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Form 080/01
R&S®ZVH
Cable and Antenna Analyzer
Operating Manual
Operating Manual
Test & Measurement
1309.6946.12 – 01
®
The Operating Manual describes the following R&S ZVH models and options
(
(
(
(
R&S ZVH4 (1309.6800.24)
R&S ZVH8 (1309.6800.28)
R&S ZVH-K9 (1309.6852.02)
R&S ZVH-K39 (1309.6830.02)
© 2010 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Muehldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich. Germany
Phone:
+49 89 4129-0
Fax:
+49 89 4129-12 164
E-mail:
info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
81671 Munich, Germany
Printed in Germany – Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual:
R&S®ZVH is abbreviated as R&S ZVH.
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort
to keep the safety standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the
highest possible degree of safety. Our products and the auxiliary equipment they
require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the safety standards that
apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by our
quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and
tested in accordance with the attached EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the
manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully complying with safety standards. To maintain
this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must observe all instructions and
warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these safety
instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This
product is designed for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if
expressly permitted, also in the field and must not be used in any way that may cause
personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the product is used for any
intention other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the
product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its
product documentation and within its performance limits (see data sheet,
documentation, the following safety instructions). Using the product requires technical
skills and a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore essential that only skilled and
specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be allowed to
use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz
products, this will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation.
Keep the basic safety instructions and the product documentation in a safe place and
pass them on to the subsequent users.
Symbols and safety labels
Observe product
Danger of
Warning! Hot
documen-tation
electric shock
surface
1309.6946.12 - 01
PE terminal
Ground
Ground
terminal
Attention!
Electrostatic
sensitive devices
S-1
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any
kind caused by dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to
the following safety instructions before and when using the product. It is also absolutely
essential to observe the additional safety instructions on personal safety, for example,
that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In these safety instructions,
the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories.
Tags and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the
reader about risks and dangers.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will
result in death or serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in death or serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in minor or moderate injury.
indicates the possibility of incorrect operation which can
result in damage to the product.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used
synonymously.
These tags are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the
European Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may
also exist in other economic areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to
make sure that the tags described here are always used only in connection with the
related product documentation and the related product. The use of tags in connection
with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation and in
personal injury or material damage.
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions
specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer's specifications are not observed,
this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable
local or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be
observed in all work performed.
1. The R&S ZVH is protected against dripping water and dust (IP degree 51). Unless
otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz
products: predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing
down, IP protection 2X, pollution severity 2, overvoltage category 2, use only in
enclosed spaces, max. operation altitude 4600 m above sea level, max. transport
altitude 12000 m above sea level. A tolerance of ±10% shall apply to the nominal
voltage and of ±5% to the nominal frequency.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-2
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
2. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan
heaters. The ambient temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature
specified in the product documentation or in the data sheet. Product overheating
can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death.
Electrical Safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all to the extent
necessary, electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on
the product matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different
voltage is to be set, the power fuse of the product may have to be changed
accordingly.
2. If the product does not have a power switch for disconnection from the AC supply
network, the plug of the connecting cable is regarded as the disconnecting device.
In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times (corresponding to the length of connecting cable, approx. 2
m). Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection
from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, a disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
3. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cable on a
regular basis to ensure that it is in proper operating condition. By taking
appropriate safety measures and carefully laying the power cable, you can ensure
that the cable will not be damaged and that no one can be hurt by, for example,
tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
4. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fused with max.
16 A (higher fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of
companies).
5. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and
all the way into the socket. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may
occur.
6. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can
cause fire or electric shocks.
7. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g.
appropriate measuring equipment, fusing, current limiting, electrical separation,
insulation) should be taken to avoid any hazards.
8. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or
other industrial computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC610101/EN 61010-1 standards that apply in each case.
9. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing
while the product is in operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and
can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the product.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-3
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
10. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or
similar protective devices, the supply circuit must be fused in such a way that
anyone who has access to the product, as well as the product itself, is adequately
protected from injury or damage.
11. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that
caused by a bolt of lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person
operating the product will be exposed to the danger of an electric shock.
12. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must
not be used for this purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product
and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
13. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section
"Operating states and operating positions", item 1. Therefore, the equipment must
be protected against penetration by liquids. If the necessary precautions are not
taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product itself may be damaged,
which can also lead to personal injury.
14. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g.
AC supply network or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product.
Never use chemical cleaning agents such as alcohol, acetone or diluents for
cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make
sure that persons who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit
enough to do so; otherwise, injuries or material damage may occur. It is the
responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable personnel for operating
the products.
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled
"Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an
allergic reaction (allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you
develop an allergic reaction (such as a skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or
respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz product, consult a
physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before
you take it apart, be sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled
"Waste disposal", item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can
produce an elevated level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn
babies require increased protection, pregnant women must be protected by
appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be exposed to risks
from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take
measures to avert the potential danger.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-4
R&S ZVH
Basic Safety Instructions
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids,
etc.) that can cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken,
e.g. protective masks and protective clothing must be worn.
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel.
Before any work is performed on the product or before the product is opened, it
must be disconnected from the AC supply network. Otherwise, personnel will be
exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only
by electrical experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be
used for replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g. power switches, power
transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed after parts relevant to
safety have been replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation
resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This
helps ensure the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed
either at all or to the extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of
explosions, fire and/or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries
and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) must be
handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight
must be avoided. Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors
using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored
in a box or in a drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can
be short-circuited by other conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be
removed from their original packaging until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If a cell or a battery has been
swallowed, seek medical aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are
stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the
skin or eyes. If contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and
seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes
(e.g. lithium cells) can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the
matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the
product.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-5
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste.
Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or
cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations regarding waste
disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport
the product. It is therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to
or on transport equipment such as cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is
responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the means of transport or
lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material
damage.
2. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive
the vehicle safely and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for
accidents or collisions. Never use the product in a moving vehicle if doing so could
distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the product in the vehicle to
prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
Waste disposal
1. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a
manner that goes beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal
dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel) may be released. For this reason, the product
may only be disassembled by specially trained personnel. Improper disassembly
may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal regulations must be
observed.
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Es imprescindible leer y observar las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones
de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros
productos siempre al día con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros
clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros productos y todos los equipos
adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de seguridad
vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean
cumplidas estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el
certificado de conformidad adjunto de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado
impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad. Para poder preservar este
estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá atenerse a
todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan
preguntas referentes a estas informaciones de seguridad.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-6
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma
debida. Este producto está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el
laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de
ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna persona/cosa pueda sufrir
daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no
se hace en ninguna forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del
producto.
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es
utilizado conforme a las indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del
producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento definido (ver hoja de datos,
documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto hace
necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso
se debe tener en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal
especializado o personas instruidas en profundidad con las capacidades
correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el uso de
productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la
documentación del producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las
informaciones de seguridad elementales, así como la documentación del producto, y
entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Símbolos y definiciones de seguridad
¡Cuidado!
Ver documen-
Peligro de
¡Advertencia!
Conexión a
tación de
golpe de
Superficie
conductor
producto
corriente
caliente
protector
Conexión a
tierra
Conexión a
Elementos de
masa
construcción con
conductora
peligro de carga
electroestática
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible
lesiones o daños por peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer
detalladamente y comprender por completo las siguientes informaciones de seguridad
antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del producto. Deberán tenerse
en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. Las referentes a la
protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las
presentes informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el
grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos
también aparatos, instalaciones así como toda clase de accesorios.
1309.6946.12 - 01
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R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Palabras de señal y su significado
PELIGRO identifica un peligro inminente con riesgo elevado
que provocará muerte o lesiones graves si no se evita.
ADVERTENCIA identifica un posible peligro con riesgo
medio de provocar muerte o lesiones (graves) si no se evita.
ATENCIÓN identifica un peligro con riesgo reducido de
provocar lesiones leves o moderadas si no se evita.
AVISO indica la posibilidad de utilizar mal el producto y,
como consecuencia, dañarlo.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma
sinónima el término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles
en el area económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición
en otras áreas económicas o en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en
cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas sean utilizadas siempre solamente en
combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y solamente en
combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal
en combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede
llevar a interpretaciones equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u
objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a
los estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la
ventilación. Si no se siguen las indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de
muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas nacionales y
locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
1. El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante
referente a la situación y posición de funcionamient. R&S ZVH está protegido
contra roción y polvo (modo de protección IP 51). Si no se convino de otra
manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue: como
posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la
caja para abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, grado de suciedad 2, categoría de
sobrecarga eléctrica 2, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta
4600 m sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 12000 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se
aplicará una tolerancia de ±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la
frecuencia nominal.
2. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o
calefactores). La temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima
especificada en la documentación del producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de
sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios
y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-8
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en
cuanto a seguridad eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o
lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la
tension preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación
eléctrica. Si es necesario modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán
cambiar en caso dado los fusibles correspondientes del producto.
2. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, se
deberá considerer el enchufe del cable de conexión como interruptor. En estos
casos se deberá asegurar que el enchufe siempre sea de fácil acceso (de acuerdo
con la longitud del cable de conexión, aproximadamente 2 m). Los interruptores de
función o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si los
productos sin interruptor están integrados en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá
colocar el interruptor en el nivel de la instalación.
3. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red.
Compruebe regularmente el correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red.
Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y de instalación adecuadas, de
que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie pueda ser
dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
4. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT
aseguradas con fusibles de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor
amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
5. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo.
Introduzca el enchufe por completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no
observación de estas medidas puede provocar chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
6. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de
enchufe ya que esto podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
7. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán
tomar las medidas apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de
medición adecuados, seguros, limitación de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento
etc.).
8. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador
industrial, debe comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC609501/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 válidos en cada caso.
9. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni
componentes de la carcasa mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a
descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y puede causar lesiones, fuego o
daños en el producto.
10. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor
automático ni otros mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación
debe estar protegido de modo que todas las personas que puedan acceder al
producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de posibles daños.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-9
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
11. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída
del rayo) mediante los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal
que lo utilice quedará expuesto al peligro de choque eléctrico.
12. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no
esté destinado a ello. Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede
causar choques eléctricos, fuego o lesiones.
13. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también
el capítulo "Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso
es necesario tomar las medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En
caso contrario, existe peligro de choque eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el
producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las personas.
14. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de
tensión (p. ej. red de alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos
con un paño suave, que no se deshilache. No utilice bajo ningún concepto
productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes para lacas
nitrocelulósicas.
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración
durante el manejo. Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto
estén a la altura de los requerimientos necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas,
psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se pueden excluir lesiones o
daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar el
personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo
"Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en
general la posibilidad de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos
materiales empleados, los llamados alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel). Si durante el
manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen reacciones alérgicas, como
p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la conjuntiva
o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para
investigar las causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto,
debe tenerse en cuenta imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden
a causa de su función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada.
Deben tomarse todas las medidas necesarias para la protección de las mujeres
embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos pueden correr peligro a
causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la obligación
de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto
sustancias tóxicas (gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por
eso, en caso de incendio
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-10
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con
autorización para ello. Antes de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio
desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para evitar toda posibilidad de
choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser
efectuadas solamente por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se
reponen partes con importancia para los aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe,
los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser sustituidos por partes
originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del
conductor de protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la
corriente de fuga, control de funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la
seguridad del producto.
