Lab Vent Optimization - Exposure Control Technologies

Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Lab Safety and Energy Optimization
Determining Appropriate
Airflow Specifications for Laboratories
Thomas C. Smith
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
tcsmith@labhoodpro.com
12 - 14
Introduction & Agenda


Presenter - Thomas C. Smith
–
President, Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
–
BSME (NCSU), MSEE – Industrial Hygiene (UNC-CH)
–
Chair, AIHA/ANSI Z9 Health and Safety Standards
–
Chair, ASHRAE TC 9.10 – Laboratory Systems
–
Vice Chair, ASHRAE/ANSI 110
Airflow Specifications for VAV Labs
– Goals and Objectives
– Operation of VAV Laboratories
– Establishment of Appropriate Airflow Specifications
– Managing Performance
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
1
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
Services for Research Facilities
• Lab Ventilation and Safety Consulting
• Support Energy Reduction and Sustainability
• Laboratory Testing & Commissioning Support
• Lab Ventilation Management Programs
Laboratory Hood Products
A Division of ECT, Inc.
• Fume Hood Upgrades
• Hood Testing Equipment
• Testing Software
• Hazard Filtration
12 - 14
Common Objectives for Research Facilities
• Attract & retain top research talent
• Promote high quality research
• Provide safe & productive environments
• Minimize energy use & operating costs
• Maximize sustainability
• Comply with codes & standards
• Manage & mitigate risk
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
2
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Safe, Energy Efficient & Sustainable Labs
Optimize
Safety & Energy
Efficiency
Safe
Efficient
&
&
Productive
Sustainable
● Common Objectives ● Realistic Goals ● Teamwork
12 - 14
Exposure Control Devices
(ECDs) & Ventilation
Systems
 Laboratory Utilities ≈ $5 to $20 per sq. ft.
Lights
STACK
10%
FILTER
HVAC
FAN
60%
30% Plug/Misc.
ROOF
DUCTS
 Lab HVAC
AIR ≈ $3 to $9 per cfm-yr
SUPPLY
 DOE estimates ≤ 50% of energy is wasted
ECDs provide primary
protection and the
laboratory provides
secondary protection
by inefficient and ineffective HVAC
 Excess flow can be associated with poor
design and operation of fume hoods and
high air change rates
in labs
THINK
SAFETY
 15% - 30% of fume hoods may not meet
ANSI standards for performance and many
labs do not maintain proper pressurization
LAB
OFFICE
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
3
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Potential for Adverse Health Effects
from Airborne Hazards in Labs
Inhalation Hazards





Types of Materials
Toxicity
Generation Rate
Concentration
Duration of Exposure
Physical Hazards

Dermal Exposure

Fire & Explosion
Dose = Concentration x Duration of Exposure
12 - 14
Laboratory Ventilation Standards





