Amaranthus caudatus

Food Science and Technology
ISSN 0101-2061
Characterization and nutritional value of precooked products of kiwicha grains
(Amaranthus caudatus)
Verónica Elizabeth BURGOS1*, Margarita ARMADA1
Kiwicha has significant nutritional characteristics. It is commonly used as a puffed product, but there is little research on the
lamination process. In this paper, the physical, functional properties, chemical composition and acceptability of the precooked
kiwicha grains were studied. Puffed (PK) and laminated kiwicha (LK) were made. Puffed amaranth (CPA) was used as a
commercial reference standard. The raw grain (RG) showed a higher bulk density (0.85 g/ml) than in PK (0.18 g/ml) and LK
(0.38 g/ml). Both products had a good expansion. The yellow index decreased in PK (50.92) and LK (45.87) respect to RG
(65.64). The largest was CPA (58.54). In all the products, the precooking increased the index of absorption, solubility and
swelling power. Also, they showed major pasting temperature, low peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. In both formulated
products, the content of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre decreased during the precooking process. The content of
protein was optimal (between 14.57-14.59 g/100g). PK had high acceptability (5.84), preference (84.48%), purchase (38.79%)
and consumption (43.96%) intention. The lowest was CPA. This work demonstrates that it’s feasible to make precooked products
with good quality characteristics, chemical composition and acceptability for the development of new products.
Keywords: kiwicha; precooked products; physical and functional properties; acceptability; chemical composition.
Practical Application: The research aims to develop precooked products with good quality characteristics, functional,
nutritional value and sensory acceptability, for the development of new products for useful purposes. The use of a laminator
and an aluminium pan adapted for the production of the puffed product are a novel idea. Therefore, these products will allow
the revaluation of this Andean crop produced in the region and its importance to the regional economy.
1 Introduction
Amaranth is a pseudocereal which is believed to have originated
in central and southern America (Gamel et al., 2006). The genus
Amaranthus contains over 60 species and most of them are native
to Latin America (Schoenlechner et al., 2008). However, only
three species of amaranth are used for edible grain production:
Amaranthus cruentus L., Amaranthus caudatus L., and Amaranthus
hypochondriacus L. (López-Mejía et al., 2014; Milán-Carrillo et al.,
2012). The most important Andean species is A. caudatus
Linnaeus. In Quechua, the local language, it is called “kiwicha”. It is
cultivated in the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina
(Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al., 2009). Amaranth contains 13-19%
protein, 58-66% starch (Bressani, 2003; Montoya‑Rodríguez et al.,
2015), 14-16% total dietary fibre (Repo‑Carrasco-Valencia et al.,
2009). The lipid content shows wide variations, between 1.9%
and 9.7%, depending on the species and genotype. The content
of fatty acids: palmitic (19%), oleic (31.3%) and linoleic (38%)
(Palombini et al., 2013). It is also important to highlight that the
amaranth oil is a rich source of squalene (Gamel et al., 2007).
The puffing operation of cereals consists of the sudden application
of heat at atmospheric pressure so that the moisture is vaporized
inside the grain reaching high internal pressures. At this stage, the
external tissue is broken and the grain is expanded, forming the
endosperm foam attached to the fragments of pericarp and embryo
(Mariotti et al., 2006). The most important quality parameter
of the popped product is the expansion volume obtained due
to the characteristics of the raw grain (Chen & Yeh, 2001), and
the processing conditions (Chandrasekhar & Chattopadhyay,
1990). The process variables are grain size, thickness of pericarp,
temperature, pressure, water activity and the moisture (between
14% and 16%) (Boischot et al., 2003; Chavez‑Jauregui et al., 2000;
Gökmen, 2004; Moraru & Kokini, 2003; Shimoni et al., 2002).
The lamination operation involves the application of heat at
low pressure and mashing in thin flakes, enabling the following
benefits: removing bacteria, inactivating anti-nutritional factors,
changing the physical appearance of the food and increasing the
volume and digestibility. The final product obtained by lamination
is called flakes or chips, which has a moisture content of 8 to 10%
(Bressani, 2006). The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical,
functional properties, chemical composition and acceptability of
precooked products made of kiwicha grains (Amaranthus caudatus).
