kd225 - kd315 - kd350 kd400 - kd440 workshop manual

WORKSHOP MANUAL
KD225 - KD315 - KD350
KD400 - KD440
KD
225_315_350_400_440
PREFACE
- Every attempt has been made to present within this service manual, accurate and up to date technical
information.
However, development on the KOHLER series is continuous.
Therefore, the information within this manual is subject to change without notice and without obligation.
- The information contained within this service manual is the sole property of KOHLER.
As such, no reproduction or replication in whole or part is allowed without the express written permission of
KOHLER.
Information presented within this manual assumes the following:
1- The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines is properly trained and equipped to
safely and professionally perform the subject operation;
2- The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines possesses adequate hand and
KOHLER special tools to safely and professionally perform the subject service operation;
3- The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines has read the pertinent information
regarding the subject service operations and fully understands the operation at hand.
- This manual was written by the manufacturer to provide technical and operating information to authorised
KOHLER after-sales service centres to carry out assembly, disassembly, overhauling, replacement and tuning
operations.
- As well as employing good operating techniques and observing the right timing for operations, operators must
read the information very carefully and comply with it scrupulously.
- Time spent reading this information will help to prevent health and safety risks and financial damage.
Written information is accompanied by illustrations in order to facilitate your understanding of every step of the
operating phases.
WARRANTY CERTIFICATE
LIMITED 3 YEAR KOHLER® DIESEL ENGINE WARRANTY
Kohler Co. warrants to the original retail consumer that each new KOHLER Diesel engine sold by Kohler Co. will be free from manufacturing
defects in materials or workmanship in normal service for a period of three (3) years or 2000 hours whichever occurs first from the date of
purchase, provided it is operated and maintained in accordance with Kohler Co.’s instructions and manuals. If no hour meter is installed as original
equipment then 8 hours of use per day and 5 days per week will be used to calculate hours used.
Our obligation under this warranty is expressly limited, at our option, to the replacement or repair at Kohler Co., Kohler, Wisconsin 53044, or at a
service facility designated by us of such parts as inspection shall disclose to have been defective.
This warranty does not apply to defects caused by unreasonable use, including faulty repairs by others and failure to provide reasonable and
necessary maintenance.
The following items are not covered by this warranty:
Engine accessories such as fuel tanks, clutches, transmissions, power-drive assemblies and batteries, unless supplied or installed by Kohler Co.
These are subject to the warranties, if any, of their manufacturers.
KOHLER CO. AND/OR THE SELLER SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
OF ANY KIND, including but not limited to labor costs or transportation charges in connection with the repair or replacement of defective parts.
IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
ARE EXPRESSLY LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY. We make no other express warranty, nor is any one authorized
to make any on our behalf.
Some states do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, or the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages,
so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights, which vary from state to state.
To obtain warranty service
Purchaser must bring the engine to an authorized Kohler service facility. To locate the nearest facility, visit our website, www.kohlerengines.com,
and use the locator function, consult your Yellow Pages or telephone 1-800-544-2444.
ENGINE DIVISION, KOHLER CO., KOHLER, WISCONSIN 53044
CALIFORNIA EMISSION CONTROL WARRANTY STATEMENT
YOUR WARRANTY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
The California Air Resources Board and Kohler Co. are pleased to explain the emission control system warranty on your 2012 engine. In
California, new heavy-duty off-road engines must be designed, built and equipped to meet the State’s stringent anti-smog standards. Kohler Co.
must warrant the emission control system on your engine for the time period listed below provided there has been no abuse, neglect or improper
maintenance of your engine.
Your emission control system may include parts such as the fuel-injection system and the air induction system. Also included may be hoses,
connectors and other emission related assemblies.
Where a warrantable condition exists, Kohler Co. will repair your heavy-duty off-road engine at no cost to you including diagnosis, parts and labor.
MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY COVERAGE:
Your off-road, diesel engine emission control system is covered under warranty for a period of five (5) years or 3,000 hours, whichever occurs first,
beginning on the date the engine or equipment is delivered to an ultimate purchaser for all constant speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37
and rated speed less than 3,000 rpm, all variable speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37, and all variable or constant speed engines with
maximum power greater than 37 kW. Your off-road, diesel engine emission control system on variable or constant-speed engines with maximum
power less than 19 kW, and for constant speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37 and rated speed equal to or greater than 3,000 rpm is
covered under warranty for a period of two (2) years or 1,500 hours, whichever
occurs first. If any emission related part on your engine is defective, the part will be repaired or replaced by Kohler Co.
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES:
As the heavy-duty off-road engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of the required maintenance listed in your Kohler Co.
owner’s manual. Kohler Co. recommends that you retain all receipts covering maintenance on your heavy-duty off-road engine, but Kohler Co.
cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts or for your failure to ensure the performance of all recommended scheduled maintenance.
As the heavy-duty off-road engine owner, you should however be aware that Kohler Co. may deny you warranty coverage if your heavy-duty offroad engine or emission control related component has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper maintenance or unapproved modifications.
Your engine is designed to operate on commercial diesel fuel (No. 1 or No. 2 low sulfur or ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) only. Use of any other fuel
may result in your engine no longer operating in compliance with California’s emissions requirements.
You are responsible for initiating the warranty process. The Air Resources Board suggests that you present your heavy-duty off-road engine to a
Kohler Co. dealer as soon as a problem exists. The warranty repairs should be completed by the dealer as expeditiously as possible.
Please review the document titled, “Kohler Co. Federal and California Emission Control Systems Limited Warranty Off-Road Diesel Engines”, for
complete details of your heavy-duty off-road engine warranty. If you have any questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities or the
location of the nearest Kohler Co. authorized service location, you should contact Kohler Co. at 1-800-544-2444 or access our website at www.
kohlerengines.com.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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INDEX
This manual contains pertinent information regarding the repair of KOHLER water-cooled, indirect injection Diesel engines type KD 225_315_350_400_440: updated June 20, 2012.
INDEX
PREFACE................................................................................................................................................................... 2
WARRANTY CERTIFICATE...................................................................................................................................... 3
Limited 3 year kohler ® diesel engine warranty................................................................................................................... 3
California emission control warranty statement.................................................................................................................. 3
Your warranty rights and obligations................................................................................................................................... 3
1 - TROUBLE SHOOTING......................................................................................................................................... 7
Possible causes and trouble shooting................................................................................................................................. 7
2 - GENERAL REMARKS AND SAFETY INFORMATION....................................................................................... 8
Safety regulations................................................................................................................................................................ 8
General safety during operating phases............................................................................................................................. 9
Safety and environmental impact ....................................................................................................................................... 9
3 - MODEL NUMBER AND IDENTIFICATION........................................................................................................ 11
Manufacturer and motor identification data........................................................................................................................11
Approval data......................................................................................................................................................................11
4 - TECHNICAL DATA............................................................................................................................................. 12
Characteristics kd 225_315_350........................................................................................................................................12
Characteristics kd 400_440................................................................................................................................................13
5 - CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................................................................................... 14
Characteristics power, torque and specific fuel consumption curves................................................................................14
6 - OVERALL DIMENSIONS.................................................................................................................................... 16
7 - MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING . ....................................................................... 18
Maintenance.......................................................................................................................................................................18
Fuel.....................................................................................................................................................................................18
Recommended oil...............................................................................................................................................................19
Acea sequences.................................................................................................................................................................19
8 - DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY......................................................................................................................... 20
Disassembly and reassembly............................................................................................................................................ 20
Dry air cleaner for kd 315 and kd 350................................................................................................................................ 20
Dry air cleaner for kd 225.................................................................................................................................................. 20
Dry air cleaner for kd 400-440...........................................................................................................................................21
Prefilter for dry air filter.......................................................................................................................................................21
Oil-bath air cleaner (optional)............................................................................................................................................ 22
Muffler................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
Rocker arm cover breather system.................................................................................................................................... 22
Rocker arm cover - breather ricirculation.......................................................................................................................... 23
Valve/rocker arm clearance (KD 225-315-350)................................................................................................................. 23
The engines KD 400 and 440 have hydraulic tappets, therefore no adjustment is required............................................ 23
Do not start the engine for approximately 4 hours to allow the hydraulic tappets to settle completely............................ 23
Hydraulic tappets KD 400-440......................................................................................................................................... 24
Tank................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Fuel filter KD 225-400-440 (version with internal filter).................................................................................................... 25
Fuel filter for KD 225 - 315 - 350 - 400 - 440 (version with external filter)......................................................................... 25
Re-coil starting.................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Shroud............................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Flywheel............................................................................................................................................................................. 26
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
INDEX
Cylinder head..................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Injector projection.............................................................................................................................................................. 27
Valves - Disassembly......................................................................................................................................................... 28
Valves - Oil seal in valve guide.......................................................................................................................................... 28
Valve, springs.................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Valves, characteristics....................................................................................................................................................... 29
Valves, guides and housings............................................................................................................................................. 29
Valves, guide insertion....................................................................................................................................................... 29
Dimensions and clearance between guides and valve stems (mm)................................................................................. 30
Valves seats and valve seat bores.................................................................................................................................... 30
Valve seat lapping.............................................................................................................................................................. 30
Cylinder...............................................................................................................................................................................31
Cylinder roughness.............................................................................................................................................................31
Piston..................................................................................................................................................................................31
Dimensions of pistons and cylinders, Logo........................................................................................................................31
Piston rings, distance between the tips (mm).................................................................................................................... 33
Piston rings, play between the slots (mm)......................................................................................................................... 34
Piston rings, assembly order............................................................................................................................................. 34
Piston - Refitting................................................................................................................................................................ 34
Clearance........................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Piston protrusion check..................................................................................................................................................... 35
Connecting rod.................................................................................................................................................................. 36
Connecting rod, piston pin................................................................................................................................................. 36
Connecting rod alignement................................................................................................................................................ 36
Crankshaft end play........................................................................................................................................................... 36
Drive shaft oil seals............................................................................................................................................................ 37
Drive shaft, lubrication ducts, bore thread on flywheel side and p.t.o............................................................................... 37
Drive shaft, connection radius........................................................................................................................................... 37
Drive shaft, main journal/crankpin diameter, gear cover bearing inside diameter on timing side..................................... 37
Crankshaft - journal diameter (mm)................................................................................................................................... 38
Availability of bearings....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Camshaft............................................................................................................................................................................ 39
Camshaft journals and bore.............................................................................................................................................. 39
Dimensions of camshaft journals and bore (mm).............................................................................................................. 39
Cam height (mm)............................................................................................................................................................... 39
Camshaft timing................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Camshaft – Antireverse system KD 400-440.................................................................................................................... 40
Automatic decompression..................................................................................................................................................41
Camshaft end play..............................................................................................................................................................41
Dynamic balancer (on request)...........................................................................................................................................41
Dinamic balancer timing.................................................................................................................................................... 43
Valve timing check............................................................................................................................................................. 43
Timing angles for operation (0.15 valve play).................................................................................................................... 44
Timing angles for inspection (0.65-0.70 valve play).......................................................................................................... 44
Speed governor................................................................................................................................................................. 45
Speed governor removal................................................................................................................................................... 45
Refitting gear cover on timing side.................................................................................................................................... 45
9 - LUBRICATION SYSTEM..................................................................................................................................... 46
KD 225 - 315 - 350 lubrication system and breather recirculation system . ..................................................................... 46
KD 400-440 lubrication system and breather recirculation system...................................................................................47
Oil pump............................................................................................................................................................................. 48
Oil pump - clearance between rotors................................................................................................................................ 48
Oil pressure regulation valve............................................................................................................................................. 48
Internal strainer.................................................................................................................................................................. 48
Oil filter............................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Oil pressure check............................................................................................................................................................. 49
Calibrated pipe for lubrication of hydraulic tappets........................................................................................................... 49
Oil pressure curve at idle speed........................................................................................................................................ 50
Oil pressure curve at full speed......................................................................................................................................... 50
Fuelling/injection circuit for KD 315-350-400-440.............................................................................................................51
Fuelling/injection circuit for KD 225....................................................................................................................................51
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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INDEX
10 - FUEL SYSTEM.................................................................................................................................................. 52
Fuel filter KD 225-315-350-400-440................................................................................................................................. 52
Fuel filter KD 225 (version with internal filter in tank)........................................................................................................ 52
Feed pump (optional)......................................................................................................................................................... 52
Fuel pump, drive rod protrusion......................................................................................................................................... 53
Injection pump................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Injection pump fitting in the crankcase.............................................................................................................................. 53
Injection pump components and disassembly.................................................................................................................. 54
Injection pump, body, plunger and delivery valve.............................................................................................................. 54
Injection pump refitting...................................................................................................................................................... 54
Injection pump non-return valve........................................................................................................................................ 55
Outlet fitting components for 315-350 EPA E 400-440 engines....................................................................................... 55
Injection pump, Rilsan tube removal................................................................................................................................. 55
Injection pump, Rilsan tube refitting.................................................................................................................................. 55
Injection pump delivery check on test bench.................................................................................................................... 56
Static injection timing......................................................................................................................................................... 56
Static injection lead test on flywheel................................................................................................................................. 57
Injection advance adjustment............................................................................................................................................ 58
Injector............................................................................................................................................................................... 58
Leakage time (waste)......................................................................................................................................................... 59
Nozzles.............................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Injector calibration............................................................................................................................................................. 59
11 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM..................................................................................................................................... 62
12V, 12A electric ignition diagram......................................................................................................................................61
Alternator............................................................................................................................................................................61
Alternator battery charger graph (12V, 12A).......................................................................................................................61
24V, 9A alternator battery recharging curve...................................................................................................................... 62
12V, 30A alternator battery recharging curve.................................................................................................................... 62
Voltage regulator................................................................................................................................................................ 62
12V electric starter diagram with voltage regulator built into the ignition panel................................................................ 63
12V electric ignition layout with motor protection (optional).............................................................................................. 63
Diagram of electric starter motor protection with sole self-winding starter - without battery - (optional).......................... 64
Testing voltage regulator for proper operation.................................................................................................................. 65
Starting motor.................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Characteristic curves for starting motor type DW (L) 12V, 1.1 KW................................................................................... 65
Characteristic curves of Bosch starter motor type DW (L) 12V, 0.9 kW........................................................................... 66
Characteristic curves of Bosch starter motor type DW (L) 24V, 1.6 kW............................................................................ 66
Ignition switch positions..................................................................................................................................................... 66
Adjustments - KD 315-350................................................................................................................................................. 67
Idling speed setting in no-load conditions (standard)........................................................................................................ 67
Idle speed adjustment, for small car versions................................................................................................................... 67
Full speed setting in no-load conditions (standard)........................................................................................................... 67
12 - SETTINGS / ADJUSTMENTS........................................................................................................................... 68
Adjustments - KD 225-400-440........................................................................................................................................ 68
No-load idling adjustment (standard)................................................................................................................................. 68
No-load top rate adjustment (standard)............................................................................................................................. 68
Injection pump flow rate adjustment For KD 225-315-350-400-440................................................................................ 68
Injection pump delivery limiting and torque adapter (standard)........................................................................................ 68
Injection pump delivery setting ......................................................................................................................................... 69
Required settings (the most common ones)...................................................................................................................... 69
14 - STORAGE......................................................................................................................................................... 70
Storage.............................................................................................................................................................................. 70
Internal engine protection:................................................................................................................................................. 70
Injection systems protection:............................................................................................................................................. 70
External engine protection:................................................................................................................................................ 70
Procedures to be carried out before start the engine.........................................................................................................71
15 - TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................................................................ 72
Main torque specifications................................................................................................................................................. 72
Use of sealant.................................................................................................................................................................... 72
Table of tightening torques for standard screws (coarse thread)...................................................................................... 73
Table of tightening torques for standard screws (fine thread)........................................................................................... 73
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
TROUBLE SHOOTING
1
POSSIBLE CAUSES AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
THE ENGINE MUST BE STOPPED IMMEDIATELY WHEN:
1) - The engine rpms suddenly increase and decrease
2) - A sudden and unusual noise is heard
3) - The colour of the exhaust fumes suddenly darkens
4) - The oil pressure indicator light turns on while running.
