CT Lab
Power Quality Recorder Manager
User’s Guide
Version 3.2.0 © CT Lab July 2005
© CT Lab (Pty) Ltd
PO Box 897, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa
15 Termo Lane, Techno Park, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa
Tel: +27 21 880 9915 Fax: +27 21 880 1088
e-mail: info@ctlab.co.za
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
Introduction................................................................................................................7
1.1
System Components.........................................................................................7
1.2
Summary of Contents ......................................................................................8
Power Quality: A short primer...................................................................................9
2.1
Momentary Anomalies ....................................................................................9
2.1.1
Voltage Transients .....................................................................................9
2.1.2
Dips ..........................................................................................................10
2.1.3
Swells.......................................................................................................10
2.1.4
Flicker ......................................................................................................11
2.2
Steady-state Anomalies..................................................................................12
2.2.1
Deviations ................................................................................................12
2.2.2
Phase Unbalance ......................................................................................12
2.2.3
Harmonic Distortion ................................................................................12
2.3
Applications ....................................................................................................13
2.3.1
Investigations ...........................................................................................13
2.3.2
Network Planning ....................................................................................13
2.3.3
Statistics ...................................................................................................14
2.3.4
Research...................................................................................................14
3
Overview of Power Quality Recording ...................................................................15
3.1
Stand-alone recording ...................................................................................15
3.2
Role of the PC.................................................................................................15
3.3
Communication ..............................................................................................15
3.4
Installation and Configuration .....................................................................16
3.4.1
Meter Points .............................................................................................16
3.4.2
Configuration Templates .........................................................................16
4
3.5
Onboard Clock ...............................................................................................16
3.6
Retrieval of Recordings .................................................................................16
PQRM Software.......................................................................................................18
4.1
PQRM software Installation .........................................................................18
4.2
Main Menu .....................................................................................................19
4.2.1
Toolbar ....................................................................................................19
4.2.2
View and Manage Recordings................................................................19
4.2.3
Connect to a recorder..............................................................................20
4.2.4
Other Tasks .............................................................................................20
4.3
Configuration Template Editor ....................................................................20
4.4
Address Book..................................................................................................22
4.5
Online Tasks ...................................................................................................22
2
4.6
Retrieving Recordings ...................................................................................24
4.7
Event Browser ................................................................................................24
4.8
Trend Viewer..................................................................................................26
4.8.1
Charts and Legend ...................................................................................27
4.8.2
Available Recordings...............................................................................27
4.8.3
Phasors .....................................................................................................28
4.8.4
Tasks Panel ..............................................................................................28
4.8.5
Adding parameters to a chart ...................................................................28
4.8.6
Layouts.....................................................................................................29
4.9
Preferences .....................................................................................................30
4.10
Adjust the PC Date and Time .......................................................................30
4.11 Synchronise the Recorder Clock ..................................................................31
4.11.1
ImpedoGraph ...........................................................................................31
4.11.2
VectoGraph and ProvoGraph...................................................................32
4.12
Change a password of a recorder .................................................................32
4.13
Upgrade Recorder Firmware........................................................................32
4.14
Generate Reports ...........................................................................................33
4.15
Delete Recordings ..........................................................................................34
4.16
Export Recordings .........................................................................................35
4.17
Importing VectoGraph and ProvoGraph recordings.................................36
4.18 Automating scheduled retrieval ...................................................................37
4.18.1
Create addresses.......................................................................................37
4.18.2
Create batch file .......................................................................................37
4.18.3
Schedule with Windows Scheduler .........................................................38
4.19 Configure the PC for modem communication ............................................39
4.19.1
Configuring Dial-up Networking in Windows 2000 ...............................40
4.19.2
Configuring Dial-up Networking in Windows XP ..................................42
5
4.20
Configure the ImpedoGraph for Modem Communication........................44
4.21
Communicate via Serial Cable .....................................................................45
4.22
Communicate via Modem .............................................................................45
4.23
Communicate via Ethernet network ............................................................45
4.24
Change the Ethernet Settings of an ImpedoGraph ....................................45
ImpedoGraph Recorder............................................................................................47
5.1
Hardware Interfaces......................................................................................47
5.1.1
Power Supply ...........................................................................................47
5.1.2
Voltage Inputs..........................................................................................48
5.1.3
Current Inputs ..........................................................................................48
5.1.4
Status Inputs.............................................................................................48
5.1.5
PC Port .....................................................................................................48
3
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.8
5.1.9
Modem Port .............................................................................................49
Ethernet Port ............................................................................................49
GPS Ports .................................................................................................49
SCADA Interface Port .............................................................................49
5.2
Calibration......................................................................................................49
5.3
Recordings Storage ........................................................................................49
5.4
Firmware ........................................................................................................50
5.5
Access Control................................................................................................50
5.6
Measurement ..................................................................................................50
5.6.1
Power Measurement.................................................................................51
5.6.2
Trended Parameters .................................................................................51
5.6.3
Events.......................................................................................................52
6
Getting Started with an ImpedoGraph .....................................................................53
6.1
ImpedoGraph Electrical Installation ...........................................................55
6.1.1
Connecting to a 4 Wire Star System ........................................................55
6.1.2
Connecting to a 3 wire Delta system .......................................................56
6.2
Configure the ImpedoGraph ........................................................................58
6.3
Verify Installation ..........................................................................................59
7
VectoGraph Recorder ..............................................................................................62
7.1
Hardware Interfaces......................................................................................62
7.1.1
Power Supply ...........................................................................................62
7.1.2
Communications Port...............................................................................63
7.2
Calibration......................................................................................................63
7.3
Recordings Storage ........................................................................................63
7.4
Firmware ........................................................................................................63
7.5
Access Control................................................................................................63
8
Getting Started with a VectoGraph..........................................................................65
8.1
Physical Installation.......................................................................................66
8.2
Single Phase Connection ...............................................................................67
8.3
Three-Phase Star Connection ( 4 - Wire) ....................................................67
8.4
Three-Phase Delta Connection (3 - Wire)....................................................68
8.5
Configure the VectoGraph............................................................................69
8.6
Verify Installation ..........................................................................................71
9
ProvoGraph Recorder ..............................................................................................73
10
10.1
Getting Started with a ProvoGraph......................................................................75
Physical Installation.......................................................................................76
4
10.2
Single Phase Connection ...............................................................................76
10.3
Three-Phase Star Connection ( 4 - Wire) ....................................................76
10.4
Three-Phase Delta Connection (3 - Wire)....................................................77
10.5
Configure the ProvoGraph ...........................................................................79
10.6
Verify Installation ..........................................................................................80
11
Appendix: Configuration Templates ...................................................................82
11.1
What is a Configuration Template...............................................................82
11.2
Configuration Template Elements ...............................................................82
11.3
Standard Configuration Templates .............................................................83
12
Appendix: Upgrading older ImpedoGraphs ........................................................84
12.1
Install a Driver for a legacy Serial Port connection ...................................84
12.2
Upgrade ImpedoGraph Firmware ...............................................................84
13
Appendix: Migrating from VectoProvo Software ...............................................86
13.1
Why upgrade? ....................................................................................................86
13.2
Limitations .........................................................................................................86
13.3
No more file management .....................................................................................86
13.4
Migrating existing recordings.......................................................................87
13.5
Shared Configuration Templates ..........................................................................87
13.6
Connecting to a recorder ......................................................................................87
13.7
VectoGraph Configuration ...................................................................................88
13.8
ProvoGraph Configuration...........................................................................90
13.9
Connecting via Modem..................................................................................92
13.10
Viewing recordings ..............................................................................................92
13.11
Compatibility with VectoProvo software ................................................................93
14
Appendix: Recommended Calibration Procedure ...............................................94
14.1
Testing.............................................................................................................94
14.2
Periodic Verification......................................................................................95
15
Appendix: PQ Recorder Specifications ...............................................................96
16
Glossary ...............................................................................................................99
16.1
Anomaly ..........................................................................................................99
16.2
Dialog Box.......................................................................................................99
16.3
Dip ...................................................................................................................99
16.4
Event................................................................................................................99
5
16.5
Exceedance......................................................................................................99
16.6
Profile ..............................................................................................................99
16.7
Surge................................................................................................................99
16.8
Virtual Recorder ............................................................................................99
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1 INTRODUCTION
This guide introduces the Power Quality Recorder Manager system and gets you up and
running quickly. It shows you how to do the most common tasks and provides you with
tips and troubleshooting. We recommended that you read this guide carefully rather than
trying to work the system out by yourself. This chapter tells you about the components of
the system and how to find what you need.
The CT Lab family of recorders are stand-alone 3-phase Power Quality Recorders that
record Power Quality events, trends and statistics. Recordings are communicated to a
database from where it can be viewed, printed and exported in different ways. The
included PC software organises recordings and supports single roaming instruments and
networks of remotely installed instruments.
1.1 System Components
The system consists of these components:
1. Power Quality recorder(s): Any combination of ImpedoGraphs, VectoGraphs
and ProvoGraphs.
2. A Windows compatible computer for running the software applications. The
computer and its operating system are not included. The minimum system
requirement is:
•
Intel Pentium 2 (400 MHz) processor or equivalent.
•
128 Mbytes of RAM.
•
1 Gigabyte of free disk space.
•
CD–ROM drive.
•
Unused RS232 serial COM port.
•
Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or Windows XP. Many Windows 98,
Windows ME and NT4 systems should be compatible, although they are not
supported.
•
The computer must also be completely compatible with the Java[tm] 2
Platform v1.4.2 (J2SE). A compatibility guide is available at
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/system-configurations.html
3. A serial communications cable for connecting the recorder to the computer.
4. The PQRM application software on a CD.
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Make sure that you have received all of the above items (PC and Windows Operating
System not included). Contact your supplier if you are missing any of the components.
1.2 Summary of Contents
The main part of this guide is divided into 4 chapters, each of which is fairly selfexplanatory:
• Power Quality: A short primer briefly describes the fundamentals of and
background to the field of Power Quality.
•
Overview of Power Quality Recording
introduces important concepts in PQ
recording.
•
PQRM Software
•
ImpedoGraph Recorder
describes the PC Software in detail.
provides a detail description of the ImpedoGraph
recorder
•
VectoGraph Recorder
provides a detail description of the VectoGraph recorder.
•
ProvoGraph Recorder
provides a detail description of the ProvoGraph recorder.
•
Getting started
presents an introduction to working with a recorder for first
time users.
•
Operating Instructions
gives step-by-step instructions for performing common
tasks.
•
Upgrading
gives instructions for upgrading from previous software versions.
Appendices contain additional information, mainly for reference purposes.
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2 POWER QUALITY: A SHORT PRIMER
The concept of Power Quality is important because of the increasing demand for energy,
the proliferation of power electronic equipment and the increased sensitivity of modern
industrial and mining plants. Poor Power Quality may result in financial losses in the
form of poor reliability, poor productivity and equipment downtime and damage.
Power Quality is often defined (and therefore measured) in terms of anomalies, i.e. what
constitutes poor Power Quality. Both the severity and number of occurrences of these
anomalies are important. The symptoms, causes and effects are varied and application
specific.
The most common and severe quality of supply anomalies can be divided into classes,
according to their duration:
2.1 Momentary Anomalies
These anomalies are mostly voltage fluctuations of up to 3 seconds in duration. There are
4 subclasses:
2.1.1 Voltage Transients
These anomalies (also called spikes, impulses and notches) are high amplitude and/or
very short duration (microseconds) voltage disturbances. They carry very little energy,
are difficult to trace and propagate through travelling wave principles.
9
Switching of inductive loads, power factor correction capacitors, electronic equipment
(PCs, microwave ovens, etc.) and lightning can all cause Voltage Transients. They can
damage insulation in motors, cables and transformers, but affect mostly microprocessorbased equipment and can cause data loss or permanent damage.
2.1.2 Dips
This is the most common power quality anomaly, accounting for almost 80% of power
quality problems. A Dip (also called depression or sag) is a lower than normal voltage on
one or more phases. It can have a variety of causes, including: starting of large loads,
fuse and breaker clearing, lightning arrestors, fires, insulator flash-over, switching and
ground faults. The voltage deviation decreases as the distance from the fault increases.
Dips are a common cause of power related computer systems failures, stalling of motors,
reduced motor life and flickering of lights.
2.1.3 Swells
A Swell is a higher than normal voltage on one or more phases, normally caused by open
neutral connections, insulation breakdown or faults on one phase causing voltage rise on
other phases. Swells can cause degradation of electrical contacts and light flicker, but is
generally not as troublesome as dips.
10
2.1.4 Flicker
Flicker is the repetitive voltage sags or swells, normally caused by large cyclic loads,
such as arc-furnaces. Humans are the worst affected, since we are very sensitive to flicker
in lighting.
11
2.2 Steady-state Anomalies
These types of anomalies manifest themselves over longer periods of time and can
sometimes be semi-permanent.
2.2.1 Deviations
Long-term over- and under-voltages are caused by overloaded distribution systems,
incorrect transformer tap settings, unbalanced phase loading and improper application of
power factor correction capacitors. It can cause low efficiency, overheating and reduced
life in electrical equipment such as motors, heaters and lights.
Total power interruptions also fall in this class.
