JP 3-04.1 JTTP for Shipboard Helicopter Operations

Joint Pub 3-04.1
Joint Tactics, Techniques, and
Procedures for
Shipboard Helicopter
Operations
10 December 1997
PREFACE
1. Scope
3. Application
This publication incorporates joint and
Service tactics, techniques, and procedures
into a single-source publication and provides
the guidance and procedures necessary to
plan, coordinate, and conduct joint shipboard
helicopter operations from US Navy and US
Coast Guard ships.
a. Doctrine and selected tactics,
techniques, and procedures and guidance
established in this publication apply to the
commanders of combatant commands,
subunified commands, joint task forces, and
subordinate components of these commands.
These principles and guidance also may apply
when significant forces of one Service are
attached to forces of another Service or when
2. Purpose
significant forces of one Service support
This publication has been prepared under forces of another Service.
the direction of the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth doctrine and
b. The guidance in this publication is
selected joint tactics, techniques, and authoritative; as such, this doctrine (or JTTP)
procedures (JTTP) to govern the joint will be followed except when, in the judgment
activities and performance of the Armed of the commander, exceptional circumstances
Forces of the United States in joint operations dictate otherwise. If conflicts arise between
and provides the doctrinal basis for US the contents of this publication and the
military involvement in multinational and contents of Service publications, this
interagency operations. It provides military publication will take precedence for the
guidance for the exercise of authority by activities of joint forces unless the Chairman
combatant commanders and other joint of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, normally in
force commanders and prescribes doctrine coordination with the other members of the
and selected tactics, techniques, and Joint Chiefs of Staff, has provided more
procedures for joint operations and training. current and specific guidance. Commanders
It provides military guidance for use by the of forces operating as part of a multinational
Armed Forces in preparing their appropriate (alliance or coalition) military command
plans. It is not the intent of this publication to should follow multinational doctrine and
restrict the authority of the joint force procedures ratified by the United States. For
commander (JFC) from organizing the force doctrine and procedures not ratified by the
and executing the mission in a manner the JFC United States, commanders should evaluate
deems most appropriate to ensure unity of and follow the multinational command’s
effort in the accomplishment of the overall doctrine and procedures, where applicable.
mission.
For the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff:
DENNIS C. BLAIR
Vice Admiral, US Navy
Director, Joint Staff
i
Preface
Intentionally Blank
ii
Joint Pub 3-04.1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER I
SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS OVERVIEW
•
•
•
•
•
General ....................................................................................................................
Scope .......................................................................................................................
Objective .................................................................................................................
Ship Capabilities .......................................................................................................
Flight Operations .....................................................................................................
I-1
I-2
I-3
I-3
I-4
CHAPTER II
COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS
•
•
•
•
•
Purpose ................................................................................................................... II-1
Joint Force Commander .......................................................................................... II-1
Ship’s Commanding Officer .................................................................................... II-1
Detachment Officer in Charge ................................................................................. II-1
Scheduling and Funding ........................................................................................... II-2
CHAPTER III
TRAINING
• Training Ship’s Personnel ....................................................................................... III-1
• Training of Embarked Personnel ............................................................................ III-2
• Shipboard Deck Landing Qualification Requirements ............................................ III-3
CHAPTER IV
PREDEPLOYMENT
• Planning ................................................................................................................. IV-1
• Detachment Certification ....................................................................................... IV-1
• Corrosion Prevention and Control .......................................................................... IV-2
CHAPTER V
AIRCRAFT DEPARTURE AND RECOVERY PROCEDURES
•
•
•
•
•
•
Deck Operations ..................................................................................................... V-1
Flight Operations .................................................................................................... V-6
Specific Mission Area Operations .......................................................................... V-12
Emission Control ................................................................................................... V-12
Military Air Distress Frequency ............................................................................. V-13
General Fueling Procedures ................................................................................... V-13
iii
Table of Contents
CHAPTER VI
AVIATION ORDNANCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Purpose ..................................................................................................................
Introduction ...........................................................................................................
Responsibilities ......................................................................................................
Personnel Qualification and Certification ...............................................................
Aviation Ordnance Safety Supervisors ..................................................................
Conventional Weapons Safety Assistance Teams....................................................
Weapons Handling and Movement .........................................................................
Weapons Staging and Ready Service .....................................................................
Weapons Assembly and Disassembly .....................................................................
Loading and Downloading .....................................................................................
Hangaring Aircraft With Loaded Armament ..........................................................
Arming and De-arming .........................................................................................
Maintenance on Ordnance-Loaded Aircraft ............................................................
Emergency Procedures ...........................................................................................
VI-1
VI-1
VI-2
VI-4
VI-4
VI-4
VI-4
VI-5
VI-5
VI-6
VI-6
VI-6
VI-6
VI-7
CHAPTER VII
HAZARDS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TO ORDNANCE,
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, AND ELECTROMAGNETIC
VULNERABILITY
• Introduction .......................................................................................................... VII-1
• Standards and Procedures ...................................................................................... VII-1
CHAPTER VIII
SAFETY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Responsibility for Safety ...................................................................................... VIII-1
General Safety Measures ...................................................................................... VIII-1
Passengers............................................................................................................ VIII-2
Foreign Object Damage ....................................................................................... VIII-3
Helicopter Equipment Hazards ............................................................................. VIII-3
Weapon Hazards .................................................................................................. VIII-4
Aircraft Movement and Respotting ...................................................................... VIII-4
Helicopter Fire Party ............................................................................................ VIII-5
Mishap Investigation ............................................................................................ VIII-5
Emergency Procedures ......................................................................................... VIII-5
Aircraft Emergencies............................................................................................ VIII-7
Basic Emergency Procedures ............................................................................... VIII-8
Lost Aircraft Procedures ...................................................................................... VIII-8
Lost Communications During Instrument Flight Rules ....................................... VIII-10
Lost Communications While on Filed Flight Plan .............................................. VIII-10
Communications or Navigation Aids Failure During Approach .......................... VIII-10
Emergency Landings .......................................................................................... VIII-10
Emergency Signals............................................................................................. VIII-10
Aircraft Carrier Procedures ................................................................................ VIII-11
iv
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Table of Contents
CHAPTER IX
LOGISTICS
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Background............................................................................................................
Funding..................................................................................................................
Meals .....................................................................................................................
Supply ...................................................................................................................
Cargo Routing ........................................................................................................
Aviation Fuel .........................................................................................................
Hazardous and Flammable Material .......................................................................
Ammunition ...........................................................................................................
Mail .......................................................................................................................
Aircraft Maintenance .............................................................................................
IX-1
IX-2
IX-2
IX-2
IX-2
IX-3
IX-3
IX-3
IX-4
IX-4
APPENDIX
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
Sample Formats ................................................................................................
Control Areas and Approach Charts ..................................................................
US Navy Ship and Military Helicopter Interface and Wind Envelopes ..............
Ordnance ..........................................................................................................
Flight Deck Clothing Color Coding ..................................................................
Aircraft Handling Signals .................................................................................
Brevity Codes ...................................................................................................
References ........................................................................................................
Administrative Instructions ................................................................................
A-1
B-1
C-1
D-1
E-1
F-1
G-1
H-1
J-1
GLOSSARY
Part I Abbreviations and Acronyms ................................................................... GL-1
Part II Terms and Definitions.............................................................................. GL-4
FIGURE
I-1
III-1
IV-1
V-1
V-2
V-3
V-4
VI-1
VI-2
VIII-1
VIII-2
VIII-3
VIII-4
IX-1
B-A-1
Shipboard Helicopter Operating Benefits ..................................................... I-2
Shipboard Deck Landing Qualification Requirements............................... III-4
Helicopter Specifications Diagrams .......................................................... IV-1
Command and Display Signals .................................................................. V-2
Flight Operations ....................................................................................... V-7
Stabilized Glide Slope Indicator Tricolor Beam ........................................ V-11
Signal Flag Display .................................................................................. V-12
Aviation Ordnance Safety Supervisor Responsibilities .............................. VI-5
Maintenance or Servicing Restrictions ...................................................... VI-7
Flight Deck Clothing and Equipment ...................................................... VIII-2
Hydraulic Electrical Fuel Oxygen Engine (HEFOE) Squawk Table ........ VIII-8
Assistance Required Squawks Table ....................................................... VIII-9
Limited Communications Squawks Table ............................................... VIII-9
Logistic Considerations ............................................................................ IX-1
Legend — Instrument Approach Procedures Charts ................................ B-A-2
v
Table of Contents
B-A-2
B-A-3
B-A-4
B-A-5
B-B-1
B-B-2
B-B-3
B-B-4
B-B-5
B-B-6
B-C-1
B-C-2
B-C-3
B-D-1
B-D-2
B-D-3
C-1
C-2
D-A-1
D-C-1
D-D-1
D-E-1
D-E-2
D-E-3
D-F-1
D-F-2
D-F-3
D-F-4
E-1
F-1
vi
Delta and Charlie Patterns for Helicopters .............................................. B-A-3
Plane Guard Pattern ................................................................................ B-A-4
Control Area and Control Zone Dimensions ........................................... B-A-5
Helicopter Restrictions During Aircraft Carrier Launch and Recovery .... B-A-6
Approach Chart Air-Capable Ships Tactical Air
Navigation (Helicopter) ....................................................................... B-B-2
Approach Chart Air-Capable Ships Nondirectional
Beacon (NDB) (Helicopter) ................................................................. B-B-3
Approach Chart LPH/LHA/LHD NDB and
TACAN Overhead (Helicopter) ........................................................... B-B-4
Approach Chart LPH/LHA/LHD TACAN (Helicopter) .......................... B-B-5
Approach Chart CV-8 Nondirectional Beacon and
TACAN Overhead (Helicopter) ........................................................... B-B-6
Approach Chart CV-7 TACAN (Helicopter) ........................................... B-B-7
Emergency Low Visibility Approach (ELVA) Pattern ............................. B-C-1
Emergency Low Visibility Approach (ELVA) Pattern — Radio Calls ..... B-C-2
Helicopter Emergency Marshal Pattern ................................................... B-C-4
Typical Landing Procedures .................................................................... B-D-2
OH-58D Positions on Non-RAST-Equipped Air-Capable Ships ............. B-D-4
OH-58D Positions for Takeoff and Landing on RAST-Equipped
Air-Capable Ships ............................................................................... B-D-5
General Launch and Recovery Wind Limits................................................ C-3
General Launch and Recovery Wind Limits for LHA/LPH/LHD
and CV/CVN Class Ships ........................................................................ C-4
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives ............................. D-A-2
Joint Shipboard Helicopter Operations Manual Conventional
Aviation Ordnance Devices Certification/Qualification Sheet .............. D-C-4
Weapons Loading, Strikedown, Downloading, and Recovery Guide ...... D-D-2
Bomb Cookoff Time Summary ............................................................... D-E-2
Air-Launched Missile Cookoff Time Summary ..................................... D-E-3
Rocket Cookoff Time Summary ............................................................. D-E-4
US Marine Corps Helicopter Weapons Configuration ............................. D-F-1
US Army Helicopter Weapons Configuration ......................................... D-F-2
US Air Force Helicopter Weapons Configuration ................................... D-F-3
US Navy Helicopter Weapons Configuration .......................................... D-F-3
Flight Deck Clothing Color Coding ............................................................ E-1
Aircraft Handling Signals ........................................................................... F-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
COMMANDER’S OVERVIEW
•
Discusses Shipboard Helicopter Operations
•
Covers Command Relationships
•
Provides Guidance on Training and Predeployment
Preparation
•
Covers Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
•
Discusses Aviation Ordnance and Hazards of
Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance,
Electromagnetic Compatibility, and Electromagnetic
Vulnerability
•
Covers Safety and Logistics
Shipboard Helicopter Operations Overview
A ship is designed to
provide warfighting
requirements to operate
in the three-dimensional
maritime environment.
In aviation support, the ship provides the combined
benefits of a landing zone, maintenance and work areas,
fuel farm, air operations planning facilities, and
command and control, while also providing for
sustainment, creature comforts, and daily necessities.
The shipboard environment demands the ultimate in
teamwork. At any time including peacetime, there can be
an event, combat-related or otherwise, that may affect every
member of the crew. It is incumbent on every person
embarked on a ship to know their daily responsibilities.
The Plan of the Day (POD) developed by the Executive
Officer (XO) is the primary means of announcing each day’s
schedule of important events. Commanders of embarked
Army or Air Force units should be included in the POD
development to ensure their units fully understand shipboard
responsibilities. These joint tactics, techniques, and
procedures apply to individual operations, exercises, and
training involving joint force helicopter operations from
United States Navy and United States Coast Guard ships.
There are many specific procedures for aircraft
operations aboard aviation and aviation-capable ships that
must be followed precisely to ensure safe operations.
However, the aviation procedures (e.g., approach charts,
vii
Executive Summary
wind envelopes, etc.) in this publication are subject to
change, and if a conflict exists with more specific
procedures, those specific procedures will have precedence.
Command Relationships
The joint force
commander employs
joint force air
capabilities to achieve
military objectives in the
maritime environment.
Navy and Coast Guard regulations set forth the authority
of the ship’s Commanding Officer (CO) with respect to
aircraft embarked in or operating from the ship. When
operating with a joint helicopter detachment
embarked, the joint force commander’s operation order
will define command relationships for the assigned
mission. These command relationships will normally apply
from initial embarkation until final debarkation. In all
cases, the ship’s CO retains authority over embarked
units in all areas involving safety of the ship or its crew.
A detachment officer in charge shall be provided for
embarked joint operations.
Training
Maximum operational
effectiveness and flight
safety requires extensive
training in the areas of
command and control,
aircraft coordination,
and flight deck
procedures.
An air officer, aviation officer, detachment officer in charge
or a designated officer will brief the CO, XO, and helicopter
control officer on normal operations, any waiver
requirements, and the types of communication before
commencing joint flight operations. Key air operations
personnel will be briefed on planned operations by the
ship’s operations officer. Maintenance personnel and
aircrew assigned to helicopter detachments that maintain a
capability to operate from ships will receive joint helicopter
operations orientation training in order to ensure their safety
and effectiveness at sea.
Deployment
Success of joint
helicopter detachments
on ships is directly
dependent on proper
planning.
viii
Operators and planners must understand the
capabilities and limitations of ship and helicopter
interoperability if the maximum degree of safety,
flexibility, and effectiveness is to be realized. Presail
planning must include sufficient leadtime to accommodate
training and qualification and must be completed prior to
conducting shipboard operations. The shipboard
environment is inherently corrosive, and embarked aircraft
will require cleaning and treatment for corrosion more
frequently than shore-based aircraft.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Executive Summary
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
There are many
procedures that must be
followed for safe,
organized aircraft
departure and recovery.
Deck operations include proper movement, lighting, and
command and display signals during all operations,
including night launches and recoveries. Flight operations
include helicopter readiness conditions, air traffic
control procedures, departure conditions including
weather, visibility and instrument meteorological
conditions, landing patterns, and visual landing aids.
Specific mission area operations and emission control
procedures must also be used when appropriate.
Aviation Ordnance
The movement,
handling, and stowage of
explosive ordnance
carried aboard ships and
aircraft is inherently
dangerous.
Shipboard handling and stowage of explosives and
ammunition are governed by the most definitive and
restrictive Department of Defense regulations and
precautions. Safety must not be jeopardized by the
introduction of weapons not designed for shipboard
environment nor the reliance on personnel unfamiliar
with the shipboard environment. Ships designated to
support helicopter detachments involving aviation ordnance
will provide approved stowage areas, security, and
appropriate armament weapons support equipment.
Ordnance personnel handling aviation ordnance will be
limited to the minimum necessary to perform the job safely
and will be qualified and certified in the applicable families
of explosives. The aviation ordnance safety supervisor is
the direct representative of the ship’s CO. There are two
conventional weapons safety assistance teams that are
available to make visits to commands during aviation
ordnance evolutions and predeployment training involving
ordnance.
Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance,
Electromagnetic Compatibility, and Electromagnetic Vulnerability
The trend in radar and
communications equipment
toward greater radiated
power has resulted in
growing concern with
electromagnetic radiation
hazards to ordnance and the
potential upset,
degradation, or damage to
avionics and armament
systems.
These hazards are created when electro-explosive devices
installed in modern ordnance are initiated by spurious
electromagnetic energy emitted by microelectronic circuits
and components installed in modern aircraft and weapon
systems. When joint operations are contemplated, unit
commanders will consult the appropriate tables to
determine which hazards of electromagnetic radiation
to ordnance (HERO) or electromagnetic vulnerabilities
exist and set HERO and electromagnetic compatibility
conditions accordingly.
ix
Executive Summary
Safety
Shipboard personnel will
be trained in safe
operating procedures
before commencement of
helicopter operations.
The CO of the ship has supervisory responsibility for
the safety of embarked helicopters at all times and will
evaluate the hazards involved in all phases of shipboard
helicopter operations and develop appropriate safety
measures. Each emergency situation is unique and requires
advance formulations of procedures in order to react quickly
and precisely. The first consideration is for the ship to close
the distance to the helicopter and prepare for immediate
recovery while protecting as many personnel as possible.
Back-up signals must be intact if there is a loss of
communication, a need for emergency landings, or a need
for emergency signals.
Logistics
There are many general
procedures for providing
material support for
helicopter units assigned
to joint operations.
The parent organization of a helicopter detachment is
responsible for funding the expenses associated with
aircraft maintenance and operation. Meals, supplies,
cargo routing, aviation fuel, ammunition, and mail will be
provided to the attached unit by the ship as a reimbursable
expense. Available aviation maintenance facilities vary widely
with ship class and joint force commanders are responsible
for coordinating required maintenance infrastructure.
CONCLUSION
This publication incorporates joint and Service tactics,
techniques, and procedures into a single-source publication
and provides the guidance and procedures necessary to plan,
coordinate, and conduct joint shipboard helicopter
operations from US Navy and US Coast Guard ships.
x
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER I
SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS OVERVIEW
“One of the outstanding characteristics of air power proved to be its flexibility.”
Chief Air Marshal Lord Tedder
With Prejudice, 1948
1. General
a. This publication provides operating and
aviation ordnance procedures required to plan
and conduct shipboard helicopter operations
and places emphasis on single-ship, singlehelicopter independent operations.
WARNING
The appendices of this publication
contain approach charts, wind
envelopes, and other related guidance
for shipboard operations. These
procedures may change without notice
through the joint publication system.
If a conflict exists with more specific
procedures, those specific procedures
will have precedence.
b. The publication is written to reflect
routine operations for the deployment of
joint force helicopters on board US Navy
(USN) and US Coast Guard (USCG) ships.
This is generally the result of careful presail
planning, but does not preclude crisis
response, surge requirements, or warfighting
execution. This publication describes
shipboard helicopter operational procedures
for both embarked and transient aircraft and
aviation detachments. Some of the
terminology, regulations, and routine
encountered aboard ship reflect naval
traditions and contribute to efficient and safe
operations.
c. As shown in Figure I-1, a ship is
designed to provide the warfighting
requirements to operate in the threedimensional maritime environment. In
aviation support, the ship provides the
combined benefits of a landing zone,
maintenance and work areas, fuel farm,
air operations planning facilities, and
command and control. The ship also
provides for sustainment, living, dining, and
recreation provisions, as well as other daily
necessities such as the ship’s laundry, store,
and barber shop.
d. Above all else, the shipboard
environment demands the ultimate in
teamwork. At any time there can be an
event, combat-related or otherwise (e.g.,
heavy weather), that may affect every
member of the crew. Even during peacetime
the ever-present dangers of flooding or fire
can require sounding “General Quarters,”
which stations the crew (including helicopter
detachments) to an assigned battle station. It
is important to understand the potential
lethality of the flight deck environment during
flight operations. If an aircraft mishap occurs,
there is the real possibility of a major
conflagration because of the explosive
characteristics of fuel and ordnance that, if
not properly responded to, may cause the loss
of ship and lives. It is incumbent on every
person embarked on a ship to know their
responsibilities during the many evolutions
that transpire during normal ship’s
routine. The ship’s company (crew) has the
responsibility to impart that knowledge to
personnel not familiar with ship surroundings.
e. Daily shipboard routine is promulgated
in the Plan Of the Day (POD). The POD is
the primary means of announcing each
day’s schedule of important events and will
normally include the daily flight schedule on
I-1
Chapter I
SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATING
BENEFITS
Maintenance
and Work
Areas
Air Operations
Planning Facilities
Fuel Farm
Command
and Control
Landing Zone
Creature Comforts and Daily Necessities
Figure I-1. Shipboard Helicopter Operating Benefits
nonaviation ships, whereas on aviation ships
it will be promulgated as a daily air plan.
The ship’s Executive Officer (XO) is
responsible for the POD. Commanders of
embarked Army or Air Force units should
be included in the POD development to
ensure their units fully understand shipboard
responsibilities. For information that needs
to be passed to the crew in a timely fashion,
there is a general announcing system (1MC)
operated from the ship’s bridge.
2. Scope
a. The joint tactics, techniques, and
procedures (JTTP) established by this
publication apply to combatant commands,
subordinate unified commands, and joint
task forces. The JTTP apply to joint force
helicopter operations conducted to achieve
military objectives in the maritime
environment.
Circumstances will
demand flexible application of JTTP to
I-2
make the most effective use of military
capabilities.
b. These procedures apply to individual
operations, exercises, and training involving
joint force helicopter operations from USN
and USCG ships. General procedures relating
to staging and operating in the shipboard
environment are addressed. However, specific
mission tactics or procedures are not covered.
Consult the source documents listed in
Appendix H, “References,” for specific
procedures. Wind envelopes (the wind limits
for individual helicopter and ship
combinations) are contained in Naval
Warfare Publication (NWP) 3-04.1M,
“Helicopter Operating Procedures for Air
Capable Ships” and commandant USCG
instruction (COMDTINST) M3710.2,
“Coast Guard Shipboard Helicopter
Operational Procedures Manual.” These
publications can be obtained through normal
Military Service publication distribution
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Shipboard Helicopter Operations Overview
centers. Requests for inclusion on the NWP 3- aviation-capable ships. The single point of
04.1M distribution list should be forwarded to: contact for all aspects of aviation facility
certification is:
Chief of Naval Operations (N889F)
Pentagon, Room 4E419
Commander
Washington, D.C. 20350-2000
Naval Air Systems Command (PMA251D)
DSN: 224-6024
1421 Jefferson Davis Hwy
Commercial: (703) 614-6024
Arlington, VA 22243-5120
Requests for inclusion on the COMDTINST
a. Air-Capable Ships (ACS). Most USN
M3710.2 distribution list should be forwarded and USCG ships are classified as ACS, which
to:
are characterized by small flight decks on
the stern, bow, or both. Due to the size of
Commandant (G-OCA)
some smaller flight decks, certain helicopters
USCG Headquarters
are limited to hover operations only. Most
2100 Second St. (SW)
flight decks provide one helicopter landing
Washington, DC 20593-0001
spot, although some provide two or four
Commercial: (202) 267-0952
landing spots. Air-capable ships are
divided into three levels which describe the
If there is a conflict between the shipboard environmental conditions in which each ship
wind envelopes in these publications and is capable of operating.
the aircraft flight manual, the flight manual
will take precedence. If no Navy-approved
• Level I ships are capable of operations
wind envelope exists, the general wind
day or night, in visual meteorological
envelope contained in NWP3-04.1M shall
conditions (VMC) or instrument
be utilized.
meteorological conditions (IMC), and
are equipped with tactical air navigation
c. This publication addresses JTTP for
(TACAN) and ultra high frequency
joint operations. Ships and aviation units
(UHF) homer.
contemplating such operations are required
to obtain and maintain their mission- or
• Level II ships are capable of day or night,
aircraft-specific qualifications and
VMC operations only.
proficiency in accordance with parentService regulations.
• Level III ships are capable of day, VMC
operations only.
3. Objective
This publication provides guidelines for the
safe and effective conduct of joint helicopter
operations from USN and USCG ships. It
also serves as a planning and implementation
guide for joint force commanders (JFCs).
• Each level is further divided into seven
(7) classes which describe specific type
helicopter support capability of each
ship:
4. Ship Capabilities
•• Class 1 ships provide landing
clearance, a hangar, fuel and electrical
service, and full maintenance facilities.
USN and USCG ships capable of operating
with aircraft are grouped into three types of
•• Class 2 ships provide landing
clearance plus fuel and electrical service.
I-3
Chapter I
•• Class 2A ships provide landing flight decks with multiple landing spots, a
clearance plus fuel and direct current large hangar below the flight deck, and full
electrical service.
maintenance and service capabilities. These
ships are day and night all-helicopter and
•• Class 3 ships provide landing vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL)
clearance.
operations capable, aided by a TACAN and
full radar services from the helicopter
•• Class 4 ships provide hover clearance direction center (HDC). Refer to NAVAIR
down to five (5) feet.
00-80T-106, “LHA/LPH/LHD NATOPS
Manual,” for detailed procedures when
•• Class 5 ships provide hover clearance operating with AAAS. The shipboard
above 15 feet.
aviation facilities’ resume (NAEC-ENG7576) provides level and class capabilities and
•• Class 6 ships provide helicopter in- flight deck diagrams for each AAAS.
flight refueling (HIFR).
c. Aviation Ships. Conventional aircraft
Note: Refer to NWP 3 -04.1M, “Helicopter carriers (CVs) and nuclear-powered aircraft
Operating Procedures for Air Capable Ships,” carriers are the only ships in this category.
for detailed procedures when operating with Helicopters can expect full services and
Navy air-capable ships or to COMDTINST maintenance support when operating from
M3710.2 (series) when operating with Coast aviation ships. The carrier air traffic control
center (CATCC) provides complete radar
Guard air-capable ships.
service in all weather, day and night. Refer
b. Amphibious Aviation Assault Ships to NAVAIR 00-80T-105, “CV NATOPS
(AAAS). The Navy has three ship classes Manual,” for detailed procedures when
which fall into this category: amphibious operating with aviation ships.
assault ship, landing platform helicopter
(LPH), general purpose amphibious 5. Flight Operations
assault ship (LHA), and general purpose
amphibious assault ship (with internal dock)
Specifics of shipboard helicopter operations
(LHD). These ships are characterized by large are addressed in detail by this publication. A
Helicopters can expect full support when operating from aviation ships.
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
Shipboard Helicopter Operations Overview
quick overview of events will provide a
general impression of what to expect in
maritime helicopter operations.
• Deck status information (red, not ready
to conduct flight operations, or green,
ready to conduct flight operations);
a. From the aircrew perspective, there
is a sequence of events that occurs when
flying inbound for landing on a ship.
Simultaneously, the ship will be executing a
series of evolutions to receive the inbound
helicopter. Having received an overhead
message from the ship in advance of scheduled
operations, the aircrew will know the ship’s
location, assigned radio and navigation aid
frequencies, and the time to arrive overhead
the ship.
• Base recovery course (BRC) of ship
(magnetic heading of ship during aircraft
recovery);
• Wind speed and direction over the deck;
• Pitch and roll of the ship; and
• Altimeter setting.
d. From the ship’s perspective, after a
helicopter checks in for landing, the ship
commences preparations to receive the
helicopter. The helicopter will communicate
with a controller. The controller notifies the
combat information center (CIC) watch
officer or tactical action officer, who in turn
informs the officer of the deck (OOD) of the
inbound helicopter. The OOD, with clearance
from the ship’s captain, directs that flight
quarters be set. The OOD is responsible for
the safety of the ship.
b. Unless constrained by outside
influences (other ships, restricted or warning
areas, national airspace, military operating
areas), ships have airspace control areas
that need to be adhered to. See Appendix
B, “Control Areas and Approach Charts,” for
detailed information. Aircrews are expected
to check in with the ship prior to entering the
control area or, emission control conditions
permitting, as soon as possible. When
communicating with the ship, the international
or daily changing call sign (as specified in
e. The manning of flight quarters
the overhead message) should be used. The literally impacts the entire ship, especially
aircraft will be asked for information with smaller surface combatants. Sailors from
including:
every division participate as part of the flight
quarters team. They will make up the
• Position;
firefighting team, high-capacity firefighting
foam stations, search and rescue (SAR) boat
• Souls on board; and
crew, repair parties, helicopter control station,
sound-powered phone talkers, signal bridge,
• Fuel remaining.
and other teams and stations dependent on the
type of operations to expect. Flight quarters
c. The ship’s secondary controlled is a manpower-intensive evolution from the
airspace, the control zone, extends out 5 ship’s perspective, and therefore it is
nautical miles in radius up to 2500 feet imperative that it be completed as quickly
mean sea level, similar to Class C airspace as and efficiently as possible. In addition, the
defined by the Federal Aviation embarked helicopter detachment will establish
Administration. At this juncture or when an integrity watch bill to ensure that
advised, the helicopter reinitiates radio contact responsible personnel maintain aircraft
with the ship and should receive pertinent security when not at actual flight quarters. The
landing information to include:
integrity watch provides general security for
I-5
Chapter I
embarked aircraft, to include checking chains complicated by relative motion due to the
and chocks.
ship’s movement through the water. As the
helicopter approaches the flight deck, the
f. In VMC, the aircrew will report visual uninitiated should avoid a tendency to fixate
acquisition of the ship and, unless on the movement of white water from the
otherwise directed, proceed inbound ship’s waterline to the wake. Another area
toward the ship for landing. When the of caution is accounting for burble effects of
helicopter control officer (HCO) in the wind around the superstructure of the ship.
helicopter control station (HCS) visually Frequently as the flight deck is approached,
sights the helicopter, this information is there is a tendency to get hung up by the
reported to the OOD and CIC. After visual invisible “wall” on smaller ships, an area of
sighting, control of the helicopter is turned pressure or wind that requires a correction of
over from CIC to the HCO. The analogy is a additional power and nose attitude to
handoff from approach control to the tower. transition. As soon as the “wall” is overcome,
The HCO passes base recovery course (BRC), the correction is immediately canceled, and
wind over the deck, pitch (vertical motion of the helicopter air taxies to a hover over the
the deck), and roll of the deck and clearance spot and lands.
to land. A typical call from the HCO would
be:
i. In hovering over the deck, it is
extremely important to guard against drift
“Aircraft call sign, green deck (ship is and a tendency to overcorrect. The pilot’s
ready to conduct flight operations), BRC scan should not be limited to the immediate
is 180 (magnetic heading of ship), winds flight deck vicinity but should include the
are 30 degrees to port (30 degrees off horizon, ship’s amidships, and the flight deck
centerline of ship to the left side, looking area. The amidships (middle of the ship) is
from the back of the ship toward the front the area of least movement as seas increase in
of the ship) at 10 knots, pitch one, roll intensity. This will reduce the propensity to
four (amount of ship’s movement in “chase the deck,” which makes the shipboard
degrees), altimeter 29.92.”
landing more difficult. When stabilized over
the deck and ready to set down, the pilot needs
g. The helicopter will then complete the to time the deck so the helicopter touches
landing checklist prior to final approach to down at that moment the ship moves the least,
landing and report “landing checklist the bottom or top of the swell, the top being
complete, gear down and locked (if preferred. It is important not to land as the
applicable), right seat (or left seat) landing.” deck is coming up. Under the right conditions
This cues the landing signal enlisted (LSE) in a hard landing can result, which could damage
the Navy or landing signal officer (LSO) in the aircraft.
the Coast Guard to properly position on the
flight deck so as to provide direction and
j. Once the helicopter is safe on deck, it
maintain eye contact with the pilot at the will normally be chocked and chained (if
controls.
applicable) to the deck to prevent
movement. The HCO then reports to the
h. The greatest degree of difference OOD that the helicopter is secured, which
between land and sea operations during the allows the OOD to maneuver the ship with
landing phase occurs from short final to due caution to any helicopters with engaged
wheels on deck. For both, the rate of closure rotors on the flight deck. If the helicopter
to the intended landing spot is affected by head disengages the rotor system and shuts down,
winds, but for the sea environment this is the OOD will maintain winds over the deck
I-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Shipboard Helicopter Operations Overview
within the engagement and disengagement
envelope per NWP 3-04.1M, “Helicopter
Operating Procedures for Air Capable Ships,”
COMDTINST M3710.2, “USCG Shipboard
Helicopter Operational Procedures Manual,”
or aircraft flight manuals. If no engagement
and/or disengagement wind envelope exists
the OOD will maintain the same course as
during landing. An amber deck status light
(yellow signal light) will be provided to signal
disengagement. Rotor engagement or
disengagement is a hazardous evolution,
particularly when winds are strong or gusty,
the deck is moving, or the helicopter does not
have droop stops and/or rotor brake.
status light will be provided in coordination
with the LSE or LSO for clearance to start
engine(s). The aircrew then requires clearance
to engage the rotor system from the HCO. The
HCO and OOD shall ensure the winds over
the deck are within the engagement and/or
disengagement envelope before clearance to
engage is granted. Rotor engagement is done
under a yellow deck status light. For those
helicopters with simultaneous engine start
and rotor engagement, the evolution will be
accomplished using the yellow deck status
light. As with rotor disengagement, the rotor
engagement can be hazardous until the blades
achieve sufficient speed.
k. After the shutdown of the helicopter is
n. Takeoff clearance will be provided by
complete, the pilot(s) report to CIC for the ship’s Commanding Officer (CO) via
mission debriefing.
the OOD and HCO in conjunction with the
green deck status light and signal from the
l. The launch sequence is basically the LSE or LSO. The HCO will relay ship’s
reverse of the recovery sequence. BRC, wind, pitch and roll, altimeter, and
Approximately 90 minutes before the permission to launch. When ready, the
scheduled launch time, the pilot(s) reports to aircrew (using hand signals) calls for the
CIC for a mission brief. Embarked Army removal of the chocks and tie-down chains
aviation units will include the CIC in their (it is the pilot’s prerogative to fly out of the
preparation and briefings for large heliborne chocks or take off without chocks in place).
operations. For single-helicopter missions,
the embarked unit operations personnel will
o. With chains and/or chocks removed, the
coordinate mission details with the CIC and helicopter lifts into a hover, checks gauges
be included in the air mission brief. The and power, then slides out over the side of the
responsibility for coordination with CIC rests ship (usually parallel to the line-up line) and
with the embarked Army aviation unit executes a normal takeoff. Again, it is
commander. Approximately 30 minutes important to properly time the deck.
before launch time, the ship sets flight Takeoff is best accomplished as a swell lifts
quarters. If the helicopter is not spotted on the deck.
the deck already, preparations are made to
do so. The aircrew accomplishes the preflight
p. When safely airborne, the helicopter
checklist and boards the aircraft, completing reports “operations normal” to the HCO, who
the checklists up to engine start.
in turn passes the helicopter to the controller in
CIC. Mission dependent, the ship may or may
m. At this point, permission is requested not stand down from flight quarters or go to a
from the HCO to start engine(s). A red deck 15 minute standby to resume flight quarters.
