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:: Bangladesh: Addressing Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)
:: Village Education Resource Center (VERC) and Winrock International
:: The World Bank
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ARI
ARECOP
BCSIR
BRDB
BRAC
CEA
CCT
COPD
DPHE
GDP
GHG
GOB
GTZ
HEDON
ICS
IAP
IAQ
ICDDR,B
Bangladesh
IFRD
KPT
LGED
M&E
MDG
M.S. Sheet
NGO
PRA
PCIA
PPM
REIN
IDCOL
VDP
VERC
WB
WHO
WSG
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–
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–
–
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–
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Acute Respiratory Infection
Asia Regional Cookstove Program
Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
Bangladesh Rural Development Board
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee
Country Environmental Analysis
Control Cooking Test
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Department of Public Health Engineering
Gross Domestic Product
Greenhouse Gas
Government of Bangladesh
German Technical Assistance
Household Energy Network
Improved Cooking Stove
Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor Air Quality
International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research,
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Institute of Fuel Research & Development
Kitchen Performance Test
Local Government Engineering Department
Monitoring and Evaluation
Millennium Development Goal
Mild Steel Sheet
Non-Governmental Organization
Participatory Rural Appraisal
Partnership for Clean Indoor Air
Parts Per Million
Renewable Energy Information Network
Infrastructure Development Company Limited
Village Defense Party
Village Education Resource Center
The World Bank
World Health Organization
Woodburing Stove Group
ii
LIST OF CONTENTS
Sl. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Topics
Introduction
The Kitchen System
2.1 Traditional Stoves
2.2 Traditional Fuels
2.3 Utensils
2.4 Cooking Processes
Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS)
3.1 What is ICS
3.2 Benefits of ICS
3.3 Scope for use of ICS
3.4 Raw Materials for Construction ICS
3.5 Tools/Equipment Required for Construction of ICS
3.6 Different Parts of ICS
3.7 Efficiency and Fuel Saving Measurement
3.8 Rationale Selection of ICS Models
3.9 Tabular Form: Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Types ICS
Models
Design & Construction Procedure of Different Models of ICS
4.1. Site Selection of ICS Models
4.2 Model No. 1
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable)
4.3 Model No. 2
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Half underground)
4.4 Model No. 3
Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
(on the floor)
4.5 Model No. 4
Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
(Half underground)
4.6 Model No. 5
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Portable)
4.7 Model No. 6
Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove Coupled with Single Mouth
Cooking Stove having one Common Chimney
4.8 Model No. 7
Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney Suitable for
Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial Purposes
In Box: Indoor Air Quality
4.9 Model No.8 Improved Domestic Double Mouth Cooking Stove with
Insulating Blanket
In Box: Improved Large Scale Double Mouth Cooking Stove with a Hot Box
and a Water Heater
Comparison of Different Features of ICS Models in Tabular Form
Future Prospects of ICS Technology in Bangladesh
Maintenance
7.1 How to Use ICS
7.2 Repair of ICS
7.3 Trouble Shooting of ICS
Reduction of Indoor Air Pollution by Proper Ventilation in a Kitchen
ICS Technology in South Asian Region, Latain America & Africa
References
Page No.
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iii
Prologue
Under the World Bank project ‘Bangladesh: Addressing Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)’, an attempt has
been made to develop a technical manual of Improved Cooking Stove technology to be used in a
pilot project ‘Mitigation of IAP in the rural area of Bangladesh’ and for those who are interested.
Seven models of ICSs have been selected for delineation in this technical manual. Participants from
a number of organizations working on propagation of ICSs in Bangladesh brainstormed and selected
the ICS models for discussion in the manual.
This manual briefly and precisely describes the kitchen systems, general designs and construction
principles of the seven suitable ICS models with detailed drawings, pictures of components, raw
materials required and step by step construction procedures.
The selected improved stoves suitable for domestic cooking to semi-industrial purposes were
developed by Dr. A. M. Hasan Rashid Khan, Ex Director, BCSIR, a pioneer in the field
and his
colleagues at the Institute of Fuel Research and Development (IFRD), Bangladesh Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Dr. Hasan is currently working as the
Project Manager of VERC-World Bank IAP Project. All the models discussed were developed
through consulting users and basing on their opinions.
The dissemination of the ICS technology has been mainly progressing in the country through
conducting training courses in construction, maintenance, repair and installation of improved stoves
in the user’s kitchen. Over a hundred large, medium and small NGOs and some donor agencies are
engaged in dissemination of the ICS technology in the country. But due to lack of people’s
participation, proper coordination, leadership and suitable funding mechanisms, the quality control
and actual quantities of ICSs disseminated in the country to date have not been possible to
ascertain at this stage.
While constructing different models of ICSs, technicians/ICS experts are expected to keenly consider
the procedures described in details in the manual. After completion of the construction of a
particular stove, its dimensions should be checked with those of the corresponding model as
mentioned in the manual. The manual also describes how to use, repair, maintain and manage
troubleshooting of ICS models. Additionally, popular ICS models from South Asia, Latin America and
Africa are also described herein with a view to familiarizing the Bangladeshi promoters and users of
ICS technology with those of other countries across the world.
To say the least, this manual should be quite beneficial and useful for all the people involved in
designing, making and dissemination of the ICS technology at all levels and especially for the users
at the grass-roots level.
I take this opportunity to proffer thanks to Priti Kumar, Senior Environmental Specialist, Dr. M.
Khaliquzzaman, Consultant and Jonathan Rouse, Consultant of the World Bank for supporting this
initiative meaningfully. Thanks are specially due to Dr. A. M. Hasan Rashid Khan, the Project
Manager, VERC-World Bank IAP Project and his team members for producing this technical manual.
iv
I appreciate the constant guidance and supervision provided by Mr Yakub Hossain, Deputy
Executive Director, VERC in making the implementation of this crucial undertaking possible.
Shaikh Abdul Halim
Executive Director
VERC.
13 May 2008
Savar, Dhaka
v
1. Introduction
More than one-third of the world’s population living predominantly in the rural areas of
developing countries use wood as a primary source of energy. It is the oldest type of fuel
which man used for centuries to cook food, light and heat his home, manufacture metallic
objects and generate mechanical power.
In Bangladesh, about 90% families use traditional fuels viz, fuel wood, charcoal, twigs and
leaves, agricultural residues, viz. plant residues, paddy husk and bran, bagasse, jute sticks
and dried animal dung for cooking and other heating purposes. The total annual
consumption of these fuels stands at about 40 million tonnes [study1] which constitutes
about 67.97% of the total energy consumption of the country. The remaining 32.03% energy
is supplied from sources which may be described as commercial fuels, such as, gas, oil,
electricity, LPG, coal etc. Of the traditional fuels, agricultural residues, tree branches, dry
leaves, cow dung etc contribute to the tune of 33.71% of the total national figure, while
woody fuels contribute about 34.26%.
In Bangladesh, a meagre 9% of the total land area is covered by Government managed
forest and this is alarmingly decreasing because of the population growth and the
mushrooming not too well planned industries. All these anthropogenic factors and some
natural degeneration processes lead to fast depletion of forest resources, which,
consequently effect adverse changes in the ecosystem leading to the erosion of the long
prevalent climate regimes, eventually bringing about drastic changes in the climatic
patterns of the country.
Only till some two or three decades back, farmers in this country used to leave a sizeable
portion of the crop plants in the field after harvesting different agricultural crops. Those
residues used to be left in the in the fields, which along with the cow dung generated there
from the grazing cattle would decompose and mix naturally with the topsoil providing
valuable organic manure to the farmland, readying it for tilling and farming throuth the
ensuing season. But what’s happening today is, the farmers do not leave any crop residues
in the fields any more, they are used to cutting the ripened crop plants totally, without
caring for fertilizing the soils naturally and traditionally, as both the agricultural residues and
cow dung are used as cooking fuels in the rural areas and many are engaged in their
trades. As a result, the agricultural lands are deprived of the essential natural fertilization in
the process and therefore, solely depend on artificial, that is, chemical fertilizers for
boosting production of crops. Thus the constitutions of the soils have been gradually
changing, affecting the soils adversely to a considerable extent.
The common devices used for cooking and other heating purposes in the country are the
three stone stoves, popularly known as traditional stoves. But efficiency of these stoves are
low (5-15%) compared with the volumes of fuels they use up, that is. As a result, huge
amounts of traditional fuels are being consumed every year. Apart from low efficiency,
such stoves also emit smoke which contain several poisonous elements viz. in particular,
carbon monoxide, formaldehyde etc. which, due to incomplete combustion of fuels
cause indoor air pollution (IAP) in the kitchen environment. In some studies [2-4], indoor air
pollution levels of particulates in rural houses using biomass fueled cook stoves have been
found to be as high as 10,000 µg/m3, which is 50 times higher than the world health
organization recommended permissible level of exposure Women and children are thus
continuously exposed to high levels of harmful smoke which lead to serious health hazards.
A number of scientific studies have reported higher incidences of chronic obstructive
pulmonary diseases (COPD) and acute respiratory infection (ARI), low birth weight babies
and cataract among women and children who are exposed to IAP of traditional fuels.
In the Institute of Fuel Research and Development (IFRD), BCSIR, a number of improved
stoves have been developed to meet requirements in respect of biomass fuel types, shape
of cooking utensils and cooking habits. The improvement was made by proper
dimensioning of combustion chambers with a view to effecting maximum heat transfer to
the utensils. All the models were developed through consulting users and basing on their
opinions. After a particular model of ICS was developed in the laboratory, it was
immediately installed in the user’s kitchen. After a stipulated period considered adequate
for obtaining significant feedback, user’s opinions about the efficacy and efficiency of the
particular model of stove were obtained, applied for modifying the existing model as
necessary or, if necessary, newer models were developed subsequently [study 5].
The above mentioned models may be grouped into three categories:
I.
IMPROVED COOKING STOVE WITH OUT CHIMNEY FOR DOMESTIC COOKING PURPOSES.
II. IMPROVED COOKING STOVE WITH CHIMNEY FOR BOTH DOMESTIC, LARGE SCALE COOKING AND SEMI
INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES.
III. IMPROVED COOKING STOVE WITH WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION.
The ICS models have been found to be saving up to 50-60% fuels as compared with the
traditional ones; they save cooking time too [6&7]. ICS with chimney have been found to
be reducing IAP in the kitchen environment considerably.
If one learns the techniques of making ICS, he/she can build the stove without spending
any money.
This manual describes seven specific ICS models with detailed drawings, components,
materials used and the construction procedures. The manual will be quite useful for the
2
people involved in dissemination of ICS at different levels, supervisors, technicians,
extension workers and of course, the users at the grass root level.
3
2. The Kitchen System
2.1 Traditional Stoves
Traditional stoves in Bangladesh are usually a mud-built cylinder with three raised upper
ends on which cooking utensils rest. One of the three spaces in between these raised points
is used as fuel gases feed hole and the other two for flue gases exits. These stoves may be
built underground or over ground. In some cases, two stoves are joined together laterally
using a single fuel feeding hole. These stoves cause unnecessary loss of heat for the
following reasons:
a) These stoves are too deep, their depths ranging from 12 inches to 18 inches. Because of
the large distance between the pot and fuel bed, heat transfer to the cooking pot is
considerably reduced resulting in low efficiency.
b) Because of large size of the flue gases exits between the cooking pots and the stove,
much of the flue gases get out of the stove without coming in contact with the cooking
pot and thus lower convective heat transfer.
c) Since air cannot reach the bottom of the stove, considerable amount of cooking fuel
accumulate at the bottom as charcoal. The efficiencies of these stoves vary from 5-15%
depending on the depth of the stove and size of the flue gases exits.
Fig. No.-1 : Traditional stove commonly used in the country.
2.2 Traditional Fuels:
Different types of fuels, which are generally used in the traditional stoves are: fuel wood,
twigs, leaves, straw, rice husk, cow dung in the form of dry cakes, jute stick, bagasse and
agricultural residues.
2.3 Utensils:
There are two types of cooking utensils used viz. flat bottomed and round bottomed ones.
Round bottom utensils are more efficient than flat bottom utensils because a greater part
of the utensil’s bottom remains in direct contact with the flame. As a result, more of the
4
content is heated at a time. Round bottom utensils are popularly used for domestic
cooking. But in hostels, hotels, camps, where large amounts of food stuffs have to be
cooked, the flat bottom utensils are commonly used. In the villages, the poorer section of
people generally used utensils made of burnt clay.