2.2.2 Phase Unbalance
This is a 3-phase phenomena caused by unbalanced phase loading, defective transformers
or ground faults. It causes premature failure of motors and transformers due to
overheating
2.2.3 Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic Distortion is the deviation of voltage or current from a true sine wave due to
the addition of frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental (50/60 Hz) frequency
component. It is measured as percentage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). It is caused
by non-linear loads, such as static power converters, solid-state switches, variable speed
drives, welding equipment, furnaces, battery chargers or saturated transformers. Effects
12
include serious damage to capacitors and transformers, decreased motor performance,
and malfunctioning of control equipment.
2.3 Applications
Power quality measurements are useful to many people and requirements differ from
application to application. Here are a few typical applications:
2.3.1 Investigations
The ImpedoGraph can record a variety of details of Power Quality anomalies, giving
many pointers for finding the source of a problem:
• Half-Cycle time resolution RMS trends of dips and swells.
• Accurate time stamping of the start and end of anomalies.
• Phasor voltage, current and power readings every cycle.
2.3.2 Network Planning
The ImpedoGraph facilitates network planning by continuously monitoring power flow
over long periods of time and recording the following:
13
• Trends of average true RMS voltages, Phase Unbalance, THD and Harmonic
Spectrums together with global averages, standard deviations, minimum and
maximum values, etc.
• Bad Regulation: Information on times during which the average RMS voltages
(with or without harmonic components) is too far from nominal.
2.3.3 Statistics
The ImpedoGraph can record over 5000 events at a time when used for statistics only.
The following are statistical features:
• Records dip/swell maximum deviation and duration.
• Presents events in NRS048-2 (2003), NRS048-2 (1996) and EN50160 (1994)
scatter-plot format.
• Trended statistics, including averages, RMS averages, standard deviations,
minimums and maximums.
2.3.4 Research
The ImpedoGraph introduces new measurement strategies for Power Quality. Fourier
analysis (FFT) is performed on the waveforms of every cycle, yielding fundamental
component phasors for each phase. Events can be triggered on these phasors. Events
triggered by different measurement strategies can be stored for the same anomaly. This
allows direct comparisons between different strategies. In this way CT Lab hopes to
contribute towards a better understanding of Power Quality measurement.
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3 OVERVIEW OF POWER QUALITY RECORDING
In order to utilize CT Lab Power Quality recorders correctly, several concepts must be
mastered first:
3.1 Stand-alone recording
The ImpedoGraph, VectoGraph and ProvoGraph are stand-alone recorders. They are
designed for permanent connection to a power network, and left alone to record power
quality unattended for weeks, months and years at a time. Recordings are stored in
internal non-volatile memory. Supply interruptions will stop recording, but no recordings
are lost and recording continues as soon a supply is restored. It shares many similarities
with the black box flight recorder of an aircraft.
3.2 Role of the PC
The recorders have no user interfaces, such as screens and keyboards, since they are used
in an unattended manner. Instead, the recorder interacts with its operator by means of a
personal computer (PC). The included software applications allow the operator to
configure the recorder, retrieve stored recordings from it and it helps with the analysis of
power quality recordings, all via his PC.
3.3 Communication
For the PC to work with the recorder, a data communications connection between the
two is required. The type of communications used has a great impact on the whole
system. Several options are available:
•
Serial Cable: The included serial cable can be used to connect the recorder to the
PC. This only works over short distances, which means that the operator will have
to bring the PC (or more often a notebook computer) to the installed PQ Recorder.
•
Modems: When modems are connected to the recorder and the PC, the telephone
or cellular network can be used for communications. This brings the enormous
advantage that the recorder can be operated remotely and connections can be
made at will.
•
Network: With the recorder and PC connected to a data communications network
such as Ethernet, communication is online, instantaneous and fast. The
ImpedoGraph has a built-in Ethernet interface. The VectoGraph and ProvoGraph
can also be attached to Ethernet networks through the use of external serial-toEthernet adapters, such as those available from Multenet. (see
http://www.multenet.com/)
Network communication is always the best option, since it allows instantaneous access to
the recorder and its recorded measurements. Modem communication is almost as good,
but connection times are slower and transfer speeds lower. Serial communication is the
15
least desirable, because the operator needs to travel to the installation, making regular
communication unlikely.
3.4 Installation and Configuration
Before recording can start, the recorder must be installed, i.e. physically connected to the
electrical network to be measured. This can be done either directly for low voltages and
currents, or indirectly with the aid of external sensors such as Voltage Transformers
(VTs) and Current Transformers (CTs).
The recorder also needs to be configured correctly via the PC software. This is a
software process done from the PC. The configuration instructs the recorder when to
record and what to record. This configuration can be changed many times after
installation.
These are very important steps, since correct recordings cannot be made without proper
installation and configuration.
3.4.1 Meter Points
The recording system organizes all measurements by Meter Points. A Meter Point
uniquely identifies a location on the electrical network where measurements are taken.
During configuration of a recorder, the name of the meter point (at which recordings are
going to be taken) must be selected or entered. This is the unique title under which
recordings for this installation will be stored, queried and retrieved. A descriptive title
will make recordings made at an installation much easier to identify.
All recordings can be accessed via the name assigned to a Meter Point. This greatly
simplifies the management of portable recorders, swapping of recorders, etc.
3.4.2 Configuration Templates
The VectoGraph and ImpedoGraph recorders allow the manner in which they record
Power Quality parameters to be highly customised. This is to allow specialised recording
for the different application areas described previously. The software allows many sets of
configuration values to be created, saved and reused for many recorders. Such a set of
configuration values is called a Configuration Template. It is common to create different
templates for: NRS048 Requirements, Harmonic Investigations, Dip Investigations,
Permanent Installations, etc.
3.5 Onboard Clock
Every recorder has an onboard real-time clock that is used for the time stamping of all
recordings. Like all clocks this one drifts over time and need to be synchronised
periodically to a reference clock. The accuracy of the recorded time stamps depends on
the accuracy of the reference clock and the frequency of synchronisations.
3.6 Retrieval of Recordings
Recordings cannot be viewed and analysed while they are on the recorder. They must be
retrieved to the PC first. The application software does this by copying the recordings to
a database on the PC. Subsequent retrievals only copy new recordings. Retrieval does not
interrupt recording, so that events that occur during retrieval are also captured.
16
It is good practise to retrieve recordings as often as possible, so as to have recordings
available soon after each event. The recorder will automatically delete its oldest
recordings to make space for new recordings, so recordings will be lost if retrieval is not
done in time. This maximum time between retrievals depends on the recorder
configuration and the number of Power Quality anomalies on the system and can vary
between days and months.
17
4 PQRM SOFTWARE
The PQRM PC software is integral to the functioning of the CT Lab Power Quality
Measurement System. It is the first component the user should get acquainted with. If
you are upgrading from a pervious version of the PC software see the appendix about
Upgrading.
4.1 PQRM software Installation
The PQRM Software Suite can be installed on any number of PCs. It can be installed
from the Internet via http://www.ctlab.com/pqrm or from the supplied CD as follows:
1. Make sure the PC complies with the requirements stated in System
Components.
2. Start the PC and log on with an account that has administrator privileges.
3. Verify that you do not already have a newer version of the PQRM Software
installed on your PC. Do not continue if this is the case.
4. Exit any other Windows programs currently running on your computer.
5. Insert the PQRM CD-ROM in your computer and wait for the CT Lab
Software Installation Page to appear. If this does not happen automatically,
open My Computer and double-click the Compact Disk icon.
6. Start the installation program by clicking the PQRM link and selecting Open
from the File Download window. Follow the instructions. The default options
are appropriate for most users.
PQRM utilises the Java Web Start deployment technology, which supports automatic
updating via the Internet. When the PQRM application is launched from a PC connected
to the Internet, new versions are automatically detected and downloaded. This ensures
that you always have the latest version of PQRM on every PC.
18
Recordings are always automatically imported into each new version. Recording files are
never automatically deleted, even when you uninstall the PQRM software.
4.2 Main Menu
When the PQRM software is launched, a main menu will always be displayed. This is the
main window from which all functionality is accessed. It looks like this:
Three panels group associated functionality, with a toolbar at the top.
4.2.1 Toolbar
The main toolbar is always visible in all windows of the PQRM Software. It will always
display 3 buttons:
Home: Opens a new Main Menu Window
Preferences: Adjusts default preferences and settings
About: Shows information about the PQRM Software in a new window.
4.2.2 View and Manage Recordings
This panel allows Power Quality recordings to be viewed and manipulated. Recordings
are always categorised by Meter Point with all known Meter Points listed to the left and
buttons for different tasks to the right. To start these tasks, select the Meter Point(s) in the
list and then click the appropriate button on the right. Multiple Meter Points can be
selected by holding down SHIFT or CONTROL while selecting.
•
View Events: Displays the most recent events recorded at the selected Meter
Point(s).
View Trends: Displays the most recent trended parameters (at 10-minute
•
intervals) recorded at the selected Meter Point.
19
•
•
•
•
View Detail Trends: Displays the most recent trended parameters (at 3-second
intervals) recorded at the selected Meter Point.
Generate Reports: Generates reports for the selected Meter Point.
Delete Recordings: Deletes recordings from the selected Meter Point(s).
Export Recordings: Exports recordings from the selected Meter Point(s) to a
variety of formats.
4.2.3 Connect to a recorder
All communication with recorders is initiated from this panel. Connections already saved
in the address book can be double clicked to start the connection process. To make a new
connection, follow these steps:
1. Select the recorder type you want to connect to: ImpedoGraph, VectoGraph or
ProvoGraph.
2. Select the communications medium. Four options are available
• Serial Port: Attempts to make a connection through a serial cable. The
correct serial port of the PC should be selected.
• Modem: Attempts a connection through a modem or similar device. Both
the device and the modem number must be entered.
• Network: Attempts a connection through the default TCP/IP network. The
correct IP address or network (DNS) name must be entered.
3. Click the Connect button
The window will now change to display the status of the connection attempt. Once a
connection is established all online recorder tasks can be performed.
4.2.4 Other Tasks
Various miscellaneous tasks can be performed through this panel:
Edit Configuration Templates: Invokes the Configuration Templates Editor
where Configuration Templates can be created, edited, saved and deleted.
Import Recordings: Recordings can be imported from a file.
Manage Database: Various database management tasks.
4.3 Configuration Template Editor
The Configuration Template Editor is used to view, create, edit and delete Configuration
Templates. On start-up it lists known templates that can be opened or deleted. New
templates can also be created. Once a template is opened, its categories are listed in the
Navigator Panel. Each category contains configuration settings that can be accessed by
selecting the category in the Navigator panel.
20
Template Details: A description for this template can be entered or edited.
Harmonics: The harmonics and inter-harmonics to be recorded are set here.
Individual settings can be made for voltages, currents, 3-second and 10-minute intervals.
Trends: The parameters selected here are recorded continuously.
Interruptions, Dip and Swells: All cycle by cycle RMS triggered events are
configured here, including trigger modes, trigger thresholds and related trends.
Voltage Transients: The capture of high frequency voltage transient events (also
called spikes or impulses) is configured here. Recording of related trends can also be
enabled.
Under Frequency: Detection of low system frequencies is configured here, also with
related trends.
Current Inrush: Record events when instantaneous currents are high and/or low.
Logic Input Changes: Record events when the logic inputs to the recorder changes.
Harmonic Distortion: Record events when THD voltages and/or currents are high
and/or low.
Scheduled Recordings: Regular recording can be scheduled here. These recordings
are also marked as events.
Many sets of configuration values can be created saved reused between ImpedoGraphs
and VectoGraphs, according to the application (e.g. NRS048 requirements, Harmonic or
Dip Investigations, Voltage or Current Measurements, and so forth).
21
VectoGraph configuration files can also be added to your templates by clicking the
Import Template button on the left.
4.4 Address Book
The address book stores communication settings, such as modem numbers and IP
addresses. After connecting to a recorder, the connection’s settings can be saved by
clicking Save Connection and entering a title. The new entry becomes available from the
address book in the Main Menu. Re-connection is now easy. Select your title in the
Connect button.
address book and click the
4.5 Online Tasks
Many tasks can only be done once communication with a recorder has been established.
After such a communication link is established, different online recorder windows are
available for each recorder type. This is the ImpedoGraph window:
22
The navigator panel in the top left allow different views to be selected. Each view
represents a different aspect of the ImpedoGraph recorder:
Connection: This panel shows the connection history and the connection
details can also be saved to the address book from here.
ImpedoGraph: This is the default panel and shows basic information about
the ImpedoGraph being communicated with. Various actions can be performed
from here, including the Upgrade of ImpedoGraph Firmware, Changes to Security
Passwords and Changes to Ethernet Communications Settings.
Recordings: This panel gives a breakdown of the recording currently stored
by the recorder. It allows the recordings to be retrieved (transferred to the PC) and
then viewed.
Configuration: Shows the current ImpedoGraph configuration and allows
changes to be made.
Meter: Show real-time measurement as made by the ImpedoGraph.
Power Meter: More real-time measurement, specifically power related
parameters.
Harmonics: Real-time harmonic measurement for voltage, current and power.
An individual harmonic can also be selected and its readings displayed. Simply
click on the harmonic on the chart or select it from the Harmonic Number field.