TABLE OF LIKELY ANOMALIES AND THEIR SYMPTOMS
The following table contains the possible causes of some failures which may occur during operation.
Always perform these simple checks before removing or replacing any part.
SETTINGS/REPAIRS
MAINTE- ELECTRIC
LUBRICATION
NANCE SYSTEM
FUEL CIRCUIT
oil and fuel dripping
from exhaust
Excessive oil
consumption
Increase oil level
oil
Too low
pressure
White smoke
Black smoke
Non-uniform speed
No acceleration
Engine starts but
stops
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Engine does not
start
TROUBLE
Clogged pipes
Clogged fuel filter
Air inside fuel circuit
Clogged tank breather hole
Faulty fuel pump
Injector jammed
Jammed injection pump delivery valve
Wrong injector setting
Excessive plunger blow-by
Jammed injection pump delivery control
Wrong injection pump setting
Oil level too high
Jammed pressure relief valve
Worn oil pump
Air inside oil suction pipe
Faulty pressure gauge or switch
Clogged oil suction pipe
Battery discharged
Wrong or inefficient cable connection
Defective ignition switch
Defective starter motor
Clogged air filter
Excessive idle operation
Incomplete running-in
Engine overloaded
Advanced injection
Delayed injection
Incorrect governor linkage adjustment
Broken or loose governor spring
Idle speed too low
Worn or jammed piston rings
Worn or scored cylinders
Worn valve guides
Jammed valves
Worn bearings
Governor linkage not free to slide
Drive shaft not free to slide
Damaged cylinder head gasket
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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2
GENERAL REMARKS AND SAFETY INFORMATION
SAFETY REGULATIONS
GENERAL NOTES
. Kohler engines are built to provide safe and longlasting
performances, but in order to obtain these results it is
essential that the maintenance requirements described in
the manual are observed along with the following safety
recommendations.
. The engine has been built to the specifications of a
machine manufacturer, and it is his responsibility to ensure
that all necessary action is taken to meet the essential
and legally prescribed health and safety requirements. Any use of the machine other than that described cannot
be considered as complying with its intended purpose
as specified by Kohler, which therefore declines all
responsibility for accidents caused by such operations.
. The following instructions are intended for the user of the
machine in order to reduce or eliminate risks, especially
those concerning the operation and standard maintenance
of the engine.
. The user should read these instructions carefully and get
to know the operations described. By not doing so he may
place at risk his own health and safety and that of anyone
else in the vicinity of the machine.
. The engine may be used or mounted on a machine only
by personnel suitably trained in its operation and aware of
the dangers involved. This is particularly true for standard
and, above all, special maintenance work. For special
maintenance contact personnel trained specifically by
Kohler. This work should be carried out in accordance with
existing literature.
. Kohler declines all responsibility for accidents or for failure
to comply with the requirements of law if changes are made
to the engine’s functional parameters or to the fuel flow rate
adjustments and speed of rotation, if seals are removed,
or if parts not described in the operating and maintenance
manual are removed and reassembled by unauthorized
personnel.
WARNING
. In addition to all other machine specifications, ensure that
the engine is in a near horizontal position when starting. lf
starting manually, ensure that the necessary operations
can be performed without any risk of striking against walls
or dangerous objects. Rope starting (except for recoil rope
starting) is not permitted even in emergencies.
. Check that the machine is stable so that there is no risk of it
overturning.
. Get to know the engine speed adjustment and machine
stop operations.
. Do not start the machine in closed or poorly ventilated
environments. The internal combustion process generates
carbon monoxide, an odourless and highly toxic gas, so
spending too long a time in an environment where the
engine discharges its exhaust products freely can lead to
loss of consciousness and even death.
. The engine may not be used in environments containing
flammable materials, explosive atmospheres or easily
combustible powders, unless adequate and specific
precautions have been taken and are clearly stated and
certified for the machine.
. To prevent the risk of fire, keep the machine at a distance of
at least one metre from buildings or other machines.
-8-
. Children and animals must be kept at a sufficient distance
from the machine to prevent any danger resulting from its
operation.
. Fuel is flammable, so the tank must be filled only when the
engine is turned off. Dry carefully any fuel that may have
spilled, remove the fuel container and any cloths soaked
in fuel or oil, check that any sound-absorbing panels made
of porous material are not soaked with fuel or oil, and make
sure that the ground on which the machine is located has not
absorbed fuel or oil.
. Before starting, remove any tools that have been used for
carrying out maintenance work to the engine and/or the
machine and check that any guards removed have been
replaced. In cold climates it is possible to mix kerosene with
the diesel fuel to make the engine easier to start. The liquids
must be mixed in the tank by pouring in first the kerosene
and then the diesel fuel. Consult Kohler technical office for
mixture proportions. Petrol may not be used because of the
risk of it forming flammable vapours.
. During operation the surface of the engine reaches
temperatures that may be dangerous. Avoid in particular all
contact with the exhaust system.
. The liquid cooling circuit is under pressure. Do not carry out
any checks before the engine has cooled down, and even
then open the radiator cap or the expansion tank cautiously. Wear protective clothing and glasses. lf there is an electric
fan, do not approach the engine while it is still hot as the fan
may come on even when the engine is not running. Clean the
cooling system with the engine turned off.
. While cleaning the oil bath air filter, check that the oil is
disposed of in such a way as not to harm the environment. Any filtering sponges in the oil bath air filter should not be
soaked with oil. The cyclone pre-filter cup must not be filled
with oil.
. Since the oil must be emptied out while the engine is still hot
(approx. 80°C), particular care should be taken in order to
avoid burns. In any case make sure that oil does not come
into contact with your skin because of the health hazards
involved.
. Fuel vapours are highly toxic, so fill up only in the open air or
in well ventilated environments.
. During operations which involve access to moving parts of
the engine and/or removal of the rotary guards, disconnect
and insulate the positive cable of the battery so as to prevent
accidental short circuits and activation of the starter motor.
. Check the belt tension only when the engine is turned off.
IMPORTANT
. To start the engine follow the specific instructions provided
in the engine and/or machine operating manual. Do not
use auxiliary starting devices not originally installed on the
machine (e.g. Startpilot systems which utilise ether etc.)
. Before carrying out any work on the engine, turn it off and
allow it to cool down. Do not perform any operation while the
engine is running.
. Check that the discharged oil, the oil filter and the oil
contained in the oil filter are disposed of in such a way as not
to harm the environment.
. Close the fuel tank filler cap carefully after each fílling
operation. Do not fill the tank right up to the top, but leave
sufficient space to allow for any expansion of the fuel.
. Do not smoke or use naked flames while filling.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
GENERAL REMARKS AND SAFETY INFORMATION
2
. Take care when removing the oil filter as it may be hot.
. The operations of checking, filling up and replacing the
cooling liquid must be carried out with the engine turned off
and cold. Take particular care if liquids containing nitrites
are mixed with others not containing these compounds
as this may give rise to the formation of nitrosamines
which are a health hazard. The cooling liquid is polluting,
so dispose of in a manner that does not damage the
environment.
. In order to move the engine simultaneously use the
eyebolts fitted for this purpose by Kohler. These lifting
points are however not suitable for the entire machine, so
in this case use the eyebolts fitted by the manufacturer.
GENERAL SAFETY DURING OPERATING PHASES
– The procedures contained in this manual have been tested and selected by the manufacturer’s technical experts, and hence
are to be recognised as authorised operating methods.
– A number of procedures must be carried out with the aid of equipment and tools that simplify and improve the timing of
operations.
– All tools must be in good working condition so that engine components are not damaged and that operations are carried out
properly and safely.
It is important to wear the personal safety devices prescribed by work safety laws and also by the standards of this manual.
– Holes must be lined up methodically and with the aid of suitable equipment. Do not use your fingers to carry out this
operation to avoid the risk of amputation.
– Some phases may require the assistance of more than one operator. If so, it is important to inform and train them regarding
the type of activity they will be performing in order to prevent risks to the health and safety of all persons involved.
– Do not use flammable liquids (petrol, diesel, etc.) to degrease or wash components. Use special products.
– Use the oils and greases recommended by the manufacturer.
Do not mix different brands or combine oils with different characteristics.
– Discontinue use of the engine if any irregularities arise, particularly in the case of unusual vibrations.
– Do not tamper with any devices to alter the level of performance guaranteed by the manufacturer.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
Every organisation has a duty to implement procedures to
identify, assess and monitor the influence of its own activities
(products, services, etc.) on the environment.
Procedures for identifying the extent of the impact on the environment must consider the following factors:
-
-
-
-
-
-
Liquid waste
Waste management
Soil contamination
Atmospheric emissions
Use of raw materials and natural resources
Regulations and directives regarding environmental impact
In order to minimise the impact on the environment, the manu-
facturer now provides a number of indications to be followed
by all persons handling the engine, for any reason, during its
expected lifetime.
- All packaging components must be disposed of in accordance with the laws of the country in which disposal is taking place.
- Keep the fuel and engine control systems and the exhaust
pipes in efficient working order to limit environmental and
noise pollution.
- When discontinuing use of the engine, select all components according to their chemical characteristics and dispose of them separately.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
-9-
NOTE
- 10 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
MODEL NUMBER AND IDENTIFICATION
3
MANUFACTURER AND MOTOR IDENTIFICATION DATA
A
B
D
MADE IN ITALY
Model
s/n
XX XX XXXX
XX XX XXXX
rpm
Spec.
e9 • 97/68/CE • 00/000xx • xxxx •xx
xxx xxx xx
XXXX
XXXXXX
Xx 0.00
C
F
The identification plate shown in the figure can be found directly
on the engine.