2.4 Cooking Process:
The majority of the people of Bangladesh eat rice, fish, pulse (dal), potato, vegetables,
meat, chicken etc. All these food stuffs are cooked in water by boiling. Apart from these
foods, wheat is also taken as a food by making chapati, paratha, luchi etc using wheat
flour. During the winter season, most of the women in villages cook their food outside their
houses i.e in the open place in their yard using straw, leaves and agricultural residues as
fuels which are abundantly available at the time. They make the stove by simply digging a
hole in the ground. While cooking, women generally sit in front of the stove on a block of
wood called “pirhi”, holding a staff in their hand, which is used for pushing the leaves, straw
etc. into the stove. During the rest of the year, they cook their food inside the house. The
rich people always cook their food in a kitchen and they mainly use fuel wood, bamboo,
cow dung dry cake, rice husk etc. as fuel.
3. Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS)
3.1 What is ICS?
ICSs are those traditional stoves which upon some modification/alternation/addition yield
higher efficiencies when compared with the unmodified ones.
™ Salient Features of an ICS :
a) An ICS is an improved version of the traditional stove having higher fuel efficiency
compared with the traditional ones.
b) An ICS has a grate in the middle of its combustion chamber and fuel burns on it.
c) There is entry of primary air in an ICS below the grate which helps burning of charcoal
formed during burning of fuel wood.
d) The three raised ends of a chimneyless ICS are much smaller than those of the
traditional stoves.
e) In case of multiple mouth ICSs with chimneys, cooking in the first mouth is done by direct
flame produced from fuel, while cooking in the other mouths are done by hot flue gases
coming out from the first mouth and the spent flue gases are led out of the kitchen
through a chimney
3.2 Benefits of ICSs:
5
1.
Reduce indoor air pollution (IAP) and thereby check health hazards of the users.
2.
Save 50-60% of the traditional fuels used.
3.
Reduce CO2 emission in the atmosphere and thereby reduce the green house effects.
4.
Maintain proper nutritive values of the cooked food.
5.
Cause less blacking of utensils.
6.
Reduce cooking time as compared with the traditional ones.
7.
Cause less fire hazards.
8.
Help conserve the forest resources of the country.
3.3 Scope for use of ICSs:
•
An ICS is suitable for both domestic cooking and large scale cooking in hostels, hotels,
hospital, army camp, orphanages etc.
•
An ICS can be easily designed to suit the needs of any type of semi industrial setup
where fuel wood/other traditional fuels are used for heating purposes.
3.4 Raw Materials for Construction of ICS:
The main raw materials for making an ICS are as follows:
I. Mud/clay (Adhesive):
Fine potter’s clay is most suitable for construction of ICSs. With too much clay used, the
stove body shrinks unevenly and develops cracks as it dries. In such cases, it is necessary to
add small portions of sand. Clay binds the sand grains tightly together and sand also
prevents the clay from shrinking during drying.
Organic matter viz leaves, twigs, other
sandy things create problems. Therefore, it is better to collect subsoil from a pit which may
be dug down to 12-18 inches beneath the surface. First by removing the top soil, required
amount of clay has to be collected, required amount of water added to the clay, cow
dung/rice husk mixed with the clay lump and thus a paste prepared, which should be
pliable enough to be easily spread with a shovel, and at the same time, hard enough to
stay erect and not slither limply.
2) Pieces of pottery / “U” shaped iron rods:
•
Pieces of pottery are necessary for making the hedge in the ICS, which will hold the
grate.
•
Six inches long iron rods bent into a “U” shaped implement. 3-4 of these “U” shaped
iron rods are embedded into the inner wall of the stove for holding the grate.
3) Pieces of Bamboo:
6
Some pieces of bamboo, 6-8 inches long and of 1inch width are necessary for making
hedges in the different parts in an ICS. Iron rods also can be used instead of bamboo
pieces.
3.5 Tools/Equipment required for construction of ICSs:
During construction of an ICS, the following tools and equipment are required and should
therefore be kept at hand:
4. Knife
1. Dice/ Mold
5. Mason’s tools etc
2. Scale/Measuring tape
3. Spade
Dice/ Mold:
This is necessary for construction of an ICS body for domestic purposes. It is round shaped
having 9 inches diameter and 18 inches height. Both top and bottom portions of it are
open. The dice has two rings at the top. Banana trees can also be alternatively used for
making such dices.
9 “ dia
9 “ dia
18 “
Fig.No. 2
a) Dice made of M.S. sheet
18 “
b) Dice made of banana tree
3.6 Different parts of an ICS :
An ICS consists of different parts, which are as follows:
1. Structure
2. Grate
3. Chimney
4. Cap
1. Structure:
7
The construction procedures of structures of different models of ICS are given in details in
the section “Design construction procedure of different models of ICS” page No 15 of this
manual.
2. Grate:
The traditional fuels commonly burn on the grate. But the main reasons for using the grate
are as follows:
• It maintains the optimum distance required for rightly training the flame to heat the
bottom of the utensil.
• It allows primary air through its hole at the bottom to facilitate burning the charcoal
formed because of burning of fuel.
• The ash generated fall down through holes of the grate.
The grate is circular in shape. It is generally made from cast iron and iron rod. The diameter
of the grate is one inch less than the diameter of the mouth of the ICS.
Fig.No.3 Grate used in ICS.
a. Grate made of cast iron /M.S. sheet
dia of hole is 0.5 inch and distance
between two holes is 0.5 inch
b. Grate made of iron rods and
distance between two rods is 0.5
inch
3. Chimney:
The chimney provides necessary draught to draw the air into the combustion chamber and
to overcome the various flow resistances in the stove and finally lead out the spent flue
gases out of the kitchen.
The chimney should be taken out through the roof, up to at least 2-3 feet above the roof
which is very essential in case of thatched roofed cookhouses. So the height of the
chimney is variable, depending on the height of the kitchen roof.
Proper insulation should be ensured between the chimney and the roof, specially when it is
thatched. This can be done by placing another cylindrical piece of tin or clay of larger
8
diameter around the chimney and by filling the gap between the two with clay and other
insulating materials.
Bends in chimney should be avoided because it creates a pressure loss and some time
flame and hot flue gases come out through the feed hole. However, in unavoidable
conditions, a bend may be given but it should be made as smooth as possible.
In case of a thatched roof cooking corner, it is wise to fixed the chimney outside the
kitchen by making a hole in the wall. Make a chimney holder on a platform outside the
kitchen and then instal the chimney on it. The chimney can be supported by posting a
bamboo pole next to the chimney, as convenient.
There are three types of chimneys, which can be used in an ICS. They are as follows:
1. Chimney made of mud
2. Chimney made by potters
3. Chimney made of cement, sand and iron ring.
1. Chimney made of mud:
A bamboo staff measuring 5-6 ft in height and 3 inches diameter has to be posted next to
the chimney holder of ICS. Now, rinse an M. S. sheet pipe/bamboo staff of 3.5 inches
diameter and 3 ft height with water and place it in the chimney holder. Next, pack mud
around the smaller piece of M. S. sheet pipe/bamboo staff and make a mud chimney of
about one feet height. Now, mould the chimney wall uniformly around the pipe and after a
while, the pipe will have to be removed by slightly twisting it loose out of the mud chimney.
Wait till a day has passed and the next day should see you placing the M. S. pipe on the
top of the mud chimney and making another one feet chimney in the same manner as
done on the previous day. In this manner, within a time span of 5-6 days, a mud chimney of
the desired, that is, required height can be made.
2. Chimney made by potters:
Chimneys may be made by potters too. In this case, a chimney will consist of 2-3 parts.
When in use, one part of the chimney has to be connected with another part and
supported by a fixing bamboo pole posted next to the chimney.
3. Chimney made of cement, sand and iron ring:
For longer durability, chimneys may also be made using cement, sand and iron rings. There
are some
entrepreneurs across the country who have developed designs of chimneys
9
which can be manufactured using different components of sanitary latrine. In some areas,
where ICS technology is under implementation, the local entrepreneurs are also producing
chimneys made of cement and components of sanitary latrine.
4. Cap:
A cap is provided at the top of the chimney to stop rainwater entering it. It may be made
with a metal sheet and the cap has three metal strips to fix it on the top of the chimney.
The cap has to be fixed on to the top of the chimney in such a way that there should be
enough space between the cap and the chimney top so that the smoke doesn’t get
trapped within the chimney and can easily exit.
10
5. The Lid for Ash outlets:
Fig.No.4 Lid used for ICS:
The ash outlet lid can be a square mud plate of one inch thickness. On this plate, 5-6 holes
of one inch diameter have to be made which should be slightly bigger than the hole of the
ash outlet. A holder has to attached at the top of the plate. When food being cooked in
an ICS reaches boiling point, the ash outlet/outlets are covered with this perforated lid. This
will control the entry of primary air in the combustion chamber of the stove and the fuel will
be burnt for a longer period, as necessary. This lid can be also made using M. S. sheet.
3.7 Efficiency and Fuel Saving Measurements
}
Efficiency Measurements:
The efficiency of the stove is defined as the ratio of the nett amount of heat absorbed by
the water in the utensil and the amount of sensible heat supplied by the fuel [11].
The efficiency of a cooking stove is generally determined by the water evaporation
method. It is measured by heating a certain amount of water in a utensil using specific
amount of fuel wood. The standard equation followed for this purpose is as follows:
11
=
mw C (Tb-Ti)+ms L
mf H
X 100% ............................... (i)
Where,
= efficiency (thermal)
%
mw =
mass of water in the utensil at the start of an experiment
(kg)
ms
=
mass of water evaporated from the utensil during an experiment
mf
=
total mass of fuel consumed during an experiment
C
= specific heat of water
(kJ/ kg.K)
Ti
= temperature of water of the utensil at the start of an experiment.
(0C)
Tb
= boiling point of water
(0C)
L
= heat of vaporization of water at atmospheric pressure and at 100oC.
H
= nett calorific value of fuel
(kg)
(kg)
(kJ / kg)
(kJ/ kg)
In calculating the efficiency, the following numerical values were used:
C =
4.19
: kJ / kg.K
L
2,257
: kJ / kg
=
H =
17,447 (Mango tree) : kJ / kg
Example: Efficiency calculation of Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
(on the floor)
•
•
•
Take 3 kg of water in each of two identical utensils and place them on the stove.
Next, burn 1.5kg of fuel wood in the stove and evaporate some water from the utensils.
After the experiment in over, put the necessary data in the equation and then
calculate the efficiency of the stove.
}
Fuel Saving Measurement (CCT):
It provides the user with an excellent visual appreciation of an ICS as compared with a
traditional stove.
Example: Cooking Test in Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (on the
floor).
•
•
•
Four samples of rice, each containing 704 gms of rice and 3 kgs of water are to be put
into four identical utensils.
Now, rice has cooked in two utensils on a traditional stove, one after another.
The other two samples of rice will have to be cooked in two other utensils on the
improved double mouth stove at a time.
12
•
•
Measure the amount fuel consumed and time required for cooking rice in traditional
and improved stoves.
Now calculate the fuel and time saved while cooking on the improved stove and
compare with the same results recorded while cooking using the traditional stove and
the benefits of using the ICS will be strikingly clear.
3.8. Rationale for Selection of ICS Models:
The entire cooking system viz traditional stoves, fuels, utensils and the cooking processes
including cooking habits of the women folk of the country have been discussed in section
no. 2.0 of this manual.
To identify the most acceptable ICS models which are now being used in the community, a
sharing meeting was held on February 20, 2008 at VERC Office, Savar, Dhaka.
About 25 participants from different organizations viz. BCSIR, LGED, ICDDR B, GTZ, Grameen
Shakti, Practical Action Bangladesh, Shwanirvar Bangladesh, BRAC, Concern World Wide,
Winrock International, VERC, Private Entrepreneurs etc. attended the sharing meeting.