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Chapter I
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER II
COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS
“The art of command is not that of thinking and deciding for one’s subordinates
as though one stood in their shoes.”
Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch
Precepts and Judgments, 1949
1. Purpose
This publication provides guidance for
command relationships when helicopter units
embark on ships.
2. Joint Force Commander
Combatant commanders exercise
combatant command (command authority)
over assigned forces. Subordinate JFCs will
exercise operational control over assigned
forces in accordance with Joint Pub 0-2,
“Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF).”
The JFC employs joint force air forces or
capabilities to achieve military objectives
in the maritime environment.
operations. The OIC reports directly to the
ship’s CO, air wing commander, or authority
specified by the JFC for the mission assigned.
Administratively, the OIC normally reports
to the ship’s XO for matters of day-to-day
routine with respect to the detachment while
embarked on the ship. When embarked on
an aviation-capable or amphibious assault
aviation ship, the OIC reports to the officer
specified in the appropriate JFC tasking
order regarding the assigned mission
and administrative routine. Normal procedure
will be for the organic helicopter squadron on
the aircraft carrier to act as host for a helicopter
detachment and to provide liaison between the
detachment, the ship, and the embarked air wing.
The OIC has the authority and responsibility
for the following:
3. Ship’s Commanding Officer
USN and USCG regulations set forth the
authority of the ship’s CO with respect to
aircraft embarked in or operating from the
ship. When operating with a joint
helicopter detachment embarked, the
JFC’s operation order (OPORD) will
define command relationships for the
assigned mission. These command
relationships will normally apply from initial
embarkation until final debarkation. In all
cases, the ship’s CO retains authority over
embarked units in all areas involving safety
of the ship or its crew.
4. Detachment Officer In
Charge
a. Initiate coordination for a presail
conference. (See sample checklist in
Appendix A, “Sample Formats.”)
b. Coordinate detachment embarkation
requirements with the XO of the ship.
c. Provide certification documents to
the ship’s CO on the detachment’s
completion of presail requirements as set
forth in paragraph 2 of Chapter IV,
“Predeployment.”
d. Coordinate all requirements for
communications to higher authority with the
ship’s CO.
e. Apprise the ship’s CO and operations
A detachment officer in charge (OIC) officer of operational and support requirements
shall be provided for embarked joint that directly affect the ship’s operations.
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Chapter II
f. Apprise the ship’s CO of detachment inclusion in the quarterly employment
readiness when required for operational schedule conferences. Emergent training
reporting requirements to higher authority.
requirements identified after the quarterly
employment schedules conference will be
g. Ensure detachment compliance with handled case-by-case.
ship’s routine operating and administrative
instructions.
b. The Navy and Coast Guard will
provide ship services to support military
deck landing qualification (DLQ) training
5. Scheduling and Funding
requirements. Individual Services will
a. In order to program sufficient provide assets to conduct the training and will
resources over the long term, estimates be responsible for helicopter operating costs.
for annual training requirements will be Expenses for temporary duty personnel and
provided to combatant commanders by operating costs to provide deck qualification
the parent Service. Routine training training for military aviators will be borne by
requirements will be submitted in time for the respective Service.
The ship’s CO retains authority over helicopter units embarked where safety of
the ship or its crew is involved.
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER III
TRAINING
“Individual training is the foundation on which unit effectiveness is built.”
LT GEN Arthur S. Collins, Jr.
Common Sense Training, 1978
1. Training Ship’s Personnel
Helicopter operations from ships place
both ship and flight personnel in a unique
and demanding environment. Close
coordination and proper actions are
required by all personnel at all times.
Operational effectiveness and flight safety
require extensive training in the areas of
command and control, aircraft coordination, and
flight deck procedures. In addition to the
standard requirements beginning in paragraph
2 of Chapter IV, “Predeployment,” the
following additional requirements will be met
in order to safely operate helicopters aboard
ships.
commencing joint flight operations. This
brief will cover, but is not limited to the
following:
•• Radio communications and terminology.
(See recommended brevity codes in
Appendix G, “Brevity Codes.”)
•• Light and hand signals.
•• Aircraft configuration, including
fueling, armament, tiedown, and rescue
specifics.
•• Night-vision device (NVD) procedures
and operating techniques.
a. In order to provide the required amount
•• Emergency procedures.
of teamwork and enhance flight safety, the
air officer, aviation officer, detachment OIC,
b. Ship’s Air or Aviation Officer, Flight
or a designated officer shall conduct the Deck Officer or Director, and Flight Deck
following briefings:
Cargo Supervisor. Key air operations
personnel will be briefed on planned
• Commanding Officer and Executive operations by the ship’s operations officer.
Officer. The CO and XO will receive a Coordination of flight deck evolutions and
thorough brief from the air or aviation operation-specific procedures will be covered
department head and the OIC of the in detail.
Service helicopter detachment. This
briefing will cover, but should not be
c. Officer of the Deck. All OODs will be
limited to, aircraft capabilities, planned briefed by the air or aviation department head
training, and operational evolutions, with and operations officer regarding specific
impact on ship’s schedule and waiver limitations on deck movement, wind
requirements emphasized. Particular envelopes, and the ship’s light configuration.
emphasis will be placed on the relation
of each evolution to normal operations
d. Engineer Officer or Aviation Fuels
and any waiver requirements.
Officer. These officers will be briefed by the
embarked detachment with regard to the type
• Helicopter Control Officer. The HCO of fuel to be brought aboard by the Service
or air officer will thoroughly brief the units, fuel requirements, and fueling or
OIC of the Service unit before defueling procedures once aboard. Particular
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Chapter III
attention will be paid to the hazards of
JP-4/8 and its effect on storage risks,
volatility of mixtures, and firefighting
considerations. The engineering or aviation
fuels officer is responsible for routine fuel
sample inspections and will provide a fuel
sample for the helicopter aircraft commander
during “hot refuelings” (refueling with
engines, auxiliary power units, and/or rotors
in operation).
e. Crash Crew or Fire Party On-Scene
Leader. Firefighting and rescue personnel
will be briefed by the embarked detachment
regarding aircraft particulars as they pertain
to rescue and salvage operations. Once
embarked for operations, the helicopter
detachments will provide crash crew
personnel with orientation lectures on rescue
access, armament safing, ordnance,
firefighting hazards, and aircraft emergency
shutdown procedures.
f. Landing Signal Officer or Landing
Signalman Enlisted. The LSO or LSE will
be briefed by the embarked detachment on
special requirements with regard to lighting,
signals, NVDs, aircraft securing, and fueling
operations.
g. Air Controllers and Combat Information
Center Personnel. Air control personnel will
be briefed by the operations officer with
regard to communications and identification
equipment, SAR capabilities, weather criteria,
and instrument approach procedures.
operations security aspects and restrictive
lighting measures, including the lighting
hazards during NVD operations.
2. Training of Embarked
Personnel
Maintenance personnel and aircrew
assigned to helicopter detachments that
maintain a capability to operate from ships
will receive joint helicopter operations
orientation training in order to ensure their
safety and effectiveness at sea. These
requirements apply to embarked operations
and are not intended to restrict personnel whose
exposure to the shipboard environment is limited
to DLQ training periods. The following
requirements will be met for all situations except
for immediate operational requirements where
the success of the mission would be clearly
jeopardized by delaying operations until required
training can be obtained.
a. Pre-Embarkation Training
• Shipboard and aircraft firefighting
training.
• Aviation ordnance training.
b. Embarkation Training. The following
requirements will be met as soon as practical
after embarking. These training evolutions
will be conducted by the ship’s company
indoctrination organization.
• Shipboard firefighting training.
h. Flight Deck Personnel. Flight deck
personnel will be briefed by the embarked
detachment on platform-specific procedures
for fueling and deck handling evolutions,
including procedures for the use of NVDs if
their use is planned.
• Shipboard electrical safety.
• Storage, handling, and disposal of
hazardous or flammable material.
• Hearing conservation.
i. Ship’s Company Briefs. When
applicable, the ship’s company will be briefed
by the executive department regarding
III-2
• Emergency escape breathing device and
oxygen breathing apparatus.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Training
Joint force personnel must be thoroughly trained in DLQ requirements.
• Hazards of electromagnetic radiation to effectiveness at sea and annual refresher
ordnance (HERO) and emission control training thereafter. Initial and refresher
shipboard helicopter operations ground
(EMCON) plans.
school shall be taught by a shipboardcurrent instructor pilot. Emphasis will be
• Material conditions of readiness.
placed on aircrew coordination with
• Basic damage control organization and standardized and briefed voice procedures
embarked aviation detachment from the crew chief or aircrewman to the pilots
on all helicopter clearances with respect to
responsibilities.
the landing area. Before initial qualification,
completion and documentation of training in
• Abandon ship bill.
the following areas are mandatory (see Figure
• Emergency egress blindfold drill III-1):
(berthing compartment and workspace).
• Shipboard hazards.
• Ship’s battle bill and man overboard bill.
• Flight quarters organization.
• General Quarters (with and without flight
• Launch, recovery, and aircraft movement
quarters).
procedures.
3. Shipboard Deck Landing
Qualification Requirements
The following pilot experience, currency,
and qualification prerequisites apply to
shipboard DLQ training.
• Aircraft landing and handling signals.
• Deck markings, lighting orientation, and
visual landing aids.
• Emergency procedures.
a. Ground School. Aircrew assigned to
units requiring DLQ training need orientation
training in order to ensure their safety and
• Communication, EMCON, and navigational
aids (NAVAIDs).
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Chapter III
SHIPBOARD DECK LANDING QUALIFICATION
REQUIREMENTS
Aircraft Landing and
Handling Signals
Aircraft Fueling
Procedures
Air Traffic Control
Deck Markings and
Lighting Orientation
Maintenance Support
Emergency Procedures
Communication,
Emission Control,
Navigation Aids
Vertical
Replenishment
Procedures
Figure III-1. Shipboard Deck Landing Qualification Requirements
• Aircraft and/or shipboard fueling
procedures.
• Naval brevity codes and/or flight
terminology.
• Air traffic control procedures.
• Marking (color coding) of ships’s flight
deck personnel.
• Maintenance support procedures.
b. Pilots obtain initial, recurrent, and
• Vertical replenishment (VERTREP) requalification training for type aircraft in
procedures (if applicable).
accordance with parent Service directives as
appropriate.
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
Training
c. Deck landing qualifications for USCG,
USN, and US Marine Corps (USMC)
helicopter pilots are listed in appropriate
Service publications. For US Army (USA)
and US Air Force (USAF) helicopter pilots,
the memorandum of understanding
(MOU) between the Departments of the
Navy, Air Force, and Army titled “Army/
Air Force Deck Landing Operations,”
provides qualification requirements. Initial
qualification and currency requirements for
special operations units will be in accordance
with (IAW) MOU between Commander in
Chief, US Special Operations Command and
Chief of Naval Operations.
d. For initial DLQ evolutions, a Service
liaison officer qualified as a pilot in the
INITIAL QUALIFICATION AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS
1. Single/dual spot (herein after referred to as single-spot) ships:
a. Initial day qualification consists of:
• Flight training conducted by either a USA/USAF DLQ instructor pilot
(IP) or a USN/USMC helicopter aircraft commander (HAC) who is
current on single-spot decks.
• Ground School training per paragraph 3a above.
• Six field deck landings prior to six single-spot shipboard landings, all
within a ten consecutive day period.
b. Currency requirements: Four single-spot shipboard landings within 90
days.
• Pilots whose currency has lapsed, but who have made four singlespot landings within the last 180 days, shall:
•• Undergo training conducted by either a current DLQ pilot-incommand (PC) or DLQ IP.
•• Perform four field deck landings prior to six shipboard landings, all
within a ten consecutive day period.
• Pilots whose currency has lapsed and who have not made 4 singlespot landings within the last 181 days shall undergo initial qualification
training.
c. Night single-spot helicopter operations require significantly more
training and specialized equipment than day operations and may not be
conducted except for life-threatening emergencies or operational necessity.
Requests for this type of training will not normally be approved. Exceptions
will be handled on a case-by-case basis by USN (CNO N889F4) and USA
(DAMO-TRS), or USAF (XOOS).
2. Multi-spot ships (LPH/LHA/LHD):
a. Initial day qualification consists of:
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Chapter III
• Flight training conducted by a USA/USAF DLQ IP or unit trainer (UT)
who is day current or a current USN/USMC HAC.
• Ground School training per paragraph 3a above.
• Five day-field deck landings prior to five day-shipboard landings, all
within a ten consecutive day period.
b. Day currency requirements: four shipboard landings within the preceding
nine months. Pilots whose day currency has lapsed shall undergo initial
day qualification; requalification shall be conducted by a USA IP, UT, or PC.
USAF requalification shall be conducted by a DLQ or current MP, IP, or EP.
c. Initial night qualification:
• The pilot shall be day-qualified and current.
• Ground School training per paragraph 3a above.
• Flight training shall be conducted by a night-current USA/USAF DLQ
IP or USN/USMC HAC.
• Six night-field deck landings prior to six night shipboard landings, all
within a ten consecutive day period. Pilots must also comply with the
72 hour requirement of para 2d.
d. Night currency requirements: six night shipboard landings within the
preceding 90 days are required to maintain currency. If more than 72 hours
have elapsed since the last night shipboard landing, one day shipboard
landing shall be performed within 24 hours prior to the next night shipboard
landing.
3. Pilots qualified on single-spot ships are qualified on multi-spot ships, but
the reverse is not true.
4. Aircraft carriers: Routine DLQ training and operations normally will not be
conducted on CV class ships. Operations on CV class ships will be on a caseby-case basis and require a special ground brief by US Navy personnel, or
Army and/or Air Force personnel designated by the Navy to give the briefing.
Pilots qualified and current on single- or multi-spot ships shall be considered
qualified and current on CV class ships.
5. Pilots performing logistics over-the-shore (LOTS) or VERTREP operations
that involve external loads without a shipboard landing shall be deck landing
qualified and current. Pilots scheduled to participate in LOTS/VERTREP
operations must receive a familiarization of the designated ship by US Navy
personnel or a previously familiarized US Army IP/PC or US Air Force IP/Flight
Examiner.
e. Prior to DLQ operations, the OIC gives
designated DLQ helicopter should be present
in the ship’s HCS to render assistance as a crash and fire parties brief, including an
aircraft walk-around for each type of
required.
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
Training
participating helicopter. When a crash and
fire parties briefing is conducted prior to the
arrival of unfamiliar aircraft onboard the ship,
a diagram identifying emergency egress and/
or access locations, fuel tanks, oil and
hydraulic reservoirs, battery location, engine
controls, and onboard fire extinguishing
systems of the respective aircraft will suffice
for briefing purposes.
f. Night vision device ship landing initial
qualification. Pilots shall meet the following
requirements prior to NVD qualification:
•• Air Force - Chief of Staff of the Air
Force, XOOS.
• Amphibious aviation and aviation
ships.
•• Day currency within 72 hours of
commencing night shipboard NVD
qualification.
•• Five (5) NVD field deck landing
practices, or suitable simulator training.
•• Night currency.
• Initial qualification instructor pilots.
IPs requirements are the same as for
•• Five (5) NVD DLQs within 10 days
initial day qualification. In addition, the
of initiating night field deck landing
IP will be night, NVD, and/or night
practices.
vision system ship-landing current as
required by the type of ship operations
g. NVD Currency. Four (4) NVD ship
anticipated. A USMC instructor shall landings are required within the preceding 6
be a designated night systems instructor. months. If currency lapses, pilots are required
to repeat initial qualification. Prior to
• Air-capable ships. Night landing to executing NVD ship landings for initial and
single-spot ACS require significantly currency qualifications, crews will be NVDmore training, and request for this type current and qualified in the aircraft conducting
of operation or training will not normally training.
be approved. Exceptions will be handled
on a case-by-case basis by the following Note: NVD-aided qualification and currency
does not constitute unaided qualification and
offices:
currency. If the requirement for unaided night
•• Navy - Chief of Naval Operations ship operations is anticipated, initial
(CNO), Code CNO N889.
qualification is as described in paragraph 3c
above.
•• Army - Chief of Staff of the Army,
DAMO-TRS.
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Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER IV
PREDEPLOYMENT
“The man who is prepared has his battle half fought.”
Cervantes
Don Quixote, 1605
1. Planning
a. Success of joint helicopter detachments
on ships is directly dependent on proper
planning. Operators and planners must
understand the capabilities and limitations
of ship and helicopter interoperability if the
maximum degree of safety, flexibility, and
effectiveness is to be realized. Presail
planning must include sufficient lead time to
accommodate training and qualification and
must be completed prior to conducting
shipboard operations. For all shipboard
helicopter operations, a presail conference is
required under normal circumstances.
Conference attendees will include, at a
minimum, shipboard and helicopter
detachment personnel.
b. Appendix A, “Sample Formats,”
contains a sample letter of instruction to be
used for planning purposes by joint helicopter
detachments.
do not require embarkation (e.g., deck
landing qualification).
a. Helicopter Specifications. Prior to
operations, and when requested, the
detachment OIC will make available
diagrams of embarked aircraft to the HCO
or air officer (Air Boss) and crash and
salvage parties prior to operations. These
should include but not be limited to the items
shown in Figure IV-1.
HELICOPTER
SPECIFICATIONS
DIAGRAMS
Aircraft egress
Refueling locations
Tiedown points
2. Detachment Certification
Desired wind
Before embarkation, helicopter detachments
envelopes
will be certified for shipboard operations by
their unit commander or other cognizant
authority. This certification will ensure that
Pitch and roll
training requirements set forth in this
limitations
publication have been met and that the
detachment has met parent-Service training
Figure IV-1. Helicopter Specifications
requirements for the intended mission(s). Any
Diagrams
specific training shortfalls or additional
b. Requirements for Aviation Detachment
training intended after embarkation should be
briefed during the presail conference when Personnel Assigned to Flight Deck Duties.
applicable and appropriate. Certification is
• All personnel will wear prescribed
not required for all training operations that
personal protective clothing and
IV-1
Chapter IV
equipment while on the flight deck
during helicopter operations.
3. Corrosion Prevention and
Control
• Aviators should attend an instrument
The shipboard environment is inherently
refresher training course within the corrosive. Embarked aircraft will require
preceding year before participation in cleaning and treatment for corrosion more
shipboard operations.
frequently than shore-based aircraft.
Detachment OICs must place special
• Shipboard firefighting indoctrination emphasis on the importance of a dynamic
training is required for flight deck corrosion prevention and control program and
personnel.
ensure that corrosion prevention and control
receive priority for timely accomplishment
along with other required maintenance. The
frequency and content of a program for
cleaning, corrosion control, and preservation
of aircraft and support equipment should be
established prior to commencing embarked
operations.
IV-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER V
AIRCRAFT DEPARTURE AND RECOVERY PROCEDURES
“A collision at sea can ruin your entire day.”
Thucydides
1. Deck Operations
a. The ship’s flight quarters checklist needs
to be completed before helicopter operations.
b. Permission for any movement of
helicopters must be obtained from the
OOD on the bridge, who will be notified
when the move is complete and the aircraft
tied down.
c. Some military helicopters do not have
rotor brakes or droop stops. Helicopters
without rotor brakes or droop stops may
operate from shipboard landing decks but
should not routinely shut down. Extreme
caution must be exercised during all
operations (especially during gusty wind
conditions) to preclude damage to aircraft or
injury to personnel. All rotor blades will be
secured immediately following shutdown.
aircraft. Red indicates fouled deck (when the
ship is operating airborne aircraft) or clear to
start engines (when the ship has aircraft on
deck). The Coast Guard uses a single amber
signal to indicate clearance for both engine
start and rotor engagement. Amber is used
for rotor engagement or disengagement, and
green indicates clear to launch and recover
helicopters. Deck status lights are normally
for communication with flight deck
personnel only. Pilots will not use the
deck status lights for clearance for engine
start, rotor engagement, or takeoff or
landing. Pilots will follow LSE or LSO
signals. See Figure V-1 for command and
display signals.
WARNING
All anti-collision lighting will be off
during all deck operations to ensure
that the deck crew’s night vision is not
impaired. Aircraft position lighting
will be as required for operation in
progress.
d. The OOD will provide the safest deck
conditions possible until the helicopters have
been secured. Helicopters are always
chocked (if equipped with wheels) when
spotted on the flight deck or in the hangar,
f. Flight crews will request clearance for
except during emergency launch (sea state start and runup before scheduled takeoff
permitting).
time. Engines may be started upon LSE or
LSO signal.
WARNING
• Troubleshooting. If the helicopter
Brakes will be set on during all
experiences maintenance problems, the
takeoffs, landings, and while on deck,
pilot will signal for maintenance
for helicopters equipped with wheels.
personnel. Deck crew personnel will
determine the nature of the problem and
e. The deck status lights system includes a
discuss the situation with the pilot in
light fixture with three lenses or rotating
command and inform the LSE, LSO,
beacons. They are normally located on a high
HCO, or OOD and tower operator when
point in the pilot’s field of vision and are used
a decision has been made concerning the
to indicate the flight deck’s ability to operate
status of the helicopter.
V-1
Chapter V
COMMAND AND DISPLAY SIGNALS
EVOLUTION
COMMAND
PILOT
SIGNAL 1/
SHIP
DISPLAY 2/
MEANING 3/
1. Prepare to start Check tiedowns,
engine.
chocks, and all
loose gear about
deck.
Hand signals to
LSE/LSO (day).
Red signal in
flight deck area.
Verify chocks and
tiedowns in place.
Boots removed
and stowed. Man
fire extinguisher.
2. Start engines.
4/
Start engines.
Hand signal to
LSE/LSO.
Red signal in
flight deck area
(USN). Amber
signal in flight
deck area
(USCG).
Authority for
responsible flight
deck personnel to
signal for starting
engines. Ship not
ready for flight
operations.
3. Engage rotors.
Stand clear of
helo(s) engaging
rotors.
Hand signal.
Position lights
FLASHING
BRIGHT (DIM for
night).
Amber signal in
flight deck area
until rotors are
engaged, then red
signal.
Ship is ready for
pilot to engage
rotors. Authority
for responsible
flight deck
personnel to
signal for rotor
engagement if
immediate area
clear. Ship
restricted from
maneuvering and
winds within
engagement
limits. Ship not
ready for flight
ops.
4. Ready for
launch.
Obtain permission Thumbs up to
Red signal in
from bridge for
LSE/LSO (day).
flight deck area.
green deck.
Position lights
STEADY
BRIGHT (DIM for
night). May give
"thumbs up"
signal by turning
on flashlight or
other movable
light and moving it
up and down
(USCG) (night).
HCO/LSO
request green
deck from bridge.
Ship maneuvers
to obtain winds for
launch. Pilots
finish checklist.
Figure V-1. Command and Display Signals
V-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
COMMAND AND DISPLAY SIGNALS
EVOLUTION
COMMAND
PILOT
SIGNAL 1/
SHIP
DISPLAY 2/
MEANING 3/
5. Launch.
Remove all
tiedowns on
pilots signal.
Launch helo(s).
Hand signal to
remove chocks
and chains.
Green signal in
flight deck area.
Ship is ready in
all respects for
flight ops. Ship is
established on
flight course and
restricts
maneuvering.
Bridge grants
green deck. Wind
is within launch
envelope.
Authority granted
to pilot in
command to
signal removal of
chocks and
chains. Authority
for LSE/LSO to
launch helo when
chains are
removed.
6. Ops normal
report.
Secure from flight
quarters.
OPS NORMAL
radio call from
pilot unless
prohibited by
EMCON, then a
ship fly-by with
the landing light
turned ON prior
to departing area.
As appropriate.
Helo system
functioning
correctly.
Commencing
assigned
mission.
7. Helo(s)
inbound for
landing.
Prepare to land
helo(s).
None.
Red signal in
flight deck area.
Prepare
designated
landing area to
land helo(s). Ship
not ready to
recover helo(s).
8. Recovery.
Land helo.
None.
Green signal in
flight deck area.
Ship is ready in
all respects to
land helo(s).
Wind is within
recovery
envelope.
Figure V-1. Command and Display Signals (cont’d)
V-3
Chapter V
COMMAND AND DISPLAY SIGNALS
EVOLUTION
COMMAND
PILOT
SIGNAL 1/
SHIP
DISPLAY 2/
MEANING 3/
9. Prep. for
shutdown.
None.
Hand signal to
disengage (day).
Flash position
lights (night).
Red signal in
flight deck area.
Once chocks and
chains are
installed, ship is
free to maneuver.
Pilot signals
when ready to
disengage, and
ship obtains
appropriate
winds over deck.
10. Disengage
rotor.
Stand clear of
helo. Disengage
rotors.
None.
Amber signal in
flight deck area
until rotors
stopped, then red
signal.
Authority for
responsible flight
deck personnel
to signal to
disengage rotors
when area is
clear. Winds
within
disengagement
envelope. Ship
restricted from
maneuvering
until rotors have
stopped.
1/ Pilot and LSE hand signals from Appendix F. Ship specific signals between aircraft and ship
should be briefed prior to commencing flight operations. These include, but are not limited to,
night signals using aircraft navigation and position lights.
2/ Deck status lights convey a condition met throughout the ship in preparation for a certain flight
evolution. However, final clearance for a specific task depends upon mutual coordination among
pilot, officer of the deck, HCO or LSO, and LSE.
3/ NVD deck signals are coordinated via sound powered telephone circuits or ICS COM.
4/ Some helicopters engage rotors simultaneously with engine start.
Figure V-1. Command and Display Signals (cont’d)
• Communications. All necessary
communications systems checks should
be accomplished before requesting
clearance for takeoff.
WARNING
Under no condition will helicopters be
ground taxied onboard ships.
• Navigation and Sighting Equipment.
g. When all prelaunch checks are complete
Navigation and sighting system and the pilot is ready for launch, the pilot
alignment and stabilization can be signals the LSE, LSO, or HCO by transmitting
accomplished before launch.
a request for takeoff to the HCS or primary
V-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
Movement of helicopters on the deck is controlled by the OOD on the bridge.
flight control tower and by turning the
aircraft’s navigation lights to steady-bright
(steady-dim at night, if able). When takeoff
clearance is granted and all tiedowns have
been removed, the pilot is cleared to take
off at LSE or LSO signal. The pilot should
perform a hover power check before leaving
the deck to ensure that sufficient power is
available for flight. Once the helicopter has
cleared the flight vicinity of the helicopter
launch and recovery area, the pilot will signal
or report “ops normal” to the tower or
helicopter direction center, provide the
number of souls on board, and give the total
fuel remaining state in hours and minutes
unless prohibited by operational or tactical
restrictions. Determination of the fuel state
will be the time that engine “flame out” (fuel
exhaustion) can be expected. If the aircraft is
leaving the tower’s control, this report will
be given to the CIC or HDC. The CIC or
HDC will maintain a record of the fuel state
of each helicopter during each flight.
h. If required, the aviation unit will provide
NVDs to the ship for use during NVD
operations.
i. Flight quarters should be set before the
scheduled recovery time or in sufficient time
to allow for recovery of all helicopters before
the fuel state of any helicopter reaches 30
minutes fuel remaining. When a helicopter
is operating near a ship or ships, at least one
ready deck will normally be kept available in
the event that the helicopter needs to conduct
an emergency landing.
• Under VMC, aircraft will contact the
tower no later than 5 miles inbound for
landing instructions. Upon check-in,
aircraft should expect to receive BRC,
ship’s speed, wind, altimeter, deck pitch
and roll information, and clearance into
the landing (Charlie) pattern or a holding
(Delta or Plane Guard) pattern.
• Clearance to land will be obtained from the
helicopter control station or primary flight
control tower before final approach.
Shipboard landings will be performed with
aircraft parking brakes set and nose wheel
or tail wheel locked, if applicable.
Recovery spot configurations are depicted
in Annex D to Appendix B, “Control Areas
and Approach Charts.”
V-5
Chapter V
WARNING
While aircraft are landing, all nonessential
personnel will remain clear of flight
deck landing area.
j. Night launch and recovery operations
are the same as for day operations except
that the volume and speed must be reduced.
Helicopters without instrument flight
capability should not be flown at night
unless operational conditions require it.
During night flight operations, optimum wind,
pitch, and roll conditions will be provided for
launch and recovery evolutions.
• All ship lighting that may affect the safe
operations of NVDs will be filtered or
extinguished. Aircrews will identify
lighting hazards to the helicopter
detachment OIC or ship’s personnel
immediately.
WARNING
If the ship’s stern position light
significantly impairs aircrew ability to
safely conduct NVD operations, it will
be extinguished during flight
operations. Flight deck edge lights are
required to be on, at minimum
intensity, during NVD DLQ and other
exercises where NVDs will be used
during flight operations.
• Shipboard lighting systems are depicted
in the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft
Division (NAWCAD), Lakehurst, NJ,
l. Ordnance Loading and Downloading.
Shipboard Aviation Facilities Resume. A See Chapter VI, “Aviation Ordnance.”
stabilized glide slope indicator (SGSI) is
provided on most air-capable ships to aid 2. Flight Operations
night shipboard landings.
See Figure V-2.
• The LSE will use lighted wands.
a. Helicopter Readiness Conditions.
• Flight deck personnel will use a clear lens Flight crews assigned alert conditions will be
in goggles.
notified early enough to permit normal
preflight inspection, start, warm-up, and
k. Night Vision Device Operations
completion of the takeoff check list. Alert
conditions will be defined by the JFC in the
• NVD operations are authorized and OPORD.
should be conducted in accordance with
the ship’s helicopter operating procedures
b. Air Traffic Control Procedures.
and the aircraft’s parent Service Weather in the ship’s control area or zone
directives. The use of NVDs may is the most prominent factor affecting the
require emission control, blacked-out degree of aircraft control necessary. The
operations that include start-up, type of aircraft control to be employed during
launch, and recovery, a n d various departures and recovery is determined by the
approaches and maneuvers. All ship’s CO unless otherwise specified by higher
nonstandard NVD operations will be authority. Helicopters may be required to
thoroughly briefed to the ship’s CO and operate under positive control. The
Air Officer. The unique nature of these controlling agency will establish radar and
operations requires a higher degree of radio contact with the aircraft being
coordination and planning between controlled. The aircraft will comply with
published approach or departure procedures.
aviation units and ship’s personnel.
V-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
Helicopter Readiness
Conditions
Air Traffic Control
Procedures
Departure Procedures
Visual
Meteorological
Conditions
Instrument
Meteorological
Conditions and Night
Unaided Operations
Takeoff Minimums
Departure
Communications
Procedures
Instrument
Meteorological
Conditions Case
Departures
Arrival Procedures
Positive
Communications
Control
Figure V-2. Flight Operations
Positive control of helicopters will be used obtaining permission from the controlling
under the following conditions unless agency.
otherwise prescribed:
d. Departure Procedures
• Ceiling less than 500 feet above ground
• Visual Meteorological Conditions.
level.
Helicopters will clear the control zone at
or below 300 feet or as directed by the
• Forward flight visibility less than 1 mile.
tower or HCO. When IMC are not
anticipated during departure and
• All flight operations between 1/2 hour
subsequent rendezvous, it is known as a
before sunset and 1/2 hour after sunrise
“Case I” departure.
except for Coast Guard cutters and as
modified by the operational commander
• Instrument Meteorological Conditions
or ship’s commanding officer.
and Night Unaided Operations. The
helicopter will depart on the stipulated
c. All helicopters will be under positive
departure course, climbing to a minimum
communications control at sea unless
of 300 feet before commencing a turn,
otherwise directed. Pilots will not shift
unless otherwise directed.
frequencies without notifying and/or
V-7
Chapter V
• IMC Case Departures. Aviation and
amphibious aviation assault ships
normally engage in multi-aircraft
operations. Departures are coordinated
in accordance with the following.
•• Case II. Weather at ship not less than
500-foot ceiling and 1 mile visibility.
Helicopters will depart via Case I
departure and remain below the clouds.
If unable to maintain VMC, helicopters
will proceed in accordance with Case III.
f. Departure Communications Procedures.
The helicopter will launch with radios tuned
to predetermined frequency and will be under
the control of the CIC, HDC, or CATCC
immediately following launch. If operating
aircraft are not NVD-or IMC-equipped, the
aircraft will not be required to change
frequencies or identification, friend or foe
(IFF) codes until at least a 300-foot altitude
and level flight configuration have been
attained.
g. Arrival Procedures
•• Case III. Weather conditions at the ship
are below Case II minimums or when
directed by the commanding officer.
Helicopters will launch at not less than
1-minute intervals, climb straight ahead
to 500 feet, and intercept the 3-mile arc
in the direction given by control. At the
3-mile point, helicopters will arc to
intercept the assigned departure radial.
Upon reaching the assigned departure
radial, departure helicopters shall turn
outbound and commence climb to
assigned altitude. Both ship and
helicopter must be equipped with
TACAN to execute a Case III departure.
If either is not TACAN equipped, then
the procedure (and weather conditions)
in the Case II paragraph above applies.
Helicopters should be IMC-equipped to
fly during Case III conditions.
e. Takeoff Minimums. Takeoff is
authorized in weather conditions down to
published minimums for the available
instrument approach or parent Service
regulation. Takeoff minimums may be
determined using approach minimums for an
approach to another ship within the operating
range of the helicopter if the alternate ship is
at flight quarters or on alert for short-notice
operations. Positive control must be available
for all operations conducted in weather below
500-foot ceiling, 1 mile visibility.
V-8
• Inbound helicopters will check in with
the CIC, HDC, or CATCC upon
entering the control area (50 miles, if
able) and provide the following
information:
•• Call sign
•• Position (relative to the ship)
•• Altitude
•• Fuel state
•• Souls on board
•• Other pertinent information that might
affect recovery. (See Chapter VI,
“Aviation Ordnance,” for procedures to
follow with hung or unexpended
weapons.)