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Raw material
We worked with kiwicha grain (Amaranthus caudatus),
crop 2013, from the local town of Cachi in the province of Salta.
Commercial puffed amaranth (CPA) was used as a reference
Received 03 June, 2015
Accepted 06 Aug., 2015
Laboratorio de Alimentos, Faculdad de Ingenieria, Instituto de Investigaciones para la Industria Química – INIQUI, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta, Argentina
*Corresponding author:
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(3): 531-538, Jul.-Set. 2015
Precooked products of kiwicha grains
2.2 Puffed operation
2.7 Pasting properties
The puffed operation was performed according to the
methodology developed by Muyonga et al. (2014), with some
modifications. An aluminium pan was used to make puffed corns.
It was adapted for the production of the puffed product due to
the small size of the grains of kiwicha. The pan consists of a lid
with a propeller that allows the grains to be mixed, as they are
popped. A gas cooker Tivoli 500 G.E. V/S 50CM (Argentina) was
also used. After the puffed operation, the popped grains were
passed through a 16 mesh (1.190 mm ASTM) to be selected for
analysis. The process variables were: the initial moisture, 7.20%;
the expansion time, 30 seconds; the temperature 160 °C±2 °C
measured with the infrared thermometer CEM (-50 °C-500 °C).
The product obtained was called puffed kiwicha (PK).
Pasting properties of the samples were determined using a
Viscoamylograph (Brabender OHG, Duisburg, Germany). The test
preparation consisted in suspending the milled samples with a
particle size of 40 mesh (0.400 mm - ASTM) in distilled water
to 7% w/v, then brought to a final volume of 530 cc. with the
following heating-cooling cycle: heating at a rate of 1.5 °C/min;
starting temperature 20 °C up to 90 °C; maintained at 90 °C for
20 min; cooled from 90 °C to 50 °C for 1.5/min; maintained at
50 °C for 20 min.. The amylographic parameters were determined:
pasting temperature, viscosity peak, viscosity at 90 °C, viscosity
at 90 °C for 20 min, viscosity at 50 °C, viscosity at 50 °C for
20 min, breakdown viscosity (difference between the viscosity
peak and viscosity at 90 °C for 20 min) and setback viscosity
(difference between the viscosity at 50 °C and viscosity at 90 °C
for 20 min) (Merca & Juliano, 1981) was calculated. Results were
expressed in Brabender Units (BU).
2.3 Lamination operation
The lamination operation requires a double drum roller.
The sample is placed in the feed zone and then passes to the outer
surface of the heated rollers, which rotates slowly on its horizontal
axis. The accumulation of material remains on the rollers at
approximately 80% of revolutions; during this time, the moisture
evaporates, and leaves a solid material which is removed from
the roll surface with a scraper (Gavrielidou et al., 2002). Prior to
the lamination process, the kiwicha grains were moisturized to a
mass/volume relation of 1:0.8. The process variables were: initial
moisture content, 18%; roller temperature, 100 °C; residence
time of 11 seconds to 5 rpm. The product obtained was called
laminated kiwicha (LK).
2.4 Bulk density (BD) and Expansion Index (EI)
The BD measurement should be determined by measuring
the material volume, which is compacted in a cylinder of 25 ml
and the results were calculated as g/ml (Mariotti et al., 2006).
The EI was calculated between the volume of the raw grains
and the same volume after being expanded, using the following
Equation 1.
Volume raw grain (ml)
EI =
Volume expanded grain (ml)
2.5 Determination of colour. Yellow Index (YI)
Colour was determined with the Colour Tec PCM (Accuracy
Microsensor Inc., Pittsford, USA), the Cole Parmer reflectance
colorimeter equipped with light source D65 and an observation
angle of 10°. The measurements were triplicated for each sample.
CIELAB parameters (L*, a*, b*) were used and L* measured on
the scale from black (zero) to white (100), and the other two
related to chromaticity: a* from green (-a*) to red (+a*) and
b* from blue (- b*) to yellow (+b*). The YI was determined by
using the following Equation 2 (Rufian-Henares et al., 2006).
