abstracts 2011 - Amity University

Equilibrium And Chemistry
Grzes Marie ; Budin Joseph ; Sion Stéphane
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
The human activity affects the equilibrium of the planet, even down to its
chemistry. Experiments were performed to assess the response of a chemical
system to a change of temperature, concentrations of reagents or products
and even pressure. This work allowed us to rediscover the principles enounced
by Le Chatelier.
Light and Luminol structure
Smal Claire; Plancq Charlène ; Verlynde Justi ne
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
A chemiluminescent product called Luminol is used by the scientific police to
find blood traces. We synthesized this compound Luminol in a two-step process
from 3-nitrophtalic anhydride and an aliquot of the intermediate compound
was kept. The synthesis of a parent compound from phtalic anhydride was also
carried out. All the products were tested for chemiluminescence to show what
is really essential in the molecule structure.
Let there be light: Luminol
Acs Jean-Alexis ; Lelong Benoît
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
In the TV series CSI, the scientific police use the Luminol to detect bloodstains.
To discover how Luminol works, we focused on the action of the Luminol and
the conditions of its use. The luminescence was tested at various temperatures
and we tried to see if the luminescence is possible with different metallic ions
as well as with bleach.
Natural Colours: Are They Really Environment Friendly
Juned Qureshi
Dr. (Mrs.) Alka Saxena
Amity Internati onal School, Saket, New Delhi, India
According to colour therapy, colours are capable of influencing many aspects
of our lives, including our mood, mental state and energy level. Each colour
is thought to be associated with one of seven energy centres, or chakras, in
ayurveda. If a person’s chakra is thought to be out of balance or weak, the
colour it’s associated with is believed to help strengthen it.
Studies conducted showed the advantage of natural colours/dyes over
chemical/synthetic colours/dye. Chemical colours are toxic and can result
in skin allergies, eye irritation, blindness, renal failure, learning disability,
bronchial asthma etc. They are also carcinogenic and can cause skin cancer
.When washed, they enter the rivers and the soil and increase pollution.
This project aims to give an insight on preparation of various Natural Colours
and also their advantage over chemical colours. Various different dry colours
were prepared using flowers, tree leaves, tree barks, and fl our of different
types. Wet colours were also prepared by extracting pigments from natural
resources available.
Red Colour was prepared by grinding wood of Lalchandan (Pterocarpus
santalinus). Red colour was also made by drying and grinding red hibiscus
flowers. To increase the bulk fl our was added to it.
We made use of the dry petals of marigold and yellow chrysanthemums to
obtain a fine yellow powder. Yellow colour was also made using gram fl our and
mixing it with turmeric.
By mixing red & yellow colour, orange colour was prepared. Orange colour was
also prepared by drying orange peels in the sun and then grinding them and
mixing with gram fl our and turmeric.
Similarly work is being done to prepare green, brown, and blue colour. Natural
wet colours are also being made by extracting the pigments of flowers, fruit
peels in water.
These colours when used by human beings did not cause allergies and were
totally safe. They did not cause allergies, eye irritation, and also did not trigger allergic asthma.
These colours also have a cooling effect on skin. Natural
colours can therefore be used to a large extent as they do not harm human
beings; and their advantages are manifold. Their disposal is easy and does not
cause environmental pollution.
Colours In Daily Life
Karen Poertzgen; Carolin Koeller
Palfalvi Annett e, Teacher
Eichendorff -Gymnasium,Koblenz, Germany
In our experiment we produced films out of starch and glycerine. Then we dyed
the films with different colours and juices. Our aim was to find out how good
you can dye the films and which colour is most suitable for dying films.
When producing a film out of starch one uses its property to dry to kind of
a film in aqueous solutions. These films are slightly brittle and so one uses
glycerine as a softening agent. The glycerine binds the starch and prevents
the starch from forming crystals. Besides: glycerine binds water and prevents
the film from drying and becoming brittle. In our experiments we learned that
potato- and maize-starch are equally suitable for the production of films. As dye
we used beetroot-juice, carrot-juice, red-cabbage-juice and Easter egg colour
(E141), as well as food colouring (patent-blue V). We noticed that each of them
dyes the fi lm, but beetroot- juice and Easter egg colour worked best. Beetroot juice
produced a colour quality equal to the chemical Easter egg colour (E 141 chlorophyll).
