E-SAMPLER
PARTICULATE MONITOR
OPERATION MANUAL
REVISION
L
Met One Instruments, Inc.
1600 NW Washington Blvd.
Grants Pass, Oregon 97526
Telephone 541-471-7111
Facsimile 541-471-7116
E-SAMPLER Particulate Monitor Operation Manual - © Copyright 2011 Met One Instruments, Inc. All rights
reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval
system, or translated into any other language in any form without the written permission of Met One Instruments, Inc.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................5 1.1 About This Manual................................................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Technical Service and Warranty ......................................................................................................... 5 1.3 About the E-Sampler – Two Instruments in One .............................................................................. 6 1.4 Laser Radiation Safety and Conformity ............................................................................................. 6 1.5 E-Sampler Specifications ..................................................................................................................... 7 E-SAMPLER SETUP and STARTUP ..............................................................................8 2.1 Standard and Optional Accessories ................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Mounting Options................................................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Setting Up the E-Sampler ..................................................................................................................... 9 2.4 Electrical Connections ........................................................................................................................ 13 2.5 Power-Up and Starting Operation ..................................................................................................... 14 SITE SELECTION and REMOTE POWER OPTIONS ................................................15 3.1 Site Selection Requirements.............................................................................................................. 15 3.2 Fall Hazard and Security Cautions ................................................................................................... 16 3.3 Confined Sampling Locations ............................................................................................................ 16 3.4 Smoke and Ash Monitoring ................................................................................................................ 17 3.5 Remote Monitoring With Solar or Battery Power ............................................................................ 17 E-SAMPLER USER INTERFACE and MENU SYSTEM ............................................20 4.1 The User Interface - Keypad and Display Functions ...................................................................... 20 4.2 Using the Main Sampling Screen ...................................................................................................... 21 4.3 Using the Main E-Sampler Menu System and Clearing Memory ................................................. 22 E-SAMPLER MEASUREMENT METHOD ....................................................................24 5.1 Forward Laser Light Scatter Nephelometer System ...................................................................... 24 5.2 47mm Gravimetric Filter Collection System .................................................................................... 26 5.3 The Airflow Control System Diagram and Description ................................................................... 27 5.4 Timed Operation and Scheduled Sampling Events........................................................................ 29 5.5 Establishing a Gravimetric Correction K-Factor for the E-Sampler .............................................. 29 SETUP MENU DESCRIPTIONS .....................................................................................32 6.1 The CLOCK Setup Screen ................................................................................................................. 32 6.2 The AVERAGE PERIOD Setup Screen – Data Logging Interval ................................................ 32 6.3 The CONCENTRATION Setup Screen – Range and Scaling ...................................................... 33 6.4 The SAMPLING MODE Setup Screen – Continuous or Timed Sampling .................................. 34 6.5 The ALARM CONTACT Setup Screen............................................................................................. 34 E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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6.6 The RH Control Setup Screen ........................................................................................................... 35 6.7 The SELF-TEST Setup Screen – Zero and Span Settings ........................................................... 35 6.8 The COMMUNICATION Setup Screen ............................................................................................ 36 6.9 The STATION ID Setup Screen ........................................................................................................ 36 6.10 The ENGINEERING UNITS Setup Screen ...................................................................................... 36 7 8 9 CALIBRATE MENU – FIELD CALIBRATIONS ...........................................................37 7.1 Ambient Temperature Calibration ..................................................................................................... 37 7.2 Ambient Pressure Calibration ............................................................................................................ 38 7.3 External RH Sensor Calibration......................................................................................................... 38 7.4 Flow Sensor Calibration...................................................................................................................... 39 7.5 DAC Calibration – Analog Output Adjustment ................................................................................ 39 7.6 Leak Test Calibration Checks ............................................................................................................ 40 MAINTENANCE and TROUBLESHOOTING ...............................................................41 8.1 E-Sampler Alarm Displays, Alarm Logs, and Alarm Codes .......................................................... 41 8.2 Contact Closure Alarm Relay Output ............................................................................................... 43 8.3 Basic Problem and Cause/Solution Table ....................................................................................... 43 8.4 Suggested Periodic Maintenance Intervals ..................................................................................... 45 8.5 Sample Pump Replacement .............................................................................................................. 45 8.6 PUMP and PURGE Filter Changes .................................................................................................. 47 8.7 TSP Inlet and Cyclone Cleaning ....................................................................................................... 47 8.8 Factory Service Interval ...................................................................................................................... 47 8.9 Operational Logic for Self-Test and Laser/Detector Alarms.......................................................... 49 DATA RETRIEVAL and COMMUNICATIONS .............................................................52 9.1 Analog Voltage Output ........................................................................................................................ 52 9.2 Serial Port Connections to a Computer ............................................................................................ 52 9.3 Modem Options for Remote Data Retrieval ..................................................................................... 52 9.4 Comet™ Data Retrieval Software ..................................................................................................... 53 9.5 Downloading Data Using HyperTerminal ......................................................................................... 53 9.6 “AutoMet” Data Retrieval Commands Through the Serial Port .................................................... 54 9.7 Advanced Communications – Escape Commands ........................................................................ 56 9.8 Flash Firmware Upgrades .................................................................................................................. 59 10 ACCESSORIES and PARTS...........................................................................................60 10.1 Consumables, Replacement Parts, and Accessories .................................................................... 60 E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 About This Manual
This document is organized with the most important information grouped together for easy
reference by the user. All E-Sampler owners and operators should read and understand the
sections on installation, setup, and field calibrations. Other sections that provide in-depth
information on subjects such as theory, diagnostics, accessories, and alternate settings provide
valuable information which should be consulted as needed. An electronic version of this manual is
also available.
1.2 Technical Service and Warranty
This manual is structured by customer feedback to provide the required information for setup,
operation, testing, maintaining, and troubleshooting your E-Sampler unit. Should you still require
support after consulting your printed documentation, we encourage you to contact one of our
expert Technical Service representatives during normal business hours of 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Pacific Standard Time, Monday through Friday. In addition, technical information and service
bulletins are often posted on our website. Please contact us and obtain a Return Authorization
(RA) number before sending any equipment back to the factory. This allows us to track and
schedule service work and to expedite customer service.
Phone:
(541) 471-7111
Fax:
(541) 471-7116
E-Mail:
service@metone.com
Web:
www.metone.com
Address:
Technical Services Department
Met One Instruments, Inc.
1600 NW Washington Blvd.
Grants Pass, OR 97526
- Warranty Products manufactured by Met One Instruments, Inc. are warranted against defects in
materials and workmanship for a period of (1) year from the date of shipment from the
factory. Products offered, but not manufactured by Met One Instruments, Inc. will be
warranted to the extent and in the manner guaranteed by the manufacturer of that product.
Any product found to be defective during the warranty period will be replaced or repaired,
and return freight prepaid at the expense of Met One Instruments, Inc. In no case shall the
liability of Met One Instruments, Inc. exceed the purchase price of the product.
This warranty may not apply to products that have been subject to misuse, negligence,
accident, acts of nature, or that have or modified other than by Met One Instruments, Inc.
Consumable items such as bearings and batteries are not covered under this warranty.
Other than the warranty set forth herein, there shall be no other warranties, whether
expressed, implied or statutory, including warranties of fitness or merchantability.
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1.3 About the E-Sampler – Two Instruments in One
The Met One Instruments, Inc. model E-Sampler is a type of nephelometer which automatically
measures and records real-time airborne PM10, PM2.5, or TSP particulate concentration levels
using the principle of forward laser light scatter. In addition, the E-Sampler has a built-in 47 mm
filter sampler which can optionally be used to collect the particulate for subsequent gravimetric
mass or laboratory evaluation. The E-Sampler combines the excellent real-time response of a
nephelometer with the accuracy and traceability of a low flow manual gravimetric sampler.
Detailed descriptions of the E-Sampler measurement modes can be found in Section 5.
Laser Light Scatter System
Sample air is drawn into the E-Sampler and through the laser optical module, where the
particulate in the sample air stream scatters the laser light through reflective and refractive
properties. This scattered light is collected onto a photodiode detector at a near-forward angle,
and the resulting electronic signal is processed to determine a continuous, real-time measurement
of airborne particulate mass concentrations.
Gravimetric Filter Sampler System
After the sample air stream has been measured by the E-Sampler and exits the optical engine, it
passes through the built-in 47 mm filter sampler system. This system allows the particulate to
optionally be collected on a filter disc as a second method to obtain airborne particulate mass
data, or for laboratory analysis of the particulate.
The 47 mm filter system can also be used to determine a gravimetric K-factor (slope multiplier) to
correct the E-Sampler real-time signal to match the local particulate type. In this case, a filter disc
is weighed on a microbalance before and after being run in the E-Sampler for a period of time.
The resulting mass of the dust on the filter is correlated with the concentrations that the E-Sampler
recorded over the same time period, and a correction factor is calculated. The E-Sampler can be
used with no correction factor in applications where relative particulate trending is appropriate.
1.4 Laser Radiation Safety and Conformity
The E-SAMPLER, when properly installed and operated, is considered a Class I laser
product. Class I products are not considered to be hazardous.
This system contains a diode laser operating at 5 mW power and 670 nm wavelength. This is
visible to the naked eye, and can cause damage to the eye if directly exposed. A protective optical
housing fully encapsulates the laser beam and optics system within the E-SAMPLER. Do not
attempt to disassemble the optical module. Failure to comply with this instruction could cause
accidental exposure to laser radiation. The manufacturer certifies that this product operates in
compliance with following standards and regulations:
•
FDA / CDRH This product is tested and complies with 21 CFR, Subchapter J, of the
health and Safety Act of 1968.
•
US 21 CFR 1040.10.
Always power down the system whenever service or repair work is being performed inside the
instrument enclosure. Only trained technicians should attempt to repair the E-Sampler. Routine
maintenance does not require removing the instrument from its weatherproof enclosure.
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1.5 E-Sampler Specifications
PARAMETER
Measurement Principles:
Available Cut Points:
Measurement Range:
Nephelometer Accuracy:
Gravimetric Accuracy:
Precision:
Data Storage Resolution:
Data Storage Intervals:
Nephelometer Interval:
Sample Cycles:
Particle Size Sensitivity:
Laser Type:
Long Term Stability:
Flow Rate:
Pump Type:
Gravimetric Filter Type:
Automatic Zero and Span:
Internal Battery:
Internal Battery Run Time:
Power Supply:
Power Consumption:
Operating Temperature:
Barometric Pressure:
Ambient Humidity Range:
Humidity Control:
Approvals:
User Interface:
Analog Voltage Output:
Serial Interface:
Alarm Contact Closure:
Compatible Software:
Alarm Reporting:
Memory:
Factory Service Interval:
Mounting Options:
Unit Weight:
Unit Dimensions:
SPECIFICATION
Particulate concentration by forward light scatter laser Nephelometer.
Integrated 47mm low flow gravimetric filter sampler.
TSP Inlet Standard. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 sharp-cut cyclone inlets available.
0 to 65 mg/m3 (0 to 65,530 μg/m3) dynamic range. 16 bit digital range.
± 10% to gravimetric method typical when K-factored to local particulate type.
± 8% of NIOSH 0600.
Greater of 3 µg/m3 or 2%.
1 µg/m3
User-Selectable 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, or 60 minute averages.
1-second measurements, available on analog output and display.
Continuous operation or programmable scheduled sample runs.
0.1 to 100 micron. Optimal sensitivity 0.5 to 10 micron particles.
Diode Laser, 5 mW, 670nm. Visible red.
5% with clean optics.
2.0 liters/minute ± 0.1 lpm. Actual volumetric flow.
10,000 hour brushless diaphragm sample pump and secondary purge pump.
47mm disc filters (not included). Accepts standard FRM filter holder cartridges.
User-selectable 15 min, 1 hour, 2 hour, 12 hour, or 24 hour intervals. 2.8 min cycle.
Optional lead acid battery, 12V, 12 Amp-Hour. Yuasa NP12-12 or equivalent.
Up to 30 hours with inlet heater off. Up to 10 hours with inlet heater on.
Universal 100-240 VAC input, 15 VDC output power supply included. Compatible
with solar power kits or external batteries using optional DC power cable.
1.1 amps @ 12 VDC (15 Watts) max continuous draw, running with inlet heater on.
0.35 amps (4.2 Watts) running with inlet heater off.
-10 to +50°C . (Ambient Temperature Sensor Range -30 to +50°C).
60,000 to 104,000 Pascal pressure sensor range.
0 to 90% RH, non-condensing.
Automatic 10 Watt inlet heater module controlled to sample RH setpoint.
Sample RH sensor standard. Optional EX-593 ambient RH sensor available.
CE, ISO-9001. Designed to agree with EPA Class I and Class III FRM/FEM
particulate samplers and monitors. Not an EPA-designated equivalent method.
Menu-driven interface with 4x20 character LCD display and dynamic keypad.
0-1, 0-2.5, or 0-5 volt DC output. User-set range with 1-second real-time output.
RS-232 2-way serial port for PC, datalogger, or modem communications.
Normally closed contact closure relay output. Contact rating 0.5A @ 100V DC max.
Comet™ (included), Air Plus™, terminal programs such as HyperTerminal®
Available through serial port data files, display, and relay output.
4369 data logger records (182 days @ 1 record/hr, 3 days @ 1 record/min).
24 Months typical, under continuous use in normal ambient air.
Pole or wall mount bracket standard. Optional EX-905 tripod recommended.
6.4 kg (14 lbs) without tripod, battery, or optional accessories.
65cm high, 27cm wide, 16.5cm deep. (25.5” x 10.5” x 6.5”). With inlet assembly
Specifications may be subject to change without notice.
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2 E-SAMPLER SETUP and STARTUP
The E-Sampler is designed for rapid deployment and easy setup by a single person in less than
15 minutes in most applications. This section describes the basic assembly, setup, and start-up of
the instrument.
2.1 Standard and Optional Accessories
When unpacking a new E-Sampler, verify that the contents are undamaged. If the shipping
cartons are damaged, notify the carrier immediately. Verify that the included accessories are
correct and complete. If anything is missing, contact the technical service department at
service@metone.com or (541) 471-7111. See the Accessories section at the back of this manual
for more details. The normal configuration of the E-Sampler is supplied with the following standard
accessories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Weatherproof universal AC to 12VDC power supply.
47 mm filter cassette assembly.
COMET data acquisition software.
Weatherproof TSP inlet with debris screen.
Serial communications cable.
Instruction manual.
Internal fused battery harness.
3/16” Allen wrench.
Pole/wall mounting bracket.
The following optional accessories may or may not also be included, depending on the order:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EX-905 Aluminum Tripod.
Sharp Cut Cyclone for PM10, PM2.5 or PM1 cut-points.
EX-034 Wind Speed and Wind Direction sensor.
EX-593 Ambient RH Sensor.
Internal Battery, 12V, 12aH.
External DC power cable for batteries or solar systems.
Extra 47 mm filter holders or filters.
Modem Kits for phone line, cell, radio, or satellite telemetry.