ANSI/AIHA Z9.5 - 2012
ASHRAE 110 - 1995 (ASHRAE 110 – 2015?)
NIH, EPA
SEFA, NEBB
PWGSC, EN14175
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
4
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Evaluating Fume Hood Safety & Performance
ANSI/ASHRAE 110 “Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods”
Mannequin
Tracer
Gas
Ejector
Evaluate Operating Conditions
•
•
•
•
Hood and Lab Inspection
Computer
&
DAQ
Face Velocity Measurements
Cross Draft Velocity Tests
VAV Response and Stability
Evaluate Performance (Containment )
•
•
Tracer
Gas
Detector
Flow Visualization Smoke Tests
Cross Draft
Probe
Face
Velocity
Probe
Tracer Gas Containment Tests
12 - 14
Laboratory Hood Safety & Performance
ECT, Inc. has conducted more than 30,000
ASHRAE 110 Tracer Gas Containment Tests
Results Demonstrate 15% - 30% Failure
Primary Factors Affecting Performance
• Hood design - 20%
• Lab Design
• System Operation
55%
• Work practices - 25%
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
5
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Lab Ventilation Airflow Specifications
Minimum flow and range of modulation required to meet the
functional requirements of the lab
•
Safety
– Hood Exhaust Flow
– Laboratory Pressurization
– Dilution (ACH)
•
Comfort & Productivity
– Temperature
– Humidity
•
Occupancy & Utilization
Demand for Ventilation
12 - 14
Lab Ventilation Airflow Specifications
Max Exhaust
Max Supply
Min
Supply
Min
Exhaust
Modulation of flow is based on the
Demand for Ventilation
Gex High = 500 cfm
Gex Low = 0 cfm
Sash Open = 1000 cfm
Supply High = 900 cfm
Sash Closed = 200 cfm
Supply Low = 100 cfm
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
6
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Exposure Control Technologies,Average
Inc.
9/3/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/3/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
Minimum Flow - cfm
9/4/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
12 - 14
Maximum Flow - cfm
9/6/12 4:00:00 PM PDT
Copyright © 2015
9/9/12 9:00:00 PM PDT
9/9/12 3:00:00 PM PDT
9/3/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
9/9/12 9:00:00 PM PDT
9/9/12 3:00:00 PM PDT
9/9/12 9:30:00 AM PDT
9/9/12 3:30:00 AM PDT
9/8/12 9:30:00 PM PDT
9/8/12 3:30:00 PM PDT
9/8/12 9:30:00 AM PDT
9/8/12 3:30:00 AM PDT
9/7/12 9:30:00 PM PDT
9/7/12 3:30:00 PM PDT
9/7/12 10:00:00 AM PDT
9/7/12 4:00:00 AM PDT
9/6/12 10:00:00 PM PDT
9/6/12 4:00:00 PM PDT
9/6/12 10:30:00 AM PDT
9/6/12 4:30:00 AM PDT
9/5/12 10:30:00 PM PDT
9/5/12 4:30:00 PM PDT
9/5/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
9/5/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/4/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
9/4/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
9/4/12 11:30:00 AM PDT
9/4/12 5:30:00 AM PDT
9/3/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
Min
Exhaust
9/9/12 9:30:00 AM PDT
9/3/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/3/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
Max Exhaust
9/9/12 3:30:00 AM PDT
9/8/12 9:30:00 PM PDT
9/8/12 3:30:00 PM PDT
9/8/12 9:30:00 AM PDT
9/8/12 3:30:00 AM PDT
9/7/12 9:30:00 PM PDT
9/7/12 3:30:00 PM PDT
9/7/12 10:00:00 AM PDT
9/7/12 4:00:00 AM PDT
9/6/12 10:00:00 PM PDT
Maximum Flow - cfm
9/6/12 10:30:00 AM PDT
9/6/12 4:30:00 AM PDT
9/5/12 10:30:00 PM PDT
9/5/12 4:30:00 PM PDT
9/2/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
9/2/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
12 - 14
9/5/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
9/5/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/4/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
Minimum Flow - cfm
9/4/12 11:30:00 AM PDT
9/4/12 5:30:00 AM PDT
9/3/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
90000
9/3/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
Average
9/2/12 5:00:00 PM PDT
9/2/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/2/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
90000
9/2/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 5:30:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
130000
9/2/12 11:00:00 AM PDT
9/2/12 5:00:00 AM PDT
9/1/12 11:00:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 12:00:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 6:00:00 AM PDT
9/1/12 12:00:00 AM PDT
Flow - cfm
120000
9/1/12 5:30:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 12:00:00 PM PDT
9/1/12 6:00:00 AM PDT
9/1/12 12:00:00 AM PDT
Flow - cfm
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Lab Ventilation System - VAV Flow Specifications
Max Supply
Min
Supply
BAS Trend of Combined Flow for AHUs 11&12,13&14,15&16,19&20
(Week September 1 - September 9, 2012)
140000
Max Flow
Average
Flow
110000
100000
Min Flow – all VAV terminals at Min
80000
Aggregate AHU 11-20 - Flow - cfm
Demand for Ventilation and System Utilization
BAS Trend of Combined Flow for AHUs 11&12,13&14,15&16,19&20
(Week September 1 - September 9, 2012)
140000
130000
120000
110000
100000
Operation at minimum flow
maximizes energy savings
80000
Aggregate AHU 11-20 - Flow - cfm
7
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Laboratory VAV Flow Specifications
VAV Lab
Exhaust
VAV Lab
Air Supply
Max Exhaust
Max Supply
Min Exhaust
Min Supply
VAV
Fume
Hood
VAV
General
Exhaust
CAV
Transfer Air
12 - 14
Fume Hood VAV Airflow Specifications
VAV Fume Hood Exhaust
Min Exhaust
Max Exhaust
VAV
Fume
Hood
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
8
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
VAV Fume Hood Flow Modulation
Flow (Qex) = Velocity (Vf) x Area (Af)
Sash Open
Flow (Qex) Minimum = ?
Sash Closed
Airflow Specifications
1. Velocity (Vf) at Sash Open
2. Qex Min at Sash Closed?
Flow Terminal
3. Containment Performance
Sash Open
Sash Closed
Sash Movement
•
•
•
4. Internal Dilution
60 fpm - 100 fpm
5. Response Time
0.3 m/s – 0.5 m/s
6. Flow Stability
7. Removal & Transport
12 - 14
VAV Flow Response and Stability
•
Min and Max Flow
•
•
Response Time
Flow Stability
Sash Open
VAV Response To Sash Movement
Sash Closed
< 5 Seconds
< 20% Variation
Sash Open
600
2.0
1.8
500
1.6
1.4
400
1.2
300
1.0
0.8
200
0.6
Escape
Sash Closed
Escape - ppm
Flow Response
VAV
Terminal
0.4
100
0.2
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Time - Seconds
Flow Response
80
90
100
110
0.0
120
Tracer Gas - ppm
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
9
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Minimum Flow Specs for VAV Fume Hoods
•
Containment
•
•
Dilution
Removal
Duct Conc. (Cd)
1990s - EPA – 50 cfm / ft of Wh
2004 - NFPA 45
-
25 cfm / sq. ft. ws
-
2010 - Defers to ANSI Z9.5
2012 - ANSI Z9.5 (must be appropriate)
-
Internal ACH (150 ACH to 375 ACH)
-
150 ACH ~ 10 cfm / sq. ft. ws
-
375 ACH ~ 25 cfm / sq. ft. ws
Internal
Conc.
(Ci)
Caution: Insufficient flow can
jeopardize containment and dilution
12 - 14
Minimum Flow Specs for VAV Fume Hoods
Minimum Flow Depends on the
Hood, System and Application

