INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE
FOR SOYBEAN
A N Sharma
G K Gupta
R K Verma
O P Sharma
Someshwar Bhagat
N Amaresan
M R Saini
C Chattopadhyay
S N Sushil
Ram Asre
K S Kapoor
K Satyagopal
P Jeyakumar
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management
LBS Building, IARI Campus, New Delhi – 110 012
National Institute of Plant Health
Management (NIPHM)
DAC, Min of Agri., Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad- 500030
Directorate of Plant Protection,
Quarantine & Storage (DPPQ&S)
CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad
Haryana- 121001
i
© 2014 Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage
CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad- 121001
Citation:
A N Sharma, G K Gupta, R K Verma, O P Sharma, Someshwar Bhagat,
N Amaresan, M R Saini, C Chattopadhyay, S N Sushil, Ram Asre, K S Kapoor,
K Satyagopal, and P Jeyakumar. 2014. Integrated Pest Management for Soyabean.
pp 41.
Cover picture:
Healthy Pods of Soyabean
Compiled by:
A N Sharma1, G K Gupta1, R K Verma2, O P Sharma, Someshwar Bhagat,
N Amaresan, M R Saini, C Chattopadhyay, S N Sushil3, Ram Asre3, K S Kapoor3, K
Satyagopal4, and P Jeyakumar4.
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, LBS Building, IARI Campus, Pusa, New Delhi-110 012
1
Directorate of Soybean Research, Indore
2AICRP Soybean, JNKVV, Jabalpur
3Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage, Faridabad 121 001
4National Institute of Plant Health Management, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030
Published by:
Director
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, LBS Building, IARI Campus,
New Delhi – 110 012 on behalf of Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine &
Storage, CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad, Haryana- 121 001
Year
:2014
Copies
:500
Printed by:
M/s. Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-110028
ii
iii
iv
PREFACE
Pests are major biotic constraints to achieve self sufficiency in ensuring food security. Losses due to pest
vary range 10-30% depending upon the genetic constituent of crop, its health and the governing environment. General national estimate of annual crop losses due to pest amounts to ₹ 260000 million per year.
However, negligence of endemic areas can result in complete crop failures. In view of inefficacy of chemical pesticides and environmental problems thereof, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been accepted
as a cardinal principle of Plant Protection in the overall Crop Protection Programme under the National
Agricultural Policy of the Govt. of India. IPM being an eco-friendly approach, socially acceptable and
economically viable has been widely accepted across the country. The IPM package encompasses various
management strategies for pest and disease problems. Pest monitoring is also one of the important components of IPM to take proper decision to manage any pest problem. It can be done through Agro-Ecosystem
Analysis (AESA), field scouting, light, pheromone, sticky/yellow pan traps. The economic threshold level
(ETL) of important pests and diseases are also given in the package to activate appropriate control measures
on standing crops.
The existing package and practices was developed way back in 2001-02 by DPPQ & S, Faridabad catering the need of extension personals in extending IPM tactics to farmers. Though these were useful, there is
a need to update them in view of changing climate and its impact on pests and their protection measures.
A National Workshop on IPM for harmonization of Package of Practices was organized at the National
Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, during 25-26th Feb., 2013 with a view to provide
technical knowledge to the extension functionaries and farmers in the States. The IPM package has been
developed with the technical inputs from the experts from the PI (AICRIP), Indian Council of Agricultural
Research (NCIPM), State Agricultural Universities, and DPPQ & S, Faridabad.
It will also be useful in reducing the pesticide residues in exportable agricultural commodities and would
also help in the management of pests/diseases/weeds/nematodes, which may get inadvertently introduced
in the country. These packages will be useful for the researchers, extension workers and farmers alike who
are engaged in the agricultural practices.
Editors
v
vi
CONTENTS
Title
Page No.
1.
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1
2.
Biotic constraints.................................................................................................................................. 1
2.1.
Major Insect Pests of National Significance.............................................................. 1
2.2.
Major Insect Pests of Regional Significance.............................................................. 2
2.3.
Major Disease of National and Regional Significance............................................. 2
2.4.
Major Weeds of National and Regional Significance............................................... 4
2.4.1. Broad leaved weeds............................................................................................ 4
2.4.2. Grassy weeds....................................................................................................... 4
3.
IPM approach............................................................................................................................. 4
3.1.
Pest monitoring............................................................................................................ 5
3.1.1. Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA).................................................................. 8
3.2.
Cultural practices........................................................................................................ 12
3.3.
Genetic management.................................................................................................. 12
3.4.
Mechanical practices................................................................................................... 13
3.5.
Biological control......................................................................................................... 13
3.5.1. Biological control: Insects................................................................................ 13
3.5.2. Biological control: Diseases............................................................................. 14
3.6.
Chemical control......................................................................................................... 15
3.7.
Weed management...................................................................................................... 16
4.
Generic IPM module based on vegetative stage................................................................... 16
5.
Advisories for different probable situations of Insect-pest incidence in Soybean............ 18
6.
Zone wise IPM recommendations.................................................................................................... 19
7.
Safety parameters................................................................................................................................. 20
Annexures
I. List of recommended pesticides for soybean........................................................................ 26
II. Commonly available formulations of pesticides for agricultural use................................. 27
III. Pesticides and their mode of action........................................................................................ 28
vii
Title
Page No.
IV.
Mechanisms of actions of major pesticides.......................................................................... 29
V.
General guidelines for management of resistance................................................................ 30
VI. Pesticides / formulations banned in India............................................................................. 31
VII. Pesticides restricted for use in the country............................................................................ 32
VIII. Basic precautions for pesticide usage..................................................................................... 33
IX. Symptoms of poisoning and treatment of poisoning for different pesticides................... 36
Plates
I. Important insect pests of soybean.......................................................................................... 40
II. Important diseases of soybean................................................................................................ 41
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
1. INTRODUCTION
In India, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) has been the number one oilseed crop in terms of both
area and production since 2005. The crop has shown unparallel growth over the last four decades; from
an area of only 30,000 ha and production of 14,000 ton in 1970, the area reached 9.95 million ha with
total production of 12.57 million ton in 2011, with an average national yield of 1264 kg/ha. The area has
increased to about 10.69 million ha, and estimated production has reached to 12.68 million ton, respectively.
Soybeans occupied 42% of India’s total oilseeds and 25% of edible oil production. The crop currently earns
about Rs. 6976 crores of foreign exchange through exports of defatted oil cake. The feasibility of growing
soybean crop with minimum input/management lead to the rapid expansion in area and production with the
result that India now ranks 4th in terms of global soybean area sown and 5th in terms of soybean production
after USA, Brazil, Argentina and China. In India, soybean is mainly grown in the states of Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Nagaland and Gujarat as a
rainfed crop during the rainy (Kharif) season. Over the years, cultivation of the crop has been instrumental
in improving the socioeconomic conditions of large numbers of small and marginal farmers in the rainfed
agro-ecosystems of central and peninsular India. The crop has potential of mitigating rampant protein
energy malnutrition as well as becoming ideal food of the country on account of a number of nutraceutical
and functional compounds. Initially, the soybean was free of diseases and insects in India. However, its
continuous cultivation with simultaneous increase in area has led to increase in disease, insect and weed
incidence. Currently, soybean is severely attacked about half a dozen major diseases, a dozen of insect
pest and several major weeds. Yield losses due to individual disease/insect/weed species ranges from 20 to
100 per cent. However, with integrated pestmanagement schedule, 30-35 per cent additional yield can be
obtained.
2. BIOTIC CONSTRAINTS
2.1. Major Insect Pests of National Significance
1. Stem fly (Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner)
2. Tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fabricius)
3. Green semiloopers (Chrysodeixis acuta Walker, Gesonia gemma and Diachrysia orichalcea
Fabriciussensu Hübner)
4. Girdle beetle (Obereopsis brevis Gahan)
5. Pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)
6. White fly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius)
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
2.2 Major Insect Pests of Regional Significance
1. Blue beetle (Cneorane spp. Jacoby) - Western MP
2. Leaf miner (Aproaerema modicella Deventer)
- Maharashtra, Karnataka
3. Cotton grey weevil (Myllocerus spp.Weevil)
- Delhi, Punjab
4. Bihar hairy caterpillar (Spilosoma oblique Walker) - Tarai region of Uttarakhand, Western MP
5. Leaf folder (Hedylepta indicate Fabricius)
- Karnataka, Maharashtra, MP
6. Pink pod borer (Cydiaptychora sp. Meyr)
- Northern Karnataka
7. Leaf defoliator (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)
- Central and Western MP
2.3. Major Diseases of National and Regional Importance
S.
No.
Disease
Pathogen
Scouting
1.
Rust
Phakopsora pachyrhizi
H. Sydow & Sydow
Flowering to
pod filling stage
30-100
Maharashtra, Karnataka,
M.P, NEstates, Kerala,
Rajasthan, A.P. and Tamil
Nadu (regularly occurring in
Maharashtra, Karnataka, and
NEH region)
2.
Yellow
mosaic
Mungbean yellow
mosaic virus Nariani
Early vegetative
stage to
physiological
maturity stage
15-75
Uttarakhand, M.P., U. P.,
Delhi, Rajasthan, Haryana,
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh,
Karnataka and NE states
3.
