working with devices
Figure 35: Dynamic view: Inspector panel
View controls appear to the right of the graph. These allow you to adjust your view:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Overview - Toggles display on and off of the graph overview illustration.
Magnifier - Toggles on and off the magnifier, which allows you to magnify selected portions of the graph.
Zoom In - Zooms in on the graph.
Zoom Out - Zooms out on the graph.
Fit View - Fits the graph to the browser page.
Save Image - Saves the dynamic view as a .png image.
Refresh - Refreshes the graph.
Figure 36: Dynamic view controls
Events
Detailed information about events, scoped to the device, appears in the Events view. From here, you can:
■
■
■
Sort event and event archive information by a range of categories
Classify and acknowledge events
Filter events by severity, state, or by one of several categories
Components
The Components view provides information about the different types of device components, including:
■
IPService
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■
■
■
■
■
WinService
IpRouteEntry
IpInterface
CPU
FileSystem
To access components information, select Components in the left panel, and then select a component type. The
components available will vary based on the type of device.
Figure 37: Device (Components)
The status of each device component type, as shown by the color of its indicator, is determined by the collective
status of the monitored components of the same type. For example, if the IpService status is green, then
all monitored IpServices on the device are functioning normally. If there is an event related to a monitored
IpService, then the highest severity event associated with that component is displayed.
Note
Other.
If there is an event unrelated to a known component, then the system places it in the component type
From this view, you can:
■
■
■
Lock components
Turn on or off component monitoring
Delete components
Disabling component monitoring
There may be occasions when you want to stop monitoring certain components of your monitored resources.
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Working with devices
To disable monitoring on one or more components:
1
2
3
4
On the Device overview page, select the component group.
In the Component list, select the components for which you want to disable monitoring.
Click Action > Monitoring.
Click NO to disable monitoring.
You may want to clean up the Event log of any events that were created by these components prior to the
disabling of monitoring, see Closing events on page 122.
Graphs (Performance)
The Graphs view shows performance graphs that are defined for the device or component. To access graphs, in
the left panel, select Graphs.
Figure 38: Performance Graph (Device)
You can control the following performance graph options:
■
■
Time range controls - To narrow or expand the size of the time range, click Zoom In/Zoom Out. To scroll
through time on the graph, click the forward and back arrowheads. Clicking these controls automatically puts
you into a custom time range. You can also Zoom In and center around a graph point by clicking the point
inside the graph. This will center the graph around the selected point. If there are other graphs displayed in a
view, they will also be affected by any change to the range.
Range - Select the span of time that the graph displays, as follows:
Last Hour
Last 24 Hours
■
Last Week
■
Last 30 days
■
Last Year
■
Custom - Select the Start and End time to display. To set the end time to the current time, check Now.
After changing a custom range setting, click Refresh to update the graph.
Refresh - To modify the refresh value (by default, 30 minutes), click the drop-down list. If you sett the
refresh rate to manual, click Refresh each time you want an updated graph.
■
■
■
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■
■
Pop-out - To render the current graphs in full-screen mode, click the icon in the upper right corner of the
page.
Action (gear) - To open a submenu of the following actions, click the icon in the upper right corner of the
graph.
Definition - View the JSON definition.
Export to CSV - Export the datapoints as a .csv file for use in a spreadsheet. Only data contained in the
defined range will be included.
■
Link to this Graph - Generate a link to this graph to save in browser bookmarks or use the URL to
directly point to the graph in another Web page or dashboard. For example, to show the graph in the
Dashboard, create a Site Window portlet and insert the URL to the graph.
■
Expand graph - Render the current graph in full-screen mode.
Table Legend - To highlight a particular data set, hover the pointer over a legend description. To toggle
the displayed legend description, click it. A solid dot indicates that data will be displayed. A hollow dot
indicates data will be hidden.
■
■
■
For more information about performance monitoring and performance graphs, see Performance monitoring on
page 98.
Component graphs
The component graphs view shows component graphs defined for the device. To access these graphs, select
Component Graphs in the left panel. The following figure shows a fabric extender temperature graph that has
all metrics displayed on the same graph.
Figure 39: Component graph (Device)
Note
To narrow or expand the size of the time range, click Zoom In/Zoom Out. To scroll through time on
the graph, click the forward and back arrowheads. Clicking these controls automatically puts you into a custom
time range. You can also Zoom In and center around a graph point by clicking the point inside the graph. This
will center the graph around the selected point. If there are other graphs displayed in a view, they will also be
affected by any change to the range.
You can control these component graph options:
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Working with devices
■
■
■
Component Type - Drop-down of available components based on the type of device being monitored.
Graph - Drop-down of available graphs based on the selected component type.
All on Same Graph? - Select this check box to display all the metrics on one graph. Clear this check box to
have a separate graph for each metric.
Modeler plugins
Use the Modeler Plugins view to manage plugins that are run against a device. To access plugins, select Modeler
Plugins in the left panel.
Figure 40: Device (modeler plugins)
Software
The Software view lists software installed on the device. The details provided in this area depend on the method
used to model the device.
Listed software links into the system's inventory of software in your IT infrastructure. You can view this
inventory from the Manufacturers link on the sub-navigation menu.
To access software information, select Software in the tree view.
Custom properties
Use the Custom Properties view to edit the values of custom properties associated with a device.
To display the Custom Properties view, click on a device name in the device list, and then select Custom
Properties in the left panel. You can perform the following actions on custom properties:
■
■
Add
Edit
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■
■
Refresh
Delete
Figure 41: Device (custom properties)
Note
The Custom Properties view allows you to edit the value of a custom property on an individual device,
but not to define new custom properties for device classes. For more information about custom properties, refer
to knowledge base article "How To Add Custom Properties" on the Zenoss Support site.
Configuration properties
From the Configuration Properties view, you can set certain configuration properties for a device, and delete
local properties from a device.
To access configuration properties, in the left pane, choose Configuration Properties.
Figure 42: Device (configuration properties)
For information about working with configuration properties, see Configuration properties on page 60.
Device administration
Use the Device Administration view to:
■
52
Add, delete, and run custom user commands
Working with devices
■
■
Manage maintenance windows
Determine who holds administration capabilities for the device, and their roles
To access administration options, select Device Administration in the left panel.
Figure 43: Device administration
For more information about device administration tasks, see the following topics:
■
■
■
■
Maintenance windows on page 137
Defining user commands for a single device on page 149
Defining user commands for all devices in an organizer on page 150
Adding administrators on page 154
Overriden objects
Use the Overriden Objects view to see the objects that have overrides on their configuration properties. This
view is available when looking at details of all devices.
To display the Overriden Objects view, navigate to the Infrastructure > Devices pages and click Details. Then,
click Overriden Objects from the left-column menu.
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Select a configuration property from the drop-down list to view the overridden objects for that property. Doubleclick the row of the overriding object to open an edit dialog box.
Note
Do not click the link of the overriding object. You will be taken to that object's page in the
infrastructure view. Instead, double-click the clear area of the row of the overriding object to view the Edit
Configuration Property dialog.
Monitoring templates
Monitoring templates determine how the system collects performance data for devices and device components.
To access monitoring templates, expand Monitoring Templates in the left panel, and then select Device. The
page shows all of the monitoring templates that are bound by name to this device.
Figure 44: Device (monitoring templates)
For detailed information about monitoring templates, see Performance monitoring on page 98.
Managing devices and device attributes
Read the information and procedures in this section to learn about specific device management tasks, including:
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Working with devices
■
■
■
■
■
■
Clearing heartbeat events
Pushing configuration changes to the system
Locking device configuration
Renaming devices
Remodeling devices
Setting the device manage IP address
Clearing heartbeat events
If you have devices configured to send a recurring event that is mapped to a heartbeat class, you can clear stale
heartbeat events.
To clear the heartbeat events associated with a device:
1 Navigate to ADVANCED > Settings.
2 In the left panel, select EVENTS.
3 At the bottom of the Event Configuration page, click the Clear button in the Clear Event Heartbeats section.
The system displays a brief message banner.
Locking device configuration
You can lock a device's configuration to prevent changes from being overwritten when remodeling the device.
Two levels of locking are available. You can lock the configuration from deletion and updates, or solely from
deletion.
Note
Device locking prevents changes and deletion due to remodeling. It does not prevent manual changes
and deletion.
To edit lock selections for a device configuration:
1 Navigate to the device in the device list.
2 At the bottom of the device overview page, select Locking from the Action menu. The Lock Device dialog
box appears.
Figure 45: Lock Device Dialog
3 Select the type of lock you want to implement or remove.
4 To send events when actions are blocked by a lock action, select the "Send an event..." option. The lock or
unlock action is implemented on the device, and the system displays a confirmation message of the action.
Renaming a device
Because the system uses the manage IP to monitor a device, the device name may be different than its fully
qualified domain name (FQDN). The device name must always be unique in the system.
To rename a device:
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1 Navigate to the device in the device list. Click the device name.
2 On the device overview page, edit the Device Name field with the new device name.
3 Click Save. The system renames the device and displays a confirmation message of the action.
Re-identifying a device
Changing the device ID in the system is different from changing the device name. If you change the ID, you
must associate existing performance data with the new device ID; otherwise, you lose the data for this device.
However, the re-association process takes time, and during processing, metrics are not collected or graphed for
this device.
You have the option of deleting existing performance data and starting fresh with the new device ID. Collection
of new performance data begins immediately.
1
2
3
4
5
Navigate to the device in the device list and click the device name.
At the bottom of the device overview page, click the Action menu and choose Reidentify Device.
In the Reidentify Device dialog box, enter a new ID for the device.
Choose whether to re-associate existing performance data for the device or delete it.
Click SUBMIT.
On successful completion of the job, collection resumes automatically and no further action is required.
6 Only if the job fails, manually resume data collection for the device as follows:
a Log in to the Zenoss Core user interface as a user with ZenManager privileges.
7 At the bottom of the device overview page, click the Action menu and choose Resume Collection.
Remodeling a device
Remodeling forces the system to re-collect all configuration information associated with a device. Normally, the
system models devices every 720 minutes; however, if you want to remodel a device immediately, follow these
steps:
1 Navigate to the device in the device list and click on the Device name.
2 At the bottom of the Device Overview page, click the Model Device button. The system remodels the
device. A dialog box appears that shows progress of the action.
Resetting the device manage IP address
You might reset the manage IP address if the IP address of a device changed and you want to maintain the
historical data at the original IP address. To reset the manage IP address of a device:
1 Navigate to the device in the device list.
2 At the bottom of the device overview page, select Reset/Change IP Address from the Action menu. The
Reset IP dialog box appears.
Figure 46: Reset IP dialog box
3 Enter the new IP address for the device, or leave the field blank to allow the IP address to be set by DNS.
4 Click Save. The IP address for the device is reset.
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Working with devices
Deleting a device
To delete a device from the system:
1 Navigate to the INFRASTRUCTURE page.
2 Select the device you want to remove from the system by clicking on its row. You can select multiple
devices by Ctrl-clicking or Shift-clicking the devices. Be sure to click on the row in an area that is not
defined by a link. The Delete Device dialog appears.
Figure 47: Delete Device
3 Optional: Change the selection to close current events for the device. By default, event data is removed.
4 Click Submit. The system removes the devices and associated data (if selected), and displays a confirmation
message of the action.
Exporting device list to load into another system
Use the zenbatchdump command to write the names of your devices, their device classes, locations, groups,
and systems to a text file. You can then use the zenbatchload command to import the devices into another
system instance.
The following command options might be helpful. For information about all options, run the following
command:
zenbatchdump -- help
■
--root=ROOT - The default path is /Devices. Use this option to set the root device path to dump. For
example,
/Devices/Servers
/Devices/Network/Cisco/Nexus
■
■
--prune - Specifies whether device classes should only be dumped if they are part of the root path.
--noorganizers - Specifies whether organizers, such as device classes and groups, should be dumped.
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Start a shell in a Zope service container.
serviced service shell zope
This command mounts /mnt/pwd so you can use files that exist on the host.
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Export the device list to the text file.
zenbatchdump -o mydevicelist.txt
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This command writes the names of your devices, their device classes, locations, groups, and systems to a file
named mydevicelist.txt.
5 If you plan to use the text file in a batch load on another system, copy the file to that host.
6 Exit from the zenoss user shell in the container.
exit
7 Exist from the Zope container shell.
exit
Batch loading or modifying devices
Use the zenbatchload command to load devices into the system or modify device properties. The utility
creates new device classes automatically, and by default, models each device.
Before you can load or modify devices, you need a text file to use as input. You can use a file created by the
batch dump utility (zenbatchdump), or create a text file that specifies the following information for each
device:
■
■
■
Zenoss Core device class where the device should be loaded, for example, Linux SSH or SNMP, Windows
WMI or WinRM, Network, Storage.
Device name (resolvable hostname for the device or IP address and descriptive name).
Optional: Provide additional data for device classes or individual devices; for example, login credentials,
specific IP address if DNS resolution is not available, and the collector on which to load the device.
Configuration file syntax is as follows.
/Devices/Destination/Device/Class
Hostname | IP-Address [option='value' [, option='value'] …]
Hostname | IP-Address [option='value' [, option='value'] …]
The following command options might be helpful. For information about all options or a sample configuration
file, run the following commands:
zenbatchload -- help
zenbatchload -- sample_configs
■
■
--nocommit - Perform a test run of the batch load process; do not commit changes to the ZODB. If
necessary, edit your configuration file.
--nomodel - Do not model the remote devices. You must be able to commit changes to the ZODB.
The following example shows SNMP, SSH, and Windows monitored devices:
/Devices/Server
zSnmpCommunity='underwriting'
/Devices/Server/Linux
linuxsnmp.hypothetical.loc
/Devices/Server/Microsoft/Windows zWinKDC='winkdc.hypothetical.loc',
zWinRMPassword='Zenny456', zWinRMUser='zenmonitor@hypothetical.loc'
windows.hypothetical.loc
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Working with devices
/Devices/Server/SSH/Linux zCommandPassword='Zenny123',
zCommandUsername='zenmonitor'
linuxssh.hypothetical.loc
/Devices/Server/Linux/WordPress zDeviceTemplates=['Device', 'Apache']
wordpress.hypothetical.loc
For additional ways to add and discover devices, see Adding, discovering and modeling devices on page 36.
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Start a shell in a Zope service container.
serviced service shell zope
This command mounts /mnt/pwd so you can use files that exist on the host.
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Load devices and components that are listed in a text file into Zenoss Core.
zenbatchload mydevicelist.txt
5 Exit from the zenoss user shell in the container.
exit
6 Exist from the Zope container shell.
exit
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Configuration properties
4
Configuration properties are individual values that you can set up on major system entities.
■
■
■
Devices Device configuration properties control the way that devices are monitored.
Events Event configuration properties control the rules that process events as they are received by the
system.
Networks Network configuration properties control options that are used when you perform network
discovery.
To customize the system when you add ZenPacks, you can add configuration properties and values to your
ZenPacks.
Configuration property types
Configuration properties are one of the following types:
■
■
■
■
■
■
String - Text value that can be ASCII or Latin-1 encoded
Integer - Whole number
Float - Number that can have a decimal value
Boolean - True or False
Lines - List of values separated by a return. The system stores these as an array.
Password - Character-masked password value
Configuration properties inheritance and override
The following diagram illustrates a portion of the standard device class hierarchy. A device class is a type of
organizer that manages how the system models and monitors devices. At the root of the device hierarchy is the
Devices object, under which all device class configuration properties are defined. Property values at the root
level provide the default values for the entire hierarchy.
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Configuration properties
Figure 48: Device class hierarchy
The illustration shows the following defined configuration properties:
■
■
zPingMonitorIgnore- Turns off all daemons that use ping. By default, its value at the root of the hierarchy
is False.
zSNMPMonitorIgnore - Turns off all daemons that use SNMP. By default, its value at the root of the
hierarchy is True.
Through inheritance, properties that are defined at the root of the hierarchy apply to all objects beneath that
node. So, at the /Devices/Server/Linux level of the device class hierarchy, the value of these two
properties is the same as at /Devices, even though the property is not set explicitly at /Devices/Server/
Linux. Inheritance simplifies system configuration because default values that are set at the root level apply to
all devices regardless of their device class.
To further customize the system, you can change a specific configuration property at a lower level of the
hierarchy without changing the definitions of other configuration properties. As shown in the following
illustration, the value of zPingMonitorIgnore is changed so that ping monitoring is performed at the /
Devices/Server/Windows level.
Figure 49: Device class hierarchy - locally defined value (override)
This locally defined value for zPingMonitorIgnore overrides the value that is set at the root of the
hierarchy. No other properties at this level are affected by this local change; they continue to inherit the value
that is set at the root.
Configuration properties allow you to configure the system at a very granular level, down to a particular device.
For example, in the following illustration, for the device named dev.zenoss.com, the value of SNMPCommunity
set to private. This value overrides the root value of public.
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Figure 50: Device class hierarchy - value set on device
If you change the SNMPCommunity value of dev.zenoss.com to public, it matches the value that is set at the
root, but is still explicitly defined. Only if you remove the locally defined property does it again inherit the value
of the property that is set at the root.
Viewing and overriding device properties
This section further illustrates the characteristics of configuration properties from the browser interface
perspective.
To view configuration properties:
1 From the navigation bar, choose INFRASTRUCTURE.
2 In the tree view, click DETAILS > Configuration Properties. The Configuration Properties page for the
selected device class appears.
The following figure shows device configuration properties that are defined at the root level. The
zCollectorClientTimeout configuration property has a default value of 180.
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Configuration properties
Figure 51: Defined device configuration properties - root level
In the following figure, the zCollectorClientTimeout configuration property value is set to 170 at
the /Server/Linux device class. The device class value overrides the default value at this node of the
hierarchy.
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Figure 52: zCollectorClientTimeout configuration property - local value set
3 To remove the override and once again inherit the value from the root of the hierarchy:
a Select the property in the list.
b Click Delete Local Copy and, when prompted, click OK.
Device configuration properties
The following table lists device configuration properties. For information about accessing device configuration
properties, see Viewing and overriding device properties on page 62.
Table 4: Device configuration properties
64
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zAggregatorCollectionInterval
int
Aggregator collection interval in seconds. Default is
300.
zCiscoACEUseSSL
boolean
Whether to use SSL when connecting to ACE XML
API.
zCiscoNXAPIInterval
int
Value in seconds of the rediscovery interval using the
Cisco NX-API protocol. Default value is 300.
zCiscoNXAPIPort
int
Port for connecting to NX-API.
zCiscoNXAPIUseSSL
boolean
Whether to use SSL when connecting to NX-API.
zCiscoRemodelEventClassKeys
lines
Allows you to modify the list of SNMP traps that will
cause the product schedule an immediate remodeling of
the device from which the trap was sent.
zCiscoUCSCIMCEventsInterval
int
Event collection interval in seconds. Default is 60.
zCiscoUCSCIMCPerfInterval
int
Metric collection interval in seconds. Default is 300.
zCiscoUCSCIMCSSLProtocol
string
The SSL/TLS protocol used to connect to a CIMC
device.
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zCiscoUCSManagerPassword
password
Password for UCS Manager user name.
zCiscoUCSManagerPerfInterval
int
Seconds between UCS Manager statistics collections.
Default value is 300.
zCiscoUCSManagerPort
int
Port used to connect to the UCS Manager or CIMC
XML APIs. Default is 443 and typically should not be
changed.
zCiscoUCSManagerUseSSL
boolean
Whether to use SSL when connecting to the UCS
Manager or CIMC XML APIs. Default is true and
typically should not be changed.
zCiscoUCSManagerUser
string
UCS Manager user name.
zCollectorClientTimeout
int
Allows you to set the timeout time of the collector
client in seconds
zCollectorDecoding
string
Converts incoming characters to Unicode.
zCollectorLogChanges
boolean
Indicates whether to log changes.
zCommandCommandTimeout
float
Specifies the time to wait for a command to complete.
zCommandExistanceTest
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zCommandLoginTimeout
float
Specifies the time to wait for a login prompt.
zCommandLoginTries
int
Sets the number of times to attempt login.
zCommandPassword
password
Specifies the password to use when performing
command logins and SSH.
zCommandPath
string
Sets the default path where ZenCommand plug-ins are
installed on the local Zenoss Core box (or on a remote
box where SSH is used to run the command).
zCommandPort
int
Specifies the port to connect to when performing
command collection.
zCommandProtocol
string
Establishes the protocol to use when performing
command collection. Possible values are SSH and
telnet.
zCommandSearchPath
lines
Sets the path to search for any commands.
zCommandUsername
string
Specifies the user name to use when performing
command collection and SSH.
zControlCenterHost
string
Control Center host name. Defaults to device name.
zControlCenterModelCycle
int
Control Center modeling inteval. Defaults to 3600s.
zControlCenterPassword
password
Password for the Control Center user name.
zControlCenterPerfCycle
int
Control Center performance collection interval.
Defaults to 300s.
zControlCenterPort
int
Port for Control Center. Defaults to HTTPS TCP/443
zControlCenterUser
string
Control Center user name.
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66
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zDBInstances
***
***instancecredentials. This setting is only relevant
when the zenoss.winrm.WinMSSQL modeler
plugin is enabled. Multiple instances can be specified to
monitor multiple SQL Server instances per server. The
default instance is MSSQLSERVER. Fill in the user and
password to use SQL authentication. Leave the user
and password blank to use Windows authentication.
zDatasourceDebugLogging
boolean
True or False to debug calculated/aggregated data
sources on a single device.
zDeviceTemplates
lines
Sets the templates associated with this device. Linked
by name.
zEnablePassword
boolean
True or False to specify use of password for Cisco
routers.
zFileSystemMapIgnoreNames
string
Sets a regular expression of file system names to
ignore.
zFileSystemMapIgnoreTypes
lines
Do not use.
zFileSystemSizeOffset
int
SNMP typically reports the total space available to
privileged users. Zenoss Core (like the dfcommand)
reports capacity based on the space available to nonprivileged users. The value of zFileSystemSizeOffset
should be the fraction of the total space that is available
to non-privileged users. The default reserved value is
5% of total space, so zFileSystemSizeOffset is preset
to .95. If the reserved portion is different than 5%, then
adjust the value of zFileSystemSizeOffset accordingly.
The fraction should be set according to the value ( Used
+ Avail) / Sizewhen the df -PkHcommand is run at
the command line.
zHardDiskMapMatch
string
Regular expression that uses the disk ID in the diskstats
output to filter disk activity statistics for inclusion in
performance monitoring.
zIcon
lines
Specifies the icon to represent the device wherever
device icon is shown, such as on the network map and
device status page.
zIdiomPassword
password
IDIOM API password for Cisco IDS/IPS devices.
zIdiomUsername
string
IDIOM API username for Cisco IDS/IPS devices.
zIfDescription
boolean
Shows the interface description field in the interface
list.
zIgnoreUnmounted
boolean
True or false to specify whether to ignore unmounted
drives.
zInterfaceMapIgnoreDescriptions
string
Filters out interfaces based on description.
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zInterfaceMapIgnoreNames
string
Filters out interfaces that should not be discovered. If
you want to use an expression to define this property,
note that only Python regular expressions are valid.
zInterfaceMapIgnoreTypes
string
Filters out interface maps that should not be discovered.
zIpServiceMapMaxPort
int
Specifies the highest port to scan. The default is 1024.
zJBossJmxManagementAuthenticate
boolean
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zJBossJmxManagementPassword
password
JMX password
zJBossJmxManagementPort
int
The port number used to gather JMX information
zJBossJmxManagementUsername
string
JMX username for authentication.
zJmxAuthenticate
boolean
True or False to enable/disable authentication.
zJmxManagementPort
int
Port that enables JMX management
zJmxPassword
password
JMX username password
zJmxUsername
string
JMX username
zKeyPath
string
Sets the path to the SSH key for device access.
zLDAPBaseDN
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
The Base Distinguished Name for your LDAP server.
Typically this is the organization's domain name (for
example, dc=foobar,dc=com).
zLDAPBindDN
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
The Distinguished Name to use for binding to the
LDAP server, if authentication is required.
zLDAPBindPassword
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
The password to use for binding to the LDAP server, if
authentication is required.
zLDOMsAutodiscover
boolean
Specify true or false for autodiscovery of LDOMs.
zLTMVirtualServerIgnoreNames
string
Regular expression that can be used to prevent
matching LTM Virtual Servers from being modeled.
zLinks
string
Specifies a place to enter any links associated with the
device.
zLocalInterfaceNames
string
Regular expression that uses interface name to
determine whether the IP addresses on an interface
should be incorporated into the network map. For
instance, a loopback interface "lo" might be excluded.
zLocalIpAddresses
string
Specifies IP addresses that should be excluded from
the network map (for example. 127.x addresses). If you
have addresses that you reuse for connections between
clustered machines they might be added here as well.
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Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zMaxOIDPerRequest
int
Sets the maximum number of OIDs to be sent by the
SNMP collection daemons when querying information.
Some devices have small buffers for handling this
information so the number should be lowered.
zMySQLConnectionString
string
Enables setting the path, type and credentials for
the MySQL connections. For example: Path: /
server/Linux/devices/localhost.localdomain, Type:
miltilnecredentials, MYSQL connection credentials:
User Password Port
zMySqlPassword
password
MySQL user password
zMySqlPort
string
MySQL connection port
zMySqlTimeout
int
MySQL timeout. Default value is 30s.
zMySqlUsername
string
MySQL user name.
zNetAppNumRecordsPerRequest
int
Number of records per NetApp Monitor request.
Default is 100.
zNetAppSSL
boolean
Boolean true or false to enable SSL use with the
NetApp Monitor.
zNmapPortscanOptions
string
Options used on nmap when scanning ports. Used in
IpServiceMap.
zNodesAutodiscover
boolean
Specify true or false for autodiscovery of nodes.
zPingMonitorIgnore
boolean
Whether to ping the device.
zProdStateThreshold
int
Production state threshold at which Zenoss Core will
begin to monitor a device.
zPropertyMonitorInterval
int
Polling interval of the configured property data sources.
System-wide setting. Default is 300s.
zPythonClass
string
DO NOT USE
zRancidGroup
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
RANCID group attribute. Controls what router.db
file the device is written to. Can be set at the device
class or device level. Default is router on the /
Network/Router/Cisco class.
zRancidRoot
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
File system directory where RANCID is installed.