It contains the following information:
A)Manufacturer’s identity
B)Engine type
C)Engine serial number
D)Maximum operating speed
E)Number of the customer version (form K)
F)Approval data
E
Approval data
The approval reference directives EC are on the engine plate.
1
2
3
USE IN CONSTANT-SPEED APPLICATIONS ONLY
10
4
5
6
1) Model year.
2) Engine displacement.
3) Power category, kW.
4) Particulate emission limit (g/kWh).
5) Engine family ID.
6) Kind of application i.e.
7) Injection timing (BTDC).
8) Injector opening pressure (bar).
9) Production date (example 2012_Jan).
10) Emission Control System = ECS.
7
8
9
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 11 -
4
TECHNICAL DATA
CHARACTERISTICS KD 225_315_350
ENGINE TYPE
315
225
Number of cylinders
Bore
Stroke
Swept volume
Compression ratio
R.P.M.
N 80/1269/EEC-ISO 1585
Power kW (HP) NB ISO 3046 - 1 IFN
NA ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN
Max. torque *
Fuel consumption **
Oil consumption
Capacity of standard oil sump
Recommended battery
Dry weight
Combustion air volume at 3600 r.p.m.
Cooling air volume at 3600 r.p.m.
Max.permissible driving shaft axial load in both directions
continuous service for up to 30 min.
Max. inclination discontinuous service for about 1 min.
permanent service
*
**
***
N.
mm
mm
Cm3
Nm
g/kW.h
l/h
lt
V/Ah
kg
l./min
l./min
kg.
1
69
60
224
21:1
3600
3,5(4,8)
3,3(4,5)
3,1(4,2)
10,4@2400
267
0,0021
0,9
12/36
28
350
3800
150
25°
35°
***
350
1
1
78
82
66
66
315
349
20,3:1
20,3:1
3600
3600
5,0(6,8)
5,5(7,5)
4,6(6,2)
5,1(7,0)
4,1(5,6)
4,7(6,4)
15@2400 16,6@2400
262
260
0,0035
0,0038
1,2
1,2
12/44
12/44
33
33
480
540
5000
5000
200
200
25°
25°
35°
35°
***
***
Referred to N power
Referred to NB power
Depending on the application
KD 225
KD 315
KD 350
- 12 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
4
TECHNICAL DATA
CHARACTERISTICS KD 400_440
ENGINE TYPE
400
Number of cylinders
Bore
Stroke
Swept volume
Compression ratio
R.P.M.
N 80/1269/EEC-ISO 1585
Power kW (HP) NB ISO 3046 - 1 IFN
NA ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN
Max. torque *
Fuel consumption **
Oil consumption
Capacity of standard oil sump
Recommended battery
Dry weight
Combustion air volume at 3600 r.p.m.
Cooling air volume at 3600 r.p.m.
Max.permissible driving shaft axial load in both directions
continuous service for up to 30 min.
Max. inclination discontinuous service for about 1 min.
permanent service
*
**
***
N.
mm
mm
Cm3
Nm
g/kW.h
l/h
lt
V/Ah
kg
l./min
l./min
kg.
440
1
1
82
86
76
76
401
442
20,3:1
20,3:1
3600
3600
7,0(9,5)
7,7(10,5)
6,4(8,7)
7,0(9,6)
5,8(7,9)
6,4(8,7)
21,3@2400 23,5@2400
262
260
0,005
0,0055
1,5
1,5
12/44
12/44
45
45
580
635
5500
5500
200
200
25°
25°
35°
35°
***
***
Referred to N power
Referred to NB power
Depending on the application
KD 400
KD 440
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 13 -
5
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS POWER, TORQUE AND SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION CURVES
KD 225
KD 315
KD 350
N (80/1269/EEC - ISO 1585) AUTOMOTIVE RATING : Intermittent operation with variable speed and variable load.
NB (ISO 3046 - 1 IFN) RATING WITH NO OWERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos ligth duty operation with constant speed and variable load.
NA (ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN) CONTINUOS RATING WITH OVERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos heavy duty with constant speed and constant load.
MN Torque at N power.
C Specific fuel consumption at NB power.
The above power values refer to an engine fitted with air cleaner and standard muffler, after testing and at the environmental conditions of 20°C and 1 bar.
Max. power tolerance is 5%.
Power decreases by approximately 1% every 100 m di altitude and by 2% every 5°C above 25°C.
Note: Consult KOHLER for power, torque curves and specific consumptions at rates differing from those given above.
- 14 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
CHARACTERISTICS
5
CHARACTERISTICS POWER, TORQUE AND SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION CURVES
KD 400
KD 440
N (80/1269/EEC - ISO 1585) AUTOMOTIVE RATING : Intermittent operation with variable speed and variable load.
NB (ISO 3046 - 1 IFN) RATING WITH NO OWERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos ligth duty operation with constant speed and variable load.
NA (ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN) CONTINUOS RATING WITH OVERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos heavy duty with constant speed and constant load.
MN Torque at N power.
C Specific fuel consumption at NB power.
The above power values refer to an engine fitted with air cleaner and standard muffler, after testing and at the environmental conditions of 20°C and 1 bar.
Max. power tolerance is 5%.
Power decreases by approximately 1% every 100 m di altitude and by 2% every 5°C above 25°C.
Note: Consult KOHLER for power, torque curves and specific consumptions at rates differing from those given above.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 15 -
6
OVERALL DIMENSIONS
KD 225
KD 315
KD 350
Note : Dimensions shown in mm
- 16 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
OVERALL DIMENSIONS
6
KD 400
KD 440
Note: Dimensions shown in mm.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 17 -
7
MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING
Failure to carry out the operations described in the table may lead to technical damage to the machine
and/or system
MAINTENANCE
INTERVAL (HOURS)
OPERATION COMPONENT OIL-BATH AIR CLEANER HEAD AND CYLINDER FINS CLEANING INJECTOR
AIR CLEANER OIL
LEVEL OIL SUMP
CHECK VALVE/ROCKER ARM CLEARANCE
INJECTOR SETTING
AIR CLEANER SUMP REPLACEMENT
OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE
FUEL FILTER CARTRIDGE
DRY AIR CLEANER CARTRIDGE
10 50 250 500
(*)
(*)
(**)
(**)
(***)
(°)
(*)
Under severe working conditions, clean daily.
(**) Under extremely dusty conditions, change every 4-5 hours.
(***) See recommended oil type.
(°) After the polyurethane prefilter has been serviced 6-10 times (see fig. 2 for 315-350 engines), when the clogging
indicator (if installed) signals that the part must be replaced, or if it is irreparably clogged.
To avoid explosions or fire outbreaks, do not smoke or use naked flames during the operations.
Fuel vapours are highly toxic. Only carry out the operations outdoors or in a well ventilated place.
Keep your face well away from the plug to prevent harmful vapours from being inhaled. Dispose of fuel in the correct way
and do not litter as it is highly polluting.
FUEL
When refuelling, it is advisable to use a funnel to prevent fuel from spilling out. The fuel should also be filtered to prevent dust or
dirt from entering the tank.
Use the same type of diesel fuel as used in cars. Use of other types of fuel could damage the engine. The cetane rating of the
fuel must be higher than 45 to prevent difficult starting. Do not use dirty diesel fuel or mixtures of diesel fuel and water since this
would cause serious engine faults.
The capacity of the standard tank is:
KD 225
KD 315
KD 350
KD 400
KD 440
- 18 -
=
=
=
=
=
l. 3.0
l. 4.3
l. 4.3
l. 5.0
l. 5.0
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
7
MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING
The engine could be damaged if allowed to operate with insufficient oil. It is also dangerous to add too much oil as its combustion could sharply increase the rotation speed.
Use a suitable oil in order to protect the engine.
The lubrication oil influences the performances and life of the engine in an incredible way.
The risk of piston seizure, jammed piston rings and rapid wear of the cylinder liner, the bearings and all moving parts increases if oil whose characteristics differ from the recommended type is used, or if the oil is not regularly changed. All this
notably reduces engine life.
Oil viscosity must suit the ambient temperature in which the engine operates.
Old oil can cause skin cancer if repeatedly left in contact with the skin and for long periods of time. If contact with the oil is
inevitable, you are advised to thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water as soon as possible.
Appropriate protective gloves etc should be wore during this operation.
Old oil is highly polluting and must be disposed of in the correct way. Do not litter.
RECOMMENDED OIL
AGIP SUPERDIESEL MULTIGRADE 15W40 specifications API CF-4/
SG ACEA E2,B2 MIL-L-46152 D/E. ESSO SPECIAL PKW-UNIFLO DIESEL 15W40 specifications API CF-4/SG ACEA E2,B2 MILL-46152 D/E. In the countries where AGIP and ESSO products are
not available, use oil API SJ/CF for Diesel engines or oil corresponding to the military specification MIL-L-46152 D/E.
OIL SUPPLY ( liters ) KD 225
Standard oil sump
filter included
GRADE
- - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + +
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
SAE 10W
SAE 20W
SAE 30
0.9
SAE 40
SAE 10W-30
OIL SUPPLY ( liters ) KD 315
Standard oil sump
filter included
SAE 10W-40
SAE 10W-60
SAE 15W-40 base minerale
1.2
SAE 15W-40 base semi-sintetica
OIL SUPPLY ( liters ) KD 350
Standard oil sump
filter included
SAE 20W-60 base semi-sintetica
SAE 5W-30 base sintetica
SAE 5W-40 base sintetica
1.2
SAE 0W-30 base sintetica
OIL SUPPLY ( liters ) KD 400 - 440
Standard oil sump
filter included
1.5
API CF CE CD CC CB CA SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ
ACEA SEQUENCES
A = Gasoline (Petrol)
B = Light Diesel fuels
E = Heavy Diesel fuels
BENZINA - ESSENCE - PETROL
BENZIN - GASOLINA
DIESEL
D- 4
D- 5
CCMC G- 2
CCMC G- 3
CCMC PD - 1 / PD - 2
CCMC D- 2
CCMC D- 3
MIL - L - 2104 D
MIL - L - 2104 E
MIL - L -46152 C
MIL - L- 46152 D/E
Required levels :
A1-96
A2-96
A3-96
B1-96
B2-96
B3-96
E1-96
E2-96
E3-96
G- 4
G- 5
228.3
MB 228.1
MB 226.1
MB 227.1
VW 505.00
MB 226.5
MB 227.5
VW 500.00
VW 501.01
VOLVO VDS
MAN QC 13-017
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 19 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
WARNINGS!
During repair operations, when
using compressed air, wear eye
protection.
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
Besides disassembly and reassembly operations this chapter also
includes checking and setting specifications, dimensions, repair and
operating instructions. Always use original KOHLER spare parts for
repair operations.
Clean the filtering element with air blast. Air must be blown
from inside to outside the cartridge at a distance of at least 15
cm from the paper.
Lightly and repeatedly tap the element on a hard surface to
eliminate all excess dirt.
Dry air cleaner for KD 315 and KD 350
1
2
Cartridge components:
1 Seal
2 Metallic body
3 Polyurethane prefilter 4 outer mesh 5 Filter media
6 Blade
7 Inside envelope
8 Metallic body
9 Inner seal
Cartridge characteristics:
media porosity 7 µm, useful filtering area 1960 cm2.
Polyurethane pre-filter characteristic:
porosity 60 p.p.i., front area 207 cm2.
Note: Pre-filter 3 can undergo maintenance operations; if dirty, wash
with soap and water and dry ( maximum 10 cleanings ). See
page 18 for cartridge replacement.
Clean the filtering element with air blast. Air must be blown
from inside to outside the cartridge at a distance of at least 15
cm from the paper.
Lightly and repeatedly tap the element on a hard surface to
eliminate all excess dirt. Replace if irreparably clogged.
Dry air cleaner for KD 225
Cartridge components:
1 Complete cover
2 Filtering material
3 Support
3
Characteristics of the filtering material:
paper porosity : 3 µm
filtering area : 4400 cm²
outer ring in open-cell polyurethane
See page 18 for the frequency with which the filtering material must
be changed.
- 20 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Clean the filtering element with air blast. Air must be blown
from inside to outside the cartridge at a distance of at least 15
cm from the paper.
Lightly and repeatedly tap the element on a hard surface to
eliminate all excess dirt.
Dry air cleaner for KD 400-440
4
4a
Open air cleaner (fig. 4).
Unscrew the wing nut 1 (fig. 4a) and remove the filter element (fig. 5).
Check the rubber seal is undamaged A (fig. 5a)
Clean the filtering element with air blast.
If the filtering element has been already cleaned other times, or if it is
irreparably clogged, throw it away and replace .
Refit the air filter and make sure the seal A is properly inserted, then
tighten the wing nut 1.
Make sure that the filter is mounted in the correct way otherwise dust and other impurities could ilfiltrate into the intake
ducts.
5
5a
Prefilter for dry air filter
Remove and clean the pre-filter if clogged.