Soybean
mosaic
Soybean mosaic
virus
Late vegetative
stage
25-50
Uttarakhand, M.P., Rajasthan,
U.P., Karnataka, Delhi,
A.P., Maharashtra, Haryana,
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh,
Jharkhand and NE states
4.
Collar rot or
Sclerotium
blight
Sclerotium rolfsii Curzi
1-4 week after
planting & mid
to late flowering
30-40
Delhi, Uttarakhand, M.P.,
Maharashtra, Rajasthan,
Karnataka and NE states
5.
Charcoal rot
Macrophomina
phaseolina (Rhizoctonia
bataticola) (Tassi) Goid
Mid to late
flowering
77
Uttarakhand, M.P., Delhi,
Rajasthan, Maharashtra,
Karnataka and NE states
6.
Rhizoctonia
root rot and
aerial blight
Rhizoctonia solani
(Thanatephorus
cucumeris) Julius Kuhn
1-4 week after
planting & mid
flowering to pod
formation following rain.
35
Uttarakhand, M.P, Delhi,
Maharashtra, Jharkhand,
Chattisgarh and NE states
7.
Bacterial
pustule
Xanthomonas campestris pv.glycines Pammel
35 days after
sowing to
throughout the
season
20
Uttarakhand, M.P., Rajasthan,
Karnataka, A.P., Maharashtra,
Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand
and NE states
2
Yield loss
(%)
Distribution
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
8.
Anthracnose
Colletotrichum dematium
f. sp. truncatum (Pers.)
Colletotrichum truncatum (Schwein.) Andrus &
W.D. Moore
All season
16-25
Uttarakhand, M.P.,
Rajasthan, Karnataka, A.P.,
Maharashtra, Himachal
Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Kerala,
NEH states, Delhi and
Chattisgarh,
9.
Myrothecium
leaf spot
Myrothecium
roridum Tode
Flowering to
pod filling stage
20-40
M.P., Rajasthan,
Karnataka, A.P., Maharashtra
and Uttarakhand
10.
Alternaria
leaf spot
Alternaria
alternata (Fr.) Keiss &
A. tenuissima
(Kunze) Wiltshire
Post flowering
stage
15
Uttarakhand, M.P,
Karnataka, Delhi and NE
states
11.
Indian bud
blight
A strain of
Groundnut bud necrosis
virus
Late vegetative
to pod filling
stage
22
M.P., Rajasthan, Delhi,
Karnataka, Maharashtra and
Chattisgarh
12.
Purple seed
stain
Cercospora kikuchii
T. Matsumoto
&Tomoy
Beginning of
seed set to
throughout
15-30
M.P, Maharashtra, Delhi,
Karnataka and NE states
13.
Brown spot
Septoria glycines
Mid & late
flowering to
seed set
8-15
Uttarakhand, M.P.,
Rajasthan, Maharashtra,
Himachal Pradesh and NE
states
14.
Frog eye leaf
spot
Cercospora sojina
K.Hara
Flowering to
seed set
22
Himachal Pradesh,
M.P., Karnataka, Uttarakhand, U.P., Rajasthan and
NE states
15.
Target leaf
spot
Corynespora cassiicola
(Berk. & M.A. Curtis)
C.T.
Mid & late
flowering to
seed set
18-32
Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand, Chhatisgarh and
NE states
16.
No-podding/
Phyllody/Bud
proliferation
Etiology not known
Flowering to
pod set
20-30
M.P., Karnataka, Himachal
Pradesh and Maharashtra
17.
Fusarium
seedling
/collar rot
Fusarium equiseti
Corda
All season
64
Delhi and M.P.
18.
Nematode
Rotylenchulus reniformis
Linford and Oliveira,
Meloidogyne spp.
Goldiand
Pratylenchus spp.
Pre sowing/
soil samples
6-17
M.P., Rajasthan and
Maharashtra
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
2.4. Major Weeds of National and Regional Importance
2.4.1. Broad leaved weeds
Amaranthus viridis L.
Cyperus iria L., Cleome viscosa L.
Trianthema portulacastrum L.
Euphorbia geniculata
2.4.2. Grassy weeds
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.)Willd
Echinochloa spp. (L.) Beauv
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaten
Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv
3. IPM Approach
There are over seventy two (72) definitions of IPM, issued by governments, research organizations,
NGOs, and universities (Bajwa and Kogan, 2002). Some assume that IPM will eliminate the use of crop
protection products, specially the chemical pesticides, which is most unlikely. Extreme views equating
IPM with “pest free” farming will become increasingly marginalised and more balanced views will prevail.
There is no reason not to support IPM as defined by the FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (Article 2): Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means a pest management
system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species,
utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest
populations at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or loss (FAO, 1967). Thus,
IPM is the best combination of cultural, biological and chemical measures that provides the most costeffective, environmentally sound and socially acceptable method of managing diseases, insects, weeds and
other pests.
IPM is a knowledge-intensive sustainable approach for managing pests by combining compatible cultural, biological, chemical, and physical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental
risks with the help of pest scouts. IPM relies heavily on knowledge of pests and crop interaction to choose
the best combination of locally available pest management tools (Fig. 1). Therefore, IPM is not a single
product that can be stored on shelves like pesticide, and it does not rely on single method to solve all our
pest problems. Pests also co-evolve and adapt very quickly to single control tactics through natural selection, and that multiple methods used simultaneously, or an “integrated” approach, is the most effective for
long-term, sustainable management programs.
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Fig 1. Diagrammatic representation of IPM components.
IPM is neither organic nor it relies solely on biological control to achieve the desired sustainable outcome.
It does often try to assist and augment the efficacy of natural enemies by limiting the impact of pesticide on
their populations and provide clean and safe niche. It seeks to conserve balance between the crop and the
natural environment. The World Bank policy (OP 4.04 - Natural Habitats) also promotes the conservation
of natural habitats, and enhancement of the environment for long-term sustainable development. In the IPM
concept, use of pesticides involves a trade-off between pest control and the risks of adverse effects on nontarget organisms, such as natural enemies, pollinators, wildlife, and plants, contamination of soil and water.
3.1 Pest Monitoring
a. Survey/Field Scouting
The objective of roving surveys is to monitor the initial development of pests in endemic areas. Therefore, in the beginning of crop season survey routes based upon the endemic areas are required to be identified
to undertake roving surveys. Based upon the results of the roving surveys, the state extension functionaries
have to concentrate for greater efforts at block and village levels as well as through farmers to initiate field
scouting. Therefore, for field scouting farmers should be mobilised to observe the insect pest and disease
occurrence at the intervals as stipulated here under. The plant protection measures are required to be taken
only when insect pests and diseases cross Economic Threshold Level (ETL) as per results of field scouting.
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
1. Roving survey: - Survey teams should undertake regular insect pest and disease monitoring on
pre-selected routes at 15 days interval and assess bio-control potential in addition to insect pest
and disease situation to give early forewarnings. Record should be kept about insect pest and disease incidence and bio-potential fauna on 5 plants per spot selected randomly at 10 spots per ha.
After every 10 km distance install sex pheromone trap for early deduction of S. litura @ 10 traps/
ha for mass trapping.
2. Field scouting: Field scouting should be undertaken by the farmers/ extension functionaries to
keep a close watch on the appearance of insect pest, disease and bio-control fauna.
b. Pest monitoring through pheromones/light traps etc.
Majority of insects population can be monitored by fixing and positioning of pheromones or light traps
at appropriate stage of crop.
Pheromone trap-monitoring - 5 traps/ha may be used to monitor Helicoverpa/Spodoptera population.
Disease monitoring
Surveillance on disease incidence and severity in the main field should be done along with insect-pest
just after crop sowing/transplanting and at weekly intervals thereafter. In each of the field select 20 plants
diagonally and observe, stem, leaves, fruits, etc. for disease symptoms & severity.
For root rot and crown rot diseases
Count the total number of plants showing the disease symptoms with severity. Uproot the plants and
observe the roots/ crown rot to see the plant disease is because of any biotic (pathogen, nematode, insect
damage etc.) or an abiotic factor (drought, excess moisture, physical damage etc).
For leaf spot and blight diseases
Observe five leaves from each plant (lower, middle and upper parts) and observe the symptoms. Count
the total number of infected leaves and calculate the severity.
For viral diseases
Count the total number of plant showing the disease symptoms with severity (top, middle & lower
portion). Observe distinguish viral disease symptoms on leaves, stems, flowers, fruits etc. Presence of
vectors (aphids, hoppers, thrips, etc.) should also be observed carefully.
Nematode sampling
Collect 100 to 300 cm3 (200-300 g) soil sample. Mix soil sample and pass through a coarse sieve to
remove rocks, roots etc. Take a 600 cc sub sample of soil, pack lightly into a beaker uniformly. Place soil
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
in one of the buckets or pans half filled with water. Mix soil and water by stirring with paddle; allow to stand
until water almost stops swirling. Pour all but heavy sediment through 20-mesh sieve into second bucket;
discard residue in first bucket; discard material caught on sieve. Stir material in second bucket; allow to
stand until water almost stops swirling. Pour all but heavy sediment through 200-mesh sieve into first
bucket; discard residue in second bucket. Backwash material adhered on 200-mesh sieve (which includes
large nematodes) into 250 ml beaker. Stir material in first bucket; allow to stand until water almost stops
swirling. Pour all but heavy sediment through 325-mesh sieve into second bucket; discard residue in first
bucket. Backwash material adhered on 325-mesh sieve (which includes small to mid-sized nematodes and
silty material) into 250 ml beaker. More than 90% of the live nematodes are recovered in the first 5-8 mm
of water drawn from the rubber tubing and the sample is placed in a shallow dish for examination.