23
Clock: Displays the status of the ImpedoGraph real-time clock and allows
clock synchronisation to be configured and initiated.
Common Tasks are displayed at the bottom on left.
The Disconnect task will break the communications link to the recorder and all online
options will be unavailable until the link is re-established.
4.6 Retrieving Recordings
Recordings can be retrieved, i.e. downloaded onto the PC by clicking the Retrieve button
on the Recordings panel.
Retrieval is incremental, so that recordings that were retrieved previously will not be
retrieved again. A progress bar will indicate the progress of the retrieval. It could be a
lengthy process.
The
Refresh button (ImpedoGraph only) on the Recordings page will refresh the
storage usage statistics displayed on this page. This is useful if the instrument is tested in
a lab to confirm the correct activation of PQ parameters.
4.7 Event Browser
The Event Browser tool lists, categorises and displays Power Quality events. It is
normally started from the Main Menu or the Online Communications Window. The
window is divided into five panels.
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The Availability Panel at the top indicates the availability of event information. Time
periods during which recordings are available are marked in black. The time period for
which events are currently on display is highlighted in white. This time period can be
moved so as to view the parameters during different time intervals. Use the buttons on
the right of the title bar:
Left Arrow: Shows events from the previous time interval.
Right Arrow: Shows events for the following time interval.
Calendar: Shows a calendar where any date can be selected. Events around
that day will be displayed.
The Chronology Panel can be selected instead of the Availability Panel. It shows a
Gantt chart of the events over time, grouped by Meter Point. It shows the selected time
interval and all the events listed.
The Event Table shows all events in a single table with one row per event. The table can
be sorted by clicking on a column heading. This will resort the table using the selected
column as criteria. Clicking again will reverse the sort order. Right-clicking on the
header columns allow any columns to be hidden or made visible. The table can be
25
exported and printed by using the buttons on the right of the title bar. Recorder events
can be hidden by toggling the
Show/Hide Recorder Events button.
The Scatter Plot Panel shows a statistical overview of all events by representing each
event as a dot in a deviation vs. duration scatter plot. Area definitions of common Power
Quality standards are superimposed. The classification standard to be used is selected in
the Preferences dialog.
The Event View Panel in the bottom right corner shows a preview of the selected event.
The nature of this preview depends on the type of event selected. Additional event details
can often be viewed by clicking the buttons on the right of the title bar. Common buttons
are:
View trends and phasors: Opens the Trend Viewer and loads the default
event layout (as selected in Preferences) including phasor views if possible.
View waveforms: Opens the Trend Viewer and loads the default waveform
layout (as selected in Preferences)
View Configuration Template: Views the configuration template used to
configure the recording instrument that recorded the selected event.
Selecting an event will show details about that event in the Event View Panel. An event
can be selected by selecting its row in the Event Table or by clicking on it in the
Chronology or Scatter Plot panels. When an event is selected in one panel it will
automatically be selected in all panels.
4.8 Trend Viewer
The Trend Viewer is a tool that displays charts of parameters trends over time. It can be
started from:
• View Trends in the Main Menu
• View Detail Trends in the Main Menu
• Phasor View of an event in the Event Browser
• Waveform View of an event in the Event Browser
• Recordings Panel of the ImpedoGraph online communications window.
The Trend Viewer window contains 4 panels:
26
4.8.1 Charts and Legend
The Charts Panel is the main panel, which contains one or more charts. Each chart can
display one of more series, each of which draws the values of a single parameter values
over time. To the left is the Legend Panel, which shows information about all these chart
elements. Buttons on the right of its title bar allow the charts to be manipulated:
Print: Prints the charts to a colour printer
Zoom Out: Resets the default zoom of the charts
Zoom In: Switches on Zoom mode where an area of a chart can be enlarged
by drawing a rectangle on the chart while holding the left mouse button down.
Pan: Switches on Pan mode where the chart can be moved by holding the left
mouse button down while dragging on the chart
Cursor: Switches on Cursor mode where a reading can be taken by clicking
on any point in a chart. Parameter values can be read from the Legend Panel
4.8.2 Available Recordings
The Available Recordings Panel at the top of the window indicates the availability of
measurements in a Gantt chart. Note that this panel is not visible when viewing event
trends. Available recordings are indicated with dark bars. The time period currently
displayed in the Chart Panel is highlighted in white. This time period can be moved so as
27
to view the parameters during different time intervals. For this, the buttons on the right of
the toolbar are used:
Left Arrow: Shows the same charts during the previous time interval.
Right Arrow: Shows the same charts during the following time interval.
Calendar: Shows a calendar where any date can be selected. The same charts
are showed for that date.
4.8.3 Phasors
The Phasor Panel is only visible when viewing event trends for which phasor recordings
are available. It shows two full 3 phase phasors plots for a single cycle. The top plot
contains fundamental component voltages and currents and the bottom plot fundamental
complex power.
The timestamp of the phasor is the same time as the chart cursor, so that this phasor
display can be viewed as another cursor reading. The cursor can be moved as usual and
this phasor view will be updated automatically. Three tools are available on the right of
the title bar to move the cursor:
Start: Starts an animation of the event by moving the cursor forward in time
every second.
Pause: Stops the animation by freezing the cursor at its current position.
Next:: Increments the cursor with a single cycle. This allows single stepping
through an event.
Show/Hide Phasors button on the main
The phasor panel can be hidden with the
toolbar. This can be used to free up more screen space for the charts.
4.8.4 Tasks Panel
The Tasks Panel shows tasks that can be performed with any single chart. First select the
chart in the Legend. Note that a single chart must be selected, not merely a series. These
tasks are available:
Copy to clipboard: Copies the values of all the series of a chart to the system
clipboard. From there it can be pasted into another applications, such as a
spreadsheet or word processor.
Copy to Excel: This works only if Microsoft Excel is installed on the PC. It
opens a new Excel worksheet and copies the values of all the series of the
selected chart into the worksheet.
Close Chart: Removes the selected chart from the display. The recordings are
not deleted, but merely hidden.
4.8.5 Adding parameters to a chart
To add a new series to the chart simply click on the
icon at the top of the window.
This will open an Add New Trend Series to Chart dialog.
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Here you can select a new parameter to be displayed and also choose how and where it
will be displayed. Every category has different parameters, although many of them
overlap. After selecting the series colour and marker and parameter details, choose a
chart on which the new series should be added and then click Add Series.
More than one series can be added at a time, but this window must be closed to return to
the main windows. It is also important to remember that not all parameters can always be
successfully displayed. This is because of limitations imposed by configurations and
limitations of specific instruments and configurations.
4.8.6 Layouts
It is time consuming to manually build up a multi-chart view in this series-by-series way.
There is an easier way, by utilising the Layout concept. A layout is an already defined set
of charts, completed with series parameters and colours. Several predefined layouts are
always installed and always available. User defined layout can also be created and saved
Save Layout
for use in the future. To save the current view as a layout, click the
button on the main toolbar. You will be asked to give to the layout a title under which it
will be known.
A layout can be recalled or applied, by clicking the
Load Layout button on the main
toolbar. It allows a layout to be chosen from a list and then displayed with recordings
from the current Meter Point and time period. Be warned that the previous chart layout
will be gone unless it has been saved!
Every trend interval (10-minute trends, 3-second detail trends and event trends) stores a
separate set of layouts.
When the Trend Viewer is opened, a default layout is always displayed. This default
layout can be selected in the Preferences dialog.
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4.9 Preferences
Clicking the
Preferences button on the main toolbar opens the Preferences Dialog.
This dialog contains user adjustable global settings grouped into categories:
Communications: The default serial and modem devices can be selected here. These
devices are the default selection on the Main Menu. Note that there is two modem
categories:
• Serial Port Modems are used for communication with VectoGraph and
ProvoGraph recorders. They must be detected manually, by clicking on the
Search button. The software will then search all available serial ports for
modems. Please close all applications accessing modems before doing this.
• PPP connections are used for communications with ImpedoGraph recorders over
the TCP/IP protocol. These connections are set up using the host Operating
System. Under Windows they are called Dial-Up Connections. Setup of these
connections is described in another chapter. Only the default one can be selected
here.
Trends: These settings influence the way Trend Viewer initially displays recordings.
Different default layouts are specified for every time interval. The time interval for a
chart is also adjustable. Remember that longer time intervals will result in slower
performance, since more recordings need to be retrieved and displayed at a time.
Events: These settings influence the Event Browser. Its classification schema, time
interval and preview margins are all adjustable. Default layouts for viewing event trends
can also be adjusted.
4.10 Adjust the PC Date and Time
When synchronising a recorder clock, the clock of the PC is used as reference. It is
therefore important that the PC clock is accurate. It can be adjusted in 2 ways:
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1. Manually: Double-click the clock display on the Windows toolbar (normally in
the bottom right corner). This will bring up a dialog in which the clock can be
adjusted.
2. Automatically: Many software tools are available that will synchronise the PC
clock to very accurate time sources via the Internet. A common one is NISTIME,
which is available at http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/service/its.htm.
It is also vital that the time zone of your PC clock is set correctly. To verify this, doubleclick the clock display on the Windows toolbar (normally in the bottom right corner) and
look at the Time Zone page.
4.11 Synchronise the Recorder Clock
Every recorder has its own internal clock. This clock timestamps all recordings, but like
any clock, it will eventually lose or gain time. This clock can be adjusted by
synchronizing it with the clock of the PC from which communication originates. On
configuration, the recorder clock is automatically synchronized. After configuration, the
clock can be adjusted (without reconfiguration) through a button on the Clock panel.
4.11.1
ImpedoGraph
The difference between the PC and recorder clocks will be displayed, and when the
Synchronise Clocks button is clicked, a gradual synchronization will start. Note that the
clocks will NOT synchronize immediately. This is to prevent a discontinuity in time,
which will cause loss or overlapping of recordings. It is important to note that the
timestamp of the recordings can only be as accurate as the clock to which the
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ImpedoGraph is synchronized. It is therefore VERY important to make sure the PC clock
is correct.
If a GPS based time source is available, it can be connected to the ImpedoGraph via the
GPS Serial Port. Pressing the Change button on the Clock tab will allow continuous
synchronisation.
4.11.2
VectoGraph and ProvoGraph
Clock synchronisation on the VectoGraph and ProvoGraph happens immediately when
the Synchronise Clocks button on the Clock page is clicked. Trended recording for the
current 10-minute averaging period is discarded, so a gap in the trend recordings will be
seen.
Please note that clock synchronisation will not happen when events are in progress, in
order to preserve event durations.
4.12 Change a password of a recorder
1. Start the PQRM software.
2. Connect to the recorder and click Change Password. If the recorder already has a
password set, you will be asked to enter it before proceeding. The Change
Password dialog will appear
3. Select the access level for which the password will be changed and then type the
password twice before clicking OK. To disable the password enter blank values.
4. The password will be changed immediately.
4.13 Upgrade Recorder Firmware
Firmware upgrades are distributed as files with the impedoupgrade, rev and
rep extensions. To apply these upgrade to a recorder first make a connection, then click
Upgrade Firmware on the recorder page.
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You will be asked for the upgrade file and then the upgrade will be uploaded and applied.
Upgrades can take several minutes, during which recording will be interrupted.
Afterwards the recorder will reset by itself.
It is very important not to interrupt this process!
4.14 Generate Reports
1. Open the PQRM Software Main Menu.
2. Select the Meter Point in the list on the left.
Generate Reports, and the Main Menu Window will change to the
3. Click
Report Selection Window.
4. Select the reporting period. The Gantt chart will show available recordings and
selected reporting period.
5. Select the type of report to be generated from the list.
6. Click Generate Report.
7. The report will now be generated. This can take a few minutes, depending on the
complexity of the report and the amount of measurements involved. The resulting
report will be presented in a preview window. From here it can be browsed, saved
to PDF, Excel (XLS) and CVS files or printed.
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4.15 Delete Recordings
1. Open the PQRM Software Main Menu.
2. Select the Meter Points from which recordings will be deleted in the list on the
left. Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT keys while clicking to select multiple Meter
Points.
Delete Recordings, and the Main Menu Window will change to the
3. Click
Delete Selection Window.
4. Select the type of recordings to be deleted from the list.
Delete Selected Recordings, which will only delete the
5. Choose whether to
selected recordings for the selected time interval, or
Delete All Recordings,
which will delete all recordings ever made at the selected Meter Point.
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Be careful with the delete function, because the deleted recordings will be gone forever.
It is not possible to restore deleted recordings.
4.16 Export Recordings
1. Open the PQRM Software Main Menu
2. Select the Meter Points from which recordings will be exported in the list on the
left. Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT keys while clicking to select multiple Meter
Points.
3. Click
Export Recordings and the Main Menu Window will change to the
Export Selection Window.
4. Select the time period for which recordings will be exported by changing the start
Start Date and
End Date buttons. The Gantt chart
and end dates with the
will show available recordings.
5. Select the output file format.
6. Select the type of recordings to be exported.
7. Click
Export to File and choose a file to export into.
8. Click Save and exporting will begin. If a large export is requested, a warning
dialog will show the estimated output file size.
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Due to the nature of PQ data, large amounts of recordings can take a long time to export.
Please be patient.