It may be NFS mounted from the RANCID server.
Default is /opt/rancid.
zRancidType
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
RANCID type attribute. Controls what device type
is written to the router.db file. Can be set at the
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Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
device class or device level. Default is cisco on the /
Network/Router/Cisco class.
zRancidUrl
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
Base URL.
zRMMonCCHost
string
Host name or IP address of the Control Center instance
on whic the Zenoss Core to monitor is running.
zRMMonCCUser
string
User name of the for this Zenoss Core.
zRMMonCCPassword
password
Password for the Control Center user name.
zRMMonCCPort
int
Port for Control Center. Defaults to HTTPS TCP/443.
zRMMonRabbitPassword:
password
Password for the RabbitMQ user name. Defaults to the
system default.
zRMMonRabbitUser:
string
User name for RabbitMQ. Defaults to the system
default.
zRMMonTenantHost
string
Zenoss Core host name.
zRMMonTenantPassword
password
Password for the Zenoss Core user name.
zRMMonTenantPerfCycle
int
Performance collection interval. Defaults to 30s.
zRMMonTenantPort
int
Port for Zenoss Core. Defaults to HTTPS TCP/443.
zRMMonTenantUseSsl
boolean
True or false value to use SSL. Defaults to true.
zRMMonTenantUser
string
Zenoss Core user name.
zRouteMapCollectOnlyIndirect
boolean
Only collect routes that are indirectly connected to the
device.
zRouteMapCollectOnlyLocal
boolean
Only collect local routes. (These usually are manually
configured rather than learned through a routing
protocol.)
zRouteMapMaxRoutes
int
Sets maximum number of routes to collect. Default
value is 500.
zSnmpAuthPassword
password
The shared private key used for authentication. Must be
at least 8 characters long.
zSnmpAuthType
string
Use "MD5" or "SHA" signatures to authenticate SNMP
requests
zSnmpCollectionInterval
int
Defines, in seconds, how often the system collects
performance information for each device.
zSnmpCommunities
lines
Array of SNMP community strings that ZenModeler
uses when collecting SNMP information. When you set
this property, communities are tried in order; the first in
the list that is successful is used as zSnmpCommunity.
If none is successful, then the current value of
zSnmpCommunity is used. The default value for the
entire system is "public."
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Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zSnmpCommunity
string
Community string to be used when collecting SNMP
information. If it is different than what is found by
ZenModeler, it will be set on the modeled device.
zSnmpContext
string
Configures zSNMP context to map logical network
entity such as a topology or protocol instance.
zSnmpDiscoveryPorts
int
List of UDP ports to try when performing SNMP
discovery. Defaults to 161 if not set.
zSnmpEngineId
string
SNMPv3 engine ID for the device. Will be discovered
when SNMPv3 is used.
zSnmpMonitorIgnore
boolean
Whether or not to ignore monitoring SNMP on a
device.
zSnmpPort
int
Port that the SNMP agent listens on.
zSnmpPrivPassword
password
The shared private key used for encrypting SNMP
requests. Must be at least 8 characters long.
zSnmpPrivType
string
"DES" or "AES" cryptographic algorithms.
zSnmpSecurityName
string
The Security Name (user) to use when making
SNMPv3 requests.
zSnmpTimeout
float
Timeout time in seconds for an SNMP request
zSnmpTries
int
Amount of tries to collect SNMP data
zSnmpVer
string
SNMP version used. Valid values are v2c, v1
zSshConcurrentSessions
int
Maximum number of sessions supported by the remote
device's MAX_SESSIONS parameter. Common values
for AIX are 2 or 10.
zStatusConnectTimeout
float
The amount of time that the zenstatus daemon should
wait before marking an IP service down.
zSugarCRMBase
-
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zSugarCRMPassword
password
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
Password for the zSugarCRMUsername user.
zSugarCRMTestAccount
-
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zSugarCRMUsername
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
User name that is allowed to log in to the Sugar CRM
server.
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zSysedgeDiskMapIgnoreNames
string
Regular expression used by
zenoss.snmp.SysedgeDiskMap modeler plugin. Disks
with matching names will not be modeled.
zTelnetEnable
boolean
When logging into a Cisco device issue the enable
command to enable access during command collection.
zTelnetEnableRegex
string
Regular expression to match the enable prompt.
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zTelnetLoginRegex
string
Regular expression to match the login prompt.
zTelnetPasswordRegex
string
Regular expression to match the password prompt.
zTelnetPromptTimeout
float
Time to wait for the telnet prompt to return.
zTelnetSuccessRegexList
lines
List of regular expressions to match the command
prompt.
zTelnetTermLength
boolean
On a Cisco device, set term length to Zero.
zTomcatJ2EEApplicationName
string
Used to construct MBean names for a specific
application deployed on Tomcat, typically used for JSP
and Servlet statistics.
zTomcatJ2EEServerName
string
Used to construct MBean names for a specific
application deployed on Tomcat, typically used for JSP
and Servlet statistics.
zTomcatJmxManagementAuthenticate
-
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zTomcatJmxManagementPassword
password
JMX password.
zTomcatJmxManagementPort
int
The port number used to gather JMX information.
zTomcatJmxManagementUsername
string
JMX username for authentication.
zTomcatListenHost
string
The hostname on which Tomcat is listening for web
requests. This is used to construct MBean names
zTomcatListenPort
string
The Tomcat connector, which is a port and protocol
(http, jk...) that Tomcat is listening on. This is used to
construct MBean names that monitor bytes, error and
requests on that connector.
zTomcatServletName
string
Specific Servlet name to monitor.
zTomcatServletUri
string
URI of Servlet to monitor.
zTomcatWebAppUri
string
URI path for a Tomcat web application. Used to
construct MBean names.
zUsesManageIp
boolean
True or False to specify use of manage IP. Used to
avoid setting manage IP when a device is added.
Default is True for most device classes.
zUsesStandardDeviceCreationJob
boolean
True or False to specify whether to use the standard
device creation job.
zVCloudPassword
password
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
Password for the zVCloudUsername user.
zVCloudPort
int
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
Value of the cell port number.
zVCloudUsername
string
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
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Property Name
Property
Type
Description
User name for the cell in the form
username@organization. For example, if
you want to define the cell administrator, enter
administrator@system.
zVSphereEndpointHost
string
vSphere host name
zVSphereEndpointPassword
password
vSphere username password
zVSphereEndpointPort
int
Port that is used to connect to vSphere Endpoint.
zVSphereEndpointUseSsl
boolean
vSphere boolean true or false for SSL use
zVSphereEndpointUser
string
vSphere username
zVSphereHostCollectionClusterWhitelistlines
The whitelist filters the hosts that are monitored, based
on cluster names.
zVSphereHostPingBlacklist
List of regular expressions to control which
management IP address to ping (matches against
hostname:nicname:ip).
lines
Note
zVSphereHostPingWhitelist takes precedence
over zVSphereHostPingBlacklist.
zVSphereHostPingWhitelist
lines
List of regular expressions to control which
management IP address to ping (matches against
hostname:nicname:ip).
Note
zVSphereHostPingWhitelist takes precedence
over zVSphereHostPingBlacklist.
zVSphereHostSystemPassword
password
Password that is used to access ESX hosts via ssh and
API.
zVSphereHostSystemUser
string
User name that is used to access ESX hosts via ssh and
API.
zVSphereLUNContextMetric
boolean
Controls whether to use LUN-specific metric names
when storing performance data.
Note: The default value is False. Changing the value to
True causes historical metrics to become inaccessible.
For more information, contact Zenoss Support.
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zVSphereModelCache
lines
vSphere model cache
zVSphereModelIgnore
lines
vSphere model ignore
zVSphereModelMpIndexObjs
int
Advanced tuning parameter. For more information,
contact Zenoss Support.
zVSphereModelMpLevel
int
Advanced tuning parameter. For more information,
contact Zenoss Support.
zVSphereModelMpObjs
int
Advanced tuning parameter. For more information,
contact Zenoss Support.
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zVSpherePerfDelayCollectionMinutes
int
Value of how long to lag performance data collection.
Default value is 0.
zVSpherePerfMaxAgeMinutes
int
Default value is 28 minutes.
zVSpherePerfParallelQueries
int
Default value is 6.
zVSpherePerfQueryChunkSize
int
Value of how many performance requests to make at a
time. Default value is 250.
zVSpherePerfQueryRaw20
boolean
Default value is true.
zVSpherePerfQueryTimeout
int
Default value is 200.
zVSpherePerfQueryVcChunkSize
int
Default value is 64.
zVSpherePerfQueryVcRaw20
boolean
Default value is false.
zVSpherePerfRecoveryMinutes
int
Default value is 240 minutes.
zVSpherePerfTimeoutRecoveryMinutes int
When a timeout error occurs in querying a specific
metric, it is "blacklisted" for this number of minutes
before it is retried. This action avoids repeated errors
due to attempts to query a metric that is not working
properly. The default is one hour. If gaps appear in the
graphs, you can safely lower the value.
zVSphereVMContextMetric
Controls whether to use VM-specific metric names
when storing performance data.
boolean
Note: The default value is False. Changing the value to
True causes historical metrics to become inaccessible.
For more information, contact Zenoss Support.
zVSpherePerfWindowSize
int
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zWBEMPassword
password
WBEM password
zWBEMPort
int
Value of the WBEM port number. Default value is
5989.
zWBEMUseSSL
boolean
True or false value to use SSL. Default value is true.
zWBEMUsername
string
WBEM username
zWebLogicJmxManagementAuthenticate-
DEPRECATED - No longer used.
zWebLogicJmxManagementPassword
password
JMX password
zWebLogicJmxManagementPort
int
The port number used to gather JMX information
zWebLogicJmxManagementUsername string
JMX username for authentication
zWebTxAgent
string
Default value is ZenWebTx/1.0.
zWebTxPassword
password
WebTx password
zWebTxRealm
string
WebTx realm
zWebTxUser
string
WebTx user
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Property Name
Property
Type
Description
zWebsphereAuthRealm
string
Used for HTTP basic authentication. This field is not
required, and is empty by default.
zWebsphereNode
string
Used by the provided template to build the queries for
the data to collect. You must supply a value for this
field. For example: serverA
zWebspherePassword
password
Used for HTTP basic authentication. This field is not
required, and is empty by default.
zWebsphereServer
string
Used by the provided template to build the xpath
queries for the data to collect. You must supply a value
for this field. For example: serverAB, There is no
default value.
zWebsphereURLPath
string
Path to the PMI servlet on a WebSphere instance.
The default value is the default path on a WebSphere
installation: wasPerTool/servlet/
perfservlet
zWebsphereUser
string
Used for HTTP basic authentication. This field is not
required, and is empty by default.
zWinKDC
string
IP address or Fully Qualified Domain Name of a valid
Windows domain controller. Must be set if domain
authentication is used.
zWinKeyTabFilePath
string
This property is currently used and reserved for future
use when keytab files are supported.
zWinPerfmonInterval
int
Interval, in seconds, at which Windows Perfmon
datapoints will be collected. Default value is 300.
It is possible to override the collection interval for
individual counters.
zWinRMClusterNodeClass
string
Path under which to create cluster nodes.
zWinRMEnvelopeSize
int
Used when WinRM configuration setting
"MaxEnvelopeSizekb" exceeds default of 512k.
zWinRMKrb5DisableRDNS
boolean
Set to true to disable reverse DNS lookups by
Kerberos. Only set at /Server/Microsoft level.
zWinRMKrb5includedir
string
Directory path for Kerberos configuration files.
zWinRMLocale
string
Communication locale to use for monitoring. Reserved
for future use.
zWinRMPassword
password
Password for the user defined by zWinRMUser
zWinRMPort
int
The port on which the Windows server is listening
for WinRM or WS-Management connections. Default
value is 5985. It is uncommon for this to be configured
as anything else.
zWinRMServerName
string
This property should only be used in conjunction with
domain authentication when the DNS PTR record
for a monitored server's managed IP address does not
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property
Type
Description
resolve to the name by which the server is known in
Active Directory. For example, if myserver1 is known
as myserver1.ad.example.com by Active Directory
and is being managed by IP address 192.51.100.21,
but 192.51.100.21 resolves to www.example.com,
you will have to set zWinRMServerName to
myserver1.ad.example.com for domain
authentication to work.
If many Windows servers in your environment do not
have DNS PTR records that match Active Directory,
it is recommended that you set the name of the Zenoss
device to be the fully-qualified Active Directory
name and set zWinRMServerName to ${here/
titleOrId} at the /Server/Microsoft/Windows
device class. This avoids the necessity of setting
zWinRMServerName on every device.
It is recommended to leave zWinRMServerName blank
if local authentication is used, or DNS PTR records
match Active Directory. This allows Zenoss to not rely
on DNS resolution while monitoring, and avoids the
overhead of configuring zWinRMServerName.
zWinRMUser
string
The syntax used for zWinRMUser controls whether
Zenoss will attempt Windows local authentication
or domain (kerberos) authentication. If the value
of zWinRMUser is username, local Windows
authentication will be used. If zWinRMUser is
username@example.com, domain authentication
will be used. The zWinKDC and potentially the
zWinRMServerName properties become important.
zWinRSCodePage
int
Code page used by monitoring user account.
zWinScheme
string
Must be set to http or https. Default value is http.
zWinTrustedKDC
string
Windows Trusted KDC.
zWinUseWsmanSPN
boolean
Set to true if HTTP/HTTPS service principles are
exclusively for use by a particular service account.
zWinTrustedRealm
string
Windows Trusted Realm.
Viewing and overriding event properties
1 From the navigation menu, choose EVENTS > Event Classes.
2 From the drop-down list, choose Configuration Properties.
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3 To view and override event configuration properties for a specific event class:
a Navigate to that class, and then select Configuration Properties.
b Double-click the configuration property that you want to change.
c In the Edit Config Property dialog box, make changes and then click SUBMIT.
The presence of Yes in the Is Local column indicates an overriding value.
4 To remove an override and once again inherit the value from the root of the hierarchy:
a Select the property in the list.
b Click Delete Local Copy and, when prompted, click OK.
Event configuration properties
The following table lists event configuration properties.
Table 5: Event configuration properties
76
Property Name
Property Type Description
zEventAction
string
Specifies the database table in which an event will
be stored. Possible values are: status, history and
drop. Default is status, meaning the event will be
an “active” event. History sends the event directly
Configuration properties
Property Name
Property Type Description
to the history table. Drop tells the system to discard
the event.
zEventClearClasses
lines
Lists classes that a clear event should clear (in
addition to its own class).
zEventMaxTransformFails
int
After the specified number of failures, disable bad
transforms from executing. Default is 10.
zEventSeverity
int
Overrides the severity value of events from this
class. Possible values are 5-Critical, 4-Error, 3Warning, 2-Info, 1-Debug, 0-Clear, and -1-Default.
zFlappingIntervalSeconds
int
Defines the time interval to check for event flapping
(changing severity level repeatedly). Default value
is 3600 seconds.
zFlappingSeverity
int
Drop-down list to set the severity to check for
event flapping. If the severity level on an event
changes from this value a certain number of times
(zFlappingThreshold) within a certain time range
(zFlappingIntervalSeconds) then an event flapping
event is generated. Possible values include: 5Critical, 4-Error, 3-Warning, 2-Info, 1-Debug, and
0-Clear.
zFlappingThreshold
int
Number of times an event severity must flap within
an interval. One of the parameters to define in order
to generate event flapping events.
Viewing and overriding network properties
The Networks page lists networks by IP address. You can view and change network configuration property
values and inheritance selections.
1 From the navigation menu, choose INFRASTRUCTURE > Networks.
Figure 53: Networks
2 From the Display drop-down menu, select Configuration Properties.
3 To remove an override and once again inherit the value from the root of the hierarchy:
a Select the property in the list.
b Click Delete Local Copy and, when prompted, click OK.
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Network configuration properties
The following table lists network configuration properties.
Table 6: Network configuration properties
78
Property Name
Property Type
Description
zAutoDiscover
boolean
Specifies whether zendisc should perform autodiscovery on this network. (When performing network
discovery, this property specifies whether the system
should discover devices and subnetworks on the
network.)
zDefaultNetworkTree
lines
A network subnet is automatically created for each
modeled device, based on that device's subnet mask
setting. To create higher-level subnets automatically
from the discovery and modeling processes, add the
specific subnet mask breakpoints. For example: 8,
16. If you then model a device with, for example,
an IP address of 192.0.2.0, and a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0 (corresponding to a /24 subnet), device
discovery will create a 192.0.0.0/8 network containing
192.0.2.0/16, containing 192.0.2.0/24, containing your
device.
zDrawMapLinks
boolean
Calculating network links "on the fly" is resourceintensive. If you have a large number of devices that
have been assigned locations, then drawing those map
links may take a long time. You can use this property
to prevent the system from drawing links for specific
networks (for example, a local network comprising
many devices that you know does not span multiple
locations).
zIcon
string
Use to specify device icons that appear on the device
status page, Dashboard, and network map.
zPingFailThresh
int
Specifies the number of pings sent without being
returned before zendisc removes the device.
zPreferSnmpNaming
boolean
Specifies that when network discovery occurs, it
uses the device name comes from SNMP rather than
reverse DNS.
zSnmpStrictDiscovery
boolean
Specifies that if SNMP does not exist on the device
during network discovery, ignore the device.
Monitoring templates
Monitoring templates
5
The system stores performance configuration data in templates. Templates contain other objects that define
where and how to obtain performance data, thresholds for that data, and data graphs.
You can define a template anywhere in the device class hierarchy, or on an individual device.
Templates are divided among three types:
■
■
■
Device
Component
Interface
Creating templates
You can create a template by overriding an existing template. To override a template:
1 Navigate to the template you want to copy.
2 From the Action menu, select Copy/Override Template. The Copy/Override dialog box appears.
3 Select the bound template to override, and then click Submit. The copied template appears in the list of
templates as locally defined.
Renaming templates
To rename an existing template:
1
2
3
4
5
Select Advanced > Monitoring Templates.
Expand the organizer containing the template to be renamed, and then the class containing the template.
From the Action menu, select View and Edit Details. The Edit Template Details dialog box appears.
Enter a new name in the Name field.
Click Submit.
Template binding
The determination of which templates apply to what objects is called binding. Templates are bound in different
ways, depending on the objects to which they are bound.
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Device templates
Device templates are applied to devices, one to each device. The system employs a single rule to bind device
templates to devices: the value of the zDeviceTemplates property. For most device classes, this is "Device."
Common device templates are:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Device
MySQL
Apache
Active Directory
MSExchangeIS
MSSQLServer
IIS
For the Server/Linux/MySQL device class, the zDeviceTemplates property might contain, for example,
"Device" and "MySQL." The system would collect CPU and memory information by using the Device template,
and MySQL-specific metrics by using the MySQL template.
Binding templates
To bind a device template to a device class or device:
1 From the devices list, select a device class or device.
2 On the Overview page, select Bind Templates from the Action menu. The Bind Templates dialog box
appears.
Figure 54: Bind Templates
3 Move templates between the Available and Selected lists using the arrows.
4 Click Save.
Resetting bindings
Resetting template bindings removes all locally bound templates and uses the default template values. To reset
bindings for a selected device or device class:
1 Select Reset Bindings from the Action menu.
The Reset Template Bindings dialog box appears.
2 Click Reset Bindings to confirm the action.
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Monitoring templates
Component templates
Component templates are named exactly according to the name of the underlying class that represents a
component. For example, the FileSystem template is applied to file systems. Component templates can be
applied multiple times to each device, depending on how many of the device's components match the template.
Configuration properties do not control the application of component templates.
Note
Do not manually bind component templates.
Common component templates are:
■
■
■
FileSystem, HardDisk, IPService, OSProcess, WinService
Fan, PowerSupply, TemperatureSensor
LTMVirtualServer, VPNTunnel
Interface templates
Interface templates are applied to network interfaces by using a special type of binding. Instead of using the
name of the underlying class, the system looks for a template with the same name as the interface type. You can
find this type in the details information for any network interface.
If Zenoss Core cannot locate a template that matches the interface type, then it uses the ethernetCsmacd
template.
Example: Defining templates in the device hierarchy
You add a new device at /Devices/Server/Linux named Example1Server. You have not edited the value of its
zDeviceTemplates property, so it inherits the value of "Device" from the root device class (/Devices). Zenoss
Core looks to see if there is a template named Device defined on Example1Server itself. There is not, so it
checks /Devices/Server/Linux. There is a template named Device defined for that device class, so that template
is used for Example1Server. (There also is a template named Device defined at the root level (/Devices), but the
system does not use this one because the template at /Devices/Server/Linux overrides it.)
Example: Applying templates to multiple areas in the device hierarchy
You want to perform specific monitoring of servers running a certain Web application, but those servers are
spread across several different device classes. You create a template at /Devices called WebApplication with
the appropriate data sources, thresholds and graphs. You then append the name "WebApplication" to the
zDeviceTemplates configuration property for the devices classes, the individual devices running this Web
application, or both.
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Basic monitoring
6
Availability monitoring
The availability monitoring system provides active testing of the IT infrastructure, including:
■
■
■
■
Devices
Network
Processes
Services
Availability monitoring is facilitated by:
■
■
Zenping- The system's Layer-3 aware, topology-monitoring daemon. Zenping performs high-performance,
asynchronous testing of ICMP status. The most important element of this daemon is that Zenoss Core has
built a complete model of your routing system. If there are gaps in the routing model, the power of Zenping’s
topology monitoring will not be available. If there are gaps, this issue can be seen in the zenping.log
file. Zenping uses Nmap to build a ping tree and perform Layer 3 suppression.
Zenstatus- Performs active TCP connection testing of remote daemons.
Controlling ping cycle time
Follow these steps to modify the ping cycle time:
1 Open Control Center and click your instance of Zenoss Core to open the application overview page.
2 In the Services section, click zenping to open the zenping Overview page.
3 In the Configuration Files section, click Edit next to the /opt/zenoss/etc/zenping.conf file. The
Edit Configuration window appears.
4 Uncomment the zenhubpinginterval line and edit the default value of 30 to your desired ping cycle
time.
5 Click Save.
Using the predefined /Ping device class
The /Ping device class is a configuration for devices that you want to monitor only for availability. The system
does not gather performance data for devices placed in this class. You can use the /Ping device class as a
reference for your own configuration; or, if you have a device that you want to monitor solely for availability,
you can place it under this class.
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Monitoring processes
Zenoss Core provides process availability monitoring for hosts that support SNMP or SSH access. Process
monitoring features include:
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Process classes, defined by Python regular expressions. Classes may generate one or more process sets, each
containing one or more process instances.
Process sets may include process instances running on multiple hosts. This captures related or redundant
processes, enabling a more wholistic view of data center services.
Process set names, to replace the often-cryptic names of process instances with descriptive labels.
Process set locking, to maintain continuity of data collection if the members of a given process set are not
running during modeling.
A testing dialog, to discover and refine the sets a class generates.
Use the Processes page (Infrastructure > Processes) to create and manage process classes and process sets.
Figure 55: Processes page
The tree view shows process class organizers (at the top) and the list of process classes in each organizer (the
rest of the view). You may filter the list with the active search field, at the top of the list.
Example: Creating a process class
This section provides an example of using process availability monitoring to create a new process class, for
database processes. The database runs on a Linux host, and the following output is a partial list of the results of
the ps axho args command on the database host. Process monitoring uses the output of that command (or
its equivalent) as input for regular expression matching.
ora_pmon_orcl ora_psp0_orcl ora_vktm_orcl ora_gen0_orcl ora_diag_orcl
ora_dbrm_orcl ora_dia0_orcl ora_mman_orcl ora_dbw0_orcl ora_lgwr_orcl
ora_ckpt_orcl ora_smon_orcl ora_reco_orcl ora_mmon_orcl ora_mmnl_orcl
ora_d000_orcl ora_s000_orcl ora_s001_orcl ora_s002_orcl ora_s003_orcl
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ora_s004_orcl
ora_s009_orcl
ora_p004_orcl
ora_l002_orcl
ora_s005_orcl ora_s006_orcl ora_s007_orcl ora_s008_orcl
ora_p000_orcl ora_p001_orcl ora_p002_orcl ora_p003_orcl
ora_qmnc_orcl ora_n000_orcl ora_l000_orcl ora_l001_orcl
ora_l003_orcl
The following subsections provide procedures for creating a process class that captures a selection of the
preceding process instances in process sets.
Test existing process classes
The existing process classes may already capture the process sets you want. Follow these steps to test the
existing process classes.
1 Log in to the Zenoss Core user interface.
2 Navigate to Infrastructure > Processes.
3 In the lower-left corner of the tree view, click the Action menu, and select Test All Process Classes
Regular Expressions.
Figure 56: Test all process classes dialog
4
5
6
7
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The top-right portion of the dialog box displays all of the process classes, in the order in which they are
evaluated.
Select the process names in the previous section, and copy them into a paste buffer.
In the Test Process Class Regular Expressions dialog, select all of the existing text in the Input area, and
then paste the process names from the buffer. Alternatively, you may paste the process names into an empty
file, save the file on the system from which your browser is launched, and then use the Choose File button to
insert the process names.
At the bottom-left corner of the dialog, click Test.
If any process sets are created, they are displayed in the list area, above the Test button.
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Create an organizer
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to create a process class organizer.
1
2
3
4
Log in to the Zenoss Core user interface.
Navigate to Infrastructure > Processes.
In the lower-left corner of the tree view, click the Add menu, and select Add Process Class Organizer.
In the Add Process Class Organizer dialog, enter Database, and then click Submit.
Create a process class
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to create a process class.
1
2
3
4
5
At the top of the tree view, double-click Processes, the root organizer to open it.
Select Database.
In the lower-left corner of the tree view, click the Add menu, and select Add Process Class.
In the Add Process Class dialog, enter DB daemons, and then click Submit.
At the top of the tree view, double-click Processes to open it, and then select Database.
Define the regular expression series of a process class
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to create the series of regular expressions that define
a process class, and generate process sets.
1 In the list area of the tree view, select DB daemons.
Figure 57: Process class definition page
2 In the Description field, enter Database daemons.
3 In the Include processes like field, replace DB daemons with a Python regular expression that selects the
database processes. For example, ora_[^_]{4}_orcl. The example regular expression selects all of the
processes in the sample process instance list.