YI =
142.86 × b *
2.6 Functional properties
Water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index
(WSI) were determined by the method of Anderson et al. (1969).
The swelling power (SP) was determined by a modification of the
original method of Schoch (1964), by Sathe & Salunkhe (1981).
2.8 Chemical composition
The chemical composition was determined by triplicate,
according to the official technical AOAC (Association of Official
Analytical Chemists, 1996): moisture (method 934.01), protein
(method 960.52), ash (method 942.05), lipid (method 920.39)
and total dietary fibre (TDF) (method 991.43). The value of
carbohydrates was calculated by difference.
2.9 Sensory assay
The evaluation and testing preferences were analysed in
60 consumers, men and women, over 18 years, using a hedonic
scale of 7 points, where 1 corresponds to the statement “I dislike it
very much” and 7 corresponds to “I like it very much.” In addition,
the consumers were asked to their intention to either purchase
or consume product if they have the products at home.
2.10 Statistical analysis
Means and standard deviation (SD) were calculated. For data
analysis the ANOVA analysis was used. For the comparison of
means to establish significant differences (p<0.05), the Tukey
test was used. Pearson correlation coefficients (r2) were used
to determine the relationship between acceptability and other
studied variables. The 2008 version InfoStat Statistical Software
was used.
3 Results and discussion
3.1 Bulk density (BD) and Expansion Index (EI)
Table 1 shows the bulk density and Expansion Index of the
studied samples. The density of grains indicates that the amount
of air spaces was low (uniform and small). The grains that have
higher density contain a larger amount of reserve substances
(nutrients), this condition being the most desirable; however,
in expanded products, since economically those with less bulk
and real density are selected (Egas et al., 2010). Did not show a
significant difference between CPA (0.17 g/ml) and PK (0.18 g/ml)
(p>0.05) in the BD, but there was significant difference with
the raw grain (0.85 g/ml) and LK (0.38 g/ml) (p<0.05). The EI
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(3): 531-538, Jul.-Set. 2015
Burgos; Armada
is of great importance in evaluating the product quality, since
it is possible to verify whether the raw material used after the
processing possesses suitable structure and composition for use
as a food ingredient (Silva et al., 2013). The degree of expansion
of an extruded product is closely related to the size, number,
and distribution of air cells surrounded by the cooked material
(Salata et al., 2014). In the PK, the lower density (0.18 g/ml)
indicated that during the puffed process, an excellent expansion
of the product (4.60). Similar values of the EI were reported by
Valdez (1999). In this study, statistically significant difference
was observed between PK and LK (p<0.05). In another research
where were studied different puffed cereals, the bulk density
values were reported between 0.13-0.16 g/ml and the EI between
5.3-7.6. This cooking process caused a drastic decrease in the
BD and an increase in the IE (Mariotti et al., 2006).
3.2 Determination of colour. Yellow Index (YI)
Table 1 shows the colorimetric parameters and Yellow
Index of the studied samples. Colour is a very important
quality attribute of both raw and processed foods. It has a
significant impact on consumer perception of quality. Puffed
cereal grains should be characterized by a bright and uniformly
distributed colour, with high values of lightness and whiteness.
Investigators confirmed that amaranth grain puffing process at
higher temperatures may lead to scorching and stiffening of
the natural grain cover (Zapotoczny et al., 2006). Also, many
reactions occur during precooking process that can affect the
colour such us Maillard reaction, where lysine and other amino
acids present in the raw material probably react with reducing
sugars, favoured by the processing conditions, which leads to
a darkening of the extruded and expanded products (Gutkoski
& El-Dash, 1999). In the present study, the kiwicha grain had
higher values of L* (60.96±0.18) and b* (28.01±0.98) than those
reported by Kaur et al. (2010). But was obtained similar values
of a* (13.86±0.79). These authors established a predominance of
reddish brown. Other researchers have reported similar values
of L* and b*, with higher values of a* (Zapotoczny et al., 2006).