4.17 Importing VectoGraph and ProvoGraph recordings
The VectoProvo software suite retrieved recordings from VectoGraph and ProvoGraph
recorders into .REV and .REP files. These legacy files can be imported into the PQRM
software if (and only if) the recorder was set up to record trend samples every 10
minutes.
First click Import on the main menu and select the file(s) to import. Remember to
change the File of Type settings at the bottom of the file chooser dialog to the type of the
file you want to import. Multiple files can be selected. They will be imported one by one.
REV and REP files do not contain enough information to be imported automatically. The
use must supply the Meter Point and VT Ratio information. The following dialog will be
shown for each file:
36
A list of fields from the file is shown to help the importer with his decision. He must
select and existing Meter Point or enter a new one. Then the VT ratio must be entered.
When selecting an existing Meter Point, its last used VT Ratio will be filled in
automatically. It can still be changed though.
When these values have been entered, click Import and the import will start. Status
messages will be shown in the Import window.
Note: If a file is re-imported with a different Meter Point or VT Ratio, the previously
imported measurements are automatically overwritten.
4.18 Automating scheduled retrieval
Retrieving recordings regularly from a large number of recorders is a time consuming
process. If the recorders are accessible via modem or a network this process can be
automated. The automation works by creating a Windows batch (BAT) file that does the
retrieval and then scheduling it for regular execution with the Windows Scheduler. Here
are the step-by-step instructions:
4.18.1
Create addresses
A connection to a recorder can only be automated for connections that are saved to the
address book. The first step is therefore to manually connect to all recorders and save
these connections to the address book.
4.18.2
Create batch file
Next we will create the batch file to start the retrieval:
Create a new directory, e.g c:/pqrm
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Then create a batch file in c:/pqrm, e.g. daily_retrieval.bat, containing this
command on a single line:
javaws -Xnosplash –offline –wait -open cmds.txt
http://www.ctlab.co.za/pqsoftware/pqrm_su_testing.jnlp
Create another text file in c:/pqrm called cmds.txt. It should contain these lines:
-retrieve “Address1”
-retrieve “Address 2”
The first line in this file tells the PQRM software to retrieve all new recordings from the
recorder at Address1. After this is finished, the next line will execute, and all recordings
from the recorder at Address 2 will be retrieved. This file can be modified at any time to
include new instructions. The batch file can now be executed at any time to retrieve these
recordings.
There are other options that can also be used:
• -syncclock When specified, this option will synchronise the recorder clock to
the PC clock. If this is used, it is very important to ensure that the PC clock is
accurate. We recommend regular NTP synchronisation of the PC to a guaranteed
time source. You will need configuration access to the recorder – see the
configpassword option.
• -configpassword <password> This option is required when
configuration access to a recorder is guarded with a password. Replace
<password> with the real password.
• -retrievepassword <password> This option is required when access to
a recorder is guarded with a password. Replace <password> with the real
password.
4.18.3
Schedule with Windows Scheduler
Now that we have a way of retrieving from multiple recorders, we must tell Windows to
run it regularly. Open Scheduled Tasks from the Windows Control Panel. It looks like
this:
Click Add Scheduled Task, which will show the Scheduled Task Wizard. Hit Next,
and then click Browse to tell it which file should be executed. Pick the batch file you just
38
created at c:/pqrm/daily_retrieval.bat. Now choose how often this task should be
executed. Daily is the most common choice. Next pick a start time, typically some time
after hours when calls are cheaper. Next you will need to enter your username and
password and then Finish the wizard.
There are also useful advanced options to set by double-clicking an entry:
• The task can also be run if the PC is in sleep mode: See Power Management in the
Settings page
• The list in the Security page determines the users who are allowed access to the
task. It is important that the user name under which this task is run is entered here.
Retrieval should now happen automatically, if you don’t forget to leave the PC on. It is
important that the PQRM application MUST be closed for the retrieval command to
4.19 Configure the PC for modem communication
Before connecting to a Power Quality Recorder via modem, modem support must be set
up properly on the PC.
The PQRM software uses Windows Dial-up Networking to make connections to
Recorders via a modem. Follow these steps to set it up:
1. Connect the modem to the PC and make sure it is switched on.
2. Install the modem driver as described in the modem documentation. GSM
modems should be installed with the Standard 9600 bps Modem driver:
3. Create a new Dial-up Networking connection and give it an appropriate title, such
as PQRM via Modem. Follow the detailed instructions for your Operating
System in the next sections.
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4.19.1
Configuring Dial-up Networking in Windows 2000
1. Click Start | Settings | Network and Dial-up Connections | Make New
Connection which will start up the setup wizard.
2. Select Next, Dial-up to private network and Next again.
3. Check the modem through which you want to connect. Make sure only that
device is checked. Click Next.
4. Ignore the phone number (it does not matter) and click Next and Next again.
5. Enter a descriptive name for the connection, e.g. PQ Recorder via Modem or
PQ Recorder via COM1 for a legacy serial connection, and then click
Finish.
6. The Connect Dialog will now appear. Choose Properties.
7. Go to the Networking page and make sure only the Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) component is checked. The page should look like this:
8. Click Settings. A dialog will appear for PPP settings. Uncheck the Negotiate
multi-link option, like this:
40
9. Click OK to close the PPP Settings dialog, then select Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) and click Properties. You will get another dialog, like this:
10. Click Advanced and uncheck the Use default gateway on remote network
option in the new dialog:
11. Click OK three times to close all these dialogs. We do not want to make a
connection now, so Cancel the Connect To dialog.
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4.19.2
Configuring Dial-up Networking in Windows XP
1. Click Start | Settings | Connect To | Show all Connections, which will show
the Network Connections Window.
2. Click Create a new connection in the Network Tasks panel on the left. This
will start the New Connection wizard.
3. Click Next, select Connect to the Internet and click Next again.
4. Select Set up my connection manually and click Next.
5. Select Connect using a dial-up modem and click Next.
6. Check the modem with which you want to connect. Make sure only that
device is checked. Click Next.
7. Enter a descriptive name for the connection, e.g. PQ Recorder via Modem or
PQ Recorder via COM1 for a legacy serial connection, and then click Next.
8. Click Next (no phone number is required).
9. Uncheck all the options and leave the fields blank, then click Next and
Finish.
10. The Connect Dialog will now appear. Choose Properties.
11. Go to the Networking page and make sure only the Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) component is checked. The page should look like this:
42
12. Click Settings. A dialog will appear for PPP settings. Uncheck the Negotiate
multi-link option, like this:
13.
Click OK to close the PPP Settings dialog, then select Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) and click Properties. You will get another dialog, like this:
14. Click Advanced and uncheck the Use default gateway on remote network
option in the new dialog:
43
15. Click OK three times to close all these dialogs. We do not want to make a
connection now, so Cancel the Connect dialog.
16. The new connection will now be listed in the Network Connections
window.
4.20 Configure the ImpedoGraph for Modem Communication
The ImpedoGraph communicates with attached modems through its serial Modem Port.
Different modem types require different serial port configurations in order to function
optimally. The configuration of the Modem Port can be changed using the same
instruction as for upgrading the ImpedoGraph firmware. Different modem types with
instructions are listed here:
• GSM cellular modems: These modems work better with a serial port speed equal
to
the
network
throughput,
i.e.
9600
baud.
The
supplied
modem_9600baud.impedoupgrade file will configure the modem port for 9600
baud.
• Analog (PSTN) modems: These modems work better with a higher serial port
speed. The supplied modem_57600baud.impedoupgrade file will configure the
modem port for 57600 baud.
Connect the modem to the Modem Port of the ImpedoGraph with the serial cable
supplied with the modem. The ImpedoGraph will reset an attached modem automatically
on start-up.
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4.21 Communicate via Serial Cable
1. Connect the correct serial cable to the PC Port of the recorder and an unused port
of the PC. Make sure that you know which serial port of the PC you are using.
2. Start the PQRM application.
3. Choose the recorder you are connecting to in the Connect to a Recorder panel.
4. Select the correct serial port in the Connect to a Recorder panel then click on
Connect.
4.22 Communicate via Modem
1. Make sure that modem support has been installed.
2. Make sure that the PC modem is plugged in, powered and connected to the phone
line.
3. Make sure that the recorder modem is powered, connected to the ImpedoGraph
Modem port and connected to phone line.
4. Start PQRM software.
5. Choose the recorder you are connecting to in the Connect to a Recorder panel.
6. Select the Modem device in the Connect to a Recorder panel, enter the phone
number and click Connect.
7. Be patient while the connection is made.
8. The recorder item will appear when the connection is made. The phone number
can now be saved to the address book for future use.
4.23 Communicate via Ethernet network
1. Make sure the PC is connected to the network and its IP is set properly. Contact
your System Administrator if this is not the case.
2. Start PQRM software.
3. Enter IP address or name of the ImpedoGraph in the Network field on the
Connect to an Recorder panel and click Connect. If you don’t know the IP
address of the ImpedoGraph, connect to it via serial cable and read the address
from the ImpedoGraph panel.
4. The ImpedoGraph Online Window will appear when the connection is made. The
IP address can now be saved to the address book for future use.
4.24 Change the Ethernet Settings of an ImpedoGraph
If the ImpedoGraph shares an Ethernet network with other devices or PCs, the network
administrator must allocate and reserve an IP address, subnet mask and gateway address
for the ImpedoGraph. These settings should be applied by clicking on the Change button
in the Ethernet Communications section on the ImpedoGraph panel while connected,
and filling in these values. When pressing the Accept button, the communication to the
45
ImpedoGraph will be disrupted and the session closed. You would have to reconnect to
the ImpedoGraph using the newly applied Ethernet settings.
Note: The changing of the IP address rudely disrupts the current communication session.
Depending on the TCP/IP time-out settings of your PC, the PQRM application might
lock up for a few minutes. Recording is NOT interrupted.
Note: ImpedoGraph with firmware version before 0.80 might have problems setting the
subnet mask correctly. Upgrading the ImpedoGraph firmware will solve this problem.
46
5 IMPEDOGRAPH RECORDER
The ImpedoGraph is a three-phase power quality recorder. It is a stand-alone instrument,
designed to record power quality anomalies for weeks or even months at a time.
Anomalies are recorded as events (including pre- and post event recordings) or as trends
(10-minute and 3-second intervals) and are stored in onboard memory. Supply
interruptions longer than 10 seconds interrupt recording, but no recordings are lost and
recording continues as soon as the supply returns.
5.1 Hardware Interfaces
All external connections to ImpedoGraph are made on these terminals.
5.1.1 Power Supply
The Power LED on the front panel indicates the presence of mains supply. Valid mains
voltages are 80 to 150 VRMS or 150 to 270 VRMS depending on the position of the mains
voltage selector switch at the back. The valid frequency range is from 40 to 70 Hz.
The ImpedoGraph consumes 45 VA. An internal electronic fuse protects the
ImpedoGraph. If over-voltage is applied, the ImpedoGraph will shut down automatically
47
for a few minutes. After these protections have operated it needs a few minutes to cool,
during which the ImpedoGraph will not restart even with valid mains voltage.
During dips and short interruption an internal high voltage capacitor bank supplies power
to the ImpedoGraph for up to 10 seconds. If the interruption is longer than 10 seconds,
the ImpedoGraph will shut itself down without any loss of recordings. This capacitor
bank needs no maintenance.
5.1.2 Voltage Inputs
The ImpedoGraph has four resistive differential voltage inputs. The inputs are available
on an eight terminal barrier strip connector on the front panel of the instrument.
High impedance inputs prevent the accidental shorting of VT inputs to system ground
and ground loops are eliminated. A single 460 VAC voltage input range with 10 mV
resolution simplifies installation and ensures good accuracy for both the fundamental
component and harmonics. The differential input stage assures a safe, stable analog input
stage with minimum phase error, high bandwidth and no temperature drift.
Each of the four voltage inputs has a built-in high-speed peak detector that captures
positive and negative polarity fast voltage transient events of up to 2kV.
5.1.3 Current Inputs
The ImpedoGraph has four galvanically isolated current inputs. High accuracy Halleffect current transducers form the heart of the current input stage. These transducers
provide galvanic isolation, excellent AC and DC response, very low input impedance and
a high fault level withstand capability.
The instrument also has four voltage output current transducer (CT) inputs available via
eight protected banana plugs. These voltage inputs can be used to interface with voltage
output clamp-on CT’s or to other external current transducers.
These two current input interfaces (voltage and current) are mutually exclusive. Either
the current inputs or the voltage output current transducer inputs can be used, but they
cannot be mixed in the same installation.
5.1.4 Status Inputs
Eight high impedance differential voltage inputs are used to capture external status events
like breaker status, etc. The digital status recordings can be used to study the effect of
voltage dips on processes or equipment. Each input has a threshold of 9V and an input
range of up to 300 VDC. The on-board 15 VDC power supply can be used to energize
dead contacts.
5.1.5 PC Port
This is a galvanically isolated RS232C serial port. This port is used for communication
with a PC/Laptop through a standard serial cable at 115200 baud.
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5.1.6 Modem Port
This is a galvanically isolated RS232C serial port. This port is used to interface to
external modems or any other modem-like communications devices.
The default Modem Port setup is compatible with standard Hayes-compatible modem
commands at 57600 baud with hardware flow control. PPP (Point to Point protocol) is
used for incoming connections.