• Visual Flight Rules Descent and
Approach. If descent and approach can
be accomplished in VMC, the pilot will
be passed to primary flight control
(PriFly) or HCS (both equivalent to a
control tower) at 5 miles, and the LSE or
LSO shall aid in recovery. Aboard
aviation ships and amphibious aviation
assault ships, helicopters will possibly be
held in Delta or Plane Guard patterns
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
before final landing clearance. The
starboard (right hand side) Delta Pattern
for all ships is flown at 300 feet between
the 045 and 110 degree radial relative to
the BRC. Occasionally, a port (left hand
side) Delta may be assigned and is flown
in a similar fashion on the port side of
the ship.
•• Standard Helicopter Landing
Patterns: (1) The standard landing
pattern (Charlie pattern) is the Case I
VMC helicopter landing pattern. The
landing patterns for all ship types are
essentially the same. Principal
differences to plan for are flight deck
elevations and obstructions in proximity
to the landing area that become factors
in transitioning from the approach to
landing profile. The Charlie pattern is
flown at 300 feet at 80 knots indicated
airspeed. The landing approach starts not
later than on the downwind leg abeam
the intended point of landing. The left
or right turn to final will be made to
intercept the 45 degree line at the 90
degree position for ships with offset
landing centerlines, or to intercept the
ship’s wake for an up-the-stern final
approach. The approach is then
continued straight in to the spot for
landing. Annex B-A depicts the typical
landing pattern and control zones and
restrictions for the amphibious assault
ship as well as the landing platform
helicopter, general purpose amphibious
assault ship, and/or general purpose
amphibious assault ship (with internal
dock) class ships, which is a slight
modification to the approach used for
smaller, single-spot ships. Landing a
helicopter on a spot to the immediate
front of another helicopter should be
avoided whenever possible.
WARNING
When helicopters approach on the 45
degree bearing to land immediately in
front of a spot occupied by another
helicopter (on LHD/LHA/LPH class
ships), rotor clearances (main and tail)
between the two aircraft during the
final portion of a 45 degree approach
are significantly reduced.
(2) When approaching a spot
immediately in front of a spot occupied
by another helicopter, the final portion
of the approach on the 45 degree bearing
should terminate at a point directly abeam
the intended landing spot. From this
point the final transition is flown by
sliding sideways to a hover over the
landing spot. The landing should be
made by the pilot in the right seat. (3)
The Charlie pattern and the Helicopter
Night Case I recovery pattern are the
standard Case I night helicopter landing
patterns. The air officer shall ensure that
all airborne aircraft and the squadron duty
officer are informed when changing from
one night landing pattern to another.
Simultaneous use of the Charlie and the
Night Case I recovery patterns is not
authorized. (4) On multi-spot ships,
completion of the night recovery pattern
depends on the location of aircraft and
other obstructions on the flight deck. If
the landing spots aft of the assigned
landing spot are clear, the helicopter may
complete a straight-in approach over the
stern and air-taxi to the landing spot.
When there are obstructions between the
stern and the landing spot, the air officer
shall direct the pilot to adjust the pattern
to fly close aboard the port side and
intercept the 45 degree lineup for the
assigned landing spot.
V-9
Chapter V
• Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
Approach Procedures. Helicopter
operations are not normally conducted
when weather is below a ceiling of 500
feet and/or less than 1 mile visibility,
unless a carrier-controlled approach
(CCA) or precision approach radar
(PAR)-equipped facility is available
within the operating range of the
helicopter. ACS primarily use TACAN
or nondirectional beacon (NDB), if
equipped, for approaches under
instrument conditions. (See Appendix B,
“Control Areas and Approach Charts.”)
The emergency low visibility approach
(ELVA) and the smokelight approach are
available for use under emergency
conditions when a CCA or PARequipped facility is not available and
weather at the ship is below minimums
for TACAN or NDB a p p r o a c h e s .
(See Figures B-C-1, B-C-2, and B-C-3
f o r E LVA p a t t e r n s , s m o k e l i g h t
procedures, and emergency marshal
patterns.)
Note
NDB approaches are based on very high
frequency (VHF) or direction finder UHF
and/or direction finding (DF) equipment.
Aircraft must be properly equipped to
conduct VHF or DF approaches to use
the NDB overhead approach.
•• Case Arrivals. Arrivals to aviation
and amphibious aviation assault ships are
divided into the following cases. (1)
Case I. Visual Descent and Approach.
Weather minimum 1000-foot ceiling and
3 miles visibility. Pilots will report “ship
in sight” when visual contact is made
with the ship. The HDC approach
control will switch the helicopter to the
tower at 5 miles for landing clearance.
(2) Case II. Controlled Descent and
Visual Approach. Weather minimum
500-foot ceiling and 1 mile visibility.
V-10
Positive control will be used until the
pilot reports “ship in sight.” The HDC
or approach control will be ready to
assume control of Case III recovery if
the weather deteriorates below Case II
minimums. (3) Case III. Case III will
be used whenever weather conditions at
the ship are below Case II minimums
and at night unless otherwise directed.
A straight-in, single-frequency approach
will be provided in all cases. Precision
radar will be used whenever available.
Marshal information is assigned using
TACAN approach charts. Pilots will
adjust patterns to depart the marshal at
the assigned expected approach time.
When the pilot is established on final
approach course, heading and glide
slope information will be passed, if
available.
•• Visual Landing Aids. Availability
of visual landing aids by ship type will
be depicted in the ship’s facility
resume. (See NAWCAD-ENG-7576,
“ S h i p b o a r d Av i a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s
Resume.”) (1) Stabilized Glide Slope
Indicator. The SGSI (Figure V-3)
provides a single bar of green light (1-1/2
degrees), amber light (1 degree), or red light
(6-1/2 degrees). The color of the light
indicates whether the aircraft is above
(green), below (red), or on (amber) the
proper glide slope. An aircraft executing
an SGSI approach would normally
intercept the glide slope path at an altitude
of 350 feet and a distance of 1 mile, and
should fly the amber-red interface. (2)
Horizon Reference System (HRS). The
HRS is a 10 foot electroluminescent bar
designed to be used in the deck
environment to provide an artificial
horizon during night operations. (3)
Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System
(FLOLS). FLOLS is installed aboard
CV-class ships. It is an electro-optical
gyro-stabilized pilot landing aid. The
system presentation is a central amber
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
STABILIZED GLIDE SLOPE INDICATOR
TRICOLOR BEAM
AMBER-RED INTERFACE CROSS REFERENCE*
Distance (nm)
1
3/4
1/2
1/4
Altimeter (feet above water)
350
275
200
125
*SGSI-to-water distance is 45 feet (typical FF/FFG/CG)
Amber-red interface 3 degrees above horizon
1 Degree Amber
1.5 Degrees Green
9 Degrees Total
Horizontal
6.5 Degrees Red
Figure V-3. Stabilized Glide Slope Indicator Tricolor Beam
light (ball) and a green cross bar (datum).
The position of the ball relative to the
datum line is indicative of the aircraft
position relative to the selected glide
slope.
• The Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing
Optical Landing System (V/STOL OLS)
provides glideslope and trend
information to a pilot approach to a hover.
The display is mounted above the deck
on the aft end of the island. Pitch and
roll stabilization compensates for as
much as 3 degrees of the ship pitch and
14 degrees of roll. When the indicator
amber ball of light is lined up with the
two green datum bars, the pilot is on the
proper glideslope. The on-glideslope
indication is set for 3 degrees to bring
the aircraft to the ship’s ramp with the
pilot’s eye approximately 50 feet above
the deck on tramline.
• The indicator display is also light coded.
The lighting code defines the upper and
lower limits of the indicator display,
allowing the sensing of these limits by
going from a normal amber brightness
to a brighter, non-flashing, then flashing
amber, when tending to go out of the top
of the display or to a brighter, nonflashing, then flashing red when tending
V-11
Chapter V
towards the bottom of the display. The
20 degrees horizontal display is oriented
so that the pilot is not distracted by the
V/STOL OLS indicator display as the
aircraft crosses the ramp on the approach
line. At this point, the pilot will lose the
V/STOL OLS indicator and transitions
to the final phase of recovery.
3. Specific Mission Area
Operations
Specific mission area operations or specific
tactics between USA, USN, USMC, USAF,
and USCG helicopters may be further
delineated in tactical memorandums. These
documents are specific in scope and are to be
used in conjunction with this publication.
4. Emission Control
When the use of radio communications
is not authorized because of the EMCON
condition in effect, routine helicopter
operations may be conducted by the use of
visual signals. Helicopter control ships will
notify receiving ships by visual means that
helicopter operations will be conducted with
sufficient lead time to ensure that the receiving
ship will be ready for helicopter arrival. Large
cards displaying the ship’s tactical call,
communication frequency, and hull number
will be used by the control ship to inform the
helicopter pilot of the destination and bearing
and distance (pigeons) to the aircraft
SIGNAL FLAG DISPLAY
Signal Flag Display
Meaning
1. Setting "helicopter
detail"
HOTEL (HOTEL ONE)
at the dip (1/3 mast)
Ship is preparing to conduct
helicopter operations. Display a
red signal in the helo ops area
2. Ready to conduct
helicopter operations
HOTEL (HOTEL ONE)
closed up (full mast)
Ship is ready to conduct
operations. Display a green
signal in helo ops area
3. A delay or interruption
of the evolution
HOTEL (HOTEL ONE)
at the dip (1/3 mast)
A temporary delay in ops. The
landing signal enlisted will give
a waveoff to the helo and a red
signal will be displayed in the
helo ops area
Evolution
4. Helo operations are
complete
HOTEL (HOTEL ONE)
hauled down (no flag)
Ops (transfer) are
complete
HOTEL FLAG (HELO OPS)
White
Red
NOTE: HOTEL flag is displayed on the ship's mast
Figure V-4. Signal Flag Display
V-12
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Departure and Recovery Procedures
destination. Signals shown in Figure V-4
and Appendix F, “Aircraft Handling 5. Military Air Distress
Signals,” will be used for helicopter
Frequency
operations. The controlling ship will guard
the helicopter frequency, and radio
Officers in tactical command (OTCs) will
transmissions will not be authorized unless include in their communications plan the
safety of flight or an emergency situation requirement that all ships with helicopters
requires violating EMCON.
operating will monitor the UHF Guard or
military air distress frequency. This will allow
a. Visual communications are extremely a pilot out of UHF range with the controlling
important to joint shipboard helicopter ship to attempt to communicate with any
operations. Proper use of the HOTEL flag, monitoring ship in the event of an emergency.
deck status lights, and flight deck status
signaling system lamp signals are a valuable 6. General Fueling Procedures
backup to radio communications. In the event
of radio failure, routine helicopter missions
Helicopter fueling operations on ships
can be completed by the use of visual signals. are classified as either cold refueling
(engines off) or hot refueling (rotors
b. An overdue helicopter, unplanned turning or engines operating). Cold
position and intended movement change, refueling may be accomplished by pressure
rapidly deteriorating weather, or other safety- or gravity. Hot refueling is limited to pressure
of-flight factors justify termination of the fueling only.
prescribed peacetime EMCON condition until
the cause for termination is no longer a factor.
a. Type of Fuel. To reduce the hazard of
The ship will be prepared to operate radar, shipboard fires, only fuel with a flash point
TACAN, and radios on short notice.
above 140 degrees fahrenheit is permitted to
be stored aboard ships. JP-5 meets Navy
• Launch. During communications-silent requirements and is naval aviation’s standard fuel.
launch operations, aircrews will Helicopters containing any fuel other than
communicate with the LSE, LSO, or HCO JP-5 will not be hangared or defueled into the
(if required) via intercom or light signals. ship’s fuel system until the helicopter’s fuel
The LSE or LSO will then relay information flashpoint is raised to 140 degrees fahrenheit. For
exceptional circumstances, procedures for
to the tower or helicopter control station.
hangaring helicopters with other than JP-5 may
• Recovery. During communications- be found in NAVAIR-00-80T-106. The
silent recovery operations, aircrews will following procedures should be used to raise the
follow flashing ship’s position lights and/ flashpoint to the desired level:
or mast lights.
• Preferred procedure. Defuel helicopter
completely and refuel with JP-5. Ships
• LSE or LSO. The LSEs or LSOs should
have limited ability to handle hazardous
be present during NVD operations. The
waste; therefore, this procedure should
LSEs or LSOs should use infrared
be done ashore prior to embarking on the
chemical lights or NVD-compatible light
ship.
wands. The signals of “wave off” or
“hold” are still mandatory. When LSEs
• Alternate method. Helicopter should
or LSOs are not required, they may be
burn down to minimum fuel and refuel
used as safety observers.
with JP-5 after landing.
V-13
Chapter V
Neither procedure is guaranteed to raise
the flashpoint. The ship will take fuel
samples and determine flashpoint prior to
hangaring the helicopter. It may be necessary
to repeat the procedures several times.
b. Hot Refueling Aircraft with
Ordnance. Aircraft with ordnance are not
normally hot refueled onboard ships.
When all required HERO precautions have
been met, the ship’s CO may authorize
ordnance-equipped helicopters to be hot
refueled when required by operational
necessity, as defined by the glossary of this
publication.
• Do not discharge aviation fuel or any
hazardous waste overboard without
permission of the ship’s CO.
• In the event of a fuel spill, the fueling
process should be stopped and the fuel
spill cleaned up immediately. Notify the
OOD (on air-capable ships) or aircraft
handler (on AAAS or aviation ship [AS])
following any aviation fuel spill.
• Smoking and open flames are not
permitted within 50 feet of aviation fuel
service systems.
• Avoid breathing aviation fuel fumes.
c. Aviation Fuel Handling Precautions
• Do not handle aviation fuel in open
containers.
• Dispose of fuel-soaked rags as soon as
possible and in accordance with ship’s
hazardous waste disposal plan.
• Only explosion-proof flashlights may be
used in spaces with aviation fuels.
V-14
• Fuel will not be issued for any purpose
other than fueling.
• Wash skin with soap and fresh water as
soon as possible if it comes into contact
with aviation fuel.
• Eye protection is required when handling
aviation fuel.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER VI
AVIATION ORDNANCE
“It is firepower, and firepower that arrives at the right time and place, that
counts in modern war.”
B.H. Liddell Hart
Thoughts on War, 1944
1. Purpose
8023.20 (series) via the appropriate chain
of command and Commander, Naval Sea
This chapter amplifies the information Systems Command (COMNAVSEASYSCOM),
provided in NWP 3-04.1M, “Helicopter for approval.
Operating Procedures for Air Capable Ships,”
CV naval air training and operating 2. Introduction
procedures standardization (NATOPS), and
LPH/LHA/LHD NATOPS when engaged in
The movement, handling, and stowage
supporting joint shipboard aviation ordnance of explosive ordnance carried aboard ships
evolutions, and provides the ship’s CO and and aircraft is inherently dangerous.
aviation detachments with predeployment Therefore, shipboard handling and
requirements and standing operating stowage of explosives and ammunition are
procedures when operating helicopters from governed by the most definitive and
USN and USCG vessels. The necessity to restrictive Department of Defense (DOD)
train for and conduct combat operations regulations and precautions. (See Appendix
requires the acceptance of certain risks that D, “Ordnance,” for permissible stowage
cannot be avoided in the handling of explosive matrix.) Because of the confined environment
weapons. Because weapon-handling onboard ship, what might be considered a
evolutions introduce risk, they require careful relatively minor explosive incident ashore
planning and preparation. Commanding could be catastrophic underway. Safety must
officers will continually weigh the not be jeopardized by the introduction of
requirement to conduct each weapon weapons not designed for shipboard
evolution against additional risk being environment nor the reliance on personnel
interjected and accept only those evolutions unfamiliar with the shipboard
in which the need clearly outweighs the environment. The destructive capacity of
risk. Procedures prescribed are not intended explosives has the potential to severely cripple
to be all-inclusive, but rather a reference guide or destroy a ship and its company in seconds.
to be used by embarked helicopter It is therefore imperative that authorized safety
detachments when assigned to and operating procedures be exercised at all times by
from USN and USCG vessels. All qualified and certified personnel involved in
publications and technical manuals referenced ordnance handling and stowage operations,
are official directives as depicted in NAVSEA and only weapon systems approved for
OP-4, “Ammunition Afloat.” Deviations shipboard use are used (inert warheads will
from stowage and compatibility requirements be used to the maximum extent possible
aboard USN ships will not occur without prior during training). Safety is the responsibility
approval of a waiver or exemption by the of all levels of command, and understanding
CNO. All requests for waivers or exemptions the risk is paramount. Sound knowledge and
will be submitted IAW Chief of Naval a healthy respect for ordnance operations will
Operations Instruction (OPNAVINST) help ensure that safety requirements are met.
VI-1
Chapter VI
The following describe the essential elements or inert) for operations ashore and afloat.
in ensuring safe shipboard aviation ordnance Restrictions are applicable to all Services
operations:
aboard naval vessels.
a. Weapon System Explosive Safety
Review Board (WSESRB). The WSESRB,
designated by the CNO, reviews safety aspects
of weapons or explosive systems and makes
recommendations to the CNO and the
originating Service regarding acceptance or
rejection for use on USN ships. Naval Sea
Instruction (NAVSEAINST) 8020.6 (series),
“Weapon System Explosive Safety Review
Program,” describes the WSESRB program.
The WSESRB is headed by a representative of
COMNAVSEASYSCOM (SEA-06) and
staffed by safety representatives of other
naval commands. Service representatives
participate as required. All weapon systems
and launch platform weapon control
systems employed on ships will be reviewed
by the WSESRB before their use aboard
ship. WSESRB responsibilities include
review of all mechanical, chemical, biological,
and electrical hazards associated with a
weapon system. NAVSEAINST 8020.6
(series), “Weapon System Explosive Safety
Review Program,” provides a list of
information and data required for
consideration by the WSESRB.
b. NAVSEA OP-4, “Ammunition Afloat,”
is a document that prescribes the minimum
safety requirements and regulations for the
issue, receiving, handling, stowage,
surveillance, maintenance, and return of
conventional ammunition along with the
preparation of associated reports by units
afloat and their certification.
c. Commander, Naval Air Systems
Command (COMNAVAIRSYSCOM). CNO
has directed that COMNAVAIRSYSCOM
review all loading procedures and
checklists. COMNAVAIRSYSCOM, through
messages, notices of ammunition
reclassification, and technical publications,
places restrictions on the use of munitions (live
VI-2
3. Responsibilities
Ships designated to support helicopter
detachments involving aviation ordnance
will provide approved stowage areas,
security, and appropriate armament
weapons support equipment (AWSE).
Qualified and certified aviation ordnance
safety supervisors, as identified in paragraph
5, will support all evolutions involving
movement or use of aviation ordnance
munitions and associated materials. Each
Service is responsible for ensuring that the
WSESRB has completed review of all
munitions assigned to the mission.
a. The ship’s CO is responsible for the
following:
• Providing safe ordnance operations and
verification of helicopter detachment and
personnel ordnance certifications.
• Maintaining a technical publications
library of aviation ordnance handling,
safety, and security publications,
checklists, and associated Navy type
command instructions, as listed in Annex
B of Appendix D, “Ordnance.” These
publications will normally be made
available as a predeployment package by
the type commanders (TYCOMs).
• Stowing all ammunition in accordance
with NAVSEA OP-4, “Ammunition
Afloat” and, if required, submitting
waivers for stowage of ammunition and
obtaining approval prior to loading on
board.
• Verifying that all ordnance for use by the
helicopter detachment has been approved
by the WSESRB and reported to the
TYCOM on initial receipt of all ammunition
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aviation Ordnance
accordance with current USN and USMC
brought aboard for the aviation detachment.
programs.
Monthly reports reflecting air detachment
inventory will be submitted until the
b. Helicopter Detachment Responsibilities.
detachment departs. A final report will then
The
detachment OIC is responsible to the
be submitted.
ship’s CO for safe aviation ordnance
• Ensuring that a HERO or EMCON bill operations as they relate to the helicopter
is promulgated before arrival of a detachment.
helicopter detachment. Commanding
• Helicopter detachment personnel will use
officers will ensure that electromagnetic
parent-Service and WSESRB-approved
radiation hazards that have the potential
aircraft system checklists and ordnance
to affect electro-explosive ordnance
loading and downloading procedures.
devices, fuel, and assigned personnel are
controlled during shipboard helicopter
• The OIC is responsible for the
operations. The ship’s HERO or
qualification of assigned detachment
EMCON bill should depict individual
HERO or EMCON conditions to be set
personnel to conduct aviation ordnance
before each specific operational
operations aboard ship. The detachment
condition (e.g., arming or de-arming,
is also responsible for assisting the ship’s
aviation ordnance movements, fueling
ordnance personnel in the handling and
operations).
movement of aviation ordnance and
related materials from the ship’s
magazines to designated assembly,
• Establishing an aviation ordnance
staging or ready service, or flight deck
qualification or certification board in
areas as appropriate.
accordance with Appendix D,
“Ordnance,” to certify the combined ship
or detachment aviation ordnance team
• The OIC is responsible for providing the
(USA and USAF only). When a USMC
ship with an ammunition embarkation
detachment is onboard, qualification or
plan that identifies the types, quantities,
certification will be maintained in
number of pallets, weight, and cube of
Helicopter detachments are responsible to the ship's
CO for safe ordnance operations.
VI-3
Chapter VI
ammunition. The OIC will present ship’s CO. The AOSS responsibilities are
q u a l i f i c a t i o n o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n described in Figure VI-1.
documentation to the ship’s CO when
requested.
6. Conventional Weapons
Safety Assistance Teams
• The OIC is responsible to provide an
inventory of all personal and individual
There are two conventional weapons
weapons.
safety assistance teams; one is assigned to
the Pacific Fleet and one to the Atlantic
• The OIC, upon receipt of the WSESRB Fleet. These teams are composed of specially
list of approved weapons and explosives, trained and experienced ordnance personnel
will certify to the ship’s CO that all who provide assistance to fleet activities in
detachment ordnance meets WSESRB all areas of conventional ordnance handling,
requirements for shipboard operations. stowage, and safety. The teams are available
to make visits to commands during aviation
• The OIC will comply with the ship’s ordnance evolutions and predeployment
qualification or certification board in training involving ordnance. Their
accordance with Appendix D, assistance will be requested by individual
“Ordnance,” to certify the combined ship units requiring or desiring assistance in
or detachment aviation ordnance team any operational or training ordnance evolution.
(USA and USAF only). USMC Requests for assistance v i s i t s should
detachments will comply with current be submitted to the appropriate combatant
directives.
commander. See Commander in Chief,
Atlantic Fleet Instruction 8020.2 (series) and
4. Personnel Qualification and Commander, Naval Surface Force, US
Pacific Fleet Instruction 8023.1 (series).
Certification
All ordnance personnel handling
aviation ordnance will be qualified and
certified in the applicable families of
explosives. The ship’s ordnance qualification
and certification board will certify the ship
and validate the embarked detachment’s
aviation ordnance handling teams. When the
detachment is provided from the USMC,
current directives provide adequate guidance
for the administration of this program.
However, when the detachment is comprised
of USA or USAF personnel, Appendix D,
“Ordnance,” will be used to qualify and certify
personnel.
5. Aviation Ordnance Safety
Supervisors
7. Weapons Handling and
Movement
The number of personnel engaged in
ammunition handling operations will be
limited to the minimum necessary for safe
and efficient performance of work. Ship
or detachment personnel certified by the ship’s
CO are responsible for the movement of
ordnance from a ship’s magazine to designated
assembly and buildup areas (detachment
aviation ordnance personnel may assist as
necessary). Aviation ordnance detachment
personnel are required to handle and move
all weapons from assembly and buildup areas
to aircraft and return to assembly or buildup
area.
The aviation ordnance safety supervisor
(AOSS) is the direct representative of the
VI-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aviation Ordnance
AVIATION ORDNANCE
SAFETY SUPERVISOR
RESPONSIBILITIES
...be assigned by the combatant
commander and provided by the
appropriate type commander
...be a qualified and certified
shipboard aviation ordnance safety
supervisor (E-6 or above)
...be thoroughly familiar with the
provisions of this and all other
instructions promulgating explosive
safety regulations
...act as a staff adviser to the ship's
commanding officer on matters
relating to aviation explosive safety
and be a member of the ship's
aviation qualification and
certification board
...act as a safety observer and not
assist in loading, arming, or other
ordnance evolutions
...act, in the absence of an
ordnance officer, as the senior
Naval enlisted aviation ordnance
person
...have no authority to waive or
alter safety regulations or to permit
violations of such regulations by
others
...ensure that units do not conduct
joint shipboard ordnance evolutions
unless a qualified and certified
aviation ordnance safety supervisor
is present
8. Weapons Staging and Ready
Service
Staging areas designated by
COMNAVSEASYSCOM will be used for
ready service only. Weapons located within
staging areas will be loaded on authorized or
approved AWSE configured for its own
particular weapons configuration. All
aviation ordnance within the staging area will
be positioned and readily available to afford
adequate time for safe aircraft loading.
Unprotected stowage in the staging and ready
service area should be kept to the absolute
minimum. Long-term stowage will be
restricted to primary magazines.
9. Weapons Assembly and
Disassembly
All aviation weapons unpacking, assembly
and disassembly, loading, and unloading will
be done in accordance with NAVSEA OP-4,
“Ammunition Afloat,” NAVSEA OP-3565/
NAVAIR 16-1-159/NAVLEX 0967-LP-6246010 (Electromagnetic Radiation Hazards
Manual), and appropriate checklists and
technical manuals. Ordnance will be
assembled and disassembled and loaded
into launchers and magazines only by
personnel who have been properly
qualified and certified in the type or family
of ordnance with which they are working.
The assembly area will be maintained HERO
SAFE whenever HERO SUSCEPTIBLE or
HERO UNSAFE ordnance is present. If
HERO SUSCEPTIBLE or UNSAFE
ordnance must be moved outside normal
HERO SAFE assembly areas, the ship’s
operations officer will ensure that the
appropriate HERO or EMCON condition has
been set. A visual display indicating the
HERO or EMCON condition in effect will
be prominently displayed so that assembly
personnel can readily ascertain HERO or
EMCON condition status.
Figure VI-1. Aviation Ordnance Safety
Supervisor Responsibilities
VI-5
Chapter VI
10.
Loading and Downloading
Aircraft loading and downloading will
be accomplished in accordance with the
approved conventional weapons checklist
for the specific aircraft and weapons. The
flight deck is the only approved area for
loading and downloading aircraft with
forward-firing weapons. Loading in the
hangar is only authorized in accordance with
Appendix D, “Ordnance.” All aircraft being
loaded with forward-firing ordnance, e.g.,
rockets, missiles, and guns, will be positioned
so that accidental discharge will minimize
danger to personnel, the ship, or other aircraft.
Mechanical latching during loading
operations on aircraft, racks, or launchers will
be completed before aircraft engines are started
or electrical power is applied. Downloading of
aircraft will not commence until the aircraft
engines or rotors are secured. Simultaneous
fueling and ordnance-loading operations are
prohibited unless authorized by the ship’s CO.
Hot reloading, or reloading weapons with the
rotor system or engine turning, is normally
prohibited aboard ship.
11.
Hangaring Aircraft With
Loaded Armament
Hangaring of alert-loaded aircraft may be
authorized by the ship’s CO when operational
necessity dictates the acceptance of the
additional risk. Aircraft loaded with rockets
and/or missiles will be positioned so that
accidental discharge will minimize danger to
personnel, the ship, or other aircraft.
de-arming safety pins will be removed only
after the aircraft rotors are engaged and
the aircraft is ready for launch, and they
will be reinstalled prior to rotor
disengagement. Aircraft will not be fueled
and armed simultaneously unless authorized
by the ship’s CO. Arming will be
accomplished after fueling operations have
been completed. Arming and safety signals
used will be in accordance with Appendix F,
“Aircraft Handling Signals.” All Master Arm
weapon system switches will be in the SAFE/
OFF or normal position before launch and
recovery as required. All weapons will be
safed whenever in the ship’s control zone.
13.
Maintenance on OrdnanceLoaded Aircraft
General maintenance will not be
conducted on ordnance-loaded aircraft.
Routine servicing and minor maintenance to
ready the aircraft for the next launch may be
conducted with the following restrictions.
a. Weapons will be made safe to the
maximum degree possible as specified in
applicable weapons and stores checklists.
b. As illustrated in Figure VI-2 a
“WARNING — WEAPONS LOADED”
placard must be prominently displayed in the
cockpit of aircraft loaded with weapons.
When displayed, the maintenance or servicing
requiring application of electrical power is
limited to the following:
• Refueling.
12.
Arming and De-arming
Ordnance teams assigned to arm or de-arm
weapon systems will position themselves so
as to accomplish this mission and avoid
delaying launching and/or recovery
evolutions. Arming and de-arming of
weapons will be conducted using the current
weapons and stores arming checklists or
applicable Service regulations. Arming or
VI-6
• Replacement or checkout of
communications, sighting, and
navigational equipment.
• Engine or rotor turn up for checkout.
• Flight control and hydraulic system
checks.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aviation Ordnance
MAINTENANCE OR SERVICING RESTRICTIONS
WARNING -- WEAPONS
When displayed in the cockpit, the maintenance or servicing requiring
application of electrical power is limited to:
Refueling
Replacement or checkout of communications, sighting, and
navigational equipment
Engine or rotor turn up for checkout
Flight control and hydraulic system checks
Replacement or checkout of engine performance or flight
instruments
Figure VI-2. Maintenance or Servicing Restrictions
• Replacement or checkout of engine “Ordnance,” for minimum fast cookoff
times). In the case of fire or danger of a
performance or flight instruments.
fire near a weapons staging or ready
c. Maintenance that requires application of service area, the staged weapons will be
electrical power to armament or weapons moved to a safe area or jettisoned over the
release and control circuitry will not be side of the ship as the situation dictates.
performed while weapons are loaded or being Explosive ordnance disposal personnel or
loaded or downloaded. Aircraft that require other ordnance-qualified personnel will take
extensive maintenance (e.g., engine removal, the necessary on-scene action to dispose of
blade removal, or jacking) are not considered the most hazardous ordnance first.
readily available for flight and will be
b. Unexpended Weapons. Weapons and
downloaded.
stores not authorized for recovery are
delineated in Appendix D, “Ordnance.”
14. Emergency Procedures
Hung or unexpended weapons not
Every emergency situation is different and authorized for recovery must be jettisoned.
all contingencies cannot be anticipated. When this cannot be accomplished, a divert
However, certain general guidelines are to a shore installation will be made if feasible.
appropriate for shipboard aviation The following guidelines will be used when
recovering aircraft must return to the ship with
ordnance evolutions.
hung weapons:
a. Shipboard Fires. Shipboard fires are
• In-flight Procedures. Pilots will
most hazardous and require immediate action
accomplish the following before entering
to preclude undue damage to the ship and
the ship’s landing pattern:
embarked aircraft (see Appendix D,
VI-7
Chapter VI
•• Safe all weapons systems;
•• Visually check to ensure ordnance
fired was actually expended and to verify
the remaining ordnance is still properly
loaded on the aircraft;
•• Attempt to jettison hung ordnance;
and
•• Notify the ship of any ordnance still
loaded on the aircraft and whether it is
hung or not.
• Shipboard Procedures
•• Air officer or HCO notify the bridge
and all other appropriate stations.
•• Set the proper HERO condition.
•• De-arming crews stand by on station.
•• Before recovery, announce “Stand by
to recover helicopter with hung ordnance
on spot. Hung ordnance is (amount and
type). All personnel remain well clear
of the flight deck area.”
•• Ensure that rapid response firefighting
equipment is manned and ready.
•• Ensure that the ordnance safety
supervisor and the unit de-arming team
are on station before recovery.
•• Ensure that all aircraft on the flight
deck have secured high frequency (HF)
and frequency modulation transmitters,
IFF, TACAN, and radar altimeters.
•• Commence downloading of hung
ordnance only after the aircraft engines
or rotors are secured, aircraft power is
off, and the de-arm checklist is
completed.
• Ship’s Air Officer or HCO
•• Clear landing spot for recovery.
VI-8
•• Before jettisoning any ordnance from
the ship, receive approval from the CO.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER VII
HAZARDS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TO
ORDNANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, AND
ELECTROMAGNETIC VULNERABILITY
“In meditation, all dangers should be seen; in execution, none. . .”
Attributed to Francis Bacon
1561-1626
1. Introduction
The trend in radar and communications
equipment toward greater radiated power
has resulted in growing concern with
electromagnetic radiation hazards to
ordnance and the potential upset, degradation
(also called dudding), or damage to avionics
and armament systems. These hazards are
created when electro-explosive devices
installed in modern ordnance are initiated by
spurious electromagnetic energy emitted by
microelectronic circuits and components
installed in modern aircraft and weapon
systems.
2. Standards and Procedures
The shipboard standards for hazards of
electromagnetic radiation to ordnance,
ele c t r o m a g n e t i c c o m p a t i b i l i t y, and
electromagnetic vulnerability (EMV) are
MIL-STD-1385 (series) and MIL-E-6051
(series), respectively. Compliance with
these standards is established through
testing by the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent
River, Maryland, and the Naval Surface
Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia. USN
and USCG aircraft are tested and
discrepancies corrected as part of the
shipboard qualification process. When
joint operations are contemplated, unit
commanders will consult the appropriate
tables to determine which HERO or EMV
vulnerabilities exist and set HERO and
EMCON conditions accordingly. In cases
where data does not exist, prudent
choices regarding restrictive HERO and
EMCON conditions will be required.
Becau se these choices may be
operationally debilitating, it is imperative
that aircraft types with the potential for
shipboard deployment be identified and
tested before embarkation. Coordination
for testing can be accomplished through
COMNAVAIRSYSCOM (PMA251D).
VII-1
Chapter VII
Intentionally Blank
VII-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER VIII
SAFETY
“Out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety.”
William Shakespeare
I King Henry IV
1. Responsibility for Safety
The CO of the ship has supervisory
responsibility for the safety of embarked
helicopters at all times. The helicopter unit
CO or detachment OIC and the individual
aircraft pilots are directly responsible for
the safety of assigned aircraft and
personnel. In questionable circumstances, the
unit CO or detachment OIC will make the final
determination concerning flight safety of
aircraft, crew, and passengers.
2. General Safety Measures
shoes, flotation devices, long-sleeved shirts
or flight deck jerseys, and long trousers.
Reflective tape will be applied to headgear
and/or the upper body area of flight deck
personnel clothing or equipment. All
personnel on exposed decks will remove their
hats (except for approved fastened safety
helmets) while helicopter operations are being
conducted. All personnel on the flight deck
must be trained to take cover immediately on
command of the flight deck officer, air officer,
LSE, or LSO.
c. Personnel working near helicopters must
be instructed to observe aircraft carefully for
any sign of malfunction (such as smoke or
leaking fluids) and report any such
condition to the helicopter crew, or if the
helicopter is airborne, to the flight deck
officer or air officer.
