tanzania. supply, installation and commissioning of a multi

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Final Report
Under URIOO contract
¹ 16001140
for Project XP/URT/06/002
Supply, installation and commissioning of a multi-function food processor
at the Tanga Pilot Center, Muwamu Women Group,
in the Muheza District, Tanga Region of Tanzania
Malnutrition Matters.
May 9, 2007
NB: Summary
edits &om first progress report follow to be included as part
of Anal
The objectives of the first stage of the project were to order and ship the VitaGoat food
processing system to UNDP/UNIDO in Dar es Salaam, notify UNIDO of the shipment,
and to specify requirements for site preparation.
The VitaGoat equipment was originally ordered &om the manufacturer on June
17, 2006. A revised Purchase Order for the equipment was sent on August 21, and
was included as Annex 1 of the first progress report.
The equipment left the manufacturer in Faridabad India on August 25, 2006. The
shipment consisted of two crates packed, and with markings, according to
instructions in Annex D of the contract. The estimated arrival of the equipment in
Dar es Salaam is October 7, 2006. The shipping company issued the Bill of
Lading on Sept 5. The Bill of Lading, Invoice and Parts list (the shipping
documents) are appended as Annex 2. Please note: the shipments for both Muheza
and Kigoma (being the subject of a separate UNIDO contract 4 16001166 for
Project FB/URT/05/A06) are on the same Bill of Lading since they were
consolidated as one shipment. The boxes were marked appropriately (2 boxes for
each project), but they are on the one shipment.
3) Copies of the shipping documents were sent to M. Latrech and Gillian OcampoGoetzlinger of the Procurement Services Unit at UNIDO headquarters in Vienna
as well as to Juliet Kabege
shipment of the eqinpment.
in Dar Es Salaam immediately
4) Site preparation requirements, instructions and list of materials were sent to K.
Bucyana and G. Ocampo-Goetzlinger of UNIDO in Vienna, and to J. Kabege of
UNIDO in Dar es Salaam in June and again to both locations on August 15 2006.
Confirmation of receipt of these documents was received by Malnutrition Matters.
Preparation of the site, and procurement of required materials and utensils
according to these instructions, were the responsibility of UNIDO and/or its
partners for this project. A copy of the Site Preparation Guide and the Preparation
and Materials Guide were attached in Annex 3 of the first progress report.
Next phase —following first progress repo&:
The shipment of the VitaGoat arrived in port of Dar es Salaam in late September.
Customs clearance took longer than expected, however this was not due to
documentation challenges or other responsibilities of the shipper, Confirmation
of exit from customs and port was received by Malnutrition Matters in late
October or early November.
The next stage of the project assumed confirmation that the VitaGoat food
processing system has reached the work site in Muheza, but due to transfer
problems in Dar es Salaam, the equipment was not delivered to the Muheza site
when F. Da}ler and C. Lauzon scheduled for the December 06, installation and
training visit.
With some exceptions, confirmation was received that most site preparations at
Muheza were complete and confirmation was being awaited that all required
materials and personnel (equipment operators / food personnel) will be available
for the training visit by Malnutrition Matters personnel. Given that site
preparation was to completed on time by UNIDO and its local NGO partners /
personnel, a training visit was planned for December 10-14, 2006. This included
Frank Daller and Charles Lauzon,
in Dar es Salaam on Dec 10 . Meeting was held with
Juliet Kabege and arrangements were made to proceed to Muheza on Dec 11
4. Daller & Lauzon arrived
5. Upon
arrival in Muheza it was learned that the equipment was still being
transferred from Dar es Salaam. Meanwhile some final preparations of the site
were discussed with the local Muheza group and UNIDO reps. This included
installation of a simple floor drain opening at an exterior wall, details of chimney
installation, ventilation, water supply etc. Review of all materials needed was
covered agan, as this was supposed to come from Dar es Salaam with &e
shipment of the VitaGoat.
6. Difficulties
continued with attempts at receiving the shipment from Dar es
Salaam, and Wer the third day waiting, the two Malnutrition Matters specialists
had to depart Tanzania due to the expiry of the minimum time that is required for
set-up and training that was remaining in that week.
7. It was later decided that Muheza personnel would attend the Kigoma VitaGoat
training sessions for UNIDO in March/April on the next scheduled visit by
Charles Lauzon, MM tech specialist. The contract for completion of Muheza
project was extended accordingly to April 2007
8. Prior to returning to Tanzania, MM liaised with UNIDO on final site preparations
and materials for Kigoma project to allow for final training in April 2007.
Charles Lauzon returned to Dar es Salaam for April 21 and flew to Kigoma on
April 22, Installation and training at Kigoma started April 23 and completed
April 26, Local UNIDO and partner staff were trained on the installation to be
able to help Muheza group install their own. Muheza staff attended for training
on April 26. They were unable to attend earlier due to a missed fIight Irom Dar es
10. Charles Lauzon reviewed all aspects of the installation with the Muheza group
and proceeded to produce several batches of soymilk with the participation
Kigoma trainees. Question and answer session followed.
11. Final
of the
set-up in Muheza was understood to be scheduled soon thereafter and
Malnutrition Matters undertook to provide any supplementary remote tech
support info. Extra spare parts were Aso supplied to M&eza group both at first
visit in December 06, and again in April 07.
1. Certificate
2. VitaGoat Technical
Guide (Separate Doc)
3, Canning Food Preservation Gmde (Separate Doc)
Muheza Food Processing I'rojeet.
P. O Box 20,
1 anga- Tanzrrnla.
2" Nay 2007
Frank Duller
Food Technology Solutions
498 Riversfroer, Cres, Otawa, ON
Canada. K 1,17Y7
K-mail: n&atters&a. nralnutrition. o
We acknowledge
installed an
receiving two wooden boxes containing
Kigoma conducted by Mr CIrarles
l arr-rrn
Food Consultant
Aluheza Food Processing Center
Kawira Anne Sucyana
Urrited iVations Industrial
Vienna International
(Expert), The machine was tested on 2"" May
UrV I DO-National
Vitagoat Machine which was
(local technician) who attended training
2007 by processing of soy milk. The performance
30" May 2007 by hfr. hf rVrlrrrrrk
P.o Box 300, A-1400, Vienna Austria
of' the machine was good as it was
VitaGoat Technical and Operation Guide
September, 2005
498 Rivershore Cr. , Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1 J.7Y
Tel: 613 742-6888 Fax: 613 745-8258 e-mail:matters@malnutrition.
www. malnutrition. org
VitaGoat Technical and Operation Guide
1. Site
Preparation Guide
2. VitaGoat General Components
3. Set-up Guidelines
4. Cycle Grinder Operation and Maintenance
5. Steam Boiler Operation and
6. Pressure Cooker, Press and Tofu Box
7. Operation Summary —Cooked Products & Uncooked
8. Ensuring Soymilk Tastes Good/Tofu & Yogurt
9. Soybean Storage
10.VitaGoat Orawings and Parts Lists
Non-Electric Food Processing System
For Nutrition and Nlicro-Enterprise Development
The VltaGoat is a food processing system for developing
serves as a
while providing the local community or social
principal vehicle for micro-enterprises,
institution with high-quality
nutrition. Operating without the need for any electricity
supply or generator, it uses focally-available fuels, including wood or other biomass, or
bottled gas, for the cooking section of the operation. This is a critical feature, due to the
unavailable or unreliabie supply, and/or high cost of electricity in most developing
The full system includes four components:
a steam boiler, a pressure-cooking vessel
pressure-cooking is up to 10 times more
cooking. Some foods can also be prepared
The VitaGoat's
A pedal-operated grinding / blending system,
and a filter press. The use of steam-injected
energy-efficient than traditional open stove
without the cooking section.
processing capability features economical, high-protein and healthy
soya foods, in the form of soymilk and its derivatives such as tofu and yogurt, Other
cooked and processed foods such as soups, sauces and purees, can be made from
various fruits and vegetables. An extra food-preserving vessel is in development to
allow for long shelf-life. The cycle-grinder alone can process peanut butter, soy and
other nut butters, and grind cereals and grains into meals and some flours.