Baterias y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las
baterías y acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o
lesiones graves con possible consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y
acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de litio) debe seguir el estándar
EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el
almacenamiento a la luz directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse
limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas
o baterías en estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por
contacto recíproco o por contacto con otros materiales conductores. No deben
extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales hasta el momento en
que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Mantener baterías y celdas fuera del alcance de los niños. En caso de ingestión
de una celda o batería, avisar inmediatamente a un médico.
5. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes
indebidos.
6. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar
en contacto con la piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua
abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un médico.
7. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen
electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la
seguridad del producto, las celdas o baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo
Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de recambios).
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-11
R&S ZVH
Informaciones Elementales de Seguridad
8. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica.
Las baterías o acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben
tratarse como residuos especiales. Respete en esta relación las normas
nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte
del producto por personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la
sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras
de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los productos de manera
segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio
de transporte o elevación utilizado.
2. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el
conductor la responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y
adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o
colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un vehículo en movimiento si
esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación
1. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente
más allá del funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas
(polvos con contenido de metales pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por
eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por personal especializado con
formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños para la
salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la
eliminación de residuos.
1309.6946.12 - 01
S-12
Sicherheitshinweise
Kundeninformation zur Batterieverordnung (BattV)
Dieses Gerät enthält eine schadstoffhaltige Batterie. Diese
darf nicht mit dem Hausmüll entsorgt werden.
Nach Ende der Lebensdauer darf die Entsorgung nur über
eine Rohde&Schwarz-Kundendienststelle oder eine geeignete Sammelstelle erfolgen.
Safety Regulations for Batteries
(according to BattV)
This equipment houses a battery containing harmful substances that must not be disposed of as normal household
waste.
After its useful life, the battery may only be disposed of at a
Rohde & Schwarz service center or at a suitable depot.
Normas de Seguridad para Baterías
(Según BattV)
Este equipo lleva una batería que contiene sustancias perjudiciales, que no se debe desechar en los contenedores
de basura domésticos.
Después de la vida útil, la batería sólo se podrá eliminar en
un centro de servicio de Rohde & Schwarz o en un
depósito apropiado.
Consignes de sécurité pour batteries
(selon BattV)
Cet appareil est équipé d'une pile comprenant des substances nocives. Ne jamais la jeter dans une poubelle pour
ordures ménagéres.
Une pile usagée doit uniquement être éliminée par un centre de service client de Rohde & Schwarz ou peut être collectée pour être traitée spécialement comme déchets dangereux.
1171.0300.41
D/E/ESP/F-2
Customer Information Regarding Product Disposal
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) Act is an implementation of
the following EC directives:
•
•
2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and
2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in
electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS).
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product must not be disposed of
in the standard domestic refuse. Even disposal via the municipal collection
points for waste electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept for the
environmental-friendly disposal or recycling of waste material and fully assumes its
obligation as a producer to take back and dispose of electrical and electronic waste
in accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose of the product.
1171.0200.52-01.01
Qualitätszertifikat
Certificate of quality
Certificat de qualité
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf eines
Rohde & Schwarz-Produktes entschieden. Hiermit erhalten Sie ein
nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden
hergestelltes Produkt. Es wurde nach
den Regeln unseres Qualitätsmanagementsystems entwickelt, gefertigt
und geprüft. Das Rohde & SchwarzQualitätsmanagementsystem ist u.a.
nach ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
Dear Customer,
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. You are
thus assured of receiving a product
that is manufactured using the most
modern methods available. This
product was developed, manufactured
and tested in compliance with our
quality management system standards. The Rohde & Schwarz quality
management system is certified
according to standards such as
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
JJ Energie-effiziente,
Environmental commitment
JJ Energy-efficient products
JJ Continuous improvement in
environmental sustainability
JJ ISO 14001-certified environmental
management system
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Cher client,
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous disposez
donc d’un produit fabriqué d’après les
méthodes les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les tests
respectent nos normes de gestion
qualité. Le système de gestion qualité
de Rohde & Schwarz a été homologué,
entre autres, conformément aux normes ISO 9001 et ISO 14001.
Engagement écologique
JJ Produits à efficience énergétique
JJ Amélioration continue de la durabilité
environnementale
JJ Système de gestion de l’environnement certifié selon ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 04.00
RoHS-konforme Produkte
JJ Kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung
nachhaltiger Umweltkonzepte
JJ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
Certified Quality System
Nachweis_ISO-Zertifizierung_i_d_Kundendok_090910_1171.0517.00 V 04.00.indd 1
08.09.2009 12:59:29
CE Declaration of Conformity
Certificate No.: 2010-70
This is to certify that:
Equipment type
Stock No.
Designation
ZVH4
ZVH8
1309.6800.24
1309.6800.28
Handheld Cable and Antenna Analyzer
complies with the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Union on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States
- relating to electrical equipment for use within defined voltage limits
(2006/95/EC)
- relating to electromagnetic compatibility
(2004/108/EC)
Conformity is proven by compliance with the following standards:
EN 61010-1: 2001
EN 61326-1: 2006
EN 61326-2-1: 2006
EN 55011: 2007 + A2: 2007
EN 61000-3-2: 2006
EN 61000-3-3: 1995 + A2: 2001+ A2: 2005
For the assessment of electromagnetic compatibility, the limits of radio interference for Class
B equipment as well as the immunity to interference for operation in industry have been used
as a basis.
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, D-81671 München
Munich, 2010-09-29
Central Quality Management GF-QZ / Chadzelek
1309.6800.xx
CE
E-2
R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 Operating the R&S ZVH...................................................................... 6
1.1
Screen Layout ..............................................................................................................6
1.2
Means of Input..............................................................................................................7
1.2.1
Using the Alphanumeric Keys........................................................................................7
1.2.2
Confirming and Cancelling Entries ................................................................................8
1.2.3
Using the Rotary Knob...................................................................................................8
1.2.4
Using the Cursor Keys ...................................................................................................9
1.3
Presetting the R&S ZVH ..............................................................................................9
1.4
Taking Screenshots...................................................................................................10
1.5
Measurement Setup...................................................................................................10
1.6
Menu and Softkey Overview .....................................................................................11
1.6.1
General Functions........................................................................................................11
1.6.1.1
Configuring the R&S ZVH............................................................................................11
1.6.1.2
Saving and Recalling Measurement Settings and Results..........................................12
1.6.1.3
Selecting the Operating Mode .....................................................................................12
1.6.2
Using the Cable and Antenna Test Mode....................................................................12
1.6.2.1
Setting Frequency and Distance Parameters..............................................................12
1.6.2.2
Setting Amplitude Parameters .....................................................................................13
1.6.2.3
Setting and Triggering the Sweep ...............................................................................13
1.6.2.4
Using Markers..............................................................................................................14
1.6.2.5
Selecting and Configuring the Measurement ..............................................................14
1.6.2.6
Selecting the Measurement Format.............................................................................14
1.6.2.7
Calibrating the Measurement.......................................................................................14
2 Cable and Antenna Test Mode......................................................... 15
2.1
Performing Measurements .......................................................................................17
2.1.1
Reflection Measurements ............................................................................................17
2.1.2
Distance to Fault Measurements .................................................................................18
2.1.3
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements ...............................................................................19
2.1.4
Transmission Measurements (R&S ZVH-K39) ............................................................19
2.1.5
Selecting the Measurement Format.............................................................................20
2.1.6
Calibrating Measurements...........................................................................................21
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
1
R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
2.2
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests ....................................................................24
2.2.1
Selecting the Cable Model...........................................................................................24
2.2.1.1
Selecting a Predefined Cable Model ...........................................................................24
2.2.1.2
Creating a Cable Model ...............................................................................................24
2.2.2
Configuring the Horizontal Axis ...................................................................................25
2.2.2.1
Setting the Frequency Range for DTF Measurements................................................25
2.2.2.2
Setting the Start and Stop Distance for DTF Measurements ......................................26
2.2.2.3
Setting the Frequency Range for CAT Measurements (except DTF) .........................27
2.2.2.4
Selecting a Signal Standard for CAT Measurements ..................................................28
2.2.3
Configuring the Vertical Axis........................................................................................28
2.2.3.1
Adjusting the Scale of the Diagram .............................................................................28
2.2.3.2
Setting the Attenuation ................................................................................................29
2.2.4
Setting and Triggering the Sweep ...............................................................................30
2.2.4.1
Setting the Measurement Bandwidth...........................................................................30
2.2.4.2
Holding Measurements ................................................................................................30
2.2.4.3
Working with Triggers ..................................................................................................31
2.3
Analyzing Measurement Results..............................................................................32
2.3.1
Working with Traces ....................................................................................................32
2.3.2
Using Markers..............................................................................................................32
2.3.2.1
Positioning Markers .....................................................................................................33
2.3.2.2
Positioning a Delta Marker...........................................................................................34
2.3.2.3
Selecting the Marker Type...........................................................................................34
2.3.2.4
Automatic Positioning of Markers ................................................................................35
2.3.2.5
Removing Markers.......................................................................................................35
2.3.2.6
Using Marker Search Limits.........................................................................................36
3 Working with the Measurement Wizard .......................................... 37
3.1.1
Preparing the Measurement ........................................................................................37
3.1.1.1
Creating a Measurement Set.......................................................................................37
3.1.1.2
Uploading Measurement Sets .....................................................................................39
3.1.2
Using the Measurement Wizard ..................................................................................39
3.1.2.1
Starting the Measurement Wizard ...............................................................................39
3.1.2.2
Performing a Sequence of Measurements ..................................................................41
3.1.3
Evaluating Results .......................................................................................................42
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
2
R&S ZVH
Table of Contents
4 Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9).................................. 44
4.1.1
Measuring the Power with a Power Sensor.................................................................44
4.1.1.1
Connecting a Power Sensor ........................................................................................45
4.1.1.2
Performing Measurements ..........................................................................................46
4.1.2
Measuring Forward and Reflected Power ...................................................................48
4.1.2.1
Connecting a Directional Power Sensor ......................................................................49
4.1.2.2
Performing Measurements with Directional Power Sensors .......................................50
5 Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results
............................................................................................................ 53
5.1.1
Saving Datasets...........................................................................................................53
5.1.2
Loading Measurement Results ....................................................................................55
5.1.2.1
Previewing a Dataset ...................................................................................................55
5.1.2.2
Loading a Dataset........................................................................................................55
5.1.2.3
Deleting Datasets.........................................................................................................55
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
3
R&S ZVH
Documentation Overview
Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S R&S ZVH is divided as follows:
Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide provides basic information on the instrument's functions.
It covers the following topics:
C
C
C
C
overview of all elements of the front and rear panels
basic information on how to set up the R&S ZVH
information on how to operate the R&S ZVH in a network
instructions on how to perform measurements
Operating Manual
The Operating Manual provides a detailed description on the instrument's functions
It covers the following topics:
C
C
C
instructions on how to set up and operate the R&S ZVH in its various operating
modes
instructions on how to perform measurements with the R&S ZVH
instructions on how to work with the available software options and applications
Service Manual
The Service Manual provides information on maintenance.
It covers the following topics:
C
C
C
instructions on how to perform a performance test
instructions on how to repair the R&S ZVH including a spare parts list
mechanical drawings
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified
functions, eliminated problems, and last minute changes to the documentation. The
corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title page of the release notes. The
current release notes are provided on the internet.