Solar power kits (usually drop-shipped from the solar manufacturer).
2.2 Mounting Options
Custom Pole or Wall Mounting:
The E-Sampler can be mounted to a pole, mast, or wall using the included mounting bracket. The
bracket must be screwed or bolted to the pole or wall with appropriate hardware. The enclosed
bolts may not be appropriate for the desired mounting. The slot on the back of the E-Sampler slips
over the tab on the mounting bracket. The tab on the bottom of the E-Sampler should also be
bolted to the mounting surface to ensure that the unit cannot be knocked off of its mounting.
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Typical Mounting Bracket Pole Installation
Note: If mounting the unit to a wall, take care to ensure that there is adequate clear space around
the inlet to allow unrestricted airflow into the instrument. Wall mounting is often not considered
ideal and not recommended due to the airflow and particulate obstruction of the wall itself. Mount
the instrument with no large obstructions nearby whenever possible.
Tripod Mounting:
The Met One EX-905 aluminum tripod is the recommended mounting for the E-Sampler for most
outdoor applications. It is not included as a standard accessory in order to save expense for users
who may not require it. Deploy the tripod as follows:
1. Remove the three stainless steel detent pins from the tripod base by pulling the rings.
Unfold the three tripod legs and reinsert the three pins so that each pin secures a leg in
the open position. Make sure the erected tripod is rigid and stable.
Detent Pins
2. Lift the E-Sampler assembly and slide the slot on the back of the E-BAM over the tab on
the top of the tripod. Insert the supplied ¼-20 bolt through the tab on the bottom of the
E-Sampler and through the hole in the body of the tripod. Secure it with the supplied
washers and nut. This prevents the E-Sampler from falling or shifting on the tripod.
3. Site the tripod an a surface that is as level as possible. The tripod feet may be secured
to the ground or mounting surface with bolts, screws, or tent pegs if necessary. Secure
the tripod in windy conditions!
2.3 Setting Up the E-Sampler
Set up the rest of the E-Sampler hardware items and accessories as described below:
1. Installing the inlet heater assembly: The E-Sampler may be shipped with the inlet heater
assembly disconnected for easier packing. Connect the heater power harness to the
mating connector coming out of the top of the E-Sampler. Slip the inlet tube and heater
assembly onto the top of the E-Sampler. Make sure that the inner aluminum inlet tube is
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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seated fully into the receiver inside the top of the E-Sampler. You may need to loosen the
waterproof fitting at the top of the heater assembly in order to seat the inlet tube correctly.
Align the three holes in the base of the plastic heater body with the threaded holes in the
flange on top of the E-Sampler and fasten with three 6-32 socket head screws and lock
washers as provided. Tighten the waterproof fitting on top of the heater assembly securely
to prevent leaks.
2. Install PM10, PM2.5 or PM1 cyclones and TSP inlets: For TSP (Total Suspended
Particulate) monitoring, the included weatherproof TSP inlet is simply installed directly onto
the top of the E-Sampler inlet tube to keep water, insects, and debris out of the instrument.
For PM10 or PM2.5 monitoring, the optional sharp-cut cyclone of the desired cut-point must
be installed onto the inlet tube, under the TSP inlet. Lubricate the o-rings if necessary.
Never operate the E-Sampler outdoors without at least the TSP inlet in place, as the
resulting water/debris damage is not covered under warranty.
3. Optional wind sensor: If an optional EX-034 wind speed/direction sensor is supplied, then
it will come with a cross-arm tube which mounts to the stud on the top of the EX-905 tripod
with supplied fittings. Install the wind sensor on the end of the cross-arm. The wind sensor
should usually be as far from the E-Sampler unit as possible without affecting the tripod
balance, and the wind vane must be able to rotate fully without hitting anything. Plug the
wind sensor into the corresponding wind connector on the bottom of the E-Sampler. The
sensor will need to be oriented to the north. Consult the separate manual that comes with
the 034 wind sensor.
4. Internal Battery: If the unit is to be used with the optional internal 12V battery, connect the
included two-wire fused battery harness between the battery and the 2-pin connector J4 on
the 81220 connector board inside the battery tray of the E-Sampler (red positive, black
negative). Route the fish tape strap around the back of the battery, and slide the battery
into the tray. Do not ship or transport the unit with the battery installed. See Section 3.5 for
battery operation notes. The fuse is Met One 590807 (5 amp).
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Internal battery and 81220 PCB battery harness connection
5. AC Power Supply: If the E-Sampler is to be operated on AC line voltage, install the
included power supply. Bolt it to one of the legs of the tripod with the included U-bolts. Plug
the power supply output cable into the DC power input on the bottom of the E-Sampler.
When the power supply is plugged into AC power, the E-Sampler will turn itself on
automatically. This power supply is also used to charge the optional internal 12 volt battery.
Note: If the E-Sampler is to be powered by an external battery or solar system, then these
items will plug into the E-Sampler power input instead of the standard power supply. See
Section 3.5.
Wires
DOWN
6. Optional Met Sensors: If the E-Sampler is supplied with other optional ambient sensors
such as ambient RH (EX-593), then this sensor may be attached to the optional tripod with
a cross-arm kit. Plug the sensor into the temperature sensor input on the bottom of the unit.
Note: The E-Sampler has a built-in medium accuracy ambient temperature bead in the
bottom of the case, and can operate volumetrically without an external temperature sensor.
7. 47 mm filter holder: A 47 mm filter cassette assembly must be installed in the filter
sampler position at all times, in order to seal the flow system. Pull down the spring-loaded
filter clamp lever on the front of the unit to insert or remove the filter holder. Note: The filter
cassette does not need to have a filter disc installed in it for real-time nephelometer
operation, unless collection of the sample dust is desired. The backing screen disc may be
left in the cassette. If a filter disc is installed, it must be removed after an appropriate
amount of time. If forgotten, it will continue to collect dust until the flow system cannot
continue to function. See section 5.
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9441
TSP Cap
(included)
SCC-110 (PM10)
SCC-111 (PM1)
SCC-112 (PM2.5)
Optional Cyclone
7”
Heated Inlet
Assembly
(included)
12”
EX-034
Wind Sensor
(optional)
10.5”
11”
E-SAMPLER
Total Height:
78” PM10 / PM2.5
74” TSP
( 6.5” deep )
9170 Tripod
(optional)
48”
9438-2
AC to 12 VDC
Power Supply
(included)
Standard E-SAMPLER Configuration
Not to scale. Some items simplified for clarity.
41” triangular
tripod footprint
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2.4 Electrical Connections
The standard E-Sampler has a set of weatherproof connectors on the bottom of the unit. These
connectors provide the connections for the power supply, external sensors and communications
options. Each connector has a different pin configuration to prevent plugging cables into the wrong
connector. The E-Sampler will turn on automatically whenever a 12V power source is connected
to the power input.
The analog voltage output is only available using a special serial cable with a break-out for the
analog signal and ground wires. The standard 9321 E-Sampler serial cable does not have analog
wires. To access the analog output signal, use the 9321-1 E-Sampler Serial Cable.
The E-Sampler chassis ground lug should be connected to an earth ground with the supplied
grounding cable whenever possible, to reduce potential EMI/RFI electrical noise in the unit.
EX-034 Wind
Speed/Direction
Sensor Input
DC Power Input
(relay output also)
Chassis Ground Lug
External RH
Sensor Input
RS-232 Comm Port
(analog output also)
E-Sampler connector layout
1
1
4
1
5
1
7
5
6
2
6
2
3
2
4
2
3
DC Power Input
Pin
1
2
3
4
Function
+12 VDC Power In
Ground/Common
Alarm Relay IN
Alarm Relay OUT
WS/WD Sensor In
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
Function
Wind Direction Ref.
Ground/Common
Wind Direction Input
Wind Speed Input
Shield
4
3
4
3
RH Sensor Input
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
Function
RH Signal Input
Ground/Common
+12 VDC Output
Temp Signal Input
Baro Signal Input
Shield
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
5
RS-232 Serial Port
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Function
RST
RX
TX
Ground/Common
STX
Analog Volt Output
TCK
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2.5 Power-Up and Starting Operation
As soon as power is applied to the E-Sampler, the unit will boot up and display the ABOUT screen
showing the firmware revision for a few seconds. The ABOUT screen can also be viewed through
the menu system.
The E-Sampler will then default to the OPERATE screen as shown below. The START SAMPLE
key (left menu key) must be pressed to start the unit. A confirmation screen will appear; press the
YES key. The E-Sampler will begin by running a SELF-TEST process for about three minutes,
where the optical zero and span functions will be checked.
After the SELF-Test process, the E-Sampler is running and ready to use, if set to CONTINUOUS
sampling mode. The date, time, real-time concentration, flow rate, and sampling condition are
displayed. For TIMED sampling operation details, see Section 5.4.
26-JUL-2011 15:49:06
CONC: UNIT OFF
FLOW:
0.0 LPM
START SAMPLE
26-JUL-2011 15:49:06
SELF-TEST RUNNING
STOP SAMPLE
26-JUL-2011 15:49:06
CONC: 0.008 MG/M3
FLOW:
2.0 LPM
STOP SAMPLE
Pressing the ▼ down arrow displays the other current sensor readings for AT, BP, RH, WS, WD,
and battery voltage. Pressing the ◄ left arrow key will scroll back through historical logged data.
Press ESC at any time to immediately return to the current concentration screen from any
historical data screen. The MENU/SELECT key may be pressed at any time to enter the main
menu screen. This screen is the top of a tree style menu system. Use the arrow keys to highlight
an entry and press MENU/SELECT again to select that entry. Pressing ESC will back up along the
tree to the top. See Section 4 for details about how to navigate the E-Sampler user interface and
menu system.
Default Setup
The E-Sampler is factory configured to measure continuously with five minute data averages and
hourly self-tests. The following table lists some of the factory default configurations which may
need to be changed for your application. See Section 6 for details about the settings.
Parameter
Average Period
Sampling Mode
Self-Test Interval
Time
Concentration Range
K-Factor
RH Set Point
Baud Rate
Setting
5 Minutes
Continuous
Hourly
Pacific Time
65 mg/m3
1.0
50%
9600
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3 SITE SELECTION and REMOTE POWER OPTIONS
Use the following criteria when deciding on a sampling location for the E-Sampler. Always
consider the safety and security of the unit, as well as the suitability of the sampling environment.
3.1 Site Selection Requirements
Selection of a proper site for the E-Sampler is critical for accurate measurements. In some cases,
these items must be correctly addressed in order for the collected data to be acceptable for
regulatory requirements, such as ARM or SPM methods. Although the E-Sampler is not an EPAdesignated instrument, U.S. EPA Specifications for the site selection are a good reference and
can be found in the EPA documents listed below:
•
•
40 CFR, Part 58 Appendix E.
Quality Assurance Guidance Document 2.12 “Monitoring PM2.5 in Ambient Air Using
Designated Reference or Class I Equivalent Methods” Section 5.1.2.
The following is a summary of general ambient particulate monitoring site requirements that will be
appropriate for use with the E-Sampler in many cases. Some of these criteria may not be
appropriate in some applications, due to the versatile nature of the E-Sampler:
Inlet Height:
•
•
•
The inlet should be located in the “breathing zone”, between 2 and 15 meters above ground
level. When installed on the standard tripod, the E-Sampler inlet is positioned two meters
above the ground or other mounting surface, when used with a cyclone.
If the E-Sampler is to be collocated with other particulate instruments, such as FRM filtertype samplers or BAM units, then the air inlet must be the same height as the inlet of the
other samplers, within one meter vertically. Within one foot is preferred.
If the E-Sampler inlet is the highest point on a building, then lightning rods must be installed
to prevent destruction of the unit during electrical storms.
Inlet Radius Clearance:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The E-Sampler inlet should have a one meter radius free of any objects that may influence
airflow characteristics, including the inlet of another instrument.
If an E-Sampler is to be collocated at a station along with BAM or FRM samplers, the inlets
of each sampler must be no less than one meter apart from each other, and no more than
four meters apart. Two meter inlet spacing is recommended where possible.
If installed near a PM10 Hi-Volume sampler, then the distance between the inlet of the ESampler and the Hi-Vol must be no less than two meters.
The E-Sampler inlet should be located away from obstructions such as short walls, fences,
and penthouses, so that the inlet is unobstructed for two meters in all directions whenever
possible. In some E-Sampler applications, this may not be entirely possible.
If located beside a major obstruction (such as a building) then the distance between the ESampler and the building should be equal to twice the height of the building.
The inlet should be at least 20 meters from the drip line of any overhanging trees.
There should be at least a 270 degree arc of unrestricted airflow around the inlet. The
predominant direction of concentration movement should be included in the arc.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 15
Artificial Particulate Sources:
To avoid possible errors in the concentration measurements, the inlet must be located as far as
possible from any artificial sources of particulate, such as blowers, vents, or air conditioners on a
rooftop. Especially if any of these types of devices blow air across the inlet of the E-Sampler. Even
sources of filtered air must not blow across the inlet.
Spacing from Roadways:
The E-Sampler should usually not be located directly next to a major highway or arterial roadway,
as vehicle exhaust will dominate the concentration measurement. This effect can be difficult to
predict accurately as shifting winds may direct the plume toward or away from the inlet. An
obvious exception would intentional roadside particulate studies.
•
•
•
•
Roads with a daily traffic volume of less than 3,000 vehicles are generally not considered
major sources of pollutants, and in this case the E-Sampler should be located at least five
meters from the nearest traffic lane.
The E-Sampler should be located at least 25 meters from any elevated roadway greater
than five meters high.
The unit should be located as far as possible from unpaved roadways, as these also cause
artificial measurements from fugitive dust.
The unit should not be installed in unpaved areas unless year-round vegetative ground
cover is present, to avoid the effects of re-entrained fugitive dust.
3.2 Fall Hazard and Security Cautions
If the E-Sampler is to be installed more than three meters above ground level, then the tripod legs
must be bolted down to prevent the unit from falling to the ground. An accidental fall may cause
major optical system damage requiring that the unit be returned to the factory for repairs. In
addition, dropping the E-Sampler from any height will cause a potential safety hazard for those
below, and may damage the unit beyond repair.
The E-Sampler tripod should be secured to the mounting surface in windy conditions to prevent
the unit from falling over, even at ground level. This is especially important in winds over 30 mph.
If bolt-down is not possible, then the tripod legs may be weighted down with sand bags or cinder
blocks to secure the unit. Wind or fall damage is not covered under warranty.
The E-Sampler should be secured from theft or vandalism to the extent possible. A limited-access
rooftop or a fenced lot are often good places to deploy the unit. Solar panels and batteries are
highly susceptible to theft and should be secured.