The Vitaooat System
The VitaGoat has four main components although one of these, the cycle grinder, can
be used on its own in situations where only dry foods are processed without cooking.
0) Steam boiier: Operates on wood or other
solid fuels or liquid gas. Steam-injected pressure
-cooking can be 10 times more fuel efficient than
traditional open fire cooking and more efficient
than improved stove-design cooking. Water is
heated in an inner chamber and the resulting
steam is re-heated in a tube, creating a
"superheated steain" that is much hotter than
regular steam. The steam is then fed into the
cooker. The boiler is inexpensive to build, safe,
and can be taken apart for cleaning, which is
critical since most boilers accumulate scale on
their inner shells and eventually fail.
2) Cycle grinder: Based on a design
created in the mid-70's in the US, energy is
produced through a pedal-powered system that
uses adjustable-speed
and easy grinding of a variety of foods. An
inexpensive modified hand mill using metal to
metal plates grinds foods at least ten times
faster than with traditional methods.
is adjustable
on the
operator's height and the adjustable speeds can
be matched to the individual's strength and the
type of food.
3) Cooker: Made
from stainless steel, this vessel can
pressure-cook up to 15 liters of food per batch, in thirty
minutes or less. This greatly reduces cooking time and
saves fuel. It is equipped with temperature and pressure
gauges and a safety pressure relief valve. Product is fed
through a top opening and steam enters the vessel through
an opening on the bottom. Cooked product exits the cooker
at the bottom, through a valve-controlled outlet.
4) Press: Also made of stainless steel, pressing occurs by
turning a screwed rod that pushes onto a sanitary plastic
disc, in turn squeezing out liquid from product held within a
filter bag. The press is very simple to operate and clean.
Soymilk Production
VitaGoat Site Preparation
1. Production Room
'Wet Area' (see schematic on following page)
a) Approx. 10-12 square meters
high ceiling
(3 M or more)
b) Large sink(s) or tubs for cleaning.
c) Floor of cement or tile, preferably with floor drain or at least a place to
wash s ills out. Walls should also resist water and humidi
d) Good ventilation, with screened windows, fan or vents for air circulation.
in the corner of the room or directly
outside the exterior wall from the other equipment. If it is to be located
outside, it must be under a roof, and not more than 1.5 meters from the
inside equipment (a steam hose connects the boiler to the cooker. )
Chimney pipes of 2 meters are included with the boiler, but they
must be connected to local pipe to exit the room at the wall or
directly exit the roof over the boiler. This must be done at the time
of installation, so materials must be available.
e) The boiler is to be located either
Dry Room for the
storage of food supplies, etc.
in the same room as the production area, to avoid splashing with
reatly speed the deterioration of the dry food
water. Heat and humidi
b) Dry room to have ventilation and protection from insects and rodents.
c) Approx. 10 - 12 square meters of space.
a) Not
3. Utensils,
and other furnishings
a) 2 medium size tables or work surfaces (about 1 M x 1.5 M) One
must be not more than 75 crn high (relatively low). Tops should be
b) Vessels for the soaking of soya beans:
15 liters
Minimum of 5 Iastic ails —a roximatel
gauze or muslin cloth for
sq. )
c) A large quantity
use in so milk or other filtration and totu roduction.
d) 2 large cooking / mixing spoons
e) 2 large colanders or sieves (1 for the production of tofu and 1 for
and rinsin soaked so beans.
f) Vessels to contain and produce soymilk and other liquid products:
Minimum of 5 pails —15 - 20 liters each, clean and made of durable
lastic or steel.
and washable
30 cm or so, ) to stand on to putfood into
to of cooker. cooker stands on table
h) 1 large perforated spoon.
large knife
j) 1 large ladle
k) A dowel or wood bar approximately 40 cm long and 4 cm diameter.
I) Rubber or plastic gloves and work boots. (Long for protection of
worker a ainst hot splashes and for sanita
m) Work clothes or
n) A scale which weighs up to 5 kg.
4. Water
a) A source of drinking water, either from a
does not need to be purified.
well or roof tank,
etc. Water
b) A hose for water, to clamp to a 2, 5 cm diameter fitting on the boiler,
a len th enou h to reach from a water vessel or tank to the boiler.
c) A water filter if the water is cloudy or with sedimentation.
3-4 m
(Or large
water tubs)
Soybeans, Cereals,
Nuts, Fruits, Vegetables,
Packaging, Finished
Products, etc.
Other part of building
or exterior
Dry Room
Preparation, Materials, Equipment and Food Supplies,
Required for the Installation and Production of the VitaGoat
a) Transport the two VitaGoat boxes to the site before the arrival of specialist
—trainer. (leave unopened)
b) Verify and accomplish all the points listed on the document
'VitaGoat Site Preparation Guide' including procurement of all the
indicated utensils and furnishings.
Nlaterial and Equipment
a) Combustible material, such as dry wood (minimum 25 kg) Wood should be
small to medium size firewood. Otherwise charcoal or bottled gas is an
option. Fire starting material is also required.
b) A tablet or chalkboard with chalk for instruction / training.
c) Optional: Glass jars with lids for food preservation demo (like canning).
500 ml or 1 L jars, whatever is locally available, X 10 units.
d} A 'handyman' or carpenter / mechanic / plumber with tools, to assist in the
installation. .
Food Supplies
a) Soya Beans -20 kg (' Food Grade' is best, others will also work)
b) Common cereals or grains to produce a flour or meal
(corn, sorghum, etc. ) - 20 kg
c) Peanuts - 10 kg —Should be shelled, preferably lightly roasted.
d) Other local nuts if available and inexpensive
e) Local tropical fruits if inexpensive —5 -10 kg each
f) Mangoes —5 kg or more if not expensive and in season
g) Tomatoes —10 kg
Sugar - 5 kg
j) Food grade coagulant for making tofu. Any one of: Magnesium Chloride,
Calcium Chloride, Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts), Citric Acid, etc.
Common vinegar will substitute if any of the above are not available.
2. VitaGoat General Components
Tofu box
Steam boiler
Vita6oat System
The complete VitaGoat system should be set up as shown in the photo. The
Cycle-grinder does not need to be close beside the rest, however, the rest of the
system must be set up as shown.
Note that the cooker should be placed on a table which is not higher than the
boiler. The cooker can then be emptied into the press. The press must be on a
low stand, high enough to place a pail or other vessel below to receive the
finished product.
The Steam boiler must be placed so that there is room on the left side to insert
wood or other fuel into the firebox.
See other set-up
details in the Site Preparation
Guide and section 3, Set-up
3. Set-up
The VitaGoat equipment is normally shipped in two wooden shipping crates. The
smaller one contains the steam boiler and its spare parts, while the larger one
contains the other three main components. The larger one has all the major
pieces bolted to the inside of the shipping crate. For both it is best to open the
top and one side of the crate for removal of the equipment. It is recommended
that three people handle each crate, because of the weight and to protect the
Opening the larger shipping crate.
Removing sections
fiom the larger crate.
S. 1 Setting up the Steam Boiler
Open the smaller boiler crate directly beside the site of the installation.
After opening the top and one side of the boiler crate, carefully remove the boiler
from the crate and move it to the area where it will operate. This should be on
the left side of the table area where the cooker will be situated.
The simple chimney outlet (through the roof or wall) should be directly
above the boiler location and there should be enough room on the right side of
the boiler to allow for fuel to be put into the door at the bottom of the boiler shown
Open the firebox door and
inspect the Boiler Grates, then
place them side by side as shown
into the center of the boiler fire
Boiler Grates
Reassemble the water pump handle.