Cd
System Design & Operation
– VAV Flow Control
Cd = G
– Flow Measurement
Qe
– Duct Velocity

Ci
Hood Design
– Hood Containment
Ci
DF = Ci
Cd
– Hood Dilution (Dilution Factor - DF)

Application
DF
– Chemical Properties / Hazards
DF
– Generation Rates
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
10
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Determine Airflow Specifications for
Laboratory Hoods
Exposure Control Device Risk Assessment

Survey Laboratories

Identify and Evaluate ECDs

Evaluate Hazards & Processes

Apply Control Bands

Recommend Min and Max Airflow
12 - 14
Laboratory Hood Airflow Specifications
ECD Control Band Parameters


Airborne Hazards
–
OSHA & Global Harmonized Standards
Generation Rate
–
–
–
Quantity of Material
Vapor Pressure
Applied Heat / Energy

Flammability

Corrosivity



–
–
–
Lower Explosion Limit ( LEL )
Type & Quantity
Process/Heat
Generation Location Inside Hood
Hood Dilution Factor
Dynamic Nature of Work
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
11
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Fume Hood Inventory &
Fume Hood Control Bands
The University of California - Irvine: ARP
Building
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Biological Sciences III
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Engineering Hall
Fume Hood
Number
2300A
3400A
3400B
3400C
2300C
3300B
2400A
2400B
2110
2130
2140
3110A
3110B
3120
3130A
3130B
3121A
3121B
3131A
3131B
2120A
2120B
2121
Manufacturer
AirflowLEL
Hood Size
Control Band
0-10-20-30
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Jamestown Isolator
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Jamestown Isolator
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
Kewaunee Supreme Air
6'
6'
6'
6'
6'
6'
6'
6'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
5'
0
1
2
3
4
5
30
0
0
0
10
10
20
0
0
0
0
0
30
0
0
0
30
0
0
0
20
20
20
Exposure
Hazard Corrosive
(LOC)
0-5-10-15 0-10-20-30
10
10
15
10
15
10
15
10
15
10
10
10
15
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
15
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
15
10
15
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
10
10
10
10
12 - 14
Gen. Rate
Possible
Action
Location
Factor
Gen.
0-15-25-40
15
15
15
25
15
15
15
15
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
25
15
0
0
15
15
15
Dilution
0-5-10-15 0-5-10-15
5
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
0
15
0
15
0
5
0
15
5
15
0
5
0
15
0
15
15
15
5
15
0
15
0
15
5
15
5
15
5
15
Weighting
Summary
85.0
Hibernate or Remove 60.0
60.0
70.0
Min. Flow for Containment 70.0
(? < 150 ACH)
150 ACH – 250 ACH
250 ACH – 375 ACH
≥ 375 ACH
Operate as CAV
(no reduction)
65.0
80.0
45.0
25.0
25.0
15.0
25.0
100.0
15.0
25.0
25.0
110.0
60.0
25.0
25.0
65.0
75.0
75.0
ARP Band
3.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
3.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
3.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
Distribution of Fume Hoods by Control Bands
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
12
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Laboratory Operating Specifications
Qs - Supply

