utilization of used cooking oil as an alternative cooking fuel resource

VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
www.arpnjournals.com
UTILIZATION OF USED COOKING OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE
COOKING FUEL RESOURCE
1College
Consorcio S. Namoco Jr.1, Venerando C. Comaling2 and Cerilo C. Buna, Jr.2
of Engineering and Architecture, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayande Oro, Philippines
of Technology, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
E-Mail: csnamocojr@yahoo.com
2College
ABSTRACT
In this study, used cooking oil was utilized as an alternative cooking fuel resource. A survey was conducted to
selected major food chains and restaurant in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Survey results revealed that generation of
used cooking oil in these selected establishments on a weekly basis is considerably huge in volume. Modifications have
been made to a commercially available pressurized kerosene stove taking into consideration the characteristics of the used
cooking oil. The cooking performance of the modified stove using used cooking oil as fuel was then investigated.
Keywords: used cooking oil, alternative cooking fuel, pressurized kerosene stove.
INTRODUCTION
Used cooking oil, also known as waste cooking
oil, results from cooking of foods by food cookers, food
manufacturers and catering establishments such as fast
food chains, restaurants and industrial kitchens. This waste
is an important waste management concern since it poses
some disposal problems and possible contamination of
water and land resources (Arjun et al, 2008). As large
amounts of waste cooking oils are illegally dumped into
rivers and landfills, causing environmental pollution,
proper collection and putting them into productive use
offers significant advantages not only towards waste
minimization or reduction in environmental pollution but
also in extending the finite natural resources thru waste
recycling. With the mushrooming of fast food chains and
restaurants in the country, it is expected that considerable
amounts of used-frying oils will be discarded into the
drains, posing hazards to our environment.
Aside from the potential hazards and effects due
to improper disposal of waste cooking oil, one pressing
concern is the health hazards of re-using cooking oil more
that once. The use of cooking oil more than once poses
threats to the health of the community. A toxic compound
4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) normally accumulates
over time in some vegetable oils (e.g. corn, soybean,
canola, sunflower oils) and this will react with amino
acids, DNA and other biomolecules in the human body.
HNE consumption can lead to diseases such as heart
diseases, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease,
liver and other diseases (Morrison, 2006). When cooking
oils (e.g. sunflower, oil, palm oil, coconut oil, etc.) are
heated for an extended time (abuse), they undergo
oxidation (degradation) and give rise to oxides. Many of
these such as hydroperoxides, epoxides and polymeric
substances have shown adverse health/biological effects
such as growth retardation, increase in liver and kidney
size as well as cellular damage to different organs when
fed to laboratory animals (Potgieter et al, 2004; Riera et
al, 2000).
In other countries, waste cooking oils are
recycled and utilized as alternative ingredients or
materials. The main use of recycled WCO is in the
production of animal feeds and in a much smaller
proportion in the manufacture of soaps and biodegradable
lubricants. Some health risks can be traced from the use of
recycled cooking oils in animal feeding, such as
undesirable levels of contaminants, particularly PAHs
(Polycyclic
aromatic
hydrocarbons),
PCBs
(Polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and dioxin related
substances (Riera et al, 2000). By consumptions of animal
origin foodstuffs like milk, meats, poultry and other
products, these undesirable contaminants enter the human
body and cause serious long term health hazards. As these
contaminants are liposoluble, they accumulate in organic
lipids and finally in the body, and thereby their
concentration increases gradually over the years. In other
words, the body is exposed not only to a single acute
action, but also to a chronic action of bioaccumulation of
these hazardous compounds over the years (Rieraet.al,
2000). Hence utilizing the recycled WCO in any way is
not advisable from health standpoint. Besides the ill health
effects of these WCO (abused oils), their disposable could
also have a large environmental implication, because of
high COD (chemical oxygen demand) (Rieraet.al, 2000).
Aside from the above-mentioned application of recycling
used cooking oil, used cooking oil utilized as an alternate
feedstock in biodiesel production. Several
researches
along this direction have been conducted around the globe
(Arjun et al, 2008; Canakci, 2007; Khalisanni et al, 2008;
Zhang et al, 2003; Sudhir et al, 2007).
In this study, the viability of utilizing used
cooking oil as an alternative cooking fuel resource will be
evaluated. The chemical structure of plant or vegetable
oils is different from that of kerosene, thus, they have
distinct physical and chemical properties and have
different combustion characteristics (Andrews and Mkapi,
1996; Kammen, 1995; Stumpf and Muhlbauer, 2002). For
example, the flash point and viscosity of plant oils are very
much higher than that of kerosene. There are two types of
stoves: the wick stove and the high pressure pump stove.