The two bolts at the top of the assembly must
be removed and then the pump handle
assembly can be reconnected in the usual
pump formation.
The boiler's hand pump handle in the
unassembled position
Locate the two special wrenches attached to the boiler, and put them aside
in a safe place. They are critical for later maintenance of the boiler.
On left: Water pump wrench
On right: Cleanout nut wrench
Assemble the water level "sight glass".
Glass tube
Sight glass assembly
Rubber grommet
Securing nut
and washer
The rubber and metal parts are found connected
the right side of the boiler. Remove the securing
rubber grommets. Take the glass tube from the
and place the nuts, washers and grommets (two
of the sight glass tube.
Inserting sight glass into valve
to the sight glass position on
nuts and washers and the
parts kit in the top of the boiler,
each) on the top and bottom half
Make sure that the rubber grommets are at the ends of the tube, and that the
washers are between the rubber grommets and the nuts. Place the tube into the
top and bottom fitting. Gently tighten the top and bottom nut just enough to
ensure there will be no water leak, but not enough to break the glass insert
the sight glass protection rods.
Install the sight glass protection rods.
Inserting sight glass
protection rods
Finished sight glass
install the steam hose.
Preparing steam hose
Applying Teflon tape to
threaded fittings
Use approximately two layers of Teflon tape wrapped around the steam
connections. This process is done at all steam pressure points including all
connections inside and outside the bailer assembly and the inlet and outlet
of the cooker.
Connect the steam hose with tape on to
the steam outlet on the boiler.
Connecting steam hose to boiler
Installing the chimney.
The boiler is shipped with two lengths of chimney pipe
which will reach approxirnatefy 1.5 meters. It is critical
that the location of the installation is prepared with
additional chimney pipe and an outlet through the
wall or roof immediately above the boiler
7' P4j'I
The chimney outlet and pipe is 6 inches or 15.25 CM
The only remaining connection is a simple hose to be
attached to the water inlet.
Inserting chimney pipe into boiler top
Safety relief valve
Water hand pump
Steam hose
Sight glass
Steam valve outlet
Pressure gauge
Water bucket
Blow-down assembly
Water inlet valve
Water hose and clamp
Steam boiler components
3.2 Assembling the Cycle
The Cycle Grinder parts should all be removed from the shipping crate and laid
out for easy identification and assembly.
Je. '
The first step is to connect the two
major sections with the two bolts
provided. This can be adjusted to
two or three positions but should
be firmly connected. The seat
assembly also can be moved back
and forth for operator comfort.
Connecting cycle-grinder kame sections
Bolted frame connection. Note
adjustable position.
Top adjustable pulley
Adjusting the pulley-belt and
speed of action.
Depending on the operator's
strength and the type of product
being ground or blended, the
position of the pulley-belt can be
changed at the top and bottom
pulley. This is done by hand
without any tools. Simply grip the
belt and force it to the new position
while turning the pulley. Repeat
this step for the second pulley.
Changing pulley-belt speeds
installing the grain mill
The VitaGoat system comes with
two processing attachments, a
grain mill and a fruit mill. Each has
a different position when being
When tightening the clamp on
installation or later re-tightening
during production, use only a
strong hand tightening, and not
a tool Over tightening can
cause breakage.
Clamp grain mill to support
arm (note lower position)
Upper mount
Upper and lower mill mounts. Top is
for grain mill, lower is for juice mill
Lower mount
Note the two different coupiings. Select the larger hole size for the grain
mill, when connecting it to the cycle grinder assembly.
Grain mill coupling
Juice mill coupling
Mill couplings —note smaller
hole size for juice mill coupling
Insert auger into mill
Position auger shaft into
Attach mill hood. Position by
centering with hole
Adjusting knob
Locking clamp
Adjust milling size by
screwing knob and locking
in place with clamp
Attach funnel. Note locking
pins on side
Installing the Juice mill
Juice mill installation. Note upper
mount position for mounting arm
Adjusting screw
Coarse screen
Fruit niill screens. Use coarse screen
for sauces and purees and fine screen
for juices or nectars
rgb'ef P
Fine screen
Adjusting the Cycle Grinder seat.
Cycle-grinder seat adjustment
3.3 Installing the
VitaGoat Cooker and Press
Press filter bag
The VitaGoat Cooker and press are shipped mostly preassembled. They
should be set up as in the photos, immediately to the right of the steam boiler.
After placing the cooker on the table, it should be connected to the steam hose
from the boiler. The connection to the steam inlet valve on the bottom of the
cooker is done with Teflon tape.
Product inlet
Pressure gauge
Safety relief valve
Lid wingnuts
Outlet valve
Steam Inlet
Note the pressure relief valve assembly. This should be facing the back of
the operation.
Pressure relief
vive arm
relief valve
discharge pipe
Pressure relief valve assembly
Note the thermometer
and SoymIlk production temperature
Soymilk production
temperature range 105-
Cooker thermometer
Note the Pressure gauge assembly. The pigtail connection is to prevent fluids
and cooked material from entering into the bottom of the gauge. The pressure
gauge should be viewed regularly to avoid excess pressure, which can cause the
pressure relief valve to open and release the contents of the cooker. This
assembly must be handled with great care when the system is disassembled for
Pressure gauge dial
Cooker pressure gauge assembly
Note the cooker lid assembly. The gasket must be placed carefully into
position under the cap. It should be oiled regularly to provide proper
sealing and extend the life of the gasket.
Cooker product inlet assembly
q (
Steam diffuser
Cooker inside view
Note the main cooker gasket. It
should be regularly oiled for proper
operation and long life. Use any
vegetable oil.
Cooker hd casket
The mill hopper can be used as the
cooker product inlet hopper as well
Installing the press.
The press should be placed up off the floor enough to allow for a large vessel to
be placed under the spout. The cooker should be placed directly over it so that
the cooker outlet pours directly into the center of the press cylinder and filter bag.
This requires that the height of the table is somewhat lower than most common
Press screw
Press cylinder
Pressing disc
Press pan spout
Filter press assembly
Press filter bag
Cooker md Press Assembly
Here the complete system is shown assembled. The cycle grinder is shown
beside the cooker but it does not need to be so close to the cooking and other
processing area.
Tofu box
Steam boiler
VitaGoat System
4. Cycle Grinder Operation I Maintenance
4.1 Cycle Grinder Components
Grain or &uit
Speed variable
pulleys (high/low)
Adjustable seat
Adjustable table
Support Arm
adjustment nut
for main
4.2 Connecting and adjusting
main sections.
Anchor the system to the
floor through the holes
As mentioned in Section 3, "Set up
Guidfelines", you must connect the two
main sections with the bolts provided.
There are two main positions possible,
depending on the fength of the
operators legs. (The seat can also be
moved forward and back. ) Bolt this
connection tightly. After the location of
the cycle grinder is determined, it is
advised to bolt the main sections
to the floor using the holes provided.
Connection of the bolted sections.
Note the two positions possible.
The seat position can be adjusted using
the sliding connection. Adjust according
to the operators' leg length to allow
comfort and also power for pedaling.
4.3 Adjusting the speed of grinding
Changing the speed
of grinding
Pulley adjustment nut
Depending on the strength of the
operator, and the type of food being
ground, the position of the belt can
be changed. This is done manually
without tools. Loosen the pulley
adjustment nut (if necessary)
While turning the pulley, force the
belt to the new position as shown.
Repeat with the second pulley. The
small groove in the upper pulley is
for hard products (such as peanuts)
and the large groove is for soft
products (such as fruit and soaked
soybeans). Reset the pulley
'assembly by forcing it upwards
and locking the nut
4.4 Installing the
The grain
grain mill
is used for grinding dry products such as cereals, grains and nuts
as welf as for grinding soaked soybeans.
Two types of mills come with the
VitaGoat: A grain miff and a fruit
miff. Each has a different position
when instaf led.