The squadron CO or detachment OIC
and ship personnel will evaluate the
hazards involved in all phases of shipboard
helicopter operations and develop
appropriate safety measures. Shipboard
personnel will be trained in safe operating
d. Personnel are allowed to transit the area
procedures before commencement of
under the rotor arc of an operating helicopter
helicopter operations.
only with the permission of the pilot (who
a. During flight operations, only those will signal the LSE or LSO before permitting
personnel whose presence is required will be such passage). For operating helicopters
allowed in the flight deck area. All other configured with a tail rotor, persons transiting
from one side to the other will do so via the
personnel will remain clear or below deck.
nose of the aircraft. The use of a guide to
move personnel around turning aircraft should
WARNING
be considered.
Under no circumstances will flash
e. Pilots of helicopters with rotors engaged
pictures be taken of the helicopter
should maintain eye contact with LSEs or
because the flash may temporarily
LSOs.
blind the pilots.
f. Helicopters shall not be launched or
b. As shown in Figure VIII-1, personnel
engaged in flight operations will wear recovered or perform rotor engagement or
approved head and ear protection, sound disengagement with the ship in a turn, unless
suppressors, safety goggles, steel toe safety specifically directed to by the ship’s CO.
VIII-1
Chapter VIII
FLIGHT DECK CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT
Sound
Suppressors
Approved Head and
Ear Protection
Safety Goggles
Reflective Tape
Flotation
Devices
Long-Sleeved
Shirts or Flight
Deck Jerseys
Long Trousers
Steel-Toe Safety
Shoes
Figure VIII-1. Flight Deck Clothing and Equipment
g. A helicopter will not be flown over
another aircraft when landing or taking off.
3. Passengers
a. Arriving aircraft containing passengers
h. Head and ear protection, along with life (passengers are personnel on board the aircraft
vests, will be worn by all personnel working that are not the primary aircrew) will notify
on elevated sections of the aircraft.
the ship upon initial contact that they have
VIII-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Safety
passengers to unload. Upon landing, the pilot
will keep the passengers on board until a guide
is in position to escort the passengers from
the aircraft across the flight deck. Passengers
should keep protective headgear and hearing
protection on until clear of the flight deck area.
The guide will return headgear and sound
protection to the aircraft, if required.
b. Passengers departing the ship will
muster and manifest with the ship’s air
department. A guide will escort passengers
to the flight deck and the aircraft. Head
4. Foreign Object Damage
All-weather deck areas, and particularly
the flight deck, will be inspected before and
monitored throughout all helicopter
operations to ensure that they are clear of
foreign object damage (FOD). FODproducing material includes rags, paper, line,
ball caps, hardware, and other matter that can
be caught by air currents and can subsequently
cause damage to the aircraft or injure
personnel. Ground support equipment,
forklifts, tiedown equipment, and chocks will
Personnel working near helicopters must be properly equipped and must
adhere to the appropriate safety measures.
protection, flotation devices, and sound be properly secured to prevent missile hazards.
protection will be provided to the passengers Trash will not be dumped or burned during
prior to being escorted onto the flight deck. helicopter operations. External transfer of
mail is prohibited. In addition, smoking is
WARNING
not authorized except in designated spaces,
to prevent cigarette butts from reaching the
Passengers are not to wear salt water
flight deck.
-activated flotation devices.
5. Helicopter Equipment
c. Night Overwater Passenger Transfer.
Hazards
Night overwater passenger flights will be
Equipment aboard helicopters can
conducted for reasons of operational necessity
only. This does not preclude movement of present dangers to ship personnel. For
troops or personnel in support of operational instance, the ALQ-157 electronic countermeasures
equipment on MH-53J helicopters emits
exercises.
VIII-3
Chapter VIII
invisible infrared light energy; personnel
should stay at least 12 feet from the
transmitters and not look into the filter
windows. In addition, the infrared lamp
operates at extremely high temperatures which
makes the external surfaces of the covert filter
and transmitter very hot. These surfaces
should be allowed to cool for 30 minutes
before personnel are allowed to handle the
transmitters.
can maneuver the ship to achieve the most
stable deck. All requests to respot aircraft on
AAA will be coordinated through the aircraft
handling officer. Positive communications
shall be maintained between the OOD and
flight deck officer while moving aircraft.
b. Helicopters with rotors engaged will not
be pushed or towed on the flight deck.
Helicopters are not allowed to be
repositioned by taxiing on the flight deck.
6. Weapon Hazards
c. The following personnel are required for
a. Helicopters parked or operating in the helicopter movement:
vicinity of ship’s weapons are subject to
damage from rocket blast, gunfire
• Director (1) (with whistle or other
communications capability).
concussion, and FOD damage from
materials scattered when ship’s weapons
• Brake rider (1) (if aircraft is so equipped).
are fired. All appropriate measures should
be taken to preclude the firing of any weapon
• Steering bar operator or tow tractor driver
in the vicinity of the helicopter operating area
(as applicable).
when an aircraft is parked on deck or when
flight operations are in progress. When ship’s
• Main landing gear chock or chain men
weapons firing is anticipated, aircraft will be
(2).
positioned outside the weapons blast or
concussion range. If this is not possible,
• Tail or nose safety observers or chain men
aircraft should be secured as far as is practical
(1 or 2).
from the firing mounts, with doors and hatches
open.
• Pushers (as required).
b. Procedures for the custody and security
WARNING
of personal small arms (i.e., 9mm and .38 cal.
pistols and M16 rifles) will be in accordance
Only essential personnel should be
with the ship’s current small arms (weapons)
instruction.
involved with aircraft movement; all
others must remain clear. The move
team shall be briefed concerning their
7. Aircraft Movement and
duties and responsibilities, maintain a
Respotting
safe distance from the moving
a. OOD approval is required before
helicopter, and have the prescribed
helicopter movement. The ship will
equipment.
maintain a steady course during aircraft
respots except when faced with an emergency.
d. The director will maneuver the aircraft
Personnel effecting aircraft movement will be at a slow and controllable rate of speed (no
prepared to promptly secure the aircraft should faster than a person can walk). When the ship
the ship be required to maneuver is unstable, consideration should be given to
unexpectedly. Timely requests for permission alternately attaching and removing the chains
to move aircraft are necessary so that the OOD during helicopter movement. A brake check
VIII-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Safety
f. Explosive Mishap Reporting. Explosive
will be performed immediately after initial
mishaps
will be reported in accordance with
helicopter movement on all aircraft so
the
governing
directives of each Service
equipped.
involved. Copies will be provided as
necessary to all concerned.
8. Helicopter Fire Party
The fire party is the ship’s primary
means of combatting a flight deck fire. The
fire party is composed of two initial response
aqueous film forming foam (light foam) hose
teams and a backup team. The fire party will
be composed of ship’s company personnel
during initial or transient operations; however,
during sustained operations it may be
augmented with helicopter detachment
personnel.
9. Mishap Investigation
a. Navy and Marine Aircraft. Naval
aircraft mishap investigation procedures are
in OPNAVINST 3750.6 (series).
b. Coast Guard Aircraft. USCG mishap
investigation procedures are in COMDTINST
M5100.47 (series).
c. A r m y A i rc r a f t . USA m i s h a p
investigation procedures are in AR 385-40.
d. Air Force Aircraft. USAF mishap
investigation procedures are in AFI 91-204
(safety) and AFI 51-503 (accident).
e. Judge Advocate General (JAG) Manual
or Legal (USCG) Investigation. In the event
of an aircraft mishap, the commanding officer
of the host ship will initiate a JAG manual
or legal investigation where required. If
unusual circumstances require, a senior in the
chain of command may assume that
responsibility. If a mishap should occur during
transient operations, the responsibility for
JAG manual or legal investigation remains
with the commanding officer of the aviation
unit.
10.
Emergency Procedures
Each emergency situation is unique.
Therefore, advance formulation of procedures
may not hold in every instance, but the
following general guidelines are appropriate
for shipboard helicopter operations.
a. General Information
• Helicopter emergency information will
be passed to the flight deck crew and fire
party either over the 1MC or the flight
deck crew announcing system,
whichever is most expedient.
• When the flight deck has an emergency
and a crash alarm is sounded,
unnecessary personnel will be cleared
from the flight deck and surrounding
area.
• During any emergency, the first
consideration of the ship should be to
close the distance to the helicopter and
prepare for immediate recovery. If the
emergency is single engine or power loss,
optimum relative wind for recovery is
required. If a flight control malfunction
is indicated, a stable flight deck with
acceptable winds is warranted. Specific
actions are outlined in aircraft flight
manuals.
b. Airborne Aircraft Emergencies.
These fall into three basic categories: (1)
cases that cause an aircraft to ditch or
crash, (2) cases that require an immediate
landing, and (3) cases that require a
precautionary shipboard landing.
VIII-5
Chapter VIII
• In the event of a crashed or ditched
aircraft, the ship will:
•• Plot the position of the crash or
ditching;
•• Close on the crash site at best speed;
•• Assemble the rescue boat or rescue
helicopter team(s) as appropriate;
•• Turn to BRC and adjust speed to provide
a steady deck 2 minutes before helicopter
arrival (3 minutes for night or IMC).
•• Clear all unnecessary personnel from
the flight deck area before establishing a
green deck. The crash or fire party will
move as far away as possible from the
landing site but remain at a quick access
location, ready to use crash, fire, or rescue
equipment as directed.
•• Station and brief additional lookouts;
•• Recover personnel;
•• Recover aircraft or debris; and
•• Execute SAR plans in accordance
with Joint Pub 3-50, “National Search
and Rescue Manual Vol I: National
Search and Rescue System,” and other
applicable directives.
• Certain aircraft emergencies may
necessitate an immediate landing. If an
immediate shipboard landing is required,
the ship will execute the following
procedures:
•• Maintain radar or radio contact if
possible. If all contact is lost, commence
crash or ditch procedures.
•• Head for the helicopter at best speed.
•• Obtain amplifying information from
the pilot regarding the nature of the
emergency and intentions.
•• Set emergency flight quarters.
Emergency flight quarters entail, at a
minimum, expeditiously stationing both
fire parties, stationing the pilot rescue
detail, and setting material condition
ZEBRA in the effected part of the ship.
•• Request required assistance from
accompanying units.
VIII-6
•• Chock and tie down the aircraft (as
for a normal recovery) once it is resting
safely on the deck and ordnance or
weapons have been de-armed.
• Situations in which continued flight
presents a moderate hazard to the aircraft
or crew, but the aircraft’s condition is
stable, require a precautionary landing.
Such a situation is an emergency when
declared; however, proper preparation for
recovery is more important than
immediate termination of the flight. The
ship will be alert to the possibility that
the situation may deteriorate such that an
immediate landing is required. The ship
will execute the following procedures:
•• Maintain radar or radio contact.
•• Set flight quarters as soon as practical
without interfering with urgent ship
evolutions. The fire parties will be fully
formed and additional alert conditions
will be set as dictated by the circumstances.
•• Turn to BRC and adjust speed to
recover aircraft at the earliest opportunity.
• Engine Failure or Power Loss. Generally
speaking, multi-engine helicopters can fly
safely when one engine has failed, but their
ability to hover is very limited. Helicopters
experiencing engine power loss must be
afforded the maximum amount of available
deck space for a run-on or no-hover landing,
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Safety
along with optimum relative wind. A
waveoff may be impossible; therefore,
approach and landing should be planned and
executed with the utmost care.
c. Flight Deck Emergencies
• Helicopter Engine Fires on Deck. The
LSE or LSO will be alert at all times for
fire and will give the appropriate hand
signals to the pilot if fire indications are
observed. If the fire is internal to the
engine, generally the operator will
attempt to extinguish the fire by motoring
the engine. If the fire is external to the
engine, the engine will be secured and
firefighting efforts initiated. Initially,
installed aircraft systems or carbon
dioxide should be used. Large or
persistent fires will require the use of drychemical and/or foam agents.
be maneuvered for an optimum
combination of relative wind and deck
stability.
• Hung Droop Stops. If one of the
mechanical droop stops fails to seat
during disengagement, the LSE or LSO
will signal the pilot to reengage the rotor
system. Disengagement should be
reattempted using a different control
position and relative wind combination.
If this fails, the flight deck area around
the aircraft will be evacuated of all
nonessential personnel. The pilot will
communicate the requirements dictated
by aircraft-type operational manuals to
the tower and the LSE or LSO as
appropriate, and make a shutdown in
accordance with aircraft-type operational
manuals.
• Aircraft Jettison. If a situation arises
• Other Aircraft Fires. Shipboard fires
that requires a damaged or burning
are most hazardous and immediate action
helicopter be jettisoned overboard, the
is required to prevent even the smallest
decision to jettison and selection of
of fires from growing and doing extensive
procedures to use will be made by the
damage. In the event of an aircraft fire, the
ship’s CO or OOD.
first priorities are rescue of personnel and
the prevention of ordnance detonation. All 11. Aircraft Emergencies
possible steps will be taken to minimize
damage to aircraft and the ship consistent
The nature of some emergencies requires
with these priorities and to ensure prompt priority and/or diversionary measures. The
ultimate resolution of these emergencies
control of the fire.
involves a command decision, based on the
• Landing Gear Emergencies. If a type of emergency and weather conditions in
helicopter returns with inoperative the recovery area. All pertinent details must
landing gear, maintenance personnel be collected that might aid in the evaluation
should inspect the aircraft in a low hover of an emergency, and the command and other
(see Appendix F, “Aircraft Handling interested agencies must be kept properly
Signals,” for appropriate emergency informed. SAR action should be executed
hand signals) and attempt to lower the when reasonable doubt exists as to the safety
landing gear manually after the of the aircraft. From a control standpoint,
aircraft is properly grounded. If this aircraft emergencies fall into four categories.
fails, the aircraft may be landed with
a. Communication Failure s . Lost
suitable portions of the structure
resting on a stack of pallets, preferably communications emergency squawks are
banded together, secured to the deck and shown in Figures VIII-2 through VIII-4 and
padded with mattresses. The ship should are as follows:
VIII-7
Chapter VIII
• Mode III. An aircraft with radio
difficulties (transmitter and/or receiver)
should squawk Mode III Code 7600 or
emergency Code 7700 as appropriate.
(Code 7700 first, followed by Code 7600,
will assist in alerting approach control.)
to “lock up” aircraft equipped with AN/
APR-39, 1 minute on and 1 minute off
cycle.
b. Navigational aid failures.
c. Crewmember injuries.
• Mode I. The following codes will
d. Other aircraft systems failure.
amplify difficulties in conjunction with
a Code 7600 or 7700. No receiver will
mean that the primary UHF, auxiliary 12. Basic Emergency
receiver, and UHF and/or VHF Guard
Procedures
receiver are inoperative. If any receiver
is operative, the controller is capable of
Emergencies where navigation aids and/or
controlling the aircraft using IFF standby communications are available should be
squawks and/or aircraft turns to handled according to procedures prescribed
acknowledge receipt of instructions.
in this publication. Emergency procedures
for aircraft system failures are covered in the
• USCG medium-endurance cutter 210 appropriate aircraft flight operations manual.
and icebreaker 400 class USCG cutters
are unable to interrogate IFF 13. Lost Aircraft Procedures
transponders.
When the position of an aircraft is in doubt,
• If aircraft is in radar contact and lost the controller must immediately commence
communications, use fire control radar the following procedure:
HYDRAULIC ELECTRICAL FUEL OXYGEN ENGINE
(HEFOE) SQUAWK TABLE
Mode I
First Digit
Mode III
Second Digit
0 - OK
1 - Hydraulic
1 - No Receiver, TACAN
OK
2 - Electrical
2 - No Receiver, ADF OK 7700/7600
3 - Fuel
3 - Receiver OK, no
NAVAID(s)
(with HEFOE code, use
Code 7700)
4 - Oxygen
5 - Engine
Figure VIII-2. Hydraulic Electrical Fuel Oxygen Engine (HEFOE) Squawk Table
VIII-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Safety
ASSISTANCE REQUIRED SQUAWKS TABLE
All 7 Mode I squawks indicate no receiver and no NAVAID(s)
Mode I
70 - Desire tanker to join
Mode III
Fuel onboard (up to 7,500 lb)
71 - Intend bingo
72 - Desire aircraft to assist
Figure VIII-3. Assistance Required Squawks Table
LIMITED COMMUNICATIONS SQUAWKS TABLE
Requires a 1-minute cycling of Mode III from
7600 or 7700 to desired channel
Mode I
60 - Auxiliary Receiver
channel __________________
Mode III
Channel usable (0100-2000, and
2100 = Guard)
61 - No NAVAID(s). Receiver on
channel _________________
62 - TACAN ok, Receiver on
channel _________________
Figure VIII-4. Limited Communications Squawks Table
a. If there is no contact:
• Obtain radar and radio contact as soon
as possible. Take control of the circuit
in use and use relay aircraft. Continue to
send information in the blind and search
all IFF modes. Commence communications
search and monitor guard channel (243.0
MHz) for emergency aircraft calls.
• Call for TACAN and UHF or DF and
electronic warfare support measures
watch to be set immediately.
• Alert the command for the possible use
of other aids to lost aircraft, such as black
smoke, vertical searchlights, antiaircraft
bursts, starshells, fire control tracking
balloons, energized prebriefed sonobuoy
channel, and other navigation aids.
• Inform the OTC.
b. Once contact is regained:
• Keep an up-to-date estimate of the
aircraft’s fuel state.
• Vector the aircraft to nearest airfield or
back to the force.
VIII-9
Chapter VIII
• Ensure that the position of aircraft is
b. If an approach is mandatory, the pilot
recorded.
may execute one of the following procedures,
as applicable:
• Check fuel state.
• Navigation aids failure. The ship will
• Vector nearest aircraft to act as escort if
vector the aircraft for a radar-controlled
necessary.
approach, except the pilot will continue
descent until visual contact is achieved
• Have the aircraft gain altitude, fuel state
with the ship or wake.
permitting, if communications are still
unsatisfactory.
• Communications failure. The pilot will
execute the appropriate approach as
outlined above.
14. Lost Communications
During Instrument Flight
Rules
If under IFR conditions, the pilot will
follow procedures set forth in the prebriefed
assigned marshal or TACAN approach and
plan the flight in order to commence the
approach at the prebriefed recovery time.
c. All ships at sea will monitor UHF Guard
frequency because a pilot may attempt to
communicate using personal survival radio.
Transmission may be made to an aircraft
through voice channels available on some
NAVAIDS (instrument landing system, NDB,
VHF omnidirectional range station, or UHF).
15.
17.
Lost Communications
While on Filed Flight Plan
Emergency Landings
a. As much deck as possible will be made
The pilot will proceed in accordance with available for emergency helicopter
prescribed air traffic control procedures. landings. The senior helicopter squadron or
unit officer on board should take station in
the PriFly, air operations control center, HDC,
16. Communications or
or CIC as appropriate. The optimum relative
Navigation Aids Failure
wind should be determined, and the ship
During Approach
maneuvered as necessary. Once the aircraft
In the event of communications failure, if is on final approach, it is imperative that the
navigation aids are available, the pilot will ship hold a steady course.
continue the approach to the missed approach
point (MAP). If VMC exist at the MAP, the
b. Certain types of emergencies may permit
aircraft commander will decide whether to use of an LSE or LSO, in which case the
land the aircraft. If VMC do not exist at the position should be such as to minimize
MAP, or if in the aircraft commander’s exposure to danger. The LSE or LSO will
judgment a safe landing cannot be completed, give a waveoff only in case of fouled deck or
the aircraft will execute the missed approach if directed to do so by the tower or bridge.
and proceed via parent Service directives or
as briefed.
18. Emergency Signals
a. If navigation aids failure is experienced,
The aircraft will squawk IFF emergency as
the ship will vector the helicopter for a radar- appropriate. The CIC will be alert for IFF
controlled approach.
emergency squawk and immediately alert the
VIII-10
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Safety
bridge. Priority will be given to effected on CVs equipped with operating sodium
aircraft and all emergency procedures used. vapor floodlights, and when the after portion
of the flight deck is not clear, helicopters may
make an approach using the OLS and
19. Aircraft Carrier
centerline of the angle deck. After reaching
Procedures
the fantail, and when the deck and LSE or
The following safety procedures apply LSO have been visually acquired, the
specifically to operations from aircraft helicopter can then slide left, fly up the port
carriers:
side, and slide right to the landing spot on the
flight deck under LSE direction.
a. Night and IMC helicopter recoveries
should be conducted to the angled deck
b. Helicopters will not cross within 5 miles
from astern, using the OLS with the wind of the ship’s bow or stern without specific
oriented to the centerline of the angled deck clearance from the tower or controlling unit
and within the wind envelope of the particular because of the hazards associated with fixedaircraft model. During night VMC recoveries wing launch and recovery operations.
VIII-11
Chapter VIII
Intentionally Blank
VIII-12
Joint Pub 3-04.1
CHAPTER IX
LOGISTICS
“The onus of supply rests equally on the giver and the taker.”
George S. Patton, Jr.
War As I Knew It, 1947
1. Background
See Figure IX-1.
The purpose of this chapter is to outline
general procedures for providing material
support for helicopter units assigned to
joint operations. The scope and details of
the implementation of these procedures are
highly dependent on the duration and
circumstances of a particular exercise or
mission. A short-duration detachment will
usually draw the bulk of its supply material
from a parent-Service-provided packup kit.
Resupply of drawn material will occur on an
as-needed basis. Material support for
detachments of longer duration will be better
served by establishing an independent unit
identity, especially when shipboard operations
will be conducted outside the umbrella of the
parent-Service support infrastructure.
Establishment of independent unit identity
LOGISTIC CONSIDERATIONS
ng
di
Fun
il
Ma
Mea
ls
Cargo
Routi
ng
n
atio
i
v
A
l
Fue
Am
and
rdous le
a
z
a
H
mab
Flam rial
Mate
m
un
Supplies
Air
c
inte raft
nan
ce
iti
Ma
on
Figure IX-1. Logistic Considerations
IX-1
Chapter IX
will provide the most flexible support if a
helicopter detachment is to relocate from shipto-ship or ship-to-shore. It is recommended
that the detachment bring as many
consumable items as possible.
facility operated by the ship’s supply officer
and funded from the ration allowances of the
members. Orders for enlisted members should
reflect rations in kind for the duration of
shipboard embarkation. Coast Guard cutters
will treat meals provided to detachment
personnel as reimbursable issues and submit
2. Funding
forms DD-1149 in accordance with
The parent organization of a helicopter COMDTINST M4061.3 (series).
detachment is responsible for funding the
expenses associated with aircraft 4. Supply
maintenance and operation. Ships’
commanding officers are responsible for
The ship’s supply officer can provide
funding shipboard operating and maintenance assistance in preparing and transmitting
costs from the operating target allowance. properly formatted supply requisitions into the
Unless specified, funding will be provided by system; however, the helicopter detachment
the parent organization or groups performing unit is responsible for providing the technical,
travel under joint travel regulations. Units identification, and funding data for the
required to purchase supplies or fuel from required material.
ships’ stores will be required to provide
appropriate accounting data.
5. Cargo Routing
3. Meals
Procedures to ship material to units
deployed worldwide exist within the Defense
Shipboard meals for officers are normally Transportation System and are contained in
handled by an independent fund to which DOD 4500.9-R, “Defense Transportation
The parent organizations of each helicopter detachment is responsible for
aircraft maintenance and operation.
individual officers contribute. Officers can Regulation,” and DOD 4500.32-R, “Military
expect to pay directly or be billed for meals Standard Transportation and Movement
consumed. Enlisted members eat in a dining Procedures.” The shipper’s service control
IX-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Logistics
office (SSCO) for all US Navy units is the
naval military transportation office
(NAVMTO) in Norfolk, Virginia. NAVMTO
maintains a cargo routing information file
(CRIF) that contains up-to-date information
on how to route material to covered mobile
units. Detachments possessing individual unit
identification codes and desiring to avail
themselves of this service should make
arrangements with NAVMTO and their parent
SSCO to be included in the CRIF. Ships will
keep NAVMTO and other cognizant SSCOs
apprised of consignment instructions for
embarked detachments. Alternatively,
material for an embarked detachment may be
consigned to the host ship. Detachments
operating from Coast Guard cutters should
contact the cutter’s supply officer before
deployment to coordinate cargo routing.
6. Aviation Fuel
If reimbursement is required, helicopter
detachments will reimburse ships for
aviation fuel at the established DOD price.
Selected ships may be capable of processing
a DOD fuel identification plate; however, use
of a DD-1348 form is more common. For
continuing operations, fuel may be billed on
the 10th, 20th, and last day of the month to
coincide with ship’s fuel usage reports.
Because many ships are not equipped with
meters, aircrew should be prepared to
determine the quantity delivered, in pounds,
using aircraft fuel gauges.
accomplished by checking the mark and
modification of weapons and/or weapon
systems, their ammunition and ammunition
component requirements, containers, powder
indexes, ammunition lot numbers, charge
weights, grade classifications, and the external
conditions of the items. Ammunition items
issued will be complete as identified by a
DOD identification code (DODIC) or naval
ammunition logistics code (NALC),
ammunition assembly sheet, complete round
chart, or other approved publication.
Ammunition or components without DODICs
or NALCs will not be issued to combatant
ships.
b. Shipment of Explosives. Ammunition
or other hazardous materials to be shipped to
ships by a DOD component or a common
(commercial) carrier will be packed, marked,
and labeled in accordance with NAVSEA
OP2165, Volume 1, “Navy Transportation
Safety Handbook,” or appropriate DOD or
US Transportation Command hazardous
material regulations for rail, motor vehicle,
water, or air shipment.
c. Allowance Lists. A m m u n i t i o n
requirements for units afloat are established
to provide a basic authorization by quantity
and type to suit the applicable mission and
armament of the unit. Normally, these
authorizations are in the form of allowance
lists.
d. Mission Load Allowances. The
mission load allowance is the allowance of
ammunition carried by certain amphibious
warfare and auxiliary ships in support of their
Stowage and disposal will be in accordance assigned mission, exclusive of the ship’s own
with current directives provided by the host armament.
activity.
e. Replenishment. Weapons expended
from allowance will be replenished using
8. Ammunition
existing supply procedures. In many
a. Issuing Activities. Issuing activities will instances, Service units will use ammunition
ensure that only authorized and fully from Navy or Marine Corps stock. When this
serviceable ammunition is used. This will be occurs, the Navy or Marine Corps is entitled
7. Hazardous and Flammable
Material
IX-3
Chapter IX
to replacement or reimbursement from the
parent Service.
9. Mail
The military postal service is a method for
delivery of moderate-sized parts and supplies
as well as personal and official mail.
Helicopter detachments may obtain a mobile
unit Army Post Office or Fleet Post Office
address from the US Military Postal Service
Agency, Washington, D.C., IAW the DOD
Postal Manual (DOD Instruction 4525.6).
Establishment of an address and ZIP code is
required approximately 60 days in advance.
Ships will update mail routing instructions for
embarked detachments.
IX-4
10.
Aircraft Maintenance
Available aviation maintenance facilities
vary widely with ship class. The AirCapable Ships Facilities Resume provides
guidance regarding air-capable ships. AS and
AAAS have extensive maintenance facilities,
including an aircraft intermediate maintenance
department, which is capable of a wide range
of functions. These functions include, but are
not limited to, electronics repair, tire and wheel
buildup, composite material repair, oxygen
servicing, and inspection and repair of aircrew
survival equipment. However, support for
particular systems is not assured and should
be determined in advance. Joint force
commanders are responsible for coordinating
required maintenance infrastructure.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX A
SAMPLE FORMATS
Annex A
B
C
D
Sample Letter of Instruction (LOI)
Sample Currency Waiver Request Format
Sample Waiver Request Format (For Other Than Currency
Requirements)
Sample Urgent Change Recommendation Format
A-1
Appendix A
Intentionally Blank
A-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX A TO APPENDIX A
SAMPLE LETTER OF INSTRUCTION (LOI)
From:
To:
Commander, Naval Surface Force, US ________________ Fleet
Commander, USS ______________
Commander, _______________
Subj:
LETTER OF INSTRUCTION (LOI) FOR DECK LANDING QUALIFICATION
(DLQ) OPERATIONS
Ref:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Memorandum of Understanding btwn CNO and COMJSOC of 3AUG87
Shipboard aviation facilities resume (NAEC-ENG-7576)
NWP 3-04.1M
JP 3-04.1
1. Summary. In accordance with ref (a) subject LOI is provided for training operations. LOI
describes concept of operations and assigns responsibility to commanding officer (CO), USS
and Officer in-Charge (OIC) __________ for DLQ operations. The LOI is effective for
planning approaches/landings/takeoffs during day/night/NVD DLQ operations.
2. Mission. USS_________________ shall provide underway DLQ ship services for joint
service training. Individual ship routines and exercises may be conducted consistent with
safety and attainment of DLQ training.
3. Concept of Operations. Helicopters will conduct DLQ training consisting of visual flight
rules day/night NVD landings on USS ________________. Once deck landing aircrew
proficiency is established, phase II, III and IV operations are authorized. Instrument flight
rules operations are not authorized.
4. Command Relationships/Responsibilities
a. COMNAVSURF _________________ is assigned as officer scheduling exercise (OSE).
b. Commanding Officer, USS _________________ , is assigned as Officer in Tactical
Command (OTC) for scheduled DLQ exercises and will coordinate with area and shore
commands as appropriate for OPAREA clearance. The flight deck safety and indoctrination
brief is provided to aircrews prior to the scheduled operations.
c. Officer in Charge (OIC) __________________ is assigned as Officer Conducting
Exercise (OCE). OCE shall ensure aircrews comply with all shipboard helicopter DLQ
currency requirements. Prior to commencing DLQ operations, OCE is directed to ensure
the following items, as a minimum, are briefed between ship and aircrew:
- DLQ dates/times
- type/number helicopters
- type/number qualifications required
- radio frequencies/call signs/navaids
- SAR procedures (ref (d) refers)
A-A-1
Annex A to Appendix A
- helicopter wind envelopes (refs (d)/(f) refer)
- ship/helicopter lighting for night NVD operations (ref e refers)
- adverse weather procedures
- aviation fuel requirements/reimbursement
- ship NVD requirements
- messing/billeting requirements
- aircraft mishap reporting responsibilities/requirements
5. Helicopter Operations
a. Shipboard Prerequisites:
(1) training prerequisites and qualifications requirements are contained in ref (a).
(2) aircrews shall brief night deck/fire party personnel on helicopter safety requirements/
procedures to include an aircraft walk-around orientation which should be conducted
following initial landing of each type helicopter used and shall be completed prior to
commencing DLQ operations.
(3) OSE shall designate and provide a Naval Aviation Safety Observer (NASO) who
shall assist Helicopter Control Officer (HCO) and serve as primary advisor to OTC
concerning matters involving safe conduct of flight operations. USS air officer shall
serve as NASO.
(4) OCE shall provide a designated joint service aviator to serve as liaison officer
(LNO) between ship and helicopter detachment and to assist HCO and NASO during
DLQ operations.
(5) OCE/LNO shall provide helicopter egress diagrams, fuel cell location and tie down
points to HCO and crash/fire crew.
(6) aircrews shall be thoroughly familiar with refs (b) and (c).
b. The following pertain to flight operations:
(1) OTC approval required for NVD operations.
(2) LSE shall be utilized for all scheduled operations and shall be positioned to minimize
exposure to hazards while maintaining positive control of aircraft.
(3) all night flight operations shall be conducted with NVDs. NVDs shall be used by
all flight deck control personnel.
(4) multiple MH-6 takeoff/landings to include 6 aircraft are authorized with OTC
concurrence. Ensure a minimum of 15 feet clearance between rotor discs.
(5) NVD operations without flight deck lighting are authorized for Phase II, III, and
IV operations as briefed at pre-sail conference, with approval of OTC. At all other
A-A-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Sample Letter of Instruction (LOI)
times, ref (c) is germaine. Lighting shall be energized to no less than minimum intensity
and shall be adjusted to provide adequate illumination for safe visually unaided
operations during crew change and/or refueling evolutions.
(6) fast-rope operations shall not be conducted to any area of the ship not certified by
ref (b) for class 4 or class 5 hover operations.
(7) helicopters shall be chocked/chained for all crew change, passenger transfer,
refueling, and start/shutdown evolutions.
(8) two-way radio communications shall be maintained between helicopters and ship.
c. Aircraft should arrive overhead with JP-5. Use of JP-4/JP-8 is authorized but not
desired. Helicopters shall shutdown prior to gravity refueling, if applicable.
7. Administration/Logistics. OCE is responsible for coordinating shipboard billeting/messing/
administrative/logistic requirements, if any. OTC should be prepared to provide support
when feasible.
8. Safety
a. Safety of personnel is paramount at all times. Training operations shall be planned
with consideration for weather, crew rest, experience levels, etc. OTC may terminate
operations if, in his/her opinion, conditions so warrant.
b. In event of helicopter mishap, OTC OPREP-3 should include joint service commands
deemed appropriate by OCE. Additional required mishap/incident reports/actions will
be per joint service regulations.
9. Operational Security. The sensitivity of joint service mission requires strict operational
security throughout the chain of command. Personnel not required for the safe completion of
flight operations shall remain below decks or within the skin of the ship.