LK (67.56±0.43) and CPA (65.30±1.12) showed higher values
of L*, than the raw grain (60.96±0.18) and PK (61.51±1.26),
with significant differences (p<0.05). The lowest value of a*
was KL (9.05±0.07) (p<0.05). There was a decrease in yellow
colour (b*) in PK (21.93±0.84) and LK (21.70±2.31), respect to
the raw grain (28.01±0.98) (p<0.05). CPA had higher value of
b* (40.57±2.49) than the raw grain, PK and LK with significant
differences (p<0.05). This could be due to the possible addition
of colouring substances in the manufacturing process. Another
colour parameter correlated with the quality of puffed amaranth
grains is the index of yellowness. The composition of the puffed
grain should differ as little as possible from the composition
of raw material. Total whiteness and yellowness indices may
serve as measures of this difference. The increase in yellowness
and the decrease in whiteness may be a result of changes in the
composition of processed amaranth grains (Zapotoczny et al., 2006).
Table 1 shows that the YI decreased during puffed (50.92±0.92)
and lamination (45.87±4.61) process, respect to the raw grain
(65.64±2.25) (p<0.05). Researchers came to the same conclusion,
but these researchers used temperatures above 200°C, so they
got lower YI values than this study (Zapotoczny et al., 2006).
CPA presented the highest values of YI (58.54±2.90) respect to
PK and LK (p<0.05).
3.3 Functional properties: water absorption index (WAI),
solubility (WSI) and swelling power (SP)
WAI measures the amount of water absorbed by starch
granules after swelling in excess water and it used as an index of
gelatinization (Van den Einde et al., 2003). In the gelatinization,
the starch granule swells then breaks and releases the amylose
outside of the granule. Starch swelling is a property related to its
amylopectin, amylose acting as a diluent and swelling inhibitor
and as a direct result of the swelling of the grain, there is an
increase in starch solubility (Karim et al., 2000). Table 2 shows
that the processing of kiwicha grain (WAI: 2.33±0.08; WSI:
Table 1. Colorimetric parameters, Yellow Index, Bulk Density and Expansion Index of the raw grain, CPA, PK and LK.
Yellow Index
Bulk Density (g/ml)
Expansion Index
Raw Grain
60.96 ± 0.18a
13.86 ± 0.79b
28.01 ± 0.98b
65.64 ± 2.25d
0.85 ± 0.004c
65.30 ± 1.12b
11.31 ± 0.38ab
40.57 ± 2.49c
58.54 ± 2.90c
0.17 ± 0.00a
61.51 ± 1.26a
13.20 ± 0.07b
21.93 ± 0.84a
50.92 ± 0.92b
0.18 ± 0.00a
4.60 ± 0.00a
67.56 ± 0.43b
9.05 ± 0.07a
21.70 ± 2.31a
45.87 ± 4.61a
0.38 ± 0.00b
3.25 ± 0.00b
Means ± standard deviation (n=4). Different letters between columns are significantly different (p<0.05). g: grams; ml: millilitres.
Table 2. Water Absorption, Solubility Index and Swelling Power of the raw grain, PK, LK and CPA.
Raw Grain
WAI (g. gel/g. sample d.b)
WSI (% soluble solids d.b)
SP (g. solids/g. sample d.b)
Means ± standard deviation (n=4). Different letters between rows are significantly different (p<0.05). g: gram; d.b: dry basis; WAI: Water Absorption Index, WSI: Water Solubility
Index; SP: Swelling Power.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(3): 531-538, Jul.-Set. 2015
Precooked products of kiwicha grains
6.60±0.77, SP: 2.48±0.07) increased the WAI (PK: 5.25±0.40;
LK: 3.92±0.01), the WSI (PK: 9.38±0.60; LK: 8.62±0.01) and
the SP (PK: 5.79±0.54; LK: 4.25±0.01), showing significant
differences (p<0.05). This is because the expansion induces
significant changes in the structure and physical properties of
starch with greater water retention capacity (Mariotti et al., 2006).