Operating Mode

Min and Max Flow

Temperature Control

Room Pressure

Dilution (ACH)

Air Change Effectiveness
Qe - Exhaust
Qt = Qe – Qs
Qt = Constant
Room Pressure
-
+
12 - 14
Typical ACH Guidelines
Agency
Ventilation Rate
ASHRAE Lab Guides
4-12 ACH
UBC – 1997
1 cfm/ft2
IBC – 2003
1 cfm /ft2
IMC – 2003
1 cfm/ft2
U.S. EPA
4 ACH Unoccupied Lab - 8 ACH Occupied Lab
AIA
4-12 ACH
NFPA-45-2004
4 ACH Unoccupied Lab - 8 ACH Occupied Lab
NRC Prudent Practices
4-12 ACH
OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910.1450
Recommends 4-12 ACH
ACGIH 24th Edition, 2001
Ventilation depends on the generation rate and toxicity
of the contaminant and not the size of the room.
ANSI/AIHA Z9.5
Prescriptive ACH is not appropriate.
Rate shall be established by the owner
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
13
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Airborne Hazards in Labs




Generation / Emission Scenario
Risk of Exposure, Explosion or Fire
Severity of Consequence
Probability of Occurrence
Risk
Category
Flammability
(LEL)
Exposure - Level of
Concern (LOC)
Low
> 5%
> 100 ppm
Medium
2% to 5%
10 ppm to 100 ppm
High
< 2%
< 10 ppm
12 - 14
Emissions in Labs Requiring Dilution





Escape from Lab Hoods
Bench Top Procedures
Unventilated Equipment
Fugitive Emissions
–
Chemical Bottles & Containers
–
Gas Cylinders
Accidental Spills
Typical Generation Rates
<0.1 lpm to 10 lpm
Catastrophic Failure of a Gas Cylinder
1400 lpm
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
14
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Control of Exposure to Airborne Concentrations
Below the Level of Concern (LOC)
Required Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) for Dilution to LOC
LOC
PEL, TLV
(PPM)
Gen. Rate
= 0.1 lpm
Gen. Rate
= 0.5 lpm
Gen. Rate
= 1.0 lpm
Gen. Rate
= 4 lpm
Gen. Rate
= 8 lpm
Gen. Rate
= 20 lpm
750
0.1
0.7
1.3
5.2
10
26
400
0.2
1.2
2.5
10
20
49
200
0.5
2.5
4.9
20
39
98
100
1.0
4.9
10
39
79
196
35
3
14
28
112
224
561
10
10
49
98
393
785
1963
5
20
98
196
785
1570
3926
3
33
164
327
1309
2617
6544
2
49
245
491
1963
3926
9815
0.5
196
982
1963
7852
15705
39262
0.1
982
4908
9815
39262
78524
196309
0.005
19,631
98,155
196,309
785,238
1,570,475
3,926,188
12 - 14
Determine Airflow Specifications
for Laboratories
Laboratory Ventilation Risk Assessment

Survey Laboratory Environment

Evaluate Hazards & Processes

Apply Control Banding

Evaluate Ventilation Effectiveness

Recommend Minimum ACH

Determine Airflow Specifications
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
15
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Laboratory Ventilation Control Bands
Control Band Parameters
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chemical Hazard Rating
Generation Source Location(s)
Chemical Generation Potential
Duration of Chemical Generation
Potential for Change
Exposure Control Devices (ECD)
Housekeeping - Lab Practices
Ventilation Effectiveness (Sweep)
12 - 14
Laboratory Ventilation Control Bands