3.3 Confined Sampling Locations
Because of the portable and versatile nature of the unit, the E-Sampler is sometimes deployed in
confined or non-ambient locations to monitor localized particulate sources, such as tunnels,
mines, quarries, shopping malls, train stations, etc. Each of these applications is unique and
presents various challenges. We recommend that you contact a Met One Service representative
to determine the suitability of the unit if you plan a custom deployment like this. In any case, the
safety of those around the unit is paramount, and the protection of the unit from damage is very
important.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 16
3.4 Smoke and Ash Monitoring
A primary design use for the standard E-Sampler is for tracking smoke and ash plumes from
wildfires, prescribed burns, agricultural burns, and even volcanic activity. In these cases, the unit
is often sited at the outskirts of a populated area in the expected path of the smoke plume. The
unit is usually equipped with the optional EX-034 wind speed and direction sensor for these
applications, in order to correlate changing wind patterns with particulate events. The wind sensor
is plug-and-play, and only requires an extended cross-arm for the tripod mount. The EX-034 will
need to be oriented to the north for accurate wind direction measurements.
High concentration monitoring presents special considerations. The optical system in the ESampler will become dirty at a faster rate with more frequent factory service required. In addition,
the internal purge air and pump protection filters will need more frequent replacement, and any 47
mm filters in the sampler system will need to be replaced more often in order to prevent flow
system failures.
3.5 Remote Monitoring With Solar or Battery Power
The standard version of the E-Sampler is designed to be deployable in remote areas where AC
power is not available. These applications may require external deep-cycle batteries, and
sometimes a solar panel array as well. The E-Sampler is rated for a worst-case continuous power
draw of 15 Watts (approximately 1.1 amps at 12 volts DC).
Internal Battery Operation:
The simplest method for remote deployment is to use the optional internal battery. The E-Sampler
can run for up to 10 hours on a fully charged internal 12V 12 amp-hour battery, assuming worstcase conditions of high humidity and full time inlet heater operation. This increases to about 30
hours in low humidity with the inlet heater off. Battery run time is reduced in cold temperatures, or
with a 47mm filter installed. The AC power supply included with the E-Sampler will serve as a
battery charger for the internal battery whenever the unit is plugged into AC power. See Section
2.3 for instructions about how to connect the internal battery. The internal battery can be almost
any 12 VDC lead acid battery with maximum dimensions of 3.9” width (100 mm) 3.85” height (98
mm) and 6” length (150 mm). Met One recommends using a YUASA NP12-12 battery. See
www.yuasabatteries.com . Met One can supply these batteries on request, but it is usually
cheaper and easier to source them locally.
External Battery Operation:
The E-Sampler can run for extended periods on external batteries. The most common type for this
application are 12 volt, 110 amp-hour, gel-cell or AGM, deep cycle batteries. The setup will require
a 9638 DC battery power cable which plugs into the main power connector on the bottom of the
unit. The other end connects to the battery terminals. The batteries should usually be enclosed in
a plastic box on the ground near the E-Sampler. Note: The E-Sampler AC power supply cannot
be connected to the E-Sampler while external batteries or solar kits are connected, since these
use the same power input connector. External batteries have to be manually removed and
recharged elsewhere. The internal battery (if used) should be removed from the E-Sampler if
external batteries are to be used.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 17
Assuming a continuous E-Sampler current draw of 1.1 amps, a single fully-charged 110Ah battery
would have the theoretical capacity to run the unit for 100 hours. However, the general rule is that
a lead-acid battery should not be discharged by more than 2/3 of its capacity, especially in
temperatures below 40 degrees F, so:
((110Ah / 1.1A) * .67) = about 67 hours of run time per battery (worst case).
However, if the inlet heater is not running full time, the battery will last much longer. Additional run
time can be achieved by connecting more batteries in parallel to the first battery. Additional
batteries must be of the same type! When the battery voltage discharges below 10.5 volts, the
unit will shut itself down until fresh batteries are supplied and the restart voltage threshold is
exceeded. See Section 8.1.
Solar Operation:
Some remote applications require operating the E-Sampler with a solar array. Care must be taken
to ensure that the solar array is designed correctly, and is specified to meet the power
requirements of the unit. Many people greatly underestimate the amount of solar wattage required
to run a particular load continuously year-round. If the solar array is not large enough, the
batteries will eventually become depleted and the E-Sampler will shut down.
The size of the solar array will vary depending on the Peak Sun-Hour (PSH) rating of the sample
location. PSH ratings are usually based on worst case winter conditions at a particular location.
Summer sun ratings at the same location will be considerably higher, requiring less solar wattage.
Sun rating maps can be found on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory website at
www.nrel.gov. The table below shows some estimated solar array wattages required to run a 15
Watt DC E-Sampler continuously in various sun ratings:
Local PSH
Sun Rating
kWh/m2/day
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
Minimum
Solar Array
Wattage
316
353
211
180
158
140
126
115
105
97
90
Battery
Array for 5
Days Backup
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
2 x 110Ah
Met One supplies a line of standardized portable solar power kits for use with the E-Sampler. Data
sheets are available. These are usually drop shipped directly from the manufacturer, and work in
most (but not all) areas and applications. However, it is often preferable to contact your local solar
shop and have your own array built locally based on your exact needs.
Warning! Never connect a solar panel directly to the E-Sampler power input! Never connect
the E-Sampler to a solar power kit without first connecting the batteries to the solar kit!
Immediate over-voltage damage to the E-Sampler circuit boards can result!
Solar panels output a high DC voltage during sunlight hours; beyond their nominal voltage. Even a
solar charge controller may output higher voltages if not connected to a battery. A bank of external
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 18
batteries is always required when using a solar array, to ensure function during the night and
cloudy weather. The solar panels must be wired to charge these batteries through an appropriate
charge controller. The E-Sampler runs off of the solar system battery array only. The E-Sampler
will only tolerate 10 to 16 VDC input.
The solar power setup will require a 9638 DC battery power cable which plugs into the main
power connector on the bottom of the unit. The internal battery (if used) should be removed from
the E-Sampler if a solar power kit is to be used.
Solar Panel
Array
E-Sampler
Solar Charge
Controller
+
Battery
Array
Simplified E-Sampler Solar System Diagram
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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4 E-SAMPLER USER INTERFACE and MENU SYSTEM
This section describes the E-Sampler user interface system, and describes the functions of the
main menu options, including how to view data and errors.
4.1 The User Interface - Keypad and Display Functions
The E-Sampler user interface consists of a 4x20 character liquid crystal display (LCD) and a
dynamic keypad. The two white keys under the display are called “soft keys”. These are dynamic
keys which change in response to a menu option displayed directly above the key on the bottom
row of the display. The function of these keys depends on which menu is shown on the display,
and are often used for functions such as “SAVE” and “EXIT”.
The four red arrow (cursor) keys are used to scroll up, down, left, and right, to navigate in the
menu system, and to select items or change fields on the screen. The arrow keys are also often
used to change parameters or increment/decrement values in the menu system. The right arrow
key can be used to wake up the display if it has turned off to save power.
The MENU/SELECT key is used to enter the main menu or to select an item in a list. The ESC
key is used to escape or exit out of a menu.
E-SAMPLER
PARTICULATE MONITOR
26-JUL-2011
16:55:48
CONC
0.008 MG/M3
FLOW
2.0 LPM
STOP SAMPLE
47 mm FILTER
ESC
(2) PULL OUT
(1) PULL DOWN
PUMP
FILTER
PURGE
FILTER
MENU
SELECT
PRESS
FOR
DISPLAY
E-Sampler User Interface and Front Panel
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 20
4.2 Using the Main Sampling Screen
The E-Sampler display shows the Sampling screen when the unit is in normal operation. The
active display area shows the current date and time, the 1-second real-time concentration, and the
current flow rate. Also shown is the STOP SAMPLE indicator for the left soft key. To view the rest
of the instantaneous sensor parameters which do not all fit on the display at once, press the down
▼ arrow. The date and time will remain at the top of the display at all times.
To view past data, use the left ◄ arrow key to scroll back to previous data records. There will be
one complete data record for every real-time average interval, indicated by the time/data stamp at
the top of the screen. For example, if the real-time average is set to 10 minutes, then there will be
a complete data record stored every 10 minutes as shown below. Again, you can use the ▼ key
to view the rest of the sensor parameters for that record. Press the ESC key at any time to return
to the current concentration sampling screen.
Scroll left◄ to view past data records
26-JUL-2011 16:50:00
CONC: 0.011 MG/M3
FLOW:
2.0 LPM
26-JUL-2011 16:55:48
CONC: 0.008 MG/M3
FLOW:
2.0 LPM
STOP SAMPLE
26-JUL-2011 16:50:00
AT:
24.1 C
BP:
96950 PA
RHx:
36 %
RHi:
35 %
WS:
0.0 M/S
WD:
0 DEG
BV:
14.9 V
26-JUL-2011 16:55:48
AT:
24.3 C
BP:
96950 PA
RHx:
34 %
RHi:
32 %
WS:
0.0 M/S
WD:
0 DEG
BV:
14.9 V
Visible display area
showing current
parameters
Scroll down ▼ to view
the other current sensor
parameters
Main Sampling Screen Format
Below is a table which describes the parameters visible in the main sampling display as shown
above. These are all of the logged parameters in the E-Sampler. The active display shows the 1second real-time value for each parameter, while the stored data shows the average value over
the user-selected logging interval.
Parameter
CONC
FLOW
AT
BP
RHx
RHi
WS
WD
BV
Description
Real-time particulate concentration, in milligrams per cubic meter.
Real-time sample flow rate, in actual liters per minute.
Ambient temperature in degrees C.
Ambient barometric pressure in Pascals.
External ambient relative humidity (if equipped).
Internal filter sample relative humidity.
Wind speed in meters per second (if equipped).
Wind direction in degrees (if equipped).
Battery voltage (or DC input voltage).
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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4.3 Using the Main E-Sampler Menu System and Clearing Memory
The main E-Sampler menu system can be entered at almost any time by pressing the
MENU/SELECT key. Use the ▲▼ arrow keys to select the desired menu option, then press the
MENU/SELECT key to enter the selected sub-menu. The functions in the SETUP and
CALIBRATE menus are described in Section 6 and 7. All of the other main menu functions are
described below.
Visible display
area
Scroll down ▼ to
view these
options
OPERATE
SETUP
CALIBRATE
▼ALARM LOG
MEMORY
■ABOUT
The Main E-Sampler menu
OPERATE: This menu option puts the E-Sampler into normal operation screen where a new
sample can be started. If the unit is already sampling, this option will simply exit the main menu
and display the main sampling screen.
SETUP: This is the setup menu for the E-Sampler. All of the setup parameters in this menu are
described in Section 6.
CALIBRATE: This is the field calibration menu for the E-Sampler. All of the calibrations and tests
in this menu are described in Section 7.
ALARM LOG: This menu option allows you to quickly view the error log entries in the E-Sampler
without having to download the digital data. The screen will display the type of error, as well as the
time and date when the error occurred. Scroll through the error records using the ◄► arrow keys.
Press the MENU/SELECT key to return to the main menu. See Section 8.1 for a description of the
possible error and alarm types.
MEMORY: This menu option displays the amount of memory left in the E-Sampler digital data
system as shown below. To erase the memory, press the CLEAR key. Use the arrow keys to
select either the DATA LOGGER or ALARM LOG, then press the CLEAR key again. The unit will
show a CAUTION screen. If you are sure you want to erase the selected log, press the YES key.
CAUTION! Once the data log or the error log is cleared, the data can never be recovered.
MEMORY
99 % REMAINING
30.3 DAYS REMAINING
CLEAR
EXIT
CLEAR MEMORY
CLEAR:▼DATA LOGGER
CLEAR
EXIT
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
>>>>> CAUTION <<<<<
CLEAR DATA LOGGER
MEMORY?
NO
YES
Page 22
ABOUT: This menu option displays the E-Sampler firmware version and revision as shown in the
example below. The up/down arrow keys may be pressed to change which firmware version is
shown. The E-Sampler has two separate firmware files. One is for the master CPU and the other
is for the 3610 I/O control board. Press the MENU/SELECT key to return to the main menu.
E-SAMPLER
(541) 471-7111
WWW.METONE.COM
3693-01 R1.19.3
Trained Service
Technicians Only!
Enter Password:
(000■)
Note: If the ESC key is pressed while the E-Sampler is displaying the ABOUT screen, the unit will
prompt the user for a password. This is for entry into an advanced factory test menu. Do not enter
this system unless instructed to do so by a Met One technician.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 23
5 E-SAMPLER MEASUREMENT METHOD
The Met One Instruments, Inc model E-SAMPLER is a type of nephelometer which automatically
measures and records real-time airborne PM10, PM2.5, PM1 or TSP particulate concentration levels
using the principle of forward laser light scatter. In addition, the E-SAMPLER has a built-in 47mm
filter sampler which can optionally be used to collect the particulate for subsequent gravimetric
mass or laboratory evaluation. The E-Sampler combines the excellent real-time response of a
nephelometer with the accuracy and traceability of a manual gravimetric sampler. This section
describes the measurement systems.
5.1 Forward Laser Light Scatter Nephelometer System
Sample air is drawn into the E-Sampler by an internal diaphragm pump. The flow rate is controlled
based on actual conditions for accurate cut-points through sharp-cut cyclones, and to accurately
determine the sampled volume.
This sample air is drawn through the MD laser optical module or “laser engine”, where an internal
visible laser diode beam is collimated and directed through the sample air stream. The particulate
in the sample air stream scatters the laser light through reflective and refractive properties. This
scattered light is collected onto a silicon photodiode detector at a near-forward angle, and the
resulting electronic signal is processed to determine a continuous, real-time measurement of
airborne particulate mass.
The forward light scatter method allows for a more accurate total mass estimate compared to
right-angle light scatter, which is better suited for counting and sizing individual particles. Met One
also manufactures a complete line of right angle particle counters.
Purge Air
Particulate
Scatter
Collection
Lenses
Laser Diode
Laser Beam
Laser Trap
Photo Diode
MD Forward Light Scatter Laser Optical Engine
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 24
Forty detector measurements are made and averaged into an updated concentration value each
second. These 1-second values are temperature compensated using a factory-set algorithm, and
averaged into the user-selected data storage interval of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 30 minutes. The 1-second
values are also displayed on the LCD and available on the analog output.
Clean air and particulate scatter conditions in the MD engine
Sample RH Control for Light Scatter Mass
The relative humidity (RH) of the sample air has an influence upon the measurement of particulate
mass by nephelometers. At RH values greater than about 50% this effect begins to increase due
to particle aggregation and particle size increases as water is absorbed. The E-Sampler mitigates
this through a heated inlet tube that uses an internal sample RH sensor. The RH of the incoming
air is measured and the inlet heater is turned on whenever the user-set setpoint is exceeded
(typically 50% RH). See Section 6.6.
A study in Atmospheric Environment showed that RH can drastically effect the concentration
measurement as shown in the graph below from Volume 34, pp 4829-4838, 2000. The following
article references also contain related information:
Volume 35, Issue 30, Oct 2001:
-Aerosol Light Scattering Measurements as a Function of Relative Humidity. (Malm, Day).
-Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns in Light Scattering, Extinction, and Relative Humidity. (Malm, Gebhart, Copeland).
Volume 35, Issue 16, June 2001:
-Estimates of Aerosol Species Scattering Characteristics as a Function of Relative Humidity. (Malm, Day).