3.1.1. Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA)
IPM has been evolving over the decades to address the deleterious impacts of synthetic chemical
pesticides on environment ultimately affecting the interests of the farmers. In modern IPM (FAO, 2002)
emphasis is given to Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA) where farmers take decisions based on larger
range of field observations. The health of a plant is determined by its environment which includes physical
factors (i.e. sun, rain, wind and soil nutrients) and biological factors (i.e. pests, diseases and weeds). All
these factors can play a role in the balance which exists between herbivore insects and their natural enemies.
Understanding the intricate interactions in an ecosystem can play a critical role in pest management.
It is an approach, which can be gainfully employed by extension functionaries and farmers to analyse
field situations with regard to pests, defenders, soil conditions, plant health, the influence of climatic factors
and their interrelationship for growing healthy crop. Such a critical analysis of the field situations will help
in taking appropriate decision on management practice. The basic components of AESA are
1. Plant health at different stages.
2. Built-in-compensation abilities of the plants.
3. Pest and defender population dynamics.
4. Soil conditions.
5. Climatic factors.
6. Farmers past experience.
AESA Methodology
Field observations on insect pests and diseases are to be
initiated after 20 days of sowing. In each field select five
spots randomly as shown in the figure (four in the corner, at
least 5 feet inside the border and one in the centre). At each
spot select four hills randomly for recording observations.
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Data recording
Farmers should record data in a notebook and drawing on a chart
•
Keep records of what has happened.
•
Help us making an analysis and draw conclusions.
Data to be recorded
•
Plant growth (weekly)
w
Height of plant
w
Number of dead plants
w
Number of leaves
•
Crop situation (e.g. for AESA)
w
Plant health: Observe the crop stage and deficiency symptoms etc.
w
Pests, diseases, weeds: Count insect pests at different places on the plant, and identify
any visible disease symptoms and severity. Observe weeds in the field and their intensity.
w
Natural enemies: Count parasitoids and predators.
w
Soil condition
wIrrigation
w
•
Input costs
wSeeds
wFertilizer
wPesticides
wLabour
•
Harvest
w
Yield (kg/ha)
w
Price of produce (./kg)
Weather conditions
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Important instructions while taking observations
•
While walking in the field, manually collect insects in plastic bags. Use a sweep net to collect
additional insects. Collect plant parts with disease symptoms.
•
Find a shady place to sit as a group in a small circle for drawing and discussion.
•
If needed, kill the insects with some chloroform (if available) on a piece of cotton.
•
Each group will first identify the pests, defenders and diseases collected.
•
Each group will then analyze the field situation in detail and present their observations and analysis
in a drawing (the AESA drawing as shown in MODEL AESA CHART).
•
Each drawing will show a plant representing the field situation. The weather condition, water level,
disease symptoms, etc. will be shown in the drawing. Pest insects will be drawn on one side.
Defenders (beneficial insects) will be drawn on another side.
•
Write the number next to each insect. Indicate the plant part where the pests and defenders were
found. Try to show the interaction between pests and defenders.
•
Each group will discuss the situation and make a crop management recommendation.
•
The small groups then join each other and a member of each group will now present their analysis
in front of all participants.
•
The facilitator will facilitate the discussion by asking guiding questions and makes sure that all
participants (also shy or illiterate persons) are actively involved in this process.
•
Formulate a common conclusion. The whole group should support the decision on what field
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Pest: Defender ratio (P: D ratio):
Identifying the number of pests and beneficial insects helps the farmers to make appropriate pest
management decisions. Sweep net, visual counts etc. can be adopted to arrive at the numbers of pests and
defenders. The P: D ratio can vary depending on the feeding potential of natural enemy as well as the type
of pest.
Model agro-ecosystem analysis chart
Date: ............................
Village:............................ Defenders
Farmer:........................................
Pest
Courtsey: NIPHM, Hyderabad
Decision taken based on the analysis of field situation
Soil condition:
Weather condition:
Diseases types and severity
:
Weeds types and intensity
:
Rodent damage (if any)
:
No. of insect pests
:
No. of natural enemies
:
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Feeding/egg laying potential of different parasitoids/predators
Predators/ Parasitoids
Ladybird beetle
Green lacewing
Bracon hebetor
Trichogramma spp.
Spiders
Feeding potential/ Egg laying capacity
Predatory rate of adult coccinellid on aphids is 50 aphids per day. It also feeds on the
Lepidopteran species eggs.
Larva can consume 100 aphids, 329 pupa of whitefly and 288 nymphs of jassids. It
also feeds on Lepidopteran species eggs
Egg laying capacity is 100-200 eggs/female. 1-8 eggs/larva.
Egg laying capacity is 20-200 eggs/female
2-3 moths per day
Ecological Engineering for Pest Management
Ecological engineering for pest management has recently emerged as a paradigm for considering pest
management approaches that rely on the use of cultural techniques to effect habitat manipulation and to enhance biological control. The cultural practices are reformed by ecological knowledge rather than on high
technology approaches such as synthetic pesticides and genetically engineered crops.
Natural enemies may require
1. Food in the form of pollen and nectar for adult natural enemies.
2. Shelters such as overwintering sites, moderate microclimate and alternate host etc.
Ecological Engineering for Pest Management – Above ground
•
Raising the flowering plants such as sunflower, sesame, okra, chrysanthemum, marigold, onion,
coriander, carrot, mustard, radish, etc. compatible cash crops along the field border by arranging
shorter plants towards main crop and taller plants towards the border to attract natural enemies as
well as to avoid immigrating pest population.
•
Do not apply chemical pesticides, when the P: D is favourable. The plant compensation ability
should also be considered before applying chemical pesticides.
Ecological Engineering for Pest Management – Below ground
•
Crop rotations with cereal crops which will break the continuity of soil borne pests as well as
attract beneficial insects and predatory birds.
•
Keep soils covered year-round with living vegetation and/or crop residue.
•
Add organic matter in the form of FYM, vermicompost, decomposed crop residue which enhance
below ground biodiversity.
•
Reduce tillage intensity so that hibernating natural enemies can be saved.
•
Apply balanced dose of biofertilizers and nutrients.
•
Apply mychorrhiza and PGPR
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
•
Apply Trichoderma / Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed, nursery treatment and soil application (if
commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers
for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
3.2. Cultural practices
a. Cleaning of infected stubbles followed by deep summer ploughing, optimal fertilizer application,
timely sowing, proper seedbed conditions and depth of sowing, optimum seeding rate and plant
population, regular scouting, rogueing and destruction of infected crop/plant parts, elimination of
collateral/alternate and reservoir hosts, crop rotation and intercropping, cultivation of soybean in
rainy season only and avoidance of mono varietal culture. Inter-cropping soybean either with asafetida (early maturing variety) or maize or sorghum in the sequence of 4 rows of soybean with 2
rows of intercrop should be practiced. Such bio-diversity will help in build up and conservation of
natural bio control fauna viz., coccinellid beetles, Chrysoperla etc. In girdle beetle and semilooper
endemic areas, intercropping with maize or sorghum should be avoided.
b.
Fertilizer dose
NPK and S at the rate of 20:60-80: 30-40:20 kg/ ha should be applied.
c.
Seed treatment
Seed treatment by Trichoderma viride @ 5g or thiram 37.5% + carboxin 37.5% DS @ 3 g/kg seed
for the management of seed, seedling and seed borne foliar diseases. This should be followed by
seed treatment with Bradyrhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) @ 5 + 5 gm / kg
seed.
d.
Sowing time
Sowing should be done timely when soil moisture is sufficient (8-12 cm depth) to ensure proper
germination.
e.
Seed rate and sowing
Optimum seed rate (65-75 kg/ ha) should be used depending upon seed size. After every 15 rows,
a gap of one row should be given to provide moving space for spraying in standing crop.