Blue Bottle
Landru Marie ; Delebassé Amélie ; Conseil Marie-Fleur ; Romagny Julie
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
Imagine a colour changing soda... With this goal in mind, parameters of the
famous blue bottle experiment were studied. But a problem was evidenced:
the pH requirement. Is there a solution? Let’s work on it !
Ocean’s CO2
Duyck Elodie ; Brasier Eugénie
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
Nowadays, global warming and carbon dioxide increasing in the atmosphere
are in all the minds. Our activities’ rejections are upsetting the equilibrium of
the planet, and especially the ocean’s equilibrium. Experiments were made
to understand how the oceans could absorb and throw out carbon dioxide.
Thanks to these experiments, it was proven that cold water could absorb more
carbon dioxide than warm water, that seawater becomes more acidic when it
has absorbed carbon dioxide, and the ocean’s acidity has a adverse effect on
shells and threatens marine ecosystem.
Reaching The Core Of The CO2 Sink
Soti a Zenios; Eleni Kleanthous; Marios Ioannou
Zelina Philippou; Iakovos Hadjitt ofi s
The Grammar School, Nicosia, Cyprus
Without the proper functioning of the carbon cycle, every aspect of life in our
planet will change dramatically. It is generally accepted that human activity
plays a major role in the increasing of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
released to the atmosphere. It is known that the ocean absorbs about ¾ of the
CO2 emissions and turns about 1% of it into carbonic acid. The formation of
this acid causes the pH of sea water to drop, making it less and less basic. This
will eventually lead to acidic water which in turn will eat away all the calcium
carbonate (limestone) in the ocean and will destroy the marine species that use
limestone to survive. Does the sea water return to its chemical equilibrium?
Photosynthetic aquatic plants use CO2 during their photosynthesis, so we
assumed that these plants would also be able to restore the pH by absorbing
the CO2 from the water. For the experiment we used sea water and fresh water
photosynthetic plants in order to investigate how they restore the pH under
different conditions in the presence of dissolved CO2. The experiments were
performed using pH indicator and the colour changes were monitored. From
the experiments it was concluded that plants in both fresh and sea water have
the ability to restore the water’s initial pH, indicating that nature has its own
mechanism for restoring equilibrium.
Euglena And Biofuels
Mullier Antoine ; Golard Benjamin ; Debue Rémy
Dolaine Régis, Chemistry Teacher
Institut de Genech, France
Oil supplies go dry… Biological fuels are the centre of attention of a lot of scientists.
Aiming at producing a green energy, we attempted to produce lipids from Euglenas.
Many experiments were made to identify the best way to produce this
alga. Euglenas were placed in various conditions such as the presence
of CO2, altered pH, absence of light. A final experiment was made with
Euglenas, fertilizer and CO2. Euglenas were then crushed to obtain lipids.
Between Fire and Water: Biogas. Flaming Vision of the Future or
Just a Liquid Game?
Herres Johannes ; Burbach Ilka
Franzen Christi an ; Weimar Maria
Nikolaus-von-Kues-G., Bernkastel-Kues,
In the last few years a lively discussion has been going on, concerning the
energy policy about becoming more independent of fossil fuels. Events such
as rising oil prices or the disaster in the Japanese nuclear power stations
force us to rethink our energy sources. The new sources of energy should be
secure, ecological and efficient. Accordingly, we have chosen the subject of this
project: biogas. The biogas production makes us independent of fossil fuels, is
not as dangerous as nuclear power stations, and produces green energy. In our
investigations we are trying to find solutions to raise the efficiency of the biogas
production. When pursuing our aim we conducted some basic research and
constructed our own “biogas station”. During the next few weeks we want to
figure out whether the addition of zinc will increase the production of biogas.
It is our goal to find out whether biogas is just a liquid game or a flaming vision of the future…
Microwave Impact On Everyday Life
Stephanos Ioannou; Andreas Apseros; Constanti na Kapona
Andreas Kleanthous ; Costas Sokratous ; Tonia Apostolidou
The Grammar School, Nicosia, Cyprus
Microwaves are currently used on a world wide scale, both for communication
purposes and for cooking food. While research has clearly proven that direct
exposure to microwaves (such cases include mobile phones) is harmful to living
organisms, science has not yet proven the indirect effects of microwaves on life
(in the cases of microwave ovens).