5.1.7 Ethernet Port
This is a 10Base-T UTP connector for connecting to Ethernet networks. The IP address,
subnet mask and gateway address can be set via the included software application.
5.1.8 GPS Ports
This is a RS232C serial port dedicated to time synchronisation. It is typically connected
to a GPS time source (RS232 or RS422) for very accurate absolute time stamping of
recordings. The on-board real time clock will automatically synchronise onto this
external time source. The NMEA0183 protocol is required.
The port can also be used as a multi-drop bus for clock synchronisation of adjacent
recorders. A network of ImpedoGraphs can therefore synchronise clocks onto one
external GPS or onto each other.
5.1.9 SCADA Interface Port
This is a general purpose RS232C serial port with a built-in RS232 to RS485 converter. It
is software configurable, but no protocols are available by default. Contact CT Lab with
your specific protocol requirements.
5.2 Calibration
Every ImpedoGraph is individually software calibrated. These calibration settings are
stored on-board every instrument and are unique to each instrument. Each instrument is
compared to a traceable calibration reference before leaving the factory. A copy of the
test certificate with its readings is supplied with each instrument.
5.3 Recordings Storage
The ImpedoGraph has a large memory storage capacity. When available storage is nearly
exhausted, it automatically deletes the oldest recordings to make space for the newer
recordings. In this way the latest recordings is always preserved.
The ImpedoGraph can record a large number of parameters very frequently. This can
even fill up the storage within a day. It is therefore very important to configure the
instrument correctly for your application. Configurations such as the capture of full
harmonic spectrums every 3 seconds should not be used for long term installations.
49
5.4 Firmware
The ImpedoGraph uses internal software called firmware to provide its functionality. The
version number of this firmware can be viewed with the ImpedoGraph PC Software. This
firmware is also upgradeable through this software. New firmware is released
periodically to fix problems and to provide new features and parameters. Please contact
your supplier for a full range of firmware options.
5.5 Access Control
The ImpedoGraph provides a basic mechanism for protecting access to its recordings and
settings. It is not a foolproof mechanism and must be part of a larger strategy for
protecting sensitive recordings.
Every ImpedoGraph has 5 access levels, with access to each level protected by a
password. This table indicates which functions are allowed at each access level.
Function vs. Access Level
Connect
View Meters and configurations
Retrieve Recordings
Synchronise Clock
Change Configuration
Configure Clock Synchronisation
Change Passwords
Change Ethernet settings
Upgrade Firmware
None View Retrieve
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Configure Administration
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Whenever a function is requested the user is prompted for the applicable password before
the function is performed. Passwords can only be changed after entering the
Administrator password. Changing the password of an access level to a blank value will
disable password checking for that level. This is the default setting.
5.6 Measurement
The ImpedoGraph measures voltage and current waveforms with very high accuracy and
16-bit resolution. All the analog inputs are sampled simultaneously at a sampling rate of
128 samples per cycle with 4 times over-sampling to reduce the background noise levels.
These waveforms are then condensed into other power parameters such as true RMS
voltages, fundamental phasor sets and harmonic spectrums.
The ImpedoGraph measures power quality according to the international IEC61000-4-30
class A standard.
50
5.6.1 Power Measurement
The ImpedoGraph has 4 voltage and 4 current inputs. When connected in star
configuration (4 wires), the 4 voltage and current input combinations will be grouped
together to form 4 individual power meters.
When connected in delta, the ImpedoGraph will measure in 2-wattmeter configuration:
•
•
•
•
•
Channel 1: Wattmeter #1 (Voltage 1 and Current 1)
Channel 2: Wattmeter Disabled (always reads zero)
Channel 3: Wattmeter #2 (Voltage 3 and inverse of Current 2)
Channel 4: Independent (Voltage 4 and Current 4)
Total (3 phase) = Wattmeter #1 + Wattmeter #2
5.6.2 Trended Parameters
The ImpedoGraph calculates trended parameters continuously (gapless) and averages
these readings over three time intervals:
• Every cycle of the fundamental frequency.
• Approximately every 3 seconds – actually every 150 cycles at 50 Hz and 180
cycles at 60 Hz.
• Every 10 minutes, synchronised to the internal clock.
The following table lists recorded parameters and shows at which intervals they are
available:
Parameter
RMS
Voltages
Currents
Active powers
Reactive powers
Apparent powers
Power factors
Power angles
Voltage unbalance
Current unbalance
Voltage THD
Current THD
Frequency
Flicker (Pst)
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
Fundamental
frequency
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
All intervals
Per Harmonic
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
3 sec and 10 min
All
10 min
Any combination of voltage and current harmonics and inter-harmonics up till the 64th
harmonic can be captured simultaneously. The ImpedoGraph can also trend the 3-second
51
minimum and maximum reading obtained during a 10-minute interval for all directly
measured parameters.
5.6.3 Events
The ImpedoGraph can measure these types of power quality events as defined in
IEC61000-4-30:
• Interruptions
• Dips
• Swells
• Poor Voltage Regulation
• Voltage Transients
• Under Frequency
• Current Inrush
An additional type of events indicates changes in the ImpedoGraph recorder. These
Recorder Events reveal clock synchronisations, configurations and power downs.
52
6 GETTING STARTED WITH AN IMPEDOGRAPH
This chapter is for first time users. If you are upgrading from a previous version of the
PQRM System Software, follow the instructions in the chapter on upgrading instead.
First install the PQRM Software on your PC. Full instructions are given the PQRM
software Installation chapter.
After you are familiar with the information that can be recorded with the ImpedoGraph, it
is time to work with your ImpedoGraph.
First you need to make a serial cable connection to the ImpedoGraph from the software
on your PC, as follows:
1. Connect the ImpedoGraph recorder to mains power. About 30 seconds after
power up it will play a short melody after which the status light will start flashing
and the ImpedoGraph will be ready.
2. Connect the serial cable to the PC Port of the ImpedoGraph and an unused port of
the PC. Make sure that you know which serial port of the PC you are using.
3. Start the ImpedoGraph application.
4. Select the correct serial port in the Connect to an ImpedoGraph panel then click
on Connect.
5. The window will change to display the status of the connection and after a while
the window will change to indicate that a connection is established. You will see
an ImpedoGraph icon in the navigator panel with options underneath. Browse
through the items listed to become familiar with them. Closing this window will
disconnect you from the ImpedoGraph.
53
You now have the ImpedoGraph online application in front of you. Select the Meter page
that will show you what is currently measured on the inputs of the ImpedoGraph in real
time. Remember to always Disconnect the software before you remove power from the
ImpedoGraph.
Connect a voltage to the voltage inputs and watch the Meter panel display change.
The next big step is the full 3-phase install:
1. Take the ImpedoGraph, laptop and serial communications cable to the site.
2. Connect the ImpedoGraph as described in the ImpedoGraph Electrical Installation
section of the Getting Started with an ImpedoGraph chapter.
3. Next configure the ImpedoGraph as described in Configure the ImpedoGraph,
then verify your installation as described inVerify Installation.
Now for the ImpedoGraph to record, retrieve the recordings (see Retrieving Recordings)
and view them (see Event Browser and Trend Viewer).
54
6.1
ImpedoGraph Electrical Installation
This step describes the installation of an ImpedoGraph at a 3-phase meter point.
1. Connect the earth stud to the distribution ground.
2. Connect the ImpedoGraph to the wiring, starting with the neutral voltage
according to the instructions in the following settings.
6.1.1 Connecting to a 4 Wire Star System
Connect the voltage and current inputs as in this diagram:
IA
A
+
VA
I Neutral
VB
+
B
VC
+
IC
C
IB
6.1.1.1 Voltage Inputs
Link all 4 negative voltage inputs together and connect them to the Neutral terminal of
the circuit to be measured. The Neutral terminal is now the reference node so that all
voltages are referred to Neutral.
Note: VT circuits normally have the White phase earthed, while 400V circuits have the
Neutral earthed.
Connect the positive terminals as follows:
• (V1+) – VA - Red
• (V2+) – VB - White
• (V3+) – VC - Blue
• (V4+) – Earth or short it out by connecting to Neutral
6.1.1.2 Current Inputs
If you want to measure the secondary current of current transformer (CT) circuits, make
sure that you never open the circuit while under load.
Note: The current must enter the measurement circuit through the positive terminal to
obtain a positive power reading.
Make sure that the circuit to be measured is not loaded.
55
Connect the current inputs as follows:
• Ia through I1
• Ib through I2
• Ic through I3,
• In through I4 (optional)
6.1.1.3 Connecting Voltage Output Current Transducers
1. Connect the sensor positive output to the red (positive) ImpedoGraph input.
2. Connect the sensor negative output to the black (negative) ImpedoGraph input.
3. Connect to the current as follows:
Ia through Transducer 1
Ib through Transducer 2
Ic through Transducer 3
4. Optional: In through Transducer 4.
5. Short a voltage input if there is no transducer connected to it.
6.1.2 Connecting to a 3 wire Delta system
Three-phase power measurements on delta connections are done using the 2 watt meter
method. Connect the voltage and current inputs as in this diagram:
IA
A
+
-
VAB
VCA
B
+
+
VBC
-
IC
C
IB
6.1.2.1 Connecting the Voltage Inputs
1. Make sure that the instrument is powered down (switched off)
2. Link the voltage input terminals together as follows:
a. (V1-) to (V2+)
b. (V2-) to (V3+)
c. (V3-) to (V1+)
3. Short out (V4+) and (V4-).
4. Connect the positive terminals as follows:
56
a. (V1+) – VA - Red
b. (V2+) – VB - White
c. (V3+) – VC – Blue
On 3-wire Delta circuits you can either find a star connected VT configuration (3 VT’s)
or an open delta configuration (2 VT’s). If a star connected VT configuration is used –
PLEASE IGNORE THE NEUTRAL. This fictitious neutral point is not stable under
transient conditions and will cause incorrect measurements to be taken. Consider using
this rule of thumb:
•
If three wires feed the energy – Connect in Delta.
•
If four wires feed the energy – Connect in Star.
6.1.2.2 Connecting the Current Inputs
If you want to measure the secondary current of current transformer (CT) circuits, make
sure that you never open the circuit while under load. Rather use external clamp-on
probes or use a qualified technician that knows how to break into CT circuits.
Note: Current must enter the measurement circuit through the positive terminal to obtain
a positive power reading.
1. Make sure that the instrument is powered down (switched off).
2. Make sure that the circuit to be measured is not loaded.
3. Connect current as follows:
Ia through I1,
Ib through I2,
Ic through I3.
Note: Normally there are only two CT’s installed on a delta network. The
ImpedoGraph has the ability to derive the third current from any of the two
available currents via a software configuration option.
4. Leave the unconnected channel open. It will be derived internally.
6.1.2.3 Connect Voltage Output Current Transducers
1. Make sure that the instrument is powered down (switched off).
2. Connect the sensor positive output to the red (positive) ImpedoGraph input.
3. Connect the sensor negative output to the black (negative) ImpedoGraph input.
4. Connect to the current as follows:
Ia through Transducer I1,
Ib through Transducer I2,
Ic through Transducer I3.
Note: Only two transducers are actually required to measure the current of a
three-wire system. The ImpedoGraph will derive the third current from the two
available currents.
Short a voltage input if there is no transducer connected to it.
57
6.2
Configure the ImpedoGraph
In addition to being physically installed at a meter point, the ImpedoGraph also needs to
be configured properly:
1. Power-up the Instrument, observe the start-up sequence and wait for the melody.
2. Establish communication with instrument.
3. Click Change Configuration and wait for the ImpedoGraph to go into
Configuration mode. Please be patient – this can take up to 5 minutes since the
ImpedoGraph through a self-testing process. Please note that when in
configuration mode no recordings will be made and all previously captured
recordings still stored on the instrument will be discarded. If you disconnect at
this stage, the ImpedoGraph will stay in this mode and no recordings will be
made.
4. The Configuration Settings dialog will now appear where all configuration
information must be entered:
.
5. Changes can now be made to the configuration and the impact can be viewed by
clicking on the Test button, which will take you to the Meter panel to inspect
their effect. Return to the Edit Configuration Settings dialog by clicking
Change Configuration again.
58
6. Select or enter a title and description for this Meter Point. This is important since
the title will be used to pick out these recordings from those made at other meter
points.
7. Frequency – Select 50 or 60Hz.
8. Network Connection – Select Star (4 wire) or Delta (3 wire) Connection.
9. Declared Voltage (secondary) – specify the declared RMS value of the voltage
directly connected to the ImpedoGraph, e.g. 63.5V or 110V or 114.4V or 230V.
10. VT Ratio – Voltage transformer ratio, e.g. an 11kV to 110V VT will have a VT
Ratio of 100. Make sure you use only line voltages on delta systems and only
phase voltages on star connected systems to determine VT Ratios.
11. Current Input Terminals – Select usage of either Current- or voltage input
terminals.
12. Current transformer (CT) ratio – for current terminal inputs this will be Ampere
per Ampere and for the voltage terminal inputs it will be Ampere per Volt.
13. Derive Current Channels – With star connected systems the neutral current can be
derived by summation of the phase currents. With delta connected systems any
one of the three line currents can be derived through summation of the other two
currents.