All participants explained their experiences in dissemination of the ICS technology in the
country. After brain storming discussion the following models of ICSs have been selected for
the technical manual largely based on consumer preference as perceived by the
participants [13]
Table No. 1: Selection of ICS Models for Technical Manual
SL.N
O
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Name of the ICS Models
Model No.1
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove
(Portable)
Model No.2
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove
(Half underground)
Model No.3
Improved Double Mouth Cooking
Stove with Chimney (on the floor)
Model No.4
Improved Double Mouth Cooking
Stove with Chimney (Half
underground)
Model No.5
Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove
with Chimney(Portable)
Reasons for Users Preference
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Portable
Saves fuel
Can be used indoor-outdoor
Low cost
All types of traditional fuels can be used
Save fuels
Low cost
Most suitable for rich and middle class families
who use fuel wood, briquettes etc. solid fuels
Saves fuels
Saves cooking time
Reduces IAP in the kitchen environment
All types of traditional fuels can be used
Saves fuels
Saves cooking time
Reduces IAP in the kitchen environment
•
•
•
•
•
Portable
Saves fuel
Can be used indoor/outdoor
Low cost
Reduces IAP at cooking place partially
13
SL.N
O
6
7
Name of the ICS Models
Reasons for Users Preference
Model No.6
Improved Double Mouth Cooking
Stove Couple with Single Mouth
Cooking Stove having one common
Chimney
•
Model No.7
Improved Double Mouth Cooking
Stove with Chimney for Large Scale
Cooking and Semi Industrial Purposes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Most suitable for rich and middle class families
who use fuel wood, briquettes etc. solid fuels
Saves fuels
Saves cooking time
Reduces IAP in the kitchen environment
In times of need, either of the stoves can be
used
Most suitable for cooking in hotels,
restaurants, hostels etc.
Saves fuels
Saves cooking time
Reduces IAP in the kitchen environment
These models have gained popularity among the users in different parts of the country
because, they save fuel and cooking time, reduce IAP in the kitchen environment, easy
and comfortable to use and the construction costs of different models are reasonable. The
advantages and disadvantages of different types of ICS models are given in Table No: 2.
14
3.9 Table No-1: Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Types of ICS Models
A
SL
No
1
1.
Features of
ICS
Models
Name of the
ICS Models
2
Model No. 1
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking
Stove (Portable)
3
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
2.
3.
4.
Model No. 2
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking
Stove (Half
underground)
Model No. 3
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking
Stove with
Chimney
(on the floor)
Model No. 5
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking
Stove with
Chimney
(Portable)
Types of
Traditional
fuels used
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Portable
Suitable for 8
member
family
Suitable for
use during
natural
calamities viz
floods, in
camp/ boat
etc
Fixed
Suitable for 8
members
family
Fixed
Suitable for 8
members
family
Can be built
on a raised
platform for
cooking by
standing
Portable
Suitable for 8
member
family
can be built
fixed or half
under
graund
4
- Fuel wood,
branches,
cow dung
cake,
briquettes
etc. solid
fuels
D
V
Ease of
Construction
5
ƒ
ƒ
can be easily
built
low cost
A
N
T
A
Raw Materials
Used & Life Time
G
6
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Clay
Pieces of pottery
or
Metal grate
E
S
Socio-Cultural
Practices
7
ƒ
Locally available raw
materials
Can be used
indoor and
out door
according to
the cooking
habits of the
users
ƒ
Can be used
where it was
built
according to
the cooking
habits of the
users
ƒ
Can be used
where it was
built
according to
the cooking
habits of the
users
ƒ
Can be used
indoor & out
door
according to
the cooking
habits the
users
ƒ
Role IAP
Fuel
Savin
g (%)
Cost of ICS
Models
(TK.)
8
9
10
Slightly
reduce
d IAP
in the
kitchen
DISADVANTAGES
11
ƒ
ƒ
50
200.00
ƒ
2 years
- All types of
trad. fuels
including
agricultural
residues by
changing
the grate
ƒ
- Fuel wood,
branches ,
cow dung
cake,
briquettes
etc. solid
fuels
ƒ
ƒ
Fuel wood,
branches ,
cow dung
cake ,
briquettes
etc. solid
fuels
ƒ
can be easily
built
low cost
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Should be
built by skill
technicians
Feed hole
can be built
either side or
in the front
side of the
combustion
chamber
Should be
built by skill
technicians
Clay
Pieces of pottery
or
Metal grate
Locally available raw
materials
1 years
ƒ Clay
ƒ Pieces of pottery
or
ƒ “U” shaped iron
rods.
ƒ 8 inches long
bamboo pieces
ƒ Metal grate
ƒ Chimney
ƒ Cap
Locally available raw
materials
2-3 years
ƒ Clay
ƒ Pieces of pottery
or
ƒ “U” shaped iron
rods
ƒ 8 inches long
bamboo pieces
ƒ Metal grate
ƒ Chimney
ƒ Cap
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Slightly
reduce
d IAP
in the
kitchen
Greatly
reduce
d IAP
in the
kitchen
ƒ
ƒ
45-50
200.00
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
60
600.00
ƒ
Greatly
reduce
d IAP in
the
cooking
environ
ment
50-55
All types of traditional
fuels can not be used
During transportation
from one place to
another it may break
Emits smaller amount of
smoke and heat inside
the kitchen
It is a fixed stove
During cooking constant
caring is needed
Emits smaller amount of
smoke and heat inside
the kitchen
It is a fixed stove
All type of traditional
fuels can not be used
Require regular
maintenances, at least
once in a month
Every dimensions of
stove should be strictly
maintained
ƒ
All types trad. fuels can
not be use
ƒ
During transportation
... [1]
from one place to
another may break & Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
chimney should be
disconnected from the
stove
ƒ
Still emits smaller amount
of smoke & heat inside
the kitchen
400.00
15
A
D
SL
No
Name of the
ICS Models
Features of
ICS
Models
Types of
Traditional
fuels used
Ease of
Construction
1
2
3
4
5
V
A
N
T
A
G
E
S
Raw Materials
Used & Life Time
Socio-Cultural
Practices
Role IAP
Fuel
Savin
g (%)
Cost of ICS
Models
(TK.)
DISADVANTAGES
6
7
8
9
10
11
Locally available raw
materials
5.
Model No. 6
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking
Stove Coupled
with Single Mouth
Cooking Stove
having one
Common
Chimney common
chimney
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Fixed
Suitable for
(7-8) member
family
Can be built
half under
ground
- Fuel wood,
branches ,
cow dung
cake,
briquettes
etc. solid
fuels
ƒ
ƒ
Should be
built by skill
technicians
Feed hole
can be built
either side or
in the front of
the
combustion
chamber
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
2 years
Clay
Pieces of pottery
or
U shaped iron rods
8 inches long
bamboo pieces
Metal grate
Chimney
Cap
ƒ
Can be used
where it was
built
according to
the cooking
habits of the
users
ƒ
Greatly
reduce
d IAP in
the
kitchen
ƒ
ƒ
750.00
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Locally available raw
materials
ƒ
2-3 years
6.
Model No. 7
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking
Stove with
Chimney Suitable
for Large Scale
Cooking and Semi
Industrial Purposes
ƒ
ƒ
Fixed
Suitable for
50 members
in hostels,
hotels etc.
Fuel wood,
branches ,
cow dung
cake,
briquettes
etc. solid fuel
ƒ
ƒ
Should be
built by skill
technicians
Feed hole
can be built
either side or
in the front of
the
combustion
chamber
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Clay
Bricks, cement
and sand
U shaped iron
rods, rods & Iron
ring
Metal grate
Chimney
Cap
Red oxide
ƒ
Cooking can
be done by
standing
ƒ
Greatly
reduce
d IAP in
the
kitchen
ƒ
ƒ
60
4500.00 5000.00
ƒ
ƒ
It is fixed stove
All type of trad. fuels can
not be used
Require regular
maintenance at least
once in a month
Every dimensions of
stove should be strictly
maintained
Require more space for
installation of the stove in
the kitchen
when both the stove are
functioning require
constant caring for
charging of fuel
It is fixed stove
Agricultural residues and
other fluffy fuels can not
be used
Require regular
maintenance at least
once in a month
Every dimensions of
stove should be strictly
maintained
3-4 years
16
4. Design and Construction Procedures of Different Models of ICS [5-16]
4.1 Site and ICS Model Selection:
There are different types of ICS models. The users will select the models according to their
needs. The proper selection of place inside the kitchen for installation of the stove is also
very important. Therefore, the womenfolk who spend most of their time in the kitchen
should be fully consulted for selection of the most suitable ICS model and the right place
inside the kitchen for installation of stove. Both tasks depend upon the arrangements inside
the kitchen, type of fuel used, way of cooking etc. Before finalizing the selection of ICS
model and place for its installation, please make sure:
1. To determine the type of traditional fuel the particular beneficiary uses.
2. That the user’s sitting position will be easy and comfortable for cooking. Some users sit in
front of the stove when cooking, while others do so by sitting on a side.
3. That the cook will be able to reach for all required cooking utensils and other necessary
things while cooking.
4. During winter, other family members may prefer to sit around the stove. So there should
be some space around the stove.
5. After selecting the place for stove installation, it will be easily possible to install the
chimney either by making a hole through the roof or alternatively, by putting it up
outside and connecting it to the stove through a hole in the wall.
ICS Layout:
Before ICS construction and installation begin, the overall dimensions, utensil shapes and
sizes and other design features must be laid out. A plan of the ICS model can be drawn out
on the floor where installation will take place.
Attention!
The dimensions of all the ICS models were standardized by the scientists at
BCSIR who are pursuing R & D activities on both renewable and non
renewable sources of energy and allied fields. During construction of ICS,
their dimensions should not be changed without consulting the ICS
experts
15
4.2 Model No.1: Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable)
•
•
•
•
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
briquettes etc.
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
L
: BCSIR, DECEMBER 1982
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow dung cake,
: TK.200.00
: 50% as compared with traditional stove.
: 25%
: Round the year
2
Feed hole +
Secondary air
entry
Raised
point
Grate
Ash outlet
Primary
air entry
A. Model
B. Model on use
Fig.No.5: Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable)
1) Different Parts of the model:
a) Structure
b) Grate
c) Lid for covering the ash outlet.
2) Dimensions of the model:
a) Mouth diameter
: 9 inches
b) Feed hole
: U type,4.6X4.0 inches
c) Distance between grate and raised points : 6 inches
d) Height of the raised points
: 0.5 inches
e) Ash outlet
: 3X3 inches
f) Entry of primary air hole diameter
: 0.5 inches (7-8 nos. holes)
g) Height of the stove
: 12 inches
16
3) Procedure for construction:
a)
A circular mud plate having 13 inches diameter and one inch height is made on the
floor of a suitable corner of the cookhouse or cooking place. A dice rinsed with water
has to be placed next on the circular mud plate.
b)
Now, a structure having 13 inches height and 0.75 inch thickness is to be made by
packing and moulding mud around the dice. Make sure that the thickness of the mud
wall is about 0.75 inch around the dice.
Circular Mud Plate
Dice covered with mud
Fig.No: 6 First Stage: Construction of Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable)
c)
After a while, the dice is to be removed by slightly twisting it free out of the circular
mud plate. Leave the structure for 1-2 days to allow it to drying up to an extent.
d)
After drying, a hedge is to be made at 6.5 inches below from the top of the mouth to
hold the grate. The hedge is made by inserting broken pieces of earthen pot in the
inner wall of the mouth and it is then covered with mud.
e)
On the top of the structure on one side, a fuel feed hole for fuel having (4.5 x 4.0)
inches has now to be made by cutting the mud wall, as required. Extend the feed
hole about two inches towards outside by inserting pieces of pottery and then cover it
with mud for holding the fuel.
f)
Now, make the three raised points each measuring 1.75 inches in length and 0.5 inch
in height at the top of the structure for supporting the cooking utensil.
g)
An ash outlet measuring 3X3 inches and 7-8 nos. holes of half inch diameter have to
be made in the wall of the stove just below the grate for entry of primary air for better
burning of the fuel. After smoothening the stove with wet mud, leave it for 5-6 days for
drying. When the stove dries up completely, it will be then be ready for use.
17
0.5" raised
0.5" Ø
Fig.No.7. Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable) showing its different dimensions
This Model is slightly modified by Practical Action and ICS Technicians:
Modification:
•
Instead of one ash outlet and 7-8 holes for entry of primary air, they
added two ash outlets on both sides of the stoves having same
dimensions. But the efficiency is the same.
