Water Filter.cdr - Anangpur Building Centre

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C
O M M O N M A N 'S
WATER
FILTER *
Here is a simple technique for converting
unpotable water to potable drinking water by
successfully reducing water hardness, Coli Form
and arsenic. Further, it strengthens the water with
natural elements known to increase immunity, is
made from commonly available materials and
costs no more than Rs 600 ($14).
More importantly, it recognizes the fact that the
human body derives its element requirements
and metabolic structure from its very own
surroundings, and hence these requirements vary
geographically. Thus, the marble found in Italy
would be best suited to supplement the element
requirements of the people there, while the
Indian marble would inherently be appropriate
for the Indian Sub continent. Moreover, it
endorses the principles of Naturopathy by
avoiding chemical additives altogether.
THE CONTAINERS
ALTERNATIVE 1: COPPER VESSELS
The earliest recorded knowledge of water
treatment is in the Sanskrit medical lore and
Egyptian wall inscriptions. Sanskrit writings dating
about 2000 B.C. tell how to purify impure water by
boiling it in copper vessels, exposure to sunlight,
filtering through charcoal, and cooling in an
earthen vessel.
The water filter comprises four Copper
Vessels/Containers, placed one on top of the
other, with a single 1.5 mm hole made at the
bottom of each container. The base of the
lowermost container is left unpunctured, so as to
contain the filtered water.
VESSEL 1
FILLER: COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL
Charcoal, well known to all, is a commonly
available, generally residual by-product. It is an
excellent adsorbent for organic compounds and
also adsorbs arsenic species. Here, charcoal
obtained by burning coconut shells, which is the
best form of charcoal and also an excellent filter,
is used.
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VESSEL 2
FILLER : MARBLE CHIPS
A careful introspection into the religious places all over the
world reveals how man exploited the cleansing properties
of limestone. Holy waters of rivers like Ganga, Jamuna and
Nile, and 'sacred' hot water springs in West Indies, New
Zealand as well as in the Indian subcontinent such as found
in the pilgrimages of Amarnath, Champaner and many
more are regarded for their medicinal properties. The
common underlying ingredient in all these water sources is
Calcium Carbonate. The abundant presence of stratified
Calcium Carbonate rocks surrounding the water is what
makes these holy waters 'magical'. Lime inhibits pathogens
by controlling the environment required for bacterial
growth. Moreover, Lime facilitates the removal of
carbonate hardness and facilitates in removing arsenic
from water .
Hence, the second vessel is filled with small marble chips,
which is basically a highly compressed form of limestone.
The water slowly seeps through the air gaps and
percolates to the next vessel. Due to the high pH of 10.511.0 maintained by lime, the stripping of nitrogen, another
nutrient, is facilitated. Thus, the removal of phosphorus and
nitrogen helps prevent eutrophication (algae build-up).
VESSEL 3
FILLER : WHITE SAND
Taking clues from a common pragmatic approach,
wherein DTH drilling is done until white sand is hit upon,
(which signifies purity), the third container is filled with local
fine white sand.
VESSEL 4
SILVER COINS
As shown in the diagram, silver coins are left at the bottom
of the container. Recent research compared silvercopper ionisation with the use of high temperatures to
destroy bacteria. Contaminated cold water re infected
the hot water system even when temperatures in hot water
heaters reached as high as 60 degrees Centigrade. But
experiments showed that even at lower water
temperatures, ionisation of soft water with silver and
copper ions was effective against the bacteria.
Silver in medicine, and as a purifier has been
acknowledged for centuries. Egyptians implanted silver
plates into skulls with surgery. In Ancient Greece and
Rome, people used silver containers to keep liquids fresh.
When settlers moved across the American West, they
would purify a container of water by putting a silver dollar
in it overnight. Towards the end of the 19th century, other
medicinal uses for silver were developed including the use
of silver and mercury in filling cavities, and the dropping of
a silver filtrate solution into the eyes of newborn babies to
Bamboo is a commonly available grass
and is known to have excellent recharging
properties. It provides an even more cost
effective solution while also being
portable.
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prevent blindness due to infection . An antibiotic kills
perhaps a half dozen different disease organisms but
silver kills some 650. Moreover, silver is virtually non-toxic .
Russian scientists working on water recycling and
purification problems for the Soviet space program
have decided on silver as the best long-term sanitation
agent. Researching the problems of water shortage
over periods of several months, as well as purification for
immediate use, they determined that ionised silver
provides the safest and longest lasting method of
transforming polluted waste into potable water.
Scores of independent tests have shown that silver
promptly kills bacteria in water and maintains water
purity over long periods of time .
ALTERNATIVE 2 : BAMBOO CULMS
A single bamboo with atleast five internodes is needed.
Around 30 mm ( 1.2 ") incisions are made at the side of each internode so as to shove the filler materials
in. Through this incision, a small 1.5 mm dia hole is also made at the centre of each node so as to
enable the trickle of water. The filler materials are filled in through the incisions in the order shown in the
diagram, with the top internode carrying the water to be treated and the bottom one with the fresh
water. Once the bamboo is filled, the cutted pieces of the incisions can again be plugged in so as to
make the container portable.A small faucet can be attached to the bottom most internode to
access the filtered water.For filtering larger quantities of water, multiple bamboo culms can be lined
up adjacently to form an assembly.
FILTERED WATER
Purified water can be collected in the bottom most container, equipped with a small tap for easy
access.
MAINTAINING THE COMMONMAN'S WATER FILTER *
The coconut charcoal should be replaced every four months (which can be dried and used for
barbecue or cleaning vessels!)
All containers and their contents should be washed with alum once a month.
“PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE ….”
Ironically, there would have been no need to devise a water filter atleast not for Coli Form removal,
had the approach to present day planning and water supply systems been more holistic and far
thinking.
The introduction of Coli form into potable water originates at the unit level from the mixing of bath &
kitchen wastes (pathogenic) with human sullage (non-pathogenic) at the point of the first manhole.
This disparate unision is then paraded around the entire city through huge sewage pipelines; across
tacky junctions and difficult slopes, unmaintained manholes and free-flowing open nallas; to make its
way into the Centralized Sewage Treatment Plant. The efficiency of this plant is evident today by the
present state of rivers in any city. In fact, the Sewage Plant authorities regard the Jamuna as 'main
nalla' in Delhi.
Man, therefore is the victim of his own ignorance and apathy. He remains a prisoner of flawed
technologies meted out by private manufacturers out to make a fast buck, with an overpowering
media adding grist to the mill. He neither has the knowledge, nor the will to make informed decisions.
The way we drink water everyday is proof of this fact.
“Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information”.
– T.S. Elliot
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