3.3 Genetic Management
Insect pest and disease resistant/ tolerant varieties mentioned below should be used:
Insect pest resistant/ tolerant varieties
Insect pest
Resistant/tolerant varieties
Stem fly
JS 335, PK 262, NRC 12, NRC 37, MACS 124 and MAUS 2, MAUS 47
Tobacco caterpillar
JS 81-21, PS 564 and PK 472
Green semilooper
NRC 7, NRC 37, PUSA 16, PUSA 20, PUSA 24, JS 93-05, JS 97-52, MAUS 47
and JS 80-21
Girdle beetle
JS 71-05, NRC 7, JS 97-52, MAUS 32 and Indira Soya 9
12
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Disease resistant/ tolerant varieties
Disease
Resistant/tolerant varieties
Rust
PK 1024, PK 1029, JS 80-21, Indira soybean 9 and MAUS 61-2
Sclerotium blight
NRC 37
Charcoal rot
NRC 2, NRC 37, JS 71 05, LSb 1, MACS 13 and JS 97-52
Rhizoctonia aerial blight
PK 472, PK 1042, PK 564 and SL 295
Anthracnose & pod blight
Bragg, Himso 1563, PK 472, JS 80-21, Pusa 37, VLS 21 and NRC 12
Bacterial pustule
PK 1029, PK 1042, JS 71-05, JS 90-41, Bragg, Himso 1563, Indira soya 9,
KHSb 2, MAUS 32, NRC 7, NRC 37 and VLS 2
Yellow mosaic
PK 416, PK 472, PS 564, PK 1024, PK 1029, PK 1042, Pusa 37, SL 295,
SL 525, SL 688 and JS 97 52
Soybean mosaic
JS 71-05, KHSb 2, LSb 1, MACS 58, MACS 124, Punjab 1 and VLS 2
Myrothecium leaf spot
JS 71-05, JS 335, MACS 13, MACS 124, MAUS 47 and NRC 7
Purple seed stain
JS 80-21 and Bragg
Frog eye leaf spot
Bragg, JS 80-21, KHSb 2 and VLS 21
Alternaria leaf spot
KHSb 2, NRC 2, PK 327, PK 1042, Himso 1563, JS 80-21, Pusa 37 and
VLS 21
3.4. Mechanical Practices
•
Collection and destruction of girdle beetle infested plant parts, egg masses and gregariously
feeding larvae of hairy caterpillar and tobacco caterpillar should be done. Rogueing of Sclerotium
affected seedlings and yellow mosaic affected plants should be undertaken.
•
Erection of bird perches @ 10-12/ha.
•
Installation of pheromone traps for monitoring incidence of S. litura and H. armigera.
•
Use of Castor as trap crop for tobacco caterpillar and Dhaincha for girdle beetle.
3.5. Biological Control
3.5.1. Biological Control: Insects
•
Conserve spiders, coccinellid beetles, tachinid fly, praying mantids, dragon fly, damsel fly, Chrysoperla and meadow grass hoppers through minimum use of broad spectrum pesticides, so as to
exploit maximum potential of bio-control fauna.
•
Release Telenomus remus @ 50000/ha against S. litura.
•
Spray Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75 to 1.0 kg/ha
for the management of semilooper complex (Chrysodeixis acuta, Gessonia gemma, Diachrysia
orichalcea and defoliators).
•
Spray SlNPV @ 250 LE/ha
•
Spray of NSKE @ 5% for management of early stage larvae and sucking pest.
13
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Major parasitoids of insect pests of soybean
Host: stem borers and green semilooper. Black small wasps but stout with clear wings and short antennae. Base of the hind leg is brown yellow to red. Female lays 1-20 eggs in each host larva. Immature parasites feed inside the host. Parasite larvae emerge from sides of the dead host and develop white overlapping
cocoons near or below the host.
S.No.
Natural enemy category
Natural enemy
Pest attacked and feeding potential
1
Egg parasitoid
2
Larval
parasitoid
3.
Larval and
pupal parasitoid
4.
Pupal
parasitoids
Trichogramma chilonis Egg parasitoid of Spodoptera
and Helicoverpa
Tetrastichus
Egg parasitoid of Spodoptera
and Helicoverpa
Telenomus
• Egg parasitoid of Spodoptera and
Helicoverpa, A female parasitizes
20-40 eggs and lives 2-4 days or longer if
nectar or sugar solution is provided.
• Both Tetrastichus and Telenomus may
parasitize the same egg mass but not the
same egg.
Ichneumon
Larva parasitoid of Spodoptera and
promissorius
Helicoverpa
Carcelia spp
Larval parasitoid of Spodoptera and
Helicoverpa
Diglyphus isaea
Larva parasitoid of Spodoptera
and Helicoverpa
Larval borer Adult wasp is medium
Xanthopimpla
sized yellow orange in colour with black
flavolineata
ovipositor
Pupal Parasitoids of white fly
Encarsia formosa
Pupal Parasitoids of white fly
Eretmocerus spp
Pupal Parasitoids of
Lissopimpla excels
Helicoverpa
Courtsy: NIPHM, Hyderabad
3.5.2. Biological Control: Diseases
•
Seed soaking in mixture of cow urine (1:10) + asafoetida (0.01%) for 1 minute followed by two
sprays of cow urine at 30 and 45 DAS or seed soaking in cow urine (1:10) for 1 minute for the
management of collar rot.
•
Three sprays of raw Neem oil @ 1.0% at 30, 45 and 60 DAS for the management of rust or sprays of
cow milk at 50, 60 and 70 DAS or seed soaking in a mixture of cow urine (1:10) + asafoetida (0.01%)
for 1 minute followed by sprays of cow urine at 50, 60 and 70 DAS for the management of rust.
•
Seed soaking in mixture of cow urine (1:10) + asafoetida (0.01%) followed by two sprays of cow
urine (1:10) at 30 and 45 DAS for the management of Rhizoctonia aerial blight.
14
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
•
Seed soaking in mixture of cow urine (1:10) + asafoetida (0.01%) for 1 minute or above seed
soaking followed by sprays of cow urine or only sprays of cow milk at 30 and 45 DAS for the
management of Myrothecium leaf spot.
•
Seed soaking in mixture of cow urine (1:10) + asafoetida (0.01%) or in cow urine alone for 1
minute for the management of bacterial pustule.
3.6 Chemical Control
Application of pesticides should only be resorted if pest population crosses the economic threshold
levels as under:
Pest
Blue beetle
Green semilooper
Tobacco caterpillar
Girdle beetle
Helicoverpa armigera
Crop stage
Seedling
Flowering
Flowering
Flowering
Podding
Population/ meter
4 beetles
2 larvae
4 larvae
10 % infestation
3 larvae
Depending on insect infesting the crop use one of the following insecticides with recommended doses:
Insect
Defoliators
(Spodoptera litura)
(Helicoverpa armigera)
White fly (Bemisia tabaci)
Stem fly
(Melanogromyza sojae)
Pod borer (Helicoverpa
armigera and Cydia ptychora)
Girdle beetle
(Obereopsis brevis)
Blue beetle
(Cneorane spp.)
Insecticides and dose
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150 ml/ha.
Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 (Bt) @ 0.75
to 1.0 Kg/ha
Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 Kg/hg
Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 Kg/hg
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150 ml/ha.
Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 (Bt) @ 0.75
to 1.0 Kg/ha
Triazophos 40 EC @ 625 ml/ha
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150 ml/ha.
Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Depending on disease incidence on the crop use one of the following fungicides with recommended doses:
Disease
Charcoal rot, Collar rot and
Rhizoctonia root rot
Rhizoctonia aerial blight,
Anthracnose and pod blight,
Myrothecium leaf spot, Alternaria leaf spot, Purple seed
stain, Brown spot, Frog eye leaf
spot and Target leaf spot
Rust
Yellow Mosaic and Soybean
Mosaic
Nematode
•
Fungicide Dose
Thiram @ 3g or Thiram 37.5% DS + Carboxin
37.5% (a combi product) @ 3 g/kg seed.
Thiram @ 3g or Thiram 37.5% DS + Carboxin
37.5% (a combination product) @ 3 g/kg seed
Two to three sprays of Hexaconazole 5% EC @ 100 ml/ 100 l or Propiconazole
25% EC @ 500 g/ha at the interval of 10-15 days for the management of rust.
Seed treatment by Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 ml/ha.
Seed treatment with Carbofuran 3% CG @ 50000 ml/ha
Poison baiting with 2% zinc phosphide at podding and green seed stage, preceded by 1 day prebaiting or application of bromadiolone 0.005% ready to use at green seed stage for the control of
rodents.
3.7 Weed management
The crop should be maintained weed free initially for 30 to 45 days by resorting two hand weeding or by
pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 30% EC @ 2.5-3.3 l/ha or Pendimethalin 38.7% CS @15001750 ml/ha or Pendimethalin 30%+ Imazethapyr 2% EC @ 2.5-3.0 l/ha or Metolachlor 50% EC @ 2 l/ha
mainly for controlling grassy weeds and/or Fluchloralin 45% EC @ 2.22-3.33 l/ha for broad leaved weeds
and/or Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 1.0 l/ha or Quizalofop ethyl 5% EC 0.75-1.0 l/ha or Quizalofop-p-tefuryl
l4.41% EC 750-1000 ml/ha or Fenaxaprop-p-ethyl 9.3% w/w EC (9% w/v) @ 1111 ml/ha at 15-20 DAS
and Fluchloralin 45% EC @ 2.22-3.33 l/ha should be incorporated into the soil immediately after sowing.
4.0 Generic IPM module based on vegetative stage
CROP STAGE/ PEST VIS-À-VIS IPM PRACTICES
S. No
1
Crop stage/pest
PRE-SOWING
IPM practices
Cultural practices
1. Deep ploughing in summer to expose soil-borne pathogens, nema
todes and insect-pests, rhizomes and bulbs of perennial weeds.
2. Pre-monsoon sowing must be avoided. Sowing should be
done when soil moisture is sufficient to ensure proper germination
Chemical control
1. Fluchloralin 45% EC @ 2.22-3.33 l/ha should be incorporated into
the soil for controlling broad leaved weeds.
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
2
SEED & SEEDLING
Insects and diseases
Weeds
3.
4.