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4 In the Exclude processes like field, enter a regular expression to remove processes from the results of the
preceding regular expression. The default entry excludes common user commands. The default entry does
not exclude any of the processes in the sample process instance list.
5 The next two fields, Replace command line text and With, work together to simplify the names of process
sets.
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In the Replace command line text field, enter a regular expression containing one or more pattern
groups.
In the With field, enter replacement text, along with the sequence number of one or more of the pattern
groups defined in the previous field.
For example, to create four pattern groups for database processes, enter the following regular expression in
the Replace command line text field:
^(ora_)([a-z])(.{4})(orcl)
To use two of the pattern groups in the replacment text, enter the following text in the With field:
DB [\4] daemons starting with [\2]
Each unique replacement generated by the combination of the text plus the inserted pattern sequences
becomes a process set. In the case of this example, pattern group 4 does not vary, but pattern group 2 does.
So the number of process sets generated by this class will equal the number of unique alphabetic characters
found in the first position after the first underscore.
6 Click Save.
Test a process class
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to test a single process class.
1 In the lower-left corner of the tree view, click the Action menu, and select Test Process Class Regular
Expressions.
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Figure 58: Test process class dialog
2
3
4
5
6
The top-right portion of the dialog box displays the regular expression series that defines this process class.
Select the process names in the previous section, and copy them into a paste buffer.
In the Input area, select all of the existing text, and then paste the process names from the buffer.
At the bottom-left corner of the dialog, click Test.
The Output area displays each individual match, along with the count of unique process sets. You may
refine the regular expressions and retest as often as you like.
Click Done. Changes made to regular expressions in this dialog are copied to the process class definition
page. However, the changes are not saved until you click the Save button on that page.
Test and review the process class sequence
The order in which process classes are evaluated is significant. During modeling, each time a process matches
a class, the matching process is put into a process set, and then removed from the list of processes that are
passed on to the next class in the sequence. New process classes are inserted into the process class sequence
automatically, and may not be in the appropriate position in the sequence.
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to test and review the process class sequence.
1 In the lower-left corner of the tree view, click the Action menu, and select Test All Process Classes
Regular Expressions.
2 Select the process names in the previous section, and copy them into a paste buffer.
3 In the Input area, select all of the existing text, and then paste the process names from the buffer.
4 At the bottom-left corner of the dialog, click Test.
5 The number of processes matched and process sets created in this test should be identical to the results of
testing the process class alone. If they are not, follow these steps to adjust the process class sequence.
a In the Test Process Class Regular Expressions dialog, click Done.
b From the Action menu, select Change Sequence.
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Figure 59: Sequence dialog
c Scroll through the list of process classes, and then select the class to move.
d Drag the class to an earlier (higher) location in the sequence.
e Click Submit.
6 Re-open the Test Process Class Regular Expressions dialog, and re-test the sequence.
Test the process class on a host
Process sets are created during modeling. To test a process class, choose a device host that is configured for
SNMP or SSH access, and model it manually.
Note
For more information about device support for process monitoring, refer to the release notes.
Complete the previous section, and then follow these steps to test the process class on a host.
1 Navigate to Infrastructure > Devices.
2 Select a host that is configured for SNMP or SSH access, and is running process that match the new class.
For example, the list of processes used in this section is collected from a VirtualBox virtual appliance
downloaded from the Oracle Technology Network.
3 Open the host's Overview page. From the Action menu, select Model Device. When modeling completes,
the OS Processes section of the tree view is updated to include the new process sets.
4 Navigate to Infrastructure > Processes.
5 In the tree view, select the DB daemons class.
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Figure 60: Process class page with process sets
The process sets found on the host are displayed in the list at the bottom of the page.
Process class options
The process class page includes the options described in the following sections.
Process Count Threshold
You may set minimum and maximum values for the number of process instances included in a process set. The
threshold values apply to all of the process sets generated by a class. The minimum and maximum values are
inclusive. That is, if the minimum is 3 and the maximum is 5, then 3, 4, and 5 are all valid process instance
counts.
You may define a threshold as an exclusive range. If the minimum is 5 and the maximum is 3, then 4 is an
invalid process instance count.
Monitoring Options
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Enable Monitoring (zMonitor)
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To disable monitoring for all process sets generated by this class, set the local value to No.
Send Event on Restart (zAlertOnRestart)
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To send an event when monitoring restarts, set the local value to Yes.
Failure Event Severity (zFailSeverity)
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To specify a non-default event severity for the failure of process sets generated by this class, set a local
value.
Process Set Locking
Process sets are generated at modeling time. Since modeling recurs regularly, a given modeling run may result
in a missing process set, due to a transient absence of one or more process instances. To prevent this from
happening, set the local value of the Lock Process Components? (zModelerLock) field to one of the following
options.
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Lock from Deletes
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Prevent deletion of process sets generated by this process class if modeling returns empty sets.
Lock from Updates
Prevent updates to process sets generated by this process class if modeling returns new process sets.
The final option, Send an event when action is blocked? (zSendEventWhenBlockedFlag), is used only when
a process set is locked. If you lock the process sets of a class, you may set the local value of this field to Yes,
and an event will be created when a process set would have been either deleted or updated during modeling.
Monitoring IP services
The IP Services page (Infrastructure > IP Services) lets you manage and monitor IP services that are running
on your network.
Figure 61: IP Services
The tree view lists all monitored IP services. Filter this list by using the active search area at the top of the view.
The details area shows:
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Service class description
TCP port
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Associated service keys
To add or change details for a service class, enter or change information, and then click Save.
The lower section of the page lists currently running services in this class (by device), and shows their
monitoring status. You can also display Configuration Properties by selecting that from the drop-down list.
Enabling IP service monitoring
You can choose to monitor:
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Individual services
Service classes
When monitoring a service class, you can choose not to monitor one or more individual services in the class. For
example, the SMTP service class is monitored by default, but may not be a critical service on some devices. In
this case, you can disable its monitoring on those devices.
Note
If a service is configured to listen only on local host (127.0.0.1), then it is not monitored by default.
Note
When adding a new IP service that uses a port value higher than 1024, you need to increase the value
of zIpServiceMapMaxPort to a number higher than the port you are monitoring.
To enable monitoring for a service class or service:
1 In the tree view, select the service class or service to monitor.
2 Make one or more selections:
Enable Monitoring (zMonitor) - By default, Inherit Value is selected for all services below the
IPService node. When selected, the service class or service will inherit monitoring choices from its
parent. If you want to individually enable monitoring choices, select the Set Local Value option, and then
select a value.
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Failure Event Severity (zFailSeverity) - By default, Inherit Value is selected for all services below
the IPService node. When selected, the service class or service will inherit severity level choices from
its parent. If you want to individually select severity levels, select the Set Local Value option, and then
select a value.
3 Click Save to save your choices.
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Using the predefined /Server/Scan device class
The predefined /Server/Scan device class is an example configuration for monitoring TCP services on devices
using a port scan. If you have a device that you want to monitor for service availability alone, you can place it
under this device class. The system will not collect performance data for devices in this class.
Monitoring Windows Services
The Windows Services page (Infrastructure > Windows Services) has been updated to use the WinService
monitoring template.
Monitoring using ZenCommand
Zenoss Core has the ability to run Nagios® and Cacti plug-ins though the ZenCommand process. ZenCommand
can run plugins locally and remotely by using a native SSH transport. When run, the system tracks the return
code of each plug-in and then creates events with plug-in output. Additionally, it can track performance
information from a plug-in.
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Figure 62: Running ZenCommand
Plugin format for ZenCommands
Nagios® plugins are configured by using a command template.
A template named “Device” will bind to all devices below the template definition. Within each template is a
list of commands that will run. The commands can be any program that follows the Nagios® plug-in standard.
Inputs are command line arguments; output is the first line of stdout, plus a return code.
Note
Zenoss Core return codes differ from Nagios® return codes, as follows:
Value
Zenoss Core
Nagios
0
Clear
OK
1
Data Source
WARNING
2
Data Source+1
CRITICAL
3
Data Source
UNKNOWN
For comprehensive information about Nagios® plugins, refer to the Nagios Plugin Development Guidelines.
A Nagios® command has several fields:
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name – Specifies the name of the command object.
enabled – Indicates whether this command should be used on a given device.
component – Specifies the component name to use when zencommand sends events to the system.
event class – Specifies the event class to use when sending events to the system.
severity – Sets the default severity to use when sending events to the system.
cycle time – Sets the frequency a command should be run (in seconds).
command template – Specifies the command to run.
The command template string is built by using Zope TALES expressions. Several variables are passed when
evaluating the template. They are:
zCommandPath – Path to the zencommand plug-ins on a given box it comes from the configuration property
zCommandPath. zCommandPath is automatically added to a command if a path is absent from the beginning
of the command.
devname – Device name of the device against which the command is being evaluated.
dev – Device object against which the command is being evaluated.
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here – Context of evaluation. For a device, this is equivalent to dev for a component (such as a file system or
interface). This is the component object.
compname – If this command evaluates against a component, specifies its name as a string.
now – Current time.
Template values are accessed like shell variables. They are the same as the expression syntax used in the
appendix titled TALES Expressions (in this guide).
Testing ZenCommands
You can test ZenCommand data sources by using the zentestcommand shell script.
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Attach to the zenhub service.
serviced service attach zenhub
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Run the zentestcommand script.
zentestcommand –d DeviceID --datasource=DataSourceName
where DeviceID is the ID of the device on which you want to run the command, and DataSourceName
is the name of a data source on a template associated with the device.
The zentestcommand script prints the results of the command to standard output.
SNMP monitoring
OID represent the data points where the data for the graphs comes from. Sometimes the reason that a graph is
not appearing is because the OID for the particular graph is not valid for the device. You can test this validity
using the command line to see if you can return a value. To test the validity of an OID data point giving
performance data:
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Attach to the Zenoss.core service.
serviced service attach Zenoss.core
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Run the snmpget command for one of the OIDs
In this case, use the command:
$ snmpget -v 2c -cpublic build .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.14.0
where, build should be a valid server/ip address
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If the OID is valid it will return a value.
Here are some basic SNMP commands to gather certain information.
a Walk a basic system MIB.
snmpwalk -v 2c -cpublic <device_name_or_ip_address> system
b Walk an interface description
snmpwalk -v 2c -cpublic <device_name_or_ip_address> ifDescr
c Get a single value.
snmpget -v 2c -cpublic <device_name_or_ip_address> ifDescr.2
d Detailed description of an OID value.
snmptranslate -Td RFC1213-MIB::ifDescr
e Convert a name to a raw OID.
snmptranslate -On RFC1213-MIB::ifDescr
f
Convert a raw OID to a short name
snmptranslate -OS .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2
Monitoring devices remotely through SSH
You can monitor devices remotely through SSH. Follow the steps in the following sections to set up remote
monitoring.
Changing Zenoss Core to monitor devices remotely using SSH
You must edit system properties for the group where you want to collect remote information using SSH.
1 Navigate to the device class path that you want to monitor remotely. You can apply this monitoring for a
device or a device class path.
2 Change the configuration properties value for the group. After selecting the device class, click Details, and
then select Configuration Properties.
3 On the Configuration Properties page, change the properties that are listed in the following table.
The table includes sample values set up for remote devices. These have a pre-shared key (with no password)
set up from the collector to the remote boxes. It also can use password authorization if the password is
entered into zCommandPassword.
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Configuration properties
Sample value
zCollectorPlugins
snmp|portscan
zCommandPassword
The SSH password for the remote machine.
zCommandPath
The path to zenplugin.py
zCommandUsername
The SSH user name for the remote machine.
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Configuration properties
Sample value
zSnmpMonitorIgnore
True
4 Two passes are required for full modeling. The first pass obtains the platform type (so that the system knows
which plugins to run). The second pass provides detailed data on interfaces and file systems.
a Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
b Attach to the zenmodeler service.
serviced service attach zenmodeler
c Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
d Run the zenmodeler command.
$ zenmodeler run -d DeviceName
where DeviceName is the fully qualified device name.
e Run the zenmodeler command a second time to use the plugins the command gathered on the first
pass.
Using the predefined /Server/Cmd device class
The /Server/Cmd device class is an example configuration for modeling and monitoring devices using SSH. The
configuration properties have been modified (as described in the previous sections), and device, file system, and
Ethernet interface templates that gather data over SSH have been created.
You can use this device class as a reference for your own configuration; or, if you have a device that needs to
be modeled or monitored via SSH/Command, you can place it under this device class to use the pre-configured
templates and configuration properties. You must set the zCommandUsername and zCommandPassword
properties to the appropriate SSH login information for each device.
Network map
The network map represents your network's layer 3 topology. From the map, you can quickly determine the
status of each device by its highlighted color.
To access the network map, select INFRASTRUCTURE > Network Map.
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Figure 63: Network Map
Choosing the network to display
The network displayed is configured for each user. From user preferences, modify Network Map Start Object to
select a network, and then click Save.
Viewing device and network details
Double-click a device or network icon in the map to focus on it. Focusing on a node:
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Centers it on the map
Shows links from the node, based on the number of hops selected
Alternatively, you can type the name or IP address of a device or network in the Selected Device or Network
field, and then click Refresh to focus on that node.
To see detailed information about a device or network, select it in the map, and then click Go to Status Page.
Note
When you select a node, the network map displays only the links that are currently loaded into the
map. It does not download and display new link data.
Loading link data
To load link data for a node:
1 Double-click the node on the map to focus on it, or enter the device name or IP address in the Selected
Device or Network field.
2 Select the number of hops to download and display by sliding the counter.
3 Click Refresh.
Filtering by device type
You can filter the devices that appear on the network map. To do this, select a filter from the Device Class
Filter list of options. For example, to show only Linux devices on the map, select /Server/Linux from the list of
options, then click Refresh.
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Adjusting viewable hops
You can adjust the number of hops that appear on the network map. Use the Number of Hops slider, which
adjusts the number of hops from 1 to 4.
Adjusting the network map
Use the Repulsion slider to expand or contract the icons that appear on the map. Move the slider right to expand
the icons, or left to contract them.
Select the Fit to Window option to bring all displayed icons into the viewable area.
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Performance monitoring
7
Zenoss Core stores device and daemon performance metrics directly in OpenTSDB, a time series database that
runs on top of an HBase instance. Writing directly to OpenTSDB eliminates the need for RRD files to be stored
on the collectors. The following image shows how the collector daemons fit into the data collection portion of
the Zenoss Core architecture.
Figure 64: Data collection simplified architecture
Zenoss Core uses the following methods to monitor performance metrics of devices and device components:
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ZenPerfSNMP- Collects data through SNMP from any device that is correctly configured for SNMP
monitoring.
ZenWinPerf- ZenPack that allows performance monitoring of Windows servers.
ZenCommand- Logs in to devices (by using telnet or ssh) and runs scripts to collect performance data.
Other ZenPacks- Collect additional performance data. Examples include the ZenJMX ZenPack, which
collects data from enterprise Java applications, and the HttpMonitor ZenPack, which checks the availability
and responsiveness of Web pages.
Performance monitoring
Regardless of the monitoring method, the system stores performance monitoring configuration information in
monitoring templates.
Monitoring templates
Monitoring templates determine how the system collects performance data for devices and device components.
You can define monitoring templates for device classes and individual devices.
Templates comprise the following types of objects:
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Data sources- Specify the exact data points to collect and the collection method to use.
Thresholds- Define expected bounds for collected data, and specify events to be created if the data does not
match those bounds.
Graph definitions- Describe how to graph the collected data on the device or device components.
Before the system can collect performance data for a device or component, it must use the template binding
process to determine which monitoring templates apply.
Viewing monitoring templates
From the main navigation menu, choose Advanced > Monitoring Templates.
Figure 65: Monitoring template for Load Average graph
Template binding
The system determines the list of template names that apply to a device or component. For device components,
the list is defined by the meta type of the component (for example, FileSystem, CPU, or HardDisk). For devices,
the list is defined by the zDeviceTemplates configuration property.
After defining the list, the system locates templates that match the names on the list. For each name, it searches
the device and then searches the device class hierarchy. Zenoss Core uses the lowest template in the hierarchy
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that it can locate with the correct name, ignoring others of the same name that might exist further up the device
class hierarchy.
Editing templates bound to a device
1
2
3
4
From the main navigation menu, select Infrastructure.
From the device list in the left pane, choose a device.
Below the device list, click the context-sensitive actions menu and choose Bind Templates.
In the Bind Templates dialog box list of available templates, move one or more templates to the selected
list.
Figure 66: Bind Templates dialog box
5 Click Save.
The templates are bound to the selected device.
Data sources
Data sources specify which data points to collect and how to collect them. Each monitoring template comprises
one or more data sources. The system provides the following built-in data source types. ZenPacks provide other
data source types.
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■
SNMP- Define data to be collected via SNMP by the ZenPerfSNMP daemon. They contain one additional
field to specify which SNMP OID to collect. (Many OIDs must end in .0.) Because SNMP data sources
specify only one performance metric, they contain a single data point.
Command- Specify data to be collected by a shell command that is executed on the Zenoss Core server or
on a monitored device. The ZenCommand daemon processes COMMAND data sources. A COMMAND
data source can return one or more performance metrics, and usually has one data point for each metric.
Shell commands that are used with COMMAND data sources must return data that conforms to the Nagios
plug-in output specification. For more information, see Monitoring using ZenCommand on page 91.
Adding a data source
To add a data source to a monitoring template:
1
2
3
4
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Select Advanced from the Navigation menu, and then select Monitoring Templates.
In the tree view, select the monitoring template to which you want to add a data source.
In the Data Sources area, click the Add button. The Add Data Source dialog box appears.
Enter a name for the data source and select the type, and then click Submit. The data source is added to the
list in the Data Sources area.
Performance monitoring
5 Double-click the data source in the list. The Edit Data Source dialog box appears. This dialog box will vary
based on the type of data source you are editing. For example, the following is the Edit Data Source dialog
box for a COMMAND data source.
6 Enter or select values to define the data source.
In the example of the COMMAND data source, there are a few things to note in particular. Be sure to select
the Use SSH check box. If you do not select this, the commands will only be run locally on the collector
assigned to the device that has the monitoring template bound to it. The Command Template field is where
you enter command to run. Be aware that any script you enter here is run through TALES before being run.
You may have to escape certain characters. For more information, see TALES expressions on page 205.
Data points
Data sources can return data for one or more performance metrics. Each metric retrieved by a data source is
represented by a data point.
You can define data points to data sources with all source types except SNMP and VMware. Because these
data source types each rely on a single data point for performance metrics, additional data point definition is not
needed.
To add a data point to a data source:
1
2
3
4
From the Navigation menu, select Advanced > Monitoring Templates.
In the Data Sources area, highlight the row containing a data source.
Select Add Data Point from the Action menu. The Add Data Point dialog box appears.
Enter a name for the data point, and then click Submit.
Note For COMMAND data points, the name should be the same as that used by the shell command when
returning data.
5 Double-click the newly added data point to edit it. Enter information or make selections to define the data
point:
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Name- Displays the name you entered in the Add a New DataPoint dialog.
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■
RRD Type- Specify the RRD data source type to use for storing data for this data point. Available
options are:
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■
COUNTER- Saves the rate of change of the value over a step period. This assumes that the value
is always increasing (the difference between the current and the previous value is greater than 0).
Traffic counters on a router are an ideal candidate for using COUNTER.
GAUGE- Does not save the rate of change, but saves the actual value. There are no divisions or
calculations. To see memory consumption in a server, for example, you might want to select this
value.
Note
Rather than COUNTER, you can define a data point using DERIVE and with a minimum
of zero. This approach creates the same conditions as COUNTER, with one exception. Because
COUNTER is a "smart" data type, it can wrap the data when a maximum number of values is reached
in the system. An issue can occur when there is a loss of reporting and the system (when looking at
COUNTER values) thinks it should wrap the data. This creates an artificial spike in the system and
creates statistical anomalies.
DERIVE- Same as COUNTER, but additionally allows negative values. If you want to see the rate of
change in free disk space on your server, for example, then you might want to select this value.
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ABSOLUTE- Saves the rate of change, but assumes that the previous value is set to 0. The difference
between the current and the previous value is always equal to the current value. Thus, ABSOLUTE
stores the current value, divided by the step interval.
■
Create Command- Enter an RRD expression used to create the database for this data point. If you do
not enter a value, then the system uses a default applicable to most situations.
■
RRD Minimum- Enter a value. Any value received that is less than this number is ignored.
■
RRD Maximum- Enter a value. Any value received that is greater than this number is ignored.
6 Click Save to save the defined data point.
■
Data point aliases
Performance reports pull information from various data points that represent a metric. The report itself knows
which data points it requires, and which modifications are needed, if any, to put the data in its proper units and
format.
The addition of a data point requires changing the report.
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Performance monitoring
Figure 67: CPU Utilization Report
To allow for more flexibility in changes, some reports use data point aliases. Data point aliases group data
points so they can be more easily used for reporting. In addition, if the data points return data in different units,
then the plugin can normalize that data into a common unit.
An alias-based report looks up the data points that share a common alias string, and then uses them. This
approach allows you to add data points without changing the report.
Figure 68: Alias-based CPU Utilization Report
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In the simplest cases, data from the target data points are returned in units expected by a report. For cases in
which data are not returned in the same units, an alias can use an associated formula at the data point. For
example, if a data point returns data in kilobytes, but the report expects data in bytes, then the formula multiplies
the value by 1024.
Alias formula evaluation
The system evaluates the alias formula in three passes.
Reverse polish notation
When complete, the alias formula must resolve to a Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) formula. For the simple
conversion of kilobytes into bytes, the formula is:
1024,*
For more information about RPN formulas, refer to the documentation.
Using TALES expressions in alias formulas
For cases in which contextual information is needed, the alias formula can contain a TALES expression that
has access to the device as context (labeled as "here"). The result of the TALES evaluation should be an RRD
formula.
For example, if the desired value is the data point value divided by total memory, the formula is:
${here/hw/totalMemory},/
For more information about TALES, see TALES expressions on page 205.
Using Python in alias formulas
You also can embed full Python code in an alias formula for execution. The code must construct a string that
results in a valid RRD formula. To signal the system to evaluate the formula correctly, it must begin with:
__EVAL:
Using the same example as in the previous section (division by total memory), the formula is:
__EVAL:here.hw.totalMemory + “,/”
Adding a data point alias
To add an alias to a data point:
1 Navigate to a data source on a monitoring template.
2 Double-click a data point in the list to edit it. The Edit Data Point dialog appears.
3 Enter the alias name and the formula.
Note
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If the data point returns values in the preferred units, then leave the Formula value blank.
Performance monitoring
Figure 69: Add data point alias
4 Click Save.
Reports that use aliases
For information about reports that use aliases, refer to the chapter titled "Reporting."
The following table shows performance reports that use aliases, and the aliases used. To add data points to a
report, add the alias, and then ensure the values return in the expected units.
CPU utilization
Alias
Expected units
loadAverage5min
Processes
cpu_pct
Percent
Thresholds
Thresholds define expected bounds for data points. When the value returned by a data point violates a threshold,
the system creates an event. There are several threshold types available:
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■
■
■
MinMax
ValueChange
CiscoStatus
PredictiveThreshold
There are many thresholds already defined in the system. You can see all the defined thresholds in the Defined
Thresholds report which can be accessed on the REPORTS > Enterprise Reports menu.
The following sections describe each type of threshold and how to create a new one and edit an existing one.
Additional threshold types may be provided through installed ZenPacks.
MinMax threshold
MinMax thresholds inspect incoming data to determine whether it exceeds a given maximum or falls below a
given minimum. You can use a MinMax threshold to check for these scenarios:
■
■
■
The current value is less than a minimum value. To do this, you should set only a minimum value for the
threshold. Any value less than this number results in creation of a threshold event.
The current value is greater than a maximum value. To do this, you should set only a maximum value for the
threshold. Any value greater than this number results in creation of a threshold event.
The current value is not a single, pre-defined number. To do this, you should set the minimum and
maximum values for the threshold to the same value. This will be the only "good" number. If the returned
value is not this number, then a threshold event is created.
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■
The current value falls outside a pre-defined range. To do this, you should set the minimum value to the
lowest value within the good range, and the maximum value to the highest value within the good range. If
the returned value is less than the minimum, or greater than the maximum, then a threshold event is created.
The current value falls within a pre-defined range. To do this, you should set the minimum value to the
highest value within the bad range, and the maximum value to the lowest value within the bad range. If the
returned value is greater than the maximum, and less than the minimum, then a threshold event is created.
ValueChange threshold
ValueChange thresholds inspect incoming data to determine whether a status change has occurred and if so
issues an event based on the defined severity.
Adding thresholds
To define a threshold for a data point:
1 From the Navigation menu, select ADVANCED > Monitoring Templates.
2 Click on the template that contains the data point you want to use in your threshold. The Data Sources
window is populated with folders containing all the data points being collected.
3 Select the data point by opening the appropriate folder in the data source and clicking on the data point row.
4 In the Thresholds area, click the Add icon. The Add Threshold dialog box appears.
5 Enter a name and select the threshold type, then click Add. The threshold name and type is displayed in the
Thresholds window.
Editing MinMax thresholds
The threshold must be created by the Add Threshold functionality or already be defined in the system before
you can edit it.
To edit a MinMax threshold:
1 Double-click the threshold in the list. The Edit Threshold dialog box appears.
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Figure 70: Edit Threshold
2 Enter or select values to define the threshold:
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■
■
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■
Name- Displays the value for the ID you entered on the Add a New Threshold dialog.
Description- Description of the threshold that you entered on the Add a New Threshold dialog. The
description is included in each event that is created from this threshold.
Type- Type of threshold that you selected. You cannot change the type of threshold. If you want a
different type of threshold, you need to create a new one and assign the correct type.
Explanation- Information field where a user can enter information about what the event means. This
field is included in each event that is created from this threshold
Resolution- Information field where a user can enter information about what to do to resolve the event.
This field is included in each event that is created from this threshold.
Data Points- Select one or more data points to which this threshold will apply and click the right-arrow
button to move them to the selected column.
Severity- Select the severity level of the first event triggered when this threshold is breached.
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■
Enabled- Select the check box to enable the threshold, or clear the check box to disable it.