14. Select an appropriate Configuration Template. Very Important!! (Refer to
appendix on Configuration Templates before selecting a Configuration
Template)
15. Click Finish in the Edit Configuration Settings dialog when the configuration is
complete. The ImpedoGraph will return to recording mode within a few seconds
and from then on the ImpedoGraph is active.
6.3
Verify Installation
1. It is good practise to verify all input connections and configuration after
installation and periodically after that. It can be done remotely (e.g. via modem)
as well:
2. Connect to the ImpedoGraph and make sure it is not in Configuration mode.
59
3. Go to the Meter display and verify that all 4 voltages at the terminals of the
ImpedoGraph are present and as expected.
4. Inspect the waveforms and expect to see exactly one cycle of voltage and current
waveforms for each phase.
5. Verify Phase Rotation. With counter clock-wise rotation you have the following
Vangle (degrees) readings:
Phase 1
0 degrees
Phase 2
+120 degrees
Phase 3
-120 degrees
6. Inspect Vrms (% of Vdec). Its value should be close to 100% if all voltages are
connected and the Declared Voltage setting is correct.
7. Inspect Vrms (Volt). It should reflect the primary voltage if the VT Ratio is
correct.
8. When using the voltage terminal inputs, make sure that all unused channels are
shorted. If this is not the case, high DC currents will be observed.
9. Inspect Irms (Ampere) of all 4 channels. Make sure they are present and as
expected. They should be properly scaled so as to read the actual line current. If
not, check the CT ratio.
60
10. Inspect polarity by looking at the voltage and current phasors and the Current
Lag.
11. Inspect the Power Meter display. Verify the power angles, but note that the
individual power meters for delta connections will seem counter intuitive, with
one meter show a 30 degree positive power angle offset and another one 30
degrees negative offset, but the total power phasor will seem correct
12. With delta-connected systems, one of the single-phase power-meters should read
zero. The other 2 power meters are used in the 2 power-meter calculation. The
Ptotal reading should be positive and have the correct magnitude.
13. Verify that the total Power (Watt) and VA readings are correct
-o0o-
61
7 VECTOGRAPH RECORDER
The VectoGraph is an instrument designed to record voltage quality related parameters.
The instrument can trigger and record instantaneous events such as voltage transients and
dips and on averaged values like 10-minute phase unbalance and THD.
The VectoGraph can be connected to line and phase voltage networks (3 and 4 wire).
7.1 Hardware Interfaces
7.1.1 Power Supply
The VectoGraph can be powered from 90 - 300 Vac 50Hz as well as from 50 - 150 Vdc.
A CVT (constant voltage transformer) is used to step up the supplied AC voltage. The
secondary voltage is then rectified and applied to high voltage capacitors. These
capacitors are used to store the energy required to ride through dips and short outages. A
high efficiency DC/DC converter is then used to supply power to the instrument. An
electronic fuse protects the CVT in the event of overloading.
When powered from DC, the VectoGraph consumes 3 Watt.
The use of a CVT and high voltage capacitors has the following advantages:
• No replacement of batteries
• High rejection to mains carried transients and disturbances
• Low cost
• High reliability
• No inrush current
• Low harmonic content in load current
62
7.1.2 Communications Port
This is a galvanically isolated RS232C serial port. This port is used for communication
with a PC/Laptop through a standard serial cable at 115200 baud.
7.2 Calibration
Every VectoGraph is individually software calibrated. These calibration settings are
stored on-board every instrument and are unique to each instrument. Each instrument is
compared to a traceable calibration reference before leaving the factory. A copy of the
test certificate is supplied with each instrument.
7.3 Recordings Storage
The VectoGraph has a large memory storage capacity. When available storage is nearly
exhausted, it automatically deletes the oldest recordings to make space for the newer
recordings. In this way the latest recordings is always preserved.
The VectoGraph has 220000 memory locations. These can be filled as follow:
Description
RMS Dip/Swell without trends
THD Event
Unbalance event
Regulation event
Voltage Transient event
Trend per sample (minimum)
Trend per sample (maximum)
Locations used per
event
17
86
11
15
6
6
37
Available memory
Space
12 941 Events
2 558 Events
20 000 Events
14 666 Events
36 666 Events
36 666 Intervals
5 945 Intervals
Trends are averaged over 10-minute intervals. The duration is between 41 and 254 days.
7.4 Firmware
The VectoGraph uses internal software called firmware to provide its functionality. The
version number of this firmware can be viewed with the Power Quality Recorder
Software. This firmware is also upgradeable through this software. New firmware is
released periodically to fix problems and to provide new features and parameters. Please
contact your supplier for a full range of firmware options.
7.5 Access Control
The VectoGraph provides a basic mechanism for protecting access to its recordings and
settings. It is not a foolproof mechanism and must be part of a larger strategy for
protecting sensitive recordings.
Every VectoGraph has four access levels, with access to each level protected by a
password. This table indicate which functions are allowed at each access level
Function vs. Access Level
None View Retrieve
Configure Administration
63
Connect
View Meters and configurations
Retrieve Recordings
Synchronise Clock
Change Configuration
Configure Clock
Synchronisation
Change Passwords
Upgrade Firmware
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Whenever a function is requested the user is prompted for the applicable password before
the function is performed. Passwords can only be changed after entering the
Administrator password. Changing the password of an access level to a blank value will
disable password checking for that level. This is the default setting.
64
8 GETTING STARTED WITH A VECTOGRAPH
This chapter is for first time users. If you are upgrading from a previous version of the
PQRM System Software, follow the instructions in the chapter on upgrading instead.
First install the PQRM Software on your PC. Full instructions are given the PQRM
software Installation chapter.
After you are familiar with the information that can be recorded with the VectoGraph, it
is time to work with your VectoGraph.
First you need to make a serial cable connection to the VectoGraph from the software on
your PC, as follows:
1. Connect the VectoGraph recorder to mains power or DC power . About 5 seconds
after power up the status light will start flashing and the VectoGraph will be
ready.
2. Connect the serial cable to the PC Port of the VectoGraph and an unused port of
the PC. Make sure that you know which serial port of the PC you are using.
3. Start the PQRM application.
4. Select the correct serial port in the Connect to a VectoGraph panel then click on
Connect.
5. The window will change to display the status of the connection and after a while
the window will change to indicate that a connection is established. You will see
a VectoGraph icon in the navigator panel with options underneath. Browse
through the items listed to become familiar with them. Closing this window will
disconnect you from the VectoGraph.
65
You now have the VectoGraph online in front of you. Select the Meter page that will
show you what is currently measured on the inputs of the VectoGraph in real time.
Remember to always Disconnect the software before you remove power from the
VectoGraph.
The VectoGraph Voltage Quality Recorder is very easy to physically install. The
accompanied software allows the operator to double-check each installed virtual
recorder.
This procedure provides guidelines for the installation of VectoGraphs and also serves as
a double-check procedure to ensure proper configuration of all the virtual recorders.
8.1 Physical Installation
1.
Remove the VectoGraph from shipping and packaging.
2.
Check the contents of the parcel. It should contain the instrument, a user's guide, a
comms cable and software.
3.
–
–
Mount the instrument
19” rack unit has two swivel plates on the sides.
Surface mount unit has an aluminium bracket screwed onto the bottom of the
instrument. This can be rotated and used as a mounting surface.
66
8.2 Single Phase Connection
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off or that panel fuses are removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
3.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud.
4.
Link voltage measurement N input to auxiliary N input and connect them to
system Neutral.
5.
Link all three voltage measurement inputs as well as the L auxiliary input
together (L + A + B + C) and connect them to system Live.
6.
Select voltage selector switch for correct voltage input range. 50-150VRMS on
120V range ; 150-300VRMS on 240V range (50/60Hz) .
7.
Switch-on the power.
8.3 Three-Phase Star Connection ( 4 - Wire)
NB: Three phase star connections can only be made onto four-wire systems !
It is very common to find star connected VT’s on three-wire systems. In this
configuration the star point of the VT is floating and must not be used at all. Use the
Delta (3-wire) connection described in the next paragraph.
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off and that the VT panel fuses are
removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
3.
Make sure that the VT’s are connected to a 4-wire system and not a 3-wire
system.
4.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud. Now connect
voltage measurement N input to the star point of the VT and connect the 3 three
voltage measurement inputs to the remaining VT outputs.
5.
Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the System L and N if a separate auxiliary
supply is available. OR Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the Red and
White phase (110V line to line) if the unit is to be powered directly from the
VT’s.
6.
Select voltage selector switch for correct voltage input range. 50-150VRMS on
120V range; 150-300VRMS on 240V range (50/60Hz).
7.
First switch-on VT-supply and then auxiliary supply if possible. (If the machine is
powered before the VT’s are connected, the instrument will record a dip – no
damage can be caused if this sequence is changed).
67
8.4 Three-Phase Delta Connection (3 - Wire)
NB: Three phase delta connections can be made onto both three-wire and four-wire
systems !
It is very common to find star connected VT’s on three-wire systems. In this
configuration the star point of the VT is floating and must not be used at all.
It is also very common to find the white phase connected to earth. NB: The VectoGraph
voltage input N must be tied to the phase that is earthed.
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off and that the VT panel fuses are
removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
3.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud.
4.
Connect voltage measurement N input to the VT phase that is earthed or to White
phase if the system is not earthed.
5.
Connect the 3 three voltage measurement inputs to the remaining VT outputs.
6.
Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the System L and N if a separate auxiliary
supply is available OR Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the Red and White
phase (110V line to line) if the unit is to be powered directly from the VT’s.
68
7.
Select voltage selector switch for correct voltage input range.
8.
First switch-on VT-supply and then auxiliary supply if possible. (If the machine is
powered before the VT’s are connected, the instrument will record a dip – no
damage can be caused if this sequence is changed).
8.5 Configure the VectoGraph
In addition to being physically installed at a meter point, the VectoGraph also needs to be
configured properly:
1. Power-up the Instrument, observe the start-up sequence and wait for status light
to flash.
2. Establish communication with instrument.
3. Click Change Configuration and wait for the VectoGraph to go into
Configuration mode. Please note that when in configuration mode no recordings
will be made and all previously captured recordings still stored on the instrument
will be discarded. If you disconnect at this stage, the VectoGraph will stay in this
mode and no recordings will be made.
4. The Configuration Settings dialog will now appear where all configuration
information must be entered:
69
5. Changes can now be made in the Edit Configuration Settings dialog by clicking
Change Configuration. First select the General page in the Edit Configuration
Settings dialog.
6. Select or enter a title and description for this Meter Point. This is important since
the title will be used to pick out these recordings from those made at other meter
points.
70
7. Frequency – Select 50 or 60Hz.
8. Network Connection – Select Star (4 wire) or Delta (3 wire) Connection.
9. Declared Voltage (secondary) – specify the declared RMS value of the voltage
directly connected to the ImpedoGraph, e.g. 63.5V or 110V or 114.4V or 230V.
10. VT Ratio – Voltage transformer ratio, e.g. an 11kV to 110V VT will have a VT
Ratio of 100. Make sure you use only line voltages on delta systems and only
phase voltages on star connected systems to determine VT Ratios.
11. Select an appropriate Configuration Template. Very Important!! (Refer to
appendix on Configuration Templates before selecting a Configuration
Template)
12. To set the Trend exclusions and Relay output operation on a 19” VectoGraph,
select the advanced page in the Edit Configuration Settings dialog.
13. Click Accept in the Edit Configuration Settings dialog when the configuration
is complete. The VectoGraph will return to recording mode within a few seconds
and from then on the VectoGraph is active.
8.6
Verify Installation
1. It is good practise to verify all input connections and configuration after
installation and periodically after that. It can be done remotely (e.g. via modem)
as well:
2. Connect to the VectoGraph and make sure it is not in Configuration mode.
71
3. Go to the Meter display and verify that all 4 voltages at the terminals of the
VectoGraph are present and as expected.
4. Inspect the waveforms and expect to see exactly one cycle of voltage and current
waveforms for each phase.
5. Verify Phase Rotation. With counter clock-wise rotation you have the following
Vangle (degrees) readings:
Phase 1
0 degrees
Phase 2
+120 degrees
Phase 3
-120 degrees
6. Inspect Vrms (% of Vdec). Its value should be close to 100% if all voltages are
connected and the Declared Voltage setting is correct.
7. Inspect Vrms (Volt). It should reflect the primary voltage if the VT Ratio is
correct.
8. When using the voltage terminal inputs, make sure that all unused channels are
shorted. If this is not the case, high DC currents will be observed.
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9 PROVOGRAPH RECORDER
The ProvoGraph II is an instrument designed to comply with NRS048 Class 2. The
instrument is capable of recording voltage dips, swells and voltage trends. Voltage
unbalance is automatically extracted from the voltage trend information.
The instrument is housed in a small aluminium extrusion. The auxiliary supply and the
voltage inputs are available on screw terminals. Three LEDs and a RS232 port are the
other external inputs and outputs.
The ProvoGraph II calculates the true RMS value of each input phase once every ½
cycle. The sampling rate is 32 samples per cycle. Two thresholds bound the RMS voltage
upper and lower limits. If any one of the three voltages exceeds the thresholds, an event
is triggered.