The water absorption capacity of precooked cereals can be
interpreted based on interactions starch-water-protein, which is
attributed to the dispersion of starch in excess water, due to the
degree of damage suffered by gelatinization and fragmentation
during processing (e.g., molecular weight, reduction of amylose
and amylopectin) (Markowski et al., 2006). These interactions
affect the structure of the solid phase of the processed material
(Zapotoczny et al., 2006). CPA presented higher values in all
studied parameters (WAI: 7.59±0.20; WSI: 11.66±0.77; SP:
8.50±0.29), than the other products (p<0.05), while the lowest
value was in KL (WAI: 3.92±0.01; WSI: 8.62±0.01; SP: 4.25±0.01).
Barca et al. (2010) studied the absorption capacity of puffed
amaranth and they obtained higher values than those obtained in
this study. This could be because the grain amaranth has a high
level of amylopectin, low values obtained from this index can be
attributed to the almost total degradation suffered by the starch
granules in both processes precooking (Menegassi et al., 2011).
González et al. (2000) suggested that the endosperm amaranth
is less resistant than other waxy cereal and proposed to the WSI
as a direct indicator of the degree of cooking of extruded cereals.
This index determines the amount of soluble polysaccharide
released from the starch granules in excess of water and is often
used as an indicator a related with the degree of breaking of
the granular structure and molecular components degradation
(Salata et al., 2014; Van den Einde et al., 2003). This solubilizes
amylose molecules and increased solubility (Kong et al., 2009).
3.4 Pasting properties
Pasting properties obtained are shown in Table 3.
The pasting properties reflect the changes in the viscosity of
the samples during heating in excess of water under constant
stirring conditions. During heating, the viscosity increased due
to the swelling of the granules to several times their original
size, due to the loss of crystalline order and absorption of
water (Bao & Bergman, 2004). This increase could be due to
water holding capacity of the starch granules, with increasing
Table 3. Pasting properties of the raw grain, PK, LK and CPA.
Pasting properties (BU)
Peak Viscosity
Viscosity 90 °C
Viscosity at 90 °C for
20 minutes
Viscosity 50 °C
Viscosity at 50 °C for 20
Breakdown viscosity
Setback viscosity
Pasting temperature (°C)
BU: Brabender Units.
Raw grain
temperature, cause rupture of intermolecular hydrogen bonds
of amorphous regions, and progressive and irreversible water
absorption. Variation in the ability to bind water may be due
to differences in the proportion of amorphous or crystalline
regions within the starch granule (Kong et al., 2009). The
pasting temperature is an index of system (association)
intragranular, higher temperature values, there is a greater degree
of association between the macromolecules inside the starch
granule (Singh et al., 2003). In this study pasting temperature
for the raw grain of Kiwicha was 63 °C. Pasting temperatures
of 63.4–74 °C have been reported for grain amaranth from
previous studies (Kong et al., 2009; Lai, 2001). The pasting
temperature is an index of system (association) intragranular.
When the temperature values are higher, there is a greater
degree of association between the macromolecules inside the
starch granule (Singh et al., 2003). The raw grain presented
a peak viscosity of 418 BU. This is because during heating,
the swollen starch granules disintegrate more in the absence
of amylose, therefore, a higher viscosity (Singh et al., 2007).
Studies on starch from different sources showed that the amylose
content and the distribution of chain length predominantly
amylopectin can affect the pasting properties (Jane et al.,
1999). Researchers revealed that the amaranth grain has a
lower final viscosity as compared to peak viscosity, and a
tendency to retrogradation, possibly due to the absence or
presence of a negligible amount amylose. In earlier studies, this
characteristic has been observed in starches from waxy corn
(Kaur et al., 2010; Sandhu et al., 2007). In another study the
difference in the pasting properties of the two grain amaranth
species, reflected differences in the content and/or nature of
amylose to amylopectin of the starch. They concluded that the
amylose content is a key factor in the pasting properties in the
amaranth grain (Kong et al., 2009). In fact, according to some
authors (Kong et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2006) state that the amylose
content directly affects the viscosity, with a higher content of
amylose, the viscosity is higher. This trend can be explained
by the fact that all these pasting properties are dependent on
the rate and level of starch granules during disintegration. At
the end of the heating period, it decreased the viscosity in the
raw grain to 345 BU and at the end of cooling increased to 362
BU and maintained to this same viscosity for 20 minutes at
50 °C. The breakdown viscosity of the raw grain (73 BU) was
less than the final viscosity (362 BU). This indicates that the
sample is shearing stable. This viscosity is considered a measure
of the degree of disintegration of the granules and reveals the
stability of the paste. Samples that recorded largest granule
disintegration, appears to show a high degree of retrogradation.