By cooking food in a microwave oven, the structure of the food remains
unchanged. This leads to the hypothesis that microwave ovens have no effect
whatsoever on the organisms consuming substances heated in a microwave
Our purpose in this experiment was to try to investigate any possible effects of
microwave ovens on life. To do this, we have taken two sets of plants which we
watered daily. One set was watered using watered heated in a kettle and then
left to cool, while the other set was watered with water that had been heated
using the microwave oven.
Our results led to the conclusion that in the short term, microwaves do not
cause any harm to living organisms. However due to the short time period in
which this experiment was conducted, the real effects of microwaves which
might occur in the long run have not been proven.
12. The Effect Of Temperature On Bacterial Growth On A
Regular Student’s Meal.
Marios Christodoulides ; Christi na Demetriou
Isabella Troullouri
Alexia Stephanou; Helen Panayi; Nektaria Karaolis;
Tereza Christou; Christiana Mavri
The Grammar School, Nicosia, Cyprus
These days students spend many hours at school – both in the cool winter
months, and the hot summer months. This inspired us to investigate the safety
of student’s meals during school hours. We studied the bacterial growth on a
typical student meal, a sandwich. A typical sandwich in Cyprus consists of a white
bread roll with halloumi (Cypriot cheese), smoked ham called lountza and sliced
tomato. Tests were carried out to analyse the bacterial growth on the sandwich.
We took into consideration the average summer and winter temperatures, as
well as refrigeration temperature (32˚C, 18˚C and 4˚C respectively). Swabs
were taken using sterilised cotton buds at three time intervals throughout the
day most representative of the times students consume their sandwiches. The
agar plates were then inoculated and incubated at 32˚C for 24 hours in order
to investigate the bacterial growth on our sandwiches. We predicted that the
least bacterial growth would occur at refrigeration temperature, early on in
the school day. Using our results we would then be able to suggest reliable
solutions for educational institutions to minimize, if not eliminate, bacterial
growth on students sandwiches. Such solutions could possibly include providing
students with a refrigerator, especially for the students who stay at school for
long periods of ti me.
Final results showed that for both ham and bread, the temperature for
minimal bacterial growth was 18˚C, while for cheese it was 32˚C and only
tomato proved our hypothesis that the fridge would minimize the bacterial
growth. We can clearly see that there is bacterial growth on different foods
at different temperatures. Due to the fact that bacterial growth is encouraged
at higher temperatures it is still recommended that sandwiches be kept in the refrigerator to
maintain safety of the sandwiches.
The antibacterial effects of essential oils
Vivien Tamás
Molnár Márta; Sándor István
Eötvös József Gimnázium, Budapest, Hungary
During my work I examined the effect of different essential oils on bacteria in
the respiratory system. Applying of essential oils has become more and more
popular recently. They can clean the respiratory tracts perfectly, in case of
having a cold, and according to some people they kill bacteria. That’s true, or
false? In my work it turns out.
I worked in the SzentLászló Hospital, in the Bacterial Laboratory.
14. Some Cytochrome P450 Alleles And Genotype Frequencies
Comparing Of The Asian And Caucasian Population
Békés Márta, Seo Chan Mi
Sándor István ; Ferenczyné Molnár Márta
Eötvös József Gimnázium, Budapest, Hungary
It’s a general experience that the products of the pharmaceutical industry are
not the same in Asian and European countries. We wanted to know if one of
the main causes of these differences are connected with the fact that there are
differences between the genes in the Asian and Caucasian (that is European)
Our presentation focuses on the Cytochrome P450 enzyme-family. These
enzymes are responsible for drug metabolizm. If there is a point mutation in
the enzyme’s gene, it can cause inactive enzyme or low enzyme activity. We
can determine these mutations by genotyping. This method can be helpful to
set drug therapy in a more personal way for patients with serious illnesses
(leukemia, schizophrenia etc.)
We were dealing with some important Cytochrome P450 gene mutations.
We compared the Asian and Caucasian population based on references and
examined our personal DNA by genotyping to see how we fit the average of our
population. (One of us belongs to Asian and the other to Caucasian population.)
On the basis of this we tried to find out what can be done to avoid the
problems arising from the differences between the two populations and
respectively the pharmaceutical products of Asian and European countries.