Minimum Value- If this field contains a value, then each time one of the select data points falls below
this value an event is triggered. This field may contain a number or a Python expression. When using
a Python expression, the variable here references the device or component for which data is being
collected. For example, a 90% threshold might be specified as:
(here.linkSpeed or 1e10) /8 * .9
The division by 8 is needed because interface speed frequently is reported in bits/second, where the
performance data is bytes/second.
■
Maximum Value- If this field contains a value, then each time one of the selected data points goes above
this value an event is triggered. This field may contain a number or a Python expression.
■
Event Class- Select the event class of the event that will be triggered when this threshold is breached.
■
Escalate Count- Enter the number of consecutive times this threshold can be broken before the event
severity is escalated by one step. A value of zero (0) indicates that the severity will not escalate.
3 Click Save to confirm the edits.
Editing ValueChange thresholds
The threshold must be created by the Add Threshold functionality or already be defined in the system before
you can edit it.
To edit a ValueChange threshold:
1 Double-click the threshold in the list. The Edit Threshold dialog box appears.
Figure 71: Edit Threshold
2 Enter or select values to define the threshold:
■
■
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Name- Displays the value for the ID you entered on the Add a New Threshold dialog.
Type- Type of threshold that you selected. You cannot change the type of threshold. If you want a
different type of threshold, you need to create a new one and assign the correct type.
Performance monitoring
Data Points- Select one or more data points to which this threshold will apply and click the rightarrow button to move them to the selected column. When the data point changes status, an event will be
triggered.
■
Severity- Select the severity level of the first event triggered when this threshold is breached.
■
Enabled- Select the check box to enable the threshold, or clear the check box to disable it.
■
Event Class- Select the event class of the event that will be triggered when this threshold is breached.
3 Click Save to confirm the edits.
■
Performance Graphs
You can include any of the data points or thresholds from a monitoring template in a performance graph.
Graphs are no longer static images, but are rendered using the NVD3.js JavaScript library.
To define a graph:
1
2
3
4
5
From the navigation menu, select ADVANCED > Monitoring Templates.
In the left column, select the monitoring template in which you want to create a graph.
In the Graph Definitions area, click the Add icon. The Add Graph Definition dialog box appears.
Enter a name for the graph, and then click Submit.
Double-click the graph name in the list to edit it. Enter information or select values to define the graph:
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■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Name- Optionally edit the name of the graph you entered in the Add a New Graph dialog. This name
appears as the title of the graph.
Height- Enter the height of the graph, in pixels.
Units- Enter a label for the graph's vertical axis.
Logarithmic Scale- Select True to specify that the scale of the vertical axis is logarithmic. Select False
(the default) to set the scale to linear. You might want to set the value to True, for example, if the data
being graphed grows exponentially. Only positive data can be graphed logarithmically.
Base 1024- Select True if the data you are graphing is measured in multiples of 1024. By default, this
value is False.
Min Y- Enter the bottom value for the graph's vertical axis.
Max Y- Enter the top value for the graph's vertical axis.
Description- Enter a description of the graph.
Has Summary- Select True (default) to display a summary of the data's current, average, and maximum
values at the bottom of the graph.
Figure 72: Graph Definition
6 Click Submit to save the graph.
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Graph points
Graph points represent each data point or threshold that is part of a graph. You can add any number of graph
points to a graph definition by adding data points or thresholds.
From the Graph Definitions area of the Monitoring Templates page:
1 From the Action menu, select Manage Graph Points. The Manage Graph Points dialog box appears.
2 From the Add menu, add a data point, threshold, or custom graph point.
3 Select values, and then click Submit.
Note
Thresholds are always drawn before other graph points.
Re-sequencing graph points
To re-sequence graph points, drag a graph point row in the Manage Graph Points dialog box. (Click-and-drag
from an "empty" part of the row.)
DataPoint graph points
DataPoint graph points draw the value of data points from the template on a graph.
Adding DataPoint graph points
To define a DataPoint graph point:
1 From the Add menu on the Manage Graph Points dialog, select Data Point. The Add Data Point dialog box
appears.
2 Select one or more data points defined in this template. On data point graph point is created for each data
point you select from the list.
3 Optional: Select the Include Related Thresholds option. If selected, then any graph points are created for
any thresholds that have been applied to the selected data points as well.
4 Click Submit.
Editing DataPoint graph points
Double-click the name of the graph point to go to its edit page. Enter information or select values to edit the
graph point:
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■
■
■
■
■
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Name- This is the name that appears on the Graph Definition page. By default, it appears in the graph
legend.
Line Type- Select Line to graph the data as a line. Select Area to fill the area between the line and the
horizontal axis with the line color. Select None to use this data point for custom RRD commands and do not
want it to be explicitly drawn.
Line Width- Enter the pixel width of the line.
Stacked- If selected, then the line or area is drawn above the previously drawn data. At any point in time on
the graph, the value plotted for this data is the sum of the previously drawn data and the value of this data
point now. You might set this value, for example, to assess total packets if measuring packets in and packets
out.
Format- Specify the RRD format to use when displaying values in the graph summary. For more
information about formatting strings, refer to its documentation.
RPN- Optionally enter an RPN expression that alters the value of the data being graphed for the data point.
For example, if the data is stored as bits, but you want to graph it as bytes, enter an RPN value of "8,/" to
divide by 8. For more information about RPN notation, refer to the RRDTool RPN tutorial.
Limit- Optionally specify a maximum value for the data being graphed.
Performance monitoring
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■
■
■
Consolidation- Specify the RRD function used to graph the data point's data to the size of the graph. Most
of the time, the default value of AVERAGE is appropriate.
Color- Optionally specify a color for the line or area. Enter a six-digit hexadecimal color value with an
optional two-digit hex value to specify an alpha channel. An alpha channel value is only used if 'stacked' is
True.
Legend- Name to use for the data in the graph legend. By default, this is a TALES expression that specifies
the graph point name. The variables available in this TALES expression are here (the device or component
being graphed) and graphPoint (the graph point itself).
Available RRD Variables- Lists the RRD variables defined in this graph definition. These values can be
used in the RPN field.
Editing threshold graph points
Threshold graph points graph the value of thresholds from the template.
To edit a threshold graph point, double-click it in the list:
You can edit values for Name, Color, and Legend for a threshold graph point. Refer to the definitions in the
section titled Editing DataPoint Graph Points for more information.
Performance data retention
Zenoss Core stores all performance data (a.k.a., metrics) in HBase using OpenTSDB. The default retention
policy saves performance data for 90 days. To change the default, the time to live (TTL) must be adjusted on the
OpenTSDB column families in HBase.
Note
TTL is defined in seconds.
Once a TTL value is changed, the data retention will adjust on the next major HBase compaction, which by
default is once per day.
Changing the performance data retention time
To change the performance data retention time from the default value of 90 days:
1 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with sudo and docker privileges.
2 Stop the openTSDB writer service.
serviced service stop opentsdb/writer
3 Execute the following command to list all the services and their SERVICEID values. Take note of the
SERVICEID for the openTSDB reader service. It will be used as an argument in the following step.
serviced service list
4 Execute the following command, where $id is the openTSDB reader SERVICEID and $ttl is your TTL
value, in seconds.
serviced service shell $id /opt/opentsdb/set-opentsdb-table-ttl.sh
$ttl
5 Start the openTSDB writer service.
serviced service start opentsdb/writer
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Event management
8
Events, and the graphs generated from performance monitoring, are the primary operational tools for
understanding the state of your environment.
Basic event fields
To enter the event management system, an event must contain values for the device, severity, and summary
fields. Zenoss Core rejects events that are missing any of these fields.
Basic event fields are as follows:
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■
■
■
■
■
■
Summary
Device
Component
Severity
Event Class Key
Event Class
Collector
Device field
The device field is a free-form text field that allows up to 255 characters. Zenoss Core accepts any value for this
field. If the device field contains an IP address or a hostname, then the system will automatically identify and
add the event to the corresponding device.
Zenoss Core automatically adds information to incoming events that match a device. Fields added are:
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■
■
■
■
■
prodState - Specifies the device's current production state.
Location - Specifies the location (if any) to which the device is assigned.
DeviceClass - Classifies the device.
DeviceGroups - Specifies the groups (if any) to which the device is assigned.
Systems - Systems (if any) to which the device is assigned.
DevicePriority- Priority assigned to the device.
For more information about these fields, refer to the following chapters:
■
■
112
Production states and maintenance windows on page 136
Organizers and path navigation on page 140
Event management
Status field
The Status field defines the current state of an event. This field is often updated after an event has been created.
Values for this numeric field are 0-6, defined as follows:
Number
Name
Description
0
New
State given to an event when it is initially created in
the system.
1
Acknowledged
State given to an event when a user has acknowledged
the event.
2
Suppressed
State given to an event that has been suppressed via an
event transform.
3
Closed
State given to an event that was closed as the result of
a user action.
4
Cleared
State given to an event that was cleared by a
corresponding clear event.
5
Dropped
State given to an event that was dropped via an event
transform. These events are never persisted by the
system.
6
Aged
State given to an event that was automatically closed
by the system according to the severity and last seen
time of the event.
Severity field
The Severity field defines the severity of the event. Values for this numeric field are 0-5, defined as follows:
Number
Name
Color
0
Clear
Green
1
Debug
Grey
2
Info
Blue
3
Warning
Yellow
4
Error
Orange
5
Critical
Red
Summary and message fields
The summary and message fields are free-form text fields. The summary field allows up to 255 characters. The
message field allows up to 4096 characters. These fields usually contain similar data.
The system handles these fields differently, depending on whether one or both are present on an incoming event:
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■
If only summary is present, then the system copies its contents into message and truncates summary contents
to 128 characters.
If only message is present, then the system copies its contents into summary and truncates summary contents
to 128 characters.
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■
If summary and message are both present, then the system truncates summary contents to 128 characters.
As a result, data loss is possible only if the message or summary content exceeds 65535 characters, or if both
fields are present and the summary content exceeds 128 characters.
To ensure that enough detail can be contained within the 128-character summary field limit, avoid reproducing
information in the summary that exists on other fields (such as device, component, or severity).
Other fields
Events include numerous other standard fields. Some control how an event is mapped and correlated; others
provide information about the event.
The following table lists additional event fields.
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Field
Description
dedupid
Dynamically generated fingerprint that allows the system to perform de-duplication
on repeating events that share similar characteristics.
component
Free-form text field (maximum 255 characters) that allows additional context to be
given to events (for example, the interface name for an interface threshold event).
eventClass
Name of the event class into which this event has been created or mapped.
eventKey
Free-form text field (maximum 128 characters) that allows another specificity key to
be used to drive the de-duplication and auto-clearing correlation process.
eventClassKey
Free-form text field (maximum 128 characters) that is used as the first step in
mapping an unknown event into an event class.
eventGroup
Free-form text field (maximum 64 characters) that can be used to group similar types
of events. This is primarily an extension point for customization. Currently not used
in a standard system.
stateChange
Last time that any information about the event changed.
firstTime
First time that the event occurred.
lastTime
Most recent time that the event occurred.
count
Number of occurrences of the event between the firstTime and lastTime.
prodState
Production state of the device, updated when an event occurs. This value is not
changed when a device's production state is changed; it always reflects the state when
the event was received by the system.
agent
Typically the name of the daemon that generated the event. For example, an SNMP
threshold event will have zenperfsnmp as its agent.
DeviceClass
Device class of the device that the event is related to.
Location
Location of the device that the event is related to.
Systems
Pipe-delimited list of systems that the device is contained within.
DeviceGroups
Pipe-delimited list of systems that the device is contained within.
facility
Only present on events coming from syslog. The syslog facility.
priority
Only present on events coming from syslog. The syslog priority.
ntevid
Only present on events coming from Windows event log. The NT Event ID.
Event management
Field
Description
ownerid
Name of the user who acknowledged this event.
clearid
Only present on events in the archive that were auto-cleared. The evid of the event
that cleared this one.
DevicePriority
Priority of the device that the event is related to.
eventClassMapping
If this event was matched by one of the configured event class mappings, contains the
name of that mapping rule.
monitor
In a distributed setup, contains the name of the collector from which the event
originated.
Details
In addition to the standard fields, the system also allows events to add an arbitrary number of additional name/
value pairs to events to give them more context.
De-duplication
Zenoss Core uses an event "de-duplication" feature, based on the concept of an event's fingerprint. Within the
system, this fingerprint is the "dedupid." All of the standard events that the system creates as a result of its
polling activities are de-duplicated, with no setup required. However, you can apply de-duplicating to events
that arrive from other sources, such as syslog, SNMP traps, or a Windows event log.
The most important de-duplication concept is the fingerprint. An event's fingerprint (or dedupid) is composed of
a pipe-delimited string that contains these event fields:
■
■
■
■
■
■
device
component (can be blank)
eventClass
eventKey (can be blank)
severity
summary (omitted from the dedupid if eventKey is non-blank)
When the component and eventKey fields are blank, a dedupid appears similar to:
www.example.com||/Status/Web||4|WebTx check failed
When the component and eventKey fields are present, a dedupid appears similar to:
router1.example.com|FastEthernet0/1|/Perf/Interface|threshName
When a new event is received by the system, the dedupid is constructed. If it matches the dedupid for any
active event, the existing event is updated with properties of the new event occurrence and the event's count is
incremented by one, and the lastTime field is updated to be the created time of the new event occurrence. If it
does not match the dedupid of any active events, then it is inserted into the active event table with a count of 1,
and the firstTime and lastTime fields are set to the created time of the new event.
The following illustration depicts a de-duplication scenario in which an identical event occurs three times,
followed by one that is different in a single aspect of the dedupid fingerprint.
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Figure 73: Event de-duplication
If you want to change the way de-duplication behaves, you can use an event transform to alter one of the fields
used to build the dedupid. You also can use a transform to directly modify the dedupid field, for more powerful
cross-device event de-duplication.
Auto-clear correlation
The auto-clearing feature is similar to the de-duplication feature. It also is based on the event's fingerprint.
The difference is which event fields make up the fingerprint, and what happens when a new event matches an
existing event's fingerprint.
All of the standard events created as a result of polling activities do auto-clearing by themselves. As with deduplication, you would invoke auto-clearing manually only to handle events that come from other sources, such
as syslog, a Windows event log, or SNMP traps.
If a component has been identified for the event, then the auto-clear fingerprint consists of these fields:
■
If component UUID exists:
component UUID
eventClass (including zEventClearClasses from event class configuration properties)
■
eventKey (can be blank)
If component UUID does not exist:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
device
component (can be blank)
eventKey (can be blank)
eventClass (including zEventClearClasses from event class configuration properties)
When a new event comes into the system with a special 0 (Clear) severity, Zenoss Core checks all active events
to see if they match the auto-clear fingerprint of the new event. All active events that match the auto-clear
fingerprint are updated with a Cleared state, and the clearid field is set to the UUID of the clear event. After a
configurable period of time, all events in a closed state (Closed, Cleared, and Aged) are moved from the active
events table to the event archive.
If an event is cleared by the clear event, it is also inserted into the active events table with a status of Closed;
otherwise, it is dropped. This is done to prevent extraneous clear messages from filling your events database.
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Event management
The following illustration depicts a standard ping down event and its associated clear event.
Figure 74: Event auto-clear
If you need to manually invoke the auto-clearing correlation system, you can use an event transform to make
sure that the clear event has the 0 (Clear) severity set. You also need to ensure that the device, component, and
eventClass fields match the events you intend to clear.
Note
To prevent inadvertently clearing a wider range of events than intend, avoid making clear events too
generic.
Event consoles
Zenoss Core features multiple event consoles that allow you to view and manage events. Each console shows
different events subsets, depending on your current context.
Event consoles are:
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■
Master- To access this console, click Events on the Navigation menu. You can view all events from this
console.
Contextual- Contextual event consoles are found throughout the system. Each time you see an Events
selection for a device, device organizer, component, or event class, you can view event information that has
been automatically filtered to show events specific to the current context.
Master event console
The master event console is Zenoss Core's central nervous system, enabling you to view and manage events. It
displays the repository of all events that have been collected.
Figure 75: Event Console
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Customizing the event console
You can add or delete data columns to customize your event console view. The order of the selected column
names determines the left-to-right display on the Event Console.
1 Navigate to Events > Event Console.
2 Click the Configure button and select Adjust columns from the drop-down list.
The Column Configuration window appears.
Figure 76: Event Console Column Configuration
3 To select a column, double-click the name in the Available list to move it to the Selected list.
4 In the Selected list, to re-order the columns, use the arrow keys.
5 Click Submit.
Selecting events
To select one or more events in the event console, you can:
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■
Click a row to select a single event
Ctrl-click rows to select multiple events, or Shift-click to select a range of events
Sorting and filtering events
You can sort and filter events by any column that appears in the master event console.
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Event management
To sort events, click a column header. Clicking the header toggles between ascending and descending sort
order. Alternatively, hover over a column header to display its control, and then select Sort Ascending or Sort
Descending.
Filter options appear below each column header.
Figure 77: Event Console filter options
You can filter the events that appear in the list in several ways, depending on the field type. Date fields (such as
First Seen and Last Seen) allow you to enter a value or use a date selection tool to limit the list. For other fields,
such as Device, Component, and Event Class, enter a match value to limit the list.
The Count field allows you to filter the list when compared to a value. To search on count:
■
■
■
■
N- Displays events with a count equal to N.
:N- displays events with a count less than or equal to N.
M:N- Displays events with a count between M and N (inclusive).
M:- Displays events with a count greater than or equal to M.
To clear filters, select Configure > Clear filters.
Working with live search
By default, the system uses a "live search" feature to help you locate information. From the event console, you
can search for information by:
■
Device (name) and Component - Device name and Component searches:
Are case-insensitive.
Are tokenized on whitespace (meaning that any searches that span whitespace and do not start with a
complete token will return no results).
■
If quoted, return only exact matches.
Summary - Summary searches:
■
■
■
Are case-insensitive.
Are tokenized on whitespace (meaning that any searches that span whitespace and do not start with a
complete token will return no results).
Event class - Event class searches:
■
■
■
Are case-insensitive.
Are tokenized on / (slash). If the search begins with a slash, and ends with a slash or asterisk, then event
classes are searched by using a "starts with" approach. If a search starts with a slash and ends with any
other character, then event classes are searched by using an exact match for the event class. If a search
does not begin with a slash, then event classes are searched by using a sub-string match on each event
class.
IP Address - IP address searches (for IPv4 and IPv6 values):
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■
Are tokenized by . (period) and : (colon). For example, the following searches would return a result of
129.168.1.100:
168
168.1
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129.16*
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*29
Time fields
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First Seen - This is always the time of the first occurrence of the event and does not change.
Last Seen - This is the most recent occurrence of the event, and is updated each time the event occurs.
State Change - This is the time that the event state was modified, most commonly when the event is
closed.
Entering a datetime in one of these filters formatted as YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS displays events that have
a timestamp that is equal to, or newer than the input datetime. Note that while the input field accepts a 24hour format, the system displays it in 12-hour format by default (using am/pm).
Additionally you can also configure a time range to display events by using the following format 'start
datetime TO end datetime': "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS TO YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS". An example
might look like: "2017-07-21 12:00:00 TO 2017-07-22 12:00:00". This would include all
events that the timestamp occurred within a 24 hour period between 12:00:00 on July 21st through 12:00:00
on July 22nd.
With live search enabled (the default behavior), the system filters available information immediately. It presents
increasingly refined information with each character you type in the search window. When disabled, search
responds only after you enter one or more characters and then press Enter.
Saving an event console view
Save a custom event console view by bookmarking it for quick access.
1 Select Configure > Save this configuration.
2 In the dialog box, select the link, and then drag it to the bookmarks area of the browser window.
Figure 78: Saving a custom view (bookmark)
The browser adds a link to the bookmarks list.
3 Change the title of the bookmark to distinguish this event console view.
Refreshing the view
You can refresh the list of events manually or specify that they refresh automatically. To manually refresh
the view, click Refresh. You can manually refresh at any time, even if you have an automatic refresh interval
specified.
To set up automatic refresh, select one of the time increments from the Refresh list.
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Figure 79: Automatic refresh selections
Viewing event details
You can view details for any event in the system.
1 To view details, double-click an event row.
Figure 80: Event details
2 To display the event information in a new window, click the pop-out icon.
3 To see more information about the event, click the link for Event Management, Device State, Event Data,
or Event Details.
4 In the log area, enter information about the event, and then click Add.
Acknowledging events
You may want to mark an event as "acknowledged" to indicate, for example, that you have taken action to
remedy a problem. To mark events as acknowledged:
1 Select one or more events in the event console view.
2 Click the Acknowledge Events icon. A check mark appears for each acknowledged event.
Returning events to new status
Returning a previously acknowledged event to "new" status revokes its "acknowledged" status.
1 Select one or more events in the event console view.
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2 Click the Unacknowledge Events icon. A check mark no longer appears in the event row, and the event is
returned to "new" status.
Classifying events
Classifying events lets you associate events shown as /Unknown with a specific event class. To classify an
unknown event, an event class key must be specified for the event.
1 Select one or more /Unknown events in the event console view.
You can also classify events from the event archive.
2 Click the Reclassify an Event icon. The Classify Events dialog appears.
3 Select an event class from the list of options, and then click Submit.
Closing events
When you no longer want to actively monitor an event (after you acknowledge it, for example), you can specify
to close the event and move it to the event archive according to a configured event archive interval. To do this:
1 Select one or more events in the event console view.
2 Click the Close Events icon.
The selected events are closed and moved to the archive at the specified interval.
To view events in the event archive, select EVENTS > Event Archive.
Note
Users with no assigned role can view all events in the archive.
3 Click the Refresh icon to update the event list.
The closed events are removed from the display in the event console view.
Reopening events
You can reopen events in the active event console that are in the Closed, Cleared, or Aged state.
You cannot re-open a closed event if another active event with the same fingerprint exists. Before you can reopen the closed event, you must close the new event.
1 Select one or more Closed, Cleared, or Aged events.
2 Click the Reopen Events icon. The selected events are returned to active status.
Exporting event data
You can export data from the event console to a comma-separated value (.csv) or XML file. You can select
individual events (to export only those events), or make no selections (to export all events that match the current
filter criteria).
1 Select one or more events.
2 Select Export > CSV or Export > XML. By default, the exported file is named events.Extension.
Creating events
To create events from the event console, click the Add an Event icon.
For more information about manual event creation, see Creating events manually on page 123.
Event sources
Events enter the system as follows:
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Generated events are created as a result of active polling.
Captured events are transmitted by external actions into the system.
Generated events
The following standard daemons are responsible for generating events. They automatically perform appropriate
de-duplication and auto-clearing.
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zenping - Ping up/down events
zenstatus - TCP port up/down events
zenperfsnmp - SNMP agent up/down events, threshold events
zencommand - Generic status events, threshold events
zenprocess - Process up/down events, threshold events
zenwin - Windows service up/down events
Captured events
Captured events are those events that the system does not specifically know will occur in advance. Deduplication is performed on these events, but might require tuning. By default, no auto-clearing is done on
captured events. Event transforms must be used to create the auto-clear correlations.
The following standard daemons are responsible for collecting captured events:
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zensyslog- Events created from syslog messages.
zentrap- Events created from SNMP traps and informs.
ZenPacks that you install might include their own daemons.
Creating events manually
You can manually create events. Though not required for normal system operation, creating events is useful
when you have created mappings and transforms and need to test them.
Creating events in the browser interface
1 Navigate to Events, and then click the Add an Event icon.
2 In the Create Event dialog box, complete the event fields, and then click SUBMIT.
Figure 81: Create Event dialog box
Required fields: Summary, Device, Severity, and Collector.
Event class mappings are applied only for events that do not already have an event class.
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Creating events from the command line interface
To send events from the command line, use the zensendevent command.
Common options include:
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-d
-i
-y
-p
-k
-o
-s
-c
-f
DEVICE, --device=DEVICE
IPADDRESS, --ipAddress=IPADDRESS
EVENTKEY, --eventkey=EVENTKEY
COMPONENT, --component=COMPONENT
EVENTCLASSKEY, --eventclasskey=EVENTCLASSKEY
OTHER, --other=OTHER
SEVERITY, --severity=SEVERITY
EVENTCLASS, --eventclass=EVENTCLASS
INPUT_FILE, --file=INPUT_FILE
1 Log in to the Control Center host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Attach to the zenhub service.
serviced service attach zenhub
3 Change to the zenoss user.
su - zenoss
4 Run the zensendevent command.
zensendevent Options "Event_Summary_Text"
Example: Simulate a ping down event
The following example shows how to use the zensendevent script to simulate a ping down event:
zensendevent -d router1.example.com -s Critical -c /Status/Ping "Router
down"
Event classes
Event classes are a simple organizational structure for the different types of events that the system generates and
receives. This organization is useful for driving alerting and reporting. You can, for example, create an alerting
rule that sends you an email or pages you when the availability of a Web site or page is affected by filtering on
the /Status/Web event class.
Following is a subset of the default event classes. You can create additional event classes as needed.
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/App - Application-related events.
/Change - Events created when the system finds changes in your environment.
/Perf - Used for performance threshold events.
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/Perf/CPU - CPU utilization events
/Perf/Memory - Memory utilization or paging events
/Perf/Interface - Network interface utilization events
Event management
/Perf/Filesystem - File system usage events
/Status - Used for events affecting availability.
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/Status/Ping - Ping up/down events
/Status/Snmp - SNMP up/down events
/Status/Web - Web site or page up/down events
Event class configuration properties
Just as device classes and devices have configuration properties, so do event classes and event class mappings.
Configuration properties are applied hierarchically, with the most specific property being applied.
The following configuration properties are available on event classes and class mappings.
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zEventAction- How and where affected events are stored when they occur.
status- Active events table with original event state
history- Active events table with closed event state
■
drop- Events are not stored
zEventClearClasses- Optional list of event class names whose active events will be cleared by clear events
occurring in this class.
zEventMaxTransformFails - Bad transforms are disabled from executing after the specified number of
failures. The default value is 10.
zEventSeverity- The severity of affected events is changed to this value unless the default value (-1) is used.
zFlappingIntervalSeconds- Defines the time interval to check for event flapping (changing severity level
repeatedly). Default value is 3600 seconds.
zFlappingSeverity- Define the severity to check for event flapping. If the severity level on an event
changes from this value a certain number of times (zFlappingThreshold) within a certain time range
(zFlappingIntervalSeconds) then an event flapping event is generated. Possible values include: 5-Critical, 4Error, 3-Warning, 2-Info, 1-Debug, and 0-Clear.
zFlappingThreshold- Number of times an event severity must flap within an interval. One of the parameters
to define in order to generate event flapping events.