This is reflected in the values of setback. In this study, in the raw
grain was obtained a lower value of setback (17 BU). Higher
values were reported by other researchers which studied two
types of grain Amaranth cruentus L. and L. hipochondriacus
(Muyonga et al., 2014). According to other authors, the
retrogradation of the amaranth starch is small compared to
corn and wheat starches, by the low amount of amylose present
amaranth grain (Choi et al., 2004; Wilhelm et al., 2002). In the
PK, LK and CPA, the precooking starch resulted in increased
solubilisation in cold water, increasing the water retention
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(3): 531-538, Jul.-Set. 2015
Burgos; Armada
power and facilitating swelling and gelatinization of the
starch granules. The precooked products had a lower peak
viscosity of 100 BU, 130 BU and 150 BU for PK, LK and CPA,
respectively, than the raw grain (418 BU). This can be attributed
to the pregelatinize due to heat treatment (Ilo et al., 1999;
Rodríguez-Sandoval et al., 2007). The precooking process
reduced the breakdown viscosity (PK: 0 BU; LK: 10 BU; CPA:
0 BU), increased the setback viscosity (PK: 18 BU; LK: 30 BU;
CPA: 20 BU) and increased the pasting temperature (PK: 68 °C;
LK: 70 °C; CPA: 69 °C). This parameter gives an indication
of the minimum temperature required for cooking starch
suspensions (Pongsawatmanit et al., 2002). A similar trend
was reported when comparing pasting properties of different
grain amaranth cultivars (Kong et al. 2009). This trend can be
explained by the fact that all these attributes are dependent on
the pace and level of starch granule disintegration. Samples
which register more extensive granule disintegration seem
also likely to exhibit a high extent of retrogradation reflected
in the values for setback (Muyonga et al., 2014).
3.5 Chemical composition
Table 4 presents the content of nutrients in raw grain, PK
and LK. These values are expressed in grams per 100 grams
of sample in dry basis (g/100g sample d.b). The raw grain had
7.2 g/100g of moisture and high value of TDF (37.61 g/100g).
This value was higher compared to that reported by
other authors (Escudero et al., 2004; Marcílio et al., 2003;
Menegassi et al., 2011). Also, the grain presented a higher content
of insoluble fibre (32 g/100g) than the content found in other
studies (Escudero et al., 2004; Marcílio et al., 2003). The optimal
protein value (14.59 g/100g) was similar to those reported by
the United States Department of Agriculture (2010) and other
researchers (Bressani, 2003; Repo-Carrasco‑Valencia et al., 2009;
Zheleznov et al., 1997). The lipid content (4.66 g/100g) was
lower than that reported by Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al.
(2009), but this may depend on the species and genotype,
because some researchers established ranges between 1.9%
and 9.7% (Berger et al., 2003). The precooking process caused
some changes in the chemical composition of the kiwicha grain.
On the puffed, the moisture content was reduced by 56%, from
Table 4. Nutritional value (g/100g d.b) of the raw grain, PK and LK.
Total Dietary
Calories (Kcal)
Raw grain
Means ± standard deviation (n=3). Different letters between columns are significantly
different (p<0.05); g: gram; d.b: dry basis; Kcal: Kilocalories.
Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(3): 531-538, Jul.-Set. 2015
7.20 g/100g to 3.13 g/100g, due to the effect of expansion, the
high pressure and temperature (160 °C) of the process, which
occurs first toasting and then puffed (Egas et al., 2010). Also, in
the laminates there was a decrease of more than 50%. In addition,
the heat treatment decreased by between 55-60% of the FDT
content (PK: 13.94 g/100g; LK: 16.88 g/100g). This decrease
showed significant differences (p<0.05), compared to the raw
grain. This is because the fibre is located in the outer layers of
the grain, which causes their loss. The carbohydrate content was
concentrated at the expense of the other components decrease,
of 40.51 g/100g (raw grain) to 64.32 g/100g and 61.23 g/100g for
the laminated and puffed of kiwicha, respectively. The content
of protein, TDF, both soluble and insoluble and ash were similar
to content found in another study, which was evaluated the
properties of expanded amaranth (Menegassi et al., 2011).