ASST CHIEF OF STAFF
AVIATION
Copy to:
GROUP
SQUADRON
Participating Army or Air Force units
A-A-3
Annex A to Appendix A
Intentionally Blank
A-A-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX B TO APPENDIX A
SAMPLE CURRENCY WAIVER REQUEST FORMAT*
FROM (Air Force/Army originator)
TO
INFO
For Air Force originator:
HQ USAF WASHINGTON DC//XOOS// (Thru appropriate channels)
For Army originator:
CSA WASHINGTON DC//DAMO-TRS// (Thru appropriate channels)
CNO WASHINGTON DC//889F//
(Joint Force Commander)
(Joint Force Navy Component Commander)
(other appropriate agencies)
(Classification) //N03000//
MSGID/GENADMIN/(ORIGINATING COMMAND)/(OFFICE SYMBOL)//
SUBJ/DECK LANDING QUALIFICATION CURRENCY WAIVER REQUEST//
REF/A/PUB/JOINT PUB 3-04.1//
AMPN/JTTP FOR SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS//
REF/B/MOU/ARMY AIR FORCE DECK LANDING OPERATIONS, JULY 88//
AMPN/MOU WITH NAVY FOR SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS//
RMKS/
1. ( ) IAW REF A, REQUIRE DLQ CURRENCY WAIVER FOR
(specify—day/night/NVG) QUALIFICATIONS
2. ( ) QUALIFICATION EXPIRED ON (date) DUE TO
(reasons)
3. ( ) NO OTHER OPTIONS TO REQUALIFY EXIST WITHIN CURRENT TIME
CONSTRAINTS. (i.e., using USN, USMC, or other Service unit IPs)
4. ( )
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
FOL INFO PROV:
(name/rank)
TOT HRS (insert #)
TOT NVD HRS (insert #) (if applicable)
TOT SHIP LDNGS (insert #)
TOT NVD SHIP LDNGS (insert #)
* Note. Waiver requests are handled on a case-by-case basis between USN (OP-N889F)
and the USA (DAMO-TRS) or USAF (XOOS) based on MOU between the Departments
of the Navy, Air Force, and Army titled “Army/Air Force Deck Landing Operations,”
July 1988.
A-B-1
Annex B to Appendix A
Intentionally Blank
A-B-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX C TO APPENDIX A
SAMPLE WAIVER REQUEST FORMAT*
(For Other Than Currency Requirements)
FROM (Air Force/Army originator)
TO
For Air Force originator:
HQ USAF WASHINGTON DC//XOOS// (Thru appropriate channels)
For Army originator:
CSA WASHINGTON DC//DAMO-TRS// (Thru appropriate channels)
INFO
CNO WASHINGTON DC//N889F//
(Joint Force Commander)
(Joint Force Navy Component Commander)
(other appropriate agencies)
(Classification) //N03000//
MSGID/GENADMIN/(ORIGINATING COMMAND)/(OFFICE SYMBOL)//
SUBJ/ (specify) WAIVER REQUEST//
REF/A/PUB/JOINT PUB 3-04.1//
AMPN/JTTP FOR SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS//
REF/B/MOU/ARMY AIR FORCE DECK LANDING OPERATIONS, JULY 88//
AMPN/MOU WITH NAVY FOR SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS//
RMKS/
1. ( ) (specify waiver requested)
2. ( ) (specify reason for waiver request)
3. ( ) (provide data to support request)
*
Note. Waiver requests are handled on a case-by-case basis between USN (CNO N889F)
and the USA (DAMO-TRS) or USAF (XOOS) based on MOU between the Departments
of the Navy, Air Force, and Army titled “Army/Air Force Deck Landing Operations,”
July 1988.
A-C-1
Annex C to Appendix A
Intentionally Blank
A-C-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX D TO APPENDIX A
SAMPLE URGENT CHANGE RECOMMENDATION FORMAT
FROM (originator)
TO
CNO WASHINGTON DC//N889F//
JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC//J7-JDD//
INFO
AIG 7029
COMNAVAIRPAC
CINCPACFLT PEARL HARBOR or CINCLANTFLT NORFOLK VA
NAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA
NAVTACSUPPACT WHITE OAK MD
(other appropriate agencies)
(Classification) //N03000//
MSGID/GENADMIN/(ORIGINATING COMMAND)/(OFFICE SYMBOL)//
SUBJ/URGENT CHANGE RECOMMENDATION FOR JOINT PUB 3-04.1
REF/A/PUB/JOINT PUB 3-04.1//
AMPN/JTTP FOR SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS//
RMKS/
1. IAW REF A URGENT (SAFETY) CHANGE IS RECOMMENDED FOR JOINT
PUB 3-04.1
2. PAGE _______, PARAGRAPH _______, LINE NO. _______,
FIGURE NO. _______
3. PROPOSED NEW TEXT
4. JUSTIFICATION
A-D-1
Annex D to Appendix A
Intentionally Blank
A-D-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX B
CONTROL AREAS AND APPROACH CHARTS
Annex A
B
C
D
Standard Patterns and Zones
Approach Charts for Air-Capable Ships
Emergency Patterns and Procedures
Typical Landing Procedures
WARNING
This appendix contains information that may change without notice through the
joint publication system. If a conflict exists with specific procedures, those specific
procedures will have precedence.
B-1
Appendix B
Intentionally Blank
B-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX A TO APPENDIX B
STANDARD PATTERNS AND ZONES
B-A-1
Annex A to Appendix B
LEGEND INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURES CHARTS
PLANVIEW SYMBOLS
Penetration Track
Procedural Track
(Hi-Alt procedures only)
180o
Bearing line and value
Arrival Holding Pattern
6 DME
TACAN/DME Fix
Final Approach Fix
Missed Approach Track
PROFILE
Final Approach Fix
(for non-precision approach)
Fix
Level Turn
NDB
TACAN
1800
1300
Mandatory
Minimum
Altitude
Altitude
(Altitudes precede Fix)
GENERAL INFORMATION AND ABBREVIATIONS
All distances in nautical miles (except
Visibility Data which is in statute miles).
Elevations in feet above mean sea level.
All radials/bearings are magnetic.
ACL
ASR
BRC
CH
DH
DME
FAF
FB
IAF
Automatic Carrier Landing
ILS
System (ACLS): Models
IA, II and III only.
MDA
Air Surveillance Radar
Base Recovery Course
(Mag hdg of ship)
MSL
Channel
NDB
Decision Height (for
PAR
precision approaches
TAC
only, i.e., PAR, ACL)
Distance Measuring Equipment
Final Approach Fix
Final Bearing
Initial Approach Fix
Instrument Landing System
(SPN-41)
Minimum Descent Altitude (for
non-precision approaches only,
i.e., ASR, TACAN, NDB)
Mean Sea Level
Non-directional Radio Beacon
Precision Approach Radar
TACAN
Figure B-A-1. Legend — Instrument Approach Procedures Charts
B-A-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Standard Patterns and Zones
DELTA AND CHARLIE PATTERNS FOR
HELICOPTERS
Port Delta up
wind leg 3
miles abeam,
downwind 5
miles abeam,
300 ft. oriented
on the ship's
base recovery
course
31
5
o
re
la
tiv
e
be
ar
ive
at
in
g
r
ea
g
in
b
Charlie Pattern
300 ft., 80 knots
Upwind of ship
break left at 300 ft.
Starboard
Delta up wind
leg 1 mile
abeam,
downwind 3
miles abeam,
300 ft. oriented
on the ship's
base recovery g
in
course
ar
e
b
e
tiv
a
l
o re
5
Entry into
04 Charlie
11
0
pattern from
starboard
Delta is as
directed by
primary flight
control or
helicopter
direction
center
o
re
la
l
o
5
22
re
tiv
e
be
ar
Commence descent to
300 ft. for normal entry
into Charlie pattern
in
g
Normal entry
into Delta
pattern 1000 ft.
left turns or as
directed by
primary flight
control or
helicopter
direction
center
Direct entry to Charlie
pattern 300 ft.
Figure B-A-2. Delta and Charlie Patterns for Helicopters
B-A-3
Annex A to Appendix B
PLANE GUARD PATTERN
Base
Recovery
Course
Race Track
045O Relative
Bearing
300 ft.
3 to 5 nautical
mile arc
1 mile
110O Relative
Bearing
Figure B-A-3. Plane Guard Pattern
B-A-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Standard Patterns and Zones
CONTROL AREA AND CONTROL ZONE
DIMENSIONS
Control Zone
(Approach/Departure Control for
Instrument Flight Rules)
100 nautical miles
Unlimited
Control Zone
10 nautical miles
(Tower Control)
2500 ft.
Figure B-A-4. Control Area and Control Zone Dimensions
B-A-5
Annex A to Appendix B
HELICOPTER RESTRICTIONS DURING
AIRCRAFT CARRIER LAUNCH AND RECOVERY
10nm
340O
020O
200 ft
1n
m
5nm
400 ft
300 ft
400 ft
400 ft
m
1n
3nm
ft
190 f
150
t
ft - Feet
nm - nautical miles
400 ft
Shaded area - No
operations without
air officer approval
Figure B-A-5. Helicopter Restrictions During Aircraft Carrier Launch and Recovery
B-A-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX B TO APPENDIX B
APPROACH CHARTS FOR AIR-CAPABLE SHIPS
B-B-1
Annex B to Appendix B
APPROACH CHART AIR-CAPABLE SHIPS
TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION (HELICOPTER)
TACAN Approach
Approach Frequency
Land/Launch Frequency
Altimeter
Base Recovery Course (MAG)
Relative Wind Speed
3 DME ARC
Base Recovery
Course
TACAN Channel
x
24
Radials and courses
are relative to the base
recovery course. Final
courses shown are
typical for most
classes of ships but
may be adjusted to
conform to existing
lineup line.
0o
WARNING
x
x
FAF 1.5
DME
o
0
15 tive
la
Re
IAF 'C'
MISSED APPROACH
If visual contact is not
made at missed
approach point, climb
straight ahead to 400 ft.
for 3 minutes of 3 DME,
proceed to primary
marshal and hold
4 DME
180o
Re 210 o
lat
ive
IAF 'B'
Tactical Air
Navigation
Primary
Marshal
3 nautical
miles/DME
1/2
1
3/4
275
200
1.5 DME
350
400
Category
MDA-MAP/Distance
Ceiling/Visibility
TACAN
200 feet / 1/2 nautical mile
200 feet / 1/2 nautical mile
*Radar-Monitored
(Ship/Helicopter Radar)
200 feet / 1/2 nautical mile
200 feet / 1/2 nautical mile
* Minimums when radar provides distance information
BRC
DME
IAF
Base recovery course
Distance measuring equipment
Initial approach fix
MAP
MDA
TACAN
Missed approach point
Minimum descent altitude
Tactical air navigation
Figure B-B-1. Approach Chart Air-Capable Ships Tactical Air Navigation (Helicopter)
B-B-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Approach Charts for Air-Capable Ships
APPROACH CHART AIR-CAPABLE SHIPS
NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON (NDB) (HELICOPTER)
NDB
Approach Frequency
Land/Launch Frequency
Altimeter
Base Recovery Course (MAG)
Relative Wind Speed
3 NM ARC
Base Recovery
Course
m
3n
NDB Frequency
Alternate Marshal
(ADF only)
1 Min. Legs
WARNING
180o
o
0
15 tive
la
Re
Radials and courses
are relative to the base
recovery course. Final
courses shown are
typical for most
classes of ships but
may be adjusted to
conform to existing
lineup line.
MISSED APPROACH
If visual contact is not
made at missed
approach point, climb
straight ahead to 400 ft.
for 3 minutes. Then
proceed to alternate
marshal and hold.
NDB
3 nautical
400
1/2
1
3/4
275
200
1.5 DME
350
400
400
Category
MDA-MAP/Distance
Ceiling/Visibility
NDB
200 ft / 1/2 nautical mile
200 ft / 1/2 nautical mile
NDB Approach
Time: High Sta to 3 nm Arc
Relative Wind Speed
A/C
70
SPD
90
A/C
ADF
BRC
Time: 3 nm Arc to MAP (1/2 nm)
0
5
10
20
30
2:34
2:24
2:14
2:00
1:47
2:00
1:53
1:47
1:38
1:30
Aircraft
Automatic direction finding
Base recovery course
0
5
10
20
30
70
2:08
2:16
2:25
2:53
3:30
90
1:39
1:44
1:50
2:05
2:23
Relative Wind Speed
A/C
SPD
NDB
MAP
MDA
Nondirectional beacon
Missed approach point
Minimum descent altitude
Figure B-B-2. Approach Chart Air-Capable Ships Nondirectional Beacon (NDB)
(Helicopter)
B-B-3
Annex B to Appendix B
APPROACH CHART LPH/LHA/LHD NDB AND
TACAN OVERHEAD (HELICOPTER)
Base Recovery
Course
2
Re 10 o
lat
ive
5 DME/3 Min.
NOTE:
All bearings are
relative to the base
recovery course
0
Re 30 o
lat
ive
2 UME (TACAN IAF)
NDB holding
2
Re 10 o
lat
ive
IAF
NDB
TACAN CH
x 3 DME
FB
MISSED APPROACH
5 DME/
At missed approach
3 Min.
point, climb straight
ahead to 1,500 feet, at 5
DME/3 Min, turn right
and proceed direct to
IAF
2 DME TACAN IAF NDB
S-PAR
LHA
210 o
NDB
TACAN
.75 DME
LPH
270-1/2 250-1/2 200 (200'-1/2nm)
5 DME
1000
30 DME
x
LANDING MINIMA (FT-NM)
Category
1500
1500
FB
500
Flight Deck
Elevation
Highest Obstruction
LPH-50 ft
LPH-150 ft
LHA-70 ft
LHA-200 ft
S-ASR
350-3/4 350-3/4
300 (300'-3/4nm)
S-NBD/TAC
BRC
DME
IAF
NDB
TACAN
Base recovery course
Distance measuring equipment
Initial approach fix
Nondirectional beacon
Tactical air navigation
LHA
LPH
S-ASR
S-PAR
TAC
General purpose amphibious assault ship
Amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter
Amphibious assault ship, air surveillance radar
Amphibious assault ship, precision approach radar
Tactical air navigation (TACAN)
Figure B-B-3. Approach Chart LPH/LHA/LHD NDB and TACAN Overhead (Helicopter)
B-B-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Approach Charts for Air-Capable Ships
APPROACH CHART LPH/LHA/LHD TACAN
(HELICOPTER)
BRC
NOTE:
All bearings are relative
to the base recovery
course (BRC)
9 NM
7 NM
5 NM
TACAN CH
o
270 Relative
MARSHAL
#2
IAF
o
090 Relative
MARSHAL #3
IAF
FB 3DME
x
180o Relative
IAF
NOTE: Marshal #2
shall not be used during
mixed recoveries
MARSHAL #1
TACAN
S-PAR
LHA
5 DME
.75
DME
FB
LPH
270-1/2 250-1/2 200 (200'-1/2nm)
IAF
7 DME
1000
FAF
LANDING MINIMA (FT-NM)
Category
3 DME
1000
MISSED APPROACH
5 DME
At missed approach
o
point, turn right 90 ,
climb to 1,000 feet,
intercept the 5 nm arc, 1000
and arc right to
reenter on FB.
500
Flight Deck
Elevation
Highest Obstruction
LPH-50 ft
LPH-150 ft
LHA-70 ft
LHA-200 ft
S-ASR
370-3/4 350-3/4
300 (300'-3/4nm)
S-TAC
BRC
DME
IAF
LHA
Base recovery course
Distance measuring equipment
Initial approach fix
General purpose amphibious
assault ship
LPH
S-ASR
S-PAR
S-TAC
Amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter
Amphibious assault ship, air surveillance radar
Amphibious assault ship, precision approach radar
Amphibious assault ship, tactical air navigation (TACAN)
Figure B-B-4. Approach Chart LPH/LHA/LHD TACAN (Helicopter)
B-B-5
Annex B to Appendix B
APPROACH CHART CV-8 NONDIRECTIONAL
BEACON AND TACAN OVERHEAD (Helicopter)
FB
in.
E/2 M
NOTE:
180
Marshal As Assigned
030 o
Rela
tive
o
Courses are
relative to FB
NDB holding
210 o
Rela
tive
4 DM
IAF
210 o
Rela
tive
NDB
ME TACAN CH
x3 D
FB
Avg deck elevation - 60 ft.
MISSED APPROACH/
WAVEOFF
If no instructions by 4 DME/2
min. turn downwind, report
abeam. If no COMM, reenter
FB thru 3 DME FAF. (NDB
turn to FB 2 min past abeam)
NDB
TACAN
210 o
4 DME/
2 Min.
3 DME
FB
300
x
500
Helicopter
Category
260' -1/2 nm
S-PAR
Level left turn not
before 3 DME/2 Min.
at 1/2 marshal altitude
200 (200'-1/2 nm)
S-NDB
300' - 3/4 nm
240 (300' - 3/4 nm)
S-TAC
BRC
COMM
DME
IAF
Base recovery course
Communications
Distance measuring equipment
Initial approach fix
NDB
S-NDB
S-PAR
S-TAC
Nondirectional beacon
Amphibious assault ship, nondirectional beacon
Amphibious assault ship, precision approach radar
Amphibious assault ship, tactical air navigation
Figure B-B-5. Approach Chart CV-8 Nondirectional Beacon and TACAN Overhead
(Helicopter)
B-B-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Approach Charts for Air-Capable Ships
APPROACH CHART CV-7 TACAN (HELICOPTER)
FB
in.
E/2 M
4 DM
NOTE:
o
180
Courses are
relative to FB
TACAN
110 o
110 o
290 o
rc
o
DM
5
Marshal as assigned
3
FB
(IAF)
EA
14
x
E
3 DM
Avg deck elevation - 60 ft.
MISSED APPROACH/ WAVEOFF
If no instructions by 4 DME/2 min. turn
downwind, report abeam. If no COMM,
FB
reenter FB thru 3 DME FAF.
300
145
110o
3 DME
(IAF)
o
290
3 DME
TACAN
4 DME /
2 Min.
o
c
E Ar
3 DM
FB x
500
Helicopter
Category
260' - 1/2 nm
S-PAR
200 (200' - 1/2 nm)
S-ASR
300' - 3/4 nm
240 (300' - 3/4 nm)
S-TAC
BRC
COMM
DME
IAF
Base recovery course
Communications
Distance measuring equipment
Initial approach fix
NDB
S-ASR
S-PAR
S-TAC
Nondirectional beacon
Amphibious assault ship, air surveillance radar
Amphibious assault ship, precision approach radar
Amphibious assault ship, tactical air navigation
Figure B-B-6. Approach Chart CV-7 TACAN (Helicopter)
B-B-7
Annex B to Appendix B
Intentionally Blank
B-B-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX C TO APPENDIX B
EMERGENCY PATTERNS AND PROCEDURES
EMERGENCY LOW VISIBILITY APPROACH (ELVA)
PATTERN
1
Headings used are
magnetic, controller
will make necessary
conversions
Base recovery
course
2
Circled numbers
correspond to
numbered radio
transmissions
Missed approach
procedure 100 yards
3
16
15
14
1/2
Missed approach, 30
left climbing turn to
400 feet, wait for
further instructions
13
4
o
1
12
1 1/2
Distances in
miles
11
Final approach heading 2
is based on flight deck
2 1/2
lineup lines and base
recovery course
ELVA Sample Starboard Approach Pattern
(both right and left hand approaches
authorized) (depends on fire control radar
placement)
10
9
3
8
3 1/2
5
7
4
6
FINAL APPROACH PROFILE
MAP
1/2
1
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
Slow to
40
Knots
MSL
MAP
50
Feet
50
4
Slow to
70
Knots
100
Missed Approach Procedure
150
200
MSL
250
300
350
400
Mean Sea Level
Figure B-C-1. Emergency Low Visibility Approach (ELVA) Pattern
B-C-1
Annex C to Appendix B
EMERGENCY LOW VISIBILITY APPROACH
(ELVA) PATTERN
RADIO CALLS
1. (Initial Check-in). This will be a radar assisted approach. Hold your radar contact on the
___ radial, ___ miles from the ship. Altimeter setting is ___. Weather is ceiling ___, visibility
___. Final approach heading will be ___. Winds are ___ degrees port/starboard at ___ knots.
Maximum pitch and roll are ___. Read back altimeter setting.
2. Descend/climb and/or maintain 400 feet. Assigned heading is ___.
3. Lost communications procedures follow: If no transmissions are received for 1 minute in the
pattern or 15 seconds in final, climb to and maintain 400 feet. Attempt contact on
(Secondary). If unable to make contact, squawk Mode III Code 7700 for 1 minute, then Mode
III Code 7600. Alternate approach will be tacan channel ___ commencing at 3 miles and 400
feet on the ___ radial. Acknowledge.
4. Missed approach procedures follow: If ship or wake not in sight at missed approach point,
turn left 30 degrees immediately; climb to 400 feet and increase airspeed to 90 knots. Report
level and on speed and stand by for further instructions.
5. Perform landing checks. Report gear down and locked.
6. Turn right/left to the final bearing ___, maintain 400 feet and slow to 70 knots.
7. Do not acknowledge further transmissions. On final, 4 miles. Commence gradual rate of
descent to arrive at 1/2 mile at 50 feet. Maintain 70 knots. Assigned heading is ___. Report
ship in sight.
8. (Call sign) 31/2 miles, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective
heading) or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 350 feet.
9. (Call sign) 3 miles, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective heading)
or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 300 feet.
10. (Call sign) 21/2 miles, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective
heading) or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 250 feet.
11. (Call sign) 2 miles, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective heading)
or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 200 feet.
12. (Call sign) 11/2 miles, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective
heading) or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 150 feet.
13. (Call sign) 1 mile, left/right/on approaching centerline. Turn left/right (Corrective heading)
or assigned heading is ___. Altitude should be 100 feet. Slow to 40 knots.
14. (Call sign) 1/2 mile. Assigned heading is ___. Maintain 50 feet and 40 knots.
15. (Call sign) 800/600/400/200 yards. Left/right/on approaching centerline.
16. (Call sign) at missed approach point if ship or wake not in sight, execute missed
approach.
Figure B-C-2. Emergency Low Visibility Approach (ELVA) Pattern — Radio Calls
B-C-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Emergency Patterns and Procedures
SMOKELIGHT APPROACH PROCEDURES
Smokelight Approach. This approach is used as a last resort when available equipment
will not allow ELVA procedures to be used, or when the ship cannot be visually acquired
using ELVA procedures and ditching is considered imminent. Both the ship’s commanding
officer and the pilot in command (or detachment officer in charge) must have agreed to
attempt the procedure. The aircraft will be positioned 2 miles behind the ship and proceeds
inbound on the 180 degrees radial relative to the BRC. The aircraft will descend at the pilot’s
discretion to arrive at approximately 40 feet and 40 knots 1 mile behind the ship. Ship’s
personnel drop smoke or matrix lights every 15 seconds (or other prearranged intervals), and
the pilot is kept informed of the number of smokelights in the water. The pilot at the controls
follows the smokelights up the ship’s wake, adjusting the closure rate until there is visual
contact with the ship. HCS will receive a “gear down” report from the pilot before the
aircraft maneuvers over the deck.
B-C-3
Annex C to Appendix B
HELICOPTER EMERGENCY MARSHAL
PATTERN
045o
5000
4500
4000
12
3500
11
3000
10
2500
9
2000
8
7
1500
6
'C'
5
EFB
TACAN __ __ __
090o
'B'
5
3 NM
X
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
'A'
5 NM
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
MISSED APPROACH
At missed approach point, turn right 90o,
climb to 1,000 feet, intercept the 5 nm arc,
and arc right to reenter on EFB.
MAR
@5
.75 DME
3 DME
FAF
o
135
MAR
@6
ARC
500
S-TAC
LHA
LPH
MAR
@8
MAR
@9
MAR
@11
MAR
@10
MAR
@12
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
LANDING MINIMA (FT-NM)
Category
MAR
@7
5 DME
X
500
12
WX
370-3/4 350-3/4 300 (300'-3/4nm)
Flight Deck
Elevation
Highest Obstruction
LPH-50 ft
LPH-150 ft
LHA-70 ft
LHA-200 ft
Figure B-C-3. Helicopter Emergency Marshal Pattern
B-C-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX D TO APPENDIX B
TYPICAL LANDING PROCEDURES
B-D-1
Annex D to Appendix B
TYPICAL LANDING PROCEDURES
TYPICAL FULL-CIRCLE LANDING:
Helicopter lands parallel to the landing
lineup line with the forward landing gear
or skid supports within the inner edge of
the touchdown circle.
TYPICAL H-46/H-53/H-3 (CG)
FORWARD HALF-CIRCLE LANDING
RESTRICTION:
Helicopter lands parallel to the landing
lineup line with the nose landing gear
within the forward half of the touchdown
circle (relative to the landing lineup line) or
on the touchdown spot.
H-46 LANDING RESTRICTION ON
LAMPS MK I/DD 963 ABD DDG 993
SHIP CLASSES:
Helicopter lands parallel to the ship's
centerline with the nose landing gear
within the forward half of the touchdown
circle (relative to the ship's centerline) or
on the touchdown spot.
H-3 MAIN LANDING GEAR LIMIT LINE (PORT &
STARBOARD)
H-3 LANDING RESTRICTION ON
LAMPS MK III/DD 963 CLASS
SHIPS:
Helicopter lands parallel to the landing
lineup line with the main landing gear
within the touchdown circle and forward of
the main landing gear limit lines.
H-3 MAIN LANDING GEAR LIMIT LINE (PORT &
STARBOARD)
S HOVER
O
C LINE (PORT &
RAST
REFERENCE
STARBOARD)
H-3/H-46 LANDING RESTRICTIONS
ON LAMPS MK III/CG 47 CLASS
SHIPS:
Helicopter lands parallel to the landing
lineup line with the main landing gear (H3)/ nosewheel (H-46) within the
touchdown circle, aft of the rast hover
reference lines and forward of the landing
gear limit lines.
Figure B-D-1. Typical Landing Procedures
B-D-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Typical Landing Procedures
OPERATION OF TWO HELICOPTERS FROM SINGLE-SPOT SHIP
1. Background
Operational necessity may require the operation of two OH-6 or OH-58 helicopters
simultaneously from flight decks configured and marked for single-helicopter operations.
Operation with two helicopters simultaneously can be accomplished safely with specific
ship-helicopter combinations by spotting or landing the aircraft transversely on the deck in
opposing directions. Because these operations entail minimum lateral separation and less
than optimum relative wind for one or both of the involved aircraft, use of these procedures
is restricted to units specifically identified by the parent Service as having the operational
requirement and the requisite proficiency to conduct this operation.
2. Approved Combinations
The following aircraft-ship combinations are statically approved for dual-helicopter
operations from a single operating spot:
a. OH-6 or 58 and FFG-7 Class.
b. OH-6 or 58 and DDG-993 Class.
c. OH-6 or 58 and DD-963 Class.
d. OH-6 or 58 and CG-47 Class.
Note: Reference will be made to the Shipboard Aviation Facilities Resume for ship’s flight
deck marking and dimensions for dual-helicopter, single-spot operations.
3. Restrictions
The following restrictions apply to simultaneous operation of two helicopters on a singlespot ship:
a. On departure, the aircraft spotted aft will lift and depart before the forward aircraft lifts
off. On recovery, the first aircraft will touch down on the forward spot before the second
aircraft hovers over the rear spot.
b. Operations will be conducted during daylight conditions or with night-vision devices.
Dual-helicopter, unaided-vision night landings are not authorized.
c. When a flight of two AH-58D Kiowa Warriors is landing on a small deck, Non-Recovery,
Assistance, Securing, and Traversing Systems (RAST)-equipped guided missile frigate, the
first aircraft must land and fold aft-facing blades before the second aircraft lands. Operations
must be conducted with relative winds within the general envelope. Operations outside the
general envelope must be certified through testing or analysis.
B-D-3
42'
2"
56' 10"
38' 8"
37' 9"
20'
20'
(3) 24' H
35' 6"
Floodlight (8) 25' 4" H
1st OBST Over 25' H
X
Helo Control Station
16' 7" H - 1st OBST
Over 5' H and 15' H
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Capstan Cont.
1' 6" H
22' 9"
53' 6"
MAIN DECK OPERATING AREA
Figure B-D-2. OH-58D Positions on Non-RAST-Equipped Air-Capable Ships
Portable Rail
(P/S)
Annex D to Appendix B
B-D-4
OH-58D Positions on Non-RAST-Equipped Air-Capable Ships
OH-58D Positions for Takeoff and Landing on RAST-Equipped Air-Capable Ships
71' 6'
60'
Deck 2' 2" Below
Flight Deck
39' 5"
39' 1"
RAST Bellmouth
(P/S)
20'
20'
(3) 26' H
Ant. - ist OBST
Over 25' H
X
37' 10"
6" H
Rail 8" H
Rast Cont. Sta. 2' H
22' 7"
60' 6"
B-D-5
MAIN DECK OPERATING AREA
Figure B-D-3. OH-58D Positions for Takeoff and Landing on RAST-Equipped Air-Capable Ships
Portable Rail
(P/S)
Typical Landing Procedures
Helo Control Station
16' 7" H - 1st OBST
Over 5' H and 15' H
Annex D to Appendix B
Intentionally Blank
B-D-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX C
US NAVY SHIP AND MILITARY HELICOPTER INTERFACE
AND WIND ENVELOPES
WARNING
This appendix contains information that may change without notice through
the joint publication system. If a conflict exists with more specific procedures,
those specific procedures will have precedence.
1. USN Ship, USCG Cutter,
Military Sealift Command
Ship and Military Helicopter
Interface
a. Ship and/or helicopter combinations are
developed considering rotor diameter, fuselage
configurations, landing gear arrangement,
maximum gross weight, ship structures, and
flight deck obstructions for safe operations. The
Shipboard Aviation Facilities Resume (NAECENG-7576) defines the aviation facility
certification categories by “levels” and “classes.”
The “level” of the facility identifies the
environmental conditions under which the
aircraft can operate and the “class” of the facility
identifies the mission the ship can support.
Allowable helicopter and/or ship operating
combinations are provided in this publication
for Navy, Military Sealift Command, and USCG
air-capable ships.
b. Ship and/or helicopter combinations are
evaluated for EMV and HERO compatibility.
WARNING
Some non-USN helicopters have not been
tested in the electromagnetic
environment of various ship classes.
When conducting non-USN operations,
consideration must be given to potential
radiation hazards, electromagnetic
interference, and EMV effects.
2. Aircraft Wind Limitations
WARNING
Considerable differences may exist
between the flight deck winds and
those measured by bridge-level
anemometers. However, aircraft wind
limitations contained in the appendix
and applicable shipboard operating
bulletins are based on winds measured
by the windward bridge-level
anemometer. When operating at or
near the outer wind limits, the
probability of damage increases
sharply when wind gusts exceed 10
knots. Also the maximum safe wind
in conjunction with excessive ship
pitch and/or roll can make flight
operations unacceptably hazardous;
therefore, operations shall be adjusted
accordingly. Common sources of
turbulence are: (1) stack gasses and
wash; (2) ship superstructures; (3)
deck protrusions; and (4) rotor wash
or jet blast caused by the takeoff and
landing of adjacent aircraft.
a. The NAWCAD, Patuxent River,
Maryland, conducts dynamic interface (DI)
testing of all helicopter and ship class
combinations to develop all aspects of
shipboard helicopter dynamic operational
compatibility. DI testing investigates the
C-1
Appendix C
effects of ship airwake, ship motion, ship
marking and lighting, and effects of ship and/
or helicopter operations. The significant
result of DI testing is the development of
operational launch and recovery, engage or
disengage, and HIFR envelopes, each of
which depict the wind speed and direction
and ship motion conditions conducive to
producing consistently safe shipboard
operations. DI certifications of each ship and/
or helicopter combination are required before
conducting any shipboard flight operations
beyond the bounds of Figures C-1 and C-2.
Aircraft that have not undergone DI testing
C-2
or that do not have a DI-certified envelope
are restricted to the use of the general launch
and recovery wind limitations charts (Figures
C-1 and C-2) for the appropriate class ship.
Comments or questions about ship and/or
helicopter interface, electromagnetic
environment, and aircraft wind limitations
should be addressed to:
Commander
Naval Air Systems Command (PMA251D)
Naval Air Systems Command Headquarters
1421 Jefferson Davis Hwy
Arlington, VA 22243-5120
Joint Pub 3-04.1
US Navy Ship and Military Helicopter Interface and Wind Envelopes
GENERAL LAUNCH AND RECOVERY
WIND LIMITS
350
25 KT
010
20
340
315
15
10
020
045
5
270
Pitch + 2
Roll + 4
NOTES:
090
Entire Envelope: day
Blue Area: night
Helicopter aligned with ship's lineup line
and wind shown relative to aircraft's nose.
If the ship's lineup line is not fore/aft then
this envelope will be rotated to the angle of
the lineup line.
This wind envelope is mandatory for all
helicopter and ship combinations not listed
elsewhere in this appendix.
Figure C-1. General Launch and Recovery Wind Limits
C-3
Appendix C
GENERAL LAUNCH AND RECOVERY WIND
LIMITS FOR LHA/LPH/LHD AND CV/CVN
CLASS SHIPS
350
30 KT
010
25
20
340
315
15
10
020
045
5
270
Pitch + 2
Roll + 4
NOTES:
090
Entire Envelope: day
Green Area: night
Helicopter aligned with ship's lineup line
and wind shown relative to aircraft's nose.
If the ship's lineup line is not fore/aft then
this envelope will be rotated to the angle of
the lineup line.
This wind envelope is mandatory for all
helicopter and ship combinations not listed
elsewhere in this appendix.
Figure C-2. General Launch and Recovery Wind Limits for
LHA/LPH/LHD and CV/CVN Class Ships
C-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX D
ORDNANCE
Annex A
B
C
D
E
F
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
Aviation Ordnance Technical Publications and Instructions
Library Checklist
Joint Helicopter Handling, Qualification, and Certification for
Conventional Aviation Ordnance Devices
Weapons Loading, Strikedown, Downloading, and Recovery
Munitions Cookoff Time Summary
Helicopter Weapons Configuration — By Service
WARNING
This appendix contains information that may change without notice through
the joint publication system. If a conflict exists with more specific procedures,
those specific procedures will have precedence.