6
7
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 21 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Never clean the filtering element 6 using solvents with a low
flash point. This could cause an explosion !
Make sure that the retention rings 4 - 5 are in a good condition
and replace them if they are damaged.
Oil-bath air cleaner (optional)
Components:
1 Upper shell
1A Upper unit with separator pre-filter
2 Secondary filter element
3 Primary polyurethane
4 Internal seal ring
5 External rubber gasket
6 Lower metal filter element
7 Lower cup
8 Oil level gauge
Characteristics of filter element 2:
made of Viledon synthetic fabric, porosity 120 gr/m2, resin-covered.
Characteristics of filter element 3:
open-celled polyurethane foam; porosity 45 P.P.I..
Both filter elements can be washed with soap and water for a maximum of 10 times.
Wash the metal filter 6 with Diesel fuel Blow out excess fuel with compressed air. See pages 14 and 15 for periodic maintenance details
and oil replacement.
8
Allow the exhaust manifold to cool before demounting it in order
to prevent scorching and burns.
Muffler
When reassembling replace the exhaust manifold gaskets.
Tighten nuts to 25 Nm.
The muffler design includes internal sound absorbing panels.
Tighten the bearing nuts and screw A to a 25 Nm torque value.
A
9
10
Rocker arm cover breather system
The crankcase breather system is located inside the rocker arm cover.
Check that diaphragm 2 is intact ; wash with Diesel oil and blow through the small mesh element 4 with compressed air.
When reassembling fix box 3 with Loctite " Form-a- gasket No. 6" and
screw plate 5. Also see below.
11
- 22 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Always check the the spring and valve to make sure they are in
a good conditions.
Rocker arm cover - Breather ricirculation
12
Crankcase vapor recirculation occurs through duct 4.
If the air filter clogs, the increased intake vacuum could suck oil through duct 4 into the combustion chamber, causing the engine to operate
at a runaway rate. This is prevented by valcuum valve 2 which, when
the vacuum increases, overcomes the resistance of spring 3 and
shuts the duct 4.
Make sure that oil plug 5 is correctly closed.
Refit cover 1 and tighten rocker arm cover to 10 Nm.
Valve/rocker arm clearance ( KD 225-315-350 )
Set valve/rocker arm clearance when the engine is cold: bring piston
to top dead center on the compression stroke and set clearance at 0.10-0.15 mm using a thickness gauge. Tighten lock nut.
N.B.: Since an automatic decompression device is available on the
exhaust lobe, manualy rotate the engine until the tappets are at
lowest point.
13
The engines KD 400 and 440 have hydraulic tappets, therefore
no adjustment is required.
When replacing the rocket arms, position the piston at the bottom
dead centre and tighten the fixing screw gradually to adjust the
hydraulic tappets.
While tightening, make sure that A fits correctly into B (fig. 13a).
The adjusting screw pin should be tightened to 20 Nm.
13a
Do not start the engine for approximately 4 hours to allow the
hydraulic tappets to settle completely.
Once the tappets have settled, tighten the bolt to 10Nm.
13b
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 23 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Hydraulic tappets KD 400-440
Distribution uses hydraulic tappets for automatic adjustment of valve clearance.
The figure shows the tappet used in KD 400 engines.
Caption
1- Lock ring
2- Upper collar
3- Oil inlet holes
4- Low-pressure chamber
5- Piston
6- Play-recovery spring
7- Case
8- Area to be lubricated
9- High-pressure chamber
10- Check valve
11- Identification marks
Fill the low-pressure chamber through the oil inlet holes.
If clearance occurs while running, as the tappet returns to the base of the camshaft, the play-recovery spring stretches out,
keeping all timing system parts close together.
While the play-recovery spring is stretching, the check valve lets oil into the high-pressure chamber from the low-pressure
chamber, to recover the increase in volume in the high-pressure chamber, caused by the stretching spring. In this way, since oil
is practically uncontrollable, when the valve is next opened, play will be completely recovered.
During each cycle a small amount of oil is drawn from the high-pressure chamber into the piston coupling wall with the case and
then, passing through the internal inlet hole, flows into the low-pressure chamber.
The tappet is shortened by less than 0.1mm each cycle. This allows the tappet to make up the reduction in play while the engine
is running.
It is not necessary for the oil to reach the tappet on the downward stroke: light pressure is enough to ensure that air bubbles do
not form.
The tappet may be supplied with the high-pressure chamber full or empty. The low-pressure chamber is always empty.
The tappet should always be handled in an upright position to prevent the high-pressure chamber from emptying.
The surface that comes into contact with the cam should be lubricated generously during assembly using AS COMPUND 40
type MOLYSLIP (see figure). This operation is important to ensure correct lubrication right from the start.
The distribution system is assembled as follows:
a) Make sure that the piston is between the Bottom Dead Centre and the halfway point
b) Insert the rods into position on the tappets
c) Mount the rocker arm and the joint block, then tighten the fixing nut to the specified torque
d) DO NOT START THE ENGINE FOR AT LEAST 4 HOURS AFTER TIGHTENING THE ROCKER ARMS because the valvepiston contact may be put at risk.
The tappet is unloaded when it is possible to shift the internal part by 3.5÷4 mm using a force of 30 Nm.
If the tappets are loaded (for example if they have been left in a horizontal position) the engine will be noisy during the first few
minutes after switching on, until the air has been completely drained out of the inside of the tappets themselves.
- 24 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
To avoid explosions or fire outbreaks, do not smoke or use naked flames during the operations.
Fuel vapours are highly toxic. Only carry out the operations outdoors or in a well ventilated place.
Keep your face well away from the plug to prevent harmful vapours from being inhaled. Dispose of fuel in the correct way and
do not litter as it is highly polluting.
Tank
Unscrew the upper and lower studs and remove the washers, which
otherwise might make removal of the tank difficult. Next disconnect
the fuel and air bleeding tubes.
Completely empty the tank to make sure that no impurities remain.
When reassembling tighten the upper nuts to 15 Nm.
14
Fuel filter KD 225-400-440 (version with internal filter)
1 Fuel filter
2 Fuel tank
3 Filter sleeve
4 Filter cartridge
5 Flush ring
6 Nut
7 Union seal
8 Diesel fuel outlet union
9 Flat washer
See page 18 for the frequency with which the fuel filter must be replaced.
See fig. 99 for the dimensions.
15
Fuel filter for KD 225 - 315 - 350 - 400 - 440 (version with external filter)
Loosen the clamps and disconnect the hoses.
Characteristics
Filtering area ≥ 390 cm2
Paper porosity ≤ 7 µ m.
See page 18 for replacement
See fig. 98 for dimensions.
16
17
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 25 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Re-coil starting
Operation:
When pulling handle 10, thanks to the action of friction spring 12, teeth 4 protrude from cap 3. After starting these teeth go back to the
initial position because the cap rotates. Rope 9 is re-wound around
pulley 6 by means of spring 7.
18
Components:
1 Retainer
2 Washer
3 Cap 4 Flyweights
5 Spring
6 Pulley
7 Spring
8 Guard
9 Rope
10 Handle 11 Rope guide
12 Spring
Note: there are two kinds of guards 8, one for engines with an rpm
above 2000 and one with fewer cooling channels for engines
with a lower rpm
On reassembly, tighten the screws to 10Nm.
Shroud
The shroud and the metal sheeting outside the cylinder are made of
special material (ANTIPHON) which absorbs noise, thus reducing total engine sound pressure levels.
When refitting tighten shroud screws to 10 Nm.
19
During the demounting phases, pay particular attention to prevent the flywheel from dropping as this could seriously injure
the operator.
Wear protective goggles when removing the flywheel ring.
Flywheel
20
- 26 -
Unscrew bolt 1 in a clockwise direction.
Remove the flywheel with a puller.
Make sure that the tapered surface that couples to the drive shaft is
not damaged.
To remove the starter rim, it is advisable to cut it into several parts
with a hacksaw and to then use a chisel. To replace, slowly heat for
15-20 minutes to a temperature of 300°C max.
Fit the rim into the flywheel housing. make sure that it rests evenly
against the support of the housing itself.
Allow it to slowly cool.
When refitting tighten bolt 1 to 150 Nm.
See pages 34 and 35 for injection timing reference marks.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Do not demount when hot or the part could become deformed.
Cylinder head
If the surface of the cylinder head is deformed, flatten it by removing
0.2 mm of material at most.
Always replace the seal. See figs 46-47-48-49-50 when selecting the
thickness. The bolts must be tightened in different phases for the various engines, in compliance with the order shown in the figure:
21
First tighten the 4 screws M10, then the 2 side screws M6.
Lubricate the shanks of the bolts, under their heads and the washers
with engine oil. Do not use too much oil. Oil that deposits in the threaded hole on the cylinder block could become pressurized during the
tightening phase, sensibly diminishing the driving force. Always make
sure that the holes on the cylinder block are dry and clean.
Engine KD 225
Engine KD 350
1st phase: tighten all the bolts to a 30 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
2nd phase: unscrew all the bolts by 180°.
3rd phase: tighten all the bolts to a 20 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
4th phase: make a 52° turn in the same order as the 3rd
phase.
5th phase: tighten the 2 side bolts (5) to a 10 Nm torque value.
1st phase: tighten all the bolts to a 30 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
2nd phase: unscrew all the bolts by 180°.
3rd phase: tighten all the bolts to a 20 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
4th phase: make a 60° turn in the same order as the 3rd
phase.
5th phase: tighten the 2 side bolts (5) to a 10 Nm torque value
Engine KD 315
For KD 400 and 400 engines
1st phase: tighten all the bolts to a 30 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
2nd phase: unscrew all the bolts by 180°.
3rd phase: tighten all the bolts to a 20 Nm torque value in a
crossed fashion.
4th phase: make a 72° turn in the same order as the 3rd
phase.
5th phase: tighten the 2 side bolts (5) to a 10 Nm torque value.
1st phase: tighten all screws crosswise to 20Nm.
2nd phase: tighten the screws in the same order to 40Nm.
3rd phase: tighten all screws in the same order to 50Nm.
4th phase: following the same order as in phase 3, rotate 60°.
5th phase: following the same order as in phase 4, rotate 60°.
6th phase: tighten the 2 side screws (5) to 10 Nm
Injector projection
The end of nozzle A should project 2,5 mm for KD 225-315-350 and
3,0÷3,5 mm for KD 400-440 from the cylinder head plane.
Adjust with copper gaskets B with thickness of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm
22
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 27 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Valves - Disassembly
Components:
1 Valve stem
2 Oil seal
3 Spring washer/set
4 Spring
5 Cap
6 Half collets
Note: To remove half collets place a suitable plate under the valve
head and press down firmly as indicated in the figure.
23
24
Valves - Oil seal in valve guide
To prevent seal 2 from being deformed when the valve guide is
mounted, fit it into tool 1 serial N° 7107-1460-047 after having thoroughly lubricated it, then proceed as indicated in the figure.
25
26
Valve, springs
Measure the free length with a caliper.
Engine KD 225-315-350
Free length A = 33.72
Engine KD 400-440
Free length A = 34,88
27
- 28 -
Note: Replace the spring if the free length A is 1 mm less than specified.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Valves, characteristics
Intake valve A
225
315 - 350
Base Material
1
400 - 440
X 45 C r S i8 uni3992
Chrome Plated
D
31,4 ÷ 31,6
35,8 ÷ 36,0
37,6 ÷ 37,8
L
81,8
91
92,0 ÷ 92,4
45° 35' ÷ 45 65'
a
28
Exhaust valve B - Stem and head are of two different materials
225 - 315 - 350 - 400 - 440
Weld Joint
2
Chrome Plated
3
4
Base Material
5
Base Material
a
--> X 45 C r S i8 U N I3992
-->
X 70 C r M n N iN 21.6 U N I3992
45° 35' ÷ 45 65'
Valves, guides and housings
1 Intake guide
2 Exhaust guide
Dimensions (mm) for KD 315-350-400-440
A = 40
B = 31
C = 11.000-11.018
D = 11.040-11.055
Dimensions (mm) for KD 225
29
A = 35
B = 30
C = 10.000-10.020
D = 10.040-10.055
Note: Valve guides with outer diameters increased by 0.5 mm are
also available as spares. In this case, housing C must be increased by 0.5 mm for assembly purposes.
Valves, guide insertion
Heat the block to a temperature of 160°-180°
Force the guides, considering distance A and B in relation to the block
surface.
Dimensions (mm) for KD 315-350-400-440
A = 25.8-26.2
B = 34.8-35.2
Dimensions (mm) for KD 225
30
A = 23.8-24.2
B = 28.8-29.2
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Dimensions and clearance between guides and valve stems (mm)
225
315-350
400-440
A
6,020÷6,035
B
5,985÷6,000 6,985÷7,000 6,985÷7,000
(A -B ) Clearance
7,025÷7,040
0,020÷0,050
(A -B ) Limit
0,025÷0,055
0,14
31
Valves seats and valve seat bores
Dimensions (mm)
32
225
315-350
400-440
A
32,50÷32,51
37,00÷37,01
39,00÷39,01
B
32,60÷32,62
37,10÷37,12
39,10÷39,12
C
28,50÷28,51
33,00÷33,01
35,00÷35,01
D
28,60÷28,62
33,10÷33,12
35,10÷35,12
Note : Since the seats are supplied pre-finished, they must not be
machined after having been inserted.