Reason for modification:
•
It is easy to carry the stove from one place to another by holding it
by its two ash outlets.
•
During maintenance by smoothening with mud, the size of holes
became smaller, which reduced the entry of primary air in the
combustion chamber
18
4.3 Model No.2: Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Half underground)
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
•
•
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
for use
•
LIFE TIME
•
•
: BCSIR 1983
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow dung,
briquettes and fluffy fuel viz, straw, leaves, bagasse etc.
: TK.200.00
: 45-50% as compared with traditional stoves.
: 22%
: If the model is installed outside, then also it is suitable
only in the dry season
: 1 years
Raised
i t
Ash outlet +
Primary air
entry
Feed
hole+
Secondar
Grate
A. Model
B. Model on use
Fig.No.8. Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Half underground)
1) Different parts of the model:
d) Structure
e) Grate
f) Two perforated lids for covering the ash outlets.
2) Dimension of the model:
a) Mouth diameter
: 9 inches
b) Feed hole
: 5X5 inches
c) Distance between grate and raised points
: 9.5 inches
d) Height of the raised points
: 0.5 inch
e) Ash outlet and primary air entry way
: 5 inches
f) Height of the stove from the G.L
: 9 inches
19
3) Procedure for Construction:
a) A hole measuring 11 inches diameter and 9 inches depth is to be made by digging the
ground at a suitable place where the stove will be installed. Wet the hole with water. A
dice rinsed in water is then placed in the hole. The side of the lower portion of the dice is
then packed with wet mud. Now the dice will have to be lifted up to 5 inches by slowly
and carefully twisting it upwards.
a
b
Fig.No.9.Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Half underground)
a. 1st stage b. 2nd stage during constriction
b) A structure measuring 9 inches in height is then made by putting mud around the dice.
The thickness of the mud wall will have to be about 0.75 inch around the dice. Now
leave the structure for 1-2 days for drying up partially.
0.5"
Ø9"
9"
Grate Height 9.5"
Ground Level
Feed Hole
5"x5"
Ø11"
Ø5"
Ø5"
Ground Level
9"
Fig.No.10.Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Half underground) showing
different dimensions of the Stove.
20
c) After partial drying of the structure, a hedge is made at 10 inches down from the top of
the mouth, which will hold the grate. The hedge is made by inserting pieces of pottery in
the inner wall of the mouth and then it has to be covered with mud.
d) On the bottom of the structure, a 5 inches X 5 inches feed hole has to be made for fuel
charging by cutting the mud wall on one side.
e) Three raised points each measuring 0.75 inch in length and 0.5 inch in height have to be
made at the top of the structure, which will support the cooking pot or utensil.
f) Two ash outlets, each measuring 5 inches in diameter are made on the two sides of the
feed holes with slopes and passing below the grate. These holes will also act as
passages for entry of primary air into the stove. Finally, the stove surface is smoothened
with mud and left for 5-6 days allowing it to dry up completely. When the stove is dried
up perfectly, it is then ready for use.
4.4 Model No. 3: Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (on the floor)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
briquettes etc.
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
LIFE TIME
: BCSIR 1984
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow dung cake,
: TK.600.00
: 60% as compared with traditional stove.
: 28-30%
: Round the year
: 2-3 years
Chimney
Soot removal
nd
2 Cooking mouth
1
st
Cooking mouth
Feed hole +
Secondary air
entry passage
Ash outlet +
Primary air
entry passage
A. Model
B. Model on use
Figure No: 11 Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (on the floor)
21
1) Different parts of the model
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structure
Grate
Chimney
Cap
Lid for covering the ash outlet.
2) Dimension of the model:
a) Mouths (diameter)
: First mouth: 9 inches and second mouth: 8 inches.
b) Distance between two mouths
: 3 inches
c) Feed hole
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
d) Distance between grate and the
top of the mouth
: 8.5 inches
e) Ash outlets/primary air entry passage : Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
f)
Entry way from first mouth to
second mouth
: 7.0X4.5 inches
g) Open space left after placing
the utensil on the second mouth
: 2.5 inches
h) Diameter of the flue gases exit
in the second mouth
: 2 inches
i)
Tunnel from second mouth to
chimney holder
: Length 6.0 inches x width 3 inches x height 3 inches
j)
Chimney holder
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches x height 10 inches
k)
Height and diameter of the chimney : 6-9 feet and 3 inches
l)
The distance between
the chimney and cap
: 4 inches
m) Soot removal outlet at the
bottom of the chimney
: Length 3 inches x width 3 inches
n) Height of the stove
: 15 inches
iii) Procedure for construction
a) Two dices of 9 and 8 inches diameter are placed one after another, where the ICS will
be installed. The distance between the two dices should be 3 inches. Before placing the
dices, they should be rinsed in water.
22
3
Figure No: 12 1st Stage: Construction of Double Mouth Cooking Stove (on the floor)
b) A rectangular mud platform measuring 36 inches long x 17 inches wide x 15 inches high
is made by putting mud around the two dice.
Figure No: 13 2nd Stage: Construction of Double Mouth Cooking Stove (on the floor)
c) After a while, both dices are removed from the mud platform by slowly and carefully
twisting them from right to left.
d) It is then allowed to dry for 1-2 days. After partial drying, a hedge is made down into the
first mouth at 9.0 inches below from the top, which will hold the grate. The hedge is
made by inserting pieces of pottery in the inner wall of the first mouth and then covered
the same with mud.
23
e) A feed hole for fuel charging measuring 5x5 inches is made 1.5 inches below from top of
the first mouth as in Fig.14. Then just below the grate on the both sides of the first mouth,
two ash outlets/primary air entry passages measuring 5x5 inches are made.
f) Then an entry way for flame and hot gases from the first mouth to the second
measuring 7.0X4.5 inches is made just above the grate on the common or partition wall
of the two mouths. After that, the second mouth is partially filled up with mud and a
slant is made from the grate to the second mouth. A flue gases exit of 2.0 inches
diameter is made at a point just one inch below from the top of the second mouth.
g) A flue gases tunnel measuring 6 inches in length x 3 inches in width x 3 inches in height is
made to reach from the second mouth up to the chimney holder.
Figure No: 14 Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (on the floor)
showing different dimensions of the stove
24
h) For placement of the chimney at the end of the second mouth, a space measuring 5
inches long x 5 inches wide x 10 inches high is made. At the top of the space, two equal
sized bricks are so placed that there is a gap of 3 inches left between the bricks. On top
of the two bricks, a chimney of 6-9 feet in length and 3 inches diameter is placed. The
bottom of the chimney is then covered with mud.
i)
A cap of appropriate size is then placed on the top of the chimney. The space
between the cap and the chimney should be 3-4 inches for releasing the smoke and all.
j)
After completion of the installation of an ICS, it is plastered and smoothened with mud
and left for 5-7 days to dry. After drying it up perfectly, the stove can be used for
cooking or other heating purposes.
k) For durability and good looks, the entire structure of the stove can be covered with a
layer of brickwork, plastered and finally paint covered (red oxide).
4.5. Model No.4 Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Half underground)
•
•
•
•
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
dung cake,
etc.
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
: BCSIR 1984
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow
briquettes and fluffy fuel viz, straw, leaves, bagasse
: TK.600.00
: 55-60% as compared with traditional stoves.
: 22-25%
: Round the year
Chimney
Cooking
mouths
Soot removal
Ash outlet +
Primary air
entry
Feed hole +
Secondary air
entry passage
passage
A. Model
B. Model on Use
Fig.No.15. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Half underground)
25
1) Different parts of the model
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structure
Grate
Chimney
Cap
Lid for covering the ash outlet.
2) Dimensions of the model:
a) Mouths diameters
: First mouth: 9 inches and second mouth: 8 inches.
b) Distance between two mouths
: 3 inches
c) Feed hole
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
d) Distance between the grate and the
top of the mouth
: 9.5 inches
e) Ash outlets/primary air entry passage
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
f) Entry way from first mouth to
the second
: (7.0X4.5) inches
g) Open space left after placing
the utensil in the second mouth
: 2 inches
h) Diameter of the flue gases exit
in the second mouth
: 2.0 inches
i)
j)
Tunnel from second mouth to
the chimney holder
: Length 6 inches x width 3 inches x height 3 inches
Chimney holder
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches x height 10 inches
k) Height and diameter of the chimney : 6-9 feet and 3 inches
l)
Distance between
the chimney and its cap
: 4 inches
m) Soot removal outlet at the
bottom of the chimney
: Length 3 inches x width 3 inches
n) Height of the stove from G.L
: 9 inches
3) Procedure for construction:
a) At a suitable place where the stove will be installed, a hole measuring 11 inches
diameter and 9 inches deep is made by digging the ground. The hole is then wet with
water. A dice rinsed in water is then placed into the hole. The surroundings of the lower
26
portion of the dice is then filled with wet mud. After that another dice rinsed in water is
placed just 3 inches away from the first dice.
11
3
Fig.No.16. 1st Stage: Construction of Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
( Half underground)
b) A rectangular mud platform measuring 36 inches long x 17 inches wide x 9 inches high is
made by putting mud around the two dice as in Fig no 17.
c) After a while, both the dices are removed by carefully twisting them out of the mud
platform.
d) It is then allowed to dry for 1-2 days. After partial drying, a hedge is made in the first
mouth at a point 10 inches below from the top, which will hold the grate. The hedge is
made by inserting pieces of pottery into the inner wall of the first mouth and it is then
covered with mud.
e) A 5 inches X 5 inches feed hole for fuel charging is made at a point 1.5 inches below
from top of the first mouth as in Fig.No.17. Then two ash outlets/primary air entry
passages measuring 5 inches x 5 inches are made just below the grate on both sides of
the first mouth.
f) Next, an entry way for flame and hot gases from the first mouth to second mouth
measuring 7.0 inches X 4.5 inches diameter is made just above the grate on the
common wall of the two mouths. After that, the second mouth is partially filled up with
mud and a slant is made from the grate reaching up to the second mouth. A flue gases
exit of 2 inches diameter is made at a point just one inch below from the top of the
second mouth.
g) A flue gases tunnel measuring 6 inches in length x 3 inches in width x 3 inches in height is
made from the second mouth, reaching up to the chimney holder.
h) For placement of chimney at the end of the second mouth, a 5 inches long x 5 inches
wide x 10 inches high space is readied. At the top of the space, two equal sized bricks
are so placed that there is a gap of 3 inches left between the bricks. Then on top of the
27
two bricks, a chimney of 6-9 feet length and 3 inches diameter is placed. The bottom of
the chimney is then covered with mud.
i)
A cap of appropriate size is then placed on the top of the chimney. The space
available between the cap and the chimney should be 3-4 inches to let out the smoke
and excess heat, if any.
j)
After completion of installation of the ICS, the stove surface is smoothened with mud
and left for 5-7 days for drying. After proper drying, the stove can be used for cooking or
other heating purposes.
k) For longer life and better looks and finish, the entire structure of the stove can be laid
with bricks, plastered and given a coat of paint finally.
4"
6-9', 3"Ø
Soot removal 3X3© ©
Shoot removal 3X3"
2"Ø
10"
7"Ø
9"
3"
6"
5"
3"
8"
9"
36"
5"
17"
9.5"
5X5" Feed hole
Grate holder
5X5"
Ash Outlet
9"
Figure No: 17. Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Half underground)
showing different dimensions of the stove
28
4.6 Model No.5 Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Portable)
•
•
•
•
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
briquettes etc.
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
: BCSIR 1984
: Suitable for burning fuel wood branches, cow dung cake,
: TK.400.00
: 60% as compared with traditional stoves.
: 28-30%
: Round the year
Cap
Chimney
Chimney holder
Feed hole +
Secondary air
entry
Grate
Flue gases exit
Ash outlet +
Primary air
entry
Fig.No.18. Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (Portable)
1) Different parts of the model
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structure
Grate
Chimney
Cap
Lid for covering the ash outlet.