Internet Site
The internet site at: R&S ZVH Cable and Antenna Analyzer provides the most up to
date information on the R&S ZVH. The most recent manuals are available as printable
PDF files in the download area.
Also provided for download are firmware updates including the corresponding release
notes, instrument drivers, current data sheets, application notes and image versions.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
4
R&S ZVH
Conventions Used in the Documentation
Conventions Used in the Documentation
The following conventions are used throughout the R&S R&S ZVH Operating Manual:
Typographical conventions
Convention
Description
“Graphical user interface elements”
All names of graphical user interface elements both on the screen
and on the front and rear panels, such as dialog boxes, softkeys,
menus, options, buttons etc., are enclosed by quotation marks.
“KEYS”
Key names are written in capital letters and enclosed by quotation
marks.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are
distinguished by their font.
"Links"
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by
quotation marks.
Other conventions
C
Remote commands: Remote commands may include abbreviations to simplify
input. In the description of such commands, all parts that have to be entered are
written in capital letters. Additional text in lower-case characters is for information
only.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
5
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Screen Layout
1 Operating the R&S ZVH
This chapter provides information about basic functionality and about the user interface
of the R&S ZVH.
1.1 Screen Layout
The following figure shows the screen layout in cable and antenna test operating
mode. It shows all diagram areas that are the same for all operating modes of the
R&S ZVH. Screen layouts that show specifics for each operating mode are provided in
the corresponding sections of this manual.
1
Measurement information
13
Trace
2
GPS status
14
Reference Position
3
Date and time
15
Active menu item
4
Battery status
16
Selectable menu item
5
Hardware settings
17
Currently selected menu item
6
GPS information
18
Unavailable menu item
7
Marker information
19
Vertical axis labeling
8
Status line
20
Selectable softkey
9
Invalid trace indicator
21
Active softkey
10
Diagram
22
Unavailable softkey
11
Horizontal axis labeling
23
Selected softkey
12
Marker
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
6
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
1.2 Means of Input
The user interface of the R&S ZVH provides several elements for you to input data.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Alphanumeric keys
Unit keys
Rotary knob
Cursor keys
Enter key
Cancel key
Back key
1.2.1 Using the Alphanumeric Keys
Using the alphanumeric keys, you can enter numeric values or characters. The
alphanumeric keys include the number from 0 to 9, the alphabet, a minus sign and dot.
If you have to enter a numeric value, press the corresponding key. In case of numeric
values, each key covers just the number that's printed on it.
You can enter negative values with the minus sign key and enter values that contain
decimal places with the dot key.
If the R&S ZVH expects the input of a character, the key assignment changes. Each
key covers one number and more than one character with the first choice being a
character. If you need to enter a character, press the key several times until the
character you require is selected. The following table shows an overview of character
assignment.
You can correct entries with the BACK key. The BACK key moves the cursor one
position backwards and deletes the character that was in that place.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
7
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Means of Input
Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1
1
2
3
a
b
c
2
A
B
C
d
e
f
3
D
E
F
4
g
h
i
4
G
H
I
5
j
k
l
5
J
K
L
6
m
n
o
6
M
N
O
7
p
q
r
s
7
P
Q
8
t
u
v
8
T
U
V
9
w
x
y
z
9
W
X
0
0
blank
_
-
-
.
.
8.
9.
R
S
Y
Z
1.2.2 Confirming and Cancelling Entries
Depending on the input you have made, there are several ways to confirm entries.
C
Values without unit or values that have a fixed unit that you enter in an input field
can be confirmed with the ENTER key or by pressing the rotary knob.
Alternatively, you can confirm such an entry by pressing the softkey that has
opened the input field in question.
C
Values that have flexible units, like frequency or time, can be confirmed with one of
the unit keys.
If you confirm a such a value with the ENTER key, the R&S ZVH always uses the
smallest possible unit (e.g. Hz).
C
If you have opened a submenu or input field by accident, you can close it without
making any changes with the CANCEL key.
1.2.3 Using the Rotary Knob
Using the rotary knob, you can do several things.
C
The rotary knob works like a cursor key in dialog boxes or softkey submenus. In
that case you can navigate to one of the items with the rotary knob. If the dialog
box covers more than one screen page, it also scrolls through the dialog box.
Turning it to the right corresponds to a downward movement. Moving it to the left to
an upward movement.
C
The rotary knob increases or decreases any kind of numeric value if an input field
is active.
Turning it to the right corresponds to an increase, turning it to the left to a decrease
of a numeric value.
The rotary knob changes numeric values with a fixed step size.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
8
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Presetting the R&S ZVH
C
The rotary knob moves markers around.
Again the step size is fixed.
C
Pressing the rotary knob has the same effect as pressing the ENTER key as it
confirms an entry or selection.
1.2.4 Using the Cursor Keys
Using the cursor keys, you can do several things.
C
C
The cursor keys navigate through dialog boxes or softkey submenus.
The up and down keys increase or decrease any kind of numeric value if an input
field is active.
The cursor keys change numeric values with a fixed step size.
C
The up and down keys move markers around.
The step size is fixed.
C
The left and right keys move the cursor in an input field in the corresponding
direction.
1.3 Presetting the R&S ZVH
Before you prepare a measurement, it is recommended to preset the R&S ZVH. During
a preset, the R&S ZVH resets all settings to their default state. Restoring the default
configuration has the advantage that old settings do not affect measurements.
The default setup is specific to the operating mode.
M Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ZVH restores its default setup.
You can also define your own default settings via a dataset. These are then loaded
after pressing the PRESET key instead of the factory default.
M Press the SETUP key.
M Press the "User Preferences" softkey.
M Select the "Preset Dataset" menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the dataset that contains the settings
you would like to have as the preset settings.
M Select the dataset with the settings you want.
M Select the "Preset Mode" menu item in the "User Preferences" dialog box.
M Select the "User Defined" item from the dropdown menu.
The R&S ZVH now loads the settings of the dataset after you press PRESET.
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
9
R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Taking Screenshots
1.4 Taking Screenshots
You can take and store a screenshot of the current screen anytime with the
M Press the
key.
key.
The R&S ZVH takes a screenshot.
If available, the R&S ZVH stores the screenshot on an external storage device (USB
memory stick or SD card). If both are connected, the R&S ZVH uses the SD card.
If no external device is available, the R&S ZVH stores the screenshot in its internal
memory. In that case you can transfer the pictures with the R&S ZVHView software to
your computer.
All screenshots get the name "Screenshot####" by default. The files also get numbers
(####) in ascending order, beginning with 0000. If you want another default name for
your screenshots, beginning with a certain number, you can set this up in the "User
Preference" menu.
M Press the SETUP key.
M Press the "User Preference" softkey.
M Select the "Default Filename" and "File Name Counter Starts At" items and assign
a file name and number as you wish.
The file format of screenshots is either *.png or *.jpg, depending on your configuration
in the "User Preference" menu.
M Press the SETUP key.
M Press the "User Preference" softkey.
M Select the "Capture Screen Format" item to select the screenshot file format.
1.5 Measurement Setup
The "Measurement Setup" dialog box provides an overview of the current configuration
of the R&S ZVH. In addition, you can also change the configuration in this dialog box.
M Press the SETUP key.
M Press the "Measurement Setup" softkey.
M Select one of the menu items and change the settings as you like.
Note that the contents of the "Measurement Setup" dialog box are customized for each
operating mode of the R&S ZVH. Therefore, the order and number of displayed
settings is different in each mode.
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R&S ZVH
Operating the R&S ZVH
Menu and Softkey Overview
1.6 Menu and Softkey Overview
This chapter shows an overview of all instrument functions in the form of softkey and
menu overviews.
1.6.1 General Functions
General functions are those that are available for all operating modes.
1.6.1.1
Configuring the R&S ZVH
The SETUP key opens the setup menu that contains functionality to set up the
R&S ZVH in general and functionality to set up the measurement.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Menu and Softkey Overview
1.6.1.2
Saving and Recalling Measurement Settings and Results
The SAVE/RECALL key opens the file manager that contains functionality to manage
datasets and other files.
1.6.1.3
Selecting the Operating Mode
The MODE key opens the mode menu that contains functionality to select the
operating mode of the R&S ZVH.
1.6.2 Using the Cable and Antenna Test Mode
This sections contains all softkeys and menus that are available in cable and antenna
test operating mode.
1.6.2.1
Setting Frequency and Distance Parameters
The FREQ/DIST key opens the frequency menu that contains functionality to set up
the horizontal axis of the measurement diagram.
The contents of the frequency menu depend on the measurement you have currently
selected.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Menu and Softkey Overview
This is what the frequency menu looks like for distance-to-fault measurements.
This is what the frequency menu looks like for reflection, transmission and cable loss
measurements.
1.6.2.2
Setting Amplitude Parameters
The SCALE/AMPT key opens the amplitude menu that contains functionality to set up
the vertical axis of the measurement diagram.
1.6.2.3
Setting and Triggering the Sweep
The SWEEP/BW key opens the sweep menu that contains functionality to set up and
trigger the sweep.
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Operating the R&S ZVH
Menu and Softkey Overview
1.6.2.4
Using Markers
The MARKER and MKR keys open the marker menu and marker to menu that
contain functionality to use markers.
This is what the marker menu looks like.
This is what the marker to menu looks like.
1.6.2.5
Selecting and Configuring the Measurement
The MEAS key opens the measurement menu that contains functionality to select and
configure the measurement.
Transmission S21 is available only if you have installed option R&S ZVH-K39.
1.6.2.6
Selecting the Measurement Format
The SPAN/FORMAT key opens the span menu that contains functionality to select the
measurement format.
1.6.2.7
Calibrating the Measurement
The CAL key opens the calibration menu that contains functionality to calibrate the
R&S ZVH.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Menu and Softkey Overview
2 Cable and Antenna Test Mode
The cable and antenna test (CAT) mode provides functionality to measure cables and
antennas of transmission equipment in wireless telecommunication systems.
In a perfect system, the signal would arrive at the antenna without any losses and be
transmitted with the required power and frequency. In reality, however, you can
encounter many possible mechanical defects in the system that cause a deterioration
of the transmission quality. Figure 2-1 shows some typical defects in a transmission
system.
Figure 2-1:Typical defects of the transmission hardware
The R&S ZVH provides the necessary functionality to test the system equipment for its
characteristics and identify faults when it is being installed or maintained. Each
measurement provides different aspects of the test you are performing.
C
C
C
C
Reflection Measurements on page 17
Distance to Fault Measurements on page 18
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements on page 19
Transmission Measurements on page 19
Test setup
A typical test setup to test cables and antennas includes the R&S ZVH, an RF cable
(e.g. R&S FSH-Z320, order no. 1309.6600.00), a calibration standard (R&S FSH-Z28
or R&S FSH-Z29, order no. 1300.7804.03 and 1300.7504.03) and the cable under test.
Cable and antenna tests also require a tracking generator which is already part of the
R&S ZVH hardware. The tracking generator transmits a reference signal through the
internal VSWR bridge to the test port.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Menu and Softkey Overview
M Connect the RF cable to the RF input (port 1).
M Connect the test cable to the RF cable.
M For measurement on DUTs that need an external voltage supply (e.g. power
amplifiers), you can connect the supply voltage from a suitable AC power supply to
the BIAS Port 1 or use the internal bias.
By default, the R&S ZVH is in cable test mode after you have turned it on. To switch to
the cable test mode from another operating mode, proceed as follows.
M Press the MODE key.
M Press the "Antenna & Cable Test" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the antenna and cable test mode.