When you install the mill while
locking it after installation or
tightening it during production,
only tighten by hand and never
with a tool. Too much tightening
can break the mill.
Attach the mill to the support arm. Note the
position of the arm on the support arm.
Upper support
Lower support
Upper and lower arm support positions. . The
upper position is for the fruit mill, the lower
for the grain mill.
Note the two different couplings. Select the larger hole size for the grain
mill. The coupiing is placed on the principal shaft drive. Do not over-tighten as
you may damage the threads and make it difficult to change iater.
Grain mill coupling
Juice mill coupling
Mill couplings —note smaller
hole size for juice mill coupling
Insert auger into mill
Position auger shaA into
Attach mill hood. Position by
centering with hole
Adjusting knob
Locking clamp
Adjust milling size by
screwing knob and locking
in place with clamp
Attach funnel. Note locking
pms on stde
4.5 Installing the
fruit mill
The fruit mill is used for processing fruits and vegetables into juice, sauce,
pureees, etc.
Installing the fruit mill. Note the
upper position for the support
Place the hopper on and lock in position and the system is ready to use. Turn the
adjusting screw according to the density of the desired product. Do not tighten
too much as
it will result in
Adjusting screw
Installed Fruit Mill
poor product consistency.
Coarse screen
Fruit mill screens. Use coarse screen
for sauces and purees and fine screen
for juices or nectars
Fine screen
4.6 Grinding and
seat and begin the operation. Note that two persons are
required to operate the grinder . One for pedalling and the other for putting
food into the grinder and handling the output.
Now one can sit on the
Insert feet into the straps on the
pedals. These straps increase the
efficiency of the system while
using the full energy of the legs.
Hold the support arm with both
hands to stabilise the operator
and best transmit the power of
the legs.
4.7 Nlainenance
1. Grain
a) After each use: Clean the
disks with the aide of a small brush and
check to be sure that no food residue is left; wash all the other
components with the help of a brush and water, and leave apart to dry.
Do not put the whole assembly in water because it may rust. When dry,
h ft ftl
h l ~
ml h hl ll Ih
b) After each three months: Check the mill carefully to see that there is no
premature wear on the parts.
2. Fruit
use: Clean the mill with the aide of a small brush and check to
be sure that no food residue is left; wash all the components with the help
of a brush and water, and leave apart to dry. Do not put the whole
assembly in water because it may rust. When dry, periodically use a little
h lt fth
the assembly carefully to see that there is
no premature wear on the parts.
After each
3. Belt
Inspect weekly to make sure there is no premature wear. Check proper
alignment and tightness to prevent unncessary wear.
4. Cycle chain and pedal assembly.
After each day of use, oil with a little vegetable or motor oil.
5. Seat
Protect with a cover cloth to extend life of the seat.
adjusted regularly, oil the channel under the seat.
If the
seat assembly is
6. Paint
Retouch the paint if scratched or worn off. This
help prevent rust.
T. Whole system
Clean any spill or food from all components after each use, Keep a sanitary and
food safe condition for the system. Oil any wearing parts, using vegetable oil
where there is possible contact with food.
This page is to be copied and displayed
the area of the VitaGoat operation
Keep boiler full of water when not using. (reduces rusting)
After filling a cold boiler, release unwanted air pressure by
~briefi opening steam valves on bailer and cooker.
Ahvays blow-down (empty) the hot boiler at the end of the day
and refill with water before quitting. 0 en blow down valve
carefull and slowl
Never leave a hot boiler to cool completely without blowing
down and refilting. This can cause a vacuum which can damage
the pressure gauge or cause food or wash water to be sucked
into the boiler from the cooker.
Keep the boiler pressure above 25 psi and below 80 psi when
normally producing steam far the cooker.
Some safety release valves are set to 90 psi and some are
higher. Confirm the setting an your safety valve. Make sure
release valve is connected to a pipe and away from operators.
If pressure approaches 90 make sure steam valves are open on
both boiler and cooker. If that does not reduce the pressure, let
some water s~iowl out of the blow down valve.
If the safety release valve opens, do not panic about the extra
noise. It will close by itself when it has released enough steam
pressure. This is a normal and safe event but should be avoided
if possible.
Keep at least a medium size fire going at all times unless it is
close to quitting time.
Keep some water visible in the sight glass. Fill boiler when
water drops below the bottom of the glass. Do not fill the boiler
above the to of the lass.
5. Steam Boiler Operation
and INaintenance
6.$ Set-up
the directions for setting up the boiler as detailed
section 3, 1
Note that the position of the boiler instaNation is critical. lt must be just below
or beside a chimney pipe which can exit the room through the roof or wall.
There must also be some space to the left of the boiler to allow for wood to be
fed into the firebox.
Attach and clamp a length of flexible hose to the water inlet. This can be from
a source of running water or drawn from a nearby bucket.
Safety relief valve
Water hand pump
Stcam hose
Steam outlet valve
Sight glass
Pressure gauge
Wafer bucket
Blow-down assembly
Water inlet valve
Water hose and clamp
Steam boiler components
5.2 Filling the boiler
with water.
Open the water inlet valve (just above the water inlet). Begin pumping water
into the boiler. Check to see if pump is actually drawing water. if it is not, the
pump may need to be primed when it is dry. Pouring a bit of water on top
of the large nut at the top of the pump may be enough to create an air lock
and eliminate the need to open the pump. lf this does not work and the pump
must be primed, loosen the large pump nut at the top of the pump, using the
special water pump wrench supplied. Fill the pump with water and close the
nut again securely. Continue pumping until water appears in the sight glass.
Fill the boiler to a point near the top of the sight glass, but do not fill it
completely. If it is filled completely, it may be filled higher than the glass
and cannot be checked to see if it is oveNIIed. It may also cause water
to exit with the steam. ff it is overfilled, drain some water out by opening the
blow-down valve at the bottom of the boiler directly below the sight glass.
When the water is filled enough, close the water inlet valve until water needs
to be pumped in again.
Loosening boiler water pump nut
Plastic gasket
Water pump components
Pumping water into the
boiler with the hand pump
5.3 Starting the Fire
sure that the food to be cooked wiii be ready when the boiler fire
is started.
Make sure that the chimney connections are good through to the building
the firebox with a small amount of fuel. For the first time, make
only a small fire to learn the boiler operation weH. Keep extra fuel ready so
that the fire can be continued for the whole cooking process.
Start the fire
Observe the pressure gauge regularly. This is the only way to be sure of
the effect of the fire and the readiness of the boiler to begin processing
5.4 Operating the boiler I maintaining correct pressure.
The operating pressure should be kept approximatefy
25 psi and 50 psi during the cooking process.
When the boiler pressure gauge shows over 25 psi, the cooking process can
begin. With the food to be cooked already in the cooker, open the steam
outlet valve on the boiler, and also gradually and partially at first, open the
steam inlet valve on the bottom of the cooker. If it is fully opened for too
long, the pressure in the boiler may drop below the minimum of 25 psi.
Pressure will begin to drop in the boiler so make sure that the fire is enough
to keep the pressure up above 25.
If the pressure drops below 25 on the boiler, close the steam outlet valve, and
wait for the boiler to heat and build pressure. This may require extra fire if the
fire is too small. However, you can normally regulate this with the cooker inlet
valve if the boiler pressure will not stay above 25, and there is enough fire.
pressure in the boiler rises to above 50, even while the steam outlet
valve is open and steam is being released to the cooker, reduce the pressure
in the boiler by simply pumping in additional water with the hand pump.
In the unlikely event that the boiler pressure cannot be reduced by pumping in
water, some boiling water can be released by gently opening the blow-down
valve at the bottom.