2) Dimension of the model:
a) Mouth diameter
: 9 inches
b) Feed hole
: (4.5X4.5)inches
c) Distance between the grate and
the top of the mouth
: 8.0 inches
d) Exit for flue gases
: 1.5 inches (diameter)
29
e) Chimney height and its diameter
: 3 feet and 2 inches respectively
f) Distance between the top
of the chimney and the cap
: 4 inches
g) Ash outlet and entry of primary air
: 3 inches X 3 inches
h) Chimney holder
: 2.5 inches diameter X 2.5 inches height
i)
: 13 inches
Height of the stove
3) Procedure for construction:
a)
A circular mud plate of 13 inches diameter and one inch height is made on the floor
of the selected suitable place. A dice rinsed in water, is then placed on the circular
mud plate.
b)
A structure of 9 inches diameter and 14 inches height is made by packing mud
around the dice.
c)
After a while, the dice is removed by carefully loosening and twisting it out of the
structure.
d)
It is then allowed to dry for 1-2 days. After partial drying, a hedge is made at a point
8.5 inches below from the top of the mouth, which will hold the grate. The hedge is
made by inserting pieces of pottery into the inner wall of the stove and it is then
covered with mud.
e)
A feed hole for fuel charging measuring 4.5 inches X 4.5 inches is made by cutting the
mud wall at a point just an inch below the top of the structure on one side. Extend the
feed hole through about two inches towards the outside by inserting pieces of pottery
and then cover the same with mud. It will hold the fuel.
f)
On the opposite side of the feed hole, a chimney holder of 2.5 inches diameter and
2.5 inches height has to be made. This is made by inserting pieces of pottery into the
wall of the stove and then covering the same with mud.
g)
A flue gases exit having a 1.5 inches diameter is made just 0.5 inch below the top of
the mouth, which leads to the chimney holder.
h)
Then a grate is placed on the hedge, keeping two-thirds of the grate free and the
remainder one-third is made to be slanting upwards up to the flue gases exit covered
with mud.
i)
Two ash outlets and entry way of primary air measuring 5 inches x 5 inches are made
on both sides of the stove and just below the grate.
30
j)
Next, a chimney of 3 feet height & 2.0 inches diameter with a cap on top of it is
placed on the chimney holder.
k)
After completion of the construction, the stove is smoothened with mud and left for 57 days for drying. After drying, the stove can be used for cooking or other heating
purposes.
31
4"
3'-0", Ø 2"
2.5" 2.5"
1.5" Flue gases exit
9"
Grate distance
4.5X4.5" Feed hole
7"
5X
5"
As
ho
utl
et
Lid
Fg.No.19. Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (portable) showing
different dimensions of the stove.
This stove can easily be made half under ground as follows:
a)
At a suitable place selected for installation of the ICS, a hole measuring 11 inches in
diameter and 9 inches deep is made by digging into the ground. The hole is then
moistened with water. A dice rinsed in water is then placed in the hole. The
surroundings of the lower portion of the dice is then filled with mud. Now the dice has
to be lifted upwards up to 5 inches by carefully twisting and turning it.
b)
A structure of 9 inches height is then made by packing mud around the dice. Make
the mud wall about 0.75 inch thick around the dice. After a while, the dice is to be
removed by twisting it free by moving it carefully in the right to left movements. Then
leave the structure alone for 1-2 days, allowing it to dry up partially.
c)
Then follow the same procedure for construction of improved single mouth cooking
stove with chimney (Portable) discussed already.
32
4.7 Model No.6 Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove Coupled with Single Mouth
Cooking Stove having a common chimney.
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
: BCSIR (Supervisors of ICS Project, Phase-II 1998)
•
TYPE OF FUEL USED
briquettes and
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow dung cake,
•
•
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
LIFE TIME
•
•
•
fluffy fuel viz, straw-leaves bagasse etc
: TK.750.00
: As per models 3 and 5.
: Do
: Round the year
: 2 3 years
Cap
Chimney
2nd Cooking mouth
1st Cooking mouth
Chimney holder
Soot removal
Flue gases exits
Feed hole + Secondary
air entry passage
Feed Hole +
Secondary air
entry passage
Ash outlet + Primary
air entry passage
Fig.No.20. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove Coupled with
Single Mouth Cooking Stove having a common chimney.
1) Different parts of the model
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structure
Grate
Chimney
Cap
Lid for covering the ash outlet.
33
A. Model No. 6: on Use
B. Improved Single Mouth cooking
Stove with Chimney (Fixed on
the
floor) on use
Fig No : 21 Cooking with ICSs
2) Dimension of the model:
}
Double Mouth Cooking Stove:
a)
Mouths diameters
: First mouth: 9 inches and second mouth: 8 inches.
b)
Distance between two mouths
: 3 inches
c)
Feed hole
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
d)
Distance between the grate and the
top of the mouth
: 8.5 inches
e)
Ash outlets/primary air entry passage : Length 5 inches x width 5 inches
f)
Entry passage from the first mouth to the
second
: 7.0 inches X 4.5 inches
g)
Open space left after placing
the utensil on the second mouth
: 2.5 inches
Diameter of the flue gases exit
on the second mouth
: 2 inches
h)
i)
Tunnel from the second mouth to the
chimney holder
: Length 6 inches x width 3 inches x height 3 inches
j)
Damper
: 4 inches X 4 inches
k)
Height of the stove
: 15 inches
}
Single Mouth Cooking Stove
a)
Mouth diameter
: 9 inches
b)
Feed hole
: 4.5 inches X 4.5 inches
c)
Distance between the grate to
34
d)
the top of the mouth
: 8.5 inches
e)
Flue gases exit diameter
: 1.5 inches
f)
Ash outlets/primary air
: Length 3X width 3 inches
entry passage
}
Common Chimney:
a)
Chimney holder
b)
Height and diameter of the chimney : 6-9 feet and 3 inches
c)
Distance between
chimney and cap
d)
Soot removal outlet at the
bottom of the chimney
e)
: Length 5 inches x width 5 inches x height 10 inches
the
: 4 inches
: Length 3 inches x width 3 inches
Damper
: 4 inches X 4 inches
4"
6'-9', Ø3"
Soot removal 3"X3"
2"Ø
7"Ø
5"
10"
6"
8"
3"
9"
17"
Damper
19"
Flue gases exit 1.5"Ø
9"
15"
5x5" Ash outlet
5x5" Feed holder
17"
Feed hole 4.5X4.5"
3"X3"
Ash outlet
Fig.No.22. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove Coupled with Single Mouth Cooking
35
Stove having a common chimney showing different dimensions of the
stove.
3) Construction procedure:
Select a suitable place for installation of an improved double mouth cooking stove on the
floor. Construction procedure is the same as mentioned on page 26.
After that, an improved single mouth cooking stove (on the floor) is made on one side of
the chimney holder of the double mouth stove:
a. Place a moistened dice of 9 inches diameter on the floor.
b. A rectangular mud platform measuring 19 inches in length X 17 inches wide X15 inches
high has to be made by packing mud around the dice.
c. After a while, the dice is removed from the mud platform by twisting it from right to left.
d. It is then allowed to dry for 1-2 days. After it is partial dryid, a hedge is made at a point
9.0 inches down from the top, which will hold the grate. The hedge is made by inserting
pieces of pottery into the inner wall of the mouth and it is then covered with mud.
e.
A feed hole for fuel charging measuring 4.5 inches x 4.5 inches is made 1.5 inches
below the top of the first mouth as shown in Fig.21. Then two ash outlet/primary air
entry passages measuring 3 inches x 3 inches are made just below the grate on the
both sides of the first mouth.
f.
A flue gases exit of 1.5 inches diameter is made just an inch below the tip of the
cooking mouth placed opposite to the feed hole.
f)
A tunnel measuring 6 inches in length x 3 inches in width x 3 inches in height is next
made reaching from the flue gases exit up to the chimney holder.
g)
For longer life and better finish, the entire structure of the stove can be covered with
brickwork, wall plastered and finally painted with red oxide.
Both stoves have dampers just near the chimney. When both stoves are in use, the two
dampers will be lifted up. But when one stove is used, the damper of the functioning stove
will be lifted up and the damper of the other stove will be lowered down to prevent back
suction of the flue gases through the feed hole. A damper can be made of M. S. sheet
measuring 4 inches x 4 inches.
36
4.8 Model No.7 Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney, suitable for Large
Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial Purposes.
•
•
•
•
•
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
TYPE OF FUEL USED
dung cake,
etc.
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
EFFICIENCY
SEASONALITY
: BCSIR 1985
: Suitable for burning fuel wood, branches, cow
briquettes and fluffy fuel viz, straw, leaves, bagasse
: TK.2500.00 - 3000.00
: 60% as compared with traditional stoves.
: 29-31%
: Round the year
Chimney
Soot removal
2nd Flue gases exit
1st Cooking mouth
Chimney
holder
2nd Cooking
mouth
}
1st Flue gases exit
Feed hole +
Secondary air
entry
Ash outlet +
Pri. air entry
Feed Hole
A. Model
B. Model on use
Fig.No.23. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney,
Suitable for Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial purposes.
1) Raw materials for construction:
SL.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Nature of the Materials
Mud/clay (adhesive)
Bricks
0.7 inch thick ring of 18 inches diameter
Rods 14 inches long, 0.7 inch thick
Rods 8 inches long, 0.7 inch thick
“U” shaped iron rods 4 inches long, 0.7 inch thick
Cement
Sand
Red oxide
Cast iron grate: 17 inches diameter, hole diameter
0.5 inch
Chimney, 4 inches diameter, 9-10 feet high
Cap
Quantity
200 kg
210
2
26
14
4
1 bag
5 bag
250 gm
1
1
1
37
2) Different parts of the model
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Structure
Grate
Chimney
Cap
Lid for covering the ash outlet.
3) Dimensions of the model:
a) Mouths diameters
b) Distance between two mouths
: First mouth: 18 inches and
Second mouth 17 inches
: 6 inches
c) Feed hole
: Length 10 inches x width10
inches
d) Distance between the grate and the top of the mouth : 12 inches
e) Ash outlets/primary air entry passage
: Length 10 inches x width10
inches
f) Entry passage from first mouth to the second mouth
: 10 inches
g) Open space left after placing the utensil on the second mouth : 3 inches
h) Diameter of the flue gases exit in the second mouth
i)
: 4 inches
Flue gases tunnel reaching from the second mouth up to the chimney holder : Length 6
inches x width 5 inches x
height 5 inches
j)
Chimney holder
: Length 10 inches x width10 inches x
height 15 inches
k) Height and diameter of the chimney
l)
: 8-9 feet and 4-5 inches
The distance between the chimney and the cap
m) Soot removal outlet at the bottom of the chimney
n) Height of the stove
: 4 inches
: Length 4 inches x width 4 inches
: 22 inches
3) Construction Procedure:
•
Find a suitable place measuring 74 inches x 30 inches for installation of the stove and
mark the required area using chalk.
•
Now select 16 pieces of uniform sized bricks and bundle them into 8 pairs (2 pieces of
bricks together) using lengths of rope.
a) Place an 18 inches diameter ring, leaving 8 inches of open space in front
and 6 inches space on the both sides of the ring. Mark them with chalk. Now
remove the ring.
38
b) On the each side of the marked circle, (where there are six inches spaces)
place two pairs of bricks in such a way that they are 10 inches apart. This
space measuring 10 inches x 10 inches acts an ash outlet and entry passage
for primary air into the stove. On both sides, make two hedges on the top of
the two pairs of bricks by placing pieces of iron rods and cover them with
mud. Both front and back sides of these hedges will make a platform
measuring 71 inches in length x 28 inches in width x 10 inches in height as
shown in Fig.No.24
Fig.No-24: First stage: Construction of ICS for Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial
Purposes
c) Now on the first mouth (18 inches dia) of the platform, make a feed hole by
placing 4 pairs of bricks, measuring 10 inches x 10 inches and first exit
measuring 10 inches in diameter for passage of flame and hot gases from the
first mouth to the second mouth.
d) Make the second mouth (17 inches diameter) of the stove, which should be
six inches away from the first mouth. At the end of the second mouth, on the
opposite side of the feed hole, make a flue gases exit measuring 4 inches
diameter by placing two bricks on the back side of the second mouth as
shown in Fig.No-24
Fig.No-25: Second stage: Construction of ICS for Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial
Purposes.
39
e) Make a flue gases tunnel from the exit of the second mouth to the chimney
holder measuring 6 inches in length X 5 inches in width X 5 inches in height
f) Make a chimney holder at a point 6 inches away from the second mouth
which should be 10 inches in length X 10 inches in width X 15 inches in height
as shown in Fig No 26. On one side of this chimney holder, make an outlet
measuring 4 inches X 4 inches for removal of chimney soot.