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A good example of how the system uses the event class configuration properties is found in the /Status
event class. Within the /Status event class configuration properties, zEventAction is set to "history" and
zEventSeverity is set to "Default". This means that events sent with this event class are sent into the active
events table with an initial state of closed, and the event severity unchanged.
For more information about event manipulation techniques, see Mapping and transformation on page 125.
Mapping and transformation
The event mapping and transformation system allows you to perform a wide range of operations, from altering
the severity of certain events to altering nearly every field on an event, based on complex rules.
You cannot alter the following fields through event transformation. (This is because they are set after
transformation has been performed.)
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evid
firstTime
lastTime
count
The following illustration shows the path followed by an incoming event in the event mapping system.
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Figure 82: Event processing
The mapping and transformation process begins with the "eventClass field exists" decision. This also is one of
the more important differentiators in how you must handle a particular type of event.
Event class mappings
To view event class mappings, select EVENTS > Event Classes, and then select Mapping Instances in the
drop-down list. This allows you to see all event class mappings in a single location. The ID column shows the
mapping's event class.
You can create event class mappings directly from the event classes, but this requires that you know the event
class key. A simpler way to create event class mappings is through the event console:
1 Select an event that you want to match in the event console.
2 Click the Reclassify an Event icon. The Classify Events dialog appears.
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3 Select the event class to which you want to map the event, and then click Submit. This creates the event
class mapping with the correct event class key, and example text against which you can develop your regular
expression.
When editing an event class mapping, you can control which events it will match, as well as other properties:
■
Matching tab
Event Class Key- Must match the incoming event's Event Class Key field for this mapping to be
considered as a match for events.
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Rule- Provides a programmatic secondary match requirement. It takes a Python expression. If the
expression evaluates to True for an event, this mapping is applied.
■
Regex- The regular expression match is used only in cases where the rule property is blank. It takes a
Perl Compatible Regular Expression (PCRE). If the regex matches an event's message field, then this
mapping is applied.
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Explanation- Free-form text field that can be used to add an explanation field to any event that matches
this mapping.
■
Resolution- Free-form text field that can be used to add a resolution field to any event that matches this
mapping.
Transforms tab- Takes Python code that will be executed on the event only if it matches this mapping. For
more details on transforms, see the section titled "Event Class Transform."
Configuration Properties tab- Listing of Configuration Properties defined for this event class.
Sequence tab- Sequence number of this mapping. This number determines the order in which mappings
with the same event class key are evaluated.
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Mappings have the same configuration properties as event classes. Any configuration property set locally on
a mapping will override the same property set on the event class. This works in the same hierarchical, most
specific match, concept that device class and device configuration properties work.
When a captured event occurs, it will not have a pre-defined event class. For this type of event, you must create
an event class mapping if you want to affect the event. If a captured event occurs and none of the event class
mappings in the system match it, its event class will be set to /Unknown, and it will retain all of the default
properties with which it began.
The next step of evaluation for events without an event class is to check the Event Class Key field. This controls
which event class mapping the event will match. If the event has a blank event class key, or its event class key
does not match any event class mappings in the system, the special “defaultmapping” event class key is searched
for instead. This provides for a way to map events even if they have a blank or unpredictable event class key.
Event class mapping sequence
The sequence area of an event class mapping (select Sequence in the left panel) allows you to provide more than
one mapping for the same event class key. In this case, the sequence is evaluated in ascending order until a full
(rule or regex) match is found.
For example, suppose a router is sending in unclassified events that need to be mapped to two event classes:
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/Events/Router/fanDown
/Events/Router/fanUnknown
The event class key for both has been sent to "router", but one has a message of "Fan Down" and the other has
no message at all. The mapping on /Events/Router/fanDown has an event class key of "router" and a regex of
"Fan Down." The mapping on /Events/Router/fanUnknown has only an event class key of "router" and (in this
example) no regex. Because the fanUnknown mapping matches the fanDown events, the evaluation of fanDown
needs to occur first.
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You can modify the evaluation of mappings with the same event class key in the Sequence area of any of those
event class mappings. In the previous example, you could go to either mapping, select Sequence, and both
mappings would be displayed. You can set one to 0, and the other to 1. (You can enter other values, but they
will be changed to the shortest list of integers, starting with 0.) Setting fanDown to 0 and fanUnknown to 1 will
ensure that the events will be mapped properly.
Event class transform
When a generated event occurs, it has an event class assigned to it. This causes the event class mapping step
to be skipped. The only way to affect the fields of one of these events is through the event class’ configuration
properties and transform.
To access the transform for an event class:
1 Navigate to the event class from Events > Event Classes.
2 From the drop-down list, select Transforms.
3 Enter information into the dialog box (as Python code), and then click the Save button in the upper-right
corner. As you develop your transform, you can revert back to the last saved state by clicking the Revert
this Transform button.
The objects available in this Python context are evt (the event); and, if the event matches a device that exists in
the system database, a device object.
The following example shows how you can validate that a device object exists before using it to drop events
from a particular location.
if device and "Hawaii" in device.getLocationName(): evt._action = "drop"
Event life cycle
In addition to manual methods for getting events into the status table or event archive, there are automated
processes that move events from status into the archive. The event life cycle is defined as all of the ways that
events can be added to, moved in, and deleted from the database.
The following illustration depicts the event life cycle.
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Figure 83: Event life cycle
Automatic event aging
From the Event Configuration page (ADVANCED > Settings > Events), you can set up automatic aging of
events. Aging of events will automatically update active events that match the severity and aging threshold to a
status of Aged. After the configured event archive interval, all Closed, Aged, and Cleared events are moved to
the event archive.
Properties that control this behavior are:
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Don't Age This Severity and Above - Options are Age All Events, Critical, Error, Warning, Info, Debug,
and Clear. By default, this value is set to Error, meaning that all events with a status of Error or Critical are
not aged.
Event Aging Threshold (minutes) - Set the time value, in minutes, that an event must reach before it is
aged. By default, this is 240 minutes.
Event Aging Interval (milliseconds) - The interval when events are scanned to perform autoaging. By
default, this is 60000 milliseconds (60 sec).
Event Aging Limit - The maximum number of events to age in each interval. The limit should be kept
relatively low to prevent large database transactions. By default, this is 1000 events.
Event Archive Threshold (minutes) - Specify the number of minutes since a closed event was last seen
before it is moved to the event archive. The minimum value is 1; the maximum value is 43200.
Event Archive Interval (milliseconds) - The interval when events are scanned for moving to the archive.
By default, this is 60000 milliseconds (60 sec).
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Event Archive Limit - The maximum number of events to archive in each interval. The limit should be kept
relatively low to prevent large database transactions. By default, this is 1000 events.
Delete Archived Events Older Than (days) - The number of days that events in the event archive are
saved. By default, they are kept in the archive for 90 days. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value
is determined by the range of event archive partitions. With the default configuration, the maximum value is
1000 days.
Default Syslog Priority - Specify the default severity level assigned to an event coming from zensyslog if
no priority can be determined from the event.
Default Availability Report (days) - Enter the number of days to include in the automatically generated
Availability Report. This report shows a graphical summary of availability and status.
Max Event Size in Bytes - The maximum size of an event that will be processed in bytes. Events that are
too large will be logged and dropped. Events that will become too big will have their details overwritten with
new details. By default, this is 32768 bytes.
Summary Index Interval (milliseconds) - The default indexing interval of the event summary in
milliseconds. By default, this is 1000 milliseconds (1 sec).
Archive Index Interval (milliseconds) - The default indexing interval of the event archive in milliseconds.
By default, this is 30000 milliseconds (30 sec).
Index Limit - The number of events to index in each index interval. By default, this is 1000 events.
Event Time Purge Interval (days) - The number of days that event occurrence time are kept. By default,
they are kept for 7 days. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is determined by the range of
event time partitions. With the default configuration, the maximum value is 7 days.
Enable Event Flapping Detection - Select this check box if you wish to enable event flapping detection. If
an event is created and then cleared flapping_threshold times in event_flapping_interval time then an event
of event flapping event class is created.
Event Flapping Event Class - The event class under which generated flapping events belong.
Clear Event Heartbeats - Click Clear to clear the event heartbeats.
Automatic archived event cleanup
You can set up automatic purging of events from the event archive from the Event Configuration page
(ADVANCED > Settings > Events). When events are purged, they can be recovered only from backups.
The property that controls this behavior is Delete Archived Events Older Than (days). Acceptable values are
between 1 and 1000 (days).
Capturing email messages as events
ZenMail and ZenPop allow you to capture email messages as events. This capability can be useful for situations
in which embedded systems (such as WAPs, NAS devices, or RAID controllers) rely on email notification for
events.
ZenMail
ZenMail serves as an SMTP server that you can bind to a specific TCP port. You can then configure your
embedded system to send mail to the Zenoss Core server explicitly by using the server's IP address as the relay.
ZenMail supports these configuration directives:
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${ZENHOME}/bin/zenmail (no arguments) - Default operation. Binds to port 25 on all ports and listens
for email messages to arrive. Ignores the TO field in the email and uses the FROM address as the device IP
address.
${ZENHOME}/bin/zenmail --listenPort - Bind to the port provided. Useful in situations in which
an SMTP server is already running on the Zenoss Core server and you do not want to interfere with the
Event management
existing mail delivery system. Semantics are the same as the no argument version (FROM address is used as
the device IP).
Note
To execute a command using $ZENHOME (/opt/zenoss for the zenoss user), you must be attached
to the container holding the Zenoss Core application. See the Control Center documentation for serviced
commands.
ZenPop3
ZenPop3 allows you to retrieve event email from a POP server. ZenPop3 supports these configuration
directives:
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--usessl- Issue the STARTTLS command to the POP server and attempt to transfer email messages
using SSL encryption. This is required if retrieving mail from Google.
--nodelete- Do not issue the DELE command after retrieving all messages. Typically this is used during
initial testing so that you do not have to resend test messages to the POP account. Some email systems (such
as Google) do not actually delete messages when the DELE command is issued.
--pophost- The hostname or IP address of the POP server from which to retrieve messages.
--popport- The TCP port the POP server listens on. Defaults to 110. Used in situations where the POP
provider listens on another port (for example, Google on port 995).
--popuser- The user name that contains email messages to retrieve.
--poppass- The password to use for the user name provided.
--cycletime- The time to sleep between polls. After all email is retrieved, ZenPop3 sleeps for this
amount of time before waking up and attempting to pull new email.
Translating message elements to the event
Zenoss Core translates various message elements to the event, as follows:
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FROM Field- If the FROM field is an IP address, then the system associates the event with the device with
the same IP address. If the FROM field is a fully qualified domain name, then the system resolves it to an IP
address, and then performs the device association using the resolved IP address. The resolution of hostname
uses "A" records rather than "MX" records.
TO Field- The system ignores the TO field in the email message. ZenMail accepts email to any user and
domain name combination. ZenPop also drops the TO field, and uses only the FROM field.
SUBJECT Field- ZenMail and ZenPop use the SUBJECT as the event summary.
Message Body- ZenMail and ZenPop use the first mime attachment as the event details. The system ignores
secondary message bodies (typically HTML-encoded versions of the message). It also ignores attachments
(such as files).
SNMP traps and event transforms
An SNMP trap is a message that is initiated by a network element and sent to the network management system.
Often, traps indicate a failure of some sort, such as a router message indicating a power supply failure, or a
printer message indicating an "out-of-ink" condition.
If an SNMP trap enters the system, and Zenoss Core cannot identify the event (the event is classified as "/
Unknown"), then you can classify the event so that the system handles it consistently.
Classifying SNMP traps
To classify an SNMP trap event:
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1 From the Event Console, select the unknown event or events.
2 Click the Reclassify an event icon. The Classify Events dialog appears.
3 Select /App, and then click Submit.
To edit this classification:
a From the Navigation area, select Events > Event Classes.
b Ensure Mapping Instances appears.
c Select the event map you created.
d In the left panel, select Edit from the Action icon.
The edit page appears. This page contains rules used to map the event to the /App category. This rule,
since it matches the trap by a specific OID, is all that is needed.
In the Transform area, you can enter code to modify the summary. For example, if you want to set the
summary string to "Spam Filter Detects Virus," then you can enter:
evt.summary = "Spam Filter Detects Virus"
A trap has a header with some standard information, followed by a sequence of attribute/values.
You have indicated you want the value for the OID ".1.3.6.1.4.1.9789.1500.2.5" as the summary. If you
had the MIB loaded, you could do this:
evt.summary = evt.spamFilterDetectsVirus
However, the OID and the data is still in there. Instead, use the slightly more cryptic:
evt.summary = getattr(evt, ".1.3.6.1.4.9789.1500.2.5", "Unexpected
missing OID")
The "device" object for the event has been made available, as well:
evt.summary = getattr(evt, ".1.3.6.1.4.9789.1500.2.5", "Unexpected
missing OID") \ + " from device " + device.getId()
Zenoss Core uses MIBs to translate SNMP traps that contain raw OID values. Loading a MIB into
the system allows it to translate numeric OIDs such as .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.6 into descriptive phrases like
“sysLocation”. It also makes it easier to manipulate the events in an event mapping.
Note
After loading MIBs into the system, be sure to restart the zentrap service so that it can
retrieve the new MIB information.
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Figure 84: SNMP TRAP transform
Following is a small demonstration MIB.
NOTIFICATION-TEST-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
IMPORTS
ucdavis FROM UCD-SNMP-MIB
NOTIFICATION-TYPE FROM SNMPv2-SMI
;
demonotifs OBJECT IDENTIFIER
::= { ucdavis 991 }
demo-notif NOTIFICATION-TYPE
OBJECTS { sysLocation }
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION "Just a test notification"
::= { demonotifs 17 }
END
Example: Sending test traps
To send an SNMP trap:
1 From the command line, enter the following command:
$ snmptrap -v 2c -c public localhost ''
1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.991.1.3.6.1.2.1.1.6 s \ "Device in Austin"
2
3
4
5
6
Save this demonstration MIB into a file.
Send the trap.
Open the Event Console and find the trap you sent.
Send this event to the event archive.
Load some MIBs into the system so that this OID is translated into a better format:
a Copy the demonstration MIB into $ZENHOME/share/mibs/site.
Note
To execute a command using $ZENHOME (/opt/zenoss for the zenoss user), you must be
attached to the container holding the Zenoss Core application. See the Control Center documentation for
serviced commands.
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b Run zenmib to load it:
$ zenmib run -v 10 DEBUG:zen.zenmib:TRAP-TEST-MIB.mib
INFO:zen.zenmib:Unable to find a file \ providing the MIB UCD-SNMPMIB ...
c The MIB loaded, but is missing some other definitions. Copy them:
$ cp /usr/share/snmp/mibs/SNMPv2-MIB.txt $ZENHOME/share/mibs/site \
$ cp /usr/share/snmp/mibs/UCD-SNMP-MIB.txt $ZENHOME/share/mibs/site
d Run zenmib again and load the definitions into the system:
$ zenmib run -v 10
e Restart the zentrap daemon to retrieve the new MIB information:
$ zentrap restart
f
Send the trap a second time:
$ snmptrap -v 2c -c public localhost ''
1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.13.991 .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.6 s \ "Device in Austin"
g Check the event. Make sure the count is 1. If the count is 2, send the event to the event archive and send
the trap again. Look at the Details tab. Now you should see something like this:
sysLocation Device in Austin
You should also see that the event summary changes from:
snmp trap 1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.13.991 from localhost
to:
snmp trap ucdExperimental from localhost
Transforming events with event mappings
To modify events as they arrive, create an event map through the user interface:
1
2
3
4
Create an event class.
Go to the event console and create an event mapping in this class from the existing event.
Edit the map.
In the Transform area, update the event with detail data. The entry field allows you to insert Python scripts.
The event is provided as "evt" and the device as "dev." In this case, extract the sysLocation event detail and
make it the summary with:
evt.summary = evt.sysLocation
5 Save the event mapping.
If you move the event to the event archive and resend the trap, the summary for the trap should now read the
device name in the location you assigned.
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If you encounter problems with the transform, check the zentrap.log file for errors that occurred.
Event transforms based on event class
When an event arrives in the system, you can change values (such as severity). For example, you can make the
summary more informative, or change severity according to text within the summary.
Each event class allows for a short Python script to be executed when an event arrives.
Example
A user may want full file system threshold events on /data to be critical. Add the following Python script in
the Threshold Transform of /Events/Perf/Filesystem:
if evt.component == '/data' and evt.severity != 0: evt.severity = 5
Like event mappings for event class keys, "evt" and "dev" objects are available in the script of the transform.
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9
Production states and maintenance
windows
Production state determines the level of monitoring and alerting applied to an individual device. Typically,
alerting rules specify that the system will monitor and create events for devices that are in the "Production"
production state.
Maintenance windows are planned time periods used to temporarily modify alerting rules so that eventgenerated alerts are temporarily halted during the window.
Production states
Production state determines whether a device is monitored, and can be used to control several elements of the
event system, such as whether an event will produce a remote alert (email or page).
Choose a production state for a device based on whether you want:
■
■
■
The device to be monitored
The device to appear on the dashboard
Alerting to occur
The following table lists production states and their characteristics.
Production state
Devices monitored?
Appear on dashboard?
Production
yes
yes
Pre-Production
yes
no
Test
yes
no
Maintenance
yes
may appear
Decommissioned
no
no
When you add a device to the system, its default state is Production. You may want to add triggers and
notifications to alert you to various conditions that occur in the system, such as production state changes or a
severity level being reached. For example, you can set up a trigger when a device is in either a production or a
maintenance state and has a severity of Error or higher. You can then notify users when this trigger condition is
met. For more information, see Working with triggers on page 22.
Setting the production state for devices
To set the production state for a device:
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1 Click a device name in the list of devices. The Device Overview page appears.
2 Select a production state from the list of options, and then click Save.
3 Optional: To set the production state for a group of devices, perform the following:
a Select a category of devices (by class, group, system, or location) from the hierarchy.
b Click the Actions button and select Set Production State from the drop-down menu.
c Select a production state from the drop-down list and click OK.
d To filter the display of devices with a certain production state, click the button underneath the Production
State column header and check the production states you want to see in the display.
Figure 85: Select production state (multiple devices)
Maintenance windows
Maintenance windows allow scheduled production state changes of a device or all devices in a system, group,
or location. You might want to set up a maintenance window, for example, to change a device's production state
while you perform configuration changes or reboot a device.
Note
In lieu of setting up a maintenance window, you can change the production state for a device manually
at the time you want to make changes.
When the maintenance window starts, the production state of the device is set to the value of Start Production
State (for example, Maintenance). When the maintenance window closes, the production state of the device
reverts to the value of Stop Production State (the state the device was in prior to Maintenance).
Maintenance windows do not prevent notifications from being triggered on the device. If you want to define the
notifications you receive during the maintenance window, you will need to set up an appropriate trigger for the
device production state that you set during your maintenance window. For more information, see Working with
triggers on page 22.
Maintenance window events
When a maintenance window starts, an event is created with the following information:
■
■
■
■
■
■
depuid - zenactions | Resource | MaintenanceWindowName | TargetOrganizerOrDevice
prodState - StartProductionState
severity - Info
summary/message - Maintenance window starting MaintenanceWindowName for TargetOrganizerOrDevice
eventClass - /Status/Update
eventClassKey - mw_change
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■
■
maintenance_devices - TargetOrganizerOrDevice
maintenance_window - MaintenanceWindowName
When a maintenance window stops, an event is created with the following information:
■
■
■
severity - Clear
summary/message - Maintenance window stopping MaintenanceWindowName for
TargetOrganizerOrDevice
prodState - -99 (meaning "unknown.")
Maintenance window events auto-clear, meaning that stop events clear start events.
Creating and using maintenance windows
You can create a maintenance window for an individual device or group of devices (all devices, a device class,
group, system, or location) in the devices hierarchy.
Create a maintenance window for a single device
Use this procedure to create a maintenance window for a device.
1
2
3
4
5
Log in to the Zenoss Core browser interface, and then navigate to INFRASTRUCTURE > Devices.
In the content area, click the name of the device.
In the sidebar, click Device Administration.
In the Maintenance Window toolbar, click Add.
In the Add New Maintenance Window dialog box, specify the attributes of the new maintenance window.
The attributes allow you to specify whether or not to enable the window, the time of day and date when the
maintenance window starts (in local time zone format), the duration of the window, and whether and how the
window repeats.
The Window Production State field allows you to categorize the production state of the device during the
maintenance window. When the window ends, the device is returned to the production state it was in when it
entered the maintenance window.
6 At the bottom of the Add New Maintenance Window dialog box, click SUBMIT.
Create a maintenance window for a group of devices
Use this procedure to create a maintenance window for a group of devices.
1
2
3
4
5
Log in to the Zenoss Core browser interface, and then navigate to INFRASTRUCTURE > Devices.
In the content area, select a group of devices, and then click DETAILS, located at the top of the sidebar.
In the sidebar, click Device Administration.
In the Maintenance Window toolbar, click Add.
In the Add New Maintenance Window dialog box, specify the attributes of the new maintenance window.
The attributes allow you to specify whether or not to enable the window, the time of day and date when the
maintenance window starts (in local time zone format), the duration of the window, and whether and how the
window repeats.
The Window Production State field allows you to categorize the production state of the device during the
maintenance window. When the window ends, the device is returned to the production state it was in when it
entered the maintenance window.
6 At the bottom of the Add New Maintenance Window dialog box, click SUBMIT.
Managing maintenance windows
Once you have created maintenance windows for your devices or groups of devices, you can quickly manage
these instances on the Maintenance Windows screen.
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Production states and maintenance windows
1 Navigate to the Maintenance Window screen. This is the same place where you initially created the
maintenance window (Device Administration link on Device Overview page). On this screen you can
perform any of the following by clicking the appropriate icon:
Add a new maintenance window
Delete the selected maintenance window
■
Edit the selected maintenance window (can also double-click a maintenance window row)
■
Toggle the selected maintenance window from enabled to disabled and vice-versa. The Enabled column
will switch values.
2 Ensure that your changes are reflected in the Maintenance Window screen.
■
■
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Organizers and path navigation
10
You can group system objects, including devices, sub-systems, components, configuration properties, and
templates. Types of classes are as follows:
■
■
■
■
■
Device classes
Groups
Systems
Locations
Component groups
In the following figure, the device tilde.zenoss.loc belongs to five different classifications.
Configuration properties and monitoring settings for each of these groups are applied to this device.
Figure 86: Device groupings
Classes
The most important organizers are classes, as follows:
■
■
■
■
140
Device classes
Event classes
Service classes
Product classes
Organizers and path navigation
Templates and configuration properties can be inherited based on class. These attributes can be overwritten
further down the class hierarchy, all the way down to the individual component level. The class hierarchy
includes all defined and standard classes and sub-classes.
The following procedures are illustrated using device classes and sub-classes, but the same concepts apply to
event classes, service classes, and product classes. When you add a device to the system, after providing the
network name or IP address, specify its device class. Templates and configuration properties can be set at any
level in the device class hierarchy.
Viewing device classes
To view device classes and the devices they contain, from the navigation menu, select INFRASTRUCTURE.
At the top level of the device hierarchy are device classes, such as CiscoUCS. To view devices in a class or to
expand the organizer to show subclasses, click a name in the tree. Severity indicators show the most severe type
of event that is associated with any device in that class.
Adding a class
After you add a device class, you can move devices into the class.
1 From the navigation menu, choose INFRASTRUCTURE.
2 In the left pane device class hierarchy, choose the parent class in which to add a child class; for example,
CiscoUCS.
3 At the bottom of the left pane, click the Add icon. The Add Device Class dialog box appears.
4 Specify a name and description for the new device class, and then click Submit.
The new device class appears in the hierarchy under the parent device class.
5 To move devices to the new class, choose the devices in the device list, and then drag them to the new class.
Moving a class
You can move a class from one location in the hierarchy to another.
1 In the hierarchy, choose the class.
2 Drag the class to its new location.
3 In the Move Organizer confirmation dialog box, click OK.
Setting configuration properties at the class level
Definitions are applied to all devices currently in the class and those added to the class (unless overridden at a
lower level in the hierarchy).
1 In the left pane device class hierarchy, choose Devices.
2 Click DETAILS > Configuration Properties. The Configuration Properties page for the selected device
class appears.
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Figure 87: Device class configuration properties
3 In the right pane, double-click a property to be edited.
4 In the Edit Config Property dialog box, change definitions and then click SUBMIT.
Groups
Groups are functional divisions that allow you to assign attributes to multiple objects with similar functions.
Groups can be used, for example, to arrange objects along departmental lines. Groups do not appear on the
Dashboard.
Adding a group
To add a group:
1
2
3
4
Select Infrastructure from the Navigation menu. The device list appears.
Select the parent location in the groups hierarchy where you want to create a child group.
Click the Add icon. The Add Group dialog box appears.
Enter a name and description for the group, and then click Submit. The group appears in the hierarchy. You
can now move devices to this group. Select one or more devices in the device list, and then drag them to the
new group.
Moving a group
To move a group:
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1 Select the group in the hierarchy.
2 Drag the group to its new location. The Move Organizer confirmation dialog appears.
3 Click OK to confirm the action. The group appears at its new location in the hierarchy.
Systems
Systems are intended to follow virtual setups, such as those in a network setup or systems grouped by
functionality.
Adding a systems
To add a system or sub-system:
1 Select Infrastructure from the navigation menu. The device list appears.
2 Select the parent location in the systems hierarchy where you want to create a new child system.
3 Click the Add icon. The Add System dialog box appears.
Figure 88: Add System
4 Enter a name and description for the system, and then click Submit. The system appears in the hierarchy.
You can now move devices to this system. Select one or more devices in the device list, and then drag them
to the new system.