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 25
Automatic Zero and Span Self-Tests for the Optical System
To assure stable concentration data, the E-Sampler performs optical system zero and span selftests at a user-selected periodic rate of 15 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours. See
Section 6.7.
A separate zero air pump activates and circulates clean air through the optical system. The ESampler filters the air through a 0.2-micron pore size, 99.99% efficient filter element before it
enters the sensor. This is the PURGE FILTER located in the front panel of the instrument. The ESampler zeros itself based on this clean air condition.
Next, the E-Sampler activates a solenoid shutter which allows a small amount of laser light from
the light trap to feed back into the detector using fiber optics. This span level is used to check the
response of the detector and related electronics. See Section 8 for zero/span alarm logic.
5.2 47mm Gravimetric Filter Collection System
After the sample air stream has been measured by the E-Sampler and exits the MD optical
engine, it passes through the built-in 47mm filter sampler system. This system allows the
particulate to be collected as a second method to obtain airborne particulate mass data, or for
laboratory analysis of the particulate.
This is a low-flow version of the manual sampler gravimetric method, which is the standard
measurement technique against which all continuous methods are compared in the U.S. and most
other countries, since it is very accurate and yields repeatable data.
The filter material used in the 47 mm system can be selected based upon the desired type of
laboratory analysis, or an empty filter cartridge can be installed to use the E-Sampler as a realtime instrument only, without collecting any dust samples.
Note: At least an empty filter cassette must be installed in the E-Sampler at all times, in
order to seal the flow system!
A main use for the filter collection system is to establish a slope correction multiplier to correct the
E-Sampler real-time concentration output. The procedure for generating the K-Factor is described
below in Section 5.5.
Selecting 47 mm Filter Material
47 mm filter discs of various materials and pore sizes can be selected depending on the desired
laboratory analysis. These filters are made by companies such as Whatman www.whatman.com
and Millipore www.millipore.com among others. Met One generally does not supply the filter discs.
The following table gives some basic usage overview for different filter mediums. Additional
research and material considerations will be required depending on your application:
Filter Medium
Polycarbonate
Nylon
Medical Grade PVC
Quartz Fiber
Glass Fiber
PTFE
Applications
SEM analysis, epifluorescent microscopy, reflective light microscopy,
asbestos monitoring, chemotaxis, parasitology, cytology.
bioassays, particle analysis
silica analysis, black carbon or quartz particulates
gravimetric, heavy metals
general purpose PM10 and PM2.5 gravimetric
EPA standard for PM2.5 FRM gravimetric samplers
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 26
The 47 mm Filter Cassette and Filter Tray
5.3 The Airflow Control System Diagram and Description
The flow control system is an integral component of the E-Sampler. A complete description is
included to assist the user in understanding the E-Sampler flow system:
1. Ambient air is drawn in through the TSP inlet and the PM10, PM2.5 or PM1 cyclone (if used) at
2.0 lpm. This flow rate is used because the cut-point of the cyclones is dependent on the
velocity of the particles and is only accurate at the rated flow rate.
2. The sample air goes through the vertical inlet tube, which is heated if necessary to keep the
sample air humidity below 50% RH to prevent measurement errors caused by moisture.
3. The sample air stream immediately enters the laser optical module where it passes through
the laser beam and the particulate is measured.
4. The sample air passes through the 47 mm filter cassette holder, where all of the particulate is
deposited onto the 47 mm filter disc (if used). If no filter disc is used, the air passes through the
filter backing perforated screen disc in the empty cartridge. The sample RH sensor is located
in the top of the filter cartridge receiver.
5. The pump filter removes any particles larger than 5 microns to protect the flow sensor and
pump. The air stream then passes through the flow meter which measures the mass flow rate
of the sample air as an analog electronic signal which is sent to the CPU where the ambient
temperature and pressure are used to calculate the actual flow.
6. Down-stream of the flow meter, a pulsation chamber is used to reduce the pressure pulsations
caused by the diaphragm pump, which would otherwise appear as noise in the flow sensor
signal. There is nothing inside the pulsation chamber.
7. The air is drawn into the vacuum side of the main sample pump. This is a brushless diaphragm
pump which is pulse-width modulated (PWM) by the CPU to control the flow rate.
8. Most of the sample air exhausts through the pump to the exhaust fitting on the bottom of the ESampler. A small amount (about 10%) of the pump exhaust is recirculated through a simple
purge adjust valve (T-fitting with a screw installed in one of the ports). This purge adjust is
factory-set to control the ratio of the purge air, and should not be tampered with.
9. The purge air passes through the purge filter which removes any remaining particles larger
than 0.2 microns in size, then passes through the open manual purge shutoff valve. The purge
air enters the laser optical module in a ring around the detector lenses, and through a port in
front of the laser focus lens. The clean air circulating past the lenses greatly reduces the
amount of dirty sample air which would otherwise contact and contaminate the optics.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 27
Note: The purge shutoff valve must be open during normal operation! If left closed during
sampling, the purge-air system will be disabled and the optics will get dirty much faster. The
valve is located in the battery compartment, and is closed by the operator during leak checks.
10. During the zero portion of the automatic periodic self-test cycle, the main sample pump is
turned off and the purge pump is turned on. The air is filtered by the purge filter and circulated
through the laser module at a higher flow rate. The air in the laser module is 100% filtered
during this process, and no scattered light should enter the detector. The E-Sampler takes a
zero reading and established a new signal baseline. A check valve prevents air from backflowing through the purge pump during normal sampling.
Inlet
Purge Air
MD Laser
Engine
Manual
Purge
Shutoff
Valve
Sample RH
Sensor
47 mm Filter
Cassette
Pump Filter
5.0 micron
580345
Purge Filter
0.2 micron
580302
Flow
Meter
Purge
Pump
Pulsation
Chamber
Check
Valve
Sample
Pump
Purge
Adjust
Exhaust
E-Sampler Flow System Diagram
- simplified for clarity -
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 28
5.4 Timed Operation and Scheduled Sampling Events
The E-Sampler can be set to TIMED operation mode whenever a scheduled sampling event with
a user-defined start time and duration is needed. This mode is usually used when a 47 mm filter is
installed in the E-Sampler for a fixed amount of time, such as when performing a 24-hour filter
samples similar to an FRM, when running an E-Sampler along with a collocated instrument with
synchronized sample periods, or when creating a K-Factor using the filter collection method.
Timed mode may also be used whenever the E-Sampler is set up early with a future start time to
save power.
Only one timed event can be scheduled at a time. The SETUP > SAMPLING MODE screen is
used to enable TIMED operation, and to set the start time and duration of the event. Also see
Section 6.4.
27-JUL-2011 11:59:59
CONC: UNIT OFF
FLOW:
0.0 LPM
TIMED
27-JUL-2011 12:00:20
CONC: 0.005 MG/M3
FLOW:
2.0 LPM
TIMED
STARTED:
27-JUL-2011 12:00:00
REMAIN: 00-23:59:40
STOP SAMPLE
EXIT
The OPERATE Screen and TIMED STATUS Screen
When waiting for a scheduled event, the E-Sampler main OPERATE screen will display UNIT
OFF for the CONC value as shown above left. Once a timed event has started, the E-Sampler will
show the current concentration and flow rate as shown above middle. The TIMED soft-key can be
pressed to view to the TIMED STATUS screen with the start time and the remaining countdown
time for the event as sown above right. The STOP SAMPLE soft key can be used to stop the
event if needed. The EXIT or ESC keys return to the main OPERATE screen.
5.5 Establishing a Gravimetric Correction K-Factor for the E-Sampler
The main limitation of most nephelometer instruments is that the accuracy of the mass output can
be negatively affected by variations in size, color, shape, and index of refraction of the sampled
particles. One of the most important uses for the 47 mm filter system is determination of a
gravimetric K-factor (slope multiplier) to correct the E-Sampler signal to compensate for local
particulate characteristics.
A gravimetric K-Factor MUST be generated for the E-Sampler if accurate concentration
measurements and good agreements with FRM or FEM methods are expected. In some
applications the appropriate K-Factor will be quite significant, such as a multiplier of 3 or 4 or even
more. Once determined, the K-Factor will generally remain valid for that unit and site as long as
the particulate type is consistent. The E-Sampler can be used with no correction factor (K=1) in
applications where relative particulate trending is appropriate.
A filter disc is carefully weighed on a microbalance scale under laboratory conditions, then placed
into the E-Sampler filter holder and run for a predetermined period of time. The filter is then
reweighed in the lab, and the resulting total mass of the dust on the filter is correlated with the
volume of air sampled, and compared with the concentrations that the E-Sampler recorded over
the same time period, then a correction factor is calculated:
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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1. Download and save all E-Sampler data before changing the K-Factor setting! When the
K-Factor value is changed, it will apply to any previous data already stored in memory.
2. Obtain and/or pre-weigh the 47 mm disc filters on a microbalance scale according to standard
protocol. Pre-weighed filters are often obtained from an outside lab due to the expense of the
scale and lab setup. See 40 CFR Part 50 for more information, or contact a reputable lab.
Many agencies already have appropriate filters for use in reference method filter samplers on
hand. Met One recommends using PTFE/Teflon filters.
3. Install and check the E-Sampler. Make sure that the sampling site is representative of the local
air. Use FRM/FEM siting criteria whenever possible. See Section 3. Make sure that the ESampler passes all leak checks and flow calibrations.
4. Determine the length of the sampling period. For good gravimetric results, there should be
about 0.5 mg (500 µg) of mass deposited on the filter if possible. The time it takes to
accumulate this amount of dust will vary greatly depending how clean or dirty the air is. In
normal ambient air at moderate concentrations, you will usually need to run the E-Sampler for
about 4 or 5 days.
If the typical average daily concentration levels at the site are known, then you can calculate
the required run time based on the known value. You could also make a rough estimate by
running the E-Sampler for a day, then download the real-time data and calculate the average
in mg/m3 over the period.
For example, the E-Sampler draws 0.12 cubic meters per hour (at 2.0 LPM). If the average
daily concentration at the site is about 0.035 mg/m3, and you want .5 mg on the filter, then:
0.035 mg/m3 * 0.12 m3/hr = 0.0042 mg/hr
0.500 mg / 0.0042 mg/hr = 119 hours (≈5 days)
5. Set the E-Sampler to TIMED sampling mode, and set the event duration to the estimated
amount of time determined in step 3, or a similar convenient interval. Install the 47 mm filter
and run the timed sample.
6. After the sample period has ended, remove the 47 mm filter and have it re-weighed in the lab.
The filter must be handled carefully, transported carefully, and equilibrated properly.
7. Download the E-Sampler light scatter data and average the E-Sampler concentration data
values for the entire sample period.
8. Evaluate the E-Sampler total flow over the sample period. First, check the flow values in the
downloaded data for proper 2.0 lpm regulation. The E-Sampler data does not record the
sample volume, so you must calculate it. If the E-Sampler ran for five days (120 hours), then
the nominal sample volume would be 2.0 lpm, times 60 min/hr, times 120 hours. This equals
14,400 liters or 14.4 cubic meters of nominal sample volume.
However, you must also compensate for the fact that the sample stops for about 2.8 minutes
each time the automatic self-test ran during the timed sample. For example: If the E-Sampler
was set to hourly self-test, then 2.8 minutes of each hour would not have flow going through
the 47 mm filter. This amounts to 2.0 lpm times 2.8 minutes, or 5.6 liters of air per hour. So if
the sample ran for five days (120 hours), then 5.6 liters per hour times 120 hours equals 672
liters. The corrected total sample volume would then be 14,400 – 672 = 13,728 liters, or 13.728
cubic meters. Note: 1 cubic meter equals 1000 cubic liters.
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9. Use the change in mass results from the gravimetric filter analysis (the difference between the
clean and dirty filter weight in mg) and the total sample flow volume (m3) through the filter to
calculate the concentration of particulate on the 47 mm filter in mg/m3. The concentration is
calculated as total mass divided by total sample volume.
For example, if the clean filter weighed 77.643 mg and the dirty filter weighed 78.345 mg, then
the total particulate mass on the filter would be 78.345 minus 77.643, or 0.702 mg. If the total
sample volume was 13.728 cubic meters, then the filter total concentration would be 0.702 mg
divided by 13.728 m3, or 0.051 mg/m3.
10. Calculate the K-Factor as the 47 mm filter total concentration divided by the E-Sampler total
light scatter concentration. For example, if the filter total concentration was 0.051 mg/m3 and
the E-Sampler total concentration was 0.038 mg/m3, then the K-Factor would be 0.051 divided
by 0.038 or 1.342.
Program the calculated K-Factor into the E-Sampler SETUP > CONCENTRATION menu. See
Section 7.3. The E-Sampler will multiply all stored and subsequent concentration
measurements by the K-Factor. The resulting corrected concentrations are stored in
memory, shown on the LCD, and scaled on the analog output.
Example Overview:
E-Sampler Sample Event Time:
E-Sampler Flow Rate:
E-Sampler Self Test Interval (no flow):
Self Test Flow Correction:
E-Sampler Total Sample Flow Volume:
120 Hours (5 days)
120 liters per hour (2.0 lpm) (0.12 m3/hr)
Hourly (2.8 minutes per hour)
-5.6 Liters per hour (-672 liters over 5 days)
13.728 cubic meters
Clean 47 mm Filter Weight:
Dirty 47 mm Filter Weight:
47 mm Total Particulate Mass:
47 mm Filter Total Concentration:
E-Sampler Light Scatter Avg Concentration:
Calculated K-Factor:
77.643 mg
78.345 mg
0.702 mg
0.051 mg/m3
0.038 mg/m3
1.342
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6 SETUP MENU DESCRIPTIONS
The E-Sampler has a system of setup menus which contain all of the settings and parameters
needed to perform the measurement and operation of the unit. Many of these settings are set at
factory default values which are correct for most applications, but may be altered by the operator
to suit the specific needs of your monitoring program. This section describes the SETUP menu in
detail, and should be reviewed to ensure desired operation. Once set, most of the values in the
SETUP menus will not need to be changed by the site operator. The settings will not be lost if the
unit is unplugged or powered down.
The SETUP menu is located in the main E-Sampler menu. Use the arrow keys to select SETUP
option in the main menu, then press the MENU/SELECT key to enter the menu. Use the ▲▼ keys
to select the desired sub-menu and press the SELECT key again to enter. The top SETUP menu
is shown below:
CLOCK
AVERAGE PERIOD
CONCENTRATION
▼SAMPLING MODE
ALARM CONTACT
RH HEATER CONTROL
SELF-TEST
COMMUNICATIONS
STATION ID
■ENGINEERING UNITS
6.1 The CLOCK Setup Screen
The SETUP > CLOCK menu is used to change the date or time. The current date/time is shown at
the top of the screen. Use the arrow keys to change the bottom values, then press SET. The
menu will exit automatically. Press EXIT to leave the screen without changes.
