BREW - Specialty Coffee Association

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4 X 4:
BEAN:
•  Species & Variety
•  Origin
•  Processing
•  Roast
BREW:
•  Dose
•  Time & Texture
•  Water Quantity
•  Temperature
TASTE & FLAVOUR:
Chemical Composition of Roasted Coffee: soluble
Carbohydrates (53%)
Reducing Sugar
Caramelized Sugars
Hemi-cellulose (hydrolyzable)
Fiber (not hydrolyzable)
Oils
Proteins; Soluble amino acids
Ash (oxide)
Acids (nonvolatiles)
Chlorogenic
Caffeic
Quinic
Oxalic, Malic, Citric, Tartaric
Volatile Acids
Trigonelline
Caffeine (Arabicas 1%, Robustas 2%)
Phenolics (estimate)
Volatiles:
Carbon dioxide
Essences of Aroma and Flavour
insoluble
1-2%
10-17%
1%
14%
22%
15%
11%
1%
1-2%
3%
4.5%
0.5%
0.5%
1%
0.35%
1%
1.2%
2%
Trace
0.04%
2%
(Sivetz & Derosier (1979))
ORGANIC ACIDS:
•  Citric acid
• 
• 
• 
• 
Bright sharp and clean
Lemons, limes, oranges, tomatoes
Lemon juice has a ph about 2.5
Higher concentration in unripe cherries, decreasing as cherry
matures and sugars increase
•  Malic acid
• 
• 
Fruity bright and tangy
Apples, pears, passionfruit, grapes, limes, tomatoes
•  Quinic acid
• 
• 
• 
• 
Bitter
Cranberries, quince
Increases during roasting as chlorogenic acid breaks down
Associated with increased acidity of coffee left on hot plate
ORGANIC ACIDS:
•  Chlorogenic acid
• 
• 
• 
Astringent and bitter
About 50% broken down by time light roast
Higher concentrations in Robusta
•  Lactic acid
• 
• 
Milk, yoghurt
Can be created during the ripening process as malic acid breaks
down
•  Acetic acid
• 
• 
Vinegar
Often connected with defect flavours created during fermentation
ORGANIC ACIDS:
Table 1: Organic Acid content in green and roasted coffeea.
Component
Green
Roasted
Formic Acid
Traces
0.06-0.15
Acetic Acid
0.10
0.25-0.34
Lactic Acid
Traces
0.02-0.03
Citric Acid
0.7-1.4
0.3-1.1
Malic Acid
0.3-0.7
0.1-0.4
Quinic Acid
0.3-0.5
0.6-1.2
Chlorogenic acid
Caffeine
Green:
Arabica 5.5-8% Robusta 7-10%
Arabica 0.9-1.2% Robusta 1.6-2.4%
Ref: coffeechemistry.com
ORGANIC ACIDS:
PRACTICAL:
Taste a range of acids mixed in mild solution in water. Identify
their similarities to different fruit flavours and coffees.
Then try mixing some together and adding a little sugar to see
how the flavours develop and balance.
Brewing:
What do we know about the brewing process?
Three Phases of the Brewing Process:
•  WETTING
•  As the bean fiber absorbs hot water, gas is driven from the coffee
particles and interstitial voids (the small spaces inside the particles)
•  EXTRACTION
•  The water soluble flavouring compounds dissolve, rapidly moving out of
the bean fibers and entering the water
•  HYDROLYSIS
•  At this point large molecules of water insoluble carbohydrates break
down into smaller molecules that are water soluble. These are mostly
reducing sugars but also include some proteins
(Coffee Brewing Handbook: SCAA)
Extraction Percentages:
---- 30 %
---- 22%
---- 18%
Below
Over – extraction
Balanced
Under – extraction
BALANCE:
---- 30 %
---- 22%
---- 18%
Below
ACID
SWEET
BITTER
BALANCED ESPRESSO:
THREE PARTS OF AN
ESPRESSO:
•  ACID/HEAVY BODY
•  SWEET/MEDIUM
•  BITTER/LIGHT
Principles of Dissolving:
•  Particle size
•  Particle distribution
•  Particle shape
•  Temperature (& pressure)
•  Type of Compound (The more heat energy required to create a compound the
more heat energy is required to dissolve it)
•  The solute: what the water is like
Brewing PRACTICAL:
•  Dissolve powdered sugar, granulated sugar, and sugar lumps
•  Independently
•  In the same glass
•  In hot and cold water
•  Split an espresso three ways and taste
•  Try it with a dark and a light roast coffee
MEASURING ESPRESSO:
Dry coffee/weight of espresso = Espresso Brew Formula
e.g. 18 gram dose/36 gram double espresso = 50% EBF
With a 9% TDS the extraction % would be 18%
Working out extraction percentage:
(the percentage of the dry coffee dissolved into the drink)
•  Measure the weight of ground coffee used
•  Measure the weight of the drink extracted
•  Use a refractometer (N.B. an optical brix meter can be used as a rough
guide x 0.85) to measure the Total Dissolved Solids after filtering the
espresso
•  Feed all data into appropriate software or graph
4 X 4:
BEAN:
•  Species & Variety
•  Origin
•  Processing
•  Roast
BREW:
•  Dose
•  Time & Texture
•  Water Quantity
•  Temperature
DOSE:
•  There are many opinions on what is the correct dose to use, from the
traditional Italian 14g (double) to 18g or more from the Australian/Scandinavian
influence, but why would you use more?
•  More available dissolvable content (may be particularly required for lighter
roasts)
•  How could changes in dose affect temperature?
•  Remember to use an appropriate size basket for the dose used.
MASS TO ENERGY:
TEMPERATURE:
•  Remember that an increase
in temperature gives an
increase in extraction
•  PRACTICAL:
taste test at 88c and 96c
TEMPERATURE & ROAST:
96c --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
88c --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Increased water quantity
------------------------------Filter
------------------Café Crème
•  Therefore to increase body you
can reduce water quantity
(remember most extraction
occurs in the first third of an
espresso)
------------------Espresso
•  Keeping the dose and
extraction rate the same, then
changing the water quantity will
just change dilution and
perceived body
---------------Ristretto
WATER QUANTITY:
18% extraction
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER:
BODY
Dose
------------
EXTRACTION
Temperature ----------------- Time / Texture
Water Quantity
All brewing parameters
interlink – changing
one affects the others
CHOOSING YOUR BREWING PARAMETERS:
•  Choose you dose relative to
the available body in your
coffee – lighter roasts normally
need heavier dose
•  Set the temperature in line with
the dose chosen
•  Set the water quantity in line
with the required body
•  Set the time to facilitate the
correct extraction
Italian Trad.
Australian
Dose
14g
18g +
Temp.
92c
95c
Water
45g
30g
Time
20-25
28-35
FINE TUNING TO BALANCE YOUR ESPRESSO:
•  Taste your espresso (and measure the extraction % if you want to back up your palate!). Is
the body full enough. If not…
• 
Then either increase the dose (but remember that you may have to adjust temperature in line)
• 
Or decrease the water quantity (increasing the time of the shot if you want to maintain the extraction)
•  If the shot is under- extracting (tasting sour), then increase extraction by…
• 
Tighten the grind (maintaining dose) and run the shot for a longer time, or
• 
Drop the dose, but maintain the shot time by tightening the grind, or
• 
Up the temperature
Brew Formula:
PRACTICAL:
•  For your own coffee highlight the
“potential” the BEAN offers in flavour and
body
•  Devise an appropriate BREW formula to
optimize this potential
•  Measure and assess your results
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