Parameters and Weighting Adapted to Unique Research Labs
Recommend ACH & Evaluate Risk of Recirculating Lab Air
Evaluate Lab Construction, Pressurization, Need for Monitoring, etc.
ACH
Recirculation of
Lab Air
Lab Pressurization
<2
Yes
Neutral
<4
Yes
Neutral
>4
Filtered
< -0.005” w.g.
35 - 51
0
1
2
3
>6
Internal
< -0.01” w.g.
52 - 67
4
>8
Internal
≥ 68
5
> 10
No
Total Score
<8
9 - 17
18 - 34
Control
Band
< -0.05” w.g.
Critical w/ Monitor
= > -0.05” w.g.
Critical w/Anteroom
(airlocks) & Monitor
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
16
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Chemical Generation Model
“Dilution Calculator”
Rate of Accumulation = Generation Rate – Removal Rate






Input Lab Size & Configuration
Apply Dilution Effectiveness Factor
Input Airborne Hazard
Apply Generation Scenario
Calculate Accumulation & Decay
Evaluate theoretical ACH
VdC = Gdt – Q’Cdt
G
1-e
(-
Q’ ∆ t
)
V
C=
X 10
6
Q’
12 - 14
Optimize Ventilation Effectiveness
Airflow Distribution, Dilution and Contaminant Removal
High turbulence, poor distribution
and poor dilution effectiveness
Optimized diffusers for better air
distribution, reduced turbulence
and improved dilution
12 - 14
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
Copyright © 2015
17
Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Lab Design and Diffuser Types






Not Recommended - Louvered, Slotted or Swirl
Recommended – Laminar, Radial, Perforated
Range of Flow Modulation
Range of Discharge Temperature
Effect on Throw and Projection
Resultant Terminal Velocity
Throw
Projection
12 - 14
Lab Design and Ventilation Effectiveness



Room Air Patterns
Diffuser Types and Size
Diffuser Locations
•



No Diffuser Zone – 5 ft.
Air Supply Volume
Reheat Control
2-6' Hoods and 1-8' Hood, Face Velocity = 80 FPM, Hood CFM = 3360
Hoods positioned with overlapping NDZ to minimize loss to available ceiling space
7-2' x2' ceiling diffusers delivering 500 CFM each.
30% of ceiling used for Lighting Fixtures
Standard 2' x 4' ceiling grid.
Thermostat Location
24'-0"
6 FT
Lighting Fixture
Air Diffuser
6 FT
20'-0"
Maximize Ventilation Effectiveness
Minimize Detrimental Cross Drafts
8 FT
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
UCI - ECT, Inc. Method for Evaluating
Ventilation Effectiveness



Divide lab into quadrants
Generate tracer gas at intersection of quadrants
Simultaneously sample at center of quadrants
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Concentration Profiles and Ventilation Effectiveness
for Lab at 4 ACH
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Concentration Profiles and Ventilation Effectiveness
for Lab at 6 ACH
12 - 14
UCI - ECT, Inc. Ventilation Effectiveness Test
Probe / Quadrant
Lab
2151
2151
2151
Volume (V) Test Condition
ft3
9734
9734
9734
Flow (Q) cfm
Analytical Parameter
S1
S2
S3
S4
Agg S1-S4
683
Peak Concentration - ppm
Average Concentration - ppm
Max 15 min STEL
Total Flow Q - cfm
Effective Flow Q' - cfm
ACEF
Tau - Time per room air change - mins
3.20
1.26
1.71
683
0
n/a
n/a
3.90
1.61
2.34
683
803
0.85
12.1
9.80
1.97
3.00
683
420
1.63
23.2
4.80
0.71
1.34
683
n/a
n/a
n/a
3.95
1.38
2.01
683
682
1.00
14.3
973
Peak Concentration - ppm
Average Concentration - ppm
Max 15 min STEL
Total Flow Q - cfm
Effective Flow Q' - cfm
ACEF
Tau - Time per room air change - mins
2.60
0.84
1.22
973
736
1.32
13.2
4.30
1.20
1.88
973
861
1.13
11.3
11.40
1.22
2.25
973
1279
0.76
7.6
10.10
0.80
1.60
973
n/a
n/a
n/a
4.23
1.01
1.72
973
960
1.01
10.1
1297
Peak Concentration - ppm
Average Concentration - ppm
Max 15 min STEL
Total Flow Q - cfm
Effective Flow Q' - cfm
ACEF
Tau - Time per room air change - mins
1.30
0.37
0.69
1297
1650
0.79
5.9
2.60
0.61
1.11
1297
1535
0.84
6.3
1.00
0.17
0.35
1297
n/a
n/a
n/a
16.30
0.40
0.80
1297
n/a
n/a
n/a
4.65
0.39
0.72
1297
1684
0.77
5.8
4 ACH
6 ACH
8 ACH
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Method to Improve Ventilation Effectiveness
and Reduce ACH