27-JUL-2011
27▼JUL-2011
SET
16:36:42
16:36:42
EXIT
6.2 The AVERAGE PERIOD Setup Screen – Data Logging Interval
The SETUP > AVERAGE PERIOD screen is used to change the averaging period and data
logging interval for the concentration measurements and all of the other sensor parameters logged
by the E-Sampler. The average can be set to 60, 30, 15, 10, 5, or 1 minute. Modify the settings
with the ▲▼ keys and press SAVE. Press EXIT to go back to the setup menu without making
changes.
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AVG PERIOD:▼ 1 MIN
SAVE
EXIT
Although the E-Sampler measures the particulate concentration and updates the display each
second, the fastest average period that can be logged in memory is 1 minute. The 1 second
concentration can be output and logged externally using the E-Sampler analog output.
Because the E-Sampler is a nephelometer, the faster concentration averages are much more
useful than the fast concentration averages of the Met One E-BAM beta attenuation unit. For this
reason, the E-Sampler is often the best choice for fast-response monitoring of 1 or 5 minute
averages, especially where wind/particulate correlations are desired.
Note: The unit contains memory for 4369 data records. The memory will fill up faster the shorter
the average interval is set to, as shown in the table below. If the real-time average is set to 60
minutes, the memory will last 182 days before getting full. If a 1 minute real-time average is
selected, the memory will be filled up in just three days. When the memory is full, the unit overwrites the oldest data.
Real-Time
Average
Setting
1 min
5 min
10 min
15 min
30 min
60 min
Records
Stored
Per Hour
60
12
6
4
2
1
Memory
Capacity
(Days)
3.03
15.1
30.3
45.5
91
182
6.3 The CONCENTRATION Setup Screen – Range and Scaling
The SETUP > CONCENTRATION screen is used to set the scaling of the concentration
measurements. Use the ◄► keys to select the desired value, and the ▼ key to change the value.
Press SAVE to save the changes or EXIT to leave without changes.
RANGE: 0-65 MG/M3
CONC UNITS:▼MG/M3
K-FACTOR: 01.000
SAVE
EXIT
The RANGE value is the full-scale range of the E-Sampler analog output. Units with firmware
R2.0.0 and later have a fixed range value of 65mg, with a separate analog range setting in the
communications setup screen, Section 6.8.
Note: Earlier firmware allowed the range to be set to 0.5, 1, 10, or 65 mg/m3, and setting the
RANGE to a higher setting would reduce the resolution of the analog output, since the output
voltage was spread over the range of the instrument. However, the E-Sampler digital data system
was always auto-ranging, and this old setting did not affect the 65mg digital range or resolution of
the unit.
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The CONC UNITS setting establishes whether the concentration values are stored in memory in
units of milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) or micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). This setting
only affects the position of the decimal point in the data. It does not affect the resolution, accuracy,
or scaling of the measurements.
The K-FACTOR setting is the user-set slope correction multiplier which is applied to all
concentration measurements. This is used to correct the E-Sampler concentration readings to
compensate for mass errors caused by variations in the characteristics of the local particulate.
Note: The K-Factor should only be changed in response to a careful comparison test using
the built-in E-Sampler gravimetric filter system, or to match a collocated FRM or FEM
particulate instrument. See section 5.5 for details about how to establish a K-Factor.
Typical determined K-Factor values for normal air may vary largely depending on particulate type.
The factor can be set to any value between 0.1 and 10.0. If a local K-Factor is not established,
leave the value set to 1.000 and the raw concentrations will not be effected (multiplier of 1). Use a
K-Factor of 1.000 whenever relative concentrations are appropriate for the application.
6.4 The SAMPLING MODE Setup Screen – Continuous or Timed Sampling
The SETUP > SAMPLING MODE screen is used to set the E-Sampler for either CONTINUOUS or
TIMED sampling operation. Use the arrow keys and SAVE key to select the desired mode.
Continuous operation will cause the instrument to run and log data in an uninterrupted manner,
and is often used when real-time concentration data with no filter collection is desired.
Timed operation allows the user to schedule a timed sampling event starting at a specified time,
and is often used when a filter sample is to be collected by the instrument in addition to the realtime data collection. If TIMED is selected, the schedule screen will appear as shown below right.
Use the arrow keys to set the desired START AT date and time for the event. Use the ►key to
move to the DURATION field and use the arrow keys to set the duration for the event in days,
hours, and minutes. The duration can be set as high as 99 days, 23 hours, 59 minutes. Be sure to
press the SAVE key to save the schedule.
Timed events should be scheduled carefully depending on local concentration levels. The duration
needs to be long enough to collect an appropriate amount of dust on the filter, without overloading
it and clogging the flow system. Keep in mind that the E-Sampler uses a low 2.0 LPM flow rate.
SAMPLING
MODE:▼TIMED
SAVE
EXIT
START AT:
27▼JUL-2011
DURATION:
SAVE
12:00:00
00-23:59
EXIT
6.5 The ALARM CONTACT Setup Screen
The SETUP > ALARM CONTACT screen is used to establish the rules for activating the alarm
contact closure relay output of the E-SAMPLER. This contact closure is located on the power
input connector, and requires a special power cable with the contact wires routed out. The two
contacts are normally closed, and will open when the event is triggered. This can be used to
signal an external warning light, logic controller, or logger input to take some action. Select the
CONTACT SOURCE or CONTACT TIMING screen as shown below.
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The alarm CONTACT SOURCE can be set to ALARM EVENT, AVERAGE, or REAL TIME.
Setting ALARM EVENT means that any instrument error or alarm will activate the output. The
AVERAGE or REAL TIME setting means that the output will be activated when a preset average
period concentration or real-time concentration level is exceeded. The LEVEL setting is the
average or real-time concentration threshold that will trigger the alarm, and can be set from
00.001 to 10.000 mg/m3.
The CONTACT TIMING screen is used to set how long the alarm signal is ACTIVE when triggered
(1 to 60 seconds) and how much delay time must pass before the alarm can be reactivated again
(1 to 60 minutes).
■CONTACT SOURCE
CONTACT TIMING
SOURCE:REAL TIME
LEVEL: 00.100 MG/M3
ACTIVE: 10 SEC
DELAY: 10 MIN
SAVE
SAVE
EXIT
EXIT
6.6 The RH Control Setup Screen
The SETUP > RH HEATER CONTROL screen is used to set how the inlet heater is used to
control the RH of the sample air stream. Use the arrow keys to edit the value, then press SAVE.
INTERNAL RH: 44 %
RH SETPOINT: 050 %
SAVE
EXIT
INTERNAL RH is the current reading from the sample RH sensor located in the 47 mm filter
holder station. RH SETPOINT is the threshold at which the E-Sampler turns on the inlet heater to
limit the RH of the sample air. This can be set from 0 to 100%. When the sample RH exceeds this
setpoint, the inlet heater turns on to drive down the relative humidity through mild 10 watt heating.
When the RH drops 1% below the setpoint, the heater turns off.
The default setting is 50%, which is adequate for most applications. If the sample RH levels
exceed this level, moisture can be absorbed by the particulate and measured as artificial mass.
This causes errors in the particulate measurement. A lower set point such as 45% or 35% may be
used to further reduce the potential for sample RH effects, although this results in some additional
power consumption due to longer heater cycles. For minimum power consumption applications,
the RH SETPOINT can be set to 100%, effectively disabling the inlet heater from ever coming on.
The inlet heater uses the majority of the E-Sampler total power.
6.7 The SELF-TEST Setup Screen – Zero and Span Settings
The SETUP > SELF-TEST screen is used to set the interval at which the E-Sampler will perform
the automatic zero and span tests to verify the optical system. The PERIOD can be set to 15
minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours. The self-test takes up to three minutes. The zero
test circulates clean filtered air through the optical system to establish a baseline signal. The span
test feeds a small amount of laser light back into the detector to check the detector response.
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Setting the self-test PERIOD to faster intervals is sometimes useful in high concentrations, but the
routine interrupts normal sampling, and uses additional power for the zero pump and the span
solenoid. Set the period to longer intervals in clean air and for low power applications. The SPAN
CHECK value allows you to disable the span portion of the self-test routine if desired.
SELF-TEST
PERIOD:▼ 24 HR
SPAN CHECK: YES
SAVE
EXIT
6.8 The COMMUNICATION Setup Screen
The SETUP > COMMUNICATION screen is used to set the analog voltage and serial port baud
rate. Use the arrow keys to edit the values, then press SAVE.
The RANGE setting in this screen is rarely used and only applies to the analog output scaling. For
the best analog resolution, this setting should be set to the concentration lowest range likely to be
encountered. The E-Sampler digital range is fixed at 65 mg/m3.
The DAC RANGE is the full-scale voltage of the analog output, and can be set to 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0
volts for external data logger compatibility. Rarely used.
The BAUD RATE setting is for the E-Sampler digital RS-232 serial port. The baud rate can be set
to 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, or 38400. The 9600 baud setting is the default and is
adequate for many applications. Use 38400 baud for large file downloads whenever possible.
Note: When a computer is connected to the E-Sampler for digital data retrieval, it will need to be
set to the same baud rate as the E-Sampler or serial communication will not occur.
RANGE: 0-0.5 MG/M3
DAC RANGE: 1.0 VOLT
BAUD RATE: 9600
SAVE
EXIT
6.9 The STATION ID Setup Screen
The STATION ID is similar to a “unit ID” or “location ID” value used in other instruments. This
value will appear in the E-Sampler data array. Use a unique ID number for each unit in your
network, so that collected data can be correlated to a specific site or E-Sampler. The STATION ID
can be set to any value from 0001 to 9999.
6.10 The ENGINEERING UNITS Setup Screen
The SETUP > ENGINEERING UNITS screen sets the conventions for reporting the temperature,
pressure, and wind speed parameters. It can be set to METRIC or ENGLISH. The METRIC setting
is used in almost all applications. METRIC reports in Celsius, Pascals, and meters per second.
ENGLISH reports in Fahrenheit, inches of mercury, and miles per hour.
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7 CALIBRATE MENU – FIELD CALIBRATIONS
The E-Sampler has a system of calibration menus which allow the operator to audit or calibrate
the airflow control system parameters for optimal performance. These parameters are often
audited monthly and calibrated quarterly during continuous operation. The exact frequency may
vary depending on the harshness of the local conditions and the data validation requirements
established by the sampling program administrator and your resulting standard operating
procedures (SOP).
Note: The E-Sampler temperature, pressure, and leak status should always be checked before
any flow calibrations are performed, since the flow calculation is dependent on these parameters.
The CALIBRATE menu is located in the main E-Sampler menu. Use the arrow keys to select
CALIBRATE option in the main menu, then press the MENU/SELECT key to enter the menu. Use
the ▲▼ keys to select the desired sub-menu and press the SELECT key again to enter. The top
CALIBRATE menu is shown below:
CALIBRATE
CALIBRATE
CALIBRATE
▼CALIBRATE
AT
BP
RH
FLOW
CALIBRATE DAC
■LEAK TEST
7.1 Ambient Temperature Calibration
The CALIBRATE AT screen is used for field audits or calibrations of the ambient temperature
measurement of the E-Sampler.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
E-SAM: 25.4 C
REF: 24.0
CALIBRATE
DEFAULT
The E-SAM parameter is the current reading from the E-Sampler temperature sensor. The REF
parameter is where you can enter the correct value from your traceable temperature standard,
using the arrow keys. The E-SAM value should change to match the REF value when you press
the CALIBRATE soft key.
The DEFAULT soft key can be pressed to clear out all previous field calibrations and restore the
factory calibration for the sensor. Use this if difficulty is encountered during the calibration. Press
ESC to escape without changes.
Note: The E-Sampler ambient temperature sensor is an unshielded thermistor bead located in the
bottom of the enclosure, and as such is not particularly accurate compared to solar shielded or
aspirated sensors. An accuracy of ±2 degrees C is adequate for flow control purposes.
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7.2 Ambient Pressure Calibration
The CALIBRATE BP screen is used for field audits or calibrations of the ambient barometric
pressure measurement of the E-Sampler.
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
E-SAM: 97263 PA
REF: 98000 PA
CALIBRATE
DEFAULT
The E-SAM parameter is the current reading from the E-Sampler pressure sensor. The REF
parameter is where you can enter the correct value from your traceable pressure standard, using
the arrow keys. You will need to convert units if your standard outputs pressure in other units. The
E-SAM value should change to match the REF value when you press the CALIBRATE soft key.
The DEFAULT soft key can be pressed to clear out all previous field calibrations and restore the
factory calibration for the sensor. Use this if difficulty is encountered during the calibration. Press
ESC to escape without changes.
7.3 External RH Sensor Calibration
The CALIBRATE RH screen is used for field audits or calibrations of the optional EX-593 external
relative humidity measurement of the E-Sampler.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
E-SAM: 47 %
REF: 50 %
CALIBRATE
DEFAULT
The E-SAM parameter is the current reading from the E-Sampler external RH sensor. The REF
parameter is where you can enter the correct value from your traceable humidity standard, using
the arrow keys. The E-SAM value should change to match the REF value when you press the
CALIBRATE soft key.
The DEFAULT soft key can be pressed to clear out all previous field calibrations and restore the
factory calibration for the sensor. Use this if difficulty is encountered during the calibration. Press
ESC to escape without changes.
Note: This calibration screen does not apply to the internal E-Sampler filter RH sensor, which is
located inside the top of the 47 mm filter cartridge receiver. The internal sensor can be audited by
checking the RHi value in the main operate screen during operation. See Section 4.2. The internal
RH sensor cannot be calibrated. If the E-Sampler has been operating with the inlet heater running,
the inside temperature of the unit will be hotter than ambient, resulting in internal RH readings that
will be lower than an ambient RH standard. If the sample RH sensor is to be audited, make sure
that the inlet heater is off and the unit has equilibrated to ambient conditions first. If the internal RH
sensor fails, it will usually read an impossible value such as 125% or -25%.
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7.4 Flow Sensor Calibration
The CALIBRATE FLOW screen is used for field audits or calibrations of the sample flow
measurement of the E-Sampler. Remove the TSP inlet and any cyclones from the E-Sampler inlet
tube, and then connect the top of inlet tube to the outlet of your traceable flow meter using a
length of appropriate flexible tubing. The E-Sampler temperature, pressure, and leak status must
be checked before performing any flow calibrations in order to prevent errors. The E-Sampler flow
rate should be maintained to within ±0.1 LPM (1.9 to 2.1 LPM) for proper air volume total
calculation when used with a 47 mm filter, and for proper cut-point performance of inlet cyclones.
SETPOINT: 2.0 LPM
E-SAM: 2.0 LPM
REF: 2.0 LPM
CALIBRATE
DEFAULT
The SETPOINT parameter is the target flow rate that the E-Sampler will attempt to regulate to.
The E-SAM parameter is the current reading from the E-Sampler flow sensor, in actual volumetric
liters per minute. The E-Sampler should automatically regulate to the setpoint (2.0 LPM) when the
flow calibration screen is entered. This may take a moment.
The REF parameter is where you can enter the correct value from your traceable flow meter,
using the arrow keys. The flow reading that you enter must be in actual conditions. The ESAM value should change to match the REF value when you press the CALIBRATE soft key.