Valve seat lapping
After cutting valve seats, lap valve seats with fine lapping compound.
The sealing surface S should not exceed 2 mm.
Lowering valve for KD 225-315-350 (D = 0.55÷0.85 mm).
Lowering valve for KD 400-440 (D = 0.35÷0.65 mm).
Wear limit 1.5 mm.
33
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34
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Cylinder
Set a bore gauge to zero with a calibrated ring.
Check diameter at 1, 2 and 3; repeat the operation at the same points
after turning the bore gauge 90°.
If wear exceeds the max. given value by 0.05, bore the cylinder and fit
oversize piston and rings.
See fig. 40 and 41 for cylinder diameter values.
35
36
Do not manually hone the cylinder bore surfaces with emery
cloth or other means.
Cylinder roughness
The cross-hatch pattern should be at an angle of 45°-55°; lines should
be uniform and clear in both directions.
Average roughness must range between 0.5 mm 1 µm.
The cylinder surface which comes into contact with piston rings should be machined with the plateau method.
37
Piston
Being of low expansion type, the piston allows small clearances
between piston and cylinder and, thus, oil consumption is reduced.
Remove circlips and piston pin.
Remove piston rings and clean grooves.
Measure diameter Q at the A distance from the skirt bottom (A = 12
mm). Replace the piston and piston rings if wear on the diameter is 0.05
mm more than the minimum value given (see table in fig. 40-41).
Note: Oversize pistons of 0.50 and 1.00 mm are available.
38
39
Dimensions of pistons and cylinders, Logo
Logo can be found inside the piston
40
41
Ø Cilinders
Ø Piston
Clearance
225
69.00÷69,015
68,955÷68,970
0.03÷0.06
315
78.00÷78.15
77.955÷77.970
0.03÷0.06
350 - 350EPA
82.00÷82.015
81.955÷81.970
0.03÷0.06
400
82,00÷82,015
81,955÷81,970
0.03÷0.06
400EPA
82,00÷82,015
81,925÷81,940
0.06÷0.09
440 - 440EPA
86,00÷86,015
85,955÷85,970
0.03÷0.06
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8
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Piston rings, distance between the tips (mm)
Fit the piston ring into the top part of the cylinder and measure the
distance between the tips.
42
Value
Engine
Piston rings
1st piston ring (nitrided)
225
315
350
400
2nd piston ring *
stamped - ko
1.00÷1.50
0.30÷0.50
0.25÷0.50
1st piston ring (chromated)
0.30÷0.50
2nd piston ring (torsional)
0.30÷0.50
3rd piston ring, oil scraper
0.25÷0.50
1st piston ring (nitrided)
0.20÷0.35
2nd piston ring *
1.00÷1.50
0,30÷0,50
3rd piston ring, oil scraper (nitred)
0.25÷0.50
1st piston ring (nitrided)
0.20÷0.35
2nd piston ring *
stamped - N
0.20÷0.40
3rd piston ring, oil scraper (nitred)
3rd piston ring, oil scraper (nitred)
440
stamped - GOE
1.00÷1.50
0.30÷0.50
0.25÷0.50
1st piston ring (chromated)
0.20÷0.35
2nd piston ring (torsional)
0.30÷0.50
3rd piston ring, oil scraper
0.20÷0.40
Wear limit 1 mm - for the 2nd piston ring of kD 225 and KD 350 engines, the wear limit is 2.0 mm.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Piston rings, play between the slots (mm)
225
315
350-400
440
A
0.07÷0.115
0.07÷0.10
0.035÷0.11
0,07÷0,11
B
0.04÷0.08
0.05÷0.08
0.050÷0.09
0,05÷0,09
C
0.03÷0.07
0.04÷0.075
0.030÷0.087
0,03÷0,07
Replace the piston or piston rings if the value exceeds the maximum
limit.
43
44
Piston rings, assembly order
A = 1st Chromium plated piston ring (nitrided for 225-350-400)
B = 2nd piston ring (torsional)
C = 3rd piston ring (oil scraper) (nitrided for 225-350-400)
D = Chromium plated zone
Note: If a word (top, or some other word) is written on the surface of
a piston ring, mount that surface upwards.
Before inserting the piston into the cylinder, oil and turn the piston rings so that the cuts are staggered 120° to each other.
In KD 350 and KD 225 engines, the second piston ring is not
torsional, while the first and third piston rings do not have chromium plated zones but are nitrided.
45
Lubricate the following parts with oil before mounting: the piston pin, the piston, the cylinder and the big-end bearing
Piston - Refitting
Connect piston to connecting rod, lubricate piston pin and introduce
it into the piston/connecting rod assembly by exerting pressure with
your thumb.
Fit both piston pin circlips and check that they are well seated.
When introducing both the connecting rod and the piston into the
cylinder make sure that the larger crown surface A (if compared to the
combustion chamber) is on the same side as the pushrod opening B.
46
Clearance
A = Clearance
C = Head gasket
The thickness of gasket C determines the clearance A, which must be
0.45-0.55 mm for KD 315 with injection pump serial N° 6590-259; it is
0.50-0.60 mm with injection pump serial N° 6590-281.
The clearance is 0.45-0.55 mm for KD 225 in all cases.
The clearance is 0.50-0.60 mm for KD 350-400-440 in all cases.
For the correct thickness of gasket C see table in fig. 49÷50.
There are gaskets with inner diameters oversized by 1 mm for KD
315 and KD 350, required if the cylinders are ground.
47
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Piston protrusion check
To calculate the right thickness for the gasket, the protrusion between
the piston and the cylinder head surface must be measured.
Use a dial indicator with base plate. Reset to zero while resting on a
surface plate, then position against the cylinder head base plane as
shown in the diagram, so that the dial indicator rod rests against the
piston. Now take the reading.
Repeat the operation in the other three points (going crosswise) and
take the readings.
Calculate the average of these four readings to get the precise
measurement of the protrusion between the piston and the cylinder
head base plane.
Choose the appropriate gasket according to the following table.
48
Only remove the head gasket from its protective wrapping just
before assembly.
See page 26 when tightening the cylinder head
Having chosen the required thickness, mount the gasket as shown in
the figure (see letter A).
Find the number of notches in zone B to find the thickness of the gasket when the cylinder head is mounted.
The gasket thickness given in the table is the one obtained with the
gasket mounted and the head torqued.
49
50
Head gasket (mm)
For KD 225
For KD 350
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
0,351÷0,450
0,9
0
0,365÷0,500
1
0
0,450÷0,550
1
1 notch
0,500÷0,600
1,1
1 notch
0,550÷0,650
1,1
2 notches
0,600÷0,700
1,2
2 notches
0,650÷0,750
1,2
3 notches
For KD 315 with injection pump P.no 6590.259
For KD 400
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
0,365÷0,450
0,9
0
0,410÷0,500
1
0
0,450÷0,550
1
1 notch
0,510÷0,600
1,1
1 notch
0,550÷0,650
1,1
2 notches
0,610÷0,700
1,2
2 notches
0,650÷0,750
1,2
3 notches
For KD 315 with injection pump P.no 6590.281
For KD 440
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
Piston
protusion
Gasket
Thickness
Number
of notches
0,365÷0,400
0,9
0
0,410÷0,500
1
0
0,400÷0,500
1
1 notch
0,510÷0,600
1,1
1 notch
0,500÷0,600
1,1
2 notches
0,610÷0,700
1,2
2 notches
0,600÷0,700
1,2
3 notches
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
When remounting the big-end bearings, remember to thoroughly clean the parts and generously lubricate them to prevent
seizure when the engine is started up for the first time
Connecting rod
Demount the connecting rod and proceed with the following inspections.
The big-end cap and big-end bear the same numbers.
When remounting, mount the cap from the same side as in C of the
figure.
Tighten the KD 225 bolts to a 23 Nm torque value.
Tighten the bolts to a 30 Nm torque value for KD 315-350-400-440.
51
Connecting rod, piston pin
A
225
99,970÷100,03
350
109,970÷110,03
400-440
124,97÷125,03
B
20,010÷20,020
22,010÷22,020 23,010÷23,020
D
19,995÷20,000
21,995÷22,000 22,995÷23,000
(B -D )
Clearance
(B -D )
52
315
Limit
0,010÷0,025
0,05
Note: The connecting rod has no insert bearings. See fig. 62 for
connecting rod big end diameter.
Connecting rod alignement
Use a dial gauge as shown in the figure.
Check that axes are aligned using the piston pin; axial misalignment
A = 0.015; limit 0.03 mm.
53
Crankshaft end play
Secure the engine to a metal base or table. Use a dial indicator with
column and magnetic base plate. Place the stylus on the crankshaft.
Move the driving shaft back and forth on the flywheel side.
End play should be 0.05 - 0.25 mm; it is not adjustable.
54
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
A warped oil retainer may allow the introduction of air into the
engine thus causing crankcase ventilation problems.
Use genuine oil retainers with the KOHLER logo (see B).
Drive shaft oil seals
Oil retainer 1 is located in the gear cover on the timing side while retainer 2 is located in the crankcase on the flywheel side.
Arrows a point to the crankshaft direction of rotation.
Press them into their seats by exerting uniform pressure throughout
their front surface.
55
56
Drive shaft, lubrication ducts, bore thread on flywheel side and p.t.o.
Remove plug C and check that the lubrication duct is perfectly clean.
Close with a new plug checking for proper sealing.
A = M14x1.5 (turn counterclockwise)
B = M8x1.25 (with standard shaft)
57
When the crankpin and main journal are ground, values R and
R1 must be obtained again to prevent the drive shaft from breaking.
Drive shaft, connection radius
Radius R that joins the crankpin to the supports is 2.8-3.2 mm.
Radius R1 that joins the main journal to the timing gear is 0.5 mm.
58
Drive shaft, main journal/crankpin diameter, gear cover bearing
inside diameter on timing side
Use an outside micrometer for the main journal and an inside bore
gauge for the gear cover bearing on the timing side.
59
60
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Crankshaft - journal diameter (mm)
225
M
oil seal working 34,959÷34,975
area
400-440
34,959÷34,975
39,959÷39,975
A
35,002÷35,013
35,002÷35,013
40,002÷40,013
B
33,984÷34,000
37,984÷38,000
39,984÷40,000
L
35,240÷35,256
35,240÷35,256
40,240÷40,256
C
34,984÷35,000
34,984÷35,000
39,984÷40,000
27,967÷28,000
27,967÷28,000
29,967÷30,000
D
61
315-350
oil seal working
area
The undersizes for the crankpin and main journal are 0.25,
0.50 and 1 mm.
The gears must be mounted with the right tools so that they
can be correctly timed.
The gears should not therefore be demounted.
Only the complete shaft is available as a spare.
Drive shaft - Main bearing inside diameter, connecting rod big
end, crankshaft bearing and timing control gear and balancer Clearance and interference between the corresponding journals
Dimensions (mm) (see also fig. 61)
62
315-350
400-440
D
34,030÷34,046
38,030÷38,046
40,030÷40,046
E
35,030÷35,050
35,030÷35,050
40,030÷40,050
G
45,000÷45,016
45,000÷45,016
53,000÷53,019
H
34,988÷35,000
34,988÷35,000
35,184÷35,200
39,988÷40,000
I
35,200÷35,216
35,200÷35,216
40,200÷40,216
Clearance (mm)
(D -B )
Availability of bearings
Main bearings are available at their nominal value or
undersized 0.25 , 0.50 and 1.0 mm.
Connecting rods are available with big end at nominal
value or undersized 0.25 and 0.50 mm.
- 38 -
225
225
315-350
400-440
0,03÷0,062
0,030÷0,062
0,0300,062
0,120
0,120
0,120
0,03÷0,066
0,030÷0,066
0,0300,066
225
315-350
400-440
(A -H )
0,002÷0,025
0,002÷0,024
0,002÷0,024
(F-G )
0,015÷0,056
0,015÷0,056
0,015÷0,056
(L-I)
0,024÷0,056
0,024÷0,056
0,024÷0,056
(D -B ) Limit
(E -C )
Interference (mm)
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Camshaft
Components:
1 Journal, gear cover on timing side
2 Gear
3 Exhaust lobe
4 Injection lobe
5 Fuel pump eccentric
6 Intake lobe
7 Journal, crankcase side
63
Camshaft journals and bore
Use a comparator for interiors
64
65
Dimensions of camshaft journals and bore (mm)
A
225
315-350
400-440
19,459÷19,474
21,959÷21,980
17,966÷17,984
B
15,957÷15,984
C
16,000÷16,018
D
19,500÷19,521
22,000÷22,021
18,00÷18,018
(D -A )
0,026÷0,062
0,020÷0,062
0,016÷0,052
(D -A ) Limit
66
0,120
(C -B )
0,100
0,016÷0,061
(C -B ) Limit
0,120
Cam height (mm)
225
315-350
350 EPA
400-440
H
30,25÷30,30
30,25÷30,30
31,95÷32,00
32,00÷32,05
H1
35,75÷35,80
35,75÷35,80
35,75÷35,80
36,10÷36,15
H2
33,65÷33,70
35,05÷35,10
33,65÷33.70
35,10÷35,15
Note: Replace camshaft if cam wear exceeds the minimum given value of H, H1 and H2 by 0.1 mm.