Screen layout of the antenna and cable tester
1
2
3
4
5
Cable Model
GPS information
Hardware settings
Marker information
Status line:
- S-matrix
- Calibration status
- Measurement format
6 Trace window
7 Marker (blue line)
8 Cable frequency
9 Cable length
10 Cable test softkey menu
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
2.1 Performing Measurements
In order to get an idea about problems in a transmission system that is exact as
possible, the R&S ZVH features several measurements. Each measurement shows
another aspect of the cable characteristics.
2.1.1 Reflection Measurements
The reflection (S11) measurement is a good way to get an idea if the transmission
system works properly. If unusual amounts of signal power are being reflected, you
can guess that there is something wrong in the system. This measurement helps to
find reflections by displaying the magnitude of the reflections in dB in a specified
frequency range.
The reflection measurement is the default measurement.
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Reflection (S11)" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the reflection measurement over its entire frequency range.
Figure 2-2 shows an example of a reflection measurement without any major faults in
the cable or the antenna.
Figure 2-2: Results of a reflection measurement
You can perform reflection measurements on the complete system or on individual
components of the system. If you measure while two or more system components are
connected, the results of the reflection measurement are an aggregate over these
components. Therefore you can only see the aggregated magnitude of the reflected
power in a specified frequency range.
To draw conclusions about which component is affected and determine the location of
the fault, you need to perform further analysis using other measurements.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
2.1.2 Distance to Fault Measurements
The distance to fault (DTF) measurement determines the exact location of possible
faults in a transmission system. If you connect the end of the cable to the R&S ZVH,
the DTF measurement shows you the exact distance to the fault (in meter or feet),
regardless by what the fault is caused. In addition, the measurement shows the degree
of the fault in dB. From this information, you can determine the component that has the
fault and its seriousness.
In order to determine the distance to a cable fault, the R&S ZVH measures the
reflections of the cable under test in the frequency domain. The R&S ZVH first
determines the magnitude of the reflections for a particular frequency by comparing the
phase of the reflected signal and a reference signal created by the tracking generator.
It then performs inverse fast fourier transformation (IFFT) on the signal that has been
received. In combination with the characteristics of the cable model, the R&S ZVH is
able to determine the distance the reflections have been travelling.
Because of its sensitivity by first measuring in the frequency domain and subsequent
IFFT, the measurement is able to locate faults in a cable accurately. To keep this
accuracy, the R&S ZVH also accounts for any attenuation that occurs over distance in
a cable.
If you are measuring the cable only, make sure to terminate the other end into a load.
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Distance to Fault" softkey.
The R&S ZVH calculates the distance to cable faults.
Figure 2-3 shows the results of a DTF measurement. The peaks that the trace shows
at the marker positions are possible faults. Depending on the distance, you can also
get an idea of the component that is defective.
Marker 1, for example, shows a defect in the cable. Marker 2 shows a fault at the end
of the cable, probably a bad or loose connection.
Figure 2-3: Results of a DTF measurement
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
2.1.3 1-Port Cable Loss Measurements
The cable loss measurement evaluates the power attenuation of a cable over a
specified frequency range in dB. The amount of power that gets absorbed depends on
the frequency and the length of the cable.
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "1-Port Cable Loss" softkey.
The R&S ZVH evaluates the cable loss over its entire frequency range.
Figure 2-4 shows the typical results of a cable loss measurement with a steadily
declining loss in amplitude.
Figure 2-4: Results of a cable loss measurement
2.1.4 Transmission Measurements (R&S ZVH-K39)
You can equip the R&S ZVH with option R&S ZVH-K39 (order no 1309.6830.02) to
enable forward transmission measurements (S21).
With the forward transmission measurement you can test if a radio signal can travel
through the line without losses. The transmission measurement helps to find faults by
displaying the magnitude of the reflections in dB in a specified frequency range.
Typically you would perform transmission measurements on a filter to test if it works
alright or test the isolation of two antennas (e.g. two receiving antennas or a receiving
and a transmitting antenna).
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Transmission (S21)" softkey.
The R&S ZVH starts the forward transmission measurement over its entire
frequency range.
Figure 2-5 shows the results of a transmission measurement on a filter. The results
show that the filter works as it's supposed to.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
Figure 2-5: Results of a transmission measurement on a filter
2.1.5 Selecting the Measurement Format
You can select several measurement formats for each measurement. The
measurement format selects the way the results are displayed on the vertical axis.
The R&S ZVH provides the following measurement formats in CAT mode.
C
Magnitude
This is the default format. It shows the magnitude of the results in dB.
C
VSWR
The VSWR shows the standing wave ratio in a cartesian diagram. The VSWR is
the ratio of the maximum voltage and the minimum voltage that occur in an
electrical transmission line. The VSWR format is available for DTF and reflection
measurements.
The following pictures show the results of a reflection measurement in Magnitude
format (left side) and VSWR format (right side).
Figure 2-6: Measurement results in magnitude and VSWR format
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
2.1.6 Calibrating Measurements
To get the best and most accurate results, the measurement has to be calibrated. The
R&S ZVH provides several calibration methods. You will need one of the available
calibration standards R&S FSH-Z28 or R&S FSH-Z29 (order numbers 1300.7804.03
and 1300.7504.03).
To successfully calibrate the test setup, you have to connect the calibration standard at
the reference plane, usually the output of the RF measurement cable.
Calibration is performed over the R&S ZVH's entire frequency range. This eliminates
the need for recalibration when you change a parameter or select a different cable or
model.
Calibration also remains valid after turning off the R&S ZVH or changing into another
operating mode as calibration data is saved in the internal memory of the R&S ZVH.
As a precondition for calibration to remain valid, however, the instrument temperature
must not change by more than 5 °C after calibration.
Calibration states
The R&S ZVH features several calibration states that it displays in the status line. The
possible states depend on the calibration type (see below).
C
(fcal)
The R&S ZVH uses factory calibration. Factory calibration is restored after a preset
or self alignment.
The calibration data for the factory calibration is already in the memory of the
R&S ZVH when it is delivered. The factory calibration is a full two-port calibration.
C
(fcal?)
The R&S ZVH uses factory calibration. However, the calibration is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the default
settings. In that case you should perform calibration.
C
(cal)
The R&S ZVH uses user calibration. To get that state you have to perform either a
full 1-port or a full 2-port calibration.
C
(cal?)
The R&S ZVH uses user calibration. However, the calibration is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the settings
settings at the time it has been calibrated. In that case you should perform
calibration.
C
(norm)
The R&S ZVH uses normalization. To get that state you have to normalize the
transmission.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
C
(norm?)
The R&S ZVH uses normalization. However, the calibration is not accurate
because the TG power and receiver attenuation are not in line with the settings at
the time it has been calibrated. In that case you should perform calibration.
Calibration methods
The following calibration types are available in antenna and cable test mode.
C
Full 2-Port
Both test ports are calibrated for a complete set of measurements. The calibration
routine therefore requires the connection of the standards load, open and short to
both test ports, and a through connection of the test ports. The influences of the
test setup and of the isolation between the test ports are thereby determined and
taken into account in the subsequent measurement of the device under test.
While this method is the most time-consuming during calibration, it does provide
the greatest accuracy for all measurements at both test ports without recalibration
and is thus the most flexible.
C
Full 1-Port
Test port 1 is calibrated for measurements on that port. The calibration routine
requires the calibration standards open, short and load to be connected one after
another.
C
Normalize Transmission
Both test ports are calibrated for transmission measurements. The calibration
routine requires only a through connection. In the subsequent measurement, the
isolation between the test ports is not taken into account, a possible cross-talk
between the test ports in the test setup is not eliminated.
Performing a Full 2-Port Calibration
The procedure below shows a full 2-port calibration routine. All other calibration
methods principally work the same way, except for the type and number of calibration
standards you are going to need.
M Disconnect the DUT from the RF cable.
After disconnecting the DUT, the R&S ZVH is ready for calibration.
M Press the CAL key.
M Press the "Full 2-Port" softkey.
The R&S ZVH asks you to connect
an "Open" to port 1.
M Firmly connect the "Open" of the calibration standard to port 1.
M You can abort the calibration any time by pressing the "Cancel" softkey.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Performing Measurements
M Press the "Continue" softkey to
start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the
"Open".
M Disconnect the "Open".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to
connect a "Short" to port 1.
M Firmly connect the "Short" of the calibration standard to port 1.
M Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Short".
M Disconnect the "Short".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to
connect a "Load" (50 S termination) to
port 1.
M Firmly connect the "Load" of the calibration standard to port 1.
M Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Load".
M Disconnect the "Load".
Next, the R&S ZVH asks you to set up
a "Through" connection from port 1 to
port 2.
M Firmly connect the "Through" connection to port 1 and port 2.
M Press the "Continue" softkey to start calibration.
The R&S ZVH calibrates the "Through" connection.
After finishing the calibration routine, the R&S ZVH shows that calibration is
). The status line now says (Cal) to indicate
finished for a short time (
successful calibration.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2 Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
For valid measurement results, you need to specify the characteristics of the cable
under test like model or frequency range.
2.2.1 Selecting the Cable Model
To determine the speed of propagation, and therefore the precise distance to any
faults, you have to specify the cable model that you want to test.
The R&S ZVH already comes with an assortment of predefined cable models that you
can use without doing anything. If you want to test a cable that is not listed, you can
also define cable models manually, either directly on the R&S ZVH or with the "Cable
Model Editor" of the R&S ZVHView software package that is delivered with the
R&S ZVH.
2.2.1.1
Selecting a Predefined Cable Model
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Cable Config" softkey.
M Select the "Cable Model" menu
item.
The R&S ZVH opens the file
manager to select the cable
model.
M Select the cable model that you
are testing with the rotary knob or
the cursor keys.
M Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows the currently selected cable model in the diagram header.
M Select the "Deselect Cable Model" item from the "Cable Config" menu if you want
to perform measurements without using a particular cable model.
2.2.1.2
Creating a Cable Model
The R&S ZVH provides two ways to define customized cable models.
The first way is to define a cable model with the "Cable Model Editor" that is part of the
R&S ZVHView software package. The R&S ZVHView is delivered with the R&S ZVH.
With this software, you can define a cable model on a PC and then transfer it to the
R&S ZVH.
Then you can select it just like any other predefined cable model.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
For more information see
C
"Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results"
If you do not have access to a PC, but still need a cable model that is not stored on the
R&S ZVH, you can also define the characteristics of a cable temporarily on the
R&S ZVH itself. It is not possible to save these in a data set, however. They are lost as
soon as you change them or load another cable model.
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Cable Config" softkey.
M Select the "Define User Model"
menu item.
A submenu opens.
M Select the "Frequency" menu item.
M Enter the frequency of the cable you are testing.
M Select the "Velocity" menu item.
M Enter the cable velocity.
M Select the "Loss" menu item.
M Enter the cable loss.
You can now perform measurements on the temporary cable definition.
Note that as soon as you change any cable parameter or load another cable
model, the temporary data is lost and you have to define it again if you have to
perform further measurements.
2.2.2 Configuring the Horizontal Axis
The FREQ/DIST key contains all necessary functions to define frequency and distance
parameters when performing cable measurements.
The contents of the menu depend on the currently selected measurement.
2.2.2.1
Setting the Frequency Range for DTF Measurements
In the default setting, the R&S ZVH automatically selects a center frequency of 1 GHz
and a distance of 50 m. The R&S ZVH optimizes the settings for the best resolution, if
you change the stop distance.
If you have to keep the current frequency settings, it is best to define a manual span.
