Development of eco-friendly washing machine

MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
Development of eco-friendly washing machine
Hamzah Sakidin1*, Pretesh Sudhakaran2, Muhammad Syaamil Saad3, Sarah Syamimi
Rozali4, Abdul Hadi Nasarudin5 and Ahmed Abdullah AlMashhor6
Fundamental & Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar
Seri Iskandar, Perak
1
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar,
Perak
2
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar,
Perak
3
Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar,
Perak
5 Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri
Iskandar, Perak
6 Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri
Iskandar, Perak
4
Abstract. A portable, non-electric washing machine powered by human
leg identical to cycling is produced in order to fulfil the need of varsity
students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly and time saving and
also to do physical body exercises. A black plastic bin has been used as the
main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation to the
water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in
the rotating and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal. This ecofriendly washing machine with an affordable price will benefit the lower
income family and also for the college students.
1. Introduction
1.1 Background
Conventional washing machine generally is not eco-friendly. On average, 1kg of clothes
would take up to 10 liters of water in a conventional washing machine. An official
measurement of energy efficiency for washing machines called the "energy factor" and
measures how many cubic feet of washing can be accomplished per kilowatt-hour of
electricity consumed [1]. The usage a lot of water for a few clothes can be of huge wastage.
Therefore, this project is aimed to track these necessities and fulfill the requirement with the
most suitable product which is a portable non-electric powered washing machine.
_______________________________________
*
Corresponding author: hamzah.sakidin@utp.edu.my
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
1.2 Objectives
The objective of this project is given below:
1. To fulfil the need of varsity students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly
and time saving manner.
2. To do more physical body exercise while doing the laundry.
3. To give choice to lower income group for doing the laundry
2 Literature Review
Doing a laundry is an essential factor in human life. Since the first electric washing machine
was invented by Alva J. Fisher in 1908, it had been benefit for people’s lives [2]. However,
the way they do it differs from one person to another according to their necessities.
Furthermore, according to a survey done all around Malaysia stated in Cuti-cuti Malaysia
on 2014 which showed concerns raised against the use of public laundry services among
young adults as many of them wished if they have a portable washing machines because they
usually just wash their customer’s clothes with less of detergent and use detergent of a low
quality. They also put clothes over limit of the washing machine capacity, thus it causes the
washing machines not to wash properly and cleanly. Another reason is related to workers
mistakes in separating customer clothes in which result in missing some of these clothes [3].
In addition, designing a lightweight washing machine would settle the problem of
homeowners with no extra room or small apartments such as studio apartments, and for
people who travel frequently [4]. It is also suitable for operation in case of lack of water
connection as well as for weekend riders and anyone who wants to wash quickly [6].
3 Methodology
Appropriate tools and selection of materials are important so that the prototype can be built
smoothly and will not cause any trouble. An existing product is required to be modified to
the extent of being able to insert a few elements for the mechanism to operate properly.
The planning and discussion of this project need to be done in a proper way to ensure the
final prototype can be produced successfully.
The flow chart in Figure 1 shows the stages of the project from the initial stage to the
final stage.
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MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
Fig. 1: Flow Chart of the project
3.1 Concept of design
This project is feasible and efficient design for our portable, non-electric washing machine.
The main body of the washing machine consists of a cylindrical barrel or a bin. This barrel
would be made of durable and sturdy plastic and polymer, like that of household pails.
This material is chosen for its overall economic value. A rotary base is attached to the
bottom of the barrel; coaxially. This base is equipped with ridges or fins that functions as an
agitator to promote the whirlpool motion of water in the device. The height of these ridges
will be designed to be tall enough to create sufficient agitation and to avoid tangling up the
clothes in the washing machine.
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MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
Chain and gears will provide the rotation motion for the barrel. This mechanism will be
powered by a paddle located at the side of the barrel. The paddle will spin a horizontal gear
that is perpendicularly aligned with a horizontal gear. This horizontal gear acts as the
connection between the main peddle and the rotary base. As this gear spins with the kinetic
energy supplied by peddling, the rotary base will spin along with it, thus agitating the contents
in the barrel. To ensure the spaces in between the gears, rotary base, and the bottom of the
barrel are waterproof, they will be sealed off with either silicon seal or a rubber seal.
The entire peddling mechanism will be isolated at the bottom of the barrel in a hollow
plastic enclosure, protecting it from external forces or disturbances. This enclosure will also
act as a foundation for our washing machine. The designed is capped off with a durable plastic
cover, equipped with fitting sockets to ensure the barrel is sealed tight when the washing
commences. The water in the barrel can be disposed off simply by tilting the device over
once the washing is done.
3.2 Description of prototype material
Below is the description of materials to be used for prototype in the design:
Material
Plastic bin
with cover
Rotary disk
with ridges
Pedal
Gears
Hollow
Plastic
Foundation
Shaft
Table 1: Materials description
Description
Main prototype material. The clothes are loaded
in the plastic bin, where the clothes are washed.
The external tub covers the inner tub and supports
it during various cycles of clothes washing.
The rotary disk is located inside the tub of the
washing machine. It is the important part of the
washing machine that actually performs the
cleaning operation of the clothes. During the
washing cycle the rotary disk rotates continuously
and produces strong rotating currents within the
water due to which the clothes also rotate inside
the tub. The rotation of the clothes within water
containing the detergent enables the removal of
the dirt particles from the fabric of the clothes.
Thus the rotary disk produces most important
function of rubbing the clothes with each other as
well as with water.
User pushes the pedal using foot powered. The
pedal are connected to gear that will rotates the
rotary disk and form kinetic energy.