67
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Camshaft timing
Fit camshaft by aligning marks' A with mark D on the crankshaft.
68
Camshaft – Antireverse system KD 400-440
it consists of a device on the camshaft which lifts the intake valve in
case of a startup in reverse direction with respect to normal rotation.
68a
During normal operation, the tappet overcomes the spring resistance
while passing on the system and decompression does not operate.
In case of a startup in reverse direction, the antireverse system lifts
the valve as the tappet passes by. Startup is thus inhibited.
68b
A
Note: Check the antireverse system for wear, and make sure it is kept
in the rest position by the return spring, as shown in picture
68c. Verify that in this condition the clearance between weight
A and surface B is 1 mm.
B
68c
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Automatic decompression
With the engine at a standstill and up to a rate of about 300 RPM,
spring 1, acting on weights 2 and 3 via lever 4 and pin 5, keeps the
exhaust valve open during the compression phase also.
Once the engine exceeds the 300 RPM rate, weights 1 and 2 keep
pin 5 in the hold position owing to the action of the centrifugal force. In
this position, cam 6 can regularly control the exhaust valve thanks to a
ridge on the pin itself.
Since there is then no compression in the cylinder, the engine will easily start when the self-winder is used.
69
70
Camshaft end play
Perform this check before fitting cylinder head and tappets including
the injection tappets.
Temporarily fit camshaft 1 complete with washer; tighten gear cover 2
to 25 Nm.
Check end play by moving the camshaft back and forth using a suitable tool; the end play value is 0.10÷0.25 mm and is not adjustable.
71
Dynamic balancer (on request)
The dynamic balancer is supported by two identical ball bearings housed in the crankcase and in the gear cover on the timing side respectively.
1 is the reference point for timing with the cranksaft gear (see below).
Dimensions (mm):
A = 14.983-14.994
B = 14.99-15.00
C = 34.89-35.00
D = 34.958-34.983 (bearing housing diameter on crankcase and gear
cover on timing side).
72
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- 41 -
8
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Dinamic balancer timing
Position crankshaft as shown in the figure.
Introduce the dynamic balancer so that timing mark 1 engages
between teeth 2 of the crankshaft gear.
73
Valve timing check
Remove the tank and conveyor to access the flywheel.
Carry out the inspections on the drive shaft. The values given are
measured on the circumference of the flywheel.
Adjust the valve play as indicated on the next page.
Reset the comparator on the cap of intake valve 1. Turn the drive
α (point at which the intake
valve starts to open in relation to top dead center A) and β (point at
shaft in the spinning direction and find
which the intake valve shuts after bottom dead center B) see fig. 7778.
Proceed in a similar way with the exhaust valve, checking
74
75
at which the exhaust valve opens) and
valve shuts).
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
δ
γ (point
(point at which the exhaust
- 43 -
8
DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
Timing angles for operation (0.15 valve play).
For KD 225
α = 6° before A corresponding to 12 mm
β = 22° after B corresponding to 44 mm
γ = 58° before B corresponding to 116 mm
δ = 10° after A corresponding to 20 mm.
Values measured on the circumference of the flywheel D = 230 (one
degree corresponds to 2 mm).
For KD 315 - 350
α = 10° before A corresponding to 20.09 mm
β = 42° after B corresponding to 87.78 mm
γ = 58° before B corresponding to 121.22 mm
δ = 10° after A corresponding to 20.9 mm.
Values measured on the circumference of the flywheel D = 240 (one
degree corresponds to 2.09 mm).
77
Timing angles for inspection (0.65-0.70 valve play).
For KD 225
α = 7° after A corresponding to 14 mm
β = 9° after B corresponding to 18 mm
γ = 45° before B corresponding to 90 mm
δ = 3° before A corresponding to 6 mm.
Values measured on the circumference of the flywheel D = 230 (one
degree corresponds to 2 mm).
For KD 315 - 350
α = 1° after A corresponding to 2.09 mm
β = 31° after B corresponding to 64.79 mm
γ = 45° before B corresponding to 94.05 mm
δ = 3° before A corresponding to 6.27 mm.
Values measured on the circumference of the flywheel D = 240 (one
degree corresponds to 2.09 mm).
78
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DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
8
Speed governor
Components:
1 Spool spacer
2 Spool
3 Weights
4 Spool guide
5 Gear
6 Oil pump driving shaft
7 Circlip
8 Thrust ring
79
Speed governor removal
Spool guide 1 has retainers one end which prevent spool 2 from slipping out.
To remove the speed governor use a suitable tool to slightly widen
the two teeth.
80
Refitting gear cover on timing side
Proper sealing between gear cover and crankcase is ensured by the
liquid sealant "Loctite 5205". Carefully clean the two sealing surfaces
and spread the sealant uniformly.
Tighten screws to 23 Nm.
Wait 3 hours before starting the engine.
81
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- 45 -
9
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The engine can be damaged if allowed to operate with insufficient oil. It is also dangerous to add too much oil because its
combustion may lead to a sharp increase in the rotation speed.
Use suitable oil in order to protect the engine.
Nothing more than lubrication oil can influence the performances and life of an engine.
Use of an inferior quality oil or failure to regularly change the oil will increase the risk of piston seizure, will cause the piston
rings to jam and will lead to rapid wear on the cylinder liner, the bearings and all other moving parts. Engine life will also
be notably reduced.
The oil viscosity must suit the ambient temperature in which the engine operates.
Old engine oil can cause skin cancer if repeatedly left in contact with the skin and for long periods of time. Wear protective
gloves to avoid touching used oil. If contact with the oil is unavoidable, you are advised to wash your hands with soap and
water as soon as possible. Dispose of old oil in the correct way as it is highly polluting.
KD 225 - 315 - 350 LUBRICATION SYSTEM
AND BREATHER RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
82
Components:
1) Oil fill cap
2) Safety valve 3) Rod journal 4) Pressure control valve
5) Pressure switch
- 46 -
6) Oil drain plug 7) Metal filter element
8) Main journal
9) Oil filter
10) Oil pump
11) Oil intake filter
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
9
KD 400-440 LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND BREATHER RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
83
Components:
1) Oil fill cap
2) Safety valve 3) Rod journal 4) Pressure control valve
5) Pressure switch
6) Oil drain plug 7) Metal filter element
8) Main journal 9) Oil filter
10) Oil pump
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
11) Oil intake filter
12) Pushrods
13) Hydraulic tappets
14) Calibrated union
- 47 -
9
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil pump
Components:
1 Cover
2 Shaft
3 Key
4 Pin
5 Internal rotor
6 External rotor
Oil pump delivery at 3000 rpm is 5.8 l/min.
84
Oil pump - Clearance between rotors
Measure clearance as shown in the figure; the max. value is 0.13 mm;
wear limit 0.25 mm.
85
Oil pressure regulation valve
Components for KD 315 and KD 350:
1 Spring
2 Valve
3 Plug
Free length A of the spring is 27.50-27.75 mm.
Components for KD 225:
4 Ball 5 Spring
6 Plug
Free length A of the spring is 23.50-24.50 mm.
86
87
Components for KD 400-440:
7 Plunger
8 Spring
9 Washer
10 Cup
11 Snap ring
Free length A of the spring is 25,50÷25,75 mm.
Note: If A is 1 mm less than the given value, replace the valve.
Valve setting is not adjustable.
Internal strainer
The oil pick-up strainer is made of nylon 66. Its degree of filtration is
500 µm.
Dimensions (mm):
A = M16x1.5
B = 64
C = 102
D = 12
88
- 48 -
89
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
9
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil filter
Filter components: KD 315/350
1 Seal
2 Adhesive
3 End cap
4 Filtering material
5 Plate
Dimension mm: A = 26.5 B = 18 C = 88.5 D = 67.5 E = 8.5
90
91
Characteristics:
Useful filtering area = 75 cm2
Degree of filtration = 50 µm.
The by-pass valve is set at 0.6-0.8 bar.
Filter components: KD 225
7 Rubber pad
8 Upper cover
9 Filter element
10 Lower cover
Dimension mm: A = 19.0-19.3 B = 12.5 C = 83.0-83.5
Characteristics:
Useful filtering area ≥ 75 cm2
Degree of filtration = 40-60 µm.
See page 18 for the replacement frequencies.
Oil pressure check
When assembly operations are completed fill engine with oil and fuel;
connect a 10 bar pressure gauge to the oil filter fitting.
Start the engine and check pressure as a function of the oil temperature (see below).
92
Calibrated pipe for lubrication of hydraulic tappets
The pipe is fitted to the hydraulic tappets oil line (see fig. 83, detail
11).
If the calibrated hole is clogged, the tappets are not sufficiently
lubricated, valve clearance is therefore increased and the engine may
be noisier.
If the diameter of the calibrated pipe is larger than the ones given in
picture 93, the pressure exerted by the hydraulic tappets may cause
the valves to remain open even during the compression phase.
93
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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9
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil pressure curve at idle speed
The curve is obtained at the oil filter port with engine running at a constant speed of 1200 r.p.m. in no-load conditions; pressure is given in
bar and temperature in centigrades.
The curve represents the minimum pressure value while the maximum value is 5 bar.
94
Oil pressure curve at full speed
The curve is obtained at the oil filter port with engine running at 3000
r.p.m. at the N power; pressure is given in bar and temperature in
centigrades.
The curve represents the minimum pressure value while the maximum value is 5 bar.
Note: After the running-in period the lube max. temperature should be
less than the room temperature +95°C.
95
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
9
Fuelling/injection circuit for KD 315-350-400-440
Components:
1 Tank
2 Return tube
3 Fuel filter
4 Injection pump
5 Injector leak-off line
6 Injector
7 High pressure line
8 Return tube
96
Fuelling/injection circuit for KD 225
1 Tank
2 Injector leak-off line
3 Injector
4 High pressure line
5 Return tube
6 Return tube
7 Diesel fuel filter
8 Fuel pipe
9 T-connector
10 Reduction
11 Injection pump
97
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 51 -
10
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel filter KD 225-315-350-400-440
A = 7.3
B = 3.8
C = 1.5
D = 42
H = 75
Characteristics:
Filtering area ≥ 390 cm²
Filtration level ≤ 7 µm
See page 18 for fuel filter replacement
98
Fuel filter KD 225 (version with internal filter in tank)
1 Rubber retention ring
2 PRV cover
3 SCP radial unit
4 PRV cover
5 Segment
Characteristics:
Filtering area 215 cm2 Filtration level 7 µm
See page 18 for fuel filter replacement
99
Feed pump (optional)
A feed pump is usually requested when the tank is not supplied in
conjunction with the engine.
The pump is the diaphragm type and is operated by a camshaft eccentric through a drive rod.
Tighten screws to 15 Nm.
Characteristics: At 2000 rpm of the camshaft, the minimum delivery
is 40 l/h, while the automatic adjustment pressure is
0.5 ÷ 0.7 bars.
100
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
FUEL SYSTEM
10
Fuel pump, drive rod protrusion
Components:
1 Fuel pump
2 Crankcase
3 Drive rod
4 Eccentric
Check while eccentric 4 is at rest (lowest point of travel).
Protrusion A of drive rod 3 is 1.5-1.9 mm; it is not adjustable.
Drive rod length = 58-58.2 mm for KD 225
Drive rod length = 65.8-66.0 mm for KD 315/350
Drive rod length = 61,4÷61,6 mm for KD 400/440
101
Injection pump
This is of the simplified QLC type; it is housed in the crankcase and is
controlled by the camshaft via tappets.
102
Injection pump fitting in the crankcase
Fit tappets 3 so that screw 6 is introduced into guide 4.
Tighten screw 6 to 9 Nm and check that the tappet is free to move
downwards.
Fit pad 2 into the tappet so that recess B points downwards as shown
in the figure.
Fit the injection pump into the crankcase complete with gasket (C) position8ing flow control 1 in the fork of lever 5 which should be in the
maximum flow position.
When removing the injection pump from its housing make sure
that spacer 2 is not dropped into the oil sump; injection pump
operation will be impaired uf the spacer is not installed.