D-1
Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX A TO APPENDIX D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF AMMUNITION
AND EXPLOSIVES
D-A-1
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
Actuator, Torpedo, F/Arming Device MK 6 Mod 0
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
X
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
Arming and Firing Mechanism MK-1 Mod 1
X
Arming Device, MK-2 and -3, F/Torpedo
X
Bag, Loading Assy F/4. 2" Mortar Cartridge
X
Base Couplings, w/primer
X
Bolts, Explosive
X
X
Bombs, Chemical Agent
Bombs, HE Loaded, Depth, Frag, GP, SAP
Boosters and Auxiliary Boosters w/o Detonators, HE Loaded,
All Types
Boosters and Auxiliary Boosters w/Detonators, HE Loaded, All
Types
X
Caps, Blasting
Cartridges, 40mm, 3" and 5", Blank Saluting
X
Cartridges, Delay, F/AC
X
Cartridges, Engine Starter, MXU-4A/A
X
X
X
X
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
X
X
X
X
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives
D-A-3
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
F
I
X
E
D
&
G
U
N
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
A
M
M
O
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
Cartridges, Explosive, F/Torpedo MK-45
X
X
Cartridges, Grenade, Rifle and Carbine
X
X
Cartridges, Impulse, F/AC
X
X
Cartridges, Impulse, 3" F/SDCP
X
Cartridges, Impulse, F/Gas Gen, 25 Man Life Raft
X
X
Cartridges, 20mm, AP-T, TP, LPT, FCT
X
Cartridges, 20mm, Incend, API, HE Loaded
X
Cartridges, 30mm, EF
X
X
X
X
Cartridges, Photoflash
Cartridges, Mortar, HE, III, TP, Leaflet and Window
X
Cartridges, Mortar, WP Loaded
Cartridges, 40mm Riot Control
Cartridges, 3" 50 Cal, 76mm, Service and Training
X
Cartridges, 40mm, Service, Less Chemical
X
Cartridge Sets, Impulse, F/CAD Devices
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
Separate Stowage
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-5
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
Cartridges, 3, 5, 6, 8" Short
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
X
X
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
Cartridges, Signal, F/Practice Bombs
Cartridges, Small Arms, All Calibers and Types 1/
X
Catapult, Aircraft Seat Ejection
X
X
X
Cases, U/W Mines and Depth Charges, HE Loaded
Charges, Demolitions, Assemblies, Blocks, Flex, Linear, &
Sheet
Charge, Demolition (Shaped) MK-45/-47/-74
Charge, Propellant, Guns 5, 6, 8" Cased, Full, Reduced
X
X
X
Charge, Propellant, Guns 8, 16" Bag, Full, Reduced
X
X
X
Charges, Spotting, F/Practice Bombs and Mines
X
X
Chemical Agent, FS Smoke
Cluster, Canister, Chemical, Riot Control
Cluster, Projector, Launcher, MK-14
Container and Cartridge Set, Line Throwing, .45 Cal
X
X
X
X
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-7
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
F
U
Z
E
S
R
O
C
K
E
T
T
Y
P
E
Container and Charge Set, Line Throwing, 2.75" Rocket
X
X
Control Unit, Parachute
X
X
Cord, Detonating, All Types
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
H
E
A
D
S
X
F
U
E
L
X
Cryptographic Equipment Destroyers
Cutters, Cartridge Actuated
Cutter, HE, MK-3, Mod 1
Demolition Kit, Bangalore Torpedo
Depth Charge Antipersonnel, MK-40
Destructor Charges, Explosive
Destructor, Incendiary
Detonation Simulators
Detonators, Detonators Assemblies, Electric Percussion, Stab
Dispensers, Chaffeye, MJU-5B
Dispensers and Bombs, Complete, CBU, Less CBU-15, -22,
and -55/b
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
X
X
X
X
X
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
Separate Stowage
X
Separate Stowage
X
X
X
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
X
X
X
X
X
Separate Stowage
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-9
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
Dispensers and Bombs, Complete, CBU-15, -22, and -55/b
Dispensers and Bombs, Practice Weapon, CBU M-20
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
X
X
Document Destroyers
Dynamite, Military, M1
Dynamite, 40% Nitro Gel 2/
Exercise Heads, Mk 10 Mod 0 F/GMS
Exercise Heads, F/GM, Less MK-10
Exercise Sections Assembly, MK-17, F/GMS
Exploder Mechs, MK-11 and Mods F/Torpedo MK-27
X
Explosive Blocks, Torpedo
X
Explosive Drivers
X
X
Explosive Fittings, Less MK-26
Explosive Fitting, MK-26 F/SUBROC
X
Explosive Switch, MK-17 Mods 1 and 2
X
Explosive Train, F/Torpedo MK-46, Service & Practice
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-10
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Separate Stowage
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-11
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
Extensions, Fuse, Bomb, Tetryl or Comp B Loaded
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
File Destroyer, Incendiary
Firing and Arming Mechs. F/U/W Sound Signals
X
Firing Devices, Firing Device Set, Demolitions
X
Firing Mech. MK-24, F/U/W Mine
X
X
Flares, All Types
Fog Oil for Smoke Pots
Fuze, Blasting, Time
X
X
Fuzes, Bombs, All Types
X
Fuzes, F/Missiles, All Types w/wo Boosters
X
Fuzes, Hand Grenades and Mines AT Combination
X
Fuzes, Projectile, Base Det, MT w/Boosters, PD Less MK-66
Mod 0, Aux Det. Less MK-89, Fuze and Adapter Assemblies
X
Fuzes, Projectile, MT w/o, Boosters PD MK-66 Mod 0, Aux
Det. MK-89
Fuzes, U/W Sound Signal
X
X
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-12
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
REMARKS
Separate Stowage
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-13
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
Generators, Catalyst, WMU-1/B, -2B, -6B
Generators, Gas Pressure
X
X
X
Grenades, Hand, Chemical, Riot, Tear Gas, WP
Grenades, Hand, Frag.
X
Grenades, Hand III, HC Smoke, Colored Smoke
X
Grenades, Hand, Incendiary (Thermite)
Grenades, Offensive, with or without Fuzes
Grenades, Hand Practice and Rifle, AT Practice, Fuzed
X
Grenades, Hand and Rifle, Colored Smoke
Grenades, Rifle, HEAT
Grenades, Rifle, WP
Guided Missiles, Practice and Tactical, Less TALOS
X
Guided Missile, SHRIKE, Training
X
Guided Missile, SHRIKE, Exercise
Guided Missile, TALOS, Practice and Tactical
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-14
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Separate Stowage.
X
X
X
X
3/
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-15
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
R
O
C
K
E
T
T
Y
P
E
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
Guided Missile, HARPOON, Tactical 4/
Guided Missile, PENGUIN
X
Guided Weapon, TOMAHAWK, Tactical 4/
Guided Weapon, Tactical, WALLEYE
Guided Weapon, WALLEYE, Mk-2 Practice
X
Guided Weapon, WALLEYE, Mk-4 Practice
X
Hellfire Missile
Igniters, Bomb, WP
Igniter Cylinders, Flame Throwers
X
Igniters, Igniter Assemblies, F/Torpedoes
X
X
Igniters, Sea Water Activated, F/Torpedoes MK-46
Igniter, Time Blasting Fuze
X
X
Initiators, Cartridge
X
X
Ignition Separation Assemblies, HE Loaded
X
Igniters, JATO Units
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-16
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
X
X
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-17
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
Initiator, Firebomb MK-13 Mod 0
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
Launcher and Cartridges, Chemical Agent
Lead, Flexible, Explosive, MK-11 Mod 0
X
Marker Kit, Location, MK-19
Markers, Location, Marine and Sub.
Markers, Marine, MK-2 Mods 0 and 1
Mines, AT, and AP, M18/T48 Type
Mines, AP, M2, M16, M26 Types
X
Mines, Underwater, w/wo Detonators
X
Primer Dets. F/Bomb Fuzes, All Types
X
Primers, All Types
Projectiles, 5-38, 5-54, 6-47 Cals., III., Chaff, Window,
Non-Frag
X
Projectiles, 5-38, 5-54 Cals. WP
X
Projectiles, 5" thru 16", HE Loaded
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-18
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-19
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
Projectiles, 5", 6" and 8", Smoke Puff
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
X
Propellant Assembly F/Torpedo MK-46
Removers, Aircraft Canopy
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
X
X
X
X
X
Rocket, 66 mm, Incendiary 5/
Rockets, Assembled, with/without Fuzes
X
Rocket Engines, Liquid, All Types
X
Rocket Motors, Solid, All Types
X
Safety and Arming Devices, with less than 0.1 Pound HE
X
X
X
X
X
X
Safety and Arming Devices, with more than 0.1 Pound HE
X
Self-Destruct Charges (Destructor Charges F/GM)
X
Signal, MK-25 f/Drill Mines
Signals, Signal Kits, All Types, Except U/W Sound
Signals U/W Sound, w/wo Fuzes, Except MK-64
Signal, U/W Sound, MK-64 Mod 0
X
Simulators, Other than Detonation Simulators
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-20
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
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I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
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P
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A
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L
O
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K
E
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S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-21
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
R
O
C
K
E
T
T
Y
P
E
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
Simulator, Projectile, Air Burst f/Discharger, Smoke Puff
Smoke Pots, Fog Oil, Fuel Oil, Ground or Floating
Smoke Pots, HC Loaded Ground or Floating
Smoke Tracking Devices, F/LD. Bombs
Spray Guns, CN, Training
Squibs, Squib Assemblies
X
X
X
X
STINGER Missile
Thrusters, Cartridges Actuated
Torpedoes, Assembled, Service
Torpedoes, Assembled, Exercise MK-37, -44, and -45
X
Torpedoes, ASROC, Exercise
X
Toxic Gas Sets, Training
War Gas, Identification Seta
Warheads, Exercise, F/GMS
Warheads, HE Loaded, F/GMS
X
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-22
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
R
H
E
A
D
S
M
I
S
S
I
L
E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
D
E
M
O
L
I
T
I
O
N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-23
Annex A to Appendix D
PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
R
O
J
E
C
T
I
L
E
S
TYPE OF AMMUNITION
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
H
E
A
D
S
Warheads, Rockets, 5.00", Chafe, III
X
Warheads, Rockets, 2.75" and 5.00", Chemical, WP
X
Warheads, f/RAP and Rockets, HE Loaded
X
F
I
X
E
D
A
M
M
O
G
U
N
&
R
O
C
K
E
T
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
A
N
T
R
O
C
K
E
T
G
U
N,
G
U
N,
B
A
G
C
A
S
E
D
L
I
Q
U
I
D
T
Y
P
E
F
U
Z
E
S
F
U
E
L
Warheads, Torpedo, HE Loaded
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
See Paragraph 3-57 NAVSEA OP4
May be stowed, if authorized by COMNAVSEASYSCOM, in separate stowage only.
If not assembled, fuses and charges will be segregated in individual lockers.
Can be stowed with assembled, service torpedoes on tenders.
To be stowed above deck in dry jettisonable lockers only.
Figure D-A-1. Permissible Stowage of
D-A-24
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Permissible Stowage of Ammunition and Explosives
AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES
TYPE OF MAGAZINE
P
Y
R
O
T
E
C
H
N
I
C
C
H
E
M
I
C
A
L
B
O
M
B
T
Y
P
E
S
M
A
L
L
A
R
M
S
W
A
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H
E
A
D
S
M
I
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S
I
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E
S
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
E
D
G
R
E
N
A
D
E
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
D
E
T
O
N
A
T
O
R
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
X
R
E
A
D
Y
S
E
R
V
I
C
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D
E
M
O
L
I
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I
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N
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S
P
E
C
I
A
L
L
O
C
K
E
R
S
REMARKS
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ammunition and Explosives (cont'd)
D-A-25
Annex A to Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-A-26
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX B TO APPENDIX D
AVIATION ORDNANCE TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS AND
INSTRUCTIONS LIBRARY CHECKLIST
1. Instructions:
____
Naval Warfare Publication 3-01.4
Helicopter Operating Procedures for Air-Capable Ships.
____
OPNAVINST 3120.32 (series)
Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy.
____
OPNAVINST 5100.19 (series)
Navy Safety Precautions for Forces Afloat.
____
OPNAVINST 5102.1 (series)
Mishap Investigation and Reporting.
____
OPNAVINST 5530.1 (series)
Department of the Navy Physical Security Instruction for Sensitive Conventional
Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (AA&E).
____
OPNAVINST 8600.2 (series)
Naval Airborne Weapons Maintenance Manual.
____
NAVSEAINST 8020.6 (series)
Weapon System Explosive Safety Review Program.
____
Title 46 Code of Federal Regulations 146.29
Detailed Regulations Governing the Transportation of Military Explosives and
Hazardous Munitions Onboard Vessels.
____
SPCCINST 8010.12
Supply Management of Ammunition; Policy, Procedures and Responsibilities.
____
COMNAVSURFLANTINST 8023.4/COMNAVSURFPACINST 8023.5
Non-Nuclear Ordnance/Explosive Handling Qualification and Certification Program.
____
COMNAVSURFLANTINST 9093.3
Commander Naval Surface Force, US Atlantic Fleet Combat System Officers
Manual.
____
Naval Safety Center Instruction 8020.1
Ship/Submarine Explosives Safety Surveys and Checklist.
D-B-1
Annex B to Appendix D
2. Bills:
____
Ships EMCON Bill.
____
Ships HERO Bill.
____
Ships HERO Survey.
3. Publications:
____
General Specifications for Ships, US Navy.
____
Naval Ships Technical Manual (S9086-VG-STM-000) Chapter 7.
____
NAVSEA S9522-AA-HBK-010
Instruction Book Magazine Sprinkler System.
____
NAVSEA OP-4
Ammunition Afloat.
____
NAVSEA OP-1014
Ordnance Safety Precautions.
____
NAVSEA OP-2165 Volume 1
Navy Transportation Safety Handbook.
____
NAVSEA SW060-AA-MMA-010
Demolition Material.
____
NAVSEA SW050-AB-MMA-010
Pyrotechnic Screening and Marking Devices.
____
NAVSEA OP-2238
Identification of Ammunition.
____
NAVSEA SW050-AC-ORD-010/NA-11-15-8
Toxic Hazard Associated with Pyrotechnic Devices.
____
NAVSEA OP-3347
US Navy Ordnance Safety Precautions.
____
NAVAIR 11-1-116B/TWO010-AA-ORD-030
Naval Ammunition Logistic Codes (NALC).
____
NAVAIR 11-1F-2
Fuze Manual, Airborne Bomb and Rocket, Description and Characteristics.
D-B-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aviation Ordnance Technical Publications and Instructions Library Checklist
____
NAVAIR NA-00-80R-14
Aircraft Firefighting & Rescue Manual.
____
NWP 3-04.1M
Helicopter Operating Procedures for Air-Capable Ships.
____
NAVAIR 11-85-5
Airborne Rockets.
____
NAVAIR 11-75A-61
2.75 Inch Airborne Rocket Launchers (LAU-61, 68 series).
____
NAVAIR 11-120A-1.1/1.2
Airborne Weapons Packaging, Handling and Stowage.
____
NAVAIR 19-15BC-12
AERO-12C, Bomb Skid.
____
NAVAIR 19-600-96-6-4
Calendar Maintenance Requirement Cards Bomb Skid, AERO-12B/C.
____
NAVAIR 19-95-1
Airborne Weapons/Stores Manual Checklist, Transportation and Loading Equipment
Configuration.
____
AW-820YB-MIB-000
HELLFIRE Missile, Fleet Missile Maintenance.
____
SW020-AC-SAF010, SW020-AC-SAF-020, and SW020-AC-SAF030
Transportation and Storage Data for Ammunition, Explosives, and Related
Hazardous Materials.
____
TM 9-1425-429-12
STINGER Missile; Operational Organizational Maintenance Manual.
____
TM 9-1005-213-25
.50 Caliber Machine Gun.
____
Table D-A-1. PERMISSIBLE STOWAGE OF AMMUNITION AND
EXPLOSIVES TM 2.75 FFAR (Folding Fin Aerial Rocket)
D-B-3
Annex B to Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-B-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX C TO APPENDIX D
JOINT HELICOPTER HANDLING, QUALIFICATION, AND
CERTIFICATION FOR CONVENTIONAL AVIATION
ORDNANCE DEVICES
1. Ordnance and Explosive
Device Handling
Safe ordnance and explosive device
handling requires the attention of all echelons
of command. Qualification and certification
of aviation personnel in the safe, efficient
handling of ordnance and explosive devices
should be structured around existing training
programs.
tasks. Personnel conducting magazine
inspections, maintenance on aircraft, safety,
and survival equipment, or performing any
function that involves ordnance and explosive
devices will be included in this program.
Supervisors of ordnance and explosive device
operations will be individually certified for
evolutions that they may supervise or observe.
c. Team L e a d e r Q u a l i f i c a t i o n
Certification. Personnel who have been
previously qualified and certified to the I level
2. Qualification Procedures
whose duties require that they direct and
Qualification of personnel will be as a team supervise others in safe and reliable operations
member (TM), individual (I), team leader may be designated as TL.
(TL), quality assurance (QA), instructor (IN),
d. Quality Assurance Qualification and
and safety observer (SO).
Certification. QA qualification and
certification will be certified to the I or TL
3. Certification
level and have detailed knowledge of
When qualified and recommended for applicable ordnance and explosive devices or
certification, each person will be issued systems inspection criteria to determine that
the device or system will function properly.
certification by the parent Service.
In addition, personnel must be able to
a. Team Member Qualification and determine that the necessary assembly or
Certification. All personnel whose duties installation procedures have been completed
require handling, packaging, unpacking, using applicable directives. Personnel who
assembling or disassembling, fuzing, loading, are QA representatives or collateral duty QA
downloading, arming, or de-arming of representatives and perform functions
ordnance and explosive devices will be involving explosive devices will also be
qualified and certified as team members. This qualified and certified as a minimum to QA
level indicates an in-training status and applies level and as SOs as outlined in the following
to personnel that must be supervised in the paragraph.
performance of their duties.
e. Safety Observer Qualification and
b. Individual Qualification and Certification. The qualification and
Certification. Personnel whose duties certification standards of the SO will ensure
require that they individually inspect that the member has sufficient knowledge of
(including acting as safety observers), prepare, applicable safety procedures, equipment, and
adjust, arm, or de-arm ordnance and explosive devices under observation to be able to
devices will be qualified and certified for such recognize and react to violations.
D-C-1
Annex C to Appendix D
f. Instructor Qualification and
n. Targets and components.
Certification. To obtain an IN qualification
and certification, personnel will be qualified
o. Aircrew escape propulsion systems
and certified as I or TL and have developed (AEPS).
the necessary skills to instruct others using a
command-approved course of instruction.
p. Guided weapons (LGB, WALLEYE).
g. Duration and Revocation. The
expiration date and cause for revocation will
be determined by the parent Service of the
embarked detachment.
q. Destructors.
5. Explosive Operations
Each type of explosive operation will be
considered as a separate family. The following
list of explosive operations is considered
Each type of explosive device will be representative but not all inclusive:
considered as a separate family. The following
list of types of explosive devices is considered
a. Ashore Operations
representative, but not all inclusive:
• Receipt, segregation, storage, and issue
a. High-explosive bombs and components.
functions.
4. Explosive Devices
b. Cluster bomb units.
c. Special-purpose bombs (practice bombs
with marker charges, leaflet chaff).
• Aircraft arming and de-arming.
b. Afloat Operations
d. Pyrotechnics.
• Aircraft release and control system
checks.
e. Chemical ammunition.
• Aircraft loading and downloading.
f. Underwater sound signals.
• Aircraft arming and de-arming.
g. Demolition explosive and material.
• Installation or removal of AEPS or
cartridge-actuated devices.
h. Mines and components.
i. Cartridges and cartridge-actuated
devices.
j. Rocket warheads and components.
k. Small arms and landing force
ammunition.
l. Aircraft gun ammunition.
m. Air-launched guided missiles and
components.
D-C-2
• Ordnance and explosive device handling
and transporting.
• Ordnance and explosive device
unpackaging and packaging.
• Ordnance and explosive device
inspection, assembly, or disassembly.
• Aircraft gun handling, loading, or jam
clearing.
• Storage.
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Joint Helicopter Handling, Qualification,
and Certification for Conventional Aviation Ordnance Devices
6. Record of Certification
Documentation of certification will be
accomplished using Figure D-C-1. The
following notes will be used in its preparation.
D-C-3
Annex C to Appendix D
JOINT SHIPBOARD HELICOPTER OPERATIONS
MANUAL CONVENTIONAL AVIATION ORDNANCE DEVICES
CERTIFICATION/QUALIFICATION SHEET
CERTIFICATION LEVELS
TM TEAM MEMBER TL TEAM LEADER
SO SAFETY OBSERVER
I
INDIVIDUAL
QA QUALITY ASSURANCE IN INSTRUCTOR
WORK TASK CODES
1. STORAGE/STOWAGE 5. ARM/DE-ARM
9. AIRCRAFT RELEASE
2. HANDLING
6. TRANSPORTING
& CONTROL
3. ASSEMBLY/
7. MAGAZINE
DISASSEMBLY
INSPECTION
4. LOAD/DOWNLOAD
8. INSTALL/REMOVE
EXPLOSIVE WORK
CERT INDIVIDUAL
DEVICE
TASK FORCE LEVEL SIGNATURE
APPROVAL
AUTHORITY
DATE
CERT
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
CERTIFICATIONS ABOVE HAVE BEEN REVIEWED AND RECERTIFIED AS
PER DATES AND SIGNATURE INDICATED BELOW. EFFECTIVE FOR ___
MONTHS (NOTE: ITEMS NOT REQUIRED FOR RECERTIFICATION WILL BE
LINED OUT.).
INDIVIDUAL BEING CERTIFIED
APPROVAL AUTHORITY
________________________________________________________________________
SIGNATURE
DATE
SIGNATURE
DATE
________________________________________________________________________
SIGNATURE
DATE
SIGNATURE
DATE
________________________________________________________________________
SIGNATURE
DATE
SIGNATURE
DATE
________________________________________________________________________
NAME
GRADE
SSN/MOS
ACTIVITY
Figure D-C-1. Joint Shipboard Helicopter Operations Manual Conventional Aviation
Ordnance Devices Certification/Qualification Sheet
D-C-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Joint Helicopter Handling, Qualification,
and Certification for Conventional Aviation Ordnance Devices
Notes:
The following list of definitions and guidelines is provided to assist in preparation of the
record of certification.
a. Explosive Device. Applicable explosive device for which the person is being certified.
b. Individual Signature. Signature of person being certified. Signing acknowledges
certification level and work task code for the explosive device or family; therefore, a signature
is required for each line entry.
c. Conventional Ordnance Handling and Certification Board Chairman Signature. Signature
of the commanding officer, officer in charge, or department head designated to act as board
chairman.
d. Date Certified. Date certification is effective.
e. Recertification. Recertification or acceptance of certification from other commands
may be accomplished using the space provided. Once the individual has been recertified or
accepted and the board chairman signs and dates the form, the certification duration will be
determined by the parent Service.
f. Corrections. The use of whiteout or correction tape or a single line through the entire
entry and signature by the individual and board chairman for revocation of certification for
cause.
g. Delays. Normally, certification will occur within 30 days of the demonstrated proficiency
dates.
h. Family Groups. Family groups are explosive devices with similar characteristics as
represented in paragraph 4.
i. Certification Levels. List the highest certification level applicable. TM, I, TL, and QA
are interrelated. For example, an individual certified to the QA level is also qualified and
certified to perform as a TM, I, or TL.
D-C-5
Annex C to Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-C-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX D TO APPENDIX D
WEAPONS LOADING, STRIKEDOWN, DOWNLOADING,
AND RECOVERY
D-D-1
Annex D to Appendix D
WEAPONS LOADING, STRIKEDOWN, DOWNLOADING,
AND RECOVERY GUIDE
WEAPON
WEAPON
HANGAR
LOAD
RECOVERY 1/
STRIKEDOWN
DOWNLOAD
UNEXPENDED
HUNG
GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS
YES 2/
3/
YES 4/
YES 5/
YES 5/
DST
YES 3/
YES 4/
YES 5/
YES 5/
CBU-55 FAE
NO
NO
NO
NO
2.75 INCH ROCKETS
NO
NO 6/
YES
YES
5.0 INCH ROCKETS
NO
NO 6/
YES
YES
A/C PARACHUTE FLARE (MK-45)
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES 7/
YES 7/
YES 7/
YES 7/
FLARE DISPENSER (LOADED
WITH MK-45)
NO
NO
YES
YES
FLARE DISPENSER (LOADED
WITH LUU-2B/B)
YES 7/
YES 7/
YES 7/
YES 7/
YES
YES 8/ 9/
YES
YES
SIDEWINDER MISSILES
NO 10/
YES
YES
YES
MAVERICK
NO 10/
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES 3/
YES 4/
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO 4/
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES 5/
YES 6/
YES
YES
YES
YES 11/
YES
YES
NO 4/
YES
YES
YES
AN/ALE-X DISPENSER
YES
YES
YES
YES
AIR SHAFT CARTRIDGE
NO
NO
YES
YES
HELLFIRE MISSILES
NO
YES
YES
YES
.50-CAL MACHINE GUN
NO
NO
YES
YES
A/C PARACHUTE FLARE
(LUU-2B/B)
20MM GUNS/GPU-2A
MK-46 DECOY FLARES
TORPEDOES (ALL)
SUS CHARGE (MK-46)
SIDEARM MISSILES
MARINE MARKER
PRACTICE BOMBS
JAU-1B/JAU-22/B
CARTRIDGE TOW MISSILES
Figure D-D-1. Weapons Loading, Strikedown, Downloading, and Recovery Guide
D-D-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Weapons Loading, Strikedown, Downloading, and Recovery
WEAPONS LOADING, STRIKEDOWN, DOWNLOADING,
AND RECOVERY GUIDE
WEAPON
HANGAR
RECOVERY 1/
LOAD
STRIKEDOWN
DOWNLOAD
UNEXPENDED
HUNG
NO4/
YES
YES
YES
7.62MM GUNS
NO
NO
YES
YES
M118 GRENADE LAUNCHER
NO
NO
YES
YES
WEAPON
STINGER MISSILES
Notes:
1/ Guidance provided in this Annex is subject to individual tactical manual limitations.
2/ No mechanical nose fuzes will be installed on the hangar deck.
3/ Ejector cartridges will not be installed on the hangar.
4/ In the event of strikedown of a loaded aircraft to the hangar, the nose fuzes (as applicable)
and ejector and jettison cartridges will be removed immediately after the aircraft is in spot and
tied down.
5/ Arming wires and safety clips intact.
6/ LHAs with centerline elevators may lower aircraft to the hangar deck only if downloading on
the flight deck will delay the launch. Hangar deck downloading will be performed immediately
after the aircraft is in the spot and tied down.
7/ Impulse cartridges must be removed from dispensers loaded with LUU-2B/B parachute flares.
8/ The GPU-s gun pod is exempt from downloading requirements for up aircraft temporarily
spotted in the hangar and aircraft undergoing limited maintenance, e.g., turnaround
maintenance, providing compliance with all gun de-arm procedures has been accomplished.
9/ Strikedown or download of aircraft with jammed 20mm gun pods is prohibited.
10/ Air-launched missiles will not normally be loaded on the hangar deck except when
operational commitments so dictate. Commanding officers may authorize loading of missiles on
the hangar only up to the point of mechanical attachment of the weapon to the launcher or rack
in accordance with the procedures prescribed in the appropriate Loading Checklists.
11/ Normally, maintenance will not be conducted on aircraft loaded with weapons; however,
routine servicing and minor maintenance that would ready the aircraft for the next launch may be
conducted after all weapons are safed to the maximum degree possible.
Figure D-D-1. Weapons Loading, Strikedown, Downloading, and Recovery Guide (cont'd)
D-D-3
Annex D to Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-D-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
ANNEX E TO APPENDIX D
MUNITIONS COOKOFF TIME SUMMARY
D-E-1
BOMB COOKOFF TIME SUMMARY
0
MINIMUM FAST COOKOFF TIME
5
10
15
BOMBS
REMARKS
Time
Reaction
Firefighting Hazard
MK 82 MOD 1 Thermally Protected
3:33
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 4:00 minutes
MK 82 MOD 2 Thermally Protected
8:52
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 10:00 minutes
MK 82 MOD 5 Thermally Protected
8:49
Deflag/Det
Major after 9:00 minutes
Blu-110/8
3:00
Burn/Deflag
Major after 3:00 minutes
MK 84 MOD 3 Thermally Protected
8:45
Deflag/Det
Major after 9:00 minutes
Rockeye MK 20 MOD 6 Thermally Protected
6:15
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 6:00 minutes
1:13
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 1:00 minutes
2:00
Deflag
Major after 2:00 minutes
2:30
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 1:00 minutes
6:32
Burn/Deflag
Major after 6:00 minutes
0:30
Major after 5:00 minutes
1:50
Burn/Deflag/
Expl/Det
Deflag/Expl
Major after 2:00 minutes
2:04
Deflag/Expl/Det
Major after 2:00 minutes
2:32
Deflag/Det
Major after 2:00 minutes
3:02
Deflag/Det
Major after 2:00 minutes
(minutes/seconds)
Rockeye MK 20 MOD 3
WARNING
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Ensure that AFFF is
FAE CBU-55 CBU-72 continuously applied to all
weapons exposed to fire. Water
hose lines should not be used
APAM CBU-598
for ordnance cooling until after
the fire is extinguished. The use
of water for ordnance cooling
Gator CBU-78 8
may delay extinguishment by
diluting or washing away the
MK 77 Fire Bomb
AFFF blanket. Postfire ordnance
cooling (AFFF or water) shall
MK 81 MOD 1
continue for a minimum of 15
minutes to allow the weapons
cases to return to safe ambient
MK 82 MOD 1
temperatures. Post aircraft fire
overhauls/salvage events shall
MK 83 MOD 4
not begin until all weapons have
been determined safe or
MK 84 MOD 2
removed by explosive ordnance
WARNING
Weapons with submunitions
(i.e. Rockeye, Gator,
Tomahawk BGM-109D, and
APAM), when exposed to fire,
disburse unreacted
bomblets/mines to distances
greater than 1/4 mile. Loose
bomblets/mines may be armed
and are extremely dangerous
and should be disposed of by
EOD personnel only.
Figure D-E-1. Bomb Cookoff Time Summary
Annex E to Appendix D
D-E-2
BOMB COOKOFF TIME SUMMARY
AIR-LAUNCHED MISSILE COOKOFF TIME SUMMARY
AIR-LAUNCHED MISSILE COOKOFF
TIME SUMMARY
SYSTEM
PHOENIX (AIM-54A)
SPARROW (AIM-7F-M)
SIDEWINDER (AIM-9HL-M)
0
MINIMUM FAST COOKOFF TIME
1
2
3
4
5
(minutes/seconds)
Reaction
Motor
7:22
Burn/Deflag/Det
Major after 2:00 minutes
Warhead
3:00
Burn
Minor after 3:00 minutes
Motor
2:08
Burn/Deflag
Major after 2:00 minutes
Warhead
2:09
Burn
Motor (All)
0:43
Deflag/Expl
Minor after 3:00 minutes
Major if MK 38 MOD 1
Booster Used
Major After 40 Sec.
2:00
Deflag/Expl
Major After 2:00 Min.
2:09
Burn
Minor After 2:00 Min.
Warhead (H)
Warhead
0:51
Deflag/Expl
Major After 1:00 Min.
5:16
Deflag/Expl
Major After 5:00 Min.
1:58
Deflag/Burn
Major After 2:00 Min.
1:13
Propulsion
Major After 1:00 Min.
2:54
Burn
Minor After 2:30 Min.
Warhead
HARPOON (AGM-84A)
Launch Motor
Warhead
Motor
PENGUIN (AGM-119B)
WARNINGS AS IN
FIGURE D-E-1
Firefighting Hazard
1:37
Deflag/Burn
Major After 1:00 Min.
5:03
Deflag/Burn
Minor After 5:00 Min.
Warhead
D-E-3
Figure D-E-2. Air-Launched Missile Cookoff Time Summary
Munitions Cookoff Time Summary
Motor
TOW (BGM-71A)
REMARKS
Time
Warhead (L-M)
HARM (AIM-88A)
6
ROCKET'S COOKOFF
TIME SUMMARY
SYSTEM
MINIMUM FAST COOKOFF TIME
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
(minutes/seconds)
5-inch rocket in LAU-10
AA, BA, CA launcher
5-inch rockets in LAU-10
D A thermally protected launcher
REMARKS
Time
Reaction
Firefighting Hazard
1:50
Deflag/Expl./Det.
Major After 1:45 Min.
6:13
Deflag/Expl./Det.
Major After 9:00 Min.
2:30
Expl./Detonation
Major After 2:00 Min.
2 /5-inch rockets in LAU-68
or LAU-69 launcher
WARNING
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Ensure that AFFF is continuously applied to all weapons exposed to fires. Water hose lines should not be used for
ordnance cooling; may delay extinguishment by diluting or washing away the AFFF blanket. Postfire ordnance cooling
(AFFF or water) shall continue for a minimum of 15 minutes to allow the weapons cases to return to safe ambient
temperatures. Post aircraft fire overhaul and/or salvage events shall not begin until all weapons have been determined
safe or removed by explosive ordnance disposal personnel.