If the
For ultimate safety purposes, there is a pressure relief valve at the top
will open automatically if the pressure in the
boiler reaches 160 psi. However this should only happen if the boiler is
neglected while there is still fire going strong in the firebox.
of the boiler. This valve
5.5 Maintaining correct water
Always try to ensure that some water is visible in the sight glass. If the water
level drops below the sight glass level, immediately pump in additional water
up to near the top of the sight glass. Remember to open the water inlet valve
each time. It is not absolutely necessary to close the water inlet valve'after
each filling, but it is recommended as an extra measure in case of failure of
the in-line check valve. (See next section)
It is better to regularly add small amounts of water than to wait until the sight
glass is empty. The boiler is more energy efficient when nearly full. Adding
large amounts of water will quickly cool the boiler and may reduce the
pressure so that the operators must wait for pressure to reach above 25 psi.
6.6 Check-valve information
Check valves
Water supply valve
The boiler is equipped with two check valves as shown in the above photo.
Each check valve is installed to prevent water and steam from flowing in the
wrong direction. The first check valve is below the pump and the second is to
the right of the water supply valve. In case of failure of the second valve, the
water valve can be closed to prevent reverse flow, however the check valve
would need to be replaced.
The two steam valves (on the boiler and cooker) must be left opened at
the end of production and after blow-down to prevent a vacuum from
forming in the boiler when the system cools. The boiler steam outlet can
be left open again the next day, and left open in general (while closing the
cooker steam inlet, particularly when building pressure in the boiler such as at
5.7 Boiler blow&own, regular cleaning
At the end of each day of operation, it is recommended that the boiler, while
still hot, be emptied while under pressure. This is done by gently opening the
boiler blow down valve at the bottom of the boiler. This should be opened
very carefully and slowiy. The boiling water and steam wilt be released into
a vessel or a floor drain.
If this is not
done daily,
it should
be done at least once per Seek.
After the blow down is complete, close the blow-down valve and refill the
boiler with water so it is ready for the next day of operation. Keeping water in
the boiler is preferred.
Blow-down valve
Boiler interior cleaning. (Performed monthly or less often, depending on
water conditions and amount of operation)
This clean-out procedure is mainly to remove accumulated scale and deposit
on the inside of the boiler. Regular daily blow-down should prevent the need
for frequent interior cleaning.
Cleanout opening nut
with Teflon washer
and tie rod
relief valve
Steam boiler with top cover removed
Remove the boiler drum cover. Using the clean-out nut wrench supplied with
the system, loosen the top and bottom cleanout opening nuts on the boiler.
The exact same configuration of nut+ Teflon washer and tie rod is at the
bottom of the boiler. lt may be necessary to hold the bottom nut while
removing the top.
', '.1
. 4 . .'I
Removing cleanout opening nut.
Same procedure on bottom of boiler.
Take extreme care to protect and save the Teflon washer which is
immediately belovr the opening nuts on the top and bottom of the boiler.
This prevents pressure leaks.
When the nut has been removed, gently knock the tie rod down and it will
come out the bottom of the boiler. Remove the round plate to allow cleaning
of the inside of the boiler. The bottom plate can be removed by tapping it
from the inside with the tie rod. The top cleanout plate can also be knocked
out with the loose rod pushed from the bottom.
When re-installing the round plates, tie rods and nuts with washer, it is
necessary to wrap two layers of Teflon tape on the edge of the plates
before they are re-installed into the boiler.
This page is to be copied and displayed in the area of the VitaGoat operation
Ilaximum capacity is 15 litres. For soymilk = 12 litres of water
combined with mashed soybeans. Mix before loadin cooker.
Cook soymilk up to 110 C then close steam valve and release
cooked product in one or two minutes.
Cook fruit and vegetable purees, soups, sauces etc. up to 100 C
then close steam valve and release cooked product.
Never let the cooker ressure rise above 30 si. At 40 psi the
safety release valve will open —releasin hot food roduct.
ressure au e shows an
ressure when the tern erature
is below 90 C, gently push the small lift pin button on the top of
the cooker (use a spoon or tool). This will let unwanted air
pressure out and Iet steam pressure build.
For soymilk production: If the pressure gauge reaches 30 psi but
the temperature has not reached 110, simply close the steam
valve and wait a few minutes before releasing the food. This
should never happen if the previous rule is followed.
If the
first —then open
it enough to allow a continuous flow. Never
open the valve fully under pressure until the end (to be sure all
after em t in
the product is out. ) Close valve immediatel
Be prepared to partially or fully close the steam valve if the
boiler pressure drops below 25 psi. Resume after boiler rises.
can be soaked with cool water and then washed with a
mild detergent and water. Use a long brush through the outlet.
Make sure steam valve is closed to prevent wash water being
sucked into boiler from possible vacuum in cooling boiler.
6. Pressure Cooker, Press and Tofu Box
Tnfij Rnx
Press filter bag
Cooker and Press
6.1 Cooker Details
Before operating the cooker, become familiar
as shown in the photos below.
with the exterior and interior details
Product inlet
Pressure gauge
Lid win~uts
Safety relief valve
Outlet valve
To open the cooker, simply remove the lid wingnuts and carefully remove the top
and place it so that the pressure gauge does not get damaged. If the pressure
gauge is not installed with a "pigtail" connection as shown, this must be
installed, using Teflon tape for the connections.
Pressure gauge dial
Cooker pressure
gauge assembly
When the lid has been removed, note the interior, including the steam diffuser
and the thermometer well.
Steam diffuser
Cooker inside view
Pay special attention to the rubber lid gasket. This should be removed and
oiled with an ordinary vegetable oil. This should be done several times per
week during production, to allow long life and flexibility for the gasket.
Cooker lid gasket
This lid and the interior must be cleaned after every day of production and the
components should be left open to dry out. Replace the rubber gasket and lid
and close it with the wing nuts, finger-tighten securely. Do not use any tools.
After replacing the lid assembly, pay special attention to the safety pressure relief
valve assembly, Make sure the discharge pipe is attached and facing the rear of
the installation. A bucket should be placed below it in case there is any release
of cooked product due to an over pressure situation.
Pressure relief
valve arm
relief valve
discharge pipe
Pressure relief valve assembly
each cleaning, the underside of the pressure relief valve must be checked
and cleaned so that it does not become obstructed with food. It can be gently
cleaned with a brush and flushed through by opening the valve with the valve
arm. The underside of the pressure gauge assembly must also be cleaned.
Open the cooker product inlet by removing the clamp. Under the steel cap is
another rubber gasket. This must also be oiled occasionally for maintenance.
Cooker product inlet assembly
The mill hopper can be used as the
cooker product inlet hopper as well
AAer the food products and water are added,
and finger-tighten
the clamp.
close the product inlet assembly
6.2 Thermometer and pressure-cooking
Note the thermometer. Together with the pressure gauge, it must be checked
frequently during operation. The ideal soymilk production temperature is
between 105 C and 115 C. Temperatures higher than this can spoil the flavour of
the soymilk, and temperatures lower will result in an undercooked product or will
take extra time to cook.
To reach a temperature of above 100C the cooker must be under pressure. The
temperature should be above 90C before pressure starts to show on the
pressure gauge. lf the temperature ls beiow SO and there is pressure
building on the gauge, release some air by pressing on the metal button on
the top of the cooker lid. Use a tool to press the button as it will be hot.
Also be very careful as some hot air and steam will be released.
Soymilk production
temperature range
Cooker thermometer
Pour the ground or mashed food product already mixed with the right amount of
water into the cooker. Generally the combination of all should not be above
16 liters. For soymilk, use approximately 2 kg (dry weight) or 4 kg (soaked
beans) together with approximately 12 liters of water. This ratio can be varied
to local preference, but it is better to make a rich milk which may later be thinned,
than to make the product too thin.
