Florida Citrus
Production, Greening &
Horticultural Practices
Stephen H. Futch
Extension Agent, Multi County
University of Florida
Citrus Research & Education Center
700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL
shf@ufl.edu
Industry Challenges
Hurricanes of 2004 and the
spread of canker
Canker
Other land uses
Irrigation water
Greening
Greening
Prices
More People
Labor
Urbanization
Changing land prices
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Citrus Acreage, 1990 to 2011
Year
Oranges
Grapefruit
Specialty
Total
% of 1998
1990
564,809
125,300
42,658
732,767
1998
658,390
132,817
54,053
845,260
2006
529,241
63,419
28,713
621,373
74%
2012
464,918
48,191
18,384
531,493
63%
Loss of 313,767
acres
87%
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Sept. 20, 2012
Boxes x 1,000
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Source: UF IFAS, Ron Muraro
Citrus Yield,
2011-12 Season in Boxes, 2012-13 (Red)
Type
Oranges
Grapefruit
Tangerines
Other
Total
(Tangelos)
Production
146,600,000
133,400,000
18,850,000
18,400,000
4,290,000
3,350,000
1,150,000
1,000,000
170,890,000
156,150,000
Fresh
Processed
4.2%
95.8%
42.1%
57.9%
66.2%
33.8%
38.5%
61.5%
10.9%
89.9%
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Sept. 20, 2012, July Forecast, 7-11-13
Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service
Unit of Measurements
• Standard Field Box
– 1 3/5 bushel field container
– Legal weight of standard field box is:
• Oranges, temples, tangelos = 90 lb
• Grapefruit = 85 lb
• Tangerines = 95 lb
– FCOJ yield in gallons per box = ~1.5 to1.6 gal
– NFC yield in gallons per box = ~ 6 to 6.6 gal
Typical Production Program
Operation
Cost
Percent
Weed Control
$234.91
12.9%
Spray Program
$418.74
23.1%
Enhanced Foliar Nutrient Spray
$265.98
14.6%
Fertilizer/Lime
$420.37
23.1%
Pruning (Hedging/Topping)
$ 36.38
2.0%
Tree Replacement
$220.19
12.1%
Irrigation (Microsprinkler)
$165.15
9.1%
Regulatory (canker decontamination and
scouting
$ 55.48
3.1%
Total
$1,817.20
100.0%
Budgeting Costs and Returns for Central Florida Citrus Production, 2011-12, R. P. Muraro
Greening Costs
• Since 2006 citrus greening has cost the
Florida economy $3.6 billion in lost
revenues and 6,600 jobs.
– Spreen and Hodges (2012)
– Found in FL in 2005
– Asian citrus psyllid spreads the bacterial
disease
– Reduces production and life of the citrus tree
Citrus Greening
[Greening, Huanglongbing (HLB)]
1
2
7
3
4
8
Citrus Greening Symptoms
Síntomas de Greening de los Cítricos
5
1 Blotchy mottle with green islands
Moteado de hojas con islas verdes
2 Blotchy mottle
Moteado de hojas
3 Psyllid damage (leaf notching)
Daño del psílidos
4 Blotchy mottle with psyllid notching
Moteado de hoja con daño del psílidos
(flecha)
5 Severe fruit drop
Caída de fruta
6
6
Severe leaf drop & adult psyllid
Caída de hoja y los psílidos adultos
7
Seed abortion with yellow staining at base of
fruit button
Semillas abortadas con color amarillo a la
base del tallo de la fruta
Report high suspects to the Florida
Division of Plant Industry
Canker/Greening Hotline
8 Reduced fruit size and color inversion
1-800-282-5153 or
Tamaño de fruta reducido y inversión de color
call local extension office
Impact of Greening
•
•
•
•
•
Less productive tree
Shorter tree life span
Smaller fruit size of infected fruit
Off flavor of juice
Fruit drop
– Last year 10 to 20% of the crop fell onto the
ground in large part due to greening
• Anomaly?
• New norm?
Spray Program – Pest Mgt
• 7 to 12 sprays per year
– 7 sprays = ~$418.75 per ac/yr
– 12 sprays = ~$496.49 per ac/yr
• Application method & cost per acre
– Ground ~$30.21
– Ground (low volume) ~$12.64
– Aerial (fix wing) ~$5.25
• Typical pests
– Diseases – canker, greasy spot, black spot (where present),
melanose, etc.