Setting the frequency span
When setting the frequency range, it is best to first set the span and then the center
frequency.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
M Press the "DTF Span" softkey.
By default, the R&S ZVH automatically calculates the best span ("Auto Span") for
the best length resolution. If the required span is too large for the current center
frequency, the R&S ZVH sets the center frequency to the smallest possible
frequency.
M Select the "Manual Span…" menu item
M Enter the span you need manually.
The R&S ZVH sets the new span. Note that the maximum span you can set
depends on the maximum cable distance you have defined and is never greater
than the span calculated by the "Auto Span" function. The minimum span that you
can set is 10 MHz.
Setting the displayed frequency range
After you have selected the span, you can set a particular frequency range whose
results the R&S ZVH displays.
In the default configuration, the R&S ZVH adjusts the DTF start and DTF stop
frequency according to the span and the center frequency. The distance from center
frequency to the start and stop frequency is the same. Alternatively, you can directly
set a DTF start and DTF stop frequency.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "DTF Center Freq" softkey.
M Enter the frequency that you'd like to be in the center of the horizontal axis.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency range according to span and center
frequency.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "DTF Start Freq" or the "DTF Stop Freq" softkey.
M Enter the start frequency and stop frequency you need.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency range according to your settings.
Note that the distance from start to stop frequency has to be equal to the span.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the values if you enter a frequency range that is not the
same as the span.
2.2.2.2
Setting the Start and Stop Distance for DTF Measurements
The start and stop distance define the scaling of the horizontal axis.
In the default setting, the horizontal axis start at 0 m and covers the maximum or stop
distance you have set. By adjusting the start and stop distance, you can zoom in to a
particular section of the cable for further analysis.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "Start Dist" or "Stop Dist"softkey.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
M Enter the distance you want the display to start from and to end at.
In auto span mode, the R&S ZVH adjusts the frequency settings in order to get the
best display resolution.
If you have set the span manually, the R&S ZVH zooms in to the section of the
cable you have defined. The results maintain their accuracy in that case.
2.2.2.3
Setting the Frequency Range for CAT Measurements (except DTF)
When you measure the reflection, transmission or cable loss, the frequency range that
the R&S ZVH displays is defined by the span, the center frequency or start and stop
frequencies.
Defining the span
The span you should select depends on the frequency band you are analyzing and the
frequency range you need information about.
The minimum span for both measurements is 10 Hz, the maximum span depends on
the R&S ZVH and is either 3.6 GHz (R&S ZVH4) or 8 GHz (R&S ZVH8).
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "Span" softkey.
M Enter the span you need.
The R&S ZVH sets the span you have entered.
Setting the displayed frequency range
In the default configuration, the R&S ZVH adjusts the start and stop frequency
according to the span and the center frequency, with the center frequency being in the
middle of the horizontal axis. Alternatively, you can directly set the start and stop
frequency.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "Center" softkey.
M Enter the center frequency you need.
Alternatively, set the frequency range independent of the span and the center
frequency.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "Start" softkey and enter a start frequency.
M Press the "Stop" softkey and enter a stop frequency.
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R&S ZVH
Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.2.4
Selecting a Signal Standard for CAT Measurements
When you measure the reflection, transmission or cable loss. the R&S ZVH provides
several configurations for measurements on a particular signal standard. When you
select one of these, the R&S ZVH loads the corresponding parameters like center
frequency or span and you do not have set those anymore.
M Press the FREQ/DIST key.
M Press the "Signal Standard" softkey.
M Select either the "Select Uplink" or "Select Downlink" menu items.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the standard.
M Select the standard you need.
The R&S ZVH loads the settings of the standard you have selected.
2.2.3 Configuring the Vertical Axis
The amplitude menu contains all settings related to the level display.
2.2.3.1
Adjusting the Scale of the Diagram
Scaling parameters control the way the results look like. You have got several options
to improve the vertical scaling of the measurement diagram.
The unit of the level axis is dB.
Setting the reference value
The reference value defines the amplitude of the reference line. The unit of the
reference is dB.
The R&S ZVH indicates the position of the reference value with a yellow triangle at the
).
vertical axis (
When you change the reference value, the R&S ZVH adjusts the labels of the vertical
axis. Changing the reference value changes the vertical position of the trace. It does
not change the position of the reference line.
M Press the AMPT/SCALE key.
M Press the "Ref" softkey.
M Enter the reference value you want or move the reference with the rotary knob.
The R&S ZVH sets up the display accordingly.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
Defining the display range
The display range defines the scale of the vertical axis and therefore the amplitude
between two horizontal grid lines.
The unit depends on the measurement format.
When you change the display range, you can increase or decrease the amplitude the
R&S ZVH displays and, e.g. include signal parts that are outside the displayed screen
area. The position of the reference value and the trace do not change.
M Press the AMPT/SCALE key.
M Press the "Range" softkey.
M Select one of the menu items to select the display range you want.
Adjusting the vertical axis automatically
The R&S ZVH provides an automatic scaling routine that scales the vertical axis in a
way that the results fit ideally on the display. The R&S ZVH does this by determining
the minimum and maximum trace values and scaling the vertical axis according to
these values.
M Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
M Press the "Scale Adjust" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs automatic adjustment of the vertical axis.
Setting the reference position
The reference position defines the position of the reference line in the diagram. The
reference position is a linear value between 0 and 10. Each value represents one
horizontal grid line of the diagram. 0 corresponds to the top grid line and 10
corresponds to the bottom grid line.
When you change the reference position, the R&S ZVH also shifts the position of the
trace by the magnitude of the reference position change. It has no effect on the
reference value itself.
M Press the SCALE/AMPT key.
M Press the "Ref Pos" softkey.
M Enter the reference position you want.
The R&S ZVH moves the trace accordingly.
2.2.3.2
Setting the Attenuation
The R&S ZVH provides function to attenuate the signal at both the tracking generator
output and the RF input.
M Press the AMPT/SCALE key.
M Press the "TG Power" softkey.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
M Enter the attenuation of the signal at the tracking generator output.
You can attenuate the signal from 0 dBm to -40 dBm.
M Press the "Receiver Att" softkey.
M Enter the attenuation of the signal at the RF input.
You can set an RF attenuation in the range from 0 dB to 40 dB in 5 dB steps.
2.2.4 Setting and Triggering the Sweep
When setting up the sweep you have to deal with several parameters that are
interdependent. For easy and quick access, most of these parameters are combined in
the sweep menu.
2.2.4.1
Setting the Measurement Bandwidth
The measurement bandwidth determines the noise figure of the receiver. Small
bandwidths result in higher measurement dynamics for S21 measurements. However,
small bandwidths cause longer measurement times because of the settling time of the
filter.
Possible bandwidths are between 100 Hz and 100 kHz in a 1-3 sequence.
M Press the SWEEP/BW key.
In its default state, the R&S ZVH selects the bandwidth automatically ("Auto Meas
BW" softkey). In that state, the bandwidth is coupled to the span.
The default setting is a compromise between measurement speed and good
performance.
M Press the "Manual Meas BW" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the measurement bandwidth.
M Enter the measurement bandwidth you want to work with.
As an indicator that the BW is no longer coupled to the span, the R&S ZVH
displays a red dot in front of the BW item in the hardware settings.
2.2.4.2
Holding Measurements
The measurement starts as soon as you start the R&S ZVH. As the cable and antenna
tester measures continuously, the R&S ZVH provides a hold function that stops the
display update and leaves room for further analysis of the measurement results.
M Press the MEAS key.
M Press the "Hold" softkey.
The R&S ZVH interrupt the display update.
To resume the display update, press the "Hold" softkey again.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Configuring Cable and Antenna Tests
2.2.4.3
Working with Triggers
To respond to events, the R&S ZVH has a variety of trigger functions. The trigger can
either be external or generated internally.
M Press the SWEEP key.
M Press the "Trigger" softkey.
The submenu for setting the trigger opens. By default, Free Run is active.
In CAT mode, the R&S ZVH provides the following trigger functions.
Free Run
A new sweep starts on completion of the previous sweep. This is the default setting for
the R&S ZVH.
External Rise / External Fall
A sweep starts on the rising edge (RISE) or on the falling edge (FALL) of an external
trigger signal. The external trigger signal is fed in via the BNC connector Ext Trigger.
The switching threshold is 1.4 V, i.e. a TTL signal level.
M Select the trigger you need for your measurement.
The trigger readout (Trig) shows the current trigger setting.
When external trigger are selected, you can delay the start of the measurement with
respect to the trigger event by entering a delay time. In this way, time differences
between the trigger event and the measurement can be allowed for.
M Press the "Trigger" softkey.
M Select the "Trigger Delay..." menu item.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to specify the trigger delay.
M Enter the trigger delay you require.
The range for the trigger delay is 0 Us to 100 s. The step size depends on the
length of the delay time.
Trigger delay
Step size
0 s to 1 ms
10 Us
1 ms to 10 ms
100 Us
10 ms to 100 ms
1 ms
100 ms to 1 s
10 ms
1 s to 10 s
100 ms
10 s to 100 s
1s
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Analyzing Measurement Results
2.3 Analyzing Measurement Results
2.3.1 Working with Traces
The R&S ZVH can transfer a trace to the trace memory and also display the current
trace and the trace in the trace memory for comparison. The saved trace is always
displayed in white to distinguish it from the current trace.
M Press the TRACE key.
M Press the "Trace
Memory" softkey.
The R&S ZVH transfers the trace to the trace memory.
M Press the "Show Memory" softkey.
The R&S ZVH displays the saved trace in white.
You can remove the memory trace by pressing the "Show Memory" softkey again.
The memory traces are bit-mapped into the picture memory. Therefore, when the
memory trace is recalled, it will not be adapted to any modifications of the reference
level or span that may have been made in the meantime.
When you load a data set, the R&S ZVH stores the corresponding trace in the trace
memory. You can view that trace with the "Show Memory" softkey.
2.3.2 Using Markers
The R&S ZVH has six markers, five of which can be used as either markers or delta
markers.
The markers cannot leave the trace and indicate the horizontal and vertical coordinates
of the point they are positioned on. The horizontal position of a marker is shown by a
vertical line which extends from the top to the bottom of the measurement diagram.
The marker list above the diagram area shows the exact coordinates of all markers in
use.
When measuring the distance-to-fault, the horizontal unit is meter or feet. For all other
measurements the horizontal axis is the frequency axis. The unit of the vertical axis is
dB for distance-to-fault and cable loss measurements and dBm for all others.
The position of a delta marker is indicated by a dashed line to distinguish it from a
normal marker. The delta marker level is always a relative to the main marker level and
so the delta marker level unit is always dB. The delta marker frequency is always
relative to the main marker – in other words, the delta marker frequency is the
frequency difference between the frequency at the point marked by the main marker
and the frequency at the point marked by the delta marker.
To measure complex signals, you can activate up to six markers. Marker 1 is always a
normal marker and the reference of all delta markers. Markers 2 to 6 are either
markers or delta markers depending on your set up.
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Analyzing Measurement Results
Screen Layout with Active Markers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2.3.2.1
Marker list
Marker label: M(x)
Delta marker label: D(x)
Active marker label (red label)
Delta marker (blue dotted line)
Marker (blue line)
Marker input field
Marker menu
Positioning Markers
M Press the MARKER key.
The marker menu opens.
If, as yet, no marker has been activated, the R&S ZVH automatically activates the
main marker and positions it on the maximum level that has been measured. In
addition, the marker frequency input field opens.