Recently developed Halo with Erlab
Utilizes Green Fume Hood filter technology
Increases Ventilation Effectiveness
Provides effective ACH to reduce outside air
12 - 14
UCI - ECT, Inc. Ventilation Effectiveness
Halo Filters at 4 ACH and 6 ACH
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
UCI - ECT, Inc. Ventilation Effectiveness
Halo Filters at 4 ACH and 6 ACH
Probe / Quadrant
Summary of Analytics
S1
S2
S3
S4
Agg S1-S4
S5
82.60
11.80
16.80
36.00
23.88
138.40
Average Concentration - ppm
7.68
1.47
1.37
1.21
2.93
6.74
Max 15 min STEL
13.90
2.56
2.15
2.43
5.08
13.42
6 ACH HALO Off
Peak Concentration - ppm
Total Flow Q - cfm
420
420
420
420
420
420
Effective Flow Q' - cfm
573
291
385
n/a
438
n/a
ACEF
0.73
1.44
1.09
n/a
0.96
n/a
Probe / Quadrant
Summary of Analytics
S1
S2
S3
S4
Agg S1-S4
S5
Peak Concentration - ppm
3.50
7.00
1.20
2.30
2.70
60.70
Average Concentration - ppm
0.80
1.11
0.32
0.12
0.59
0.19
4 ACH - HALO On
Max 15 min STEL
1.31
2.12
0.62
0.23
1.07
0.38
Total Flow Q - cfm
280
280
280
280
280
280
Effective Flow Q' - cfm
602
759
n/a
n/a
833
n/a
ACEF
0.47
0.37
n/a
n/a
0.34
n/a
12 - 14
Lab Ventilation Risk Assessment
Control Band Matrix
Research Building - Lab Control Bands
Room
Utilization
Number
004
Chemistry Lab
006
Chemistry/Biology Lab
007
Instrument Lab
109
Teaching Lab
110
Teaching Lab
111
Teaching Prep Lab
112
Teaching Prep Lab
205
Teaching Lab
206
Teaching Lab
207
Biomechanics
208
Instrumentation
209
Prep Lab
210
Tissue Culture
213/213A
Biology Prep
216
Microscopy
304
NMR Lab
306
Teaching Lab
307
Teaching Lab
308
Instrument Lab
309
Chemistry/Biology Lab
Control
Band
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
3
Min.
ACH
6
6
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
6
6
6
6
4
6
6
8
6
8
6
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
Start
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Lab Ventilation Risk
Assessment
Evaluate
Hazardous
Processes in ECDs
Identify
ECDs
Survey Lab
2.
3.
Survey the laboratory
February 2015
Conduct
ECD Risk
Assessment
Physical
Hazard
Implement
Safety
Measures
Haz. Op.
Analysis
Remove or Hibernate
Identify
Exposure Control Devices
ECD
NO
4.
Airborne
Conduct ECD Risk
Is ECD Assessment
Health
Determine
Theoretical
ACH
YES
YES
Necessary
Is ECD
Appropriate
Hazard
Evaluate Room
Air Change
Effectiveness
9.
Evaluate5.Appropriateness of ECD or Select
8. Alternative ECD
NO
Apply Chem
Use Select
Control Bands
to recommend Min. ECD Airflow
Specifications
Generation
10.
Evaluate
Install or
Utilize
Conduct
Lab Risk
7.
Hazardous
Emission Model
Appropriate
Processes outside
Assessment
Conduct
Lab Ventilation
Risk
Assessment (for hazards outside ECDs)
ECD
ECD
6.
Preliminary
Use
Bands to recommend Min. Airflow Specifications
for Lab
AssignControl
ECD Risk
ACH
NO
Level and Airflow
Specifications
Or
Evaluate Ventilation Effectiveness
Elevate to Next
YES
Acceptable
Improve Room
11.
Accept
Higher Controlminimum
Air Change
Preliminary
Evaluate
need to modify lab or increase
airflow
Band
Effectiveness
ACH as Final
Implement
Haz. Op.
Analysis
Safety
Physical
Hazard
Measures
Assign
Final Airflow Specifications
Assign Lab Risk Level
and Airflow
Specifications
Stop
12 - 14
Airflow Spreadsheet