40
Chimney Holder: 10˝x10˝x15˝
Fig.No-26: Third Stage: Construction of ICS for Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial
Purposes
Shoot
removal
Soot removal
4"x4"
Fig.No.27. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
Suitable for Large Scale Cooking and Semi Industrial Purposes
showing different dimensions of the Stove.
g) The entire structure of the stove is then covered with mud.
h) Four “U” shaped iron rods measuring 4 inches in length are embedded in the
inner wall of the first mouth at a distance of 12 inches from the top, where the
grate will be held.
41
i)
In the chimney holder, place a chimney made of cement, which should be of
6-9 feet height (as necessary) and 4 inches diameter. The bottom part of the
chimney is now to be covered with mud.
j)
Put a cap of appropriate size on the top of the chimney. The distance
between the cap and the chimney should be 4 inches.
k) For longer life and better looks, the entire structure of the stove can be
layered with bricks, plastered and finally given a coat of red oxide. The inner
side of the stove is to be smoothened with mud.
l)
After drying, the stove is made ready for use.
Indoor Air Quality
When smoke gets in your eyes:
Kitchen air quality in rural Bangladesh homes [17]
The main goal of our CO concentration measurement was to assess the level of
indoor air quality (IAQ) in rural kitchens in Bangladesh. The air quality during
cooking of 53 sample meals was monitored by means of a fixed carbon
monoxide sensor in house hold kitchens in two villages in the rural areas of the
country. Most of the measurements were taken at breathing zone height. Two
types of cooking stoves were used: Traditional One Mouth Cooking Stove (TS)
and Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney (ICS).
Mean results of carbon monoxide concentration (CO) measurements according
to stove type, PPM (parts per million) were as follows:
Traditional Stove (TS)
Improved
Stove(IS)
Number of measurement
29
24
Average concentration of
CO
22.6
13.0
2.7 -95.2
1.7 - 41.6
Range of CO concentration
The impact of improved stove types with a flue is quite clear. The same is true for
42
4.9. Model No: 8: High Efficiency Insulating Blanket for Improved Stoves. [18]
}
}
INSULATING BLANKET DEVELOPED BY
INSULATING MATERIALS
materials
PRICE
FUEL SAVING
}
SEASONALLY
}
}
: BCSIR,1988
: Locally
available
indigenous
raw
: TK. 300.00
: 45% as compared with
improved
double mouth cooking stoves with
chimney
: Round the year
Figure No. 28 : Improved Domestic Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Insulating Blanket
The total cooking process on the stoves is divided into two stages:
1. Pre-boiling stage
2. Simmering stage
In the pre-boiling stage, foodstuff put into the water for cooking is brought from room
temperature to the boiling point. In the simmering stage, the contents of the cooking utensil
are allowed to boil till the food is completely cooked.
43
In the pre-boiling stage, fuel must be added to the stove as this stage involves raising of
temperature. During the simmering stage, the temperature can not rise above the boiling
point, however high the fuel-feed rate to the stove may be. The function of the stove
during the simmering stage, therefore, is to keep the temperature at the boiling point and
not to raise it any further. Therefore, in the simmering stage, fuel feeding may be eliminated
if suitable arrangement can be made to check the fall of temperature, and thus the
amount of fuel fed during this stage will be saved.
Improved Cooking Stove with Waste heat Utilization [5]
The waste hot flue gases entering the chimney are released in the atmosphere,
the temperature of the gases varying in the range 175-225oC, when they enter into
the bottom of the chimney
Fig No 29: Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney
for Large Scale Cooking Coupled with Water Heater and Oven
In hotels/restaurants, double mouth cooking stoves with chimney are required to
be used day and night. In such a case, a double wall water heater having a
capacity of 15 litres of water and a double wall oven can be fitted at the bottom
of the chimney as shown in Fig. No 28. As the stove is used continuously, within 4555 minutes of cooking time, water in the water heater should start boiling. This hot
water can be used for cooking, making tea, washing utensils etc. The temperature
in the oven will be reaching up to 100-115oC within an hour. Also, using proper
insulation, the oven temperature can be raised up to 160oC. This oven can be
f
i
f
ff
Comparison of Different Parameters of ICS Models are given in Table No-3:
44
Table No-3: Comparison of Different Parameters of ICS Models
Different Parameters of ICS Models
SL
No
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Name of the
ICS Models
Efficiency
(%)
2
3
Model No. 1
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking Stove
(Portable)
Model No. 2
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking Stove
(Half underground)
Model No. 3
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking Stove
with Chimney
(on the floor)
Model No. 4
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking Stove
with Chimney
(Half underground)
Model No. 5
Improved Single
Mouth Cooking Stove
with Chimney
(Portable)
Model No. 6
i. Improved Double
Mouth Cooking
Stove (see ModelNo-3)
ii. Improved. Single
Mouth Cooking
Stove (see Model
No-5)
Model No. 7
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking Stove
with Chimney Suitable
I
Mouth diameter
st
nd
1
2
Mouth
Mouth
(Inches
(Inches
)
)
4
5
C
S
Raised
Grate
Point
Height
(Inches)
(inche
s)
6
7
S t r u c t u r e
Feed
Pri.Air
Flue
Tunnel from 2nd
Hole
Entry/
Gases
Mouth. to
(inches)
Ash out
Exit
Chimney holder
let
(inche
LXWXH (inches)
(inches)
s)
8
9
C h i m n e y
Chimney
Chimney
Chimney
Holder (length
dia
Height
X widthX
(inches)
(feet)
height) inch.
Soot
Remov
al
10
11
12
13
14
15
0.5 dia
7-8
holes
-
-
-
-
-
-
25
9.0
-
0.5
6.0
4.5X4.0
22
9.0
-
0.5
9.5
5X5
5X5
-
-
-
-
-
-
28-30
9.0
8.0
-
8.5
5X5
5X5
2.0
6X3X3
5 X 5 X 10
3.0
6-9
3X3
22-25
9.0
8.0
-
9.5
5X5
5X5
2.0
6X3X3
5 X 5 X 10
3.0
6-9
3X3
21-22
9.0
-
-
8.5
5X5
5X5
1.5
-
2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5
2.0
3.0
3X3
28-30
9.0
8.5
5X5
5X5
2.0
6X3X3
5X5X10
3.0
6.9
3X3
10 X 10X 15
4-5
8-9
4X4
8.0
-
21-22
9.0
-
-
8.5
5X5
5X5
1.5
6X3X3
29-31
18
17
-
12
10X10
10X10
4.0
6X3X3
43
for Large Scale
Cooking and Semi
Industrial Purposes
44
6. Future Prospects of ICS Technology In Bangladesh
Different models of improved stoves have been known to be saving up to 50-60%
traditional fuels as compared with the traditional ones. The total volume of
traditional fuel consumption in the country is about 40 million tonnes annually [1]. If
improved stoves can be made popular in the country and if it saves 50% of the
traditional fuels, then annually about 20 million tonnes of traditional fuel will be
possible to save.
The reduction of use of traditional fuels by using improved stoves, therefore, will result
in lower emissions of green house gases (CO2) in the atmosphere. It should also help
conserve the remainder forest resources and eventually increase the soil fertility of
agricultural land in the country. An improved stove with chimney leads the flue
gases out of the kitchen efficiently and thereby reduce IAP in the kitchen
environment at the same time.
In riverine Bangladesh, it will be very difficult to supply natural gas for cooking
purposes to the every household in the country even if we happen to tap huge
deposits of natural gas in the near future. Therefore, improved stoves have a
reasonably bright future in the country. Large scale dissemination of the improved
stoves in the country, thus can positively help conserve the local forest resources
and green cover, changing the grass roots social life to a great extent.
ICS models developed in the country are now a widely proven technology. There
are people in the country who have been using ICS models and reaping various
benefits through sustained periods. Therefore, the following strategies may adopted
and suitable action plans developed for large scale dissemination of ICS across the
country:
1. Setting up small industries across the country for production of different ICS
models and their components, so that the grass roots users will be able to buy
the required components / parts suitable for meeting their needs from the
local shops and assemble them in their kitchens, as required.
44
2. Developing skilled manpower through organizing and conducting training
courses to popularize ICS technology, enabling the unemployed men and
women of the country acquire the skills, who might choose to apply their
knowledge and skill learnt, taking it as a profession for their livelihood.
3. Creating awareness of the efficacy, efficiency and utility of ICS through
launching widespread advertisement campaigns through various medias.
4. Involving different relevant GO-NGOs for dissemination of ICS throughout the
country.
5. BCSIR should be focal point for R & D and Loop Research of ICS.
6. To further increase the efficiency of ICS models by putting suitable insulation
materials around the combustion chamber and other mouth of the stove.
Recent Development of ICS: Down Draft Stoves
Biomass fuels are generally used in the conventional stoves. But due to incomplete
combustion of biomass fuels, appreciable quantities of pollutants viz. carbon
monoxide, particulates, polycyclic organic matters etc. are released in the kitchen
environment while cooking is undertaken, which resultantly cause IAP, affecting the
respiratory system of the traditional stove users adversely in the process. To over
come these problems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The
Netherlands have been pursuing research since 1980 into Clean Combustion of
Wood by applying down-draft combustion principle in wood burning devices [19].
During this author’s EEC post doctoral fellowship at the Eindhoven Technical
University, Eindhoven, The Netharlands in 1989-90, by applying down-draft
combustion principle, the researcher team (including the author) developed a
biomass burning device, where fuel wood burns cleanly. Users of the device
established that the temperature below the grate being about 1000-1100oC,
temperature of the flue gases at the top of the chimney being about 550-750oC, the
CO emission is about 0.0065%.
The principle of operation of the stove, in contrast to that of conventional design is
that the flow of air is in the same direction as the volatiles and fuel. A chimney for
the stove is essential to provide the necessary draft, which induces the liberated
volatiles and air to flow downward through the fuel bed where they burn vigorously
resulting in higher temperatures ( 1000-1100oC) than during conventional burning
(550-750o). It has been experimentally found that this mode of burning leads to a
45
very good combustion process, and
especially the resultant CO emission is
negligible.
Later, during 1994-97, BCSIR had undertaken and conducted a four-year Joint
Collaboration Research Project with Eindhoven Technical University, Eindhoven, The
Netherlands sponsored by EEC to develop biomass stoves by applying the downdraft combustion principle.
Subsequently, during the project period and after the project period, IFRD by
applying down-draft combustion principle developed a series of down-draft stoves
suitable for domestic cooking to large scale cooking and other heating purposes.
The efficiencies of the stoves are similar to that of conventional improved stoves but
CO emission is negligible.
By applying this principle, a series of down-draft stoves suitable for domestic cooking
to large scale cooking and other heating purposes have been developed by BCSIR.
Pilot scale dissemination of these stoves has been initiated in different parts of
country.
Two down draft stoves are described below:
1. BERBECUE (KEBAB) OVEN [19-21]:
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
: BCSIR 2001
Under BCSIR –Eindhoven Technical University Joint
Collaboration Research Project Sponsored By EEC
•
•
•
•
•
TYPE OF FUEL USED
PRICE
CO EMISSION
CO/CO2 Ratio
LIFE SPAN
: Fuel Wood ( blocks)
: TK. 1,500
: 0 . 08 %
: 0 . 027
: 5 years
46
Fig No. 30: Down-draft barbecue (Kebab) Oven
The sharp pointed skewers holding the kebab or meat pieces are placed
horizontally on the top tray and it is then placed on the top of the chimney. The hot
flue gases coming out of the chimney directly roast/ singe the bottom of the kebab.
The temperature at the top of the chimney is around 350-4000C.
The kebab cooked on the down-draft stoves happens to be tastier than those
barbecued on the traditional ones. This is because in a down-draft oven, the kebab
is cooked in hot gases, whereas, in case of a traditional stove, the kebab is cooked
directly placing the meat skewers on the glowing charcoal. As a result, at the end of
cooking, the meat gets dried up and simply get burnt at times.