You can perform the following actions:
C
Position the marker with the cursor keys.
When positioning the marker with the cursor keys, the step size is 10% of the
span.
C
Position the marker with the rotary knob
When positioning the marker with the rotary knob, the step size is one pixel.
C
Enter a marker position with the number keys and confirm the entry with one of the
unit keys.
M Confirm the marker position with the ENTER key.
The marker input field closes.
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Analyzing Measurement Results
By default, the marker list above the diagram area is active. The marker list shows
the horizontal position of all markers and the corresponding vertical value. If
inactive, the list shows only the coordinates of markers 1 and 2.
You can turn it off and on again whenever you like.
M Press the "View List" softkey.
The marker list turns off or on, depending on its original state.
2.3.2.2
Positioning a Delta Marker
When a normal marker is already in use, you can add delta markers.
M Press the MARKER key.
M Press the "New Marker" softkey.
The R&S ZVH activates a delta marker and positions it on the next maximum level
that has been measured. In addition, the delta marker input field opens.
The R&S ZVH adds the delta marker to the marker list and shows the marker
position relative to the normal marker (M1).
You can perform the following actions:
C
C
Enter a delta marker position with the number keys and confirm the entry with one
of the unit keys.
Change the delta marker position with the rotary knob or the cursor keys.
M Confirm the delta marker position with the ENTER key.
The delta marker input field closes.
M To add more markers, press the "New Marker" softkey several times until you have
the number of markers you want in the display.
2.3.2.3
Selecting the Marker Type
When you add new markers, they will be delta markers by default. Their coordinates
are relative to the first marker (M1). You can turn delta markers into normal markers if
you need absolute information about the marker position.
M Press the MARKER key.
M Select the delta marker you want to convert with the "Select Marker" softkey.
The corresponding marker symbol turns red and the marker input field opens.
M Press the "Marker Type" softkey.
The delta marker turns into a normal marker. Its label changes accordingly (e.g. D2
to M2) and its coordinates are now absolute values.
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Analyzing Measurement Results
2.3.2.4
Automatic Positioning of Markers
The R&S ZVH offers functions that make setting the markers easier or allow to make
instrument settings on the basis of the current marker position:
C
"Set to Peak"
The Peak function places the active marker or the delta marker on the highest level
value of the trace.
C
"Set to Next Peak"
The Next Peak function places the active marker or delta marker on the next
highest level value of the trace, relative to its current position.
C
"Set to Minimum"
The Minimum function places the active marker or delta marker on the lowest
value of the trace.
M Press the MKR
key.
M Press the "Set to Peak", "Set to Next Peak" or "Set to Minimum" softkey.
The R&S ZVH positions the marker accordingly.
2.3.2.5
Removing Markers
Remove markers any time you want.
Removing selected markers
M Select the marker you want to delete with the "Select Marker" softkey.
The corresponding marker symbol turns red and the marker input field opens.
M Press the MARKER key.
M Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
M Select the "Delete Selected" menu item.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes the marker.
Note that if you delete marker 1 (M1) all delta markers that are relative to that
marker are also deleted.
Removing delta markers only
M Press the MARKER key.
M Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
M Select the "Delete All Delta" menu item.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes all delta markers.
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Cable and Antenna Test Mode
Analyzing Measurement Results
Removing all markers at the same time.
M Press the MARKER key.
M Press the "Delete Marker" softkey.
M Select the "Delete All" menu item.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH deletes all markers and delta markers.
2.3.2.6
Using Marker Search Limits
The R&S ZVH allows you to use only a limited section of the trace for the "Set to
Peak", "Set to Next Peak" and "Minimum" functions.
M Press the MKR
key.
M Press the "Search Limits" softkey.
M Select the "Search Limits On/Off" menu item.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH activates the marker search limits.
An [X] indicates an active search limit. Two vertical red lines show the lower and upper
limits in the diagram.
By default, the search limit range is over the whole span.
M Press the "Search Limits" softkey
M Select the "Lower Limit" menu item.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the lower limit of the search range.
M Enter the lower limit.
M Confirm the entry with one of the unit keys.
If the span is wide enough, the R&S ZVH displays a red vertical line to indicate the
lower limit.
M Define the upper search limit the same way.
Deactivating marker search limits
M Press the "Search Limits" softkey.
M Select the "Search Limits On/Off" menu item.
M Confirm the selection.
The "Search Limits" softkey turns grey again and in the "Search Limits" menu, the
[X] is no longer displayed.
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R&S ZVH
Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
3 Working with the Measurement Wizard
When testing antennas and cables it is often necessary to perform a sequence of
standardized and recurring measurements, often in an environment that is not easily
accessible. To make sure that measurements are performed as required and to avoid
a constant adjustment of parameters, the R&S ZVH features a measurement wizard.
The measurement wizard combines several measurement configurations to a
sequence of measurements (or measurement set). Because all relevant parameters
have been set prior to the actual measurement and cannot be changed once the
measurement procedure has begun, the wizard is a good way to avoid mistakes and
save time when setting up measurements.
This chapter deals with the functionality of the measurement wizard. For details on the
individual measurements you can perform with the wizard, refer to the corresponding
chapters.
C Performing Measurements on page 17
Note that it is necessary to install and use the R&S ZVHView software package to use
the full functionality of the measurement wizard.
3.1.1 Preparing the Measurement
Before you can use the measurement wizard you have to define a measurement set
with the R&S ZVHView software package and transfer it to the R&S ZVH.
The R&S ZVHView software package is delivered with the R&S ZVH. The latest
version is also available for download on the R&S ZVH website.
3.1.1.1
Creating a Measurement Set
A measurement set consists of several datasets. A dataset is a file that contains the
settings of a specific R&S ZVH configuration, e.g. frequency, scaling etc. To get hold of
a dataset, set up the R&S ZVH as you need and save the configuration or use one of
the predefined datasets.
For more information on datasets see "Saving Dataset" on page 53.
M Start the R&S ZVHView software on your PC.
M Select the "Wizard Set Editor" with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog that provides all functionality to manage
measurement sets.
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Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Name of the measurement set
Description of the measurement task
Cable model selection
Approximate cable length
Calibration method
List of datasets that are available via the PC
List of datasets that are currently part of the measurement set
File management options
Preview dataset button
M Set up the measurement set as you like by adding or removing datasets.
The editor also allows you to add comments to each measurement that is part of the
measurement set. You can also rename the measurement.
M Select one of the datasets and click on the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens another dialog box.
In this dialog box, you can
-
see the name of the selected dataset
define a name for the corresponding measurement
include instructions about performing the measurement.
You can add instructions for every measurement that you include in the set to
avoid handling measurements incorrectly.
The R&S ZVH shows these instructions before the measurement starts.
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R&S ZVH
Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
3.1.1.2
Uploading Measurement Sets
In order to perform the actual measurements, you have to upload the wizard definition
file that contains the set of measurements to the R&S ZVH.
M Select the "Wizard Set Control" function with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the measurement set(s) to upload.
M Select the measurement set you want to upload.
M Copy the files with the
button.
3.1.2 Using the Measurement Wizard
Now that the measurement set is available on the R&S ZVH you can start performing
measurements.
3.1.2.1
Starting the Measurement Wizard
M Press the WIZARD key.
The R&S ZVH opens the wizard dialog box. The dialog box contains information
that you may later use for documentation purposes.
M Press the "Load Meas Set" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the wizard defintion file.
M Select the file that contains the measurement set that you require.
M Confirm the selection with the "Select" softkey.
The R&S ZVH returns to the measurement wizard dialog box. It now displays
information about the measurement set you have just loaded.
The dialog box contains the following information:
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R&S ZVH
Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
C
Measurement Definition
Name of the wizard definition file currently in use. Pressing the ENTER key on this
field has the same effect as the "Load Meas Set" softkey.
C
Measurement Description
Short description of the measurement task. This is a read only field that shows the
description as defined with the R&S ZVHView software.
C
User
Name of the person that performs the measurement.
C
Site Name
Location of the measurement. This field is available on the R&S ZVH only.
C
Comments
Comments about the measurement, e.g. the external conditions during the
measurement.
C
GPS Position
Shows the GPS position, if you have connected a GPS receiver. Pressing the
ENTER key on this field results in an update of the GPS coordinates.
C
Use Wizard Cable Settings
Determines if you want to use the cable characteristics as defined in the
measurement set or if you want to be able change cable characteristics on site.
Select "Yes" to use the predefined cable characteristics. In That case the
parameters below will be locked.
C
Cable Model
Cable model that you perform the measurement on. You can define a cable model
with the R&S ZVHView software, but can also change the cable model on short
notice, if necessary.
C
Clear Cable Model
Deactivates the currently active cable model.
C
Cable Length
Length of the cable that you perform the measurement on.
C
Calibration
Calibration method to use before the measurement starts. This is a read only field,
the calibration method has to be defined with R&S ZVHView.
You have to calibrate the R&S ZVH before you can begin with the measurement
sequence defined in the wizard. If the R&S ZVH has already been calibrated with
the defined routine prior to starting the wizard, the R&S ZVH skips the calibration
and directly starts the measurement.
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R&S ZVH
Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
C
Measurements
List of all individual measurements (datasets) that need to be performed for
successful completion of the measurement task. The list also shows the
measurements that still need to be performed.
Some parameters of the measurement setup you can still change directly on the
R&S ZVH. These are mainly parameters whose details may not be available when you
define the measurement set or whose details may differ depending on the
measurement site, e.g. the cable length or the cable model if it is different to the one
defined previously.
M To change a parameter, select it with the cursor keys and activate the
corresponding input field with the ENTER key.
M Update all parameters that are not correct for the current measurement.
3.1.2.2
Performing a Sequence of Measurements
Now that you have updated all parameters concerning the measurement task, you can
start the measurement procedure.
M Press the "Start Meas Set" softkey.
If you have not yet calibrated the R&S ZVH for the measurement, it asks you to
perform the calibration routine. The stages of the calibration depend on the defined
calibration routine.
For more information see "Calibrating Measurements" on page 21.
After having successfully calibrated the R&S ZVH, it starts to go through the
measurements that are part of the measurement set. The sequence of measurements
is as defined with R&S ZVHView.
Before each measurement, the
R&S ZVH shows a message box.
The message box contains the information and instructions on how to prepare and
perform the measurement that you have defined with the R&S ZVHView software.
M Make the necessary preparations, like connecting the cable.
M Press the "Confirm" softkey.
The R&S ZVH performs the measurement as defined in the dataset and
measurement set. When finished, it shows the measurement results and says
.
Note that it is not possible to change any measurement parameters while using the
measurement wizard. Marker functionality and scaling parameters are, however,
available.
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Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
After each measurement step, you have three options:
-
Continue with the next measurement.
Finishes the current measurement and begins with the next measurement by
showing the necessary preparations.
-
Repeat the current measurement.
Repeats the current measurement, e.g. if the results don't match your
expectations and you want to validate the results.
-
Abort the measurement set routine.
Aborts the measurement and returns to the "Measurement Wizard" dialog box.
The results of the measurements you have already finished are lost.
When you have finished all measurements that are part of the measurement set, the
R&S ZVH asks you if you want to save the measurement results.
M Press the "Save Meas Results" softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the results in its internal memory, or, if available on a SD card
or memory stick.
If you have to store the results on the internal memory, make sure that it has
enough space left to store them. Else it may happen that the results get lost. If the
space is not enough, you can delete old data with the file manager. For more
information see Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement
Results on page 53.