Moving a system
To move a system:
1 Select the system in the hierarchy.
2 Drag the system to its new location. The Move Organizer confirmation dialog appears.
3 Click OK to confirm the action. The system appears at its new location in the hierarchy.
Locations
Locations are logical groupings for physical systems. They can be as general as city and state, or as specific as
rack or closet. Locations do not appear on the Dashboard.
Adding a locations
To add a location:
1
2
3
4
Select Infrastructure from the Navigation menu. The device list appears.
Select the parent level in the Locations hierarchy where you want to create a child location.
Click the Add icon. The Add Location dialog box appears.
Enter a name and description for the location, and then click Submit. The location appears in the hierarchy.
You can now move devices to this location. Select one or more devices in the device list, and then drag them
to the new location.
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Moving a location
To move a location:
1 Select the location in the hierarchy.
2 Drag the location to its new place. The Move Organizer confirmation dialog appears.
3 Click OK to confirm the action.
Integration with Google Maps
The system can map locations by using a Google Maps mashup feature that sets the location's Address property
to a valid Google Maps address. The selected location appears on the map as a dot. The color of the dot
represents the highest severity of any event on any device in that location.
Network connections that span locations are represented on the map by lines. Each line color matches the status
of the connection it represents.
Figure 89: Network location - Google Map
To view the Google Map for a network location:
1 From the Navigation menu, select Infrastructure.
The device list appears.
2 In the hierarchy, select a location.
3 Click Details.
4 Select Map.
The network map appears.
Note
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You also can view the network location map from the Google Maps portlet on the dashboard.
Organizers and path navigation
Enabling Google Maps
Before you can use the Google Maps feature, you must specify a Google Maps API key. For more information,
refer to the Google API Console. Enter the value in the Google Maps API Key field on the Advanced >
Settings page.
Setting an address for a location
To set a location address:
1
2
3
4
5
Select Infrastructure from the navigation menu. The device list appears.
Select a location in the hierarchy.
Select Edit from the Action icon. The Edit Organizer dialog box appears.
In the Description field, enter a description for the location.
In the Address field, enter a complete address that can be resolved by Google Maps. The address must
include a valid zip code.
6 Click Submit. The selected address for the location is created. You must add at least one device to the
location for the location "dot" to appear on the map.
Clearing the Google Maps cache
Sometimes there are issues with drawing the maps and seeing the network status of locations or connections.
Clearing the Geocode cache will solve these problems. To clear the Geocode cache:
1
2
3
4
Select Infrastructure from the Navigation menu. The device list appears.
Select a location in the hierarchy.
Select Clear Geocode Cache from the Action icon. A confirmation dialog box appears.
Click OK.
Network links
If two devices in the same network are in different map-able locations, a line is on the map representing a
network connection between the two. If there are multiple separate network connections between the same two
locations, only one line is drawn. The color of the line represents the highest severity of any events affecting the
connection. These are determined by:
■
■
A ping down event on the device at either end of the connection; or
Any event on the interface at either end of the connection.
Drawing map links (zDrawMapLinks configuration property)
Calculating network links on the fly is an time-intensive procedure. If you have a large number of devices that
have been assigned locations, drawing those links on the map may take a long time.
To save time, you can tell the system not to attempt to draw links for specific networks. You might want to do
this, for example, for a local network comprising many devices that you know does not span multiple locations.
To edit the value for this property:
1
2
3
4
Select Infrastructure > Networks from the Navigation menu. The Networks page appears.
Select a network or sub-network for which you want to disable map links.
Display configuration properties for the network.
Double-click the zDrawMapLinks configuration property in the list. The Edit Config Property dialog box
appears.
5 De-select the value (uncheck the box), and then click Submit.
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Note
This setting will be inherited by networks or sub-networks below this selection in the hierarchy. If
you have few networks for which links would be drawn, you might want to disable map links on /Networks,
enabling it only on a network where you know a location-spanning WAN connection exists.
Google Maps example
This example will show you how to:
■
■
Create and display Google map links of devices
Send a test event to see how map links are affected by system changes
1 Disable map links. (Refer to the procedure in Drawing Map Links for instructions.)
2 Create two locations: "New York" and "Los Angeles." (Refer to the procedure in Adding Locations for
instructions.)
3 Enter the following values in the Address field of the Add Location dialog: "New York, NY" and "Los
Angeles, CA" respectively.
4 Set the location of a device to New York. Locate another device on the same network and set its location
to Los Angeles.
5 Select Locations in the hierarchy, click Details, and then select Map.
New York and Los Angeles are represented by dots on the map; however, no link is drawn between these
locations.
6 Select Networks and re-enable map linking.
7 Select Infrastructure, then select Locations in the hierarchy.
8 Click Details, and then select Map.
A green line is now drawn between New York and Los Angeles.
9 Send an event with a severity of Critical to the device in New York. (For information about creating
events, refer to the chapter titled Event Management.) Do not specify a component.
10 Return to the Locations map.
The dot representing New York is now red, but the link between New York and Los Angeles remains
green.
11 Navigate to the New York device and determine the ID of the component that is connected to the
network shared with the Los Angeles device.
12 Send another test event, this time specifying that component.
13 Return to the Locations map.
The link between New York and Los Angeles is now red.
Inheritance
Inheritance is defined by how many attributes are applied to a device at different levels in the device hierarchy.
The following diagram shows an example of how and where configuration properties can be set throughout the
device class tree.
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Figure 90: Device class tree and inheritance
In this example, you can see that the default properties can be set at the highest level (/). However, as you travel
further down the hierarchy, you see that you can override any of the configuration properties that are set at the
root level.
The next two lines show how the device tree further defines properties for Linux servers. For example, to set
up and use SNMP monitoring for all Linux servers (inclusive of) build.zenoss.loc, you could change these
properties at the /Server/Linux level.
Further, if you wanted to change how you collect information for remote Linux servers, you could create a subgroup in /Server/Linux called /Server/Linux/Remote, setting these servers to use SSH monitoring and changing
the associated properties for that sub-group.
All of these configuration properties and groupings co-exist, with any changes made lower in the hierarchy
taking priority.
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User commands
11
User commands allow you to execute arbitrary shell commands from Zenoss Core. A user command is executed
in its appropriate container rather than the remote device unless the command explicitly uses SSH to connect to
the remote device.
You can define and run user commands on a device or organizer (device class, system, group, or location). You
also can define commands globally. The User Commands menu bar shows the various functions that can be used
in the User Commands screen. See the following sections for detailed instructions on adding and running user
commands on specific devices or groups of devices.
Figure 91: User commands menu bar
Defining global user commands
Global commands appear in the Commands list of options located at the top of the Devices page.
To define global user commands:
1 Select Advanced > Settings from the Navigation menu.
2 In the left panel, select Commands.
3 In the Define Commands area, select Add User Command from the Action menu. The Add User Command
dialog box appears.
4 Enter a name for the command, and then click OK. Only letters, numbers, and underscores are allowed in
command names. Spaces are not allowed. The Define Commands page appears.
5 In the Description field, enter a description of what the command will do.
6 In the Command section, enter the TALES expression-based command you want to run on the device.
7 Enter your system account password for confirmation, and then click Save.
The command is saved and added to the commands menu.
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User commands
Global commands also can be edited from a specific device. Changes to a global command from a device are
not limited to that device.
Running global user commands
To run a global user command, select one or more devices in the devices list, and then select a command from
the Commands list of options.
Figure 92: Global user commands
Defining user commands for a single device
To define a user command for a device:
1
2
3
4
Select INFRASTRUCTURE from the Navigation menu. The Devices page appears.
Click a device name from the list to open the Device Overview page.
In the left panel, select Device Administration.
In the User Commands area, click the Add a User Command icon. The Add New User Command dialog
box appears.
Figure 93: Add New User Command
5 Enter the following information about the user command:
Name - Name of the user command.
Description - Description of what the command will do.
■
Command - TALES expression-based command you want to run.
■
Confirm Password - Enter your system account password for confirmation.
6 Click Submit. The command is saved and added to the user commands menu.
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■
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7 Optional: Test the command by selecting the command from the list and clicking the Run icon.
Running user commands for a single device
To run a command defined for a single device:
1 Navigate to the Infrastructure > Devices page.
2 Click the device name in the device list to open the Device Overview page.
3 Select the command from the Commands list of options located at the bottom of the page.
Figure 94: Global User Commands Menu
Defining user commands for all devices in an organizer
To define a user command for all devices in an organizer:
1 On the INFRASTRUCTURE page, select a device organizer in the devices hierarchy; for example, /
Server/Linux.
2 Click Details.
3 In the left panel, select Device Administration.
4 In the User Commands area, click the Add a User Command icon. The Add New User Command dialog
box appears.
Figure 95: Add New User Command
5 Enter the following information about the user command:
■
■
■
150
Name - Name of the user command.
Description - Description of what the command will do.
Command - TALES expression-based command you want to run.
User commands
Confirm Password - Enter your system account password for confirmation.
6 Click Submit. The command is saved and added to the user commands menu.
7 Optional: Test the command by selecting the command from the list and clicking the Run icon.
■
Running user commands for devices in an organizer
To run a command defined for devices in an organizer:
1 On the Infrastructure page, select a device organizer.
2 Select one or more devices in the filtered view.
3 Select the command from the Commands list located at the top of the page.
Figure 96: Global user commands
User command example: Echo command
This example shows how to create an echo user command. You can see the use of TALES expressions in the
definition of this command.
1 Add a command called "echoDevice"
2 In the command definition, echo the name and IP address of the device:
echo name = ${here/id} ip = ${here/manageIp}
In a TALES expression, here is the object against which the expression is executed. Some TALES
expressions in the system have other variables (such as evt for event, and dev or device for the device).
See the Appendix titled TALES Expressions for more information about TALES expressions syntax.
3 Select a device and then run the command.
4 Edit the command to add more information:
echo name = ${here/id} ip = ${here/manageIp} hw = ${here/
getHWProductName}
5 Run the command against a group of devices and view the command outputs.
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Managing users
12
Every user within Zenoss Core has a unique user ID, which allows an administrator to assign group permissions
and alerting rules that are unique to each user. Unique IDs also help ensure secure access to the system.
To create and manage user accounts, you must be logged in to the system admin account, or as a user with
extended privileges.
Creating user accounts
To create a user account:
1
2
3
4
5
From the Navigation menu, select ADVANCED. The Settings page appears.
In the left panel, select Users. The users and groups administration page appears.
From the Action icon, select Add New User. The Add User dialog appears.
In the Username field, enter a unique name for the account.
In the Email field, enter the user account email address. Any alerts that you set up for this user will be send
to this address.
6 Click OK. The user appears in the User List.
After creating the account, edit the account to provide a password and additional user details.
Editing user accounts
To access and edit user account information:
1 In the Users list, click the name of the user you want to edit. The edit user page appears. The following
example shows the admin user.
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Managing users
Figure 97: Edit user
2 Make changes to one or more settings:
Reset Password - Facilitates user self-service by allowing a user to reset his or her own password. Click
to reset and email the new password to the email address associated with the user's account.
■
User Preferences - Resets all preferences such as grid columns and filters to their default values.
■
Roles - Assign one or more roles (user privileges) to the user. To edit or assign roles, you must be a
system Admin or be assigned the Manager role. For more information about user roles, and for a list of
available roles and the privileges they provide, see Roles on page 156.
■
Groups - Specify one or more groups to which this user belongs.
■
Email - Enter the user's email address. To verify that the address is valid, click the test link.
■
Pager - Enter the user's pager number.
■
Default Page Size - Controls how many entries (by default) appear in tables. Enter a value for the default
page size. The default value is 40.
■
Default Admin Role - Select the default role that this user will have for administered objects associated
with him or her.
■
Network Map Start Object - Specify the default view for this user in the network map.
■
Time Zone - Specify the time zone to be displayed on all charts and graphs within the product.
■
Date format - Select the date format to use on all charts and graphs within the product. The default
format is year/month/day.
■
Time format - Select the time format. Options include 24-hour time (HH:mm:ss) or 12-hour time using
a.m. and p.m. (hh:mm:ss a).
■
Set New Password / Confirm New Password - Enter a new password for the user and confirm the
entry.
3 Enter your password, and then click Save Settings to confirm and save the changes for the user.
■
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Associating objects with specific users
You can associate any object in the system with a particular user, for monitoring or reporting purposes. Once
associated with a user, you can then assign the user a specific role that applies to his privileges with respect to
that object.
For more information about object-specific roles, see Roles on page 156.
To create an object association:
1 From ADVANCED > Settings, select Users in the left panel.
2 Click the name of a user.
3 From the Edit page, select Administered Objects in the left panel. The list of administered objects appears.
Figure 98: Administered objects - add object
4 Select an object type from the Administered Objects Action menu. You can add:
Device
■
Device class
■
System
■
Group
■
Location
5 Specify the component you want to add as an administered object, and then click OK. The object appears in
the Administered Devices list for the user.
■
Figure 99: Administered Objects - Objects Added
6 Optional: Change the role that is associated for this user on this object.
Note The default role assigned to the user for an administered object is specified by the Default Admin
Role field on the Edit page.
7 Click Save to save changes.
Adding administrators
You also can associate an object with a user by adding an administrator to the object. Perform the following:
1 Navigate to the object you want to add to the user's list of administered objects.
2 Select Device Administration.
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Figure 100: Administered objects - add administrator
3 Click the Add Administrator icon in the Administrators area. The Add Administrator dialog box appears.
4 Select an administrator from the list and change the role if desired, then click SUBMIT. The administrator
appears in the object's Administrators list. The object is added to the administrator's Administered Objects
list.
User groups
Zenoss Core allows you to create user groups. By grouping users, you can aggregate rules and apply them across
multiple user accounts.
Viewing user groups
To view user groups, select ADVANCED > Settings, and then select Users from the left panel.
The groups area shows each user group and the users assigned to that group.
Creating user groups
You can create user groups to aggregate rules and apply them across multiple user accounts.
To create a user group:
1
2
3
4
Navigate to ADVANCED > Settings.
In the left panel, select Users. The Users page appears.
From the Groups area Action menu, select Add New Group. The Add Group dialog box appears.
In the Group field, enter a name for this user group, and then click OK. The group name appears in the
Groups list.
5 Click the name of the group you created. The Users in Group page appears.
6 From the Action menu, select Add User. The Add User to Group dialog box appears.
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Figure 101: Add User to Group
7 From the User list of selections, select one or more users you want to add to the group, and then click OK.
The user or users you select appear in the list of users for this group.
You also can choose administered objects and alerting rules for this user group. These alerting rules will apply
to all users in the group. The user's original alerting rules and objects will also apply.
Roles
A role is a group of permissions that you can assign to users or groups.
The following table lists available roles.
Role
Permissions
ZenUser
Provides global read-only access to system objects.
ZenManager
Provides global read-write access to system objects.
Manager
Provides global read-write access to system objects. Additionally provides read-write access to
the Zope object database.
Device access control lists
About device access control lists (ACL)
Zenoss Core supports fine-grained security controls. For example, this control can be used to give limited access
to certain departments within a large organization or limit a customer to see only his own data. A user with
limited access to objects also has a more limited view of features within the system. As an example, most global
views, such as the network map, event console, and all types of class management, are not available. The device
list is available, as are the device organizers: systems, groups, and locations. A limited set of reports can also be
accessed.
Permissions and roles
Actions in the system are assigned permissions. For instance to access the device edit screen you must have the
“Change Device” permission. Permissions are not assigned directly to a user; instead, permissions are granted
to roles, which are then assigned to a user. A common example is the ZenUser role. Its primary permission
is “View,” which grants read-only access to all objects. ZenManagers have additional permissions such as
“Change Device,” which grants them access to the device edit screen. When you assign a role to a user using the
Roles field (on the Edit page), it is global.
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Managing users
Administered objects
Device ACLs provide limited control to various objects within the system. Administered objects are the same as
the device organizers: Groups, Systems, and Locations and Devices. If access is granted to any device organizer,
it flows down to all devices within that organizer. To assign access to objects for a restricted user, you must
have the Manager or ZenManager roles. The system grants access to objects is granted using the user's or user
group's administered objects. To limit access, you must not assign a “global” role to the user or group.
Users and groups
Users and user groups work exactly as they would normally. See the section in the User Management section of
this guide dealing with users and groups.
Assigning administered object access
For each user or group there is an Administered Objects selection, which lets you add items for each type of
administered object. After adding an object you can assign it a role. Roles can be different for each object, so a
user or group might have ZenUser on a particular device but ZenManager on a location organizer. If multiple
roles are granted to a device though direct assignment and organizer assignment the resulting permissions will
be additive. In the example above, if the device was within the organizer the user would inherit the ZenManager
role on the device.
Portlet access control
Within Zenoss Core, portlet access can be controlled. This is important for device ACLs.
Example: Restricted tser with ZenUser role
To create a restricted user with a ZenUser role:
1 As admin or any user account with Manager or ZenManager role, create a user named acltest. Set a password
for the user.
2 Make sure that no role is assigned to the user.
3 Edit the user's administered objects.
4 Add an existing device to the user. The device's role will default to ZenUser.
5 Log out of your browser, or open a second browser and then log in as acltest.
6 Select INFRASTRUCTURE. You should see only the device you assigned to acltest.
7 Navigate to the device and notice that the edit capabilities are not available. This is because you are in readonly mode for this device.
Example: Restricted user with ZenManager role
To restrict a user to a specific role:
1 Change the acltest user's role to "ZenManager" on the device. (You must to do this as a user with
ZenManager global rights.)
2 Go back to the acltest user's administered objects and set the role on the device to ZenManager.
3 As acltest, navigate back to the device. You now have access to edit the device.
Example: Adding device organizers
To add a device organizer:
1 Go to Groups and create a group called "RestrictGroup."
2 Go to the acltest user’s administered objects and add the group to the user.
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3 Logged in as acltest, notice that groups can be added to a user.
4 Place a device within this group and as acltest you should not only see the device within the group but also in
the device list.
Restricted user organizer management
1 Give the acltest user ZenManager on your restricted group.
2 As acltest, you can now add sub-organizers under the restricted group.
Viewing events
A user in restricted mode does not have access to the global event console. The available events for the user can
be seen under his organizers.
Detailed restricted screen functionality
Dashboard
By default, the dashboard is configured with three portlets:
■
■
■
Object Watch List
Device Issues
Production State
These have content that will be restricted to objects for a given user.
Device list
The device list is automatically filtered to devices of a restricted user scoped to accessible devices. No menu
items are available.
Device organizers
Device organizers control groups of devices for a restricted user. Every device added to the group will be
accessible to the user. Permissions will be inherited down multiple tiers of a device organizer.
Reporting
Reports are limited to device reports and performance reports.
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Reporting
13
The REPORTS tab of the Zenoss Core browser interface provides summaries of monitored resources in a tree
view. Expand an organizer to see reports in that category.
You can organize reports and the display order of the report organizers by drag-and-drop within the tree view.
Figure 102: Reports list
Troubleshooting problems with report generation
If you experience stair-stepping in graphs, consider changing the reporting collection interval in Zenoss Core.
For example, setting the reporting collection interval to 60 minutes tells Zenoss Core to update the API-driven
reporting data at that interval, which is different from the native collection interval.
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Organizing reports
You can organize reports by creating organizers and moving reports into them. You can create report organizers
at multiple levels, even within another organizer. To create a report organizer:
1 Select an existing organizer or the top of the reports hierarchy, and then click Add.
2 Click Add Report Organizer.
3 In the Create Report Organizer dialog box, enter the name of the new report organizer, and then click
Submit.
The report organizer appears in the tree view.
4 Move reports into the organizer, or create new reports.
Device reports
All Devices
A summary of each device that Zenoss Core is monitoring.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the device.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
Product
The hardware model information associated with the device, which is provided by the device's
SNMP MIB, or entered manually. If the value in this column is an SNMP OID, the Zenoss Core
database does not include a definition of the object.
State
The device's production state. Valid states include Production, Pre-Production, Test,
and Maintenance.
Ping
The result of the most recent ping of the device.
SNMP
The result of the most recent attempt to gather data through the device's SNMP agent.
All Monitored Components
A summary of each component Zenoss Core is monitoring.
Column
Content
Device
The name of the device which contains the component, with a link to its overview page.
Component
The name of the component, with a link to its overview page.
Type
The class associated with the component.
Description
A description of the component; typically, the component's name.
Status
The state of the component as of the most recent attempt to gather monitoring data.
Device Changes
A summary of the devices in which changes were detected during the most recent collection of model data.
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Column
Content
Name
The name of the changed device, with a link to its overview page.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
First Seen The timestamp of the initial collection of modeling data for the device.
Collection The timestamp of the collection in which a change was detected before the most recent collection.
Change
The timestamp of the most recent collection in which a change was detected.
MAC Addresses (MAC Address Inventory)
A list of the unique device name, interface ID, and MAC address combinations in the Zenoss Core database.
Column
Content
Device
The name of a device, with a link to its overview page.
Interface ID
The ID of a network interface, with a link to its overview page.
MAC
address
A MAC address.
Model Collection Age
A summary of devices that were not available for modeling data collection during the most recent 48 hour
period.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the changed device, with a link to its overview page.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
First Seen The timestamp of the initial collection of modeling data for the device.
Collection The timestamp of the most recent collection of modeling data.
Change
The timestamp of the most recent change in modeling data for the device.
New Devices
The list of devices that were discovered and added to Zenoss Core recently.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the changed device, with a link to its overview page.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
First Seen The timestamp of the initial collection of modeling data for the device.
Collection The timestamp of the most recent collection of modeling data.
Change
The timestamp of the most recent change in modeling data for the device.
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Ping Status Issues
A list of the devices which were down during the most recent collection of monitoring data.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the device.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
Product
The hardware model information associated with the device, which is provided by the device's
SNMP MIB, or entered manually. If the value in this column is an SNMP OID, the Zenoss Core
database does not include a definition of the object.
State
The device's production state. Valid states include Production, Pre-Production, Test,
and Maintenance.
Ping
The result of the most recent ping of the device.
SNMP
The result of the most recent attempt to gather data through the device's SNMP agent.
SNMP Status Issues
A list of the devices for which no SNMP agent responded during the most recent collection of monitoring data.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the device.
Class
The Zenoss Core device class associated with the device.
Product
The hardware model information associated with the device, which is provided by the device's
SNMP MIB, or entered manually. If the value in this column is an SNMP OID, the Zenoss Core
database does not include a definition of the object.
State
The device's production state. Valid states include Production, Pre-Production, Test,
and Maintenance.
Ping
The result of the most recent ping of the device.
SNMP
The result of the most recent attempt to gather data through the device's SNMP agent.
Software Inventory
A list of the software installed in the devices and components which Zenoss Core monitors.
Column
Content
Manufacturer
The name of the company that makes the software product.
Product
The name of the software product.
Count
The total number of devices or components on which the software is installed.
Event reports
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All EventClasses (All Event Classes)
A list of each item in the event hierarchy in Zenoss Core. Each item (class) includes the total number of
subclasses, instances, and events associated with the class.
Column
Content
Name
The event class name.
Sublasses The total number of subclasses associated with the event class.
Instances
The total number of instances of the class and its subclasses.
Events
The total number of events associated with the class.
All EventMappings (All Event Mappings)
A list of each item in the event mapping hierarchy in Zenoss Core. Each item (event mapping) includes its key
and example text, and a count of the events associated with the event mapping.
Column
Content
Name
The name of the event mapping, which includes its location in the event class hierarchy,
and its key.
EventClassKey
The unique identifier of the event mapping.
Evaluation
A portion of the example associated with the event mapping.
Events
The total number of events associated with the event mapping.
All Heartbeats
A list of all Zenoss Core daemons, showing the number of seconds elapsed since each daemon sent a heartbeat
event.
Column
Content
Device
The device on which the daemon is running.
Component
The name of the daemon.
Seconds
The number of seconds elapsed since the daemon sent a heartbeat event.
Performance reports
Availability Report
Shows the percentage of time that a device is considered available. You can filter this report on a variety of
criteria, including by a time period.
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Report filtering
Device Class
The device class to use for filtering. The default is / (all device classes).
Systems
Select the systems to filter by. The default is / (all systems).
Groups
Select the groups to filter by. The default is / (all groups).
Locations
Select the locations to filter by. The default is / (all locations).
Device Filter
Enter the name of the device to filter by.
Severity
The severity level used in the availability calculation described below. The default is Critical. If another
level is wanted, select it from the drop-down list.
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Event Class
The event class to use for filtering. The default is /Status/Ping.
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
The percent availability value is calculated by first summing the duration of all events of a particular class
with a production state of Production and with a severity greater than or equal to a specified severity in the
filter criteria. This sum is then divided by the total duration of the time range, and then subtracted from 1 and
multiplied by 100 to get the percent available, as in the following equation:
1 - ((Total event down time) / (total duration)) * 100
Note
Events whose firsttime and lasttime fields are the same are not used in the calculation. These could
represent an event that occurs and is subsequently cleared by the next event, or an event that has happened only
once in the specific date range.
Report contents
164
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
Systems
Systems name if applicable to the filter.
Reporting
Column
Content
Availability Total availability of the selected devices.
CPU Utilization
Shows monitored devices, load averages, % utilization, and forecasted exhaustion. You can customize start and
end dates.
Report filtering
Root Organizer
The device class to use for filtering. The default is /Devices.
Device Filter
Enter the name of the device to filter by.
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Summary Type
Possible values include: Average, Maximum, Minimum, and Last.
Consolidation
Possible values include: Average and Max.
Trendline Type
Projection algorithm used in Forecasted % Util Exhaustion calculation. Possible value: Linear
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
This report uses data point aliases. (For more information about data point aliases, see Data point aliases on
page 102.) To add data points to a report, add the alias, and then ensure the values return in the expected units.
Alias
Expected Units
loadAverage5min
Processes
cpu_pct
Percent
Report contents
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
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Column
Content
Load Avg
Average load on the device.
% Util
% CPU utilization on the device
Forecasted The amount of time before the exhaustion threshold will be breached.
% Util
Exhaustion
Filesystem Util Report
Shows mount point, total bytes, used bytes, free bytes, and percentage of utilization for each device. You can
customize start and end dates and summary type.
Report filtering
Root Organizer
The device class to use for filtering. The default is /Devices.
Device Filter
Enter the name of the device to filter by.
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Summary Type
Possible values include: Average, Maximum, Minimum, and Last.