Place the product inlet assembly (gasket cap and clamp) on the top of the
When the boiler pressure gauge shows over 25 psi (preferably higher —around
50psi), the cooking process can begin. With the food to be cooked already in the
cooker, open the steam outlet valve on the boiler, and also open the steam inlet
valve on the bottom of the cooker. if, the pressure in the boiler drops below the
minimum of 25 psi, then temporarily close one of the steam valves until the boiler
pressure is higher. Pressure witl ordinarily begin to drop in the boiler so make
sure that the fire is enough to keep the pressure up above 25.
6.3 Checking Boiler
At the same time as the cooking begins, the operator or a second person
must frequently check the boiler to see if the water needs to be added, or if
the fire is too low or high. After some experience, it becomes more of a
routine and the optimum balance of fire and water (evels is reached for the needs
of the production. Normally, when the steam valves are closed the pressure in
the boiler will build more quickly so between cooking batches, when the valves
are closed, the boiler should be monitored closely. If the boiler pressure begins to
reach 80 psi or more, add some cold water with the pump to reduce the pressure
If this is not enough, then the fire should be reduced. The boiler also has a
pressure safety relief valve, but it does not open until 90 psi or 125 psi
(depending on the setting shown on the valve model), and this pressure
should not be approached normally. If pumping water does not reduce the
pressure then carefully release some water from the main blow-down valve
on the bottoin of the boiler.
6.4Completing Cooking I Filtering
Continue injecting steam into the cooker until the desired temperature has been
reached, Always check the pressure gauge on the cooker while adding
steam. It must not be allowed to exceed 35 psi, because at 40 psi the safety
relief valve will open and discharge boiling hot product out the pipe at the
When the desired cooking temperature and
product is ready for release, make sure that
having the filter bag installed over the edge
a clean bucket or other vessel placed under
time has been reached and the
the filter press has been prepared by
of the perforated cylinder. Also have
the spout of the press.
Release the cooked product very slowly at first. It is hot and under
pressure and will be released dangerously if the cooker outlet valve is
opened to quickly or too far.
the case of soymilk or other products which must be filtered such as fruit or
vegetable juices, release all the product into the filter bag. After some time when
most of the liquid has passed through the filter, close the filter bag by twisting it
and placing the top of the bag down, with the pressing plate above it. Press the
remaining product out of the filter press by turning the nut.
In the case of sauces, soups, purees or other products which do not need
filtering, release the finished product directly into a bucket or other vessel.
Immediately upon emptying the cooker into the press, the next batch of food
should be ready to put into the cooker. Make sure all pressure has been
released from the cooker and then only open the top of the cooker food
inlet assembly. Do not completely rely on the pressure gauge to confirm
this, but also be sure that the cooker outlet valve was fully open before
opening the top.
8.5 Next Batch I Shutting
Finally, make sure the cooker outlet valve has been closed before putting the
next batch of food in.
Repeat the cooking process, after checking fire level, water level and ensuring
pressure in the boiler is above 25 psi.
At the end of production
there should be a blow-down and refilling of the
boiler. If this is not done then the two steam valves (on the boiler and
cooker) must be left opened to prevent a vacuum from forming in the boiler
when the system cools. It is always best to refill the hot boiler with fresh water
before finishing. Then it will also be ready for the next day. The boiler must never
be stored empty as excessive rusting will result,
6.6 Cleaning the Cooker
& Press
The Iid of the cooker should be removed carefully and placed so there is no
damage to the pressure gauge. Remove the inlet clamp assembly and wash
the inlet lid and gasket.
Clean the underside of the main cooker lid, paying special attention to the
openings for the pressure safety relief valve and the opening to the pressure
gauge. When finished washing the lid, leave it in an upright position for
draining so no water or waste rests in the openings.
Remove the main gasket and clean. Lightly oil both gaskets with vegetable oil
periodically after they are dry. This will extend their life.
Wash out the inside of the cooker and the inside of the main outlet valve and
pipe. Use cold water at first to release cooked-on soymilk, then warm water with
soap to finish the washing.
Wash the press assembly. Soak the filter bag and wash it.
Leave all components open to dry before re-assembling.
6.7 Tofu Box
See the
tofu box drawing in section 10.
Tofu preparation instructions are shown in section 8.
7 a) Production of Cooked Foods
1. Soyrnilk
and soymilk derivatives
See section 6 (especially 6.3) and section 8, for
details on production of soymilk and
2. Tomatos
a) Choose tomatos
good condition, however over-ripe ones can be used
b) Wash the tomatos.
c) Cut into quarters.
d) Put through the fruit
e) Cook
to make tomato puree or tomato juice.
the cooker at 90C for 5-10 minutes (after adding other ingredients).
f) Follow alf cooker instructions from section 6, except no cooker pressure
necessary. Lid can be closed loosely and not locked.
g) Remove from cooker. Press / filter if juice is desired.
h) Put into jars and sterilise if necessary (see later section on sterilisation. )
3. Mangos
and other tropical fruits (guava, passion fruit, etc.)
a) Choose fruit
good condition, however over-ripe fruit can be used
if not
b) Remove skins and pits.
c) Cut
into quarters
d} Put through the
fruit mill to obtain puree, nectar or juice.
e) Cook at 90C for 5-10 minutes.
Follow all cooker instructions from section 6, except no cooker pressure
necessary. Lid can be closed ioosely and not'locked.
g) Press and filter if juice is desired.
h) Put into jars and sterilise if necessary
(see later section on sterilisation. }
7 b) Production of Dry Foods
1. Peanuts or other
nuts to make a paste or nut-butter
a) Shell the nuts.
b) Roast lightly over a fire.
c) Grind
the cycle grinder. Adust the grinder plates with the screw, and the pulley
belt to change the product consistency and force of grinding. Lightly push and stir
inside the grinder hopper with a wooden dowel or bar (if necessary). Put the nut
butter into containers.
2. Grains and cereals (corn, sorgum millet, etc.) and soybeans for meal or flour
a) Dehulf if possible.
b) Grind with the
~cle grinder.
Adust the pulley
I belt to obtain the correct speed and
force of grinding. Lightly push and stir inside the grinder hopper with a wooden
dowel or bar (if necessary).
c) Adjust the consistency of the flour or meal
with the regulating
screw on the grinder.
d) Pass the product through the grinder a second time for increased fine texture of
flour or meal.
3. Dry-roased soya (to make soya coffee)
a) Roast the soybeans over a fire
until they
b) Grind with the cycle-grinder. Lightly push and stir inside the grinder hopper with a
wooden dowel or bar (if necessary),
c) Adjust the consistency
4. Shea nut (karite) paste
with the regulating
screw on the grinder.
a) Shell the shea nuts.
b) Roast on the fire.
c) Process the nuts
with the cycle-grinder.
Adjust for the correct consistency.
d) Process the paste into butter with the traditional method.
5. Coffee
Use the cycle grinder to grind roasted coffee beans. Adjust for consistency.
8. Cocoa
Use the cycle-grinder to make cocoa paste.
8. Ensuring Soymilk Tastes Goad + Tofu / Yogurt/ Okara
(and also of high nutrition quality and functionality)
Soymilk quality is comprised of many factors, with taste being one of the most
important (along with texture and mouthfeel, colour and sanitary condition). It further
follows that if the soymilk does not taste good, then any products made from it will
not either (whether it is tofu, yogurt, mayonnaise, etc) The following will thus focus
on those aspects of production that affect soymilk taste.
2. Cooking Procedure
a) Soyrnilk should not be over-cooked or undercooked. In either case, the product
be less nutritious as well as of lower quality taste and functionality. If overcooked the product will have a distinctive over-cooked taste. If undercooked, it will
have a "green" or more raw, beany taste.
b) The proper procedure should be carefully followed from the instructions in the
operating manual. This involves a correct combination of cooking time and
temperature. Soymilk should be cooked up to a temperature of 110 to 115 C (But
not higher). It can be immediately released from the cooker if the temperature has
risen above 110. If the pressure in the cooker is getting too high, the steam can be
turned off and the cooking can be finished by holding the temperature for about one
to three minutes at, or near 110C.