The results for a measurement set consist of a number of files, each file
corresponding to one of the performed measurements. For easy evaluation, the
R&S ZVH includes the name of the measurement as defined in the wizard dialog
or R&S ZVHView in the file name.
All result files that belong to a measurement set are stored in the same directory.
The directory is named after the measurement name and site. The syntax is
'sitename_measurement_#'.
The R&S ZVH adds numbers in ascending order to files as well as directories if
you perform a measurement or measurement set more than once.
3.1.3 Evaluating Results
The R&S ZVHView software provides functionality to evaluate results and compile
measurement reports. However, before you can start to evaluate the results you have
to download the results to your computer.
M Select the "Wizard Result Control" function with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog box to select the measurement set(s) to download.
M Select the measurement set you want to upload.
M Copy the files with the
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R&S ZVH
Working with the Measurement Wizard
Analyzing Measurement Results
Now that the results are available, you can start to compile a measurement report with
the R&S ZVHView.
M Select the "Report Generator" with the
button.
The R&S ZVH opens a dialog that provides all functionality to manage
measurement sets.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Source folder of the datasets
Preview of a particular dataset
Data to be included in the report
Selection of the included information
Selection of the output format
Save/load a report
With the report editor, you can create measurement reports for the full measurement
set or a selection of dataset only. You can also perform simple tasks like activating or
deactivating markers that have been set during the measurement.
M Add the results you want to include in the report by setting a checkmark or
removing the checkmark in the report pane.
M Select the report format you would like.
M Create the report with the "Save" button.
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R&S ZVH
Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
4 Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVHK9)
For highly accurate power measurements, you can connect a power sensor to the
R&S ZVH and perform measurements.
4.1.1 Measuring the Power with a Power Sensor
A power sensor measures the power in the frequency range defined in the data sheet
of the power sensor. This means that you can measure both sine signals and
modulated signals precisely over a large dynamic range.
The R&S ZVH supports the following power sensors. The information in brackets
indicates if the power sensor is connected via the power sensor port or via the USB
interface.
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
R&S FSH-Z1 (power sensor port)
R&S FSH-Z18 (power sensor port)
R&S NRP-Z11 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z21 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z22 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z23 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z24 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z31 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z51 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z55 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z56 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z57 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z81 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z91 (USB)
R&S NRP-Z92 (USB)
If you are using one of the NRP power sensors you also need a passive USB adapter
(R&S NRP-Z4) to connect the power sensor to the R&S ZVH.
For more information on the characteristics of the supported power sensors see
C
C
the datasheet of the R&S ZVH
the website for R&S power sensors.
The power sensor function turns the R&S ZVH into a wideband power meter. It then
always measures the power of the whole signal in the frequency range of the power
sensor. In most cases the signal shape has no effect on the measurement.
M Press the MODE key.
M Press the "Power Meter" softkey
The R&S ZVH activates the mode for power measurements.
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R&S ZVH
Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
Screen layout of the power meter mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
9
10
4.1.1.1
Connected power sensor model
Reference for relative power measurements
Power offset
Measurement time
Readout of the measured power
Analog readout of the measured power
Measurement frequency
Power sensor softkey menu
Connecting a Power Sensor
The R&S ZVH controls and powers the power sensors via a special interface on the
top of the instrument. You can also connect a power sensor via the USB interface on
the right.
If you are using the R&S FSH-Z1 and -Z18 power sensors, connect the power sensor
cable to the power sensor interface and screw it into position. Power sensors of the
R&S NRP-Z product line are controlled via the USB interface with a passive USB
adapter.
After connecting the power sensor to the R&S ZVH, you can connect the DUT to the Nconnector of the power sensor.
Risk of damage to the power sensor
The continuous power applied to the power sensor’s input must not exceed 400 mW
(26 dBm). Higher input powers may destroy the sensor. Short ([10 Us) power peaks up
to 1 W (30 dBm) are however permissible.
An attenuator pad must be used to ensure that the maximum permissible power for the
sensor is never exceeded when measurements are made on high-power transmitters.
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
If the R&S ZVH recognizes a power sensor, it sets up a connection via the interface
and after a few seconds shows the measured power. It displays the type of the power
sensor in the display header.
If no power sensor has been connected or is not connected appropriately, the
R&S ZVH shows nothing.
If there are communication problems between the R&S ZVH and the power sensor, the
R&S ZVH displays one of the following error messages that indicate the possible
cause.
Message
Cause
Remedy
Error in zeroing: signal at sensor
A signal was present at the power
sensor when zeroing was
performed.
Unscrew the power sensor from the device under
test and repeat zeroing.
Warning: Input overloaded
The power at the input of the
power sensor exceeds the
permitted power (23 dBm =
200 mW).
Reduce the power at the sensor input.
Power sensor hardware error
Communication error between the
R&S ZVH and the power sensor.
Unscrew the sensor from the R&S ZVH and check
the connectors.
If the problem persists, contact a Rohde & Schwarz
service center.
Power sensor error
The power sensor signals an
error to the R&S ZVH.
Unknown power sensor model
connected
TheR&S ZVH cannot identify the
device connected to the power
sensor interface.
4.1.1.2
Contact a Rohde & Schwarz service center.
Performing Measurements
The power sensor has a memory containing frequency-dependent correction values.
Therefore the highest accuracy is reached for signals whose frequency is known.
Note that if the R&S ZVH switches over to the power measurement mode from another
operating mode, it uses the center frequency set in that mode as the frequency for the
power sensor.
If you want to perform measurements on another known signal, the power sensor can
be “told” what the center frequency is.
M Press the MEAS key
M Press the "Freq" softkey.
An input field to define the frequency opens.
M Enter the frequency you want.
The R&S ZVH transfers the new frequency to the power sensor which then
corrects the measured power readings.
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
Zeroing the power sensor
Offset voltages and currents have most effect on the power readout when low powers
are being measured. Zeroing is used to compensate for these offsets. The power
sensor zeroes itself automatically when instructed to do so.
Do not apply power during the zeroing process, as the power sensor cannot distinguish
between external powers and internal offsets.
M Press the "Zero" softkey.
The R&S ZVH asks you not to apply
any signals to the power sensor during
the zeroing process.
M Disconnect the power sensor from any signal sources.
M Press the "Continue" softkey to start zeroing.
M Press "Cancel" to abort zeroing, for example, if you cannot disconnect the signal
source.
The R&S ZVH immediately starts power sensor zeroing.
While zeroing is in progress, the
R&S ZVH shows the message
“Zeroing power sensor, please
wait..”.
When zeroing is over, the R&S ZVH shows the message
and switches back to the softkey menu for the power sensor.
Selecting the unit for the power readout
The R&S ZVH can display measured power in relative units (dBm) or in absolute units
(W, mW, UW, nW and pW). A reference level in dB is also provided by the R&S ZVH.
M Press the "Unit" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens a submenu to select the unit.
M Select the unit you want.
Setting the Reference Level
If you have selected the unit dB Rel, the R&S ZVH opens an input field to set the
reference level. The R&S ZVH shows the currently set reference level in the diagram
header.
M Enter the reference level.
Altermatively, you can set the current level reading as the reference level.
M Press the " Ref" softkey.
The R&S ZVH adjusts the reference level to the currently measured power level.
It then displays the measured level relative to the reference level in dB. The unit is
automatically set to dB Rel...
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
Setting the averaging time
The averaging time determines for how long the signal will be measured. The longer
the averaging time, the more stable the display, particularly if signals are at the lower
end of the measurement range or are noisy. You can perform "Short", "Normal" or
"Long" averaging.
Stationary sine signals with a high level (>-40 dBm) require only a short measurement
time to produce stable, accurate results. "Short" averaging is recommended to obtain a
high repetition rate for the measurement. Use "Normal" averaging to increase the
stability of the display for signals with low levels or for modulated signals. The "Long"
mode is recommended for signals with very low power levels (<-50 dBm to <-60 dBm).
The R&S FSH-Z1 averages out the noise most effectively and the effect of noise on
the measurement is minimal.
M Press the "Meas Time" softkey.
M Select the measurement time you need.
Taking Additional Loss or Gain into Account
At high powers that cause the R&S FSH-Z1’s maximum input level to be exceeded or
at very low levels that are below the R&S ZVH minimum sensitivity, the R&S ZVH can
take additional loss or gain between the DUT and the power sensor into account.
These are defined in terms of an offset in dB relative to the measured level. A positive
offset corresponds to a loss and a negative offset to a gain.
The R&S ZVH shows the current offset in the diagram header.
M Press the AMPT/SCALE key.
M Press the "Ref Offset" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens an input field to define the reference offset.
M Enter the required offset.
The offset is taken into account in the power or level display.
4.1.2 Measuring Forward and Reflected Power
With the directional power sensors R&S FSH-Z14 and R&S-FSH-Z44 (order numbers
1120.6001.02 and 1165.2305.02) you can measure the power in both directions.
When you connect the directional power sensor between the source and the load, the
R&S ZVH measures the power from source to load (forward power) and from load to
source (reverse power).
The ratio between forward and reverse power is a measure of the load matching. The
R&S ZVH displays it as the return loss or standing wave ratio.
The power sensors for the R&S ZVH have an assymetrical design. Therefore, they
have to be inserted into the test setup in such a way that the "Forward" arrow (1 2) on
the sensor points toward the load (= in the direction of the power flux).
M Press the MODE key.
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
M Press the "Power Meter" softkey
The R&S ZVH activates the mode for power measurements.
Screen layout of the power meter mode with a directional power sensor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
4.1.2.1
Connected power sensor model
Selected transmission standard
Reference for relative power measurements
Power offset
Readout of the forward power
Analog readout of the forward power
Readout of the matching value
Analog readout of the matching value
Measurement frequency
Directional power sensor softkey menu
Connecting a Directional Power Sensor
The R&S ZVH controls and powers the directional power sensors R&S FSH-Z14 and Z44 via a special interface.
Connect the power sensor cable to the R&S ZVH’s power sensor interface and screw it
into position. The sensor is connected between the source and the load.
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
1
2
3
4
Directional Power Sensor R&S FSH-Z14 or -Z44
Source
Load
Power sensor jack
When measuring high powers, pay strict attention to the following instructions to avoid
personal injury and to prevent the power sensor from being destroyed
Danger of skin burns or damage to the instrument
C
Never exceed the permissible continuous power.
C
See diagram on the rear of the sensor for the permissible continuous power.
C
Turn off the RF power to connect the sensor.
C
Screw the RF connectors tightly.
After connecting the directional power sensor, the R&S ZVH should recognize the
power sensor and start the measurement. If not, it may show an error message.
For more information, see "Connecting a Power Sensor".
4.1.2.2
Performing Measurements with Directional Power Sensors
To get the most accurate results, you should adjust the frequency to that of the signal.
Note that if the R&S ZVH switches over to the power measurement mode from another
operating mode, it uses the center frequency set in that mode as the frequency for the
power sensor.
M Press the MEAS key
M Press the "Freq" softkey.
An input field to define the frequency opens.
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Working with Power Sensors (R&S ZVH-K9)
Analyzing Measurement Results
M Enter the frequency you want.
The R&S ZVH transfers the new frequency to the power sensor which then
corrects the measured power readings.
Zeroing the power sensor
For more information see "Zeroing the power sensor".
Setting the power measurement weighting mode
For forward power display, the R&S ZVH provides both average power and peak
envelope power.
M Press the "Fwrd Pwr Display" softkey.
M Select the weighting mode you require with the rotary knob or the cursor keys.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH indicates the weighting mode at the Forward Power heading.