Caffeine in the Chinese Tea
Csepreghy Anna
Molnár Márta; Sándor István
Eötvös József Gimnázium, Budapest, Hungary
I want to give a lecture about the caffeine content of some Chinese teas, and
their effects. My main question was why is a tea stronger than another.
I chose this topic because I do kungfu, and me and my friends often make
traditional shaolin tea-afternoons. This way, I experienced a lot of the effects
of the tea. I’ve looked it up a bit, and it seemed that the easiest to examine is
the caffeine, that’s why I started to research it.
When I tried to think about my research, I thought it will be easy. I supposed
that the stronger tea contains more caffeine. That s why I went to the TÜVKERMI
lab, where I could detect the caffeine by liquid-chromatography.
But the results didn’t show what I counted on, so my theory failed. That’s why
I made more inquires about it, and I found a thing what I’ve ignored before.
This is the time of fermentation. There’s a process which happens under it
and changes the effects of the tea.
Then I’ve tried to verify this theory according to the physiological effects.
I’ve bring a blood-pressure apparatus with me to our tea afternoon, and I’ve
measured the blood-pressure and the pulse of some friend of mines before
and after drinking the teas.
Those results were more or less verified my theory. If I make some
corrections, they would be adequate. I mean I have to say my researches
weren’t as exact as a real research could be, and we also have to count on personal tolerance.
Chemistry In Indian Kitchen
Pritish Tayal
Dr. (Mrs.) Alka Saxena
Amity International School, Vasundhra-6, New Delhi, India
This study will take you on tour inside an Indian kitchen and will give an insight
into the various steps involved in cooking various dishes and the chemistry
involved in every step.
Study conducted showed various aspects of reaction in spices, vegetable oils,
herbs etc and innovative methods adopted to understand biochemical reactions
in human beings. Spices supply chemicals that, in small quantities, have
beneficial effects other than inhibiting food spoilage microorganisms. Some
other phytochemicals, particularly those in cloves, rosemary, and pepper are
powerful anti oxidants. By retarding the oxidation of oil or fat, phytochemicals
help preserve foods and also reduce the production of free radicals, which
have been linked to cancer and aging. Regarding the effects of cooking, most
phytochemicals are thermostable, although a few are destroyed by heat. Some
spices (e.g., garlic, pepper and onion) are typically added at the beginning of
cooking, whereas others (e.g., parsley and cilantro [i.e., coriander leaf) are
added near the end. The «delicate» flavours of the latter would be destroyed
by heat. If, as seems likely, thermostable spices are the ones added early and
thermolabile spices are added later (or are used primarily as condiments),
differences in timing of use may function to maintain beneficial anti microbial
properties (and corresponding flavours) until food is served. This project deals
with understanding and explaining the chemistry behind day to day cooking.
Traditional use of Indian spices involves great understanding of chemistry.
Food so prepared is very healthy and environment friendly.
This project will be very useful as an educational module, establishing coherence
and rhythm in study of chemistry and biology. Moreover it strengthens ones
faith on the scientific basis of Indian traditions.
17. Warm Food Without Fire? Salt-Hydrate and Overcooled
Liquefied Materials as an Opportunity for Mobile Warm Food
Baum Janine ; Oser Leonie
Franzen Christi an ; Weimar Maria
Nikolaus-von-Kues-G., Bernkastel-Kues,
Whoever was stuck as a truck driver during a strong winter in the snow, who
just crested as a mountain hiker or whoever has lessons without a cafeteria
in the afternoon as a student, appreciates a hot meal, even if there is no
electricity, no fire and no boiling water.
In our research project, we investigate the various possibilities for the
Construction of such Flameless Ration Heaters.
To heat food all exothermic chemical reactions are appropriate. The heat,
which is released during the reaction may be used to heat the meal. For the
practical implementation redox reactions with aluminium or magnesium as the
starting material as well as solution processes of various salts are suitable.
The disadvantage of these reactions is that they are generally not reversible
for the user and can therefore be used only once. This is different with pocket
warmers; these use sodium acetate trihydrate as a phase change. These pocket
warmers, which utilize the heat of crystallization of a overcooled sodium acetate
trihydrate-melt can be used again and again, because they can be regenerated
by simply placing them in boiling water.
In our research project we have studied these three mentioned methods for
heating meals to find out which method is suitable for the point of heat release,
environmental friendliness and best price.