The DEFAULT soft key can be pressed to clear out all previous field calibrations and restore the
factory calibration for the sensor. Use this if difficulty is encountered during the calibration. Press
ESC to escape without changes.
Note: To audit the E-Sampler flow rate without changing the calibration, simply compare the ESAM value to your traceable standard and record the results. If the CALIBRATE soft-key is not
pressed, then no flow calibrations are affected.
7.5 DAC Calibration – Analog Output Adjustment
The CALIBRATE DAC screen is used for field audits or calibrations of the E-Sampler digital-toanalog converter (DAC) output. The output voltage is only available on the communications
connector using a special cable with the analog output wires split out. This output is rarely used.
MODE:▼AUDIT
SETPT: 0.500 V
EXIT
MODE:▼LOW
OUTPUT: 0.010 V
ADJUST: 0.000 V
SAVE
DEFAULT
MODE:▼HIGH
OUTPUT: 0.990 V
ADJUST: 0.000 V
SAVE
DEFAULT
The MODE can be set to AUDIT, LOW, or HIGH using the ▼ key as shown above. In AUDIT
mode, you can force the analog voltage to any voltage from 0.000 up to the full-scale voltage
(1.000, 2.500, or 5.000 volts). Compare the displayed value to the actual voltage measured on the
analog output using a volt meter, and record the results. The actual voltage measured on the ESampler analog output wires must match this setting within ±0.001 volts. If not, the analog output
on the E-Sampler will need to be adjusted.
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In the HIGH mode, the analog output is forced to 10 mV below the full-scale voltage of the unit
(0.990 volts if set to 1.000V scale). Measure the actual voltage output of the E-Sampler, and if it
does not match, the ADJUST field can be set (using the arrow keys) to adjust the voltage up or
down by as much as 0.100 volts. Be sure to SAVE any changes.
In the LOW mode, the analog output is forced to 0.010 volts. Measure the actual voltage output
again and make any adjustments. The LOW mode can only be adjusted from -0.016 to 0.100
volts. After the HIGH and LOW modes are adjusted and saved, go back to the AUDIT mode and
make sure that several voltage points from zero to full-scale now match your voltmeter within
±0.001 volts.
Note: Only a high quality voltmeter should be used for this test. Cheap voltmeters usually do not
give accurate measurements at millivolt levels. The E-Sampler analog output should also be
checked with the external datalogger connected, in order to make sure that the logger or cables
are not affecting the voltage.
7.6 Leak Test Calibration Checks
The CALIBRATE > LEAK CHECK screen is used to check for airflow system leaks which could
affect the accuracy of the flow measurements, or cause unwanted measurement biases.
STEP 1
CAP OFF INLET
STEP 2
CLOSE PURGE VALVE
NEXT
NEXT
STEP 4
LEAK TEST: PASS
FLOW: 0.0 LPM
NEXT
Purge valve closed (Left) and open (Right). Located inside the battery compartment
1. Remove TSP inlet and sharp cut cyclone. Cap off the top of the E-Sampler inlet tube with a
vinyl or rubber cap.
2. Open the front door and remove the battery cover plate. Locate the purge cutoff value on the
left side. Rotate it to the closed position as shown above.
3. Wait for the system to zero the flow sensor reading. This step is omitted if steps 1 and 2 take
longer than the zero flow sensor process (~25 seconds). The software will automatically
proceed to the step 4 when the zero flow sensor process has completed.
4. The pump is turned on. Wait for flow reading to stabilize (about 2 minutes). The leak test will
be OK if the reading is less than 0.3 liters-per-minute. The leak test will FAIL if the reading is
greater than 0.3 liters-per-minute. Do not run this test for more than 5 minutes because it will
reduce the lifetime of the pump motor.
5. The pump is turned off. Rotate the purge cutoff valve back to the open position as shown.
Remove the vinyl cap from inlet and re-install the sharp cut cyclone.
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8
MAINTENANCE and TROUBLESHOOTING
This section provides information about routine maintenance of the E-Sampler, and for performing
more detailed diagnostic tests if a problem is encountered. The E-Sampler generates error
messages on the display or in the data log if a failure or other problem is detected. Many times
there is a simple solution. Persistent errors often signify a failure which will require investigation.
The E-Sampler is an extremely component-dense assembly! Only skilled and trained electromechanical technicians should attempt any disassembly or repairs inside the E-Sampler. Routine
maintenance procedures do not involve removing the E-Sampler assembly from the enclosure.
8.1
E-Sampler Alarm Displays, Alarm Logs, and Alarm Codes
The E-Sampler contains a comprehensive system of error and alarm codes which are used to
alert the operator to any problems with the unit. These error codes may be generated during
normal operation or during a self-test routine. The errors appear on the E-Sampler display, and
are also stored in the digital alarm log as a detailed record of the time and type of the error. In
addition, errors are stored in the digital data log as a code number in the data array.
The following table describes each of the error and alarm types which can be generated by the ESampler, along with the conditions which cause the alarms. Many of these alarms indicate critical
parameters which must be working correctly for machine operation.
Alarm/Error
Message
POWER OUTAGE
INTERNAL COMM
DOWN!
LASER FAILURE
ZERO CALIBRATE
ERROR
ZERO STABILITY
ERROR
PRESSURE FAILED
FLOW FAILED
BATTERY
WARNING
or
BATTERY FAILED
DETECTOR ERROR
SOLENOID ERROR
Alarm Description
This alarm message indicates that the E-Sampler power has been cycled off and then back
on. This can mean that there was a power failure or that someone simply unplugged the
unit to turn it off. The E-Sampler alarm display will show OFF time indicating how long the
power was off, and ON time indicating how long the power was on before the power failure.
A second type of power alarm can be shown on the display as a COP RESET. This means
“Computer Operating Properly”, and will only occur when the E-Sampler firmware is flash
updated by the user. This is normal and does not indicate a failure.
This alarm indicates that there was an internal SPI bus failure, preventing the CPU from
communicating with the I/O board for 10 seconds or more. The time and date of the error
will be displayed. The E-Sampler will stop operation until internal communication is
restored. If these errors occur regularly you will need to contact Met One.
Refer to the Laser Current Logic section. Occurs when the MD engine laser current is out
of range. The alarm is cleared when the laser current is within range.
Refer to the Self-Test Event logic section. Occurs during the Self-Test event when the MD
engine output is out of range. The alarm is cleared when the next event does not fail.
Refer to the Self-Test logic section. Occurs during the Self-Test event when the MD engine
output stability is out of range. The alarm is cleared when the next event does not fail.
This occurs when communication is lost to the digital pressure sensor. A failed pressure
sensor is forced to read 101306 Pa or 29.9 inHg.
This alarm indicates that the flow system is more than 5% out of regulation for more than 5
minutes. The alarm display will show the actual flow rate and the time and date of the error.
The BATTERY WARNING occurs if the input voltage drops below 11.2 volts and clears
when the voltage restores to above 11.7 volts. BATTERY FAILED occurs if the voltage
drops below 10.5 volts and clears when the voltage restores to above 11.7 volts. The time
and date of the error will be displayed, along with the actual voltage.
Refer to the Self-Test Event logic. Occurs during the Self-Test event when the MD engine
output is out of range. The alarm is cleared when the next event does not fail.
Refer to the Self-Test Event logic section. Occurs during the Self-Test event when the MD
engine output is out of range. The alarm is cleared when the next event does not fail.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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The following are some examples of how the alarm and error records appear when shown on the
main E-Sampler display as a current error or, when viewed as a historical error record in the user
interface system:
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
POWER OUTAGE
OFF: 0.00:02:10
ON: 5.06:05:31
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
LASER FAILURE
ALARM: 25.0 MA
VALUE: 26.3 MA
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
FLOW FAILED
FLOW: 1.4 LPM
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
ZERO CALIBRATE ERROR
RANGE: 0-10
MG/M3
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
ZERO STABILITY ERROR
RANGE: 0-10
MG/M3
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
16-DEC-2008 16:25:20
DETECTOR ERROR
RANGE: 0-10
MG/M3
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
The normal E-Sampler digital data array also contains an “alarm” code column to indicate if there
were any alarm or error flags during that particular sample period. An example of an E-Sampler
data record is shown below. The alarm header and alarm code are highlighted below:
AutoMet Data Log Report
02-AUG-2011 09:25:10,
ID,1
SN,M4373
Time,Conc(MG/M3),Flow(l/m),AT(C),BP(PA),RHx(%),RHi(%),WS(M/S),WD(Deg),BV(V),Alarm
02-AUG-2011 09:15:00,0.023,2.0,25.2,97302,1,39,0.3,1,14.2,0
The following table defines the possible error codes that can appear in the “alarm” column of the
E-Sampler data records:
Code
0
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
Error/Alarm Type
No alarm
Self-Test Failure
Not Used
Laser Current Failure
Pressure Sensor Failure
Flow Failure
Not Used
Internal Hardware (SPI bus) Failure
Low Battery
Note: If multiple errors or alarms occur in the same data period, then the alarm code stored in the
data array will be the sum of the two individual code numbers. This is a rare occurrence.
When the digital error log is retrieved from the E-Sampler using Comet software or ESCAPE
commands, the error report will contain the same information about the alarms as described
above, only in the following format:
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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E-Sampler Alarm Log Report
02-AUG-2011 14:25:26,
SN,M4373
20-NOV-2008
20-NOV-2008
20-NOV-2008
20-NOV-2008
20:00:00,
20:00:00,
20:00:00,
20:00:00,
Power outage: 0.00:20:17 On: 5.02:30:22
Laser Failure: 26.3 mA
Flow failed: Setpt: 2.0 Flow: 1.4
Low battery: 9.46
In each case, the alarm log record indicates the time and date of the error, and the specific
parameter which generated the alarm. The measured value of the parameter, compared to the
acceptable limits, is also recorded where applicable.
8.2
Contact Closure Alarm Relay Output
The E-Sampler has a single channel contact closure alarm relay output available. This is used to
signal an external datalogger that the E-sampler has encountered an unspecified error. The relay
contacts are located on the main E-Sampler power input connector (pins 3 and 4), so you will
need a special power cable which has a break-out for the relay wires, as the standard power
cables do not. The two relay contacts are normally closed (shorted together) when the E-Sampler
is operating correctly, and will open up when an error occurs. The relay is rated for up to 100VDC
@ 0.5A max. The relay output is very rarely used.
The only alarm flags which do not activate the relay output are the BATTERY WARNING and
POWER OUTAGE.
8.3
Basic Problem and Cause/Solution Table
The following table contains information on some of the more common E-Sampler problems which
may be encountered, and some steps to identify and remedy the problems. Met One welcomes
customer suggestions for new items to include in this section of future manual revisions. If the
solution cannot be found in the following table, then contact one of our expert service technicians
for help in resolving your problem.
Problem: The E-Sampler won’t start a measurement cycle.
Cause/Solution:
•
•
•
•
•
You must press the START SAMPLE key to start continuous operation.
If the unit is set for a TIMED sample, it will not start until the scheduled time. The
main display will show the TIMED soft key where you can view the schedule.
The E-Sampler may not start a measurement cycle if it detects a hardware failure,
such as a pressure sensor failure or a pump failure.
The unit will not start a cycle if the input DC voltage is below the restart threshold,
such as 10 volts DC.
The unit will usually display an error message on the display if it cannot start a cycle.
Problem: Flow failures or low flow.
Cause/Solution:
•
•
•
Make sure a 47 mm filter disc has not been installed and forgotten. This will
eventually block the flow.
Clean the 47 mm filter cartridge backing screen, even if no filter is used. Large
particles can plug this screen.
Check the PUMP and PURGE filters. These must be replaced periodically.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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•
•
•
•
Try to DEFAULT the flow sensor calibration. If corrupted flow cal parameters are
entered into the flow calibration, it may appear that the flow system is not working.
Check for insect debris or other obstructions in the small exhaust port on the bottom
of the unit. It is located in the back right corner.
Verify the AT and BP sensors function. Failed sensors can affect the flow.
The sample pump itself will eventually wear out and need to be replaced. It should
last at least a year under normal conditions. Check the other possibilities first.
Problem: Leak check failures
Cause/Solution:
•
•
•
•
•
Make sure that a 47 mm filter holder cartridge is installed correctly, even if no filter is
used. It is required to seal the flow system.
Check or replace the 47 mm filter cartridge itself. Some of these can leak at the
interface of the two halves of the assembly.
Make sure that the inlet is completely blocked with a rubber or vinyl cap during the
leak check. Using a finger to block the inlet is not sufficient.
Make sure the inlet tube is fully seated into the top of the optical module, especially
if you installed the inlet heater assembly yourself. You may need to temporarily
loosen the weatherproof fitting at the top of the inlet tube to get it seated correctly.
Make sure the PUMP and PURGE filter holders are tightened fully.
Problem: Optical system alarms and failures
Cause/Solution:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The E-Sampler must be periodically returned to the factory for optical system
cleaning. The period will depend on your particulate levels.
Check the PURGE filter and replace it as needed.
Make sure the manual purge valve (inside the battery compartment) is OPEN
(parallel to the tubing) during normal operation. If closed, the unit will still function
normally, but no purge air will circulate around the optics to keep them clean!
The laser diode has a finite lifetime which will be reduced at high temperatures. It
may eventually fail and need to be replaced at the factory.
Never disassemble the MD laser optical subassembly!
Some users reported problems with the laser shutter span solenoid sticking or failing
to activate in cold weather. Met One has changed to a different type of solenoid and
control logic for units with R2.0.0 or later firmware (late 2012). Contact Met One if
difficulty with the self-test auto span is encountered on an older unit.
Problem: The E-Sampler data does not match BAM or FRM data at the same site
Cause/Solution:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A K-Factor (multiplier) must be established for good accuracy and correlation to
collocated instruments. The K-Factor will sometimes be very significant, such as a
multiplier of 3 or 5. See Section 5.5.
The E-Sampler is calibrated on latex 0.6 micron micro-spheres. These provide an
extremely consistent calibration, but do not generally match the characteristics of
ambient particulate.
The K-Factor is only valid at the same site and for the same particulate type. If the
local particulate source changes, the K-Factor may no longer be valid.
The E-Sampler TSP inlet is designed for low winds only. High winds may cause a
cut-point in the TSP inlet itself.
Make sure the correct cyclone is used on the E-Sampler. The PM10, PM2.5 and PM1
cyclones look very similar. The cyclone cut point must match the cut point used on
any collocated instruments.
Clean the TSP inlet and any cyclones at least monthly.
Check the sample RH data and filter RH sensor operation. High sample RH will
cause E-Sampler over-reading. The sensor itself can occasionally fail.
Check the E-Sampler for flow leaks and flow calibration problems.
Check the alarm log for optical system alarms.
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8.4
Suggested Periodic Maintenance Intervals
The following table shows the Met One recommended periods for routine maintenance items.
Some of these items will need to be performed more or less often depending on the exact
characteristics of your location. The program administrator should review these items and
establish SOPs appropriate for your application.