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
This report uses data point aliases. (For more information about data point aliases, see Data point aliases on
page 102.) To add datapoints to a report, add the alias, and then ensure the values return in the expected units.
Alias
Expected Units
usedFilesystemSpace__bytes
bytes
Report contents
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
Mount
File systems mount point. Click the link to be taken directly to the device's components page.
Total bytes Amount of total bytes
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Column
Content
Used bytes
Amount of used bytes
Free bytes
Amount of free bytes
% Util
Percent utilization
Interface Utilization
Shows the traffic through all network interfaces monitored by Zenoss Core.
Report filtering
Root Organizer
The device class to use for filtering. The default is /Devices.
Device Filter
Enter the name of the device to filter by.
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Summary Type
Possible values include: Average, Maximum, Minimum, and Last.
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
This report uses data point aliases. (For more information about data point aliases, see Data point aliases on
page 102.) To add data points to a report, add the alias, and then ensure the values return in the expected units.
Alias
Expected Units
inputOctets__bytes
bytes/sec
outputOctets__bytes
bytes/sec
Report contents
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
Interface
Name of interface. Click the link to be taken to the Device Components page.
Speed
The interface's rated bandwidth, in bits per second
Input
Average traffic coming in to the interface, in bits per second
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Column
Content
Output
Average traffic going out of the interface, in bits per second
Total
Total average traffic across the interface, in bits per second
% Util
Percentage of the interface's bandwidth consumed
Memory Utilization
Provides system-wide information about the memory usage for devices in Zenoss Core.
Report filtering
Root Organizer
The device class to use for filtering. The default is /Devices.
Device Filter
Enter the name of the device to filter by.
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Summary Type
Possible values include: Average, Maximum, Minimum, and Last.
Consolidation
Possible values include: Average and Max.
Trendline Type
Projection algorithm used in Forecasted % Util Exhaustion calculation. Possible value: Linear
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
The report uses data point aliases. (For more information about data point aliases, see Data point aliases on page
102.) To add data points to the report, add the alias, and then ensure the values return in the expected units.
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Alias
Expected Units
memoryAvailable__bytes
bytes
memoryBuffered__bytes
bytes
memoryCached__bytes
bytes
Reporting
Report contents
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
Total
Amount of total memory
Available
Amount of available memory
Cache
Memory
Amount of cache memory
Buffered
Memory
Amount of buffered memory
% Util
% memory utilization on the device
Forecasted The amount of time before the exhaustion threshold will be breached.
% Util
Exhaustion
Threshold Summary
Provides information about the devices that are approaching or exceeding their thresholds.
Report filtering
Start Date
End Date
The first and last dates of the range of dates to include in the report. To select a date from a calendar, click
select. The default range is the week ending with the current date.
Event Class
The device class to use for filtering. The default is /Perf.
To generate or refresh the report, click Generate.
Note
If you export the report by clicking Export all, be sure to format the percentage columns to show
percentages instead of decimal values.
Report contents
Column
Content
Device
Name of the device based on the filter parameters selected.
Component Network interface component name, if applicable.
Event Class Event class that had a threshold breach.
Count
Number of times a threshold was breached.
Duration
Amount of time that a threshold was breached.
%
Percentage of time that the threshold was breached for the report's time period.
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Graph reports
Graph reports allow you to assemble graphs from devices and device components into a single report. Graph
reports only display those graphs that already exist on devices or components in the system. You cannot define
or alter graphs in a graph report.
Graph reports are available in two views: a "normal" view (similar to the graph views for devices and device
classes) and a print view.
Figure 103: Sample graph report
Creating a graph report
To create a graph report:
1
2
3
4
Navigate to REPORTS > Graph Reports
Click Add and select Add Graph Report from the popup menu.
Enter a name for the report in the Create Graph Report dialog box and click SUBMIT.
In the Edit Report screen, verify or edit the following information in the Graph Report section:
■
■
■
■
Name: The name of the report as defined in the Create Graph Report dialog box.
Title: Enter a descriptive title to display in the list of reports for the report organizer.
Number of Columns: Specify the number of columns (1-3) in which graphs will be displayed on the
report.
Comments: Enter comments to display at the top of the printable version of the report. This is a TALES
evaluated string that can contain HTML formatting. The variables available to the TALES expression
are:
now (current date and time)
report (report object)
5 Click Save to save the new graph report.
■
■
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6 In the Add New Graph section, fill in the appropriate information to add a graph to the report:
Device: Select the one or more devices. You can narrow the list of devices by entering a search string and
clicking Filter.
■
Component: Optionally, select one or more components from the Component list. This list displays the
names of all components defined on at least one of the selected device. If you want to see the complete
component path in the system to help with identification, select the Show component path check box.
7 Select one or more graphs from the Graph list. This list displays the names of all the graphs available for the
selected devices; or, if you have selected one or more components, the graphs available for the components.
8 Click Add Graph to Report. The selected graphs are displayed in the Graphs section. You can resequence
or delete graphs using the Action icon.
■
Graph reports maintain a static list of graphs. This list does not automatically change when graphs are added
or deleted from monitoring templates. For example, you have two devices with associated graphs:
■
■
DeviceA: Has a single graph (Graph1)
Device B: Has two graphs (Graph1 and Graph2)
If you select DeviceA and DeviceB on the Graph Report edit page, the list of graphs will include Graph1 and
Graph2. If you select both graphs and add them to the report, you will see three graphs:
■
■
■
DeviceA - Graph1
Device B - Graph1
Device B - Graph2
If, at a later time, you create a second graph (Graph2) on DeviceA's monitoring templates, that new graph
will not automatically appear on the graph report. You must edit the report to add it. Similarly, if you later
remove a graph from DeviceB's template (or even delete DeviceB from the system), you must manually
remove the graph (or device) from the graph report.
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Working with graph reports
You can customize the display of the graphs contained in any graph report you've created. You can change the
graph name by clicking on the graph name in the Graphs section of the Edit Report screen. You can also edit the
text that appears with the graph when viewing the report:
■
Summary: Displays above the graph in the normal report view. It may contain TALES expressions with
these variables:
dev - Device
■
comp - Component
■
graph - Graph
Comments: Displays to the left of the graph in the printable view. May contain TALES expressions with
these variables:
■
■
■
■
■
dev - Device
comp - Component
graph - Graph
On the Graph report, you can control the information displayed by selecting the Range of data to display or
by clicking the Zoom In/Zoom Out controls. Using this latter method, automatically adjusts the data range to
Custom and you can fine-tune your date range.
Multi-Graph reports
Multi-graph reports combine data from different devices and components into a single report. You can create
a graph definition and have it drawn once for each of a group of devices and components that you define.
Alternatively, you can combine the data for those graphs into a single graph.
The groups of devices and components you assemble are called "collections". Specifying the graph definition
to apply to collections is done through graph group objects. Multi-graph reports include their own graph
definitions, and thus do not use the graph definitions that are defined in monitoring templates. To create a report
that includes graphs defined on templates, use a Graph report instead.
Creating a multi-graph report
1
2
3
4
Navigate to REPORTS > Multi-Graph Reports
Click Add and select Add Multi-Graph Report from the popup menu.
Enter a name for the report in the Create Multi-Graph Report dialog box and click SUBMIT.
In the report edit page, enter or select values for the following:
Name: The name of the report as defined in the Create Multi-Graph Report dialog box.
Title: Enter a descriptive title to display in the list of reports for the report organizer.
■
Number of Columns: Specify the number of columns (1-3) in which graphs will be displayed on the
report.
5 Click Save.
6 Add one or more of the following to define the source you want to graph:
■
■
■
■
■
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Collections: Contain the devices and components you want to graph.
Graph Definitions: Describe the graphs you want on the report.
Graph Groups: Specify the collections and graph definition to use.
Reporting
Figure 104: Multi-Graph Report Edit page
Adding collections
A collection comprises one or more collection items. A collection item can be a list of device classes, systems,
groups, locations, or specific devices or components. A single collection may contain as many collection items
as desired. A multi-graph report must contain at least one collection. Collections are shown in the Collections
area of the report's Edit page.
To create a collection:
1 In the Collections area of the multi-graph report Edit page, click the Action icon and select Add Collection.
The Add a Collection dialog box appears.
2 Enter a name for the collection, then click OK. The Multi-Graph Report Collection dialog box appears.
Figure 105: Multi-Graph report collection
3 In the Add To Collection area, select collection items to add to the collection:
a Select a value for Item Type. If you select either Device Class, System, Group, or Location,
then you can select one or more of the organizers to include in the collection. If you select Specific
Device/Component, you will be able to choose from a list of all the devices in the system. You can
use the Filter field to narrow the selection process. Selecting one or more devices will display a list of
component names that apply to the selected devices.
b Select a value for Include Suborganizers?. If true, the collection will also include all organizers
recursively beneath the selected organizer. These collection items are dynamic, when devices are added
or removed from the organizers, they will appear or disappear from the report.
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4 Click Add to Collection to create a new colleciton item for each of the selected organizers or specific
device. The collection item appears in the Colllection Items area. If desired, you can re-order collection
items. Their listed order determines the order in which the graphs are drawn, or the order that data is drawn
on a combined graph.
Adding graph definitions
In the context of multi-graph reports, graph definitions are very similar to those in monitoring templates.
Settings on the graph definition define basic parameters. Graph points are added to specify which data should be
drawn. (For more information on creating graph definitions, see Performance Graphs on page 109.)
The most significant differences between graph definitions in the two contexts is how data point graph
points and threshold graph points are added. When adding a data point graph point to a graph definition in a
performance template, you can select from a list of data points that are defined on that template. In the context
of a multi-graph report, there are no graph point definitions listed. You must enter the name of the data point on
the data point graph point dialog.
1 Click the Action icon in the Graph Definitions area of the Graph edit page and select Add Graph.
The Add a New Graph dialog box appears.
2 Enter a name for the graph, then click OK.
The Edit Graph Definition page appears.
Figure 106: Multi-Graph Report Graph Definition
3 Make any changes to the graph definition values displayed, then click Save.
4 Click the Action icon in the Graph Points section to perform the following:
■
■
■
■
■
Add data points (see next topic)
Add thresholds
Add a custom graph point
Delete a graph point
Re-sequence graph points
Adding data points
To add a data point to a graph definition:
1
2
3
4
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Ensure that you have created a graph definition as part of your multi-graph report.
On the Graph Definition page, click the Action icon in the Graph Points section and select Add DataPoint.
Enter a DataPoint Name. The field will auto-populate based on your entry. Click OK to save the name.
Click the name of the graph point you want to define. The Edit screen appears.
Reporting
Figure 107: Edit DataPoint
5 Edit the fields based on your datapoint and the way you want data displayed. You can enter a custom RPN
expression on this screen if needed.
6 Click Save.
Adding graph groups
Graph groups combine a graph definition with a collection to produce graphs for the report. In order for the
report to show graphs, at least one graph group must be created.
To create a graph group:
1 Click the Action icon in the Graph Groups area of the Graph edit page and select Add Group.
The Add a New Graph Group dialog box appears.
2 Enter a name for the graph group, then click OK.
The Edit Graph Group Definition page appears.
Figure 108: Multi-Graph Report Graph Group
3 Make any changes to the graph group values displayed:
■
■
■
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Name: Identifies the graph group on the multi-graph report page. It does not appear on the report.
Collection: Select a collection that has been defined for this report.
Graph Definition: Select a graph definition that has been defined for this report.
Method: Choose between having the graph drawn once for each device and component in the collection
or combining the data from all devices and components into a single graph. Options are:
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Separate graph for each device: The graph definition is used to draw one graph for each device and
component in the collection. Graphs will appear in the list in the same order they are specified in the
collection.
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All devices on a single graph: Draws one graph with the data from all devices and components
included.
4 Click Save to save the graph group.
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Re-sequencing graph group order
Graph groups are drawn in the order listed on the multi-graph report Edit page. To change the order of the graph
groups:
1 On the Multi-Graph Edit Report page, edit the sequence order numbers (0, 1, 2, etc.) next to the graph
groups that you've defined.
2 From the Action icon, select Re-sequence items.
The page refreshes and displays the graph groups in the re-sequenced order.
Note If a graph group results in multiple graphs, the graphs are drawn in the order that the collection
items are listed in the corresponding collection. If a collection item specifies a device organizer, the order of
devices drawn from that collection item is indeterminate.
Creating a custom device report
To create a custom device report:
1
2
3
4
Navigate to REPORTS > Custom Device Reports
Click Add and select Add Custom Device Report from the popup menu.
Enter a name for the report in the Create Custom Device Report dialog box and click SUBMIT.
Define the following report parameters:
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Name: Edit the report name if needed.
Title: Enter the report title. This title is displayed in the report and is distinct from the report name.
Path: Specify the path in the hierarchy where you want the system to store the report.
Query: Specify the actual query string for the report. For example, if you want to limit the report to just
those devices with a serial number, you can set the query value to:
here.hw.serialNumber != ""
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Sort Column: Specify the column on which you want to sort the report by default.
Sort Sense: Specify the sense that the system uses to sort: asc (ascending sort) or desc (descending
sort)
Columns: Specify the data to be retrieved and displayed in the report. For example you could specify:
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getID: Gets the name of any device.
getManageIp: Gets the IP addresses of the devices.
getHWSerialNumber: Gets the serial numbers of the devices.
Note
For a complete list of valid options, refer to the information on the Device schema in TALES
expressions on page 205.
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Scheduling reports
By default, all reports run on demand, presenting information in the browser interface when you run the report.
You can also schedule a report to be run using the reportmail command line tool. You can select a report
to generate and email its output to a list of recipients. Ensure that an SMTP server is configured for your
environment.
To schedule a report using reportmail:
1 Log in to the Zenoss Core browser interface and click REPORTS.
2 Take note of the report name you want to schedule and the folder it is in. You will need this information later
in this procedure. For example, MAC Addresses report in the Device Reports folder.
3 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
4 Adapt the following command for your environment:
serviced service run zope reportmail run -u "http://localhost:8080/
zport/dmd/Reports/FolderName/ReportName" -U user -p password a emailaddress -f emailaddress
The URL must use localhost:8080. Use %20 for a space in the URL. A more real-world example:
serviced service run zope reportmail run -u "http://localhost:8080/
zport/dmd/Reports/Device%20Reports/MAC%20Addresses" -U admin -p Pa$
$w@rd -a managers@example.com -f craig@example.com
The following table lists all the arguments available for the reportmail command:
Table 7: Reportmail command line arguments
Argument
Description
-u URL, --url=URL
Uniform Resource Locator of the report to send.
This can also be the URL of any other page in the
system. Use localhost:8080 as the domain.
Use %20 for the space character.
-U USER, --user=USER
User to log in to the system. This user must have
permission to view the supplied URL.
-p PASSWD, --passwd=PASSWD
Password to log in to the system.
-a ADDRESS, --address=ADDRESS
Email address for report delivery (may be given
more than once). Default value comes from the
user's profile.
-s SUBJECT, --subject=SUBJECT
Subject line for email message. Default value is the
title of the page.
-f FROMADDRESS, --from=FROMADDRESS
Origination address for the email being sent.
-d DIV, --div=DIV
DIV to extract from the HTML at URL. The default
value is contentPane, which works for all
default reports.
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ZenPacks
14
ZenPacks extend and modify the system to add new functionality. This can be as simple as adding new device
classes or monitoring templates, or as complex as extending the data model and providing new collection
daemons.
You can use ZenPacks to add:
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Monitoring templates
Data sources
Graphs
Event classes
User commands
Reports
Model extensions
Product definitions
Simple ZenPacks can be created completely within the user interface. More complex ZenPacks require
development of scripts or daemons, using Python or another programming language.
ZenPacks can be distributed for installation on other Zenoss Core systems.
Displaying the list of installed ZenPacks
You can display installed ZenPacks by using the browser interface or the command-line interface (CLI).
Displaying installed ZenPacks in the browser interface
1 In the Zenoss Core browser interface, select the ADVANCED tab.
Note The action menu in the left column does not include an option to create a ZenPack. For more
information, see Creating a ZenPack on page 182.
2 In the left column, select ZenPacks.
The following figure shows an example list of ZenPacks.
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ZenPacks
Displaying installed ZenPacks in the CLI
To perform this procedure, you need a user account with serviced command-line interface (CLI) privileges
on the Control Center master host.
1 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Display the list of installed ZenPacks:
serviced service run zope zenpack list
ZenPack information resources
Zenoss provides numerous ZenPacks that add and extend system functionality. In the Zenoss Core browser
interface, the question mark icon provides a link to the documentation of the included ZenPacks. The ZenPack
catalog provides detailed descriptions of all ZenPacks that are developed by Zenoss.
You can create your own ZenPacks or download and install ZenPacks that are developed by others. For more
information, see the following ZenPack resources:
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ZenPack SDK
Zenoss Community, which includes a ZenPack development forum
Public Zenoss repositories on GitHub
Preparing to install or upgrade a ZenPack
Perform this procedure to minimize the amount of time that Zenoss Core is unavailable during a ZenPack
installation or upgrade.
1 Log in to your workstation and start a web browser.
2 Download the ZenPack to install or upgrade from the ZenPack catalog site.
3 Copy the ZenPack egg file to a local directory on the Control Center master host.
a Create a directory for the ZenPack egg file.
The directory must be local (not mounted).
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The following command creates a directory in /tmp:
mkdir /tmp/zenpack
b Use a file transfer command or utility to copy the file.
c Set full permissions on the directory and files:
chmod -R 0777 /tmp/zenpack
4 Optional: Install ZenPack dependencies.
A ZenPack might require packages or other software not included in the ZenPack egg file. To ensure that
the dependencies are available, perform the following substeps:
a Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with Control Center CLI privileges.
b Start an interactive shell in a Zope service container.
In the following command, the -s flag saves and tags the changes that you make. Replace MyTag with a
short name that describes the dependencies that you are installing.
serviced service shell -i -s MyTag zope bash
The serviced daemon starts a Bash shell and logs you in as the root user.
c Install required dependencies.
For example, to install the terminus font for X Windows in Ubuntu Linux, enter the following
command:
apt-get install xfonts-terminus
Enter any number of commands to install the required dependencies.
d Return to the Control Center master host shell session:
exit
e Create a snapshot and commit your changes:
serviced snapshot commit MyTag
f
Restart all Zenoss Core application services:
serviced service restart Zenoss.core/Zenoss
Installing or upgrading a ZenPack
Before you begin, review the following requirements and considerations:
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Complete the steps in Preparing to install or upgrade a ZenPack on page 179.
Do not use this procedure to install or upgrade the Zenoss Service Impact ZenPacks,
ZenPacks.zenoss.ImpactServer and ZenPacks.zenoss.Impact. For more information, refer to the Zenoss Core
Installation Guide.
1 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with Control Center CLI privileges.
2 Create a snapshot:
serviced service snapshot Zenoss.core
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On completion, the serviced command returns the ID of the new snapshot. If the installation of the
ZenPack ends up failing, you can restore the snapshot you took in this step. For detailed instructions on
restoring a snapshot, refer to the Control Center Reference Guide.
3 Change directory to the directory in which the ZenPack egg file is located.
For example:
cd /tmp/zenpack
4 Install the ZenPack:
serviced service run zope zenpack-manager install ZenPack-File.egg
Daemons that a ZenPack provides are packaged in Docker containers and installed as child services of the
current instance of Zenoss Core.
5 Restart all Zenoss services:
serviced service restart Zenoss.core/Zenoss
Removing a ZenPack
Removing a ZenPack can have unexpected consequences, and often, the safest choice is not to remove a
ZenPack. Before you begin, review the following requirements and considerations:
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Removing a ZenPack removes all objects provided by the ZenPack and all objects that depend on code
provided by the ZenPack.
Removing a newer version of a ZenPack to install an older version fails if the newer version includes
migration code.
Removing a ZenPack that installs a device class removes the device class, any contained device classes, and
all devices in that class.
Some ZenPacks provide services upon which other ZenPacks rely. Make sure the service you remove is not
needed by another ZenPack.
Do not use this procedure to remove the Zenoss Service Impact ZenPacks, ZenPacks.zenoss.ImpactServer
and ZenPacks.zenoss.Impact. For more information, refer to the Zenoss Core Installation Guide.
Review the documentation of the ZenPack that you want to remove for information about classes and
daemons (services) associated with it.
Delete data sources provided by the ZenPack that you want to remove.
1 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with Control Center CLI privileges.
2 Create a snapshot:
serviced service snapshot Zenoss.core
On completion, the serviced command returns the ID of the new snapshot. If the installation of the
ZenPack ends up failing, you can restore the snapshot you took in this step. For detailed instructions on
restoring a snapshot, refer to the Control Center Reference Guide.
3 Obtain the exact name of the ZenPack to remove:
serviced service run zope zenpack list
The first item of each line of output is the full name of an installed ZenPack.
4 Stop services that are associated with the ZenPack.
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Daemons that a ZenPack provides are packaged in Docker containers and installed as child services
of the current instance of Zenoss Core. For example, the zenwebtx service is provided by the
ZenPacks.zenoss.ZenWebTx ZenPack.
a Log into the Zenoss Core browser interface as the Zenoss Core user.
b From the navigation menu, select ADVANCED > Control Center.
The Control Center All Services page appears.
c Select the daemon for the service and click Stop.
For example, select the zenwebtx daemon.
5 Remove the ZenPack.
In the Control Center CLI, replace ZenPack-Name with the full name of the ZenPack to remove.
serviced service run zope zenpack-manager uninstall ZenPack-Name
The ZenPack and any daemons that it provides are removed.
Creating a ZenPack
To perform this procedure, you need a user account with serviced CLI privileges on the Control Center
master host.
This procedure demonstrates how to create a ZenPack for customized monitoring templates, customized event
classes and mappings, device MIBs, and similar items which require no customized Python code. For more
advanced ZenPack development, refer to the ZenPack SDK site.
1 Log in to the Control Center master host as a user with serviced CLI privileges.
2 Create a ZenPack.
Replace ZenPacks.myOrg.myPackName with the name of the ZenPack to create.
serviced service run zope zenpack-manager create \
ZenPacks.myOrg.myPackName
3 Restart the Zope service.
serviced service restart zope
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General administration and settings
General administration and settings
15
Use the information and procedures in this section for troubleshooting and performance improvement purposes.
Events settings
You can adjust events settings for
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Events database connection
Event maintenance
Changing events database connection information
To edit events database connection settings, make changes in the zeneventserver.conf file. You can edit
the file directly, or run a configuration script.
Configurable database connection settings are:
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JDBC Hostname (zep.jdbc.hostname) - Specify the IP address of the host.
JDBC Port (zep.jdbc.port) - Specify the port to use when accessing the events database.
JDBC Database Name (zep.jdbc.dbname) - Specify the database name.
JDBC Username (zep.jdbc.username) - Specify the user name for the database.
JDBC Password (zep.jdbc.password)- Specify the password for the database.
To edit these values, run the zeneventserver configuration script, as follows:
zeneventserver-config -u zep.jdbc.Name=Value
Where Name is the partial setting name and Value is the value you want to specify for the setting.
Changing events maintenance settings
To edit maintenance settings, make changes to one or more fields on the Event Configuration page
(ADVANCED > Settings > Events):
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Don't Age This Severity and Above - Options are Age All Events, Critical, Error, Warning, Info, Debug,
and Clear. By default, this value is set to Error, meaning that all events with a status of Error or Critical are
not aged.
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Event Aging Threshold (minutes) - Set the time value, in minutes, that an event must reach before it is
aged. By default, this is 240 minutes.
Event Aging Interval (milliseconds) - The interval when events are scanned to perform autoaging. By
default, this is 60000 milliseconds (60 sec).
Event Aging Limit - The maximum number of events to age in each interval. The limit should be kept
relatively low to prevent large database transactions. By default, this is 1000 events.
Event Archive Threshold (minutes) - Specify the number of minutes since a closed event was last seen
before it is moved to the event archive. The minimum value is 1; the maximum value is 43200.
Event Archive Interval (milliseconds) - The interval when events are scanned for moving to the archive.
By default, this is 60000 milliseconds (60 sec).
Event Archive Limit - The maximum number of events to archive in each interval. The limit should be kept
relatively low to prevent large database transactions. By default, this is 1000 events.
Delete Archived Events Older Than (days) - The number of days that events in the event archive are
saved. By default, they are kept in the archive for 90 days. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value
is determined by the range of event archive partitions. With the default configuration, the maximum value is
1000 days.
Default Syslog Priority - Specify the default severity level assigned to an event coming from zensyslog if
no priority can be determined from the event.
Default Availability Report (days) - Enter the number of days to include in the automatically generated
Availability Report. This report shows a graphical summary of availability and status.
Max Event Size in Bytes - The maximum size of an event that will be processed in bytes. Events that are
too large will be logged and dropped. Events that will become too big will have their details overwritten with
new details. By default, this is 32768 bytes.
Summary Index Interval (milliseconds) - The default indexing interval of the event summary in
milliseconds. By default, this is 1000 milliseconds (1 sec).
Archive Index Interval (milliseconds) - The default indexing interval of the event archive in milliseconds.
By default, this is 30000 milliseconds (30 sec).
Index Limit - The number of events to index in each index interval. By default, this is 1000 events.
Event Time Purge Interval (days) - The number of days that event occurrence time are kept. By default,
they are kept for 7 days. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is determined by the range of
event time partitions. With the default configuration, the maximum value is 7 days.
Enable Event Flapping Detection - Select this check box if you wish to enable event flapping detection. If
an event is created and then cleared flapping_threshold times in event_flapping_interval time then an event
of event flapping event class is created.
Event Flapping Event Class - The event class under which generated flapping events belong.
Clear Event Heartbeats - Click Clear to clear the event heartbeats.
Rebuilding the events index
If you encounter inconsistent search results, you can rebuild the events index.
1 Log in to an account on the Control Center master host that has permission to use the Control Center
command-line interface.
2 Stop zeneventserver:
serviced service stop zeneventserver
3 Delete the index data:
export SERVICE_ID=$(serviced service status Zenoss.core | sed -n '2p'
| awk {'print $2'})
export SVCROOT=/opt/serviced/var/volumes/$SERVICE_ID
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rm -rf $SVCROOT/zeneventserver/index
4 Start zeneventserver:
serviced service start zeneventserver
Depending on the number of events in the database, it may take a significant amount of time for indexing
to complete. Until every event is indexed, the number of events shown in the event console may be
inconsistent.