3. Ensuring The Boiler Water I Steam Is Clean
a) A water filter should be used in the line leading into the boiler in all cases where
the water supply is suspected of having impurities. Any particles visible in the water
will have an adverse effect on boiler operation and lifetime, but will also affect the
quality of steam being injected into the soymilk. Bacteria is not usually a problem due
to the high temperatures, only murky or cloudy water leaving sediment.
b) The boiler should be blown down (cleaned out under operating steam pressure
valve attached for this). This should be done ideally at the end
of every day of operation, but at least once a week. If it is only done weekly, several
cycles of boiling and releasing the boiled water and steam should be done until the
operator sees clear water coming through. Failure to do this will seriously affect the
life and operation of the boiler and will cause impure steam to be injected into the
soymilk. Less frequently, the boiler can be opened and cleaned inside.
with the appropriate
4. Bean Cleaning and Soaking
a) Insufficient cleaning and rinsing affects soymilk quality, After a manual and visual
check for foreign particles, the dry beans should be completely immersed in water
and then the water drained off.
b) Under or over-soaking will negatively affect soymilk taste and yield. Correct
soaking time is approximately 8 hours for cool water (15-20 C) and less for warm
water (Maybe only four to five hours at 25C or higher. ) Beans can be soaked up to
10 hours to assist in production planning where overnight soaking is indicated for the
morning production. However in such cases it is important that the soaking water
remains relatively cool. Any soybeans found floating on top of the water should be
discarded. Properly soaked beans will split in two when squeezed between the
fingers and the inside halves should be smooth, not concave, which indicated under
soaking, and the inside bean colour should be uniform.
c) After the soaking period, the water should be drained off and the soaked beans
should be rinsed again briefly with a little water before cooking.
d) To conserve water, the soaking and rinsing water can be kept for later washing of
the equipment and watering of gardens if appropriate.
Beans which are soaked much too long wil} start to ferment. This will be
evident by either a great deal of foam resting on the top or possibly by a
fermented smell coming from the soybeans. lf this happens then the beans will
not produce soymilk.
5. Formulation of Soymilk
The chart below is a guideline for quantities of water for the cooker and
soybeans, (Soaked soybeans will more than double in size and weight).
Soymilk Beverage
Fresh Water
Dry weight
12ft13 liters
So beans
2 —2.2 kg
Depending on
8 Yo urt
12J13 liters
2.2 kg
a) The cooked soymilk should have added to each batch (approx. 14-15 liters) a
of salt (about two tablespoons) and a larger quantity of sugar (at least
one cup —250 ml) according to taste. For children add two cups of sugar per batch.
This procedure is the single most important factor in making soyrnilk taste
acceptable to the general public. Cow's milk contains lactose and is therefore
naturally sweet. Therefore it is necessary to add sugar to bring soymilk up to a
similar sweetness as accepted by the public. This procedure is necessary also for
small quantity
making yogurt but not tofu.
b) Other flavourings may be added as available including chocolate, vanilla and fruit
syrups and purees. When using fruit products it is important that they are not too
acidic or they will cause curdling (separation) of the soymilk,
c) Using a refractometer (if available) to check the Brix reading (dissolved solids) is
helpful to ensure that the soymilk is neither too thick, nor too thin. The ratio of
soaked beans to water is slightly different for tofu and soymilk for drinking. Also, the
yield of extraction from the soybeans is reduced if the product is too thick, because
causes too much protein and other nutrients to remain
the okara.
6. Cleaning of Equipment
a) The cooker, grinder and filter press should be cleaned daily and thoroughly.
Failure to do so will adversely affect the taste of the product, but also the life and
safety of the equipment. For example, an unclean safety release valve can fail easily
and make the system dangerous to operate.
b) The system should be pressure cooked with water only at the beginning of each
day of production. It should be heated and pressurized until the pressure relief valve
opens automatically. This helps sterilize the system and tests the pressure relief
valve, which is the primary safety feature of the system.
c) When making tofu, the resulting whey (yellowish or greenish water remaining
when the curds are removed) should be kept for cleaning the cooker and press. The
whey helps to dissolve the sticky protein residue from the inside of the system.
d) When cleaning the system it is important to use cold water at first, Cold water
dissolves the protein - milk residue much better than hot water. Warm water can be
used with detergent as a final step.
e) Filter cloths and bags should be washed at the end of the day
soapy water, It
is not enough to merely rinse them.
7. Storage and
of Soymilk and Tofu
a) To avoid growth of bacteria and product spoilage, soymilk must be kept at a
temperature of under 5 C or over 60 C. This is necessary when the soyrnilk is not
being consumed the same day
is produced.
b) Tofu should be kept in cold water, unless in a vacuum seated container, and
refrigerated. The water should be changed after several days to extend the shelf-life.
bring their own containers should be instructed
them in boiled water before bringing them.
c) Recipients of soymilk who
to rinse
d) Soymilk will normally keep for up to a week when refrigerated properly, however
this can be increased to several weeks or more by filling clean containers when the
soymilk is hot (above 70 C).
INaking Tofu
Tofu quality and yield depend primarily on the coagulant and the procedure used for
coagulation, Other factors include soymilk temperature, coagulation time and the
way the tofu curds are handled when transferring for pressing. Our experience has
shown that a smoother tofu texture will occur if the curd pieces are larger rather than
smaller, and if the curd transfer for pressing is gentle and does not break up the curd
The tofu can be used in a number of recipes as a stand-alone or as a meat
substitute or complement, as a soft cheese substitute, and other foods. The
procedure described below is for making "semi-firm" or "firm" tofu.
The tofu-making process is as follows:
a) Take fresh soymilk while still hot, at a temperature between 80-85C, and
place in a large pot that has a cover.
b) Prepare a coagulant solution of 500 ml of hot water mixed with Calcium or
Magnesium Chloride or Calcium or Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom salts) to
produce a 10% strength. This is equivalent to approx. 4Tbsp (60mL) of food
grade powder in 500 ml of hot water. Alternately, a 9% Acetic acid (vinegar)
solution can be used. It is also possible to use Citric acid (30g in half liter of
hot water) This is an excellent coagulant for firm tofu but may be harder to
c) Stir the soyrnilk vigorousiy then stop and immediately pour 2/3 of the
coagulant into the agitated soymilk. Then stir onl 2-3 times in the o
direction to ensure that the coagulant is well dispersed in the soymilk. Do not
stir much after the coagulant is added as it will break up the larger curds
and it will be harder to produce well-formed tofu. Cover the vessel with the
d) Let stand for ten minutes, then lift the cover and separate the upper layer
slowly to check curd formation.
If the curd is of good quality (clear curd clumps have formed with a
liquid between them), then cover the vessel and
allow to stand for 10 minutes.
If the curd formation is weak, and whitish soymilk liquid is still present,
add the remaining coagulant solution and stir 2-3 times very gently.