Maintenance Item
System leak check
Flow, temperature, and pressure audits or calibration
Clean sharp-cut cyclone, particle trap, and TSP inlet
Check digital alarm log
Clean 47 mm filter holder screen
Check filter RH sensors
Replace PUMP filter and PURGE filter
Factory service, recalibration, and optical system cleaning
Replace lithium backup battery, as needed
8.5
Suggested Period
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
6 Months
12 Months
24 Months
5 Years
Sample Pump Replacement
The E-Sampler brushless diaphragm sample pump should last at least 10,000 hours or more than
one year during continuous operation. The exact lifetime will depend on how harshness of the
sampling environment. The E-Sampler has a second smaller diaphragm purge pump which only
runs during the self-test zero period. The current design uses a removable flow system
subassembly containing both pumps, the flow sensor, and pulsation chamber. Before replacing
the pump, check all filters and flow system calibrations to make sure the problem is actually the
pump module.
Note: Older E-Samplers had a single reversible rotary-vane pump which performed both the
sample and zero purge functions. This design was changed because the old pump was not well
suited to some environments. These units have completely different flow system routing, and the
following photos and steps will not apply. Upgrades to new style must be performed at the factory.
Pulsation Chamber
Flow Sensor Harness
Sample Pump
Electrical Harness
Purge Pump
Exhaust
Flow Meter
Pump Module Subassembly – New Style
Warning: The E-Sampler is densely assembled, and it can be difficult to service inside. If you are
unsure of your technical skills, send the unit in for factory service instead.
1. Disconnect all power from the E-Sampler. Remove the internal battery if used.
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2. Remove the inlet heater assembly from the top of the E-Sampler. Remove the three screws
from the base of the plastic heater sleeve, then pull the assembly out of the top of the unit.
Unplug the heater electrical harness.
3. Unscrew the E-Sampler internal assembly from the enclosure. There are four screws in the
front display panel. You will also need to remove the four smaller screws around the
connector board in the bottom of the E-Sampler.
4. Remove the entire E-Sampler internal assembly from the enclosure. You will have to
unplug the temperature sensor harness from the PCB, and unplug the exhaust tubing from
the exhaust port in the bottom of the enclosure. Note the connector locations.
5. It will be easier to proceed if you unscrew the back panel of the E-Sampler assembly (2
screws), and unscrew the long stand-off support (one flat head screw). This allows the
assembly to be opened up slightly.
Back Panel
2 screws bottom
1 screw top middle
Pump Module
2 screws bottom
1 screw top plastic clip
6. Unscrew the pump module assembly from the main E-Sampler assembly. There are two
screws on the bottom, and one screw through the plastic clip on the top.
7. Unplug the pump module main electrical harness connector, and the flow sensor
connector. Unplug the two clear tubes connecting the pump module to the filter block in the
E-Sampler. Note which tube goes to which position! You should now be able to remove the
pump module. Avoid any further disassembly of the E-Sampler, or unplugging any other
connectors.
8. Install the new pump module in the reverse order. Be sure the reconnect all electrical and
tubing connections into the correct positions.
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9. After reassembly, check for leaks and perform a complete AT, BP, and flow calibration.
8.6
PUMP and PURGE Filter Changes
The E-Sampler PUMP FILTER and PURGE FILTER are the two filter cartridges located in the
front panel of the instrument. They can be removed by unscrewing the black aluminum filter
holders with a coin using the slot in the face of the holder. The expected lifetime of the two filters
is greater than one year, but in heavy particulate areas they may need to be replaced more often.
The 5 micron PUMP filter keeps any large particles from entering the flow sensor or sample pump.
The 0.2 micron PURGE filter cleans the recirculated purge air which is used to keep the optics
clean during normal operation and the zero self-test. See Section 5.3.
Pump Filter
Purge Filter
Pump Filter and Purge Filter Replacement
8.7
TSP Inlet and Cyclone Cleaning
All E-Samplers use at least a TSP inlet. In addition to the TSP inlet, sharp-cut cyclones may be
used to remove particles greater than the rated cut-point. These inlets need to be periodically
cleaned. The time interval between cleanings varies depending on the local particulate levels. Met
One recommends cleaning the cyclone particle trap at least once a month. The TSP inlet and
cyclone body should be disassembled and cleaned every three months during continuous use.
Clean the cyclone particle trap by unscrewing the knurled cap from the cyclone body, then wipe it
out with a cloth or blow it clean with compressed air. Check the o-rings and lubricate if necessary.
Full cleaning of the cyclone requires unscrewing the three socket-head Allen screws to access the
conical chamber inside. All of the inside surfaces must be cleaned. Isopropyl alcohol and cottontipped applicators work well.
The TSP inlet can be disassembled for cleaning by removing the three screws in the cap. Soap
and water often work best for cleaning the TSP inlet and debris screen. Do not over-tighten the
screws during reassembly or the plastic threads will strip out.
8.8
Factory Service Interval
The E-Sampler needs to be periodically returned to the factory for service and recalibration. The
recommended period is typically two years during continuous use. However, some users establish
their own interval depending on the harshness of the sampling conditions, particulate levels, and
data scrutiny. High concentration operation will often require more frequent factory service.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
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Factory service primarily consists of optical system cleaning, laser/detector checks, and
recalibration. As-found calibration checks can also be requested. Contact the Met One technical
service department to schedule E-Sampler service. A Return Authorization (RA) number must be
obtained before the unit is returned.
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8.9 Operational Logic for Self-Test and Laser/Detector Alarms
18 Nov 2008
E-Sampler Self-Test Logic
25-OCT-2008 14:34:19
SELF-TEST RUNNING
Start Self-Test process.
1. Hold last concentration
2. Hold last flow
3. Sample pump OFF
4. Purge pump ON
5. Clear the Self-Test alarm flag.
STOP SAMPLE
Operate
screen
Purge for 30
seconds
Take 15 second
average reading
If reading > Y2
OR
reading < Y3
Yes
Alarm Log
screen
24-OCT-2008 01:34:19
ZERO CALIBRATE ERROR
Post event to Alarm Log.
Set the Self-Test alarm flag.
Limit (MG)
Y2
0.140
Y3
0.001
Y4
0.0005
Y5
-0.0005
(Hz)
1000
10
4
-4
No
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
Take 15 second
average reading.
No
If retry 10 times
Yes
Yes
24-OCT-2008 01:34:19
ZERO STABILITY ERROR
Post event to Alarm Log.
Set the Self-Test alarm flag.
Diff is the Previous
average reading
minus the current
average reading.
If Diff > Y4
OR
Diff < Y5
No
Save new Zero
value
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
A
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A
Turn detector
solenoid ON
Turn detector
solenoid OFF
Wait for 30
seconds for
reading to settle.
No
Are Retries > 3
Yes
Take reading
Yes
Limit
Y6
Y7
Y6 (MG)
0.200
0.005
If reading < Y6
Yes
If AT < 5C
No
No
Turn detector
solenoid OFF
Post event to
Alarm Log.
Set the Self-Test
alarm flag.
24-JUN-2012 01:34:19
DETECTOR ERROR
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
Wait for 45
seconds for
reading to settle.
Take 15 second
average reading
If Diff > Y7
Diff is the current
average reading
minus the previous
average reading.
Yes
Post event to
Alarm Log.
Set the Self-Test
alarm flag.
24-JUN-2012 01:34:19
SOLENOID ERROR
VALUE: 00.0000 MG/M3
No
Start Pre-Sample process.
1. Purge pump OFF
2. Sample pump ON
Wait for 30
seconds for flow to
settle.
Start Sample process.
1. Un-hold flow reading
2. Un-hold concentration
End of process
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Start
E-Sampler
Reset laser failure
alarm flag
E-Sampler
running?
Yes
No
End of process
IOP is laser
current
Take IOP reading
IOP > 25 mA
or
IOP < 11 mA
for 5
Minutes?
No
Yes
Reset laser failure
alarm flag at the SelfTest period
No
If laser failure
flag FALSE
Yes
Post event to Alarm log.
Set laser failure alarm flag.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
24-OCT-2008 01:34:19
LASER FAILURE
ALARM: 25.0 MA
VALUE: 26.3 MA
Page 51
9 DATA RETRIEVAL and COMMUNICATIONS
This section describes the methods used to retrieve data files from the E-Sampler. The unit has
an RS-232 two-way serial port which handles all digital data transfer, and may be used with a
local computer, laptop, or digital datalogger. The serial port can also be used for remote
communications with various modem kits. Access to the data through the serial port is easy using
the supplied Comet software or simple terminal or escape commands.
9.1
Analog Voltage Output
The E-Sampler has an analog voltage output available which represents the real-time
concentration values. The analog output signal is located on the same connector as the serial
data output. The analog output is rarely used because of the portable nature of the E-sampler, so
the standard serial cable that comes with the unit does not have access to the analog output
signal. If the analog output is to be used, you will need to acquire a special cable which has a
breakout for the white voltage output wire (CONC signal) and the black (ground) wire. These two
wires are then routed to your analog datalogger input to record the output. The E-Sampler analog
output can be set to 0-1, 0-2.5, or 0-5 volts, which represents the user-selected range of
concentration. See Section 7.4 for details about how to configure the analog output. See Section
7.5 for instructions about how to test the output voltage.
9.2
Serial Port Connections to a Computer
The E-Sampler can be directly connected through the supplied serial cable to most standard
desktop computers that have a 9-pin (DB-9) RS-232 serial port connector (COM 1-4).
The E-Sampler can also be connected to most laptop computers, though newer laptops do not
usually have 9-pin serial ports, so a converter may have to be used. The simplest type is a USBto-RS232 serial adapter. Met One recommends the Belkin F5U109, available from Met One or a
local electronics store. You will still need the standard E-Sampler serial cable.
The E-Sampler default settings are 9600 Baud, 8 data bit, no parity, one stop bit. The baud rate
may be changed to a faster value. The other communications settings are fixed.
9.3
Modem Options for Remote Data Retrieval
The Met One Instrument EX-996 phone line modem is recommended for use with the E-Sampler,
as it is designed to reliably communicate when other modems may not. Other brands of modems
must be set in “dumb” or pass-through mode with no handshaking. If you are using one of the Met
One Instruments data acquisition programs such as Air Plus, you need only enter the telephone
number of the site in the system setup menu of the program. Multiple telephone numbers can be
entered for connection to multiple remote sites. See the software manuals.
If you are communicating with a terminal program such as HyperTerminal® you will need to use
the terminal program’s internal dialing command sequence to dial up the E-Sampler. Verify the
connection to the unit by pressing the <Enter> key until the command prompt asterisk (*) appears.
If not, verify the cabling and communications settings. Once connected, the access to the ESampler is the same command driven interface as used for the direct PC connection.
Cell modems, radio modems, satellite transmitters, and TCP/IP addressable Ethernet modems
are also available for the E-Sampler. Because these technologies are always changing, they are
handled on a custom basis. Contact Met One for details.
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9.4
Comet™ Data Retrieval Software
The E-Sampler is supplied with a CD containing a free copy of the Comet™ program, which is a
simple Windows-based communications terminal program developed by Met One Instruments.
This is the recommended method for all E-Sampler data retrieval, since Comet allows the user to
easily download the data logs, error logs, and settings files from the E-Sampler, without having to
know any of the underlying communications protocols. The Comet CD also contains a very
comprehensive pdf user’s manual for the program. Install the program onto the computer that you
will be using for data retrieval, and review the manual for complete data examples. Comet
replaces the obsolete TUS (Terminal Utility Software) program.
Note: If you use the Comet software for routine E-Sampler data retrieval, you will not need
to use or understand any of the terminal program setups, “AutoMet” commands, or escape
commands shown in the rest of this manual subsection.
9.5
Downloading Data Using HyperTerminal
E-Sampler data can also be easily downloaded through the serial port using HyperTerminal® or
other simple terminal programs. Most PCs running Microsoft Windows 95® through Windows XP®
operating systems already contain the HyperTerminal program. This section describes how to set
up HyperTerminal for communication with the E-Sampler:
1. Connect the RS-232 port on the bottom of the E-Sampler to your computer or laptop Com1
serial port using the supplied serial cable. A USB adapter may be required for laptops.
2. Open HyperTerminal. (Usually located in the Programs\Accessories\Communications
directory). The program will ask you to type a name for the connection. Type “E-Sampler”
or another name of your choice, then click “OK”.
3. The “Connect To” window will open. Select COM1 (or another serial port if used) from the
drop-down menu in the “Connect using:” field. Click “OK”. Note: You could also set up the
program to dial the E-Sampler through a modem in this window.
4. The “COM1 Properties” window will open. Set the following values in the drop-down
menus, then click “Apply” and “OK”.
Bits per second:
Data bits:
Parity:
Stop bits:
Flow control:
9600 (set to match E-Sampler setting)
8
None
1
None
5. The main HyperTerminal connection window should now be open. Press the ENTER
(carriage return) key three times. The E-Sampler should respond with an asterisk (*)
command prompt indicating that the terminal program has established communication with
the unit. Once communication is established, retrieve the desired files from the E-Sampler
using the appropriate “AutoMet” ASCII commands shown in the next section. Note: When
using the advanced <ESC> escape commands through a terminal program, you do not
need to send asterisks to establish the connection first.
6. HyperTerminal will only display a few lines of data in the window. To capture the files, first
select Transfer > Capture Text from the drop-down menu. Select a location for the file, then
click the “Start” button. Retrieve the desired files, and HyperTerminal will automatically
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store them to the text file as they are downloaded. Click the “Stop” button in the same dropdown menu to stop the text capture when finished.
7. When you exit HyperTerminal, it will ask if you want to save your connection. Click “Yes”
and a file named “E-Sampler.ht” (or other connection name) will be created in the
HyperTerminal folder, which will have all of the communication settings saved. You can use
this connection for future communications with the unit.
Importing the raw text file into a spreadsheet:
The data saved in a text file from a terminal download can be viewed by simply opening the text
file. However, the data is often hard to view in the raw text format due to the comma-separated
layout of the data fields. The easiest way to analyze the data is to import it as a .csv file into a
spreadsheet program such as Excel®:
1. Open the text data file, located in the directory you selected for the text capture.
2. Delete all of the unnecessary text rows (menu lists, download date, serial number, etc.)
and any empty rows at the top of the file, down to the data header row which defines each
of the columns of data. Do not delete the data header row, since you will want it to
appear in the spreadsheet. There must be no blank spaces or other characters before the
data header.
3. Scroll to the end of the data and make sure there are no other files, terminal menus, or
empty rows after the last data record. If so, delete them.
4. Save the text file and close it.
5. Rename the file extension from .txt to .csv. This will change the file from a text file to a
“comma-separated values” data file.
6. The .csv file can be opened directly with Excel. Each data parameter should appear in its
own spreadsheet column, with the correct data header at the top of each column. You can
then save the file as a .xls spreadsheet file if desired.
9.6
“AutoMet” Data Retrieval Commands Through the Serial Port
When a serial connection between the computer terminal program and the E-Sampler has been
established, you will have access to the E-Sampler data files by sending the following commands
through serial port with keyboard strokes or ASCII characters.