Herbs In Cosmetics
Aayush Das
Dr. (Mrs.) Alka Saxena
Amity International School, Gurgaon, New Delhi, India
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odour of the
human body. Cosmetics include skincare creams, lotions, powders, perfumes,
lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, coloured contact
lenses, hair colours, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils,
bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. The market
is flooded with chemical cosmetics which are harmful to human beings as they
can cause allergies, asthma, irritation, skin diseases and could also be toxic if
absorbed into the body over a long period of time.
This project aims at preparing herbal cosmetics and comparing them with
chemical cosmetics.
Herbal eyeliner was prepared using cotton swabs, homemade fruit extract
powder, distilled water, coconut oil and sugar. For selection of colours, like orange,
used orange fruit extracts. All the contents were stirred and refrigerated for 1015 minutes. Repeated stirring and refrigerating till the mixture hardens forms
the eyeliner which is ready for use.
Herbal lipstick was made by adding warm almond oil/jojoba oil/ sunflower or
chamomile oil in beeswax or plant wax like carnauba or candellila and mixing
vigorously. For colour pigments used were natural herbs (turmeric imparts
yellow colour), vegetables (beetroot imparts a red colour), fruits ( berries of
indigo plant impart a blue colour)
Herbal toothpaste was made by mixing baking soda, salt, glycerine, 15 drops
peppermint oil/ clove oil/ cinnamon oil/pudinhara to tooth paste consistency.
Further work is being done to prepare herbal face packs, herbal mouth washes.
These cosmetics were used tried by a large number of people and were found to be
safe. There were no allergies, irritation etc. reported by people using these natural
products and these were reportedly safe to use. Further studies will be undertaken in
three groups using a control group where people use only herbal cosmetics, second
group with chemical based cosmetics and the third one using both.
19. Fire, Fumes and Water. Comparative Analysis of Harmful
Substances in the Fumes of Cigarettes and Water pipes
Kathrin Plaßmeier ; Eugen Nagy
Franzen Christi an ; Weimar Maria
Nikolaus-von-Kues-G., Bernkastel-Kues,
Smoking is an important cause of death in western countries and could quite
easily be prevented. The recent decrease of adolescent smokers, especially
in secondary schools, is therefore very beneficial. Contrary to this tendency,
however, the Arabic tradition of Shisha smoking has increased among young
people at home and in bars over the past few years.
The goal of our project is to present information concerning the spread of this
new “fashion” and the insufficient knowledge of its risks, which has only been
collected scarcely so far.
Our findings will hopefully persuade young people to stop any kind of smoking:
our measurements have proven high concentrations of carbon monoxide,
which binds to haemoglobin, leading to a decrease of the oxygen saturation as
well as the rise of blood pressure and increased heart rate after smoking. Apart
from proving the toxic consequences, our experiments also achieved our aim
to create a thought-provoking impulse among our voluntary probands.
20. Idrija Mercury Mine: Will Its Closure Improve The Quality Of
Surface Waters?
Maša Kenda, Polona Klavžar, Peter Rupnik
Magdalena Kunc, univ. dipl. inž. kem. inž.
doc. dr. Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn, univ. dipl. inž. kem. inž.
Tatjana Dizdarević, univ. dipl. inž. rud.
Gimnazija Jurija Vege Idrija, Republika Slovenija
Since the discovery of mercury, Idrija has been globally known mostly for its
mercury mine. Because of the Idrija Mine used to be the most mercury polluted
area in Slovenia and its vicinity, primarily due to smelting remains and exhaust
fumes, produced by smelting cinnabar ore. Idrija mercury mine has been
closing since 1986 and is scheduled to close completely this year. Closing works
included backfilling of tunnels and injecting of empty inaccessible galleries with
concrete. When this stage was completed, underground pumps used to drain
water out of the mine, were disassembled and consequently water started
to flood the mine. When the mine closes, water will reach the 4th level (161
metres below ground level). Our research was made after stopping the pumps
at the 9th level and water level rose.