The captured event contains the following measurements:
• Date + Time of occurrence
• Duration of event for each phase
• Averaged RMS voltages just before the event
• Minimum and Maximum ½ cycle RMS value of each phase during the event
The ½ cycle RMS readings are averaged (RMS) over a 10-minute interval to obtain a
voltage trend.
An internal lithium battery is used to power the non-volatile RAM and the on-board real
time clock during the absence of mains power. A separate rechargeable battery is used to
support the instrument for up to 5 seconds during long voltage dips or short outages.
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The ProvoGraph II is field-upgradeable. New firmware can therefore be downloaded to
the instrument if required. The instrument and its included software support modem and
serial port communication. An optional three level password scheme protects the
ProvoGraph from unauthorised access.
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10 GETTING STARTED WITH A PROVOGRAPH
This chapter is for first time users. If you are upgrading from a previous version of the
PQRM System Software, follow the instructions in the chapter on upgrading instead.
First install the PQRM Software on your PC. Full instructions are given the PQRM
software Installation chapter.
First you need to make a serial cable connection to the ProvoGraph from the software on
your PC, as follows:
1. Connect the ProvoGraph recorder to mains power. About 5 seconds after power
up the status light will start flashing and the ProvoGraph will be ready.
2. Connect the serial cable to the PC Port of the ProvoGraph and an unused port of
the PC. Make sure that you know which serial port of the PC you are using.
3. Start the PQRM application.
4. Select the correct serial port in the Connect to a ProvoGraph panel then click on
Connect.
5. The window will change to display the status of the connection and after a while
the window will change to indicate that a connection is established. You will see
a ProvoGraph icon in the navigator panel with options underneath. Browse
through the items listed to become familiar with them. Closing this window will
disconnect you from the ProvoGraph.
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You now have the ProvoGraph online in front of you. Select the Meter page that will
show you what is currently measured on the inputs of the ProvoGraph in real time.
Remember to always Disconnect the software before you remove power from the
ProvoGraph.
10.1 Physical Installation
1.
Remove the ProvoGraph from shipping and packaging.
2.
Check the contents of the parcel. It should contain the instrument, a user's guide, a
comms cable and software.
3.
Mount the instrument to a flat surface using the holes provided on the casing.
Orientation can be in any direction.
10.2 Single Phase Connection
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off or that panel fuses are removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
3.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud.
4.
Link voltage measurement N input to auxiliary N input and connect them to
system Neutral.
5.
Link all three voltage measurement inputs as well as the L auxiliary input
together (L + A + B + C) and connect them to system Live.
6.
Select voltage selector switch for correct voltage input range. 50-150VRMS on
120V range ; 150-300VRMS on 240V range (50/60Hz) .
7.
Switch-on the power.
10.3 Three-Phase Star Connection ( 4 - Wire)
NB: Three phase star connections can only be made onto four-wire systems !
It is very common to find star connected VT’s on three-wire systems. In this
configuration the star point of the VT is floating and must not be used at all. Use the
Delta (3-wire) connection described in the next paragraph.
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off and that the VT panel fuses are
removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
76
3.
Make sure that the VT’s are connected to a 4-wire system and not a 3-wire
system.
4.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud. Now connect
voltage measurement N input to the star point of the VT and connect the 3 three
voltage measurement inputs to the remaining VT outputs.
5.
Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the System L and N if a separate auxiliary
supply is available. OR Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the Red and
White phase (110V line to line) if the unit is to be powered directly from the
VT’s.
6.
Connect the power supply to suit either 120V range or 240V range (50/60Hz).
7.
First switch-on VT-supply and then auxiliary supply if possible. (If the machine is
powered before the VT’s are connected, the instrument will record a dip – no
damage can be caused if this sequence is changed).
10.4 Three-Phase Delta Connection (3 - Wire)
NB: Three phase delta connections can be made onto both three-wire and four-wire
systems !
It is very common to find star connected VT’s on three-wire systems. In this
configuration the star point of the VT is floating and must not be used at all.
It is also very common to find the white phase connected to earth. NB: The ProvoGraph
voltage input N must be tied to the phase that is earthed.
77
1.
Ensure that the power is switched off and that the VT panel fuses are
removed !!!
2.
Check that the voltage input range written on the instrument label
correspond to the voltage to be measured at the particular installation.
3.
Earth the instrument to a safe earthing point using the earth- stud.
4.
Connect voltage measurement N input to the VT phase that is earthed or to White
phase if the system is not earthed.
5.
Connect the 3 three voltage measurement inputs to the remaining VT outputs.
6.
Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the System L and N if a separate auxiliary
supply is available OR Connect the Auxiliary L and N input to the Red and White
phase (110V line to line) if the unit is to be powered directly from the VT’s.
7.
Select voltage selector switch for correct voltage input range.
8.
First switch-on VT-supply and then auxiliary supply if possible. (If the machine is
powered before the VT’s are connected, the instrument will record a dip – no
damage can be caused if this sequence is changed).
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10.5 Configure the ProvoGraph
In addition to being physically installed at a meter point, the ProvoGraph also needs to be
configured properly:
1. Power-up the Instrument, observe the start-up sequence and wait for the status
light to flash.
2. Establish communication with instrument.
3. Click Change Configuration and wait for the ProvoGraph to go into
Configuration mode. Please note that when in configuration mode no recordings
will be made and all previously captured recordings still stored on the instrument
will be discarded. If you disconnect at this stage, the ProvoGraph will stay in this
mode and no recordings will be made.
4. The Configuration Settings dialog will now appear where all configuration
information must be entered:
.
5. Changes can now be made to the configuration and the impact can be viewed by
clicking on the Test button, which will take you to the Meter panel to inspect
their effect. Return to the Edit Configuration Settings dialog by clicking
Change Configuration again.
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6. Select or enter a title and description for this Meter Point. This is important since
the title will be used to pick out these recordings from those made at other meter
points.
7. Frequency – Select 50 or 60Hz.
8. Network Connection – Select Star (4 wire) or Delta (3 wire) Connection.
9. Declared Voltage (secondary) – specify the declared RMS value of the voltage
directly connected to the ProvoGraph, e.g. 63.5V or 110V or 114.4V or 230V.
10. VT Ratio – Voltage transformer ratio, e.g. an 11kV to 110V VT will have a VT
Ratio of 100. Make sure you use only line voltages on delta systems and only
phase voltages on star connected systems to determine VT Ratios.
11. Note that the ProvoGraph does not make use of a Configuration Template. (Refer
to Appendix on Configuration Templates)
12. Click Accept in the Edit Configuration Settings dialog when the configuration
is complete. The ProvoGraph will return to recording mode within a few seconds
and from then on the ProvoGraph is active.
10.6 Verify Installation
1. It is good practise to verify all input connections and configuration after
installation and periodically after that. It can be done remotely (e.g. via modem)
as well:
2. Connect to the ProvoGraph and make sure it is not in Configuration mode.
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3. Go to the Meter display and verify that all 4 voltages at the terminals of the
ProvoGraph are present and as expected.
4. Inspect Vrms (% of Vdec). Its value should be close to 100% if all voltages are
connected and the Declared Voltage setting is correct.
5. Inspect Vrms (Volt). It should reflect the primary voltage if the VT Ratio is
correct.
6. Inspect V% Unbalance It should be very low in a 3 phase system.
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11 APPENDIX: CONFIGURATION TEMPLATES
11.1 What is a Configuration Template
The configuration template can be seen as the mask through which the recorder looks at
the electrical network. The relevant recorders makes use of the configuration template to
evaluate the power quality parameters and stores the events and profiles in accordance
with the configuration settings.
Configuration Templates of various complexities can be set-up and stored for later use on
both a VectoGraph and ImpedoGraph Power Quality Recorder. The ProvoGraph being a
much less complicated machine has only a few configuration settings that have been
included in the network configuration editor window.
11.2 Configuration Template Elements
A few standard configuration templates are included in the software. These templates are
typical templates to be used with recordings on VectoGraphs and ImpedoGraphs
The different elements of a configuration template is described below:
Template Details: A description for this template can be entered or edited. It is good
practice to include as mush descriptive information in the template header to enable the
user to identify the role of the template at a glance.
Harmonics: The harmonics and inter-harmonics to be recorded are set here.
Individual settings can be made for voltages, currents, 3-second and 10-minute intervals.
This page can be seen as the harmonic mask. This mask is activated when required by
other configuration settings. (Impedo and VectoGraph only)
Trends: The parameters selected here are recorded continuously. Two options are
available. 10 minute trends and 3 sec trends. Newer use only the 3 sec trend, but combine
it with the 3 sec trend. Both 10 min and 3 sec trending is activated during a detailed
investigation. Important note: Do not leave the recorder for long periods unretrieved when the 3 sec trends are switched on. The recorder memory can fill-up in a
day due to the massive amount of information captured.
Interruptions, Dip and Swells: All cycle by cycle RMS triggered events are
configured here, including trigger modes, trigger thresholds and related trends. Note that
different thresholds are normally selected for Transmission and Distribution networks.
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Voltage Transients: The capture of high frequency voltage transient events (also
called spikes or impulses) is configured here. Recording of related trends can also be
enabled. (Impedo and VectoGraph only)
Under Frequency: Detection of low system frequencies is configured here, also with
related trends. (ImpedoGraph only)
Current Inrush: Record events when instantaneous currents are high and/or low.
(ImpedoGraph only)
Logic Input Changes: Record events when the logic inputs to the recorder changes.
(ImpedoGraph only)
Harmonic Distortion: Record events when THD voltages and/or currents are high
and/or low. (ImpedoGraph only)
Scheduled Recordings: Regular recording can be scheduled here. These recordings
are also marked as events. (ImpedoGraph only)
11.3 Standard Configuration Templates
A few standard configuration templates are included in the software. These range from a
standard configuration for a long term statistical measurement to a fairly detailed site
assessment investigation. Advanced configuration templates must be set-up by the user
for a specific investigation. The standard Templates include:
NRS 048 Permanant Measurement - Distribution Network
NRS 048 Permanent Measurement - Transmission Network
NRS 048 Site Assessment Investigation – Distribution
NRS 048 Site Assessment Investigation – Transmission
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12 APPENDIX: UPGRADING OLDER
IMPEDOGRAPHS
This step is only necessary for upgrading an ImpedoGraph with a firmware version
smaller than 0.63. First install the new software ( PQRM software Installation ) and then
follow these steps:
12.1 Install a Driver for a legacy Serial Port connection
All ImpedoGraphs with firmware of 0.63 or later use a new serial cable communication
protocol. This protocol requires less setup on the PC and is easier to use. The
ImpedoGraph Software 2.2 and later supports both protocols. It is recommended that all
existing ImpedoGraphs be upgraded to the protocol.
To upgrade an older ImpedoGraph via its PC port, you first need to communicate with it
using the old protocol. This protocol needs an installed modem driver for communication
through the serial port. This section describes how to do the setup.
1. Open the Windows Control Panel and then open Modems (or Phone and
Modem Options under Windows 2000).
2. Choose Add under the Modems panel.
3. Select Don't detect my modem, then Next.
4. Click Have Disk and choose the folder into which you installed the ImpedoGraph
software (c:\Program Files\Impedo by default) and click OK.
5. Select ImpedoGraph and then Next.
6. Select the Communications Port you want to use for communications (e.g.
COM1) followed by Next and Finish.
7. The next step is to install Dial-up Networking support for this virtual modem
driver. See the Error! Reference source not found. chapter for detailed
instructions.
8. To start a serial connection with an ImpedoGraph still using the older protocol,
select the appropriate modem device on the ImpedoGraph Main Menu, enter any
number (does not matter) and click connect.
12.2 Upgrade ImpedoGraph Firmware
This software release introduces a much simpler form of direct serial port communication
with ImpedoGraph recorders. This new feature is only enabled in ImpedoGraph firmware
version 1.67 or higher and PC Software version 2.2 or higher. Existing ImpedoGraph
recorders may not have this firmware version installed, and therefore need to be upgraded
first. Here is the procedure:
1. Connect to the ImpedoGraph. To connect via the serial port if the ImpedoGraph’s
still uses the older protocol, select the ImpedoGraph Serial Port (or equivalent)
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dial-up connection from the Modem drop-down box in the ImpedoGraph Main
Menu and click Connect. No special setup is required for Ethernet and modem
connections.
2. After connection, click Upgrade Firmware, and select the file
modem_57600baud.impedoupgrade.impedoupgrade in the install
folder (C:\Progam Files\Impedo by default)
3. Wait for the upgrade to complete.
4. You should now be able to connect simply by selecting the correct COM port
from the Main Menu and clicking Connect.
5. If the firmware version of the ImpedoGraph is less than 1.67, upgrade it with the
supplied 1_67b.impedoupgrade file.
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13 APPENDIX: MIGRATING FROM VECTOPROVO
SOFTWARE
The PQRM software replaces the VectoProvo software as the preferred and supported PC
software for working with ProvoGraph and VectoGraph recorders. There are several
differences between these software suites. This section provides help for users migrating
from the VectoProvo Software Suite.
13.1 Why upgrade?
PQRM has many advantages to the older VectoProvo software suite. Here are the main
advantages:
•
•
•
•
•
Multi-recorder: PQRM integrates all ProvoGraph, VectoGraph and ImpedoGraph
functionalities into a single software suite.
Single application: All functionality is now accessible from a single application
and menu, instead of the several applications of the VectoProvo software.