Transfer kinetic energy from pedal foot powered
to mechanical energy of the mechanism
Separates the mechanical part of the washing
including pedal, gears, shaft, bolts and nuts from
washing space. It can prevent water from seeping
into the mechanical part of the washing machine
that can cause rust.
Transfer power from gears for rotation of the
rotary disk
The listed item in Table 1 are the things that used to build the prototype. A black plastic
bin has been used as the main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation.
4
MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
to the water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in the rotating
and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal.
Fig 2a : Front view
Fig 2b: Side view
Fig 3: Prototype
Figure 2a and Figure 2b show the schematic diagram of the eco-friendly washing machine.
The prototype of the eco-friendly washing machine is given in Figure 3.
4 Analysis
4.1 Survey data
An online survey was conducted to 36 respondents from varsity students to identify the
response for eco-friendly washing machine. Based on the survey, most of varsity students
think that washing machine and laundryman service are expensive and inefficient. Washing
machine and dryer services that are offered at their places need approximately RM 6 each
time to operate and most of the students are doing laundry once a week. Mathematically, if
we calculated it, one student would spend RM24 a month and RM 288 a year. Whereas, some
of the self-service washing machine offered RM 10 cost each time to operate and that would
have cost RM 480 a year.
Some students would prefer to wash their laundry manually by hand which would
consumes energy and time. Therefore, there is a need to create a portable and a cheap
alternative of doing laundry. Besides that, it would also save water and energy. It is foot pedal
powered without using any electricity and would not be using too much water as the
conservative washing machine nowadays. As for a small capacity of washing machine, this
design prototype washing machine can be carried around with ease and very compact.
From the trial run, the consumption of water can be reduced from the usual 40 gallons to
9 gallons with this washing machine. These 9 gallons constitutes one wash for about 8 to 9
pieces of clothes. It shows that this prototype takes one gallon to wash one piece of clothing
whereas a normal washing machine that can usually for around 20 pieces of clothing would
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MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
use 2 gallons per clothing item. This is an improvement from the usual conventional electric
washing machine.
Moreover, this prototype uses absolutely no form of electrical power as the hand
powered washing machine which provides good exercise for the users. The mechanical gear
system along with the hand paddle make up the operational system of our prototype, using
the principles of kinetic energy. It registers 3 rotations of the rotary device per rotation of the
handle. This gives us 225 rotations per minute of the device without water and 105 rpm with
water. Although it is much lesser than that of a normal washing machine, it is standard for a
hand powered one and is enough to complete the washing of clothes.
4.2 Costing
The economical of the project is important to ensure the items and parts are under the budget
allocated. In this project, the economic analysis covers the overall cost of the prototype and
also the real product. With variety of products in the market, the price range for every
component in the project is quite high, therefore it is crucial to choose the affordable one, yet
can maintain the quality of the prototype build by our team. The cost of the prototype can be
shown in Table 2.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Total
Table 2 : Costing for the prototype
Item
Quantity
Unit Price
(RM)
Barrel
1
10
Gear and
1
17
had drill set
Metal bar
50
including
welding
Rotating
1
50
base
Basin
1
6
Bicycle tyre
1
14
rim
wheels
4
4.50 x 4
Total Price
(RM)
10
17
50
50
6
14
165
18
Based on the costing above, may be the cost is quite expansive, however for the future
purposes, the cost can be reduced after some modification on the prototype.
5 Conclusion
This project is a manual pedal-powered machine, thus it reduces electricity consumption
in which decreases carbon footprint and that contributes to protecting our lovely globe from
global warming.
More interestingly, this handy portable machine is designed to save money because all
what it takes is just a good foot exercise in order to cut down on detergent usage and your
electricity and water bills. Besides the materials selected to build the machine are cheap
mainly plastic and steel, and the size is small as well as no electric parts or programming
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MATEC Web of Conferences 131, 04015 (2017)
UTP-UMP SES 2017
DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201713104015
involved in the design process, increasing the chance of innovating a low-cost and
competitive product.
Additionally, a normal electric washing takes 30-60 minutes per wash compared to the
manual washing machine which only take 7 minutes to perform the duty.
The advantages of this washing machine are:
1. Portable
2. Can reduce carbon footage
3. Can reduce water usage
4. Good for hand muscle workout
5. Cheap
Overall, this washing machine do not require electrical components, so that it can last
longer than traditional washing machines and never require maintenance or parts
replacement.
The authors would like to acknowledge Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for financial
assistance.
References
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Foreman.G. (2011). “Your Washing Machine and the Environment”. The Dollar
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http://www.stretcher.com/stories/00/000911e.cfm
2.
Barracuda (2015). “Who invented the Washing Machine?”. Service Force. [Online]
Avaiable:
http://www.serviceforce.co.uk/blog/kitchen-appliances/who-invented-the-washingmachine/
3.
Mamat, N. (2015). New Portable Washing Machine. [Online] Retrieved on May 27,
2015 [Online] Available :
https://www.essays24.com/History-Other/New-Portable-Washing-Machine/62265.html
4
Z, Kara. (2014). Living Direct: The Benefits of Portable Washers. [Online] Retrieved on
May 9, 2014. [Online] Avaiable :
https://learn.livingdirect.com/portable-washer-benefits/
5. N, Radojicic. (2010). The Advantages of Portable Washing Machines. [Online] Available:
http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Advantages-of-Portable-Washing-Machines&id=4551964
6. S. John. (2017). Portable Washing Machines: What are the Advantages and
Disadvantages? [Online] Avaiable :
http://www.blogher.com/portable-washing-machines-what-are-advantages-and
disadvantages
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