The aim of our work was to assess the effect of gradual closure works in the
mine on the environment. The surface waters in the vicinity of Idrija were
monitored and concentrations of mercury, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, chloride
and phosphate ions and metals were measured. Water hardness, total organic
pollution, biodegradable organic pollution and the amount of total carbon
were also determined. Three samples were taken, the first one being from
the Idrijca river before the inflow of stream containing mine water effluent,
which was the second sample. The last one was the sample from the Idrijca
after mixing with mine effluent. Our samples were analysed in the laboratory
of Idrija Mercury Mine Company (RŽS Idrija), in the laboratory of Faculty of
Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the University of Ljubljana and at
Chemical Institute, using the following methods: CVAAS (Cold Vapour Atomic
Absorption Spectrometry)), mass spectroscopy, spectrophotometric method
and the trimetric method.
The results obtained were compared with the mine’s records for some previous
years and it was found out that the concentrations of pollutants in the stream
in which mine effluent flows have been decreasing since the mine pumps
were stopped in December 2010. After this the concentration of mercury has
increased significantly at the second sampling site. We will try to explain this
unusual phenomenon in our future research.
Thermocol Glue
Shashank Agarwal
Dr. (Mrs.) Alka Saxena
Amity International School, Noida, New Delhi, India
Thermocol is a chemical compound of polystyrene (synthetic petroleum
product) molecule. It is now a principal component for packing items.
Discarded thermocol responds very slowly to bacterial decomposition in the
soil, thus making the soil infertile. Moreover it is not easily recycled because of
its light weight and low scrape value. This project is my effort towards recycling
of thermocol and using it as glue.
Studies show that the principle behind dissolution is Like dissolves in like ie the
nature of solute and solvent needs to be same for dissolution to happen. Using
this concept thermocol was dissolved in various organic solvents and it was
found that the resulting mixture had adhesive properties.
Equal weight of thermocol was dissolved in 100ml of different solvents like
chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, and benzene. It was found that
this dissolution lead to the formation of a mixture which was sticky and had
adhesive properties.
Glue formed by this method had a high tensile strength and could stick metals,
wood, plastics and various other materials together.
Glue prepared by dissolving thermocol in acetone was the best as it had a
smooth consistency and had a longer shelf life. Difficulty was encountered for
storing this glue as the solvents used were volatile and left behind solidified
Glue prepared by this method was also cheaper than commercial glue and the
adhesive properties were similar.
Experiments are being carried out to find out certain additives/solvents which
do not reduce the quality of glue thus formed but enhances its shelf life. Also
experiments are being conducted to find the tensile strength of thermocol glue.
Thermocol thus recycled will reduce the pollution caused by its disposal and
will lead to a cleaner and greener earth which is the need of TODAY!
Making Of Paper From Waste Vegetable Peels
Sahil Gandhi
Dr. (Mrs.) Alka Saxena
Amity International School, Saket, New Delhi, India
In today’s world pollution is a threat to all species on earth. Soil pollution, water
pollution, noise pollution, air pollution etc. are all taking its toll on our Mother
Earth. This project deals with reducing pollution by recycling waste vegetables
peels and making paper out of it.
Collected waste vegetable peels (basically pea peels and other fibrous peels)
from the vegetable market and let them dry for a day, to make them slightly
crisp. Chopped the vegetable peels into smaller pieces and shred them with a
mortar and pestle. Roasted them in an oven to a high temperature till moisture
was lost and they became crispy and brown. These were softened by heating in
hot water. Waste paper was added at this stage to improve the quality of paper
produced. Excessive water and moisture was removed by squeezing the pulp
over a strainer and returned to a pot, adding sufficient water to cover the pulp.
The pulp was bleached, water was drained out, and it was rinsed until no smell
of bleach remained.
This pulp obtained after washing was grinded till it became soft and smooth. It
was then spread as a thin layer over a fine cloth. Using lifting net, excess water
was drained and the sheet was pressed.
It was left for drying for 2 days. The paper is trimmed and is ready for use.
Paper made out of waste vegetable peels was found to be sturdy and was used
to make various decorative items like photo frames, greeting cards, visiting
cards, paper bags etc. Paper made out of waste vegetable peels was found to
be a good substitute for paper made by felling trees.
Experiments are being conducted to make coloured paper and textured paper.
Due to increasing perils for the environment, the importance of trees has
increased in our lives it is hence imperative to use alternate methods of paper
manufacture that would decrease the pressure on the environment. This
project is a step forward towards achieving this goal.
« Liquid crystals: A link between science and everyday life »,
Illusion and reality in living or non living microscopic nature « Mayonnaise! »,
Illusion and reality in living or non living microscopic nature « Yeast and alcohol
production »
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