Previous studies on utilization of plant oil as cooking fuel
found out that plant oils cannot be used in wick stoves
(Stumpf and Muhlbauer, 2002). Due to their high
viscosity, the flow velocity of plant oils in those wicks is
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VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
www.arpnjournals.com
very low; hence, the wicks cannot maintain the oil supply
and the flame extinguished consequently. Since the
thermal efficiency of wick stoves is very low when
compared with the high-pressure stoves, the high-pressure
stove will be utilized in this study. Owing to the properties
of cooking oil, the commercially available pressurized
cooking stove will be utilized with revisions or
modifications of the nozzle, burner and pipeline. After the
pressurized stove is modified or revised, performance
evaluation was thenconducted utilizing kerosene and used
cooking oil.
This proposed study will provide a significant
contribution in easing the problem brought about by the
skyrocketing cost of cooking fuels such as kerosene. This
will greatly help the small-scale entrepreneurs engaged in
foods and catering services as well as households. Besides,
the potential environmental hazards brought about by this
waste will be addressed. Finally, the dependence on
imported kerosene can be reduced and sustained
availability can be ensured.
holder is also introduced in the proposed stove. An
additional fitting is also added to the regulator.
The vaporizer is designed in such a way that it
will be easy to maintain and clean. The materials used for
the vaporizer are 3/16” copper tubes which are coiled
horizontally for better efficiency of flame. In the design of
the nozzle, the spray nozzle exit angle will be modified in
such a way that as the gas flux emits from the nozzle into
the burning area, the gas mixes with surrounding air and
burns in a blue flame.
Figure-1 shows the perspective view of the
proposed modified design. In this figure, the different
parts of stove such as the vaporizer/copper coiled nozzle
are shown. Figure-2 shows the vaporizer/coil copper tube.
The coil has 4 loops with a diameter of 2 inches. The
distance between nozzle and loop is 1.5 inches. In Figure3, the three modified nozzle which can be used with the
stove are shown. These nozzles are threaded depending on
the fittings. Figure-4 shows the front view of the stove
frame and the coiled copper tube with nozzle attached in
bracket.
METHODOLOGY
Survey on the generation, utilization and disposal of
used cooking oil in the selected major food chains and
restaurants in the city of Cagayan de Oro, Philippines
A survey has been conducted to assess the
generation of used cooking oil in the selected major food
chains and restaurant in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines.
Moreover, the utilization and disposal practices of these
establishments have also been surveyed. The survey
instrument to evaluate the generation and disposal of the
used cooking oil as well as the list of major food chains
and restaurants in Cagayan de Oro City is presented in the
Appendices A& B, respectively.
Figure-1. The perspective view of the modified stove.
Collection and filtering of used cooking oil
Used cooking oil was collected from major food
chains and restaurants in the city. Collection of the used
cooking oil depends on the way the establishments
disposed their waste as there are establishments who will
sell the waste oil to contracted buyers only. The used
cooking oil was filtered to remove solid residues. Filtering
was conducted by using coarse to fine layer nylon wire
mesh as filter to remove any contaminants and residues.
The used cooking oil must be thoroughly filtered to
prevent the fuel lines and nozzle from clogging.
Revision and modification on the commercially
available pressurized cooking stove taking into
consideration the properties of used cooking oil
Design
Since the commercially available pressurized
cooking stove is intended for kerosene fuel, revisions and
modifications in the nozzle and vaporizer has been
conducted. This is due to the difference in the properties of
cooking oil as compared to kerosene. As the oil tank is
pressurized, the fuel flows through the oil line which can
be regulated with a valve provided in the line. Flame
Figure-2. The designed vaporizer and nozzle.
Fabrication of the modified stove
Brass metal is used in the fabrication of the
modified nozzle and fittings. The nozzle is made of ½ inch
hexagonal in a diameter brass metal. The vaporizer is
made up of 3/16 copper tube. Proper sizes must be
observed since the fuel will leak if under sized threads are
used.
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VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
www.arpnjournals.com
Fabrication of the nozzle
The first nozzle was made up of ¾ an inch in a
diameter having 4 holes in the top to equally distribute
atomized gas goes out in a nozzle. The second one has a
Figure-3. Three different nozzles considered in the study.
Figure-4. The image of the front view of stove frame.