103
104
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 53 -
10
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection pump components and disassembly
1 Delivery union
2 Filler
3 Spring
4 Gasket
5 Valve
6 Gasket
7 Spring retainer
8 Spring
9 Spring plate
10 Rack
11 Plunger
12 Pin
A = Fuel outlet union
B = Fuel intake union
C = Fastening
D = Barrel
E = RH helix
Demount in compliance with the numeric order.
Plate 9 is held firm by pins 12. Lever up by inserting a tool between
the plate and the body of the pump.
The volume shifted by delivery valve 5 is 15 mm3 in the pump of KD
315-350 and 25 mm³ in the pump of KD 225 is 21 mm3 in the pump of
KD 400/440
105
Injection pump, body, plunger and delivery valve
Components: 1 Delivery valve
2 Barrel
3 Plunger
4 Right helix 5 Delay notch
6 Pump body
7 Collar
106
Dimensions mm:
A = 5.50 (nominal diam.) 225-315-350 A = 7,00 (nominal diam.) 400-440
A = 6,00 (nominal diam.) 315-350 EPA
B = 2.00 / 2.03
C = 1.50 /1.53
Note: The injection pump installed in engines for small vehicles,
soundproof generating sets, EPA and KD 400-440 engines,
are characterised by the inclusion of a collar 1 which contributes to noise-reduction.
Injection pump refitting
The plunger is fitted with helix E facing towards the outlet union A;
if it is mistakenly fitted with the helix facing the intake coupling B the
injection pump no longer operates (there is no danger of engine runaway); complete refitting following fig. 107.
107
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
FUEL SYSTEM
10
Injection pump non-return valve
KD
225-315-350
2
1
Outlet fitting components for 315-350 EPA E 400-440 engines
KD
315-350 EPA
400-440
3
The exhaust union has a non-return valve A. The purpose of this valve is to improve the injection phase by expelling the air in the fuel and
preventing it from being sucked in by the pump during the intake phase. This also ensures that the engine stops promptly as soon as the
stopping device is activated by means of the solenoid valve.
1) Outlet fitting
2) Ball Ø1/8"
3) Threaded dowel
108
Do not cut the tube longitudinally because you might damage
the union.
Injection pump, Rilsan tube removal
Cut nylon tube at A.
Remove the portion of the tube which is still connected to the union
using common pliers. Pinch the nylon tube without impairing the sealing properties of union (see figure).
Re-cycle the same feeding tube if the remaining length allows it; replace if not.
109
110
Injection pump, Rilsan tube refitting
The outlet tube is made of nylon type Rilsan; it is connected to the suitable injection pump union by means of special pliers (Ser.No. 71041460-023) and a plastic-head hammer (see figure).
111
112
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 55 -
10
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection pump delivery check on test bench
1 Delivery control rack rod
2 Rack rod 1 in stop position
3 Rack rod 1 in max. delivery position
A = 18-19 mm (max.rack rod stroke)
α = 66°
113
Static injection timing
Disconnect pipe 1 from injection pump and close it, to avoid fuel leakages.
Mount in its place a nylon pipe 2 as shown in the picture. Insert in this
pipe an iron wire and let it project by approximately 10 mm: in this way
any drop in fuel can easily be checked.
114
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
10
FUEL SYSTEM
Static injection lead test on flywheel
Fill the tank and make sure that the fuel is not more than 10-15 cm
above the tester. Set the flow governor lever of the injection pump in
the stop position and lock it there.
Turn the flywheel in the engine rotation direction. proceed slowly during the compression phase. The fuel that flows from tube 2 will tend
to diminish. Stop as soon as it creases to drip (one drop of fuel every
30-40 seconds is tolerated): this is the static injection lead. Make sure
that B coincides with A.
See fig. 117-118 if B does not coincide with A.
115
Use a temporary tank if the engine is not fitted with one. Here again, it is essential to make sure that the fuel level is no
more than 10-15 cm above the injectionm pump.
References on the flywheel
A = Reference of fixed TDC on crankcase
B = Injection lead reference on the flywheel
C = TDC reference on flywheel
α = Reference in degrees between B and C.
When B coincides with A, the piston is in the static injection lead position. When C coincides with A, the piston is at top dead
center.
B /C m m
Motor type
with external with external with external with external
Ø flywheel Ø flywheel Ø flywheel Ø flywheel
220
230
240
260
α
40÷44
42÷46
21÷23
KD 225 recorded up to 1500 [rpm]
29÷32,5
30÷34
15÷17
KD 225 recorded from 1500 to 2200 [rpm]
34,5÷38
36÷40
18÷20
KD 225 standard
KD 315/350 standard and minivecture
46÷50
48÷52
23÷25
KD 315/350 Soundproof generating sets
40÷44
42÷46
20÷22
KD 315/350 recorded to 1500 [rpm]
36÷40
38÷42
18÷20
KD 400 recorded to 3600 [rpm]
29,48
13
KD 400 recorded to 3000 [rpm]
24,95
11
KD 400 EPA recorded to 3600 [rpm]
28,35
12,5
KD 400 EPA recorded to 3000 [rpm]
24,95
11
KD 440 recorded to 3600 [rpm]
31,75
14
KD 440 recorded to 3000 [rpm]
27,21
12
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 57 -
10
FUEL SYSTEM
Injection advance adjustment
Injection advance beyond the thickness of gasket A is determined by
the thickness of the pad inside the injection tappet.
To alter the value of injection advance the pad must be replaced with
another of a suitable thickness (see fig. 117-118).
To extract pad B, use a rod with a suction cap or magnet at one end.
The replacement pads supplied have 10 different thicknesses
(between 4.0 and 4.9mm).
To alter the value of injection advance the pad must be replaced with
another of a suitable thickness (see fig. 117-118).
116
If reference point B does not coincide with A follow the examples in
fig. 117-118.
1) Example of delayed injection advance (fig. 117): to make B match
up with A, replace the pad with a thicker one (fig. 116).
2) Example of early injection advance (fig. 118): to make B match up
with A, replace the pad with a thinner one (fig. 116).
Note: When the thickness of the pad varies by 0.1mm under the
pump, B is delayed or brought forward by 1° on the flywheel.
117
118
Injector
KD
315
350
400
440
Components:
1 Body
2 Union
3 Adjusting shim
4 Spring
5 Pressure rod
6 Pin
7 Nozzle
8 Nozzle cup
9 Needle valve
10 Tip
11 Duct
12 Return hole
After re-assembly, tighten ring nut 8 to a 50 Nm torque value.
KD
225
119
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
FUEL SYSTEM
10
Nozzles
The set-up between the needle and the guide must leave the needle
free to fall and merely as a result of its own weight, when lifted 7mm
from its seat and rotated in different directions, with the nozzle kept at
a 45° angle.
Rotation of the needle must be completely smooth and uninhibited by
obstacles and malformations.
Moreover, on being squeezed against its seat, it must fall freely, when
the nozzle is inverted.
The test must be carried out after rinsing both the needle and nozzle
with trichloroethane and wetting with filtered SHELL CALIBRATION
FLUID “C” oil.
120
A
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4,5
4 x 0,17
4 x 0,20
5 x 0,141
4 x 0,22
5 x 0,141
5 x 0,159
5 x 0,150
5 x 0,166
5 x 0,165
hole lenght
0,5
0,6
0,8
0,6
0,8
0,5
0,8
0,5
0,8
a
160°
160°
155°
160°
145°
160°
160°
160°
155°
pin height
0,10 ÷
0,15
0,10 ÷
0,15
0,175 ÷
0,225
0,125 ÷
0,175
0,175 ÷
0,225
0,375 ÷
0,425
0,375 ÷
0,425
0,375 ÷
0,425
0,375 ÷
0,425
sump volume
0,36 m m ³
0,36 m m ³
0mm³
0,36 m m ³
0mm³
0,19 m m ³
0mm³
0,19 m m ³
0mm³
pressure (bar)*
214 ± 4
214 ± 4
240 ± 6
214 ± 4
240 ± 6
200 ± 4
259 ± 4
200 ± 4
240 ± 6
B
n° and Ø of holes
C
* These values apply to new injector and allow for loosening of up to10% after breaking-in period
Injector calibration
Connect the injector to a hand pump and adjust if necessary,
modifying the thickness above the spring.
When the spring is replaced, calibration must be carried out at a
pressure higher than 10 bars to counterbalance adjustments while
running.
Spraying and opening pressure
121
With the pressure gauge closed, press hard on the hand pump at
least 10 times.
Open the pressure gauge and press down on the pump once every
second, while keeping a check on the spraying process and pressure.
The opening pressure must lie between the two values given in the
table. Jets must be uniform and well distributed.
Leakage time (waste)
Pressure must drop from 150 to 100 bars in a span of not less than 8 seconds and not more than 30.
Seat seal
Nozzle tip wet.
Pressure must be kept 20 bars below the opening pressure for 10 seconds.
After this time, dampness on the nozzle tip is acceptable, and may be identified by touching with a dry finger. Only a drop of
dampness is acceptable and not a large thick patch which would indicate a leak.
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 59 -
10
- 60 -
FUEL SYSTEM
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
11
12V, 12A electric ignition diagram
Components:
1 Alternator
2 Starter motor
3 Voltage regulator
4 Battery
5 Pressure switch
6 Oil pressure light
7 Key switch
8 Battery charging light
Note: The battery, which is not supplied by KOHLER, should have
12V nominal voltage rating and a capacity of not less than 44
Ah / 210 Amp. of fast discharge intensity.
122
Alternator
Components:
1 Ring gear
2 Flywheel
3 Rotor
4 Stator
Fixing screws must be tightened to 1.2 Nm.
Note: The rotor is made up by a plastoferrite ring which is fixed to
flywheel while the stator is mounted on the crankcase.
123
Alternator battery charger graph (12V, 12A)
This test has been carried out after thermal stabilization at 20°C for
2 minutes at 3000 r.p.m. with constant battery voltage of 12.5V.
The value of the power supplied with reference to the curve may
change in a range between +10% and -5%.
124
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 61 -
11
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
24V, 9A alternator battery recharging curve
125
12V, 30A alternator battery recharging curve
The test was conducted after heat stabilizing at 20°C.
The value of the current delivered in relation to the curve may be
subjected to a variation of between +10 % and -5%.
126
Voltage regulator
12V, 12A: for standard alternators with 3 output wires
12V, 30A: for 12V, 20A alternators with 2 output wires
24V, 9A: for 24V, 9A alternators with two output wires
Tabdimensionsmm
The tabs are in different sizes to prevent
incorrect connections.
127
- 62 -
Width
Thickness
~
6.35
0.80
R
9.50
1.12
+
9.50
1.12
LE
4.75
0.50
/0
6.35
0.80
W
4.75
0.50
0
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
11
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
12V electric starter diagram with voltage regulator built into the
ignition panel
Components:
1
2
4
5
6
7
Alternator
Starter motor
Battery
Pressure switch
Solenoid valve
Ignition switch
Note: The battery, which is not supplied by KOHLER, should have
12V nominal voltage rating and a capacity of not less than 44
Ah / 210 Amp. of fast discharge intensity.
128
12V electric ignition layout with motor protection (optional)
Components:
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
Alternator
Starter motor
Battery
Pressure switch
Solenoid valve
Ignition switch
Panel
Note: The battery, which is not supplied by KOHLER, should have
12V nominal voltage rating and a capacity of not less than 44
Ah / 210 Amp. of fast discharge intensity.
129
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 63 -
11
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Diagram of electric starter motor protection with sole selfwinding starter - without battery - (optional)
Components:
1
2
3
4
5
Alternator
Solenoid valve
Pressure switch
Thermostat
A.c. motor stop device
130
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
11
Testing voltage regulator for proper operation
Check that connections correspond to the schematic.
Disconnect the terminal from the battery positive pole.
Connect a d.c. voltmeter between the battery poles.
Fit an ammeter between the positive pole and the B+ on voltage regulator.
Start and stop the engine a several times until battery voltage drops
below 13V.
When battery voltage reaches 14.5V the ammeter current should suddenly drop down to almost zero.
Replace regulator if recharge current is zero with voltage below
12,5V.
When the engine is running do not disconnect battery cables or
switch key to "off" position.
Keep regulator away from heat sources above 75°C.
Do no electric welding on engine or application.
131
Starting motor
Bosch type DW (L) 12V, 1.1 KW for KD 315-350-400-440
Bosch type DW (L) 12V, 0.9 KW for KD 225
Anti-clockwise rotation direction (viewed from pinion side)
A = 17.5-19.5 mm (distance from flywheel rim surface to starter motor
flange surface)
Note: Contact Bosch service centers for repair operations.
132
Characteristic curves for starting motor type DW (L) 12V, 1.1 KW
The curves were obtained at a temperature of -20°C with 66 Ah battery.
U = Motor terminal voltage in Volts
n = Motor speed in r.p.m.
M = Torque in Nm
J(A) = Absorbed current in Ampere.