2. DOWN DRAFT DRIER [19-22 :
•
MODEL DEVELOPED BY
: BCSIR 2001
Under BCSIR –Eindhoven Technical University Joint
Collaboration Research Project Sponsored By EEC
•
•
•
•
•
TYPE OF FUEL USED
PRICE
CO EMISSION
Co/Co2 RATIO
LIFE SPAN
: Fuel wood ( blocks)
: TK. 1,500
: 0.1%
: 0.030
: 4 years
Wood blocks are charged in the combustion chamber on a grate, followed by
ignition. The hot flue gases on their way out of the chimney heat up foods/other stuff
placed on the drawer. The maximum temperature recorded in the process was
2500C. It can be used for drying vegetables viz. potatoes, cauliflower, cabbages,
bitter gourd, onions etc. It can also be used for drying fishes and other similar
purposes.
47
Fig No. 31: Down draft drier
48
7. Maintenance
7.1 How to Use the ICS:
a)
Fuel will burn on the grate. Do not overstuff the combustion chamber with fuel ,
as there must be sufficient space left for air to get in.
b)
In case of using an ICS with chimney, care should be taken that there is no
open space left between the utensil and stove mouth. If any open space
happens to be left, then there will occur heat loss and it will also cause
pollution inside the kitchen.
c)
Plan whatever cooking has to be done and arrange the ingredients required in
advance. After cooking one item, remove the cooking pot from the stove
mouth and immediately replace the space with another utensil containing
uncooked stuff. The cooking should be done continuously to save fuel, heat
and time.
d)
In case of the double mouth ICS with chimney, cooking on the first mouth is
done by direct flame produced by the fuel and on the second mouth by hot
flue gases coming out of the first mouth. As a result cooking in the first mouth is
faster than second mouth. Therefore, when foodstuff put on the first mouth
reaches the boiling stage, it is exchanged with the food stuff put on the
second mouth. This will result in reducing fuel consumption in the cooking
process.
e)
When food stuff on both the stove mouths reach the boiling stage, then stop
adding any more fuel in the stove. Allow the foodstuff to simmer (boiling) using
minimal amount of fuel to finish cooking.
f)
While cooking using a double mouth ICS with chimney, both the cooking
mouths should be fitted with utensils. Do not keep any mouth uncovered during
cooking.
g)
For using smaller utensil compared with the stove mouths, a metal plate having
a small hole can be used as an adapter in the ICS.
h)
In case of firing the stove, it is better to blow air through the ash outlets/ primary
air entry.
7.2 Repair of ICS
49
a)
A newly constructed ICS can always be used, but one has to make sure that it
is dry and ready for cooking. It should never be used unless it is properly dried,
because a wet or partially damp stove will consume considerably larger
amounts of fuel and the durability of the stove also will be compromised.
b)
c)
Repair any cracks as soon as they occur, as “A stitch in time saves nine”.
The chimney should have a cap, because it keeps the sparks from flying out
and prevents rain from entering into the chimney.
d)
After using the ICS for 5-7 days, it should be thoroughly smoothened using a
mixture of mud and cow-dung. Thus the durability of the ICS will be increased.
e)
The chimney diameter of an ICS may be constricted or reduced after a long
period of continuous use by deposition of soot on the inner wall of the
chimney. This might result in causing flame and hot flue gases coming out
through the feed hole during cooking instead of passing through the chimney.
Therefore, the chimney should be cleaned at regular intervals, preferably once
in a months or so by removing the cap and brushing it down with a bamboo
pole with grass or rags tied to one end. The soot dislodged should be removed
through the soot removal hole’ made at the bottom of the chimney, which
should be kept closed putting a lid on it while operating the stove.
7.3 Trouble Shooting Of ICS
After using the ICS continuously for a long time, the ICS users may be faced with
certain operational problems. These problems may be classified into two groups:
1) During use of the ICS, part of the flame and hot flue gases may start coming out
through the feed hole of the stove. In such a case, the problem may be due to
one/more of the following reasons :
a.
The connecting passage between the first and the second stove mouths may
be smaller than optimized dimensions, which may very well cause part of the
flame and hot flue gases pushing out through the feed hole.
b.
The distance between the bottom of the utensil and the bottom of the second
mouth of the ICS is less than optimized dimension or virtually there exists no
space left between them.
c.
The diameter of the flue gases exit passage from the second mouth of the ICS
is less than the optimal dimension.
50
d.
The empty space below the bottom of the chimney may be clogged up with
shoot/other things.
e.
Due to some reason, the lower portion of the chimney may be lowered down
further, causing it to touch the bottom of the surface.
f.
The diameter of the chimney may be constricted or reduced by deposition of
soot caused by using the ICS continuously for a long time.
g.
The distance between the chimney and its cap is less than the optimal
prescribed distance or there is simply no space left between them.
h.
If the combustion chamber, that is, the first mouth of the ICS is overstuffed with
fuel and there is not sufficient space available for air to get in.
2) After using the ICS for a period, fuel consumption may seem to be increasing
due to one/more of the following reasons:
a. If the grate is actually positioned at a point which is lower than where it is
supposed to be, due to some reasons. Then heat transfer to the cooking utensil
will be considerably reduced resulting in low efficiency and the ICS will tend to
consume more fuel than it really should.
b. After using the ICS for a long time, the diameter of the hole of the grate
becomes larger. As a result, small pieces of charcoal will fall down through the
grate without burning.
c. If due to some reasons, the diameters of both the feed hole and the ash outlet of
the ICS become larger than their optimal dimensions, then excess air will enter in
to the combustion chamber and burn the fuel more quickly without allowing
fruitful use of the heat produced during the cooking process.
d. If the diameter of the flue gases exit of the second mouth of the ICS becomes
larger, then hot flue gases containing much heat will quickly leave the stove
through the chimney.
e. After a period of use of the ICS, if the chimney of the ICS is replaced with a new
one having a larger diameter and longer height than the optimal dimensions,
then the draught will be increasing, which will draw excess air and the process
will dilute the heat of flue gases. Draught increases with the height and the
diameter of the chimney.
51
Therefore, if you face any problem regarding sudden increase of fuel consumption
in the ICS, then carefully review the above mentioned situations which cause such
problems and take appropriate action for resolving the problem. If necessary,
consult any technician possessing ICS management skills in your locality.
52
8. Reduction of Indoor Air Pollution by Proper Ventilation in a Kitchen
The indoor air quality in a kitchen depends not only on the emission of pollutants
from the traditional stoves, but also on the kitchen construction materials and its use
patterns. The emission of pollutants can be controlled by modifying the stove and
through introducing better choice of fuels. This, however, may not always be
possible. IAP in the kitchen environment can be reduced to a considerable level by
altering the construction characteristics of the kitchen itself.
The major role of ventilation is to induce outside air to dilute the polluted air in the
kitchen so that its concentration is within or near permissible limits.
There are three types of ventilation [23]:
I.
Mechanical Ventilation:
Mechanical ventilation uses a combination of electric fans, air inlets and
controls to regulate temperature and humidity
II.
Infiltration:
It is the unintentional or accidental process by which outdoor air flows into the
house through opening, joints and cracks in the walls, floors and ceilings and
around the windows and doors. Air can also move out of the house in this
manner, a process known as ex-filtration. Houses with walls or roofing made of
bamboo provide excellent ventilation by means of infiltration and ex-filtration.
III.
Natural Ventilation:
Natural ventilation is often the cheapest and simplest method that can be
used to provide fresh air to the rural kitchen. In natural ventilation, air moves
through opened windows and doors.
Natural ventilation in the best choice to improve ventilation rate in rural
kitchens.
}
Rural & Urban cooking practices in Bangladesh:
In the rural areas of the country, most of the walls of the kitchen and dwelling rooms
are made of mud or bamboo sheet and roofs are thatched. Mud walls create an
effective seal that permits almost no ventilation. On the other hand, walls made of
woven bamboo sheets or jute sticks and thatched roofs permit good ventilation.
53
Recent studies undertaken and accomplished by the World Bank in Bangladesh
([24] estimated PM10 concentration which is responsible for IAP, produced by
burning of biomass fuels in the rural and urban areas of the country. The researchers
estimated PM10 concentrations of 300 µg/m3 in the sample areas which is
significantly higher than the
benchmark case of 90µg/m3. Such concentrations
have been known to be causing serious health hazards. They also stated that
pollution from cooking place quickly diffuses into the living spaces causing further
health hazards to all of the household members who are indoor during the cooking
period.
The rural and urban households in Bangladesh have different types of cooking
arrangements. Three types of cooking facilities used are given below:
Type: 1
Some poor homes do not have a separate kitchen. They cook inside the dwelling
room during the raining season and outside during dry seasons. But the location of
traditional stoves may be in the following places:
a) In any corner inside the dwelling room but the most probable place is the
verandah, when it is there.
b) In any corner of the dwelling room separated by two small walls made of mud or
thatched walls with a small entrance.
c) Outside the dwelling room at any place as per choice of the users.
Type: 2
Kitchens having three walls, its entrance being entirely open, with or without a roof.
Type: 3
People of a little means use kitchens with four walls and roofing, but the gap
between the kitchen walls and the roof is only a few inches.
Kitchen Types 2 and 3 may be attached to or separated from the dwelling houses.
}
IAP reduction by change in ventilation characteristics and behaviours:
54
The cleaner fuels and the ICS can play an important role to reduce IAP. But poor
families may not be in a position to access these options to enjoy significantly
cleaner air in their households.
This investigation strongly suggested that within the sample areas, some simple
arrangements are already producing relatively cleaner conditions even when
biomass fuels are being used.
The simple changes are effected in:
1. Ventilation characteristics :
•
Construction materials
•
Space configuration
•
Cooking locations
•
Placement of doors and windows
2. Ventilation behaviours :
•
Keeping doors and windows open after cooking.
These ventilation characteristics and ventilation behaviors have been known to be
producing large differences in IAP. If cooking is done inside the house, the sealing
effect of the mud walls of the dwelling house increases the PM10 concentration by
253.µg/m3 in the baseline case. On the other hand, if cooking is done in a detached
or open air location, mud walls in the house exert the same sealing effect, but the
overall PM10 concentration is reduced by 158 µg/m3. For other construction materials
and even by just keeping the kitchen doors and windows open after cooking the
midday meal, the PM10 concentration is reduced to a considerable level.
Optimization of different parameters on ventilation effects during cooking in
traditional stoves in rural kitchen have not yet been done in Bangladesh. However,
based on the findings of these World Bank studies, the following recommendations
can be made:
•
When the cooking is done in a separate kitchen, the kitchen should have one
door, sufficient number of windows and a ventilation gap between the roof and
its surrounding walls.
•
The doors and windows of the kitchen are to be kept open after cooking.
55
Fig.No-32: A Rural/Urban Kitchen with Proper Ventilation.
9. ICS Technology in South Asian Region, Latain America & Africa
More than half of the world’s population living in the developing countries use
biomass fuels while cooking using traditional stoves in poorly ventilated kitchens. It is
a fact that in the poorer developing countries people roughly use three times as
much fuel for cooking purposes as in the industrialized nations, but it is not widely
known yet. The main reason for burning such huge volumes of biomass fuels is just
the low efficiency of the traditional stoves.
South Asian countries viz Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri
Lanka have been implementing ICS introduction programmes for a number of years
past. Some of these programmes have been successfully implemented in some
countries, while other are still doing their pilot phases. Many factors have
contributed to the success of these programmes in some countries [25], which
include cultural, social, ecological considerations, government policies and support,
availability of skilled manpower, adequacy of infrastructural and institutional
arrangements as well as the level of external support.
Some programmes, however, have encountered problems, which relate to lack of
understanding of the users’ needs in the kitchen and cooking practices, lack of
women’s participation, inadequate demonstrations/ trials of improved models in
user households, poor quality of production/installation, inadequate or late feedback/ monitoring efforts, poor after sales service etc.
However, based on local conditions, resources, available ICS technologies, skilled
manpower etc. South Asian countries are still implementing the ICS programmes in
their respective countries. These programmes may contribute adequately to energy
and environmental conservation and in meeting overall development needs.
A few popular models of ICSs in use in the South Asian Countries are delineated
below:
56
1) INDIA:
(i)
Laxmi Improved Chulha [26]:
The model was developed in 1986 at the Technical Back up Unit, Centre for
Application of Science and Technology for Rural Development (CASTFORD), Indian
Institute of Education, 128/2 J.P Naik Path Kothrud, Pune-411029.