Working with the job manager
The job manager runs background tasks, such as discovering a network or adding a device. When you ask the
system to perform one of these tasks, it adds a job to the queue. Jobs are run by the zenjobs daemon.
Not all actions are performed in the job manager. Some jobs are run automatically in the foreground. Others,
such as moving devices, depend on user interface configuration settings.
When running jobs in the foreground, do not navigate away from the current page until the action completes.
Viewing the job manager
1 From the Navigation menu, select ADVANCED.
2 On the Settings page, select Jobs.
Figure 109: Job manager
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The jobs list displays the following information about the jobs:
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Status - Shows the current job status. Status options are Pending (waiting for zenjobs to begin
running), Running, Succeeded, and Failed.
Description - Provides a description of the job.
Scheduled - Shows when the job was scheduled to begin.
Started / Finished - Provide information about the time period in which the job ran.
Created By - User that created the job.
The lower section of the page displays the job log for the job that you select in the list. You can also view the
information in the log file.
Stopping and deleting jobs
To stop a job, select it in the list, and then click Abort. The zenjobs daemon will not run the job.
To remove a job from the system, select it and then click Delete.
Configuring jobs
When you move devices, you can choose whether the action is performed immediately or as a job. By default, if
you select five or more devices, the move action is performed as a job. To adjust this setting:
1 Select Advanced > Settings.
2 Select User Interface in the left panel.
3 Enter a value for Device Move Job Threshold, and then click Save.
Running the zenjobs daemon
You can stop and start the zenjobs daemon from the command line, and from Advanced > Settings(Daemons
selection).
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Using the Appliance Administration menu
A
This appendix describes the curses-based Appliance Administration menu, a text user interface (TUI).
Configure Network and DNS
The Configure Network and DNS option invokes nmtui, the NetworkManager text user interface (TUI) tool.
The nmtui utility provides submenus for editing and activating network connections, and for changing the
hostname.
Note
Zenoss recommends using only the Configure Network and DNS option to change connection
properties or the hostname, and always rebooting after making changes.
Editing a connection to configure static IPv4 addressing
The default configuration for network connections is DHCP. To configure static IPv4 addressing, perform this
procedure.
To navigate in the text user interface (TUI):
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■
To move forward or backward through options, press the arrow keys.
To display a menu or choose an option, press Enter.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
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3 Select the NetworkManager TUI menu as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Configure Network and DNS, and then press Enter.
4 On the NetworkManager TUI menu, select Edit a connection, and then press Enter.
The TUI displays the connections that are available on the host.
Figure 110: Example: Available connections
Note
Do not use this procedure to modify the docker0 connection.
5 Select the virtual connection, and then press Enter.
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Figure 111: Example: Edit Connection screen
6 Optional: If the IPv4 CONFIGURATION area is not visible, select its display option (<Show>), and then
press Enter.
7 In the IPv4 CONFIGURATION area, select <Automatic>, and then press Enter.
Figure 112: Example: IPv4 Configuration options
8 Configure static IPv4 networking as follows:
a Select Manual, and then press Enter.
b Beside Addresses, select <Add>, and then press Enter.
c In the Addresses field, enter an IPv4 address for the virtual machine, and then press Enter.
d Repeat the preceding two steps for the Gateway and DNS servers fields.
9 Tab to the bottom of the Edit Connection screen to select <OK>, and then press Enter.
10 Return to the Appliance Administration menu: On the NetworkManager TUI screen, select <Quit>, and
then press Enter.
11 Reboot the operating system as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Reboot / Poweroff System.
b Select Reboot.
c Select OK, and then press Enter.
Edit a connection (Docker virtual bridge)
The default IP address space of the Docker virtual bridge is 172.17.0.1/16. To configure a different address
space, perform this procedure.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 Select the NetworkManager TUI menu as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Configure Network and DNS, and then press Enter.
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4 On the NetworkManager TUI menu, select Edit a connection, and then press Enter.
The TUI displays the connections that are available on this host.
Figure 113: Example: Available connections
5 Use the down-arrow key to select docker0, and then press Enter.
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Figure 114: Example: Edit Connection screen
Use the Tab key and the arrow keys to navigate among options in the Edit Connection screen, and use
Enter to toggle an option or to display a menu of options.
6 If the BRIDGE area is visible, select its display option (<Hide>), and then press Enter.
Note
Do not edit any of the entries in the BRIDGE area.
7 If the IPv4 CONFIGURATION area is not visible, select its display option (<Show>), and then press
Enter.
8 In the IPv4 CONFIGURATION area, navigate to Adresses, and then enter a new IPv4 address in CIDR
notation.
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Figure 115: Example: IPv4 Configuration options
9 Use Tab or the Down Arrow key to select the <OK> option at the bottom of the Edit Connection screen,
and then press Enter.
10 In the available connections screen, use Tab to select the <Quit> option, and then press Enter.
11 Reboot the operating system as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Reboot / Poweroff System.
b Press Tab to select OK, and then press Enter.
CIDR prefix lengths for common subnet masks
Subnet mask
CIDR prefix length
Subnet mask
CIDR prefix length
255.255.0.0
/16
255.255.254.0
/23
255.255.128.0
/17
255.255.255.0
/24
255.255.192.0
/18
255.255.255.128
/25
255.255.224.0
/19
255.255.255.192
/26
255.255.240.0
/20
255.255.255.224
/27
255.255.248.0
/21
255.255.255.240
/28
255.255.252.0
/22
255.255.255.248
/29
Activate a connection
The Activate a connection submenu provides options for activating and deactivating network connections.
Note
Do not deactivate the docker0 connection.
On selection, the Activate a connection submenu displays the available connections. The asterisk character (*)
at the beginning of a connection name indicates that the connection is active.
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Figure 116: Example: Available connections
Use the arrow keys to select a connection, and then use Tab to navigate the options at the right side of the list.
Use Enter to choose an option.
Note
Always reboot after activating or deactivating a connection.
Setting the system hostname
The default hostname is core-master for the Zenoss Core master host and is core-delegate for Zenoss
Core delegate hosts. To change the default hostname, perform this procedure.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Select the NetworkManager TUI menu as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Configure Network and DNS, and then press Enter.
3 Display the hostname entry field.
a In the NetworkManager TUI menu, select Set system hostname.
b Select OK, and then press Enter.
4 In the Hostname field, enter the hostname or a fully qualified domain name.
5 Press Tab twice to select OK, and then press Enter.
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6 In the confirmation dialog box, press Enter.
7 Return to the Appliance Administration menu: On the NetworkManager TUI screen, select <Quit>, and
then press Enter.
8 Reboot the operating system as follows:
a In the Appliance Administration menu, select Reboot / Poweroff System.
b Select Reboot.
c Select OK, and then press Enter.
Configure IPv6 Network CIDR
The version of Docker included in the Zenoss Core virtual appliance needs to know at startup the address prefix
of the IPv6 network it will use. To enable monitoring of devices that use IPv6, perform this procedure on the
Control Center master host, and all delegate hosts.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 In the Appliance Administration menu, select the Configure IPv6 Network CIDR option.
4 In the IPv6 CIDR screen, enter the address prefix of your IPv6 network in the CIDR field.
5 User Tab to select the Ok button, and then press Enter.
The Docker daemon restarts, and the Appliance Administration disappears briefly before returning. This is
normal.
Configure Timezone
The default timezone of the Zenoss Core virtual appliance is UTC. This procedure changes the timezone setting
of a single host. All hosts in a multi-host deployment must use the same timezone.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 In the Appliance Administration menu, select the Configure Timezone option.
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4 Use the Down Arrow key to select the desired timezone.
5 Press Tab to highlight Select, and then press Enter.
Note
Always reboot after changing the timezone.
Change Root Password
This option invokes the passwd command to change the password of the root user account.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 In the Appliance Administration menu, select the Change Root Password option.
The Appliance Administration menu disappears, and the system prompts for a new password:
Changing password for user root.
New password:
4 Note Passwords must include a minimum of eight characters, with at least one character from three of the
following character classes: uppercase letter, lowercase letter, digit, and special.
Enter a new password, and then press Enter.
5 Enter the password again, and then press Enter.
The Appliance Administration menu reappears.
Change ccuser Password
This option invokes the passwd command to change the password of the ccuser user account.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 In the Appliance Administration menu, select the Change Root Password option.
The Appliance Administration menu disappears, and the system prompts for a new password:
Changing password for user ccuser.
New password:
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4 Note Passwords must include a minimum of eight characters, with at least one character from three of the
following character classes: uppercase letter, lowercase letter, digit, and special.
Enter a new password, and then press Enter.
5 Enter the password again, and then press Enter.
The Appliance Administration menu reappears.
Update System
This option updates the Control Center and Zenoss Core software on a host. For more information, refer to the
Zenoss Core Upgrade Guide.
Change SSL settings
To perform this procedure, you need to be able to display the contents of the SSL certificate and key files
that you want to install on the Control Center master host, and you need a copy of the root certificate file
(rootCA.pem). In addition, Zenoss recommends logging in to the master host through SSH, rather than the
hypervisor console, so that you can copy and paste content.
This option allows you to provide new content for SSL certificate and key files.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 Use the Down Arrow key to select Change SSL settings, and then press Enter.
4 When you are ready to add the contents of your SSL certificate and key files to the Control Center master
host, press Enter.
5 Press Enter.
The Appliance Administration menu is replaced with the nano text editor.
6 Enter the contents of your SSL key file, and then save the file and exit the editor.
a Press Ctrl-O.
b Press Ctrl-X.
c Press y, and then press Enter.
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7 Press Enter.
The Appliance Administration menu is replaced with the nano text editor.
8 Enter the contents of your SSL certificate file, and then save the file and exit the editor.
a Press Ctrl-O.
b Press Ctrl-X.
c Press y, and then press Enter.
9 Restart the Control Center daemon (serviced) now or later.
Restarting serviced pauses Zenoss Core services briefly.
To restart serviced now, press Enter.
To restart serviced later, press Tab to select No, and then press Enter.
10 Install the root certificate into browser clients.
The procedures for installing a root certificate into a browser client varies by browser and client operating
system. For more information, refer to your browser documentation or articles such as this one.
■
■
Root Shell
This option starts a command-line session as the root user.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 Use the Down Arrow key to select Root Shell, and then press Enter.
The menu is replaced by a command prompt similar to the following example:
[root@core-master ~]#
To return to the Appliance Administration menu, enter the exit command.
Reboot / Poweroff System
This option reboots or shuts down and turns off a Control Center host.
1 Gain access to the Control Center host, through the console interface of your hypervisor, or through a remote
shell utility such as PuTTY.
2 Log in as the root user.
3 In the Appliance Administration menu, select the Reboot / Poweroff System option.
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4 Use the Down Arrow key to select Reboot or Poweroff System.
5 Press Tab to highlight OK, and then press Enter.
6 Use Tab to select OK or Cancel, and then press Enter.
The system reboots or shuts down and powers off.
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SNMP device preparation
SNMP device preparation
B
This section provides information about SNMP support and lists Net-SNMP configuration settings that are
required by the system.
Net-SNMP
By default, Net-SNMP does not publish the full SNMP tree. Check to see if that is currently the case on a device
and configure it correctly.
1 Confirm snmpd is running:
> snmpwalk -v 2c -cpublic <your device name> system
2 Retrieve the IP table for the device with snmpwalk:
> snmpwalk -v 2c -cpublic <your device name> ip
Typical SNMP View:
view systemview included .1 view systemview included .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1
access notConfigGroup "" any noauth exact systemview none none
SNMP v3 support
Zenoss Core provides support for SNMP v3 data collection.
The following configuration properties control the authentication and privacy of these requests:
■
■
■
■
■
zSnmpAuthType- Use "MD5" or "SHA" signatures to authenticate SNMP requests. If only
zSnmpAuthType and zSnmpAuthPassword are set, then the message is sent with authentication but no
privacy.
zSnmpAuthPassword- Shared private key used for authentication. Must be at least 8 characters long.
zSnmpPrivType- "DES" or "AES" cryptographic algorithms. If zSnmpPrivType and zSnmpPrivPassword
are set, then the message is sent with privacy and authentication. You cannot set a PrivType and
PrivPassword without also setting an AuthType and AuthPassword. If neither Priv nor Auth values are set,
then the message is sent with no authentication or privacy.
zSnmpPrivKey- Shared private key used for encrypting SNMP requests. Must be at least 8 characters long.
zSnmpSecurityName- Security Name (user) to use when making SNMPv3 requests.
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If monitoring SNMPv3 devices, make sure that msgAuthoritativeEngineID (also known as snmpEngineID or
Engine ID) is not shared by two devices. It must be unique for each device.
Advanced Encryption Standard
SNMPv3 encryption using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is supported only if the host
platform net-snmp library supports it.
You can determine whether your platform supports AES by using the following test:
$ snmpwalk -x AES 2>&1 | head -1
If the response is:
"Invalid privacy protocol specified after -x flag: AES"
then your platform does not support AES encryption for SNMPv3.
If the response is:
"No hostname specified."
Then your platform supports AES.
Community information
Add these lines to your snmp.conf file.
This line will map the community name "public" into a "security name":
# sec.name source community
com2sec notConfigUser default public
This line will map the security name into a group name:
# groupName securityModel securityName
group notConfigGroup v2c notConfigUser
This line will create a view for you to let the group have rights to:
# Make at least snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system fast again.
# name incl/excl subtree mask(optional)
view systemview included .1
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SNMP device preparation
This line will grant the group read-only access to the systemview view.
# group context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif access
notConfigGroup "" any noauth exact systemview none none
System contact information
It is also possible to set the sysContact and sysLocation system variables through the snmpd.conf
file:
syslocation Unknown (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf)
syscontact Root <root@localhost> (configure /etc/snmp/snmp.local.conf)
# Added for support of bcm5820 cards. pass .1 /usr/bin/ucd5820stat
Extra information
For more information, see the snmpd.conf manual page, and the output of the snmpd -H command.
trapcommunity public
trapsink default
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Syslog device preparation
C
Forwarding syslog messages from UNIX/Linux devices
Zenoss Core has its own syslog server (zensyslog). Managed devices should point their syslog daemons to
the system.
To do this, edit the /etc/rsyslog.conf file and add an entry, where 1.2.3.4 is the zensyslog IP:
1
2
3
4
Log in to the target device as a super user.
Open the /etc/rsyslog.conf file with a text editor (such as vi).
Enter *.debug, and then press the Tab key.
Enter the host name or IP address of the server. For example:
*.debug @192.168.X.X
5 Save the file and exit the file editor program.
6 Restart the Syslog service using the command below:
/etc/init.d/syslog restart
Forwarding syslog messages from a Cisco IOS router
Here are some links to Cisco commands to turn on syslog. Typically, it is easier to use syslog than SNMP traps
from network devices. The most basic IOS command to send syslog messages is:
logging 1.2.3.4
Other Cisco syslog configurations
Following are additional configurations for other Cisco devices. To set up these configurations:
1
2
3
4
5
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Log in to the target router.
Type the command enable at the prompt.
Once you are prompted for a password, enter the correct password.
Type the command config at the prompt.
Type the command terminal at the configuration prompt.
Syslog device preparation
6 At the prompt, Set the Syslog forwarding mechanism. See example below:
logging <IP address of the server>
7 Exit out all the prompts to the main router prompt.
Catalyst
set logging server enable set logging server 192.168.1.100 set logging
level all 5 set logging server severity 6
Local Director
syslog output 20.5 no syslog console syslog host 192.168.1.100
PIX Firewalls
logging on logging standby logging timestamp logging trap notifications
logging facility 19 logging host inside 192.168.1.100
Forwarding syslog messages from a Cisco CatOS switch
To forward a syslog message from a Cisco CatOS switch:
1
2
3
4
Log in to the target switch.
Type the command enable at the prompt.
Enter the password when prompted.
Set the Syslog forwarding mechanism; for example:
set logging server <IP address of the server>
5 You can set the types of logging information that you want the switch to provide with the commands below
as examples:
set logging level mgmt 7 default set logging level sys 7 default set
logging level filesys 7 default
Forwarding syslog messages using syslog-ng
Here is an example for FreeBSD and Linux platforms.
1 Log in to the target device as a super user.
2 Open /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf file with a text editor (e.g vi).
3 Add source information to file. See the following examples:
FreeBSD:
source src { unix-dgram("/var/run/log"); internal ();};
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Linux: (will gather both system and kernel logs)
source src { internal(); unix-stream("/dev/log" keep-alive(yes) maxconnections(100)); pipe("/proc/kmsg"); udp(); };
4 Add destination information (in this case, the server). For example:
log { source(src); destination(zenoss); };
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TALES expressions
TALES expressions
D
Use TALES syntax to retrieve values and call methods on Zenoss Core objects. Several areas accept TALES
syntax; these include:
■
■
■
■
Command templates
User commands
Notifications
zLinks
Commands (those associated with devices and those associated with events) can use TALES expressions to
incorporate data from the related devices or events. TALES is a syntax for specifying expressions that let you
access the attributes of certain objects, such as a device or an event.
For additional documentation on TALES syntax, see the TALES section of the Zope Page Templates Reference.
Depending on context, you may have access to a device, an event, or both. Following is a list of the attributes
and methods you may want to use on device and event objects. The syntax for accessing device attributes and
methods is ${dev/attributename}. For example, to get the manageIp of a device you would use ${dev/
manageIp}. For events, the syntax is ${evt/attributename}.
A command to ping a device might look like this. (The ${..}is a TALES expression to get the manageIp value
for the device.)
ping -c 10 ${device/manageIp}
Examples
■
DNS Forward Lookup (assumes device/id is a resolvable name)
host ${device/id}
■
DNS Reverse Lookup
host ${device/manageIp}
■
SNMP Walk
snmpwalk -v 2c -c${device/zSnmpCommunity} ${device/manageIp} system
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To use these expressions effectively, you must know which objects, attributes, and methods are available, and
in which contexts. Usually there is a device that allows you to access the device in a particular context. Contexts
related to a particular event usually have event defined.
TALES device attributes
The following table lists available device attributes.
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Attribute
Description
getId
The primary means of identifying a device within the system
getManageIp
The IP address used to contact the device in most situations
productionState
The production status of the device: Production, Pre-Production, Test, Maintenance or
Decommisioned. This attribute is a numeric value, use getProductionStateString for a
textual representation.
getProductionStateString
Returns a textual representation of the productionState
snmpAgent
The agent returned from SNMP collection
snmpDescr
The description returned by the SNMP agent
snmpOid
The oid returned by the SNMP agent
snmpContact
The contact returned by the SNMP agent
snmpSysName
The system name returned by the SNMP agent
snmpLocation
The location returned by the SNMP agent
snmpLastCollection
When SNMP collection was last performed on the device. This is a DateTime object.
getSnmpLastCollectionString
Textual representation of snmpLastCollection
rackSlot
The slot name/number in the rack where this physical device is installed
comments
User entered comments regarding the device
priority
A numeric value: 0 (Trivial), 1 (Lowest), 2 (Low), 3 (Normal), 4 (High), 5 (Highest)
getPriorityString
A textual representation of the priority
getHWManufacturerName
Name of the manufacturer of this hardware
getHWProductName
Name of this physical product
getHWProductKey
Used to associate this device with a hardware product class
getOSManufacturerName
Name of the manufacturer of this device's operating system.
getOSProductName
Name of the operating system running on this device.
getOSProductKey
Used to associate the operating system with a software product class
getHWSerialNumber
Serial number for this physical device
getLocationName
Name of the Location assigned to this device
getLocationLink
Link to the system page for the assigned Location
getSystemNames
A list of names of the Systems this device is associated with
getDeviceGroupNames
A list of names of the Groups this device is associated with
TALES expressions
Attribute
Description
getLastChangeString
When the last change was made to this device
getLastPollSnmpUpTime
Uptime returned from SNMP
uptimeStr
Textual representation of the SNMP uptime for this device
getPingStatusString
Textual representation of the ping status of the device
getSnmpStatusString
Textual representation of the SNMP status of the device
TALES event attributes
The following table lists available event attributes.
Attribute
Description
agent
Collector name from which the event came (such as zensyslog or zentrap).
component
Component of the associated device, if applicable. (Examples: eth0, httpd.)
count
Number of times this event has been seen.
dedupid
Key used to correlate duplicate events. By default, this is: device, component,
eventClass, eventKey, severity.
device
ID of the associated device, if applicable.
DeviceClass
Device class from device context.
DeviceGroups
Device systems from device context, separated by |.
eventClass
Event class associated with this device. If not specified, may be added by the rule
process. If this fails, then will be /Unknown.
eventClassKey
Key by which rules processing begins. Often equal to component.
eventGroup
Logical group of event source (such as syslog, ping, or nteventlog).
eventKey
Primary criteria for mapping events into event classes. Use if a component needs further
de-duplication specification.
eventState
State of event. 0 = new, 1 = acknowledged, 2 = suppressed.
evid
Unique ID for the event.
facility
syslog facility, if this is a syslog event.
firstTime
UNIX timestamp when event is received.
ipAddress
IP Address of the associated device, if applicable.
lastTime
Last time this event was seen and its count incremented.
Location
Device location from device context.
manager
Fully qualified domain name of the collector from which this event came.
message
Full message text.
ntevid
nt event ID, if this is an nt eventlog event.
priority
syslog priority, if this is a syslog event.
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Attribute
Description
prodState
prodState of the device context.
severity
the severity of the event expressed as a number (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)
severityString
the severity of the event expressed as a string (Clear, Debug, Info, Warning, Error, or
Critical)
stateChange
Time the MySQLrecord for this event was last modified.
summary
Text description of the event. Limited to 255 characters.
suppid
ID of the event that suppressed this event.
Systems
Device systems from device context, separated by |.
Configuration properties and custom properties
Configuration properties and custom properties also are available for devices, and use the same syntax as shown
in the previous sections.
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Monitoring large file systems
Monitoring large file systems
E
By default, Zenoss Core uses the Host Resources MIB to monitor file systems. A defect in the implementation
of the Host Resources MIB in net-snmp causes file systems larger than 16TB to report incorrect utilization
metrics, such that you might observe file system utilization values greater than 100%.
Note
Zenoss Core uses the Host Resources MIB in the ethernetCsmacd template (rather than the UCD
dskTable MIB) by default because most of the systems Zenoss Core monitors do not have the UCD dskTable
MIB enabled.
To work around this deficiency, Zenoss Core can instead use the UCD dskTable MIB to monitor file system
utilization.
Procedure
To use the UCD dskTable MIB, you must modify the configuration of your data sources, thresholds, and graphs
in your FileSystem template:
1 Create an SNMP data source named dskPercent.
2 Set the OID of the new data source to:
1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.9
3 Modify your thresholds to use the dskPercent data point. Remove any calculations that were associated with
the Host Resource MIB data point. The dskPercent data point is reported as an integer from 0 to 100.
4 Modify your graphs to use the dskPercent data point and thresholds.
5 Enable the UCD dskTable MIB on your managed hosts:
a Add the following line to your /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file:
includeAllDisks 0%
b Restart the snmpd daemon.
The UCD dskTable MIB associates different indexes with the file systems than the Host Resources MIB. As
a result, you must remodel the devices to fetch the UCD dskTable indexes, and to begin plotting data on the
dskPercent graph.
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Glossary
aggregation pools
A logical bundling of multiple physical network interfaces, commonly known as a port channel. For example,
the Per Chassis Ethernet Pools includes all links from all chassis to all fabric interconnects which is used for
chassis bandwidth balance comparison. For more examples, see the Aggregation Pools component section of
CiscoUCS devices.
bandwidth utilization
The total amount of bandwidth being used by an aggregation pool, a port, a fabric interconnect, a FEX, etc.
component
Object contained by a device. Components include interfaces, OS processes, file systems, CPUs, and hard
drives.
data point
Data returned from a data source. In many cases, there is only one data point for a data source (such as in
SNMP); but there may also be many data points for a data source (such as when a command results in the output
of several variables).
data source
device
Method used to collect monitoring information. Example data sources include SNMP OIDs, SSH commands,
and perfmon paths.
Primary monitoring object in the system. Generally, a device is the combination of hardware and an operating
system.
device class
Special type of organizer used to manage how the system models and monitors devices (through configuration
properties and monitoring templates).
discovery
event
Process by which Zenoss Core gathers detailed information about devices in the infrastructure. Results of
discovery are used to populate the model.
Manifestation of important occurrence within the system. Events are generated internally (such as when a
threshold is exceeded) or externally (such as through a syslog message or SNMP trap).
event class
Categorization system used to organize event rules.
event rules
graph
Controls how events are manipulated as they enter the system (for example, changing the severity of an event).
Configuration properties configure event rules.
Displays one or more data points, thresholds, or both.
headroom
The unused bandwidth in an aggregation pool, a port, a fabric interconnect (FI), a FEX, etc. For example, if an
aggregation pool including 4 ports between a chassis and the FIs has 40 GB of capacity and if the bandwidth use
of that pool is 25 GB, then the headroom is 15 GB.
managed resource
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Glossary
model
Servers, networks, virtual machines, and other devices in the IT environment.
Representation of the IT infrastructure. The model tells the system "what is out there" and how to monitor it.
monitoring template
Description of what to monitor on a device or device component. Monitoring templates comprise four main
elements: data sources, data points, thresholds, and graphs.
notification
Sends email or pages to system users or groups when certain events occur.
organizer
Hierarchical system used to describe locations and groups within the application. Zenoss Core also includes
special organizers, which are classes that control system configuration.
out of balance
Indicates that the bandwidth use is quite different among the ports in an aggregation pool. This can often be
corrected by reconfiguration, for example, by moving a service profile from one chassis to another.
resource component
Interfaces, services and processes, and installed software in the IT environment.
service definition
A service definition contains the information that Control Center needs to start and manage a service, in
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format.
service profile
A service profile is a software definition of a server and its LAN and SAN network connectivity, in other words,
a service profile defines a single server and its storage and networking characteristics.
service template
A service template contains one or more service definitions, in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format.
threshold
trigger
Defines a value beyond which a data point should not go. When a threshold is reached, the system generates an
event. Typically, threshold events use the /Capacity event class.
Determines how and when notifications are sent. Specifies a rule comprising a series of one or more conditions.
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