The appearance of flame at each blending ratio was also
observed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Generation, utilization and disposal of used cooking oil
in the selected major food chains and restaurants in
Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
A survey was conducted to determine the
generation, utilization and disposal of used cooking oil in
selected major food chains and restaurants in Cagayan de
Oro City, Philippines. From more than 40 food chains and
restaurants identified as respondents for the survey (as
attached in Appendix A), there were only 23 food chains
and restaurants positively participated in the survey (55
percent retrieval rate). Table-1 shows the list of
establishments participated in the survey. The categories
of these respondents are presented in Figure-5. Details of
the respondents are presented in Appendix. Table-1 shows
also the volume (in liter) of waste cooking oil (WCO)
generated in a week by the respondents (restaurants and
food chains in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines) in this
study. Though the number of respondents is quite small as
compared to the existing restaurants and food chains in the
city, the total volume of WCO generation on weekly basis
as determined in the survey conducted is quite large
(2,521.716 liters / week). Hence, it can be deduced that the
actual volume of used cooking oil generation of major
restaurants and food chains in Cagayan de Oro City,
Philippines is very enormous. This is not to mention the
used cooking oil generated in the household level which is
also a potent source of this waste.
single hole but there is an additional fabricated accessory
which is in the form of a castle. Equally divided holes
were rounded along the cylindrical corner. At the top,
there is a cone- shaped brass metal that functions for
spreading the flame. The nozzle is connected to a flared
union which is attached to a vaporizer and connected to a
flared nut for easy disassembling during cleaning.
Testing and fine tuning
After the fabrication, the performance of the
modified parts was then tested. Before starting the test, all
fittings were installed correctly and properly. They were
properly tightened to prevent from leakage and losses of
fuel and pressure.
Evaluation of the cooking performance of the modified
pressurized stove
After the pressurized stove is modified or revised,
a series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the
performance of the modified pressurized stove. The
experiments were conducted at constant pressure of 30 psi.
Different blending ratios of kerosene and used cooking oil
(100:0, 50:50, 20:80 and 0:100) were used in the
experiments. The time needed to boil (100 degree
Celsius)one and a half (1.5) liters of water at different
blending ratio were recorded. The experiments were
repeated for three trials and average value will be taken.
Figure-5. Distribution of the respondents participated in
the survey.
Figure-6 shows the different ways employed by
the establishments under study in determining that the
cooking oil should not be used anymore and should be
disposed. As shown in the figure, around 83% (19
establishments) are basing on the number of times the
cooking oil is used in determining that the oil should not
be used anymore. The number of times used varies with
establishments and ranges from 1 time to 7 times. A small
scale food eatery reported that they used the cooking oil
continuously for one (1) day. On the other hand, around
57% (13 establishments) are basing on the color of the oil
if it should not be used anymore. The color ranges from
golden yellow, dark brown to black depending on the
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VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
www.arpnjournals.com
establishment. A small scale food eatery reported that the
nature of the occurrence of bubbles is their basis in
Table-1. List of establishments in the city participated in the survey and their generation of
waste cooking oil (WCO) per week.
Establishment
participated in the study
JRJ Deep Fry
WCO generated
(liters/week)
21
28
Sell to Contracted Buyers
15.88
Sell to Contracted Buyers
4
PIDOT 1971
King Chicken and
Barbeque Station
PritoPaborito
18
Sell to Contracted Buyers
5
Jollibee Vamenta Carmen
65
Sell to Contracted Buyers
6
Jollibee Kauswagan
32
Sell to Contracted Buyers
7
GaisanoCommesary
1400
Sell to Contracted Buyers
8
300-500
Sell to Any Interested Buyers
25.176
Sell to Any Interested Buyers
10
Slers Industries
Philtown Hotel and
Oriental Garden
De Luxe Hotel
63.52
Sell to Any Interested Buyers
11
Hotel Conchita
4
Sell to Any Interested Buyers
12
Jollibee Xavier
30
Sell to Any Interested Buyers
13
Turo-Turo
8
Give to Interested Person at No Cost
No.
1
2
3
9
Ways of disposal of WCO
Sell to Contracted Buyers
14
Pearl Garden
8
Store in a Container & Dispose later
15
Chowking (Oro Funchow)
40
Store in a Container & Dispose later
16
KFC Limketkai
16
Store in a Container & Dispose later
17
Tita Fannies
4
Store in a Container & Dispose later
18
PerssimonFastfood
21.176
Throw Away
19
Jollibee Gaisano
68
20
Jollibee Divisoria
64
21
Jollibee
SoutminFoodchain Corp.
20
22
ChowkingGusa
44
23
JRJ Divisoria
80
Throw Away
Submit to Warehouse/ Main office for
accounting
Submit to Warehouse/ Main office for
accounting
Submit to Warehouse/ Main office for
accounting
Submit to Warehouse/ Main office for
accounting
Total Volume of Waste Cooking Oil
Generated per week (liters/week)
2,521.716 liters
determining if the oil should not be used anymore. Around
17% (4 establishments) are employing device and
monitoring in determining if the cooking oil should be
disposed. In this case, a secondary shelf-life monitoring,
oil mileage monitoring, testomometer & thermometer and
visibility tester are used.