Figure D-E-3. Rocket Cookoff Time Summary
Annex E to Appendix D
D-E-4
ROCKET COOKOFF TIME SUMMARY
ANNEX F TO APPENDIX D
HELICOPTER WEAPONS CONFIGURATION - BY SERVICE
US MARINE CORPS
WEAPON
AIRCRAFT
TOW MISSILES
AH-1W
HELLFIRE MISSILES
AH-1W
SIDEWINDER MISSILES
AH-1W
SIDEARM MISSILES
PRELIMINARY AH-1W
2.75-INCH ROCKETS
AH-1W/UH-1N
5.00-INCH ROCKETS
AH-1W
SUU-25F/A FLARE DISPENSER
AH-1W
SUU-44/A FLARE DISPENSER
AH-1W
PRACTICE BOMBS (MK-76, BDU-33,
MK-106, BDU-48)
AH-1W
M197 20MM TURRET
AH-1W
ALE-39 CHAFF/DECOY FLARE
DISPENSER
AH-1W/UH-1N/
CH-46/CH-53
GAU-17 7.62MM MINI-GUN
UH-1N
M60 7.62MM MACHINE GUN
UH-1N
GAU-16 .50-CAL MACHINE GUN
UH-1N
XM-218 .50-CAL MACHINE GUN
CH-46/CH-53/UH-1N
Figure D-F-1. US Marine Corps Helicopter Weapons Configuration
D-F-1
Annex F to Appendix D
US ARMY
WEAPON
AIRCRAFT
M-130 FLARE/CHAFF
AH-1/AH-64/CH-47/EH-60/
UH-1/UH-60/
MH-60L/H (USA-SOF)
MH-47D/E (USA-SOF)
M-60 7.62 MACHINE GUN
UH-1/UH-60/CH-47
STINGER MISSILES
AH-1/AH-64/CH-47/
MH-60L(DAP) (USA-SOF)/
UH-60/OH-58C/OH-58D
2.75-INCH ROCKETS
OH-58D/AH-1/AH-64/AH-6/
MH-60L(DAP) (USA SOF)
HELLFIRE MISSILES
OH-58D/AH-64/AH-6/
MH-60L(DAP) (USA SOF)
.50-CAL MACHINE GUN
OH-58D/AH-6/
MH-60L(DAP) (USA SOF)
TOW MISSILES
AH-1
7.62 TURRET
AH-1S
2OMM TURRET
AH-1E/AH-1F
40MM GRENADE LAUNCHER
AH-1
3OMM RAPID FIRE CHAIN GUN
AH-64/
MH-60(DAP) (USA-SOF)
7.62 MINI GUN
AH-6/MH-60 A/L
MH-60K (USA-SOF)
MH-47D/E (USA-SOF)
Figure D-F-2. US Army Helicopter Weapons Configuration
D-F-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Helicopter Weapons Configuration — By Service
US AIR FORCE
WEAPON
AIRCRAFT
M-60 7.62 MACHINE GUN
M/HH-60G (USAF-RESCUE & SOF)
M-130 FLARE DISPENSER
M/HH-60G (USAF-RESCUE & SOF)
2.75-INCH ROCKETS
HH-60G (USAF-RESCUE & SOF)
.50-CAL MACHINE GUN
MH-53J (USAF-SOF)
MH-6OG (USAF-SOF)
7.62 MINI GUN (GUA-2B)
MH-53J (USAF-SOF)
M/HH-60G (USAF-RESCUE & SOF)
AN/ALE-40 DECOY CHAFF/FLARE
DISPENSER
HH-60G (USAF-RESCUE & SOF)
MH-53J (USAF-SOF)
Figure D-F-3. US Air Force Helicopter Weapons Configuration
US NAVY
WEAPON
AIRCRAFT
M60 7.62MM MACHINE GUN
HH-60/SH-60B/MH-53/
SH-2/SH-3/UH-1N/H-46D
.50-CAL MACHINE GUN
MH-53/UH-1N
ALE-39 CHAFF/DECOY FLARE DISPENSER
HH-60/SH-60B/MH-53/
SH-2/SH-3
M-130 FLARE/CHAFF
HH-60/SH-6OB/MH-53/
SH-2/SH-3
MK-46/50
SH-60B/SH-60F/SH-2/SH-3
2.76 ROCKETS
UH-1N
HELLFIRE MISSILES (AGM-114)
SH-60B/HH-60H
PENGUIN MISSILES (AGM-119)
SH-60B
50 Cal. (GAU 16)
SH-60B/HH-60H
Figure D-F-4. US Navy Helicopter Weapons Configuration
D-F-3
Annex F to Appendix D
Intentionally Blank
D-F-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX E
FLIGHT DECK CLOTHING COLOR CODING
PERSONNEL
HELMET 1/
JERSEY
SYMBOLS 2/
Aircraft Handling
Crew and Chockmen
Blue
Blue
Crew Number
Aircraft Handling
Officers, CPO, LPO
Yellow
Yellow
Billet Title
Elevator Operators
White
Blue
E
LSE (Crew Directors)
Yellow
Yellow
Crew Number
Maintenance Crews
Green
Green
Black Stripe and
Squadron Designator
Medical
White
White
Red Cross
Messengers and
Telephone Talkers
White
Blue
T
Photographers
Green
Green
P
Plane Captains
Brown
Brown
Squadron Designator
Ordnance
Red
Red
Black Stripe and
Squadron Designator/
ship’s billet title
Crash and Salvage
Crews
Red
Red
Crash/Salvage
Tractor Driver
Blue
Blue
Tractor
Maintenance Crews
Green
Green
Black Stripe broken by
abbreviation
of specialty (that is, P/P
(Power Plants)
Aviation Fuel Crew
Purple
Purple
F
Aviation Fuel Officer
Purple
Purple
Fuel Officer
Combat Cargo
White
White
Combat Cargo
Safety Observer
White
White
Green Cross
1/ Combination cranial.
2/ USCG flight deck clothing does not include symbols.
Figure E-1. Flight Deck Clothing Color Coding
E-1
Appendix E
Intentionally Blank
E-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
WARNING
This appendix contains information that may change without notice through
the joint publication system. If a conflict exists with more specific procedures,
those specific procedures will have precedence.
F-1
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Hand raised, thumb
up.
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms held out, hand
below waist level,
thumb turned
downward.
Same as day, except
with wands
Right or left arm
down, other arm
moved across the
body and extended
to indicate direction
to next marshaler
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms above head in
vertical position with
palms facing inward
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms down with
palms toward ground,
then moved up and
down several times
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Affirmative
(All clear)
Negative
(Not clear)
Proceed to Next
Marshaler
This Way
Slow Down
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals
F-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
Same as day, except
Point right arm
downward, left arm is with wands
repeatedly moved
upward and backward.
Speed of arm
movement indicates
rate of turn
REMARKS
Also used for spot
turn for airborne
aircraft. Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Turn to Left
Same as day, except
Point left arm
downward, right hand with wands
repeatedly moved
upward and backward.
Speed of arm
movement indicates
rate of turn
Also used for spot
turn for airborne
aircraft. Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Turn to Right
Arms extended from body
and held horizontal to
shoulders with hands
upraised and above eye
level, palms facing
backward. Execute
beckoning arm motion
angled backward. Rapidity
indicates speed desired of
aircraft
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Move Ahead
Arms crossed above
the head, palms
facing forward
Same as day, except Signal is Mandatory
with wands
Stop
"ON" - Arms above
head, open palms and
fingers raised with
palms toward aircraft,
then fist closed.
"ON" - Arms above
head then wands
crossed
"OFF" - Crossed
wands, then uncrossed
"OFF" - Reverse of
above
Brakes (On/Off)
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-3
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Left hand raised
Same as day, except
vertically overhead,
with wands
palm toward aircraft.
The other hand
indicates to personnel
concerned and
gestures toward
aircraft
Personnel Approaching
the Aircraft
Arms down, fists
closed, thumbs
extended inward,
swing arms from
extended position
inward
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms down, fists
closed, thumbs
extended outward,
swing arms outward
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
With arms above head,
the right hand clasps
left forearm and the left
fist is clenched
Similar to the day
signal except the right
wand is placed against
left forearm. The wand
in the left hand is held
vertical
Insert Chocks
Remove Chocks
Install Down Locks/
Undercarriage Pins
With arms and hands in Similar to day, except
"INSTALL DOWN
with wands
LOCKS" position, the
right hand unclasps the
left forearm
Remove Down Locks/
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Same as day, except
Hands above head, left
fist partially clenched,
with wands
right hand moved in
direction of left hand with
first two fingers (one
finger for SINS) extended
and inserted into circle
made by fingers of the left
hand
Connect Ground
Electrical Power
Supply/SINS
Hands above head, left Same as day, except
fist partially clenched,
with wands
right hand moved away
from left hand
withdrawing first two
fingers (one finger for
SINS) from circle made
by fingers of the left hand
Disconnect Ground
Electrical Power
Left hand overhead with
appropriate number of
fingers extended, to
indicate the number of
the engine to be
started, and circular
motion of right hand at
head level
Similar to day, except
that the wand in the
left hand will be
flashed to indicate the
engine to be started
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms down with palms
toward ground, then
either right or left arm
waved up and down
indicating that left or
right side engines,
respectively should be
slowed down
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Either arm and hand
level with shoulder,
hand moving across
throat, palm downward.
The hand is moved
sideways with the arm
remaining bent
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Start Engines
Slow Down Engines On
Indicated Side
Cut Engines
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-5
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Hands together
overhead, opened from
the wrists in a "V", then
closed suddenly
Same as day, except
with wands
Lock Tail Wheel
Hands overhead, palms Same as day, except
together, then hands
with wands
opened from the wrists to
form a "V", wrists
remaining together
Unlock Tail Wheel
DAY
Arms straight out at
sides, then swept
forward and hugged
around shoulders
NIGHT
Same as day, except
with wands
Fold Wings/Helicopter Blades
DAY
NIGHT
Arms hugged around
Same as day, except
shoulders, then swept
with wands
straight out to the sides
Spread Wings/Helicopter Blades
Hit right elbow with
palm of left hand
Similar to day, except
with wands
Lock Wings/
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
Body bent forward at
the waist, hands held
with fingertips touching
in front of body and
elbows bent at
approximately 45
degrees, then arms
swing downward and
outward
Same as day, except
with wands
REMARKS
Open Weapon Bay(s),
Door(s)
Body bent forward at the Same as day, except
waist and arms extended with wands
horizontally, then arms
swing downward and in
until fingertips touch in
front of the body with
elbows bent at
approximately 45 degrees
Close Weapon Bay(s),
Door(s)
Director conceals left
Same as day, except
hand and makes
with wands
circular motion of right
hand over head in
horizontal plane ending
in a throwing motion of
arm toward direction of
takeoff
Takeoff
Describes a large figure Same as day, except
eight with one hand and with wands
points to fire area with
the other hand
Signal is meant for
information only. Pilot
should be given a
"CUT ENGINE" or
continuous
"TURNUP" signal, as
appropriate
Engine Fire
Point to nose with index
finger while indicating
direction of turn with
other index finger
Same as day, except
with wands
Engage Nose Gear
Steering
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-7
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Point to nose with index Same as day, except
finger, lateral wave with with wands
open palm of other hand
at shoulder height
Disengage Nose Gear
Steering
Hold nose with left
Same as day, except
hand, right hand moving with wands
horizontally at waist
level.
a. Affirmative signal
immediately following means:
MAN IS TENDING BAR
b. A negative signal
immediately following means:
NO ONE IS TENDING BAR
Tiller Bar/Steering Arm
in Place
Swings arms apart,
thumbs extended
outward
Using hand held light
or flashlight, gives
on/off signals at one
second intervals
Remove Chocks and/or
Tiedowns (pilot)
To tiedown crew: Makes Same as day, except
wiping motion down left with wands
arm with right hand
Remove Tiedowns
(Director)
Swings arms together,
thumbs extended
inward. In single piloted
aircraft, pilot may swing
one arm alternately
from each side, thumb
extended inward
Moves hand held light
or flashlight at eye level
in a horizontal plane
alternately inward from
each side
Insert Chock and/or
Install Tiedowns (pilot)
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
To tiedown crew:
Same as day, except
Rotates hands in a
with wands
circle perpendicular to
and in front of his body
Install Tiedowns
(Director)
Same signal as
Same as day, except
"INSTALL
with wands
TIEDOWNS", followed
by "thumbs up"
Tiedowns In Place
(Director)
Moves forefinger in a
circular motion in view
of director to indicate
that he is ready to run
up engines
Makes circular motion Director responds
with hand-held light
with same signal
(wand at night) to
indicate "clear to run
up"
Engine Run Up (Pilot)
Makes rapid fanning
Same as day, except
motion with one hand in with wands
front of face and points
to wheel with other
hand
Hot Brakes
Points to eyes with two
fingers to signal "lights
on"
Flashing wands
When lights are
already on, same
signal is used to signal
"lights off."
Lights (On/Off)
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-9
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Hold one hand open,
Same as day, except
motionless and high
with wands
above head, with palm
forward
I Have Command
Points to power unit
Same as day, except
exhaust with left hand with wands
index finger; moves
right hand in horizontal
circle, index and
middle finger pointing
downward.
Start Aircraft Auxiliary
Power Unit
Makes "throat cutting"
action with left hand;
moves right hand in
horizontal circle, index
and middle fingers
pointing downward
Same as day, except
with wands
Extend arms sideways
from body and parallel
to deck; then move
them up and down
Same as day, except
with wands
Left arm raised above
shoulder with number of
fingers extended to
indicate affected
engine; right hand
describes pendulum
motion between waist
and knees
Similar to day signal
except that wand in left
hand will be flashed to
indicate the number of
the affected engine
Stop Aircraft Auxiliary
Power Unit
Need EOD Personnel
Signal is for
information only; pilot
should be given "CUT
ENGINE" or
continuous "TURNUP"
signal as appropriate
Fuel Discharge During Start
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-10
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Marshaler stands with arms
raised vertically above head
and facing toward the point
where the aircraft is to land.
The arms are lowered
repeatedly from a vertical to
a horizontal position,
stopping finally in the
horizontal position
Same as day, except
with wands
Arms extended
horizontally sideways
beckoning upwards,
with palms turned up.
Speed of movement
indicates rate of
ascent
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Arms extended
horizontally sideways,
palms downward
Same as day except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Landing Direction
Move Upward
Hover
Arms extended
Same as day, except
horizontally sidways
with wands
beckoning downwards,
with palms turned down.
Speed of movement
indicates rate of
descent
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
Move Downward
Right arm extended
horizontally sideways in
direction of movement
and other arm swung
over the head in same
direction, in a repeating
movement
Same as day, except
with wands
Move to Left
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-11
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Left arm extended
horizontally sideways
in direction of
movement and other
arm swung over the
head in same
direction, in a
repeating movement
Same as day, except
with wands
When aircraft
approaches director
with landing gear
retracted, marshaler
gives signal by side
view of a cranking
circular motion of the
hands
Same as day, except
with wands
Waving of arms over
the head
Same as day except
with wands
Signal is Mandatory
Arms crossed and
extended downwards in
front of the body
Same as day, except
with wands
Conforms to
International Civil
Aviation Organization
signal
When rotor starts to
"run down" marshaler
stands with both hands
raised above head, fists
closed, thumbs pointing
out
Same as day, except
with wands
Move to Right
Lower Wheels
Waveoff
Land
Droop Stops Out
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-12
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
When droop stops go
in, marshaler turns
thumbs inward
Same as day, except
with wands
REMARKS
Droop Stops In
Left hand above head, Same as day, except
right hand pointing to with wands
individual boots for
removal
Remove Blade
Tiedowns
Circular motion in
horizontal plane with
right hand above head
Same as day, except
with wands
Rope climbing motion
with hands
Same as day, except
with wands
Engage Rotor(s)
Hook Up Load
Left arm extended
Same as day, except
forward horizontally, fist with wands
clenched, right hand
making horizontal
slicing movement below
the left fist, palm
downward
Release Load
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-13
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
Bend left arm
horizontally across
chest with fist
clenched, palm
downward; open right
hand pointed up
vertically to center of
left fist
Same as day, except
with wands
Left arm horizontal in
front of body, fist
clenched, right hand
with palm turned
upwards making
upward motion
Same as day, except
with wands
Left arm horizontal in
front of body, fist
clenched, right hand
with palm turned
downwards making
downward motion
Same as day, except
with wands
A signal similar to
"RELEASE LOAD"
except that the right
hand has the palm
downward and not
clenched. Rapid
repetition of right hand
movement indicates
urgency
Same as day, except
with wands
Bend elbow across
chest, palm downward.
Extend arm outward to
horizontal position,
keeping palm open and
facing down
Same as day, except
with wands
REMARKS
Load Has Not Been
Released
Winch Up
Winch Down
Cut Cable
Spread Pylon
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-14
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
Extend right arm
horizontally, palm
downward. Bend arm
keeping palm down
Same as day, except
with wands
Helicopter
crewmember brings
thumb to mouth as if
drinking from a glass
Same as day, except
use RED lens
flashlight
REMARKS
Fold Pylon
I Desire HIFR/Fuel
Helicopter crewmember Helicopter
makes circular motion
crewmember makes
with right hand
circular motion with
RED lens flashlight
Commence Fueling
Ship's fuel crewmember
holds GREEN device
vertically over RED
device
Ship's fuel
crewmember holds
GREEN wand
vertically over RED
wand
Helicopter crewmember
makes horizontal
cutting motion of right
hand across throat
Helicopter
crewmember makes
horizontal motion with
RED lens flashlight
Am Pumping Fuel
Cease Fueling
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-15
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
Ship's fuel
crewmember holds
RED device over
GREEN device
NIGHT
REMARKS
Ship's fuel
crewmember hold
RED wand vertically
over GREEN wand
Have Ceased
Pumping Fuel
Helicopter
Helicopter
crewmember makes
crewmember makes
vertical motion of hand vertical motion with
RED lens flashlight
Desire To Move Over
Deck And Return Hose
Landing signal
Landing signal
enlisted/Director makes enlisted/Director
"WAVE OFF" signal
makes "WAVE OFF"
Signal is mandatory
signal with wands
Execute Emergency
Breakaway
Moves hand in a circle
perpendicular to the
deck; follows with a
"thumbs up" signal.
Signify by number of
fingers engine to be
started
Turns on flashlight or
movable light and
moves it in a circle
perpendicular to the
deck
The air officer shall
signal authority to
start engines by
illuminating a RED
rotating beacon
Moves hand in
horizontal circle at eye
level, index finger
extended. Aircraft lights
"flashing bright."
Same as day except
holds RED light in
hand. Aircraft lights
"flashing dim."
At night, aircraft
lights should be on
"flashing dim" until
aircraft is declared
up and ready for
takeoff by the pilot
Ready to Start Engine
(Pilot)
Ready to Engage
Rotors (Pilot)
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-16
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
Faces Pri-Fly: Holds
left fist above head;
gives circular motion
of right hand above
head, index finger
extended
Rotates one wand at
chest level; holds
other wand above
head
The air officer shall
signal authority to
engage rotors by
illuminating a YELLOW
rotating beacon
Gives "thumbs up"
signal at eye level.
Aircraft lights "steady
bright."
Places running and
formation lights on
"steady dim." May give
"thumbs up" signal by
turning on flashlight or
other moveable lights
and moving it up and
down
Faces Pri-Fly: Holds
right thumb up at eye
level; holds left fist at
eye level
Signal not required.
Pilot's "steady dim"
indicates readiness to
Pri-Fly
Ready to Engage
Rotors (LSE)
Ready for Takeoff
(Pilot)
The air officer shall
signal authority for
launch of helicopters
by illuminating a
GREEN rotating
beacon
Ready for Takeoff (LSE)
To tiedown crew: Makes Same as day, except
wiping motion down left holds AMBER wands
arm with right hand
Remove Tiedowns
(LSE)
Stands in full view of
Same as day, except
pilot and LSE and holds illuminates tiedown
tiedown and chocks
with AMBER flashlight
extended to side
Tiedowns Removed
(Deck Crew)
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-17
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
DAY
NIGHT
REMARKS
To tiedown crew:
Same as day, except
Rotates hands in a
with AMBER wands
circle perpendicular to
and in front of his body
Give "HOLD" signal
as soon as first
tiedown is attached
Holds left fist above
head; makes throat
cutting action wtih
right hand
Same as day, except
with AMBER wands
Give "HOLD" signal as
soon as first tiedown is
attached. The air
officer shall signal
authority to disengage
rotors by illuminating a
YELLOW rotating
beacon
Arms extended, makes
short up and down
chopping action,
alternating hands
Same as day, except
with AMBER wands
Install Tiedowns (LSE)
Disengage Rotors (LSE)
Hook Not Down/Up
Use standard fixed-wing Same as day, except
aircraft turn signal,
with AMBER wands
pointing with hand to
wheel to be pivoted and
giving "come-on" with
other hand
Turn Left/Right
Makes clenched fists at
eye level
Hold crossed wands
(any color) overhead
Signal is mandatory
Hold Position
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-18
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
FROM
TO
EXECUTION
Director
Pilot
Day: Touch end of nose
with forefinger. Then give
"thumbs up" signal with
same hand.
Night: Touch end of nose
with wand. Then give "up"
signal with same wand
Director
Pilot
Day: Touch end of nose with
forefinger. Then, sweep arm
downward in direction of
aircraft movement
Night: Touch end of nose
with wand. Then, sweep
wand downward in direction
of aircraft movement
Director
Deck Crew, Pilot
Elevator Safety Petty
Officer/Director
Elevator Operator Day: Raise both index
Elevator Safety Petty
Officer/Director
Elevator Operator Day: Lower both index
Tiller Bar in Place
Tiller Bar Removed
Day: Position forearms
flat against each other in
front of and
perpendicular to body
Night: Same as day,
except with wands
Wing Rider
Day
Night
fingers extended upward
chest level, in close
together, near body
Night: Raise both wands
pointed upward at
shoulder level, close
together, and near body
Raise Safety Stanchion
Day
Night
Lower Safety Stanchion
fingers, extended
downward, chest level,
close together, and near
body
Night: Lower both wands
pointed downward at waist
level, in close together,
and near body
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-19
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
Day
FROM
TO
EXECUTION
Elevator Safety Petty
Officer/Director
Elevator Operator Day: Fully extend both
arms with index finger
pointing upward
Night: Fully extend both
arms with wands pointing
upward
Elevator Safety Petty
Officer/Director
Elevator Operator Day: Fully extend both
arms with index finger
pointing downward
Night: Fully extend both
arms with wands pointing
downward
Night
Raise Elevator
Day
Night
Lower Elevator
SIGNAL: DAY
Day
Night
NIGHT
MEANING
RESPONSE
RED banded
wands overhead
with tips touching
Pilot/Copilot/NFO:
Check all
armament
switches OFF or
SAFE
Pilot/Copilot/NFO: Raise
both hands into view of
arming supervisor after
checking switch positions.
(Hands remain in view during
check and hookup)
Same as day but
with RED banded
wands
Arming Crew:
Perform stray
voltage checks
Arming Crew: Give "thumbs up"
to arming supervisor if no stray
voltage exists. "Thumbs down"
indicates stray voltage problems.
Night: Vertical sweep with
flashlight indicates no stray
voltage. Horizontal sweep
indicates stray voltage
Raise Safety Stanchion
Stray Voltage Check
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-20
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Aircraft Handling Signals
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL: DAY
Arming Supervisor:
Raise fist, extended
upward to meet
horizontal palm of other
hand
NIGHT
MEANING
RESPONSE
Form a tee with
RED banded
wands
Arming Crew: Arm Arming Crew: Give arming
supervisor "thumbs up" when
weapons (as
arming completed and clear
applicable)
Same as day. Tips
of RED banded
wands touching
sound attenuators
Arming Crew:
Perform missile
check
Pilot: Give arming supervisor
"thumbs up" if tone is heard.
"Thumbs down" if no tone
Night: Same as signal 3 above
Touch tips of RED
banded wands in
front of body. Then
move one wand
laterally in a
sweeping motion
Arming Crew:
Remove bomb
rack/pylon safety
pins
Arming Crew: Shows pins to
arming supervisor and clear
immediate area
Night: Same as signal 3 above
(a) Vertical sweep
with RED handed
wand
Pilot:
(a) Aircraft armed
and all personnel
and equipment
clear
Pilot:
(a) Acknowledge with similar
signal
immediate area. "Thumbs down"
if malfunction exists.
Night: Vertical sweep with
flashlight indicates arming
completed. Horizontal sweep
indicates malfunction
Arming Signal
Arming Supervisor:
Raise both hands with
fingers pointing to
sound attenuators
Missile Check
Arming Supervisor:
Insert finger of one
hand into clenched fist
of other and give
extracting motion
Remove Safety Pins
Arming Supervisor:
Give pilot
(a) Thumbs up
(b) Thumbs down
(b) Horizontal
sweep with RED
banded wand
(b) Acknowledge with similar
signal
(b) Aircraft down
for weapons
Armed and Clear
Crossed standard
RED wands held
overhead
Suspend all
arming/safety
operations on
aircraft
Suspend arming and await
further instructions
Suspend All Arming
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-21
Appendix F
AIRCRAFT HANDLING SIGNALS
SIGNAL
NIGHT
Safing Supervisor: Hands
overhead with fingertips
touching
MEANING
RED banded
wands overhead
with tips touching
RESPONSE
Pilot/Copilot/NFO:
Check all
armament
switches OFF or
SAFE
Pilot/Copilot/NFO: Raise both
hands into view of safing
supervisor after checking
switch position. (Hands remain
in view during safing)
Safing
Signal
REFUELING AND FUEL QUANTITY SIGNALS
Movement of thumb to
mouth for requesting fuel
on board
Pat top of head
Top Off
Arm across chest, then extend
out horizontally
Fuel Status
Arm extended out horizontally,
then brought in to cross chest
Probe Out
Point finger at elbow
Fingers point at throat,
moving hand sideways
Close Dump Valve
Probe In
Cut Fuel
For Hundreds of Pounds
Clenched Fist
Followed By...
600
100
200
300
400
For Even
Thousands
of Pounds
500
800
700
6000
1000
2000
For Loads That Do Not Fall
On Even Thousands Of
Pounds, Example:
1000
1500 pounds
pounds
3000
4000
900
8000
7000
5000
9000
Example: 7400 pounds
Followed
by 500
pounds
Followed
by 400
pounds
7000
pounds
Double finger (a vertical signal followed by a horizontal one)
For Loads Of Ten Thousands Of Pounds And Over
Example:
Followed
Followed
12,000 pounds
by
by clenched
10,000 pounds
2000 lbs.
fist
Example: 12,500 pounds
10,000
pounds
Followed
by
2000 lbs.
Followed
by
500 lbs
Double finger (a vertical signal followed by a horizontal one) followed by a clenched fist for exact thousands, or a third finger signal for hundreds
Figure F-1. Aircraft Handling Signals (cont’d)
F-22
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX G
BREVITY CODES
ABORT. Cancel mission or I am unable to continue mission.
ALERT _____. Weapons to be launched, fired, or to be airborne within
_________ minutes.
ALPS. Estimated time of arrival at station.
ANGELS ______. Height of friendly aircraft in thousands of feet or fly (am flying at) height
indicated in thousands of feet, angels TEN (10,000 feet). If other than whole thousands of
feet are required, hundreds will be expressed as tenths of one thousand feet separated by the
word point, e.g., ANGELS TWO POINT FIVE (2,500 feet), ANGELS POINT NINE (900
feet).
ARMAMENT (SAFE/HOT). Select armament (SAFE/HOT) or armament is (SAFE/HOT).
_____ AWAY. Weapon indicated has been fired or released.
BALLBAT. Executive order to attack within limits.
BEADWINDOW. Your last transmission disclosed an essential element of friendly
information (EEFI). The number that follows, taken from the EEFI list in force (see ACP
125), identifies the nature of the disclosure.
BENT. Equipment indicated is inoperative. Canceled by OKAY.
BINGO. Proceed/Am proceeding to alternate or specified field or carrier.
BIRD. Surface-to-air missile.
BOGEY. An air contact that is unidentified and assumed to be enemy.
BOWWAVE:
B—Below or Base of cloud in thousands of feet. If below one thousand feet, use hundreds
of feet but ADD THE WORD “HUNDRED.”
O—Over or top of cloud layer in thousands of feet. If unknown use word “unknown.”
Note: If there is more than one cloud layer, report the base and top of the lower formation,
followed by the base and top of progressively higher layers (e.g., “two, twelve, seventeen,
twenty-five”).
W—Wind (8 points, N, NE, E, S, SW, W, NW) plus the velocity in knots. When wind is
missing, omit or use the word “unknown.”
G-1
Appendix G
W—Weather. General description of weather in plain language; such as clear; partly cloudy;
cloudy; overcast; light, moderate, or heavy rain; mist; haze; thunderstorm; and distant
lightning. Amplification of the weather should be made at the end of the report under “E.”
A—Amount of clouds in tenths.
V—Visibility in miles. Use a fraction if less than 1 mile.
E—Extra phenomena of significance such as turbulence, icing, heavy sea or swell, and
description of front. This is an elaboration of the report that includes anything of interest
in plain and concise language.
BREAKAWAY _____. Magnetic course to fly after attack or completion of intercept is
(three-digit group).
BROWNIE. Photographic devices.
BRUISER. Air-to-surface missile.
BULLDOG. Surface-to-surface missile.
BULLY. Concentrate attack on enemy target.
BUSTER. Fly at maximum continuous speed (power).
CANARY. “I” Band transponder.
CANDLE. Night illumination device.
CAP. Combat air patrol.
CERTSUB. Contact classified as certain submarine.
CHARLIE. Clearance to land; a numbered suffix indicates time delay in minutes before
landing may be expected.
CHAMP. Carrier-based antisubmarine warfare (ASW) fixed-wing aircraft capable of search
and attack.
CHATTER. Communications jamming.
CHERUBS. Aircraft altitude in hundreds of feet.
CHICKS. Friendly fighter aircraft.
CIPHER. UHF/HF voice encrypt or decrypt device.
G-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Brevity Codes
CLAM. Cease all or indicated electromagnetic and/or acoustice missions in accordance with
national instructions and exercise orders. Potential intelligence collector(s) in area (estimated
duration of CLAM hours).
CONTACT. Contact of interest.
COWBOY(S). Ship(s) of search attack group.
DART. Aircraft rocket.
DATUM. Last known position of a submarine or suspected submarine after contact has been
lost. Can also be used when referring to any target of interest’s last known position on the
ocean’s surface, e.g., survivor, missile, mine, vessels.
DECK CLEAR. Deck is now ready to resume launching and landing operations.
DECK FOUL. Unable to launch or land aircraft (followed by a numeral to indicate minutes
anticipated before ready to resume operations).
DELTA (_____). (_____) Hold and conserve fuel at altitude and position indicated.
DIP BOSS. ASW helicopter flight leader.
DITCHING. The forced alighting of an aircraft on water.
DIVERT. Proceed to alternate mission.
DROP POINT. Position of weapons release.
EMERGENCY STREAMER. Helicopter in forward flight effecting in-flight recovery of up
to 450 feet of sonar cable.
FAMISHED. Have you any instructions or information for me?
FATHER. TACAN.
FEET DRY. I am, or contact indicated is, over dry land.
FEET WET. I am, or contact indicated is, over water.
FOX. Air-to-air missile.
FREDDIE. Controlling unit for aircraft.
FREELANCE. Advisory control of aircraft is being employed or operated under advisory
control.
G-3
Appendix G
FREEZE. Executive order to designated helicopter(s) to remain hovering in present position
(canceled only by MELT).
GADGET. Radar or emitter equipment (type of equipment may be indicated by a letter as
listed in OPORD or appropriate publication).
GASMAN. Oil tanker.
GINGERBREAD. Voice imitative deception is suspected on this net.
HEADS UP. Enemy got through (part or all). Trouble headed your way. (May be followed
by amplification as to type of threat: BOGIES, BIRD).
HEY RUBE. Need support. Come to my assistance.
HIGH DRINK. Helicopter in flight refueling from a surface vessel.
HIGHWAY. Search _______ degrees from _______ (reference point).
HOLDING HANDS. Aircraft are joined or in close formation.
HOMEPLATE. Home airfield or home carrier.
HOOKER. Fishing or other small craft.
HORNET. Floating or drifting mine.
IN THE DARK. Not visible on my scope and any position information is estimated.
INDIANS. Ships of a surface action group.
INTRUDER. Unknown warship.
JUDY. Have visual on the contact.
KINGPIN. Reference point or sonobuoy estimated for reporting the position.
LIFEGUARD. Submarine or surface ship designated for SAR operations or a submarine or
surface ship stationed geographically for precautionary SAR assistance. Also, the name of
the unit designated to recover a man overboard for vessels conducting alongside operations.
LOST TRACK. Previous contact lost, provide target information.
MARSHAL. Enter holding at specific point.
MAYDAY. The international radio telephone distress signal that indicates that a ship, aircraft,
or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requests immediate assistance.
G-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Brevity Codes
MEATBALL. Pilot has landing aid source light image.
MELT. Informs helicopters that their movements are no longer restricted by FREEZE order.
MOTHER. Parent ship.
MULE. Ocean tugboat.
MUSIC. Electronic jamming (hostile, unknown, or friendly).
NANCY. Infrared equipment.
NOCAN. Unable to comply.
NOJOY. I’ve been unsuccessful or have no info.
ON TOP. I am over the datum, target, objective, or position indicated.
ORANGES SOUR. Weather is unsuitable for aircraft mission.
ORANGES SWEET. Weather is suitable for aircraft mission.
PAN. The international radiotelephone urgency signal meaning the calling station has a very
urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle or the
safety of a person.
PANCAKE. Land, or I wish to land (reason may be specified, e.g., PANCAKE AMMO,
PANCAKE FUEL).
PANTHER. Enemy nuclear submarine.
PARROT. A military IFF transponder.
PEDRO. USN rescue helicopter.
PELICAN. ASW long-range patrol aircraft capable of both search and attack.
PIGEONS ____. The magnetic bearing and distance of HOMEPLATE (or unit from you is
_____ degrees _____ miles).
PIRATE. Fast-moving surface radar contact, unidentified but assumed hostile.
PLAYMATE. Friendly ship, submarine, or aircraft with which I am operating.
__ POGO __. Switch to communications channel number preceding POGO. If unable to
establish communications, switch to channel number following POGO. If no channel number
follows POGO, return to this channel.
G-5
Appendix G
POPEYE. In clouds or area of reduced visibility.
PREP CHARLIE. Carrier(s) addressed land aircraft when ready. (Relay to aircraft when
ready).
PREVIEW. Advisory control of aircraft is being employed or operate under advisory control.
The assault craft unit requires notice from the aircraft of changes in heading, speed, and
altitude.
PRONTO. As quickly as possible.
RAT. Enemy fighter.
RATFINK. Enemy bomber.
RECCO. Aircraft search units.
RED. Attack by enemy aircraft or missile is imminent.
RESCAP. Rescue combat air patrol; provides protection to rescue vehicles from hostile
forces during all phases of SAR.
SAUNTER. Fly at best endurance.
SCAN. Search sector indicated and report any contacts.
SCRAM-(DIRECTION). Friendly unit is in immediate danger, withdraw or clear in the
direction indicated for safety.
SEE ME/YOU. Visual sighting of ship or aircraft.
SKIP IT. Do not attack, cease attack, cease interception.
SKUNK. A surface contact that is unidentified but assumed to be enemy.
SLY. Enemy patrol boat.
SNEAKER. SIGINT-configured nonfriendly vessel.
SOLO. Aircraft proceed on independent operations.
SOUR. Equipment indicated is not operating efficiently.
SPRITE. LAMPS aircraft.
STATE. Fuel state in hours and minutes.
STEER _____. Set magnetic heading indicated to reach me (or_____).
G-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Brevity Codes
STRANGER. An unidentified contact not associated with action in progress. (Bearing,
range, and altitude relative to you).
STRANGLE. Switch off equipment indicated.
SWEET. Equipment indicated is operating efficiently.
TAKE WITH. Engage target (indicated) with weapon (indicated).
TALLY HO. Target visually sighted.
TRACKING ____ SPEED ____. By my evaluation, contact is steering true course and at
speed indicated.
TROUT. Fishing trawler.
VAMPIRE. Hostile missile. (Amplifying information should follow as available.)
VAT “B.” Short weather report giving:
V—Visibility in miles.