VEGETATIVE STAGE
Girdle beetle, tobacco
Caterpillar and hairy
Caterpillar
Green semiloopers and girdle
beetle
Mechanical practices
Collect and destroy girdle beetle infested plant parts, egg masses and
gregariously feeding larvae of hairy caterpillar and tobacco caterpillar.
Chemical control
Apply Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%
SC @ 150 ml/ha for controlling defoliators, tobacco caterpillars, stem
fly and girdle beetle.
Foliar diseases and rust
Two sprays of Hexaconazole 5% EC @ 100 ml/100 lit for the
management of rust.
FLOWERING STAGE
Green semilooper and Girdle
beetle
5.
Cultural practices
1. Use insect/disease tolerant varieties.
2. Use recommended seed rate (65-75 kg/ha)
3. N.P.K. and S should be applied @ 20:60-80:20:20 kg/ha
Chemical control
1. Seed treatment with Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 ml/ha to prevent
seedling mortality due to stem fly maggots and also to control white
fly transmitting YMV.
2. Seed treatment with Thiram 75% DS @ 3 g/kg seed should be
done. This should be followed by seed treatment with Bradyrhizo
bium japonicum and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) @ 5+5
g/kg seed.
Mechanical practice
1. Rogue out collar rot affected seedlings. Crop should be maintained
weed free initially for 4-6 weeks by resorting to timely inter-culture
and hand picking and use of pre-emergence weedicides.
Remove plants infested with gregarious S. litura or Spilarctia obliqua.
1. Crop should be maintained weed-free initially for 30-45 days be
resorting to two hand hoeing/weedings.
2. Pre-emergence application of Alachlor 50% EC @ 5 l/ha or Alachlor
10% GR @ 15-25 kg/ha or Metolachlor 50% EC @ 2 l/ha for grassy
weeds and/or Pendimethalin 38.7% CS @ 1500-1750 ml/ha or
Metribuzin 70% WP @ 0.5-0.75 kg/ha for controlling both grassy and
broad leaved weeds.
Chemical control
Apply Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%
SC @ 150 ml/ha. for controlling defoliators, tobacco caterpillars, stem
fly and girdle beetle.
PODDING STAGE
Rats
Chemical control
Poison baiting with 2% Zinc phosphide at podding and green seed
stage preceded by one day pre-baiting or application of Bromadiolone
0.005% ready to use at green stage for the control of rodents.
17
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
5.0 Advisories for different probable situations of Insect-pest incidence in Soybean
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Advisory
Short
Girdle beetle infestation initiated in early crop Watch for drooping and drying of leaves.
stage
Manually remove the infested plants or plant parts from
below the girdles.
Alternatively, spray Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha.
Spray of this insecticide will be effective if used within
7-10 days of girdling symptoms are noticed.
Girdle beetle infestation continues and Spray Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha or
observed during flowering and podding stages Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150 ml/ha.
also.
Girdle beetle infestation observed after crop No need to spray any insecticide. Crop is nearing maturity.
growth is completed, i.e. after about 75 to 80
days of sowing.
2-3 small larvae (1-3 instar) of green Spray Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39,
semilooper are observed in one m row length 3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0 g/ha if RH is more than 75 %.
during early crop stage.
4-6 small green semilooper larvae observed at If RH is > 75 % spray the crop with Bacillus thuringiensis
flowering stage
var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0
g/ha.
2-4 big sized green semilooper larvae (3rd If population of big sized larvae is less than 4 larvae/
instar onwards) observed at flowering stage
meter row and RH is more than 75%, spray the crop with
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b,
Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0 g/ha. The spray may be repeated
after 10 - 15 days. Spray with Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%
SC @ 150 ml/ha or Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha.
Crop history shows infestation by Spodoptera Install pheromone traps @ 10/ha containing
in previous years
Spodoptera litura (Sl) lure and observe for egg masses
and gregarious larvae. Do not handle pheromone
septa with bare hands. Use clean cloth or cotton.
Remove the egg masses and gregarious larvae.
Initial population of gregarious larvae / egg Install bird perches @ 8-10 per acre.
masses of Spodoptera observed.
Spray Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39,
3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0 g/ha if RH is more than 75 %.
Do not spray if there is forecast of heavy rains in next
1-2 days.
Incidence of Spodoptera coincides with Watch for egg masses and gregarious phase; remove and
flowering stage of crop
destroy them. In case of heavy incidence, spray the crop
with Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha. Do not spray if
there is forecast of heavy rains in next 1-2 days.
Even one big sized (4th instar) Spodoptera Immediately spray Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha.
larva/plant is observed at flowering stage
Same insecticide should not be repeated for second spray.
If needed, another insecticide should be used after 15-20
days if larval population is still observed damaging the
crop.
Spray operation should be carried out either in morning
or late evening hours, as during day time larvae of
Spodoptera hide in the soil crevices. This will also avoid
adverse effect on parasitoids and predators.
Situation
18
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Crop history shows infestation by Helicoverpa Install pheromone traps @ 10/ha containing Helicoverpa
in previous years
armigera (Ha) lure.
If 20-25 adult moths per trap are observed then spray Ha
NPV@ 100 LE/acre along with one tea spoon of indigo
and sticker.
Do not spray if there is forecast of heavy rains in next
1-2 days.
Immediately spray Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha.
Big sized larvae of Helicoverpa noticed
feeding on pods.
Mixed population of green semilooper,
Immediately spray with Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @
Spodoptera and Helicoverpa is observed
150 ml/ha.
Indoxacarb 15.8% EC @ 333 ml/ha.
during flowering or early pod formation
stage.
Larval mortality of caterpillars due to infection Watch for increase in mortality. Spray of chemical
of Beauveria bassiana is noticed.
insecticide can be postponed for some time.
If dry spell prevails after infection of Beauveria on leaf
eating caterpillars, then start application of chemical
insecticides as stated above.
More than 4 adults of blue beetle seen at Spray Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha.
seedling stage
Repeat spray of Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha if the
population continues to increase.
Heavy seedling mortality due to stem fly Spray with Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 l/ha at 10-15
infestation experienced in previous years
days after germination
Any unforeseen situation in Soybean Crop Contact nearest Agricultural Officer, Agricultural
experienced.
University of Maharashtra State or DSR, Indore.
6.0 Zone wise IPM Recommendations
(I) North Plain Zone (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttarakhand)
Use of YMV resistant varieties, seed treatment with Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 10 l/ha at 7-10 days
after germination; spray of Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha; manual removal of girdle beetle/Bihar hairy
caterpillar/tobacco caterpillar infested plants.
(II) Central Zone (M.P., Rajasthan and North Maharashtra)
Installation of bird perches
Installation of Pheromone traps
Foliar spray of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0 g/ha.
Need based application of Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha.
(III) Southern Zone (South Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu)
Installation of bird perches
Installation of pheromone traps
Manual removal tobacco caterpillar infested plants
Spray of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Serotype H-39, 3b, Strain Z-52 @ 0.75-1.0 g/ha
Need based application of chemical insecticide e.g., Triazophos 40% EC @ 625 ml/ha
19
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
7.0 SAFETY PARAMETERS IN PESTICIDES USAGE
Safety parameters inter alia classification of toxicity as per Insecticides Rules, 1971, WHO classification
of hazards, colour of toxicity triangle, First aid measures, symptoms of poisoning and treatment of poisoning,
the extension functionaries of the State Department of Agriculture have to make use of this information as
under:i) Basic precautions which are required to be taken as per classification of toxicity as well as hazard
criteria by WHO may be seen as per Annexure –VII.
ii) The extension functionaries are to educate the farmers on safety use of pesticides with the help of
colour toxicity triangle as the farming community can follow the colour and corresponding safety
precautions.
iii) The symptoms of poisoning must be known to the extension functionaries to enable them to
extend first aid measures to affected persons to the extent possible.
iv) Basically, the information on first aid measures and treatment of poisoning is required to be passed
on by the extension functionaries to the doctors at Primary Health Centres as well as to Private
Doctors in the vicinity of spraying of pesticides.
v) Extension functionaries must ensure that names of common pesticides during plant protection
measures along with a copy of the leaflet which is an integral part of a pesticide container must be
made available to the doctors in the vicinity of plant protection operations.
vi) Extension functionaries are to request the doctors to intervene in procurement of antidotes for
different pesticides as cited under “Treatment of poisoning”.
Protocol for Pesticide application techniques, equipments and nozzle specifications
Category A: Stationary, crawling pest/ disease
Vegetative stage
Pesticides
1. For crawling and
soil borne pests
2. For small sucking
leaf borne pests
Reproductive stage
Insecticides and fungicides
Category B: Field Flying pest/airborne pest
Vegetative stage
Insecticides and fungicides
Reproductive stage
(Field Pests)
• Lever operated knapsack sprayer
• (Droplets of big size)
• Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi
• Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min
Or
• Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower
(Droplets of small size)
• Air blast nozzle
• Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle
• Lever operated knapsack sprayer (Droplets of big size)
• Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi
• Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min
• Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower
• (Droplets of small size)
• Air blast nozzle
• Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle
or
• Battery operated low volume sprayer
20
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Post-emergence
application
Weedicide
Category C: Weeds
• Lever operated knapsack sprayer
(Droplets of big size)
• Flat fan or flood jet nozzle @ 15 to 20 psi
Lever operating speed = 7 to 10 strokes/min
• Trolley mounted low volume sprayer (Droplets
of small size)
• Battery operated low volume sprayer (Droplets of
small size)
Pre-emergence
Courtsy: NIPHM, Hyderabad
Do’s and don’t’s in IPM
S, No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Do’s
Deep ploughing is to be done on bright sunny
days during the months of May and June. The
field should be kept exposed to sun light at
least for 2-3 weeks
Adopt crop rotation
Don’ts
Do not plant or irrigate the field after ploughing, at least
for 2-3 weeks, to allow desiccation of weed’s bulbs and/
or rhizomes of perennial weeds
Avoid growing monocrop.