Air Supply Flow
Transfer Air
Exhaust Flow
Calculated Room ACH
Qex-Cond
Airflow Set Points
Room #
Room
Description
Area
118
Transfer
Room Supply Flows
Transfer
Flow
System Info
Max/Min of Qs
Conditioning, Qs dP, Qs
ACH
Greater
of door
or 10%
Tags, ID, type,
etc.
Qex-ED
Qex for Exhaust Devices
Sash
Open/In
Use
Exhaust
Type
7619
3025
735
325
FH-VAV
FH-VAV
FH-VAV
FH-VAV
GX
GX
838
838
838
838
229
229
229
373
406
7505
1028
350
150
FH-CAV
GX
GX
406
9.5
9.5
8113
794
549
150
FH-CAV
Snorkel
GX
699
0
(ft )
Chemistry
802
9.5
204
General
Purpose
790
222
Biology
854
(ft )
Calculated
Metrics
Room Exhaust Flows
Min Flow (FH
Max Flow
min. of 25
Room Max Room Min
(FH @ 18
Flow
Flow
cfm/ft2 of work
in.)
(cfm)
(cfm)
surface)
(cfm)
(cfm)
Greater
of Door
and 10%
Max Exh
(cfm)
3
Qex-ACH
Sash
Max/Min based on Exh
Closed/Not In Devices, dP, Cond., or
Use
ACH
Room Flow
@ Min
(cfm)
Volume
Qex-dP
Exhaust
Room Flow
@ Max
(cfm)
Height
(ft)
2
Supply
699
0
Resultant ACH
Based on
Room Exhaust
Flows
Max
ACH
Min
ACH
3350
1060
26
8
1178
500
9
4
944
699
7
5
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Lab Ventilation – Safety & Energy Optimization
Max Supply
Max Exhaust
Min
Supply
Min
Exhaust
Current Minimum Flow
New Minimum Flow = 50,000 cfm reduction
12 - 14
Maintaining Performance of VAV Controls
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Quality Data - Accuracy and Precision
Not Accurate
and Not Precise
Precise but not
Accurate and
Precise
Accurate Can degrade
VAV Controls
30-50% within 5 years
Pre Optimization Flow Sensors = 20% to 65% Error
Post Optimization Flow Sensors = 5% Error
12 - 14
Safe, Energy Efficient and Sustainable Operation
 Lab Ventilation Management Program (LVMP)
–
Organization and Responsibilities
–
Collaboration & Communication
–
SOP’s for Testing and Maintenance
–
Metrics, Monitoring & BAS Utilization

Design & Commissioning Standards

Management of Change

Personnel Training

Required By ANSI Z9.5-2012
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Ventilation Maintenance and Test Schedule
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Lab Safety & Energy Optimization
Train Personnel
• Lab Personnel • Facility Maintenance • Building Operators
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
Conclusions and Recommendations
•
•
Minimum airflow specifications are based on the demand for ventilation
•
The ECD and Lab Ventilation Risk Assessment help establish safety
constraints and the basis for energy reduction
•
•
Methods can be employed to test and optimize ventilation effectiveness
VAV systems provide the ability to modulate flow to meet the changing
demand for ventilation
Protecting lab personnel and ensuring proper performance of laboratory hoods
requires maintaining and possibly updating the operating specifications as
conditions change
•
A Lab Ventilation Management Program provides the tools necessary to
manage change and ensure safe, energy efficient and sustainable laboratories.
12 - 14
Lab Safety and Energy Optimization
High Performance Laboratory Buildings
ECT, Inc. Future Webinar Topics
• Predicting Energy Savings from Flow Reduction
• Implementing a Lab Ventilation Management Program
• Test Methods for Testing and Maintaining VAV Systems
• Improve safety and energy efficiency with a LabHoodPro
Fume Hood Retrofit Kit
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Safe, Dependable and Energy Efficient Laboratories
February 2015
End
Questions
&
Discussion
Thomas C. Smith
Exposure Control Technologies, Inc.
919-319-4290
www.exposurecontroltechnologies.com
tcsmith@labhoodpro.com
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