A—Amount of clouds in tenths.
T—Height of cloud top in thousands of feet.
B—Height of cloud base in thousands of feet.
VECTAC. Vectored attack. (Ordered by “Executive RADAR VECTAC” or “EXECUTE
INFORMATIVE VECTAC.”)
VECTOR ____. Alter heading to magnetic or true heading indicated. Heading indicated
must be in three digits; e.g., VECTOR ZERO SIX ZERO (for homing, use STEER).
WARNING. Enemy attack.
WARNING RED. Attack by hostile aircraft or missile is imminent.
WARNING WHITE. Attack by hostile aircraft or missile is improbable.
WARNING YELLOW. Attack by enemy hostile aircraft or missile is probable.
WEAPONS FREE. Fire may be opened on all aircraft not recognized as friendly.
WEAPONS TIGHT. Do not open fire or cease firing on any aircraft (or on BOGEY specified
or in section indicated) unless target(s) known to be hostile.
WHAT FUEL. Report amount of fuel remaining.
G-7
Appendix G
WHAT LUCK. What are/were the results of assigned mission?
WHAT STATE. Report amount of fuel and missiles remaining. Ammunition and oxygen are
reported only when specifically requested or critical.
WHITE. Attack improbable.
YELLOW. Attack is probable.
ZIPLIP. A condition that can be prescribed in which flight operations conducted in VMC
conditions have positive communications control waived and only radio transmissions required
for flight safety are permitted.
ZIPPO. Alerts units that a missile attack is imminent or in progress.
ZOMBIE. An unidentified track observed adhering to the normal traffic pattern and whose
behavior does not constitute a threat.
G-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX H
REFERENCES
The development of Joint Pub 3-04.1 is based upon the following primary references.
1. Manuals
a. COMDTINST M3710.2 (series), “USCG Shipboard Helicopter Operational Procedures
Manual.”
b. NAVAIR 00-80T-105, “CV NATOPS Manual.”
c. NAVAIR 00-80T-106, “LHA/LPH/LHD NATOPS Manual.”
d. NWP 3-04.1M, “Helicopter Operating Procedures for Air Capable Ships.”
2. International Publication
a. NATO-APP 2C, “Helicopter Operations From Ships Other Than Aircraft Carriers
(HOSTAC).”
3. US Publications
a. Joint Pub 0-2, “Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF).”
b. Joint Pub 1-01, “Joint Publication System, Joint Doctrine and JTTP Development
Program.”
c. Joint Pub 1-02, “DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.”
d. Joint Pub 3-0, “Doctrine for Joint Operations.”
e. Joint Pub 3-04, “Doctrine for Joint Maritime Operations (Air).”
f. Joint Pub 3-50, “National Search and Rescue Manual Vol I: National Search and Rescue
System.”
g. Joint Pub 3-50.1, “National Search and Rescue Manual Vol II: Planning Handbook.”
h. NAWCAD ENG-7576, “Shipboard Aviation Facilities Resume.”
i. NAVAIR 11-1-116B/TWO010-AA-ORD-030, “Naval Ammunition Logistic Codes
(NALC).”
j. NAVAIR 11-1F-2, “Fuze Manual, Airborne Bomb and Rocket, Description and
Characteristics.”
H-1
Appendix H
k. NAVAIR 11-75A-61, “2.75 Inch Airborne Rocket Launchers (LAU-61, 68 series).”
l. NAVAIR 11-85-5, “Airborne Rockets.”
m. NAVAIR 11-120A-1.1/1.2, “Airborne Weapons Packaging, Handling and Stowage.”
n. NAVAIR 16-1-529, “Radiation Hazards.”
o. NAVAIR 19-15BC-12, “AERO-12C, Bomb Skid.”
p. NAVAIR 19-95-1, “Airborne Weapons/Stores Manual Checklist, Transportation and
Loading Equipment Configuration.”
q. NAVAIR 19-600-96-6-4, “Calendar Maintenance Requirement Cards Bomb Skid,
AERO-12B/C.”
r. NAVAIR NA-00-80R-14, “Aircraft Firefighting & Rescue Manual.”
s. NAVSEA OP-4, “Ammunition Afloat.”
t. NAVSEA OP-1014, “Ordnance Safety Precautions.”
u. NAVSEA OP-2165 Volume 1, “Navy Transportation Safety Handbook.”
v. NAVSEA OP-2212 SW060-AA-MMA-010, “Demolition Material.”
w. NAVSEA OP-2238, “Identification of Ammunition.”
x. NAVSEA OP-3347, “US Navy Ordnance Safety Precautions.”
y. NAVSEA S9086-VG-STM-000, “Naval Ships Technical Manual, Chapter 7.”
z. NAVSEA S9522-AA-HBK-010, “Instruction Book Magazine Sprinkler System.”
aa. NAVSEA SW050-AB-MMA-010, “Pyrotechnic Screening and Marking Devices.”
bb. NAVSEA SW050-AC-ORD-010/NA 11-15-8, “Toxic Hazard Associated with
Pyrotechnic Devices.”
cc. AW-820YB-MIB-000, “HELLFIRE Missile, Fleet Missile Maintenance.”
dd. TM 9-1005-213-25, “.50 Caliber Machine Gun.”
ee. TM 9-1425-429-12, “STINGER Missile; Operational Organizational Maintenance
Manual.”
H-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
References
4. Instructions
a. CFR46 Code of Federal Regulations 146.29, “Detailed Regulations Governing the
Transportation of Military Explosives and Hazardous Munitions Onboard Vessels.”
b. COMNAVSURFLANTINST 8023.4/COMNAVSURFPACINST 8023.5, “Non-Nuclear
Ordnance/Explosive Handling Qualification and Certification Program.”
c. COMNAVSURFLANTINST 9093.3, “Commander Naval Surface Force, US Atlantic
Fleet Combat System Officers Manual.”
d. Naval Safety Center Instruction 8020.1, “Ship/Submarine Explosives Safety Surveys
and Checklist.”
e. NAVSEAINST 8020.6 (series), “Weapon System Explosive Safety Review Program.”
f. OPNAVINST 3120.32 (series), “Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy.”
g. OPNAVINST 5100.19 (series), “Navy Safety Precautions for Forces Afloat.”
h. OPNAVINST 5102.1 (series), “Mishap Investigation and Reporting.”
i. OPNAVINST 5530.1 (series), “Department of the Navy Physical Security Instruction
for Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (AA&E).”
j. OPNAVINST 8600.2 (series), “Naval Airborne Weapons Maintenance Manual.”
k. SPCCINST 8010.12, “Supply Management of Ammunition; Policy, Procedures and
Responsibilities.”
5. Bills
Ship’s Bills are specific to individual ships and held onboard by each ship.
a. Ship’s EMCON Bill
b. Ship’s HERO Bill
c. Ship’s HERO Survey
d. Ship’s Fire Bill
e. Ship’s Helicopter Certification
f. General Quarters Bill
g. (Helicopter) Flight Quarters Bill
H-3
Appendix H
Intentionally Blank
H-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
APPENDIX J
ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS
1. User Comments
Users in the field are highly encouraged to submit comments on this publication to the
Joint Warfighting Center, Attn: Doctrine Division, Fenwick Road, Bldg 96, Fort Monroe,
VA 23651-5000. These comments should address content (accuracy, usefulness,
consistency, and organization), writing, and appearance.
2. Authorship
The lead agent for this publication is the US Navy. The Joint Staff doctrine sponsor for
this publication is the Director for Operational Plans and Interoperability (J-7).
3. Supersession
This publication supersedes Joint Pub 3-04.1, 28 June 1993, “Joint Tactics, Techniques,
and Procedures for Shipboard Helicopter Operations.”
4. Change Recommendations
a. Recommendations for urgent changes to this publication should be submitted:
TO:
INFO:
CNO WASHINGTON DC//N511//
JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC//J7-JDD//
Routine changes should be submitted to the Director for Operational Plans and
Interoperability (J-7), JDD, 7000 Joint Staff Pentagon, Washington, DC 20318-7000.
b. When a Joint Staff directorate submits a proposal to the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff that would change source document information reflected in this
publication, that directorate will include a proposed change to this publication as an
enclosure to its proposal. The Military Services and other organizations are requested
to notify the Director, J-7, Joint Staff, when changes to source documents reflected in
this publication are initiated.
c. Record of Changes:
CHANGE
COPY
DATE OF
DATE
POSTED
NUMBER
NUMBER
CHANGE
ENTERED BY
REMARKS
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
J-1
Appendix J
5. Distribution
a. Additional copies of this publication can be obtained through Service publication
centers.
b. Only approved pubs and test pubs are releasable outside the combatant commands,
Services, and Joint Staff. Release of any classified joint publication to foreign
governments or foreign nationals must be requested through the local embassy
(Defense Attaché Office) to DIA Foreign Liaison Office, PSS, Room 1A674, Pentagon,
Washington, DC 20301-7400.
c. Additional copies should be obtained from the Military Service assigned
administrative support responsibility by DOD Directive 5100.3, 1 November 1988,
“Support of the Headquarters of Unified, Specified, and Subordinate Joint Commands.”
By Military Services:
Army:
US Army AG Publication Center, SL
1655 Woodson Road
Attn: Joint Publications
St. Louis, MO 63114-6181
Air Force:
Air Force Publications Distribution Center
2800 Eastern Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21220-2896
Navy:
CO, Naval Inventory Control Point
700 Robbins Avenue
Bldg 1, Customer Service
Philadelphia, PA 19111-5099
Marine Corps:
Marine Corps Logistics Base
Albany, GA 31704-5000
Coast Guard:
Coast Guard Headquarters, COMDT (G-OPD)
2100 2nd Street, SW
Washington, DC 20593-0001
d. Local reproduction is authorized and access to unclassified publications is
unrestricted. However, access to and reproduction authorization for classified joint
publications must be in accordance with DOD Regulation 5200.1-R.
J-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
GLOSSARY
PART I—ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
1MC
general announcing system
AAAS
ACS
AEPS
AOSS
AS
ASW
AWSE
amphibious aviation assault ship
air-capable ship
aircrew escape propulsion system
aviation ordnance safety supervisor
aviation ship
antisubmarine warfare
armament weapons support equipment
BRC
base recovery course
CATCC
CCA
CIC
CNO
CO
COMDTINST
COMNAVAIRSYSCOM
COMNAVSEASYSCOM
CRIF
CV
carrier air traffic control center
carrier-controlled approach
combat information center
Chief of Naval Operations
commanding officer
Commandant, United States Coast Guard Instruction
Commander, Naval Air Systems Command
Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command
cargo routing information file
aircraft carrier
DF
DI
DLQ
DOD
DODIC
direction finding
dynamic interface
deck landing qualification
Department of Defense
Department of Defense identification code
EEFI
ELVA
EMCON
EMV
essential elements of friendly information
emergency low visibility approach
emission control
electromagnetic vulnerability
FLOLS
FOD
fresnel lens optical landing system
foreign object damage
HAC
HCO
HCS
HDC
HEFOE
HERO
HF
helicopter aircraft commander
helicopter control officer
helicopter control station
helicopter direction center
hydraulic electrical fuel oxygen engine
hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance
high frequency
GL-1
Glossary
HIFR
HRS
helicopter in-flight refueling
Horizon Reference System
I
IAW
IFF
IFR
IMC
IN
IP
individual
in accordance with
identification, friend or foe
instrument flight rules
instrument meteorological conditions
instructor
instructor pilot
JAG
JFC
JTTP
Judge Advocate General
joint force commander
joint tactics, techniques, and procedures
LHA
LHD
LOI
LOTS
LPH
LSE
LSO
general purpose amphibious assault ship
general purpose amphibious assault ship (with internal dock)
letter of instruction
logistics over-the-shore
amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter
landing signal enlisted
landing signal officer
MAP
MOU
missed approach point
memorandum of understanding
NALC
NATOPS
NAVAIDS
NAVAIR
NAVMTO
NAVSEA
NAVSEAINST
NAWCAD
NDB
NVD
NWP
naval ammunition logistics code
naval air training and operating procedures standardization
navigation aids
naval air
naval military transportation office
naval sea
Naval Sea Instruction
Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division
nondirectional beacon
night vision device
naval warfare publication
OCE
OIC
OLS
OOD
OPNAVINST
OPORD
OTC
officer conducting the exercise
officer in charge
optical landing system
officer of the deck
Chief of Naval Operations Instruction
operation order
officer in tactical command
PAR
PC
precision approach radar
pilot-in-command
GL-2
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Glossary
POD
Plan of the Day
QA
quality assurance
RAST
Recovery Assistance, Securing, and Traversing Systems
SAR
SGSI
SO
SOF
SSCO
search and rescue
stabilized glide slope indicator
safety observer
special operations forces
shipper’s service control office
TACAN
TL
TM
TYCOM
tactical air navigation
team leader
team member
type commander
UHF
USA
USAF
USCG
USMC
USN
UT
ultra high frequency
US Army
US Air Force
US Coast Guard
US Marine Corps
US Navy
unit trainer
VERTREP
VHF
VMC
V/STOL
vertical replenishment
very high frequency
visual meteorological conditions
vertical/short takeoff and landing aircraft
WSESRB
Weapon System Explosive Safety Review Board
XO
executive officer
GL-3
PART II—TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
air-capable ship. All ships other than aircraft
carriers; aircraft carriers, nuclear;
amphibious assault ships, landing platform
helicopter; general purpose amphibious
assault ships; or general purpose
amphibious assault ships (with internal
dock) from which aircraft can take off, be
recovered, or routinely receive and transfer
logistic support. (Approved for inclusion
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
explosive device in a ready or safe
condition i.e., rocket launchers, guided
missiles, guns—internal and pods,
paraflares—(external and SUU-44/25
dispenser). (NOTE: The removal or
installation of pylon or bomb rack safety
pins from a nonordnance-loaded station is
considered a function requiring
certification within the purview of this
publication.) (Approved for inclusion in
the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
aircraft release and control. Applies to those
procedures in the Release and Control arming. As applied to explosives, weapons,
and ammunition, the changing from a safe
Section of the applicable aircraft loading
condition to a state of readiness for
manual or checklist. (This term and its
initiation. (Joint Pub 1-02)
definition are applicable only in the context
of this pub and cannot be referenced outside
aviation ship. An aircraft carrier or aircraft
of this publication.)
carrier, nuclear. (Approved for inclusion
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
ambient temperature. Outside temperature
at any given altitude, preferably expressed
in degrees centigrade. (Approved for ball. A pilot voice report that the visual
inclusion in the next edition of Joint Pub
landing aid is in sight. (This term and its
1-02.)
definition are applicable only in the context
of this pub and cannot be referenced outside
amphibious aviation assault ship. An
of this publication.)
amphibious assault ship, landing platform
helicopter; general purpose amphibious base recovery course. A ship’s magnetic
assault ship; or general purpose amphibious
heading for aircraft recovery. Also called
assault ship (with internal dock).
BRC. (This term and its definition are
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
applicable only in the context of this pub
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
and cannot be referenced outside of this
publication.)
approach control. A control station in an
air operations control center, helicopter bill. A ship’s publication listing operational
direction center, or carrier air traffic control
or administrative procedures. (Approved
center, which is responsible for controlling
for inclusion in the next edition of Joint
air traffic from marshal until handoff to final
Pub 1-02.)
control. (Approved for inclusion in the next
edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
bingo. 1. When originated by pilot, means,
“I have reached minimal fuel for safe return
arm or de-arm. Applies to those procedures
to base or to designated alternate.” 2. When
in the arming or de-arming section of the
originated by controlling activity, means,
applicable aircraft loading manual or
“Proceed to alternate airfield or carrier as
checklist that places the ordnance or
specified.” (Joint Pub 1-02)
GL-4
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Glossary
cartridge actuated device. Small explosive
devices used to eject stores from launched
devices, actuate other explosive systems,
or provide initiation for aircrew escape
devices. (Approved for inclusion in the next
edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
associated reports by units afloat. Also
called COMNAVSEASYSCOM OP-4.
(This term and its definition are applicable
only in the context of this pub and cannot
be referenced outside of this publication.)
control area. A controlled airspace extending
combatant command (command authority).
upwards from a specified limit above the
Nontransferable command authority
Earth. (Joint Pub 1-02)
established by title 10 (“Armed Forces”),
United States Code, section 164, exercised control zone. A controlled airspace extending
only by commanders of unified or specified
upwards from the surface of the Earth to a
combatant commands unless otherwise
specified upper limit. (Joint Pub 1-02)
directed by the President or the Secretary
of Defense. Combatant command de-arming. An operation in which a weapon
(command authority) cannot be delegated
is changed from a state of readiness for
and is the authority of a combatant
initiation to a safe condition. Also called
commander to perform those functions of
safing. Also see arm or de-arm. (Approved
command over assigned forces involving
for inclusion in the next edition of Joint
organizing and employing commands and
Pub 1-02.)
forces, assigning tasks, designating
objectives, and giving authoritative deck status light. A three-colored light (red,
direction over all aspects of military
amber, green) controlled from the primary
operations, joint training, and logistics
flight control. Navy—The light displays
necessary to accomplish the missions
the status of the ship to support flight
assigned to the command. Combatant
operations. USCG—The light displays
command (command authority) should be
clearance for a helicopter to conduct a given
exercised through the commanders of
evolution.
subordinate organizations. Normally this
authority is exercised through subordinate
Red deck status—The helicopter is not
joint force commanders and Service and/
cleared for landing, takeoff, vertical
or functional component commanders.
replenishment, or helicopter in-flight
Combatant command (command authority)
refueling.
provides full authority to organize and
employ commands and forces as the
Amber deck status—The helicopter is
combatant commander considers necessary
cleared to start engine(s) and engage or
to accomplish assigned missions.
disengage rotors.
Operational control is inherent in combatant
command (command authority). Also
Green deck status—The helicopter is
called COCOM. (Joint Pub 1-02)
cleared for landing, takeoff, vertical
replenishment, or helicopter in-flight
Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command
refueling. (This term and its definition are
OP-4. NAVSEA OP-4 is a publication that
applicable only in the context of this pub
prescribes the minimum safety and
and cannot be referenced outside of this
certification requirements for issue,
publication.)
receiving, handling, stowage, surveillance,
maintenance, and return of conventional density altitude. An atmospheric density
ammunition along with the preparation of
expressed in terms of the altitude which
GL-5
Glossary
corresponds with that density in the electromagnetic interference. Any
standard atmosphere. (Joint Pub 1-02)
electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts,
obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits
downloading. An operation that removes
the effective performance of electronics/
airborne weapons or stores from an aircraft.
electrical equipment. It can be induced
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
intentionally, as in some forms of electronic
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of
spurious emissions and responses,
droop stop. A device to limit downward
intermodulation products, and the like.
vertical motion of helicopter rotor blades
Also called EMI. (Joint Pub 1-02)
upon rotor shutdown. (Joint Pub 1-02)
electromagnetic vulnerability.
The
electro-explosive device. An explosive or
characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer
pyrotechnic component that initiates an
a definite degradation (incapability to perform
explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical
the designated mission) as a result of having
train and is activated by the application of
been subjected to a certain level of
electrical energy. (Joint Pub 1-02)
electromagnetic environmental effects. Also
called EMV. (Joint Pub 1-02)
electromagnetic compatibility. The ability
of systems, equipment, and devices that emergency marshal. A marshal established
utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to
by an air operations control center,
operate in their intended operational
helicopter direction center, or carrier air
environments without suffering
traffic control center and given to each pilot
unacceptable degradation or causing
before launch with an altitude and an
unintentional degradation because of
emergency expected approach time. The
electromagnetic radiation or response. It
emergency marshal radial will have a
involves the application of sound
minimum of 30 degree separation from the
electromagnetic spectrum management;
primary marshal. (Approved for inclusion
system, equipment, and device design
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
configuration that ensures interference-free
operation; and clear concepts and doctrines final bearing. The magnetic bearing
that maximize operational effectiveness.
assigned by an air operations center,
Also called EMC. (Joint Pub 1-02)
helicopter direction center, or carrier air
traffic control center for final approach; an
electromagnetic environment. The resulting
extension of the landing area centerline.
product of the power and time distribution,
(Approved for inclusion in the next
in various frequency ranges, of the radiated
edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
or conducted electromagnetic emission
levels that may be encountered by a military Flight Deck Officer. Officer responsible for
force, system, or platform when performing
the safe movement of aircraft on or about
its assigned mission in its intended
the flight deck of an aviation-capable ship.
operational environment. It is the sum
Also called FDO. (Approved for inclusion
o f electromagnetic interference;
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
electromagnetic pulse; hazards of
electromagnetic radiation to personnel, flight quarters. A ship configuration that
ordnance, volatile materials; and natural
assigns and stations personnel at critical
phenomena effects of lightning and p-static.
positions to conduct safe flight operations.
Also called EME. (Joint Pub 1-02)
(Joint Pub 1-02)
GL-6
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Glossary
foreign object damage. Rags, pieces of
helicopter indoctrination course unless they
paper, line, articles of clothing, nuts, bolts,
are designated helicopter pilots. Also called
or tools that when misplaced or caught by
HCO. (Approved for inclusion in the next
air currents normally found around aircraft
edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
operations (jet blast, rotor or prop wash,
engine intake) cause damage to aircraft helicopter control station. A shipboard
systems or weapons or injury to personnel.
aircraft control tower, or, on ships not
Also called FOD. (Joint Pub 1-02)
equipped with a control tower, the
communications installation that serves as
guard. 1. A security element whose primary
such. On all Coast Guard cutters, the
task is to protect the main force by fighting
helicopter control station is located in the
to gain time, while also observing and
pilot house. Also called HCS. (Approved
reporting information. 2. A radio frequency
for inclusion in the next edition of Joint
that is normally used for emergency
Pub 1-02.)
transmissions and is continuously
monitored. UHF band: 243.0 MHZ; VHF helicopter direction center. In amphibious
band: 121.5 MHZ. (This term and its
operations, the primary direct control
definition modifies the existing term and
agency for the helicopter group/unit
its definition and is approved for inclusion
commander operating under the overall
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
control of the tactical air control center.
(Joint Pub 1-02)
handling (ordnance). Applies to those
individuals who engage in the breakout, HERO SAFE ordnance. Any ordnance item
lifting, or repositioning of ordnance or
that is percussion initiated, sufficiently
explosive devices in order to facilitate
shielded or otherwise so protected that all
storage or stowage, assembly or
electro-explosive devices contained by the
disassembly, loading or downloading, or
item are immune to adverse effects (safety
transporting. (Approved for inclusion in
or reliability) when the item is employed
the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
in its expected radio frequency
environments, provided that the general
hazards of electromagnetic radiation to
hazards of electromagnetic radiation to
ordnance. The danger of accidental
ordnance requirements defined in the hazards
actuation of electro-explosive devices or
from electromagnetic radiation manual are
otherwise electrically activating ordnance
observed. (Approved for inclusion in the next
because of RF electromagnetic fields. This
edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
unintended actuation could have safety
(premature firing) or reliability (dudding) HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance. Any
consequences. Also called HERO.
ordnance item containing electro-explosive
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
devices proven by test or analysis to be
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
adversely affected by radio frequency energy
to the point that the safety and/or reliability
helicopter control officer. In nonaviation
of the system is in jeopardy when the system
facility ships, the helicopter control officer
is employed in its expected radio frequency
will be responsible for the supervision and
environment. (Approved for inclusion in the
direction of launching and landing
next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
operations and for servicing and handling
of all embarked helicopters. Helicopter HERO UNSAFE ordnance. Any ordnance
control officers will be graduates of the
item containing electro-explosive devices that
GL-7
Glossary
has not been classified as HERO SAFE or landing signalman enlisted. Enlisted man
HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance as a result
responsible for ensuring that helicopters, on
of a hazards of electromagnetic radiation to
signal, are safely started, engaged,
ordnance (HERO) analysis or test is
launched, recovered, and shut down. Also
considered HERO UNSAFE ordnance.
called LSE. (Approved for inclusion in the
Additionally, any ordnance item containing
next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
electro-explosive devices, including those
previously classified as HERO SAFE or loading (ordnance). An operation that
HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance, which has
installs airborne weapons and stores on or
its internal wiring exposed; when tests are
in an aircraft and may include fuzing of
being conducted on the item that result in
bombs and stray voltage checks.
additional electrical connections to the item;
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
when electro-explosive devices having
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
exposed wire leads are present and handled
or loaded in any but the tested condition; when magazine inspection. Refers to the close
the item is being assembled or disassembled;
viewing and critical appraisal of existing
or when such ordnance items are damaged
conditions within ship, station magazines,
causing exposure of internal wiring or
or lockers, using standards established by
components or destroying engineered HERO
NAVSEA OP-4 and OP-5. (This term and
protective devices. (Approved for inclusion
its definition are applicable only in the
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
context of this pub and cannot be referenced
outside of this publication.)
hovering. A self-sustaining maneuver whereby
a fixed, or nearly fixed, position is maintained marshal. A bearing, distance, and altitude fix
relative to a spot on the surface of the Earth or
designated by an air operations center,
underwater. (Joint Pub 1-02)
helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic
control center on which the pilot will orientate
hung weapons. Those weapons or stores on
holding, and from which initial approach will
an aircraft that the pilot has attempted to
commence during an instrument approach.
drop or fire but could not because of a
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
malfunction of the weapon, rack or
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
launcher, or aircraft release and control
system. (Joint Pub 1-02)
multi-spot ship. Those ships certified to have
three or more adjacent landing areas.
instrument meteorological conditions.
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
Meteorological conditions expressed in
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and
ceiling, less than minimums specified for Naval Air Training and Operating
visual meteorological conditions. Also
Procedures Standardization Manual.
called IMC. (Joint Pub 1-02)
Series of general and specific aircraft
procedural manuals that govern the
landing signal officer. Officer responsible
operations of naval aircraft. Also called
for the visual control of aircraft in the
NATOPS. (This term and its definition are
terminal phase of the approach immediately
applicable only in the context of this pub
prior to landing. Also called LSO.
and cannot be referenced outside of this
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
publication.)
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
GL-8
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Glossary
NAVSEA OP-4. Publication that provides
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
policy for ammunition evolutions afloat.
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
(This term and its definition are applicable
only in the context of this pub and cannot positive control. A method of airspace control
be referenced outside of this publication.)
which relies on positive identification,
tracking, and direction of aircraft within an
NAVSEA OP-5. Publication that provides
airspace, conducted with electronic means by
policy for ammunition evolutions ashore.
an agency having the authority and
(This term and its definition are applicable
responsibility therein. (Joint Pub 1-02)
only in the context of this pub and cannot
be referenced outside of this publication.) precision approach. An approach in which
range, azimuth, and glide slope information
nonprecision approach. Radar-controlled
are provided to the pilot. (Joint Pub 1-02)
approach or an approach flown by
reference to navigation aids in which glide presail. The time prior to a ship getting under
slope information is not available.
way used to prepare for at-sea events. (This
(Joint Pub 1-02)
term and its definition are applicable only
in the context of this pub and cannot be
officer of the deck. The officer of the deck
referenced outside of this publication.)
under way has been designated by the
commanding officer to be in charge of the pressure-altitude. An atmospheric pressure
ship, including its safe and proper operation.
expressed in terms of altitude which
The officer of the deck reports directly to the
corresponds to that pressure in the standard
commanding officer for the safe navigation
atmosphere. (Joint Pub 1-02)
and general operation of the ship, to the
executive officer (and command duty officer primary flight control. The controlling
if appointed) for carrying out the ship’s
agency on aviation ships and amphibious
routine, and to the navigator on sighting
aviation assault ships that is responsible for
navigational landmarks and making course
air traffic control of aircraft within 5 nautical
and speed changes. Also called OOD.
miles of the ship. On Coast Guard cutters,
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
primary flight control duties are performed
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
by a combat information center, but the term
PriFly is not used. Also called PriFly.
operational necessity. A mission associated
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
with war or peacetime operations in which
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
the consequences of an action justify the
risk of loss of aircraft and crew. (Approved single-spot ship. Those ships certified to have
for inclusion in the next edition of Joint
less than three adjacent landing areas.
Pub 1-02.)
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
packup kit. Service-provided maintenance
gear including spare parts and spot. 1. To determine by observation,
consumables most commonly needed by
deviations of ordnance from the target for
the deployed helicopter detachment.
the purpose of supplying necessary
Supplies are sufficient for a short-term
information for the adjustment of fire. 2.
deployment but do not include all material
To place in a proper location. 3. An
needed for every maintenance task.
approved shipboard helicopter landing site.
GL-9
Glossary
(This term and its definition modifies the
existing term and its definition and is
approved for inclusion in the next edition
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
the hangar deck level. (Approved for
inclusion in the next edition of Joint Pub
1-02.)
transporting (ordnance). The movement or
spotting. 1. A process of determining by
repositioning of ordnance or explosive
visual or electronic observation, deviations
devices along established explosive routes
of artillery or naval gunfire from the target
(does not apply to the aircraft flight line).
in relation to a spotting line for the purpose
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
of supplying necessary information for the
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
adjustment or analysis of fire. 2. An aircraft
is parked in an approved shipboard landing type command. An administrative subdivision
site. (This term and its definition modifies
of a fleet or force into ships or units of the
the existing term and its definition and is
same type, as differentiated from a tactical
approved for inclusion in the next edition
subdivision. Any type command may have
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
a flagship, tender, and aircraft assigned to
it. (Joint Pub 1-02)
stabilized glide slope indicator. An
electrohydraulic optical landing aid for unexpended weapons or ordnance.
use on air-capable ships. With it, a pilot
Airborne weapons that have not been
can visually establish and maintain the
subjected to attempts to fire or drop and
proper glide slope for a safe approach and
are presumed to be in normal operating
landing. The visual acquisition range is
conditions and can be fired or jettisoned if
approximately 3 miles at night under
necessary. (Approved for inclusion in the
optimal conditions. Also called SGSI.
next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
vertical replenishment. The use of a
helicopter for the transfer of material to or
standing operating procedure. A set of
from a ship. (Joint Pub 1-02)
instructions covering those features of
operations which lend themselves to a visual meteorological conditions. Weather
definite or standardized procedures without
conditions in which visual flight rules apply,
loss of effectiveness. The procedure is
expressed in terms of visibility, ceiling
applicable unless ordered otherwise. Also
height, and aircraft clearance from clouds
called SOP. (Joint Pub 1-02)
along the path of flight. When these criteria
do not exist, instrument meteorological
storage or stowage. Storage is the act of
conditions prevail and instrument flight
placing material or ammunition and other
rules must be complied with. Also called
supplies onboard the vessel. Stowage
VMC. (Joint Pub 1-02)
relates to the act of securing those items
stored in such a manner that they do not warning. 1. A communication and
shift or move during at-sea periods using
acknowledgment of dangers implicit in
methods and equipment as approved by
a wide spectrum of activities by potential
higher authority. (Approved for inclusion
opponents ranging from routine defense
in the next edition of Joint Pub 1-02.)
measures to substantial increases in
readiness and force preparedness and to
strikedown. A term used to describe the
acts of terrorism or political, economic,
movement of aircraft from the flight deck to
or military provocation. 2. Operating
GL-10
Joint Pub 3-04.1
Glossary
procedures, practices, or conditions
which may result in injury or death if
not carefully observed or followed.
(This term and its definition modifies the
existing term and its definition and is
approved for inclusion in the next edition
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
of Naval Operations that reviews safety
aspects of weapons or explosive systems
and makes recommendations to the Chief
of Naval Operations and originating
Service regarding acceptance or rejection
for use on Navy ships. Also called
WSESRB. (This term and its definition
are applicable only in the context of this
pub and cannot be referenced outside of
this publication.)
wave-off. An action to abort a landing,
initiated by the bridge, primary flight
control, landing safety officer or enlisted
man, or pilot at his or her discretion. The ZEBRA. Maximum integrity of material
condition for ship, except for the closing
response to a wave-off signal is mandatory.
of outside ventilation, to combat nuclear,
(Approved for inclusion in the next edition
chemical, or biological threats. (This term
of Joint Pub 1-02.)
and its definition are applicable only in the
context of this pub and cannot be
Weapon System Explosives Safety Review
referenced outside of this publication.)
Board. A board designated by the Chief
GL-11
Glossary
Intentionally Blank
GL-12
Joint Pub 3-04.1
JOINT DOCTRINE PUBLICATIONS HIERARCHY
JOINT PUB 1
JOINT
WARFARE
JOINT PUB 0-2
UNAAF
JOINT PUB 1-0
JOINT PUB 2-0
JOINT PUB 3-0
JOINT PUB 4-0
JOINT PUB 5-0
JOINT PUB 6-0
PERSONNEL
INTELLIGENCE
OPERATIONS
LOGISTICS
PLANS
C4 SYSTEMS
All joint doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures are organized into a comprehensive hierarchy as
shown in the chart above. Joint Pub 3-04.1 is in the Operations series of joint doctrine publications. The
diagram below illustrates an overview of the development process:
STEP #1
Project Proposal
STEP #5
Assessments/Revision
! The CINCS receive the pub
and begin to assess it during
use
! 18 to 24 months following
publication, the Director J-7,
will solicit a written report from
the combatant commands and
Services on the utility and
quality of each pub and the
need for any urgent changes or
earlier-than-scheduled
revisions
! Submitted by Services, CINCS, or Joint Staff
to fill extant operational void
!
J-7 validates requirement with Services and
CINCs
! J-7 initiates Program Directive
STEP #2
Program Directive
! J-7 formally staffs with
Services and CINCS
! Includes scope of
project, references,
milestones, and who will
develop drafts
! J-7 releases Program
Directive to Lead Agent.
Lead Agent can be
Service, CINC, or Joint
Staff (JS) Directorate
! No later than 5 years after
development, each pub is
revised
Project
Proposal
Assessments/
Revision
ENHANCED
JOINT
WARFIGHTING
CAPABILITY
Program
Directive
JOINT
DOCTRINE
PUBLICATION
CJCS
Approval
STEP #4
CJCS Approval
! Lead Agent forwards proposed pub to Joint
Staff
! Joint Staff takes responsibility for pub, makes
required changes and prepares pub for
coordination with Services and CINCS
! Joint Staff conducts formal
staffing for approval as a Joint Publication
Two
Drafts
STEP #3
Two Drafts
! Lead Agent selects Primary Review
Authority (PRA) to develop the pub
! PRA develops two draft pubs
! PRA staffs each draft with CINCS,
Services, and Joint Staff
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