Grow only recommended varieties.
Do not grow varieties not suitable for the season or the
region
Sow early in the season
Avoid late sowing as this may lead to reduced yields and
incidence of white grubs and diseases.
Always treat the seeds with approved Do not use seeds without seed treatment with biocides/
chemicals/bio products for the control of seed chemicals.
borne diseases/pests.
Sow in rows at optimum depths under proper Do not sow seeds beyond 5-7 cm depth.
moisture conditions for better establishment.
Apply only recommended herbicides Pre-emergent as well as soil incorporated herbicides
at recommended dose, proper time as should not be applied in dry soils. Do not apply herbicides
appropriate spray solution with standard along with irrigation water or by mixing with soil, sand
equipment along with flat fan or flat jet or urea.
nozzles.
Maintain optimum and healthy crop stand Crops should not be exposed to moisture deficit stress at
which would be capable of competing their critical growth stages.
with weeds at a critical stage of crop weed
competition
Use the NPK fertilizers as per the soil test
Avoid imbalanced use of fertilizers.
Use micronutrient mixture after sowing based Do not apply any micronutrient mixture after sowing
without test
on test recommendations.
Conduct AESA weekly in the morning
preferably before 9 a.m. Take decision on
management practice based on AESA and P:
D ratio only.
Install pheromone traps
at appropriate
period.
Do not take any management decision without considering
AESA and P: D ratio
Do not store the pheromone lures at normal room
temperature (keep them in refrigerator).
21
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
13
14
15
16
Release egg parasitoids only after noticing
adult moth catches in the pheromone trap or
as pheromone trap or as per field observation
Spray pesticides thoroughly to treat the
undersurface of the leaves, particularly for
mites, whiteflies, Spodoptera etc.
Apply short persistent pesticides to avoid
pesticide residue in the soil and produce.
Follow the recommended
procedure of trap crop technology.
Do not apply chemical pesticides within seven days of
release of parasitoids.
Do not spray pesticides only on the upper surface of
leaves.
Do not apply pesticides during preceding 7 days before
harvest.
Do not apply long persistent on trap crop, otherwise it
may not attract the pests and natural
Operational, calibration and maintenance guidelines in brief
1.
For application rate and dosage see
the label and leaflet of the particular
pesticide.
2.
It is advisable to check the output
of the sprayer (calibration) before
commencement of spraying under
guidance of trained person.
3.
Clean and wash the machines and
nozzles and store in dry place after use.
4.
It is advisable to use protective clothing,
face mask and gloves while preparing
and applying pesticides.
Do not apply pesticides without
protective clothing and wash clothes
immediately after spray application.
Do not apply in hot or windy
conditions.
5.
Do not spray dust into the wind
6.
Operator should maintain normal
walking speed while undertaking
application.
22
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
7.
Do not smoke, chew or eat while
undertaking the spraying operation
8.
Operator should take proper bath with
soap after completing spraying
9.
Do not blow the nozzle with mouth
for any blockages. Clean with water and
a soft brush.
Courtsy: NIPHM, Hyderabad
Method for calculation of pesticides for application
(i) Solid formulations such as dust, wettable powder or gr anules, the active ingredient is mixed with inert
material. The concentration is expressed as Active ingredient (%) in the total weight of commercial product
Active ingredient (%) in dust, WP. orgranules = Weiqht of a.i. x 100
Total weight of W P , dust, etc.
Example. Carbendazim 50% WP means there are 50 g of carbendazim in every 100 g of commercial
WP (50 % a.i.).
Calculations when recommendation is in kg a.i. per ha. For W P, dust, granules, etc.
Specification required:
1) Area to be sprayed
2) Concentration of a.i in formulation
3) Recommended rate as kg a.i. ha-1.
Formula: kg of WP/dust/granules = Recommended rate x spray area (sq.m)
a.i (%) in W P x 100
Example: If Carbendazim 50% WP is used at the rate of 2 kg a.i ha-1, then amount of Carbendazim
50% WP required for 1 ha (10000 m2) is:
kg of Carbendazim 50% WP required = 2 x 10000 = 4 k g/ha
50 x 100
23
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
(ii) Liquid of formulation Here the a.i. is dissolved in a solvent with an emulsifying agent. It is expressed as in emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The concentration can be expressed in two ways.
a)
Active ingredient (%) in EC = Weight of a.i. x 100
Volume of EC
b)
Grams L-1
Example: Hexaconazole 5% EC means, 100 ml of commercial product has 5 ml of pure Hexaconazole
For emulsiflable concentrates
Specification required:
i)
ii) iii) Area to be treated
Recommended rate as kg a.i. ha-1
Concentration of commercial EC as a.i (%) or kg L-1
When concentration of EC is in a.i. (%)
Formula:
kg of EC required = Recommended rate x area (m2)
a.i (%) in commercial EC x 100
= Recommended rate x area (ha)
a.i. (%) in commercial EC x 100
Example: Hexaconazole 5% EC to be sprayed at the rate of 2 kg a.i. ha-1 for 10000 m2
Hexaconazole 5% EC has 5 % a.i. How much liters of Hexaconazole is required?
Liters of 5 % Hexaconazole required = 2 x 10000
5 x 100
= 40 L
When concentration expressed is in kg a.i. L-1
Formula:
=
Recommended rate in kg a.i. ha-1 x area (ha)
Concentration of a.i. in product (kg L-1)
Example: Acetamprid (0.01 kg a.i. L-1 ) is to be applied at the rate of 0.05 kg a.i. ha-1
How much will be required for 3 ha?
Liters of Acetamprid required = 0.05 x 3.0
0.01 = 15 liters
24
and
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
When recommendation is based on a.i (%) in the spray fluid
i) Wettable powders (when diluted with water)
Specifications required:
1
Spray volume as L ha-1
2 Concentration desired as a.i. (%) in spray
3
Concentration of commercial product as a.i. (%)
Formula :
WP = a.i. (%) desired x spray volume (L)
a.i. (%) in commercial WP
Example: To control Spodoptera in a plot. 2000 L of 2% Methyl Parathion DP is to be prepared.
The commercial product to be used is Methyl parathion 50% EC. How much Methyl parathion is
required?
Litre of Methyl parathion required = 2 x 2000 = 80 liters
50
ii)
Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
Specification required:
1) Spray volume as L ha-1
2) Concentration as percentage of a.i desired.
Concentration of commercial EC as a.i. (%).
Formula:
Liter of EC = a. i. (%) desired x spray volume
a.i. (%) in commercial EC
Example: 2000 L of 2 % Quinalphos 25% EC spray is to be prepared. How much commercial 25 %
EC is required?