57
•
•
Efficiency
Price (Indian Currency)
: 14.7(Fuel wood)
: Rs 70-87(1993)
Fig.No.33: Improved double Mouth Cooking Stove with chimney.
The Laxmi, a two-pot mud stove with chimney was specifically designed for western
India for cooking domestic foods. The stove can be operated using fuel wood,
twigs, agricultural residues and dung cake. The stove can be constructed with clay
and some ready-made parts such as a combustion chamber, connecting tunnels,
chimney pipe, cowl (cap) and metal grate.
ii) Grihalaxmi (27):
Single pot chulha without a chimney, it is provided with a top grate which acts as a
flame concentrator. A cast iron bottom grate is also provided.
Fig.No.34: Grihalaxmi Improved Cooking Stove
•
•
Fuel saving: 35%
Fuel used : Fuel wood, branches, cowdung cake and agricultural residues.
2) NEPAL [28]:
Under the National ICS Programme, Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove has
been disseminated in the country. The name of the model:
58
(ii) Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney:
•
•
Efficiency
: 15-25%
Fuel wood saving as compared with the traditional ones
: 30-35%
Price (Nepalese Rupees)
: 200-300.00 (2002)
Fig.No.35: Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove from Nepal
The ICS model is made up of 3 parts mud/earth, 2 parts straw/husk and 1 part
animal dung. The ICS has two fire openings for cooking pots, one behind the other.
There is no need to blow the fire. It utilizes the heat generated by burning fuel wood,
more by the deflection of the flames and heated air inside it, which travels to the
second opening with the help of an in-built baffle located just below the second
opening, before the hot air leaves the chimney, which is made of un-burnt clay
bricks that can be made in the village. The iron plates are fitted on the potholes for
pots. The potholes are round in shapes; the pot bottom fits tight on them. It can be
made in different sizes and capacities to suit the family size and also pot size. It can
have one or more openings for pots/pans.
3) SRI LANKA [29]:
(i) Name of the ICS: “Anagi”, Double Mouth Cooking Stove without Chimney.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Efficiency
: 21%
Fuel wood saving as compared with traditional ones
: 30%
The model was first introduced by the Ceylon Electricity Board in
collaboration with the ITDG under Urban stove programmes
: 1986
Life-time
: 3 years
Fuel used
: Fuel wood, other loose
biomass residues such
as coconut shells,
fronds and leaves.
59
“Anagi” is a two-pot single piece clay stove designed to meet the cooking needs of
a 6-member family. The stove is made by potters.
Fig.No.36: Improved Cooking Stove Anagi, Sri-Lanka
The stove has three main components as follows:
1)
2)
3)
Fire box
2nd pot hole and
Tunnel (which connects the fire box and the 2nd pot seat)
The secondary components are:
•
pot rests
•
buttresses
•
baffle
•
flame shield and
•
the door
These are made separately using modules. The three main components are thrown
on the potter’s wheel by a skilled potter.
The stove construction process consists of
•
proper selection and preparation of clay
•
throwing the main components on a potter’s wheel
•
moulding the secondary components
•
finishing
•
air drying
•
packing inside the kiln and
•
firing.
60
4) Latin American Countries: “Lorena” Improved Stove [30]:
Fig No: 37 Latin American Countries: “Lorena” Improved Stove
}
Localities: Urban and rural areas of Latin American countries
}
Users: Women, men, schools, restaurants etc.
}
Fuel type: Wood.
}
Stove makers: Women, men, building contractors and communities,
bricklayers, trained artisans etc.
}
Production method: Dig clay, crush and screen, screen sand, prepare
mixture, compact, mark out hob, excavate potholes and fuels, install
chimney. The work is done by both men and women.
}
Fuel saving: 30%-60%
}
Dissemination system: Awareness raising, building, training, talks,
promotion, demonstration of methods, visit and follow-up, instruction
leaflets, videos etc.
}
Specifies: The “Lorena” improved stove originated in Guatemala in the
late 1970s. Various models are in use in the countries and regions of Latin
America, differing in the number of pot holes and flue system.
5) Ghana : Ahibenso Improved Stove [30]:
61
}
Fig No: 38 ICS in Ghana: Ahibenso Improved Stove
Countries, localities: Ghana, Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Koforidua, Sunyani
countryside, urban areas, Zambia
}
Users: Households and commercial food sellers.
}
Fuel type: Charcoal.
}
Materials: Scrap metal, mild steel and galvanized steel.
}
Standard size: 200-400 mm.
}
Stove makers: Ghana: Alfa Manufacturing Co. Ltd, artisans trained by the
project. Zambia: the informal sector.
}
Production method: Fully mechanized process, spot welders are used, a
small workshop using simple tools such as hammers and chisels does it. All
producers use templates made by the project. Quality control, follow-up
by project personnel.
}
Efficiency: 39 %( GHA, Field tests): 25-30 % (ZAM)
}
Fuel saving: 35%-40 %( GHA, Field tests): 62% (ZAM)
6) Biomass Gasifier Stove for Rural Household [27]:
Biomass gasifier stove is a highly efficient stove. The thermal efficiency of this
stove is more than 49%. It is made of cast iron. Basic fuel of this stove is
biomass fuel viz. crop residues, wood twigs, weeds, animal dung and other
organic materials. The biomass waste generated at household, industries and
agricultural fields can also be used as fuels.
Fig No: 38 Biomass Gasifier Stove for Rural Household in China
Principle of operation of biomass gasifier:
•
In the gasifier stove, thermo-chemical reaction of biomass takes place:
under anaerobic condition (in absence of light and air), biomass is burnt,
62
mixed with air(once), then thermally decomposed to a mixture of
flammable gases, containing CO, CH4,H2 etc. which together is generally
called “smoke”.
•
When the smoke reaches the opening/ outlet on the top of the
combustion chamber, it mixes with air again.
•
As the temperature of the mixed gases rapidly reaches the flash point
(about 650oC), it starts burning producing a flame.
•
When the chamber is warmed up, the speed of consuming gases and the
speed of generating flammable gases from thermal decomposition reach
an equilibrium and as a result, the stove keeps on burning at a constant
rate.
The salient features of biomass gasifier stoves:
1. It can be operated using low grade biomass fuels viz. wood twigs, leaves,
crop residues, weeds and animal dung.
2. It saves fuel and cooking time. For example: 1.0-1.5 kg of crop residues is
enough for cooking foods for a 3-5 member family. During cooking, there
is no need of watching the stove constantly.
3. It yields higher thermal power output and thermal efficiency. The thermal
power output is adjustable. The flame is similar to that produced by LPG. 5
kg of water can be heated to boiling within 5-8 minutes.
4. It does not cause health hazards to the users and renders cooking
environment friendly.
5. It is durable, because it is made of cast iron, which is also flame proof and
anti oxidant.
6. It has a fuel feed entrance; therefore, continuous fuel feeding is possible.
7. It is portable.
8. It is most suitable for rural households.
63
10. References
1.
Planning Commission, GOB (2002).
2.
WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and
sulphur dioxide. Global update 2005. Summary of Risk Assessment. World Health
Organization 2006.
3.
Das Gupta S., Haq M., Khaliquzzaman M, Pandey K. and Wheeler D., Who
suffers from Indoor air pollution? Evidence from Bangladesh. Development
Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA, Health Policy and
Planning advanced Access, Published October 09, 2006
4.
Smith, K.R, Apte, M.G. Mayuqing, Wahatna Wongse Kiarttirat & Ashwini Kulkarni,
Air pollution & the energy ladder in Asian Cities. Energy, The International
Journal,1993.
5.
Cook Stoves in Bangladesh, A case study: by Hasan R Khan, A.M Institute of
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Group, Eindhoven University Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, May
1989.
6.
Eusuf. M., Hassan R. Khan, A.M. & Nazma Begum, Improved model of domestic
cooking stove, Patent No# 1001872, Dated: September 17, 1986, The Patent
Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh
7.
Eusuf. M., Hassan R. Khan, A.M. & Nahar S.K. Design and construction of
multiple cooking stove, Patent No# 1001874, Dated: September 20, 1986 The
Patent Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
8.
Eusuf, M. Hasan Khan, A.M, Kamrun Nahar S. & Abdul Rouf, M., Process: Design
& Construction of Improved Double Mouth stove, Suitable for large scale
cooking. in hostels, hotels, community centers, cantonments etc. Process
Accepted by BCSIR: Ref No # BCSIR Seett./PPP/1-162/82 (1)/3340 Dated: July 5,
1992.
9.
Eusuf, M., Hasan R. Khan. A. M., Golam Hossain, M.M., Mafuza Khanam, Lulu
Bilkis Banu & Nuran Nahar Begum, Process: Improved model of halfunderground double mouth domestic cooking stove coupled with chimney &
grate: Process Accepted by BCSIR, Ref No# BCSIR Seett/RDD/62-431/2004/910
Dated: June 18,2005.
10.
Eusuf. M., Hasan R. Khan, A.M., Golam Hossain M.M., Lulu Bilkis Banu, Abdul
Kadir, S. & Monir, M, Process: Improved model of domestic single mouth
64
cooking stove half underground with rod grate for using all kinds of traditional
fuels: Process Accepted by BCSIR: Ref. No# BCSIR Seett./RDD/62-419/2004/808
Dated October 09, 2004.
11.
From design to cooking. A Report from The Wood burning Stove Group
Departments of Applied Physices and Mechanical Engineering,
Eindhoven
Univesity of Technology and Division of Technology for Socity, TNO, Apeldoorn,
The Netherlands January 1985.
12.
Eusuf. M., Hasan R. Khan. A. M. & Shahina Islam: Studies in Cooking Stove. Part
IV. Statistical analysis of efficiency controlling parameters. Bangladesh J. Sci.
Ind. Res. XXVII No# 3, 1993.
13.
Minutes of Sharing meeting on selection of ICS models for development of
Technical Manual for ICS Technology under the project: Bangladesh:
Addressing Indoor Air pollution (IAP) Implement Jointly By: VERC and WI
Technical support By: LGED Sponsored by: The World Bank held on February 20,
2008 at VERC Office Savar, Dhaka.
14.
Booklet of “Improved Cooking Stove” Published by Dissemination of Improved
Cookstove Project (2nd Phase), Institute of Fuel Research and Development
BCSIR,
15.
Dr. Qudrat-I-Khuda Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh 2000.
Booklet of Smokeless Improved Stove, Published by Institute of Fuel Research
and Development, BCSIR, Dr. Qudrat-I-Khuda Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka,
Bangladesh 2000.
16.
Booklet on Instruction Manual of Improved Cooking Stove, Published by gtz,
German Technical Co-Operation Promotion of the Use of Renewable Energies
(PURE), Road 90, House No# 10-C, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212 Bangladesh 2006.
17.
When smoke gets in your eyes: kitchen air quality in rural Bangladeshi homes by
Ajan Visser and Hasan R. Khan, A.M. Energy for Sustainable Development, the
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18.
Eusuf. M. Hassan R. Khan, A.M. and Nuran Nahar Begum, High Efficiency
Insulating Blanket for Improved Stoves Patent No# 1002343, dated: March 10,
1992 The Patent Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Prasad K. K. Hasan R. Khan, A.M and Eusuf M the Development of Improved
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Eindoven 1995.
65
20.
Hasan R. Khan, A.M., Shiply Rahman and Jasim Udin, M, Down draft barbecue
(Kebab) oven Patent No# 1003790 dated May 25, 2003 The Patent Office,
Dhaka, Bangladesh.
21.
Booklet of “Down-Draft Stove Developed in Bangladesh. Published by Institute
of Fuel Research and Development BCSIR, Dr. Qudrat-I-Khuda Road,
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Page 15: [1] Deleted
Model No. 4
Improved Double
Mouth Cooking
Stove with
Chimney
(Half
underground)
Fixed
Suitable for 8
member
family
Can be built
completely
under ground
Asad
-All types of
trad. fuel
including
agricultural
. residues
by
changing
the grate
Should be built
by skilled
technicians
Feed hole can
be built either
side or in the
front side of
the
combustion
chamber
5/19/2008 12:27:00 PM
Can be used
Clay
where it was
Pieces of pottery or
built
U shaped iron rods
according to
8 inches long
the cooking
bamboo pieces
habits of
Metal grate
users
Chimney
Cap
Locally available raw
materials
2-3 years
Greatly
reduc
d IAP
in the
kitche
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