Feature rich: Many more options for connecting, viewing, exporting and
reporting.
No more file based recordings storage: Recordings of a recorders are stored in a
single data store, which can be accessed via recorder or Meter Point.
Modern: PQRM runs on modern PCs and operating systems (Windows XP) and is
under active development
13.2 Limitations
The structure of the PQRM software system imposes some limitations on the use of the
VectoGraph and ProvoGraph that the VectoProvo software did not:
•
•
•
•
The duration of the averaging interval is not configurable any more, but fixed at
10-minute interval, which is required by all modern Power Quality standards.
The VectoGraph cycle-by-cycle phasor trends, captured during events, cannot be
accommodated in the PQRM, so they become unusable.
A VectoGraph can no longer be configured to stop recording when its memory is
full. The oldest recordings will always be replaced with new recordings when
necessary, so the VectoGraph will always keep the most recent recordings
possible given its storage capacity.
The ProvoGraph could be set up for single-phase measurements, but this
configuration is not currently supported by the PQRM system, so a ProvoGraph
must be configured as either 3 phase star (4 wire) or 3 phase delta (3 wire).
13.3 No more file management
Users of the VectoProvo Software Suite are used to saving Power Quality recordings to
files for storage. These files must be managed manually and viewed individually. This
often results in lost and/or unstructured measurement files distributed over a number of
directories or even PCs.
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PQRM brings the ImpedoGraph recordings storage model to VectoGraph and
ProvoGraph recordings. All recordings are stored and accessed from one application, via
a Meter Point attribute.
The user will no longer be prompted to supply a file name when retrieving recordings.
The retrieved recordings are automatically stored under the recorder serial number and its
Meter Point as entered during configuration.
13.4 Migrating existing recordings
Users of the VectoProvo software will keep their measurements in collections of REV
and REP files. These recordings can and should be imported into PQRM. Once imported
the improved PQRM event browsing, trend browsing and reporting tools can be used on
the existing measurements. Simply follow the instructions in the section on REP and
REV importing.
13.5 Shared Configuration Templates
VectoGraph users are used to the concept of Configuration Templates. PQRM expands
on this feature. Configuration Templates are now recorder neutral, i.e. the same
Configuration Template can be used on a VectoGraph or an ImpedoGraph. The template
fields and also the layout of the template editor have also changed. The differences are:
•
•
Voltage thresholds are now always shown and entered in the new IEC61000-4-30
format, which is as % of Vdeclared, instead of % from Vdeclared. For example, where a
dip threshold was previously specified as –10% from Vdeclared, the same threshold
is now 90% of Vdeclared.
Averaged trends always average over 10-minute intervals as required by all
modern Power Quality standards.
Of course, all recorders cannot support all template settings. If a recorder cannot do the
recording required by a template setting (e.g. VectoGraph cannot record currents or predip cyclic trends) no recordings of that type is made.
Existing VectoGraph template files can be imported into PQRM. Clicking Import
Template in the Configuration Template Editor and selecting the cfv template file
(usually stored in c:\vectodata\).
13.6 Connecting to a recorder
Interactive connections to all recorders can now be initiated from the main window of the
PQRM application. Simply select the recorder type and the correct serial port, and then
click Connect.
The menu window will now change to a connection window (similar to VectoComms
and ProvoComms)
87
After successful connection, the available recorder panels will be listed in the Navigator
panel to the left. These are similar to the tabs in VectoComms and ProvoComms and
clicking them will select different view panels.
In contrast to VectoComms and ProvoComms, this window will remain open after
disconnection or unsuccessful connection. This allows you to view the connection history
on the Connection panel and also to reconnect from the Common Tasks menu.
Once a connection is attempted it can be saved to the address book by clicking Save
Address in the Common Tasks menu. Saved addresses are visible in the main menu and
can be used by double-clicking the address there. This single address book contains
connection information for all recorders in a single location.
Automatic retrieval can be scheduled for any recorder in the address book. This process
is described elsewhere in this guide.
13.7 VectoGraph Configuration
Users of the VectoProvo software are used to completing this dialog during configuration
of a VectoGraph recorder:
PQRM replaces this dialog with one that is very similar to the new ProvoGraph and
ImpedoGraph configuration dialog:
88
Here are the important changes:
•
•
•
•
A Meter Point must now be specified during configuration. This is a very
important setting, since all recordings made with this configuration will be “filed”
under the Meter Point title specified here. You can either select a Meter Point
from a list of known and already used Meter Points, or enter a new one.
VT Ratio: A VT Ratio can now be specified. All recorded voltages will be shown
as primary voltages, which is after all the real voltage being measured.
A VectoGraph can no longer be configured to stop recording when its memory is
full. From now on the oldest recordings will always be replaced with new
recordings when necessary, so the VectoGraph will always keep the most recent
recordings possible given its storage capacity.
The averaging interval is not configurable any more, but fixed at 10-minute
interval, which is required by all modern Power Quality standards.
The configuration dialog also contains this second page, where advanced settings can be
adjusted:
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This page contains settings that were previously made in the configuration Template
Editor. These settings are specific to the VectoGraph and are now adjustable during
configuration:
•
•
Trend exclusion: This feature used to be known as Averaging Validation Criteria
and is used to discard trend samples that meet these criteria. The settings are still
the same.
Relay outputs: These settings are identical to those from the previous
Configuration Template editor. Just remember that the regulation thresholds are
now specified in the new % of Vdeclared format.
13.8 ProvoGraph Configuration
Users of the VectoProvo software are used to completing this dialog during configuration
of a ProvoGraph recorder:
90
PQRM replaces this dialog with one that is very similar to the new VectoGraph and
ImpedoGraph configuration dialog:
Here are the important changes:
• A Meter Point must now be specified during configuration. This is a very
important setting, since all recordings made with this configuration will be “filed”
under the Meter Point title specified here. You can either select a Meter Point
from a list of known and already used Meter Points, or enter a new one.
• VT Ratio: A VT Ratio can now be specified. All recorded voltages will be shown
as primary voltages, which is after all the real voltage being measured.
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•
•
•
The averaging interval is not configurable any more, but fixed at 10-minute
interval, which is required by all modern Power Quality standards. Trend
recording can also not be disabled any more.
Single-phase Meter Points are not currently supported by the PQRM system, so
the previous single-phase configuration is no longer possible.
Dip thresholds are now entered in the new % of Vdeclared format.
13.9 Connecting via Modem
Modem support in the VectoProvo software was built on top of the Microsoft Telephony
technology (TAPI), which involved installing standard Windows modem drivers.
PQRM takes a different approach. It uses modems directly via the PC serial port. This
allows more direct control over the modem being dialled from, which results in higher
reliability.
To set up modem(s) for use, connect and switch them on, then open the Preferences
dialog from the toolbar and hit the Search button under the heading Serial Port
Modems. After a few seconds, your modem(s) will appear in the Default Modem dropdown box, and you can select a default modem.
To connect using this modem, open a new main menu (the Home toolbar button), first
select the target recorder type, then select the modem, then enter the phone number and
hit Connect. The address book is very useful for saving modem connections.
13.10 Viewing recordings
Recordings can be viewed directly from a connected recorder window, by using the
Browse Events and View Trends buttons on the Recordings panel. A new window will
open, showing the most recent retrieved recordings from that Meter Point.
Alternatively, recordings can be accessed from the main menu, by selecting one or more
Meter Points, and hitting one of the buttons next to the list. You will always be taken to
the most recent recordings of that Meter Point(s).
The PQRM event browser has several new features not found in the VectoProvo event
browser:
•
•
•
•
Multiple event classifications: PQRM can classify events by different standards
(currently NRS048-1994, NRS048-2003 or EN50160-1994). VectoProvo only
supported NRS048-1994. The preferred standard can be selected in the
Preferences dialog.
Multiple Meter Points: Events from more than one Meter Point can be shown in
the same window.
Selectable viewing period: Events are displayed for a user selectable time period,
which can be adjusted.
Available Recordings: A Gantt chart shows for which dates recordings are
accessible. It superimposes the selected time period for which events are listed.
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•
•
•
Combined event list: All events are shown in a single list, where in the
VectoProvo software events of each type were listed separately.
Sortable event list: The event list can be sorted according to any column by
clicking on the column header.
Chronology View: The event start times of all events in the selected time interval
can be seen on this Gantt chart.
Likewise, the PQRM Trend Browser also has some differences:
•
•
•
•
Available Recordings: A Gantt chart shows for which dates recordings are
accessible. It superimposes the selected time period for which events are listed.
Week at a time: Trend charts are displayed in week intervals, with options for
next and previous weeks.
Multiple charts: More that one chart can be displayed underneath each other, but
still sharing the same time axis. The secondary (right side) axis is no longer used,
because it is difficult to zoom and pan independently.
Excel export: Trends can be directly exported into Microsoft Excel by selected a
chart from the legend to the left, and then hitting the Copy to Excel button.
The ProvoGraph user initiated cyclic trends are now displayed in the PQRM Event
Browser as events entitled Manual Recording. They can be browsed from there by
hitting the phasor view button.
13.11 Compatibility with VectoProvo software
The VectoProvo software can still be used along with the PQRM software, with a few
provisions:
•
•
•
•
Recorder configuration should be done with the PQRM software: If a
configuration is done with the VectoProvo software, recordings could be
inaccessible from the PQRM software, because of invalid Meter Point names or
configuration settings. Non 10-minute trend interval, in particular, will not be
retrievable with PQRM.
PQRM cannot generate REV or REP retrieved files like the VectoProvo software.
Recordings retrieved using PQRM can therefore not be viewed with VectoViews
or ProvoViews.
As stated previously, VectoGraph cyclic phasor trends (during events) cannot be
accommodated in the PQRM, so these recordings are not retrieved into the
PQRM.
If a ProvoGraph is set up for single-phase measurement using VectoProvo
software, its recordings will be imported into PQRM as if it was configured as 3phase star connect (4 wire). See section 13.2 for more information.
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14 APPENDIX: RECOMMENDED CALIBRATION
PROCEDURE
This appendix provides guidelines on verification and calibration of CT Lab power
quality recorders.
Modern instruments such as the ImpedoGraph use electronic calibration methods to store
and digitally process measurement correction constants for linear error terms. High
quality instrument designs minimize non-linear error terms by design such that no user
corrections are necessary to compensate for these non-ideal behaviours.
In addition, digital circuits, software algorithms and digital signal processing techniques
whose characteristics do not change with time, temperature and other factors, have
replaced traditionally analog behaviours of instruments. Therefore, many of the historical
beliefs and experiences of users and calibration laboratories that developed with past
generations of measuring instruments are becoming increasingly obsolete and outdated;
particularly when inferring sources of measurement error in modern instrument designs.
In particular, some AC measuring characteristics are determined by fixed, digital signal
processing algorithms (DSP) and therefore do not require user verification. These
behaviours have been verified earlier through extensive product design validation testing.
Since independent verification of every possible measured value is, and always will be,
impractical by end users, one must rely on the guidance and integrity of the instrument
manufacturer to specify appropriate calibration procedures for the instrument, given their
detailed knowledge of design limitations and instrument failure modes.
Users should augment the manufacturer’s verification procedures, as they deem
necessary, to achieve higher verification confidence at application-critical measurement
points.
14.1 Testing
CT Lab calibrates and tests every instrument before delivery. The company’s verification
procedures are designed to achieve >99% confidence that the instrument conforms to all
published measurement specifications and that it is fully functional for use.
The accuracy of each instrument is verified before delivery and a Test Certificate is
issued as proof of this. However, this verification is done in a controlled environment,
and CT Lab cannot guarantee the accuracy of the instrument during operation, due to
unknown external factors and operating conditions.
It is the responsibility of the client to ensure the instrument remains accurate during its
life cycle.
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14.2 Periodic Verification
CT Lab makes recommendations for periodic verification based upon our extensive
statistical analysis of both characterization data gathered during design verification
testing and through on going monitoring of production processes. During manufacturing,
significantly more verification data are gathered and used to monitor product
performance and to assure our outgoing product quality.
Based on these factors CT Lab recommends that the accuracy of every instrument should
be verified every three to five years.
Please note that this is a recommendation only, and that users should decide on
verification procedures based of the application of the instrument and also in accordance
with its own calibration policy.
CT Lab offers such a verification service and will issue a new Test Certificate after
verifying calibration.
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15 APPENDIX: PQ RECORDER SPECIFICATIONS
ImpedoGraph Specifications
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VectoGraph Specifications
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ProvoGraph Specifications
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16 GLOSSARY
What does this word actually mean?
16.1 Anomaly
A deviation from expected voltage quality, whether it is transient, momentary or steady
state.
16.2 Dialog Box
A window which appears and prompts one to open a file, save a file etc.
16.3 Dip
RMS under-voltage that lasts from one cycle up to a few seconds (also called a
depression or sag).
16.4 Event
A voltage quality anomaly captured and saved by a virtual recorder.
16.5 Exceedance
A steady-state voltage anomaly.
16.6 Profile
A continuous graphable set of samples of a certain parameter.
16.7 Surge
RMS over-voltage that lasts from one cycle up to a few seconds.
16.8 Virtual Recorder
An independent event recorder implemented in software within the ProvoGraph.
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