Liters of Methyl parathion = 2 x 2000
25
= 160 L
25
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-I
List of Recommended Pesticides for Soybean (As on 15-10-2013, CIBRC)
Herbicides
Alachlor 50% EC
Alachlor 10% GR
Anilofos 30% EC
Chlorimuron Ethyl 25% WP
Clomazone 50%EC
Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9.3% /w EC (9% w/v)
Fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4% EC
Fluchloralin 45% EC
Imazethapyr 10% SL
Metolachlor 50% EC
Metribuzin 70% WP
Pendimethalin 30% EC
Pendimethalin 38.7% CS
Propaquizafop 10% EC
Quizalofop-ethyl 5% EC
Quizalofop –p-tefuryl 4.41% EC
Imazamox 35% + Imazethapyr 35% WG
Source: www.cibrc.nic.in
Insecticides
Carbofuran 3% CG
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC
Dichlorvos 76% EC
Ethion 50% EC
Imidacloprid 48% FS
Indoxacarb 15.8% EC
Malathion 50% EC
Methyl Parathion 2% DP
Phorate 10% CG
Profenofos 50%
Quinalphos 25% EC
Quinalphos 1.5 DP
Thiacloprid 21.7% SC
Thiamethoxam 30% FS
Triazophos 40% EC
26
Fungicides
Hexaconazole 5% EC
Triadimefon 25% WP
Carboxin 37.5% +
Thiram 37.5% DS
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-II
Commonly Available Formulations of Pesticides for Agricultural Use
Class
Dry
Liquid
Abbreviation
Type
Dust
D
• Ready to use, off shelf available
• Low percentage of active ingredients,
• Very fine dry inert carrier made from tale, chalk, clay, or ash
• Prone to high level of pesticide drift
• Granule particles are larger and heavier
Granule
G
• Granule particles are larger and heavier
• Used for soil treatment and broadcasting to manage nematodes, weeds and insect
pests
Wettable
WP
• Finely grounded power
Powder
W
• Finely grounded power
Micro
encapsulated
M
• Mixed with water for spray application
Emulsifiable
concentrate
EC
• Particles of active ingredients (liquid or dry) surrounded by a plastic coating
Concentrate
solution
C
LC
• Liquid active ingredients, dissolved in petroleum based solvents
• Easily absorbed through skin
ULV
F
L
Fumigants
liquids
Description
Pellets
• Diluted with a liquid solvent before being applied
• Very high percentage of active ingredient
• Used before dilution or diluted with small quantities of solvent
• Finely grounded solid active ingredients suspended in the liquid with inert
materials
• Solid or liquid that releases/vaporized into toxic gasses
27
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-III
Pesticides and their Mode of Action
Type of pesticide
Mode of action
How it works
Insecticides and nematicides
Contact
Act through cuticle
Ingestion
Act upon digestive track
Systemic
Absorbed and translocated to affected portions
Fumigants
Penetrates as a into cryptic parts
Contact
Act through cuticle and translocation
Systemic
Absorbed through soil and translocated to different parts
Superficial protectants
Contact pathogen reproductive propagules
Systemic
Absorbed through roots from soil, leaf and translocated to different
parts
Herbicide
Fungicide
28
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-IV
Mechanisms of Actions of Major Pesticides
Type of pesticide
Target tissue or organ
Mechanism
Insecticide
Central nervous
Interfere with electron system of nervous system
Inhibit acetyl cholinesterase the enzyme responsible for the regulating
biological activity
Cuticle
Inhibit growth and prevent cuticle formulations
Endocrine system
Disrupts hormonal metabolic system
Seed
Disrupts protein synthesis and inhibits germination
Leaf, stem,
Prevent photosynthesis
Leaf, stem, root
Interferes with the mitosis process
Leaf, stem, root
Affects cell respiration and ATP synthesis
Seed, leaf, stem
Inhibits liquid synthesis affecting cell wall and membrane
Root
Inhibits synthesis of essential ribosomal proteins Inhibits mitosis,
osmoregulation and mitochondrial respiration
Herbicide
Fungicide
29
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-V
General Guidelines for Management of Resistance
The general guidelines if adopted can prevent development of resistance by various pests in most of the
agricultural situations. The general approaches to avoid them are as follows:
Insecticides
•
Maintain good plant health,
•
Delay the spray of insecticide as far as possible.
•
Monitor populations and use economic thresholds
•
Use all available tactics for management of a particular arthropod (insect or mite)
•
Limit selection pressure throughout the season and remember spraying for one pest may influences
another
•
Limit use of one chemical molecule at a time and rotate chemical molecule and/or modes of
action, and
•
Use appropriate rates
Fungicides
•
Avoid growing large areas of highly susceptible varieties in endemic areas. Resistant varieties
should be used to reduce reliance on chemical pesticides.
•
Make full use of non-fungicidal control measures e.g., dispose of crop debris and control collateral
and alternate host, which harbor disease.
•
Monitor crops regularly for disease and treat before the infection becomes established.
•
Use fungicides only in the unavoidable situations where the risk of disease warrants treatment.
Make full use of effective fungicides with different modes of action as alternate sprays. Mixtures
of eradicant fungicides with protectants materials offer the most flexibility as well as reducing
resistance risk.
•
While formulating spray programmes, take into account any earlier use of fungicides groups as
seed treatment.
•
Do not exceed the maximum recommended numbers of applications to each crop for any particular
fungicide group. Avoid repeated applications of very low doses.
30
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-VI
Pesticides / formulations banned in India (As on 1st Jan, 2014)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Pesticides Banned for manufacture, import and use
1.
Aldicarb
2.
Aldrin
3.
Benzene Hexachloride
4.
Calcium Cyanide
5.
Chlorbenzilate
6.
Chlordane
7.
Chlorofenvinphos
8.
Copper Acetoarsenite
9.
Dibromochloropropane
10. Dieldrin
11. Endrin
12. Ethyl Mercury Chloride
13. Ethyl Parathion
14. Ethylene Dibromide
15. Heptachlor
16. Lindane (Gamma-HCH)
(Banned vide Gazette Notification No S.O. 637(E) Dated 25/03/2011)-Banned for Manufecture,Import or Formulate w.e.f. 25th March,2011 and banned for use w.e.f. 25th March,2013.
17. Maleic Hydrazide
18. Menazon
19. Metoxuron
20. Nitrofen
21. Paraquat Dimethyl Sulphate
22. Pentachloro Nitrobenzene
23. Pentachlorophenol
24. Phenyl Mercury Acetate
25. Sodium Methane Arsonate
26. TCA (Trichloro acetic acid)
27. Tetradifon
28. Toxaphene(Camphechlor)
Pesticide formulations banned for import, manufacture and use
1.
Carbofuron 50% SP
2.
Methomyl 12.5% L
3.
Methomyl 24% formulation
4.
Phosphamidon 85% SL
Pesticide / Pesticide formulations banned for use but continued to manufacture for export
1.
Captafol 80% Powder
2.
Nicotin Sulfate
Pesticides Withdrawn
(Withdrawal may become inoperative as soon as required complete data as per the guidelines is generated and
submitted by the Pesticides Industry to the Government and accepted by the Registration Committee. (S.O
915(E) dated 15th Jun,2006)
1.
Dalapon
2.
Ferbam
3.
Formothion
4.
Nickel Chloride
5.
Paradichlorobenzene (PDCB)
6.
Simazine
7.
Warfarin
Source: www.cibrc.nic.in
31
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure-VII
Pesticides Restricted for Use in the Country (As on 1st Jan, 2014)
S.No.
Name of Pesticides
Details of Restrictions
1.
Aluminium Phosphide
The Pest Control Operations with Aluminium Phosphide may be undertaken only by Govt./Govt. undertakings / Govt. Organizations / pest control
operators under the strict supervision of Govt. Experts or experts whose
expertise is approved by the Plant Protection Advisor to Govt. of India
except 1. Aluminium Phosphide 15 % 12 g tablet and 2. Aluminum Phosphide 6 % tablet.
2.
Captafol
The use of Captafol as foliar spray is banned. Captafol shall be used only
as seed dresser.
The manufacture of Captafol 80 % powder for dry seed treatment (DS) is
banned for use in the country except manufacture for export. (S.O.679 (E)
dated 17thJuly, 2001)
3.
Cypermethrin
Cypermethrin 3 % Smoke Generator, is to be used only through Pest Control Operators and not allowed to be used by the General Public.
4.
Dazomet
The use of Dazomet is not permitted on Tea.
5.
Diazinon
Diazinon is banned for use in agriculture except for household use.
6.
Dichloro Diphenyl Trichlo- The use of DDT for the domestic Public Health Programme is restricted
roethane (DDT)
up to 10,000 Metric Tonnes per annum, except in case of any major outbreak of epidemic. M/s Hindustan Insecticides Ltd., the sole manufacturer
of DDT in the country may manufacture DDT for export to other countries
for use in vector control for public health purpose. The export of DDT to
Parties and State non-Parties shall be strictly in accordance with the paragraph 2(b) article 3 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs).
7.
Fenitrothion
The use of Fenitrothion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control
in scheduled desert area and public health.
8.
Fenthion
The use of Fenthion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control,
household and public health.
9.
Methoxy Ethyl Mercuric The use of MEMC is banned completely except for seed treatment of poChloride (MEMC)
tato and sugarcane.
10.
Methyl Bromide
Methyl Bromide may be used only by Govt./Govt. undertakings/Govt. Organizations / Pest control operators under the strict supervision of Govt.
Experts or Experts whose expertise is approved by the Plant Protection
Advisor to Govt. of India.
11.
Methyl Parathion
Methyl Parathion 50 % EC and 2% DP formulations are banned for use on
fruits and vegetables.
12.
Monocrotophos
Monocrotophos is banned for use on vegetables.
1.3
Sodium Cyanide
The use of Sodium Cyanide shall be restricted for Fumigation of Cotton
bales under expert supervision approved by the Plant Protection Advisor
to Govt. of India.
Source: www.cibrc.nic.in
32
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Annexure –VIII
Basic Precautions in Pesticide Usage
A. Purchase
1.
Purchase only JUST required quantity e.g. 100, 250, 500 or 1000 g/ml for single application in
specified area.
2.
Do not purchase leaking containers, loose, unsealed or torn bags.
3.
Do not purchase pesticides without proper/approved LABELS.
B. Storage
1.
Avoid storage of pesticides in the house premises.
2.
Keep only in original container with intact seal.
3.
Do not transfer pesticides to other container.
4.
Never keep them together with food or feed/fodder.
5.
Keep away from the reach of children and livestock.
6.
Do not expose to sun-light or rain water.
7.
Do not store weedicides along with other pesticides.
C. Handling
1.
Never carry/transport pesticides along with food materials.
2. Avoid carrying bulk - pesticides (dusts / granules) on head, shoulders or on the back.
D. Precautions for Preparing Spray Solution
1.
Use clean water.
2.
Always protect your NOSE, EYES, MOUTH, EARS and HANDS.
3.
Use hand gloves, face mask and cover your head with cap.
4.
Use polyethylene bags as hand gloves, handkerchiefs or piece of clean cloth as mask and a cap or
towel to cover the head (Do not use polyethylene bag contaminated with pesticides).
5.
Read the label on the container before preparing spray solution.
6.
Prepare spray solution as per requirement.
7.