Figure-6. Different ways in determining that the cooking
oil should not be used anymore and should be disposed.
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Figure-7 shows graphically the manner in which
the WCO is disposed by the establishments (see Table-1).
As shown in the figure, majority of the respondents sell
their WCO generated to contracted/interested buyers. It is
interesting
to
note
that
majority
of
these
contracted/interested buyers utilize the WCO bought from
these establishments for cooking purposes. These buyers
might be unaware of the health hazards brought about by
utilizing WCO in cooking/ frying of foods and snacks. As
can be seen in the figure also, there are a number of
establishments that directly dispose/ throw their WCO via
kitchen sink/canal which may pose problems to our
environment.
Figure-8. Sample of a waste cooking oil.
Table-2. Typical characterization of a waste cooking oil
Source: (Sanli et al., 2011).
Parameter
Figure-7. Different ways of WCO disposal by the
establishments.
Characterization of waste cooking oil
Figure-8 shows a sample of a waste cooking oil.
In Table-2, a typical characterization of waste cooking oil
is shown. This characterization result is based on the study
of Sanli et al. (2011).
3
Density (g/cm @ 15°C),
2
Typical value
0.9237
42.28
Viscosity(mm /s @ 40°C)
Water Content (ppm),
1657.00
Acid Value (mgKOH/g)
17.85
Heating Content (kJ/kg)
39,223
Modified pressurized cooking stove
Figure-9 shows the actual photo of a modified
pressure cooking stove utilizing the existing stove. Figure10 shows the coiled copper tube center with a stainless
tube flame holder on the top of the base. The stainless tube
flame holder will aid in refining the air before it reaches
the flame.
Figure-9. The actual photo of the stove.
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VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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Figure-10. The coiled copper tube with the flame holder.
Performance evaluation of the modified pressurized
stove
Table-3 shows the time needed to boil one and a
half liters of water in different blending ratio at constant
pressure of 30 psi. Results show that that the performance
of waste cooking oil in terms of time to boil a given
volume of water is comparable to that of the kerosene.
Figures-11 shows the flame appearance at different
blending ratios 100:0, 50:50, 20:80, 0:100, respectively.
From these pictures, it can be observed that the flames
emitted by the two blends differ in color. The colors
observed are yellowish, reddish to orange or combination
of orange-red or orange-blue. During the experiment, the
regulator was only half open. The kerosene flame color is
a combination of orange and blue while that of the waste
cooking oil is a combination of three colors, namely bluish
in the bottom, orange and reddish in the upper portion.
Based on the color of flames emitted, there is still a need
to improve the design of the vaporizer and nozzle to
enhance the performance efficiency of the modified stove.
Table-3. Time to boil 1.5 liters of water at different blending ratios.
Blending ratio
(kerosene: WCO)
100:0
50:50
20:80
0:100
Pre-heating time
(minute)
4:01
2:46
1:14
Aver. 2:54
1:18
1:25
1:03
Aver. 1:15
1:49
1:03
1:25
Aver. 1:25
2:30
2:48
2:18
Aver. 2:32
CONCLUSIONS
A study was conducted to evaluate the utilization
of used cooking oil as an alternative cooking fuel resource.
A survey conducted to selected major food chains and
restaurant in Cagayan de Oro City revealed that a
considerable volume of used cooking oil is generated. It is
also revealed that majority of the establishments under
Time needed to boil 1.5
liters of water (minute)
7:51
6:49
6:29
Aver. 6:76
6:40
7:35
6:47
Aver. 6:74
7:52
7:54
7:45
Aver. 7:50
8:20
8:22
8:15
Aver. 8:19
survey are basing on the number of times the cooking oil
is used in determining that the oil should not be used
anymore and should be disposed. Further, majority of the
respondents
sell
the
WCO
generated
to
contracted/interested buyers.
A modified pressurize cooking stove was then
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VOL. 12, NO. 2, JANUARY 2017
ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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Figure-11. The appearance of flame at different kerosene to WCO blending ratio.
developed taking into consideration the characteristics of
the WCO. Evaluation of the modified stove revealed that
the performance of waste cooking oil in terms of time to
boil a given volume of water is comparable to that of the
kerosene. For further studies, a better design of the
vaporizer/ burner for better heat transfer and enhanced
efficiency and performance of the stove is strongly
suggested. A rebounding plate should be incorporated
such that atomized gas will be spread prior to producing
the flame.
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ISSN 1819-6608
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©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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