In another study, researchers evaluated raw and puffed amaranth
and observed significant differences (p<0.05) between the
two samples in the content of moisture, protein, fat, ash and
carbohydrates (Barca et al., 2010). In this study, there were not
significant differences (p>0.05) in the content of protein and
fat between studied samples.
3.6 Sensory assay
Table 5 shows the mean of the acceptability and percentage
of preferably of PK, LK and CPA. PK had the better acceptability
(5.84±1.16), corresponding to the scale like moderately. There
were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between PK,
LK and CPA. The lowest acceptability was CPA (3.94±1.23).
The highest percentage of preferably was PK (84.48%). Only
the 6.90% of consumers preferred the CPA.
Figure 1 shows the intention of purchase and consumption
of the PK, LK and CPA. The greater acceptance of purchase
(38.79%) and consumption (43.96%) was for the PK.
The commercial product showed acceptance at purchase,
33.62% and consumptions 27.59% of the tasters. Regarding the
laminated kiwicha, the 40.52% and the 36.21%, not purchased
and not consumed, respectively, due to having poor flavour
and texture did not please the consumer. Pearson correlation
coefficients (r2) indicated that the acceptability assays is positively
correlated (p<0.05) with: BD (r2=0.95), L* (r2=0.99), a* (r2=0.95),
WAI (r2=0.93) and SP (r2=0.92) in CPA; WAI (r2=0.92), WSI
(r2=0.91), SP (r2=0.92) and FDT (r2=0.96) in PK; L* (r2=0.99)
in LK. There was a negative correlation with: BD (r2= -0.92),
WSI (r2= -0.90), FDT (r2= -0.91) and carbohydrates (r2=-0.93)
in LK; b* (r2=-0.95) in CPA.
Table 5. Acceptability and percentage of preference of the PK, LK and CPA.
Preference (%)
5.84 ± 1.16c
4.20 ± 1.40b
3.94 ± 1.23a
Acceptability: Means ± standard deviation (n=60). Different letters between columns
are significantly different (p <0.05).
Precooked products of kiwicha grains
Figure 1. Intention of purchase and consumption (%) of the PK, LK and CPA. a: Yes. Purchase; b: Yes Consumption; c: No. Purchase; d: No.
4 Conclutions
Density determinations and rate of expansion provided
good grain quality characteristics. In the formulated products,
PK and LK, an excellent expansion was achieved. Colour and
YI allowed predicting an important quality of the laminated
and puffed product and their perception of the quality of the
kiwicha grain. Precooked formulated products had high content
of total, soluble and insoluble fibre. The precooking process in
the kiwicha grain increased the WAI, WSI and SP, the setback
viscosity and the pasting temperature. Also, these processes
reduced the breakdown viscosity, indicating greater stability
to heating and cooling processes, faster cooking and swell in
cold. The PK presented better sensorial acceptability than CPA.
The PK acceptability was correlated with the WAI, WSI, SP and
the content of FDT. The LK to improve their sensory acceptability
could be incorporated as an ingredient in other formulations,
instant products such as soups, desserts, drinks. The commercial
product should have better sensory characteristics to improve
its acceptability, consumption and purchase. We conclude that
from this research the precooked products obtained have good
quality characteristics, physical and functional properties,
chemical composition and acceptability. This allows its use for
the development of new products for useful purposes, such as
breakfast cereals or ingredients of other products with higher
added value.
The authors wish to thank Professors Alejandra Burgos and
Colin Bailey for their valuable help revising the language and we
thank the director of the Research Institute of Sensory Food, Lic.
Raquel Guanca, for providing the venue and materials to carry
out tests of Sensory Evaluation. Also, we thank the Magister
Juan Robin, for his cooperation in the use of the laminator and
development the laminated kiwicha.
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