Cover the vessel and allow to stand for 10 more minutes.
process is complete when targe curd pieces or flakes float in
a light yellow transparent whey.
f) Remove most of the whey by using a colander and a ladle (the whey can be
kept as an excellent cleaner for the system) and transfer the remaining curd to
a cheese-clothed lined pressing box,
g) For soft tofu, press for 30 60 minutes with a 5 kg load; For firm tofu, press
for 60-90 minutes with a 10 kg load. Note though that the relative firmness of
the tofu also depends on type of coagulant used, coagulation temperature and
the protein level of the soymilk base.
h) Cut the pressed tofu into 6-8 blocks and cool in water for 30-60 minutes,
preferably with water circulation. This carries away most of the coagulant
flavours that remain in the tofu. It also improves the shelf life.
i) Refrigerate any portions that will remain unused for more than 4 hours,
9. Soy Yogurt
Soy yogurt is made almost the same way as cow's
milk yogurt.
are not available, simply use some existing dairy
yogurt as a starter, making sure that the cultures in the yogurt are "live"
If dairy yogurt cultures
30 g of sugar and about
g of salt for each liter ofsoymilk. The sugar is
necessary because soymilk does not contain the milk-sugar, lactose. Sugar is
necessary to "feed" the natural bacteria which results in the yogurt.
b) Add
c) Heat the mixture to 45C. (Or wait
until the fresh soymilk cools to 45C) Add
local yogurt (again, made from live cultures) or use yogurt
Tablespoons of
starter culture if available. Mix thoroughly.
d) Ideally, the mixture should be made in a metal pot or bowl. Cover it and keep
it warm, about 35-40 degrees C for 8-12 hours. It can be kept warm by
carefully insulating the closed pot with heavy blankets, This is not necessary
in a hot climate of over 35 degrees, However, at below 35 on a warm, sunny
day, the closed pot can simply be placed outside in the direct sun for 8 or
more hours, A shorter incubation time will produce a more liquid "drinkable"
yogurt, while a longer incubation time will produce a firmer yogurt.
It is possible to stir in fruit puree to the soya yogurt after it is made if for drinkable
yogurt, while the fruit can be placed in the bottom of a cup or container before
incubation if the final product is firm yogurt.
Refrigerate finished product
not consumed
same day.
Save some yogurt as a starter for the next cycle of production.
10. Okara (soybean
fiber residue)
fiber that remains after filtering out the soymilk is called "okara". It
is approximately 75-80% water and still quite hot after it is freshly produced. This
warm, moist mixture of mainly fiber, protein and carbohydrates must be used fairly
quickly for human consumption since the okara is an ideal breeding ground for
bacteria. In warm climates, the okara must be consumed or transformed within 4-6
hours. If used as an animal feed, the okara can be kept for approx. 1 day.
The non-dissolved
It is possible however to inexpensively dry okara, and thus greatly increasing its shelf
life, by placing the moist okara in direct sunlight on a screen and turning it over a
number of times throughout the drying period. The dry okara can thus be kept for a
period ranging from a few weeks to several months, depending on its moisture level
(the lower the moisture, the longer
it will
Okara has a smooth texture, akin to fine moist sawdust, and has a pleasant slight
cereal taste. Like tofu, okara will take on the flavour of the ingredients with which it is
blended, while adding fiber and protein to the food. Examples include soup
thickener, meat extender and patties.
Okara is ideal to use in baking applications, where it can replace 10-15'lo of the
regular bread or pastry flour, whiie giving the regular dough up to 50% more protein,
lt has also been shown to extend the shelf life of bread products by a day or more,
Soybean Storage
There are two ingredients that are necessary for making soymilk base —water and
soybeans. ln order to have a good tasting product, one must then use good quality
water and soybeans. The proper storage of soybeans is particularly important since it
not only affects the soybean quality, but improper storage can waste soybeans by
making their yield go down (% of protein that can be extracted from them) or by simply
making them unusable.
2. Moisture Content
When soybeans are harvested from the field, they have a certain moisture level,
dependent on the growing season conditions, bean variety and harvesting conditions.
Soybeans can be harvested at moisture levels below 20%, but they must be stored at
14% moisture or lower. This moisture level is achieved after harvesting usually by
mechanically drying the beans, but it must be maintained during storage. This moisture
level is the single most important aspect in extending the effective life of soybeans.
The following table provides guidelines regarding this:
Moisture Content
Effect on soybean quality
Can safely be stored for long periods of time, but there is a
risk of mechanical dama e to the seed
Can be stored for up to 2 years
Can be stored for up to 1 year
Can be stored for up to 6 months
Can be stored for up to 4 months
16 and higher
Quality will rapidly deteriorate
As can be seen then, even small variations in moisture can greatly affect the storage
life of soybeans. For this reason, it is necessary to have a way of verifying the moisture
level of the beans at each site.
What happens if soybeans become moist
if the moisture level becomes too high (which is common during the humid, summer
months), soybeans actually can start to germinate, which affects their chemical
structure, and has the following consequences:
soymilk yield goes down (liters of soymilk made from 1 kg of dry soybeans)
will be adversely affected, with a range of slightly "off" flavour
to tasting rancid as the oil within the soybean begins to spoil.
b. soyrnilk taste
For these reasons,
moisture levels.
is important to store soybeans correctly, primarily to avoid high
How to
store soybeans
Soybeans are received at the recipient locations either
in bulk
(loose) or
i) Bulk (loose) soybeans
in this case can be stared in a large steel or plastic vessel that is open to
atmosphere, but that is covered, to avoid any possibilities of water directly falling on
them. The room in which they are Rept should have forced air ventilation (an
exhaust fan) and should preferably be kept cool (ideally, not above 25C in the
summertime). In no case should the relative humidity be more than 70%. The
beans should periodically be stirred to promote drying. It goes without saying then
that soybeans should never be kept in the same room where bean soaking or
soymilk production takes piace.
ii) Bagged soybeans
There is a specific and correct way to store soybeans in bags to facilitate drying
and avoid overheating of the soybeans. This is by placing the bags on a wooden
pallet so that there is a hole left in the center of the configuration to fet air circulate.
The bags should be stacked no more that 5 high on the pallet (see illustration).
Hole in muddle for
Other Factors
a) Soybeans must be kept
rodent and insect-free areas since these will render the
beans unsanitary and loss due to rodents may in fact be large. For this reason,
soybeans should be kept in a closed room without access to the outside and with
access door(s) closed at times when not in use.
b) If bagged, the bags should not be broken to prevent spillage and waste.
c) The "first in —first out" principle applies, where the oidest soybeans always get used
first, so that ali soybeans are used in the chronological order that they were received
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3/8 -16 UNC WNG NUT
Ottawa, Canada
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P l.hfK
(2 Pcaj
(150 - 7)
Manual Crist and Hour Mill
~ insert the crank onto the
PORKERTjy- l50
The PORKERTe Grist and Flour Mill is a manually operated
appliance for household application, designed to be used for grinding
grains and spices. The niill is manufactured of conventional cast iron
using finishes fully compliant with the most stringent health safety
standards for processing food.
The inill is shipped semi-assembled in a set of the foHowing parts:
mill body I with the stationary grinding
plate 2 and the
screw 3,
~ auger 4' with the rotary
yielding plate Sand grooved washer 7
retainetI'by a retaining pin.
~ yoke 8 with adjustment screw
9, retaining wing nut l0, steel ball
11,retaining ring 12 and retaining screw 13 with washers and wing
~ crank 14 with handle and ietaining screw6.
~ hopper 15
~ rubber pad l6
Mill Assembly:
The mill must be assembled using the above parts.
~ place the rubber pad on the foot plate and clamp the mill to
a sturdy tabletop or counter.
~ Insert the auger with the grinding plate into its channel in the
~ Release the yoke adjustment sctew, insert the yoke onto the
auger shaft end and attach ittothe body using the retaining
screws and wing nuts after properly mounting the washers.
the crank retainhig screw.
Mount the hopper onthemiil
turning it counter-clockwise.
auger shaA and install
body top and tock it in place by
After the initial assembly, the mill shouid be tered by iunning i
without grains to dislodge and remove any extraneous metallic
After this testing run, disassemble the mill and wash all parts in warn
sudsy water anddry it thoroughly toprevent rust.
Grinding Adjustment and Operation:
The meal coarseness obtained depends on the space between the twi
grinding plates. This space is adjusted by rotating the adjustmen
screw 9 until the desned fineness "is produced, and it is fixed b
tightening the retaining wing nut 10.Once adjusted and fixed, the mil
is ready for operation.
Maintenance and Cleaning:
The mill requires no special maintenance. It should be dismantlei
after each use for washing and drying of its parts. Occasionally a fev
drops of mineral oil should be applied to the lubricating hole on top o
the yoke.
(2A - Model V-2)
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