Note: After a few minutes, the E-Sampler will stop waiting for a command and you will have to
send another series of three carriage returns to reestablish the command prompt connection.
If you send an “h” character, the E-Sampler will respond with a help menu containing the AutoMet
command set descriptions:
* E-Sampler Help Menu
2
3
4
?
<Esc>h
:
:
:
:
:
Report all AutoMet data
Report new AutoMet data
Report last AutoMet data
Report model and firmware version
<Esc> Help menu
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Command
2
3
4
?
<Esc>h
Function
Prints all records in the E-Sampler data log file. This can be a large file!
Prints all new records in the E-Sampler data log file, since the last data download.
Prints the last record in the data log file only. The newest data array record.
Identifies unit firmware info. Example: “E-Sampler 3693-01 R1.19.3”
Returns the escape command set descriptions. See below.
The following is an example of the data response from the E-Sampler after a “2” command (all
data records) was sent to the unit. The report starts with a printout of the time and date of the
download, and the station ID and serial number of the E-Sampler. Then a data header row is
printed which defines each of the columns in the data field. The columns are separated by
commas to make it easy to import the data into a spreadsheet, or to parse out data fields in an
automatic data collection system. Each column is a certain data parameter. Each row is one
complete data record consisting of all stored parameters.
In this example, the average period is set to 15 minutes, so there was a complete record stored to
memory every 15 minutes. Data parameters such as wind speed/direction and external RH will
always appear in the data array even if no sensors were connected for those channels. In this
example, only a small amount of data was stored in the memory:
2
AutoMet Data Log Report
02-AUG-2011 09:22:06,
ID,1
SN,M4373
Time,Conc(MG/M3),Flow(l/m),AT(C),BP(PA),RHx(%),RHi(%),WS(M/S),WD(Deg),BV(V),Alarm
01-AUG-2011 18:15:00,0.008,2.0,26.8,96950,1,39,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 18:30:00,0.007,2.0,27.2,96969,1,37,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 18:45:00,0.008,2.0,27.5,96969,1,37,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 19:00:00,0.010,2.0,27.8,96969,1,36,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 19:15:00,0.008,2.0,28.0,96969,1,36,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 19:30:00,0.006,2.0,28.1,96989,1,35,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 19:45:00,0.005,2.0,28.1,96989,1,35,0.3,1,14.2,0
01-AUG-2011 20:00:00,0.007,2.0,28.1,97009,1,35,0.3,1,14.2,0
If a “3” command is sent (new data records), the data response from the E-Sampler is formatted
the same as shown above, but includes only the data logged since the last time the data was
downloaded, based on the position of a data pointer. This command saves time by not retrieving
old data that has already been downloaded before. Note: The data pointer for new data can be
reset to a different record using an escape command.
If a “4” command is sent (last data record), then the E-Sampler responds with only the latest
(newest) data record in memory as shown below. This is often used by digital data loggers which
are often programmed to collect data from an array of instruments at frequent intervals:
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 55
4
AutoMet Data Log Report
02-AUG-2011 09:25:10,
ID,1
SN,M4373
Time,Conc(MG/M3),Flow(l/m),AT(C),BP(PA),RHx(%),RHi(%),WS(M/S),WD(Deg),BV(V),Alarm
02-AUG-2011 09:15:00,0.023,2.0,25.2,97302,1,39,0.3,1,14.2,0
The following table defines the E-Sampler data parameters as they appear in the header of any of
the AutoMet-style data reports:
Field
Time
MG/M3
Flow (l/m)
AT (C)
BP (PA)
RHx (%)
RHi (%)
WS (m/s)
WD (Deg)
BV (V)
Alarm
Description
Date and time stamp of the data record.
Real-time light scatter average concentration in mg/m3.
Average air flow for the data logging period in actual liters per minute.
Average ambient temperature for the data logging period in ºC.
Average barometric pressure for the data logging period in Pascals.
Average external RH for the data logging period. (Requires EX-593 option)
Average sample RH for the data logging period.
Average wind speed in meters per second. (Requires EX-034 option)
Average wind direction in degrees. (Requires EX-034 option)
Average battery or input voltage in volts.
Error code (0 = no errors). See Section 8.1 for error descriptions.
Advanced AutoMet Commands:
In addition to the standard data retrieval ASCII commands, the data system supports some
additional advanced commands shown below. Do not use these commands without instruction
from a Met One technician:
Command
9
p
b
c
d
t
9.7
Function
Display AutoMet data pointers (for File 2).
Modify modem data pointer.
Begin XMODEM download of AutoMet data records (for File 2).
Clear AutoMet logger memory (File 2) with password.
Set date with password.
Set time with password.
Advanced Communications – Escape Commands
The communications “escape” command set shown in the table below used for advanced data
transfer or custom data retrieval software applications. Each command and response string must
begin with an Escape character (27, 0x1B) and end with a carriage return (13, 0x0D) and a line
feed character (10, 0x0A). An ASCII check sum follows each response (X9999). The hardware
protocol is RS-232, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit.
The E-Sampler supports five data files: The settings file (E), the Channel Descriptor file (1), the
AutoMet data log file (2), the Alarm log file (3), and the Self-Test data log file (4). The lowercase x
in the following commands specifies one of these five files. File modes can be linear (L) or circular
(C). All files are record based.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 56
Function
Read Model and Version
Command
RV
Read File Info (FCB)
RFI
Read record index.
RFx R
Read data file starting with absolute record index
or the last (-n) records from the current record
index.
Print File Report starting with absolute record
index or the last (-n) records from the current
record index.
Stop printing report.
Clear File Data (x: 2, 3, 4)
Read Date (mm-dd-yy)
Write Date (mm-dd-yy
Read Time (hh:mm:ss)
RFx D n
RFx D -n
RFx D n
Then XMODEM file transfer
PFx n
PFx -n
PFx n
Then print the report.
PFS or <enter>
WFx C
RD
WD 05-10-01
PFS
WFx C
RD 05-10-01
WD 05-10-01
RT 09:08:02
WT 09:08:02
Write Time (hh:mm:ss)
RT
WT 09:08:02
Response
RV E-Sampler 3693-01 R1.19.0
RFI
Then print the FCB.
RFx R n L
RFx R n C
If an <Esc>h command is sent through the E-Sampler serial port, the following escape command
help menu will be output. This lists the common escape commands:
* E-Sampler <Esc> Help Menu
<Esc>PFE
<Esc>PF2
<Esc>PF3
<Esc>PF4
<Esc>RV
<Esc>RD
<Esc>RT
<Esc>WD
<Esc>WT
<Esc>WFx
: Print settings file)
-n : Print last n-records of AutoMet data
-n : Print last n-records of Alarm data
-n : Print last n-records of Self-Test data
: Report model and firmware version
: Read Date (MM/DD/YY)
: Read Time (HH:mm:ss)
: Set Date (MM-DD-YY)
: Set Time (HH:mm:ss)
C : Clear file x memory
x = 2 : AutoMet file
x = 3 : Alarm file
x = 4 : Self-Test file
One of the more useful escape commands is the <Esc>PFE which outputs the E-Sampler settings
file as shown below. This is similar to the settings files in the BAM-1020 or E-BAM instruments:
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 57
E-Sampler EEPROM Report
02-AUG-2011 09:38:24,
Master:
3693-01 R1.19.3
Slave:
3694-01 R1.18
SerialNum:
M4373
LogPeriod:
900 Sec
ConcRange:
2 0-10 mg/m3
DacRange:
0 1.0 V
K-Factor:
1.000
SampleMode:
0 CONTINUOUS
TimeStart: 1312221600 01-AUG-2011 18:00:00
TimeDur:
43200 Sec
FlowSetPt:
2.0 LPM
SelfTestPeriod:
3600 Sec
Baud:
5 9600
StationID:
1
EngrUnits:
1 METRIC
ConcUnits:
0 MG/M3
IGain:
700
PGain:
500
TempSlope: -0.00013434
TempOffset: 1.16106415
RHSetPt:
50 %
AlarmSource:
0
AlarmLevel:
0 mg/m3
AlarmActive:
10 Sec
AlarmDelay:
10 Min
Multi-Drop Network Identification Protocol Using Escape Commands:
E-Sampler firmware R1.19.5 and later has a feature which allows RS-232 serial commands to be
addressed to a particular E-Sampler unit, which will be ignored by other E-Samplers on the same
serial line. This is primarily intended for use in a system where a central data collection computer
with a spread-spectrum radio serial link modem is used to communicate with multiple E-Samplers,
in a “one-to-many” wireless RS-232 network. Each E-Sampler in the system needs to be set with
a unique LOCATION ID number of between 1 and 99.
The identified command is: <Esc>A99<sp>cmd<cr>.
Command Component
<Esc>
A
99
<sp>
Cmd
<cr>
Description
ASCII escape character (0x1B hex, 27 decimal)
ASCII character ‘A’ (0x41 hex, 65 decimal)
1 or 2 numeric ASCII characters 0 – 9 (0x30 – 0x39 hex, 48 – 57
decimal). This is the Location ID (1 – 99) set in the E-Sampler unit.
ASCII space character (0x20 hex, 32 decimal)
The desired AutoMet or <Esc> type command.
ASCII carriage return character (0x0D hex, 13 decimal)
The NW command is used to enable the network Identification command address range 1 to 99.
The format for enabling is as follows:
<Esc>A0<sp>NW<sp>1<cr>.
The format to disable is as follows:
<Esc>A0<sp>NW<sp>0<cr>.
Note: The multi-drop network support must be disabled in order for the E-Sampler firmware
update utility to operate!
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 58
For example, to print all the AutoMet data in the CSV format from a unit with a Location ID of 25,
the command string would look like this:
<Esc>A25<sp>S<sp>2<cr>
Notice that ‘S’ must preface any AutoMet single character type commands. The Xmodem
commands ‘b’ and ‘r’ are not allowed.
To print all the AutoMet data in the CSV format from a unit with a Location ID of 25, the command
string would look like this:
<Esc>A25<sp>PF2<sp>-9999<cr>
The Xmodem commands ‘WFF’ and ‘RF’ are not allowed.
9.8
Flash Firmware Upgrades
The E-Sampler has the capability for flash firmware upgrades. This allows the field operator to
reprogram or update the E-Sampler master flash EEPROM through the serial port using the
Firmware Update Utility program. A Met One technician may supply the firmware update files on a
CD or by e-mail if a bug fix is released, or if additional features are added to the firmware
program. The following tasks must be performed whenever the firmware is upgraded:
1. Download and save the data log and error log from the E-Sampler before proceeding.
These will be cleared from memory during the upgrade process!
2. Firmware Update Utility is a PC-based utility program which used to update firmware in Met
One products equipped with FLASH memory technology. You will need a PC or laptop with
an available RS-232 COMM port. Install the Firmware Update Utility program onto the
computer by following the prompts after the CD is inserted.
3. Connect the E-Sampler serial port to the computer COMM port (usually COMM 1) with the
serial cable that came with the E-Sampler. Note: A special serial cable is required if the
separate secondary “slave” firmware file is to be updated.
4. Make sure that the computer and the E-Sampler are both set to the 9600 baud rate.
5. Take great effort to ensure that the power source to the E-Sampler and the computer
will not be interrupted during the update process! A power interruption may cause the
E-Sampler firmware to become inoperative! If this happens the unit will have to be returned
to the factory. Be especially careful with laptops and USB serial converters to make sure
the serial connection does not come loose for the same reason.
6. Run the Firmware Update Utility. From the computer “Start” menu, go to: Programs/Met
One/E-Sampler/E-Sampler Master Program Installer.
7. The program will prompt you for the COMM port number. Enter the number (usually 1) and
press ENTER to begin the update.
8. A “Done!” message will be displayed at the end of the update process. Execution time is
approximately five to fifteen minutes.
9. The E-Sampler can now be operated with the new firmware.
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 59
10 ACCESSORIES and PARTS
10.1 Consumables, Replacement Parts, and Accessories
The following parts are available from Met One for maintenance, replacement, service, and
upgrades. If unsure about a part you need, please contact the technical service department. Some
of these parts may require technical skills or special instructions before use or installation.
Description
Flow System Components
Sample Pump Module Assembly
Part Number
80160
Flow Sensor, E-Sampler
Ambient Temperature Thermistor and Harness
9049
9432-1
Internal Filter RH Sensor
Purge Filter Holder, Black Aluminum
Pump Filter Holder, Black Aluminum
Purge Air Filter, 0.2 micron
Pump Filter, 5 micron
O-Ring, For Purge and Pump Filter Holders
47 mm Filter Cassette, Plastic, With Screen
47 mm Filters, PTFE, 2 micron, 50 Pack
47 mm Filters, Quartz Fiber, 100 Pack
47 mm Filter Cassette Holder and Tray Door
9359
8912
8913
580302
580345
720063
460142
460137
460139
80398
Inlet Components
PM2.5 Sharp Cut Cyclone, 2 LPM
PM10 Sharp Cut Cyclone, 2 LPM
PM1 Sharp Cut Cyclone, 2 LPM
TSP Sampling Inlet
Harsh environment, with insect screen and rain cap
Cross-arm Clamp, ¾” x ¾”, Aluminum
Mounts cross-arms to the E-Sampler tripod
Cross-arm, ¾”, 18” long, Aluminum Tube
Meteorological Sensors
Wind Speed and Wind Direction Combination Sensor
For use with E-BAM and E-SAMPLER.
With 191-1 cross-arm kit and 9249 cable.
Graphic
SCC 112
SCC 110
SCC 111
9441
1552
1539-18
EX-034
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Page 60
Ambient Relative Humidity Sensor Kit
with 9249 cable and 9427 cable junction box
EX-593
Miscellaneous Accessories
Lithium Battery, Memory Backup
9316
E-Sampler Main Circuit Board Stack Assembly
80103
LCD Display, E-Sampler, 4x20 Character
(call Met One technical service)
701735
Pole Mount Bracket for E-Sampler.
Mounts the unit enclosure to a mast, post, wall, or
other vertical surface.
9425
Battery, 12V, 12aH, Lead Acid, Yuasa NP-12-12
Internal Battery Harness, Fused
Fuse, For Internal Battery Harness, 5 Amp
Power Supply, E-Sampler, 100 - 240V AC input
15V DC output, Weatherproof.
390048
9423
590807
9438-2
Solar Power Kit, 160W, 3.7 minimum PSH
Solar Power Kit, 240W, 2.5 minimum PSH
730139
730140
Tripod Assembly, E-BAM/E-SAMPLER
EX-905
Phone Line Modem Kit, Weatherproof
Cellular Modem Kit (Call Met One for Details)
Power Cable, E-Sampler to Battery
Power Cable, E-Sampler to Battery
with alarm relay output wires
EX-996
call
9638
9638-1
Serial Cable, E-Sampler
Serial Cable, E-sampler
with analog output wires
9321
9321-1
Comet Software CD
E-Sampler Factory Service and Recalibration
80248
SVC4105
E-SAMPLER-9800 Manual Rev L
Call Met One
Page 61
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