– Insects/Mites – rust mites, spider mites, psyllid
Greening Mgt.
• 3 steps of minimizing disease*
– Slow spread of the disease
– Control vector (psyllid)
• Minimize future spread
• Slows reinfection
– Nutritional therapies
• Plant disease free trees and try to keep
them disease free as long as possible
* Does not get rid of the disease but minimize adverse
impact to tree and yield.
Enhanced Foliar Nutrient Program
(Nutritional Therapies)
• Program consists of 5 foliar nutrient
applications of which:
– 3 are included with other spray applications,
– 2 additional ground applications
• Applied to foliage to improve tree health in
bypassing blocked phloem (part of
vascular bundle in plant) and declining
root health which limit nutrient uptake
Citrus Health Management
Areas (CHMA)
• Purpose
– Control psyllids on a wider
geographical area as compared to
individual efforts
• Control methods
– Ground
– Fix wing airplane
– Low volume
• Select same AI of chosen
pesticide to minimize pest
resistance
• Timing
– Strive for 2 week application period
Citrus Black Spot
Citrus Black Spot
PP274
M. M. Dewdney and N. A. Peres
Hard spot symptoms on
‘Valencia’
Fungal structures (pycnidia) found in
hard spot lesions
Severe hard spot symptoms
on ‘Valencia’
Fungal disease: Caused by Guignardia citricarpa (sexual stage) / Phyllosticta citricarpa (asexual stage)
Major inoculum source: Airborne ascospores (sexual spores) from leaf litter
Minor inoculum source: Conidia (asexual spores) from pycnidia that form on fruit, dead twigs, and leaf litter. The conidia are rain-splash
dispersed. Potential problem on cultivars that have young and mature fruit on the tree simultaneously.
Cultivar susceptibility: All commercial cultivars are susceptible, but late maturing cultivars and lemons are most vulnerable.
Leaf symptoms: Rare in well-managed groves; most common on lemons. Older lesions are small, round, and sunken with a gray center,
dark brown margin, and yellow halo. Younger lesions are reddish brown with light centers and a diffuse yellow halo.
Fruit symptoms: Variable. Four main types: 1) Hard spot (most common and diagnostic) – Small, round, sunken lesions with gray centers
with brick red to black margins. Fungal structures appear as slightly elevated black dots. Appears as fruit begins to color where light
exposure is highest; 2) False melanose – Numerous small, slightly raised lesions that can be tan to brown. Occurs on green fruit and does not
have pycnidia. May become hard spot later in the season; 3) Cracked spot – Large, flat, dark brown lesions with raised cracks in their
surface. Thought to be caused by an interaction with rust mite. Can become hard spot later in the season. Occurs on green and mature fruit;
continued other side
1. This document is PP274, one of a series of the Plant Pathology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication
date May 2010. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Megan M. Dewdney, assistant professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Citrus REC, Lake Alfred Florida; Natalia A. Peres, assistant professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Gulf Coast REC, Wimauma
Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; University of Florida; Gainesville, FL 32611.
Harvesting
• 98% hand harvest
• 2% mechanical harvest
Harvesting Costs
• Florida Hand Harvesting
– Pick - $0.90 to $1.50 box
– Roadside - $0.90
– Transportation $1.00
– TOTAL COST = $2.80 to $3.30 per
box
• Cost will vary by block, yield, condition of
grove, size of tree and distance to
processing plant.
• Fresh fruit harvesting cost is higher than
fruit going to processing plants
• Mechanical harvesting offers long term
options to reduce cost but declining in use
due to HLB, tree conditions and stress
Problems & Opportunities
- Problems
• Business model - Risk / Reward, ROI
• Citrus canker
• Greening
• Citrus black spot
• Diseases – CTV, citrus blight, foot rot, etc.
• Urban pressure
• High labor cost – FL min. wage $7.79 (2013), Fed $7.25
(2009), Guest worker (H2A) min. wage almost $10.00/hr +
housing and transportation
• Labor supply and issues with documentation
• Land values
- Opportunities
• Market (world price vs US price)
• Price (FCOJ vs NFC)
Is the Sun Rising or Setting on the
Citrus Industry?
Download PDF
Similar pages