-
Forward power (AVG) = average power
Forward power (PEP) = peak envelope power
Selecting the unit for the power readout
When using a directional power sensor, the R&S ZVH displays the forward power as a
logarithmic level value in dBm (relative value) or as a linear value in W or mW
(absolute value). In addition you can define a reference level relative to which the
R&S ZVH indicates the level difference in dB. Load matching is indicated as return loss
in dB or as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). In addition, the absolutely reflected
power can be displayed in W, or the reflected level in dBm.
For more information see "Selecting the unit for the power readout".
Setting the reference level
If you have selected the unit dB Rel for the forward power, the R&S ZVH opens an
input field to set the reference level. The R&S ZVH shows the currently set reference
level in the diagram header.
For more information see "Setting the Reference Level".
Selecting a standard
To ensure that true results are output when measuring modulated signals, the
R&S ZVH offers the possibility of taking correction values into account for a number of
common telecommunications standards.
M Press the "Standard" softkey.
A menu to select a standard opens.
M Select the required standard with the rotary knob or the cursor keys.
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Analyzing Measurement Results
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
The R&S ZVH takes the selected standard into account. The currently active
standard is displayed in the display header.
Taking additional attenuation into account
When the directional power sensor is connected to a test point not directly but via a
cable, the influence of cable attenuation can be taken into account. For this purpose,
the cable attenuation for the measurement frequency in question is to be entered, i.e.
as a positive dB value if the power and matching are to be measured at the source and
the cable is connected between the source and the power sensor, and as a negative
dB value if the power and matching are to be measured at the load and the cable is
connected between the load and the power sensor. The directional power sensor then
corrects the power and matching values to produce the results that would have been
obtained if it had been directly connected to the test point.
M Press the AMPT/SCALE key.
M Press the "Ref Offset" softkey.
The input field to enter the reference offset opens.
M Enter the offset with the rotary knob, the cursor keys or the number keys.
M Confirm the entry with the ENTER key.
The selected offset is displayed in the diagram header and is taken into account in
the power (level) and matching results.
If high powers are applied that exceed the maximum input level of the R&S FSH-Z14
or R&S FSH-Z44, a directional coupler or an attenuator has to be connected ahead of
the power sensor. In such cases, the coupling attenuation of the directional coupler or
the attenuation value of the attenuator are to be entered as positive dB values (see
above) into the R&S ZVH to ensure true measured power readout. In both cases, a
termination or an attenuator of sufficient power-handling capacity has to be connected
to the power sensor at the load end. The matching readout is irrelevant in such case
since it is likewise corrected by taking into account the attenuation value of the
termination or attenuator.
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Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results
Analyzing Measurement Results
5 Saving and Loading Instrument Settings
and Measurement Results
For documentation purposes or further analysis, you can save and store measurement
settings and results to the internal memory, SD card or a memory stick and recall them
later. With the R&S ZVHView software package, you can also transfer these data sets
from the R&S ZVH to a PC or transfer them from a PC to the R&S ZVH.
Results and settings, including the measurement function, are always saved en bloc so
that when the results are recalled the measurement context is clear. The R&S ZVH can
store at least 100 datasets and assigns a unique name to each of the datasets.
If you save a setup for scalar or transmission measurements, the R&S ZVH also saves
the calibration data for these measurements. Therefore you can immediately perform
measurements without prior calibration. Data sets that include calibration data require
twice as much memory as data sets without this information. This reduces the
maximum number of data sets that can be stored by the number of data sets stored
with calibration data.
If cable models or channel tables are stored simultaneously, the maximum number of
data sets will be reduced. In addition, the size of the data sets can vary as a function of
the selected measurement function. A complete data set uses approximately 100 kb of
memory.
The R&S ZVH provides a total internal storage space of approx 20 MB. In addition data
sets (cable models, channel tables etc.) can be stored on a SD card or an USB
memory stick. In that case the number of datasets that you can manage depends on
the size of the storage device.
5.1.1 Saving Datasets
M Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
M Press the "Save" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the "Save Dataset" dialog box.
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Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results
Analyzing Measurement Results
1
2
3
4
Available datasets and folder structure
Dataset name input field
Remaining memory on selected data storage device
File manager softkey menu
The folder structure shows all available data storage devices. Possible storage devices
are the internal memory of the R&S ZVH, an SD card or a USB storage device.
The internal memory provides approximately 20 MB of data, therefore the number of
datasets you save on the R&S ZVH is limited. Each dataset needs about 100 kB of
memory, but this value can vary.
If you are using an external storage device, the number of datasets you can save is
limited only by the size of the storage device.
The R&S ZVH shows the available memory for the storage device in the dialog box.
M Select the storage device you want to save the data to.
M Confirm the selection with the ENTER key.
M Browse to the folder you want to save the data to.
M Enter a file name in the corresponding input field.
The default file name for datasets is "Dataset###.set" with a new number in
ascending order for each new dataset. The file extension for datasets is *.set.
If you enter another name, the R&S ZVH uses that name and assigns a new
number to the file name if you save the data set the next time. This function allows
you to assign consecutive dataset file names without entering a new name every
time you want to save a dataset.
You can enter the file name with the alphanumeric keypad. Each key covers more
than one character. To get the character you want, press the key in question the
appropiate number of times.
M Press the "Save" softkey.
The R&S ZVH saves the dataset.
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Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results
Analyzing Measurement Results
5.1.2 Loading Measurement Results
You can preview and load previously saved measurement results with the recall
function of the R&S ZVH. This function also provides easy access to previous
measurement settings so that you do not have to set up the R&S ZVH again.
Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
By default, the most recently saved dataset is highlighted. If you need another dataset
browse the file manager and navigate to the folder or storage device that contains the
dataset you need.
5.1.2.1
Previewing a Dataset
The R&S ZVH provides a preview of datasets. The preview is like a screenshot and
lets you take a quick look at that measurement and its settings. The R&S ZVH does
not yet activate the measurement settings of that dataset.
M Browse through the available dataset and select the one you want.
M Press the "Recall" softkey.
The R&S ZVH shows a preview of the measurement contained in the selected
dataset. The preview shows the measurement results as well as the measurement
settings.
M Use the rotary knob to browse the previews of all datasets available in the selected
folder.
M Press the "Exit" softkey to return to the "Recall Dataset" dialog box.
5.1.2.2
Loading a Dataset
If you find a dataset whose settings you need for your current measurement task, you
can load it.
M Press the "Activate" softkey.
The R&S ZVH loads the dataset in question and adjusts its measurement settings
to those of the dataset.
5.1.2.3
Deleting Datasets
If you have to delete a dataset, you can do so with the file manager.
M Press the SAVE/RECALL key.
M Press the "File Manager" softkey.
The R&S ZVH opens the file manager.
M In order to delete a single dataset, press the "Select Action" softkey. Select
"Delete" and the dataset currently selected is deleted after your confirmation.
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Saving and Loading Instrument Settings and Measurement Results
Analyzing Measurement Results
In order to delete multiple data sets, the respective datasets have to be marked first.
M Press the "Mark" softkey to mark files for deletion
M Select the dataset you'd like to delete.
M Mark the data sets with the ENTER key.
The selected data sets should be checked in the "Status" column.
Repeat the selection by moving the cursor with the rotary knob or the cursor key
and marking more data sets with the ENTER key.
M Press the "Select Action" softkey.
M Select the "Delete" menu item and confirm with the ENTER key or the "Select
Action" softkey.
Before deleting the data set, the R&S ZVH shows a warning message that you
need to confirm. After confirming the deletion process the R&S ZVH deletes the
selected data sets from its memory.
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R&S ZVH
Index
Index
Alphanumeric keys............................................................... 7
Antenna tests..................................................................... 15
Attenuation
CAT mode ...................................................................... 29
Auto span .......................................................................... 26
Cable loss measurement ................................................... 19
Cable model ...................................................................... 24
Cable tests......................................................................... 15
Calibration ......................................................................... 21
method ........................................................................... 22
state ............................................................................... 21
Cat measurement
configuration ................................................................... 24
CAT measurement
cable loss ....................................................................... 19
calibration ....................................................................... 21
distance to fault .............................................................. 18
equipment....................................................................... 15
format ............................................................................. 20
reflection......................................................................... 17
test setup........................................................................ 15
transmission ................................................................... 19
Conventions......................................................................... 5
Cursor keys ......................................................................... 9
Data input ............................................................................ 7
Dataset
deletion........................................................................... 55
preview ........................................................................... 55
Datasets ............................................................................ 53
Delta marker
position ........................................................................... 34
Delta markers .................................................................... 32
Display range
CAT mode ...................................................................... 29
Distance............................................................................. 26
Distance to fault measurement........................................... 18
External storage device ..................................................... 53
External trigger .................................................................. 31
File management ............................................................... 53
Free run trigger .................................................................. 31
Frequency range
CAT mode ...................................................................... 27
DTF measurement.......................................................... 26
Frequency settings
CAT mode ...................................................................... 25
Hold measurement............................................................. 30
Internal memory................................................................. 53
Key
FREQ/DIST .................................................................... 25
MARKER ........................................................................ 32
MKR TO ......................................................................... 32
SCALE/AMPT................................................................. 28
SWEEP/BW.................................................................... 30
TRACE ........................................................................... 32
WIZARD ......................................................................... 39
Manual span ...................................................................... 26
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
Marker list .......................................................................... 34
Marker position .................................................................. 33
Marker removal.................................................................. 35
Marker search limits........................................................... 36
Marker to functionality........................................................ 35
Marker type........................................................................ 34
Markers ............................................................................. 32
Measurement bandwidth.................................................... 30
Measurement format.......................................................... 20
Measurement setup ........................................................... 10
Measurement wizard.......................................................... 37
dialog box ....................................................................... 39
load measurement set .................................................... 39
performing measurements .............................................. 41
report generator.............................................................. 43
saving results.................................................................. 42
wizard result control........................................................ 42
wizard set control............................................................ 39
wizard set editor ............................................................. 37
Memory trace..................................................................... 32
Operating mode
cable and antenna test ................................................... 15
power meter ................................................................... 44
Power meter ...................................................................... 44
averaging time ................................................................ 48
reference level .......................................................... 47, 51
reference offset......................................................... 48, 52
signal standard ............................................................... 51
unit ........................................................................... 47, 51
weighting mode .............................................................. 51
Power sensor
connection ................................................................ 45, 49
directional ....................................................................... 48
list of............................................................................... 44
measurement.................................................................. 46
zeroing ........................................................................... 47
Preset .................................................................................. 9
user defined...................................................................... 9
Reference position
CAT mode ...................................................................... 29
Reference value
CAT mode ...................................................................... 28
Reflection measurement .................................................... 17
Rotary knob ......................................................................... 8
Scale adjust
CAT mode ...................................................................... 29
Screen layout....................................................................... 6
active marker.................................................................. 33
CAT mode ...................................................................... 16
power meter ................................................................... 45
Screenshot ........................................................................ 10
Signal standard
CAT mode ...................................................................... 28
power meter ................................................................... 51
Softkey menus................................................................... 11
Span settings
57
R&S ZVH
CAT mode ...................................................................... 27
DTF measurement.......................................................... 25
Start distance..................................................................... 26
Stop distance..................................................................... 26
Trace memory.................................................................... 32
Transmission measurement............................................... 19
Operating Manual 1309.6946.12 - 01
Index
Trigger
CAT mode ...................................................................... 31
ZVHView
cable definition................................................................ 24
wizard set editor ............................................................. 37
58
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