133
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- 65 -
11
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Characteristic curves of Bosch starter motor type DW (L) 12V,
0.9 kW
The curves were measured at a temperature of -20°C with a 55 Ah
battery.
U = Voltage on motor terminals in Volts.
n = Motor speed in rpm
M = Torque in Nm
I (A) = Power draw in Amperes.
134
Characteristic curves of Bosch starter motor type DW (L) 24V,
1.6 kW
The curves were measured at a temperature of -20°C with a 36 Ah
battery.
U = Voltage on motor terminals in Volts.
n = Motor speed in rpm
M = Torque in Nm
I (A) = Power draw in Amperes..
135
Ignition switch positions
A = Accessory
B = Off
C = On
D = Start
136
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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
11
ADJUSTMENTS - KD 315-350
Idling speed setting in no-load conditions (standard)
After filling with oil and fuel, start the engine and let it warm up for 10
minutes.
Adjust idling speed to 1000-1250 rpm by turning set screw 1; then
tighten lock nut.
Washer 2 assures sealing and prevents possible oil leaks.
137
Idle speed adjustment, for small car versions
The idle speed adjusting spring (C) for small cars must be hooked in the
speed governor lever hole D ( fig.140).
Completely unscrew the std idle speed adjusting screw 1 (fig.137).
Loosen nut B by one half of a turn.
Turn the screw A anticlockwise until lever G touches cover.
Start the engine: turning clockwise screw A , set idle speed at 1050 rpm ; tighten the lock nut B tighten the screw 1 (fig. 137) until touching
lever H (fig. 141); when the screw touches the lever, the speed increases;
at this point unloose screw 1/4 of a turn and lock the lock nut of screw 1.
The controls cover screws must be tightened to 10Nm.
138
139
140
141
Note: By this way idle speed on hot engine could diminish of 80 rpm
max.
Full speed setting in no-load conditions (standard)
After setting idle speed turn screw 2 and set full speed in no-load conditions at 3800 rpm; then tighten lock nut.
Washer 1 assures sealing and prevents possible oil leaks.
142
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12
SETTINGS / ADJUSTMENTS
ADJUSTMENTS - KD 225-400-440
No-load idling adjustment (standard)
After having filled the engine with oil and fuel, start it and allow it to
warm up for 10 minutes.
Using adjuster screw 1, regulate the idling rate at 1000-1250 rpm.
Tighten the check nut.
143
No-load top rate adjustment (standard)
After having adjusted the idling rate, use screw 2 and regulate the top
rate at 3800 rpm (for engines set at 3600 rpm on load).
Tighten the check nut.
144
Injection pump flow rate adjustment
for KD 225-315-350-400-440
This regulation must be carried out by means of a water brake, otherwise the adjustment will be approximate. proceed in the following way.
Loosen flow rate limiter C by 5 turns.
Accelerate the engine to no-load top rate, i.e. to 3800 rpm.
Re-tighten limiter C until the engine tends to decelerate.
Loosen limiter C by one and a half turns.
Tighten the check nut.
Note: Tighten C if the engine produces an excessive amount of exhaust
in the maximum load condition; loosen C if no smoke is exhausted
and if the engine is unable to develop its maximum power.
145
Injection pump delivery limiting and torque adapter (standard)
Delivery limiting device C has the function of limiting the injection pump
max. delivery.
The same device also acts as torque adapter. The speed governor
spring acts on lever L with standing the resistance opposed by spring
M inside the cylinder.
The stroke H allowed by the torque device to lever L is 0.20 / 0.25 mm.
As a result of this pump delivery increases and torque reaces its peak
value.
Note: In generator sets and power welders, the torque setting device acts as a delivery limiter only.
146
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KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
SETTINGS / ADJUSTMENT
12
Injection pump delivery setting
1) Bring engine to idling speed
2) Unscrew delivery limiting device C ( see fig. 145)
3) Bring the engine to the power and rpm required by the manufacturer of the device.
4) Check that fuel consumption falls within the table specifications
(see below).
If consumption is not as indicated change balance conditions at the
torque dynamometer by varying the load and adjusting the governor.Under stable engine conditions check consumption again.
5) Tighten limiting device C until the engine rpm decreases.
Lock the limiting device by means of lock nut.
6) Release brake completely and check at what speed the engine
becomes stable
Speed governor should comply with the requirements of the class indicated by the manufacturer of the device.
7) Stop the engine.
8) Check valve clearance when engine has cooled down.
148
Required settings (the most common ones)
Specific fuel consumption
Engine
225
315
350
400
440
R.P.M.
Power kW
Time (sec)
pour 100 cc
g/kW .h
3600
3,50
298
287
3000
3,0
357
280
3600
5,0
242
275
3000
4,5
283
265
3600
5,5
198
275
3000
4,9
235
260
3600
7,3
151
275
3000
6,3
184
260
3600
8,0
137
275
3000
7,2
160
260
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 69 -
13
STORAGE
When the engines are not used for more than 3 months, they must be protected by the measures described
below:
STORAGE
Internal engine protection:
- Start the engine and allow it to heat up.
- Remove the drain plug and let the oil flow out completely.
- Replace the oil filter with a new one.
- Clean the oil drain plug and after inserting a new gasket,
tighten it.
- Fill up with oil to the upper level of the dipstick, using AGIP
RUSTIA C30 (for countries in which this product is not
available find an equivalent product on the market).
- Start the engine for about 10 minutes, check for oil leaks, and
then stop the engine.
5
Injection systems protection:
- Empty the fuel tank.
- Replace the fuel filter with a new one.
- Fill up with fuel containing 10% AGIP RUSTIA NT.
- After bleeding air, start the engine, make sure there are no fuel
leaks and then stop the engine.
5
External engine protection:
- Carefully clean the cylinder cooling system fins and the
flywheel fins.
- Protect the external non-painted surfaces with AGIP RUSTIA
68/F.
- Seal the intake and exhaust systems with adhesive tape.
- Cover the engine with a nylon or plastic sheet.
- Store in a dry place, preferably not directly on the ground and
away from high voltage electricity lines.
5
- 70 -
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
STORAGE
14
PROCEDURES TO BE CARRIED OUT BEFORE START THE ENGINE
- Remove all protections and coverings.
- Remove the protective oil from the outside of the engine using
suitable products (solvent or degreaser).
- Remove the injector and, using a flask, pour engine oil on the piston
crown (no more than 2 cc).
- Remove rocker arm cover and spray engine oil on the valves, then
turn the crankshaft manually a few revolutions.
- Start the engine and allow it to heat up for about 10 minutes.
174
- Remove the drain plug and let the protective oil flow out completely.
- Replace the drain plug.
- Fill up with engine oil as far as the upper level of the dipstick
using the oil recommended by the manufacturer for normal engine
operation.
175
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
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15
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
MAIN TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
POSITION
Re-coil starting
Connecting rod, aluminium
Reference ( fig. Diam. and pitch Torque ( Nm ) Torque ( Nm ) Torque ( Nm )
( mm )
N° and page)
400-440
225
315-350
fig. 18 - p. 25
fig. 51 - p. 36
6x1
8x1
7x1
8x1
6x0,5
8x1,25
6x1
6x1
6x1
10x1,5
8x1,25
8x1,25
6x1
6x1
6x1
8x1,25
8x1,25
14x1,5
6x1
6x1
8x1,25
10x1,5
Connecting rod, steel
fig. 13 - p. 23
Rocker arm adjusting screw lock nut
fig. 13 - p. 23
Rocker arm adjusting screw pin
fig. 19 - p. 25
Shroud
fig. 12 - p. 23
Rocker arm cover
Control arm cover
Enhanced engine oil sump
Exhaust manifold
Air cleaner support
fig. 3 - p. 20
Oil filter head
fig. 90 - p. 49
Injection tappet guide screw
fig. 103-104 - p 53
Injector fixing onto the head
Muffler on manifold
fig. 9-10 - p. 22
Fuel pump
fig. 100 - p. 52
Injection pump union
Injection pump fastening screws
fig. 102 - p. 53
Oil pump support fig. 84 - p. 48
Gear cover, timing side
fig. 81 - p. 45
Calibrated fitting for hydraulic tappet
lubrication
14x1,5
Injection pump delivery union
fig. 105 - p. 54
8x1,25
Fuel tank bottom lower fixing
fig. 14 - p. 24
8x1,25
Enhanced sump half-shells
14x1,5
Fuel tank top fixing
Oil drain plug
fig. 21 - p. 26
6x1
Cylinder head (*)
fig. 21 - p. 26
8x1,25
Flywheel pulley fixing screws
14x1,5 sinistra
Flywheel
fig. 20 - p. 25
10
23
7
20
10
10
10
25
10
9
12
25
15
40
15
10
23
-
10
30
7
20
10
10
10
25
10
9
9
25
15
40
10
10
23
-
10
30
35
10
6
10
10
10
40
25
25
10
9
9
25
15
40
10
10
23
15
15
20
10
150
15
20
10
150
40
15
15
20
10
25
150
USE OF SEALANT
POSITION
Locking of adjustment lever box
Air valve case
M6 fixing screw for fuel filter M8 fixing screw for muffler bracket M8 fixing screws for fuel supply pump M16 fixing screw for oil intake filter and cover M6 finxing screws for air shroud M6 stud bolt for dry air filter cover
M6 fixing screws for side oil refilling union
M6 screw for injection tappet guide M8 STEI screw for closing oil intake hole cover M8 STEI screw for closing crankcase lubrication hole
M8 fixing screws for air filter support and intake manifold Rocker arm fulcrum screws
Stator screws
M8 stud bolts for tank
Plastoferrite on flywheel
Base coupling surface - cover
Coupling surface for enhanced engine oil sump
Coupling surface for enhanced oil sump half-shells
Hydraulic tappet contact - cam
- 72 -
TYPE OF SEALANT
Loctite 648 BV
Loctite “Form-a-gasket N.6”
Loctite 222
Loctite 222
Loctite 222
Loctite 222
Loctite 222
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 270
Loctite 480
Loctite 5205
Loctite 5205
Loctite 5205
MOLYSLIP AS COMPOUND 40
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
15
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Table of tightening torques for standard screws (coarse thread)
Resistance class (R)
Quality/
Dimensions
Diameter
4.6
4.8
R>400N/mm2
5.6
5.8
R>500N/mm2
6.8
8.8
10.9
12.9
R>600N/mm2 R>800N/mm2 R>1000N/mm2 R>1200N/mm2
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
M3
0,5
0,7
0,6
0,9
1
1,4
1,9
2,3
M4
1,1
1,5
1,4
1,8
2,2
2,9
4,1
4,9
M5
2,3
3
2,8
3,8
4,5
6
8,5
10
M6
3,8
5
4,7
6,3
7,5
10
14
17
M8
9,4
13
12
16
19
25
35
41
M10
18
25
23
31
37
49
69
83
M12
32
43
40
54
65
86
120
145
M14
51
68
63
84
101
135
190
230
M16
79
105
98
131
158
210
295
355
M18
109
145
135
181
218
290
405
485
M20
154
205
193
256
308
410
580
690
M22
206
275
260
344
413
550
780
930
M24
266
355
333
444
533
710
1000
1200
M27
394
525
500
656
788
1050
1500
1800
M30
544
725
680
906
1088
1450
2000
2400
8.8
10.9
12.9
Table of tightening torques for standard screws (fine thread)
Resistance class (R)
Quality/
Dimensions
Diameter
4.6
4.8
R>400N/mm2
5.6
5.8
R>500N/mm2
6.8
R>600N/mm2 R>800N/mm2 R>1000N/mm2 R>1200N/mm2
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
M 8x1
10
14
13
17
20
27
38
45
M 10x1
21
28
26
35
42
56
79
95
M 10x1,25
20
26
24
33
39
52
73
88
M 12x1,25
36
48
45
59
71
95
135
160
M 12x1,5
38
45
42
56
68
90
125
150
M 14x1,5
56
75
70
94
113
150
210
250
M 16x1,5
84
113
105
141
169
225
315
380
M 18x1,5
122
163
153
203
244
325
460
550
M 18x2
117
157
147
196
235
313
440
530
M 20x1,5
173
230
213
288
345
460
640
770
M 20x2
164
218
204
273
327
436
615
740
M 22x1,5
229
305
287
381
458
610
860
1050
M 24x2
293
390
367
488
585
780
1100
1300
M 27x2
431
575
533
719
863
1150
1600
1950
M 30x2
600
800
750
1000
1200
1600
2250
2700
KD 225_315_350_400_440 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029330_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 73 -
Translated from the original manual in Italian language.
Data reported in this issue can be modified at any time by KOHLER.
FOR SALES AND SERVICE INFORMATION
IN U.S. AND CANADA, CALL 1-800-544-2444
KohlerEngines.com
ENGINE DIVISION, KOHLER CO., KOHLER, WISCONSIN 53044
FORM NO.
ED0053029330
ISSUED
25/06/2012
REVISED
00
DATE
25/06/2012
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