Do not mix granules with water.
8.
Concentrated pesticides must not fall on hands etc. while opening sealed containers. Do not smell
the sprayer tank.
9.
Avoid spilling of pesticide solution while filling the sprayer tank.
10.
Do not eat, drink, smoke or chew while preparing solution.
11.
The operator should protect his bare feet and hands with polyethylene bags.
E. Equipments
1. Select right kind of equipment.
2. Do not use leaky, defective equipment.
3. Select right kind of nozzle.
4. Don’t blow/clean clogged- nozzle with mouth. Use old tooth- brushes tied with the sprayer and
clean with water.
33
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
5. Do not use same sprayer for weedicide and insecticide.
F. Precautions for applying pesticides
1.
Apply only at recommended dose and dilution.
2.
Do not apply on hot sunny day or strong windy condition.
3.
Do not apply just before the rains and also after the rains.
4.
Do not apply against the wind direction.
5.
Emulsifiable concentrate formulations should not be used for spraying with battery operated ULV
sprayer.
6.
Wash the sprayer and bucket etc with soap water after spraying.
7.
Containers, buckets etc. used for mixing pesticides should not be used for domestic purposes.
8.
Avoid entry of animals and workers in the fields immediately after the spraying.
G. Disposal
1.
Left over spray solution should not be drained in ponds or water lines etc. Throw it in barren isolated area, if possible.
2.
The used/empty containers should be crushed with a stone / stick and burned deep into soil away
from water source.
3.
Never re-use empty pesticide container for any purpose.
34
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Safe use of pestiside
35
Name of pesticide
Quinalphos
Monocrotophos
Acephate
Chlorpyriphos
Ediphenphos
Phorate
S.
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Extremely toxic
Highly toxic
Highly toxic
Moderately toxic
Extremely toxic
Highly toxic
Classification as
per Insecticides
Rules. 1971
Red
Yellow
Yellow
Blue
Bright red
Yellow
Colour of
Toxicity
Triangle
Class I b -Highly
hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
Class III Slightly
Hazardous
Class I b Highly
hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
Class IaExtremely
hazardous
INSECTICIDES
First aid measures
Remove the person
from the contaminated
environment
In case of (a) Skin contact
Remove all contaminated
clothings and immediately
wash with lot of water and
soap. (b) Eye contamination
Wash the eyes with plenty
of cool and clean water;
(c) Inhalation – Carry the
person to the open fresh
air, loosen the clothings
around neck and chest,
and (d) Indigestion – If the
victim is fully conscious,
induce vomiting by tickling
back of the throat. Do not
administer milk, alcohol
and fatty substances. In case
the person is unconscious
make sure the breathing
passage is kept clear without
any obstruction. Victim’s
head should be little
lowered and face should be
turned to one side in the
lying down position. In case
of breathing difficulty, give
mouth to mouth or mouth
to nose breathing.
Medical aid: Take the
patient to the doctor/
Primary Health Centre
immediately along with the
original container, leaflet
and label.
ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES
WHO
classification by
hazard
36
Severe – diarrhea,
pinpoint and nonreactive pupils,
respiratory difficulty,
pulmonary edema,
cyanosis, loss of
sphincter control,
convulsions, coma
and heart block.
Moderate- nausea,
salivation,
lacrimation,
abdominal cramp,
vomiting, sweating,
slow pulse, muscular
tremors, miosis.
Mild – anorexia,
headache, dizziness,
weakness, anxiety,
tremors of tongue
and eyelids, miosis,
impairment of visual
acuity.
Nausea, vomiting,
restlessness, tremor,
apprehension,
convulsions, coma,
respiratory failure
and death
Symptoms of
poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning and treatment of poisoning for different pesticides
Speed is imperative
- Atropine injection – 1 to 4 mg. Repeat 2 mg,
when toxic symptoms begin to recur (15-16 minute
intervals), Excessive salivation good sign, more
atropine needed.
- Keep airways open, Aspirate, use oxygen, insert
endotracheal tube. Do tracheotomy and give artificial
respiration as needed.
- For ingestion lavage stomach with 5% sodium
bicarbonate if not vomiting. For skin contact, wash
with soap and water (eye wash with isotonic saline).
Wear rubber gloves while washing contact areas.
In addition to atropine give 2-PAM (2- pyridine
aldoxime methiodide) 1g and 0.25 g for infants
intravenously at a slow rate over a period of 5 minutes
and administer again periodically as indicated. More
than one injection may be required.
Avoid morphine, theophylline, aminophyllin,
barbituarates ofrphenothiazines.
Do not give atropine to a cyanotic patients. Give
artificial respiration first then administer atropine.
For extreme symptoms of O.P poisoning, injection of
atropine (2-4 mg, for adults, 0/5-1.0 mg for children)
is recommended, repeated at 5-10 minute intervals
until signs of atropinization occur.
- Gastric lavage with 2-4 L. tap water. Catharsis with
30 gm (10 oz) sodium sulphate in the cup of water
- Barbiturates in appropriate dosages repeated as
necessary for restlessness or convulsions.
- Watch breathing closely, aspirate oxygen and/or
artificial respiration, if needed.
- Avoid oils, oil laxatives and epinephrine (Adrenalin)
– do not give stimulants.
- Give calcium gluconate (19% in 10 ml Ampules)
intravenously every four hours.
Treatment of poisoning
Annexure –IX
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Name of pesticide
Carbofuran
Carbaryl
Cartap
S.
No
7.
8.
9.
Highly toxic
Highly toxic
Extremely toxic
Classification as
per Insecticides
Rules. 1971
Yellow
Yellow
Red
Colour of
Toxicity
Triangle
Class I b Highly
hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
WHO
classification by
hazard
CARBAMATES
First aid measures
Constriction of
pupils, salivation,
profuse sweating,
lassitude, muscle
incoordination,
nausea, vomiting,
diarrhea, epigastric
pain, tightness in
chest.
Symptoms of
poisoning
- Atropine injection 1 to 4
mg, Repeat 2 mg when toxic
symptoms begin to occur
(15-60 minute intervals).
Excessive salivation good
sign, more atropine needed.
- Keep airway open.
Aspirate use oxygen, insert
endotracheal tube. DO
tracheotomy and give artificial
respiration as needed.
- For ingestion, larvae
stomach with 5% sodium
bicarbonate, if not vomiting.
For skin contact wash with
soap and water (eyes wash
with isotonic saline), wear
rubber gloves while washing
contact areas.
- Oxygen
- Morphine, if needed.
Avoid theophyllin and
aminophyllin or barbituarates.
2-PAM and other oximes are
not harmful and in fact contra
indicated for routine usage.
Do not give atropine to
a cyanotic patient. Give
artificial respiration first then
administer atropine.
Treatment of poisoning
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
37
38
Kasugamycin
Cyhalofopbutyl
Butachlor
Pretilachlor
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Carbendazim
Tricyclazole
14.
17.
Validamycin
13.
Thiophanate
methyl
Propiconazole
12.
16.
Hexaconazole
11.
Iprobenphos
Mancozeb
10.
15.
Name of pesticide
S.
No
Moderately toxic
Slightly toxic
Moderately toxic
Slightly toxic
-do-
-do-
Slightly toxic
Moderately toxic
Highly toxic
Slightly toxic
Moderately toxic
Slightly toxic
Slightly toxic
Classification as
per Insecticides
Rules. 1971
Blue
Green
Blue
Green
-do-
-do-
Green
Blue
Yellow
Green
Blue
Green
Green
Colour of
Toxicity
Triangle
-do-
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
-do-
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
-do-
-do-
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
Class III Slightly
Hazardous
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
Class III Slightly
Hazardous
Table 5 – Unlikely
to present acute
hazard in normal
use
WHO
classification by
hazard
HERBICIDES
FUNGICIDES
First aid measures
Headache,
palpitation, nausea,
vomiting, flushed
face, irritation of
nose, throat, eyes and
skin etc.
Headache,
palpitation, nausea,
vomiting, flushed
face, irritation of
nose, throat, eyes and
skin etc.
Symptoms of
poisoning
No specific antidote,
Treatment is essentially
symptomatic.
No specific antidote,
Treatment is essentially
symptomatic.
Treatment of poisoning
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Name of pesticide
Fipronil
Imidacloprid
S.
No
23.
24.
-do-
Highly toxic
Classification as
per Insecticides
Rules. 1971
-do-
Yellow
Colour of
Toxicity
Triangle
-do-
Class II Moderately
Hazardous
WHO
classification by
hazard
OTHER
First aid measures
Headache,
palpitation, nausea,
vomiting, flushed
face, irritation of
nose, throat, eyes and
skin etc.
Symptoms of
poisoning
No specific antidote,
Treatment is essentially
symptomatic.
Treatment of poisoning
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
39
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Plate I. Important insect pests of soybean
Spodoptera litura
Gridle beetle
Semilooper
40
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
Plate II. Important diseases of soybean
Alternaria leaf spot
Bacterial pustule
Rhizoctonia aerial blight
Rhizoctonia root rot
Frog eye leaf spot
Myrothecium leaf spot
Sclerotium root rot
Charcoal rot
Pod blight
Septoria root rot
Target leaf spot
Yellow mosaic
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
NOTES
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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
NOTES
43
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR SOYBEAN
NOTES
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