Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System

Electronic Christmas
Tree Watering System
By Mark McCuller 11/04
Email mcculler@mail.com
Table of Contents
I
Design Summery
Page 3
1.
Introduction
• Design Purpose
• Design Description
Page 4
2.
Technical Description
• Electronic Control System
• Sensors
• Schematics
Page 5
3.
Design Assembly
• Construction
Page 9
4.
Conclusion
• Safety Issues
• In Conclusion
Page 10
Mark McCuller Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System 11/04
2
Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System
I
DESIGN SUMMARY
The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System is a device that will automatically water
your Christmas tree when the water level goes low in the tree stand reservoir. A
Christmas tree that is watered consistently will last longer and be fresher then a tree that
is watered occasionally. A dry Christmas tree can be a fire hazard. With all the
ornaments and presents around the Christmas tree it becomes a hassle when you have to
bend down to see the water level and fill the Christmas tree stand with water. The
Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System will automatically maintain a constant water
level of so your tree will remain fresher and last longer during the Christmas holiday
season. See Figure 1.
Figure 1
Christmas Tree
Mark McCuller Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System 11/04
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1.
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN PURPOSE
The purpose of the Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System is to use water level
sensors to sense the water level and fill up the reservoir of the Christmas tree stand
automatically. It has two sensors for safety of water overflow and one for water level
control. A dry Christmas tree can be fire hazard. With the Electronic Christmas Tree
Watering System will automatically maintaining a constant level of water for the
Christmas tree so you don’t have to worry about it anymore.
DESIGEN DESCRIPTION
The purpose of the Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System is to use water level
sensors to sense the water level and fill up the reservoir of the Christmas tree stand
automatically when required. The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System consists of
five parts listed below. See Figure 2.
• Water Level Sensors
• Water Reservoir
• Water Pump
• Logic Control System
• Power Supply
The water level sensors will maintain the water level and provide overflow control. It has
two sensors for safety for water overflow control and one for water level control. The
plastic 1-gallon Rubbermaid container will be the reservoir to water the tree. The water
pump is standard automotive windshield washer pump that works on 12VDC. The logic
control system will provide the control for safely watering the tree. The power supply
powers the water pump (12VDC) and the control system (5VDC) circuit.
Tree Trunk
Wire Tie
Tubing Holder
Safety Sensor #1
Main Level Sensor #3
Safety
Sensor #2
Water Inlet
Plastic Tubing
Water
Reservoir
Power
Supply
Outlet
Christmas Tree Stand
1/2" Gap
above Stand
Inlet
Water Pump
Figure 2
Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System
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2.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System is a digital control circuit for logic
control using AND Gates. In Digital electronics Logic High=1 (True) and Logic Low =0
(False) the truth table of the AND Gate is shown below in Figure 3.
AND TRUTH
TABLE
INPUT A
INPUT B
OUTPUT
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
Figure 3
AND Gate
Level Sensor Truth Table
Sensor
Safety
Switch
#1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Sensor
Safety
Switch
#2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Sensor
Level
Switch
#3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Water
Pump
Motor
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Motor
Status
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
Figure 4
Sensor Logic Table
The Truth Table for all sensor switch positions is shown in Figure 4. The only condition
that turns on the water pump is a Logic 1 (High) from each sensor switch. This is shown
on the last line of the chart above (Figure 4) with all 1's and motor status is ON. All other
logic positions will turn off or prevent the water pump from working. This will provide a
layer of safety to prevent an overflow of water going out of the Christmas tree stand.
SENSORS
The two safety sensor switches #1 and #2 function as a safety system to turn off the water
pump and prevent water from overfilling the tree stand and spilling water on the floor.
See Figure 5. The safety switches are positioned with Styrofoam floats hanging down and
not making contact with the water. When the water lifts these sensors #1 and #2 it will
open the contact and stop the water pump. The sensor safety switch #1 turns on/off the
12VDC going to the relay for the pump power. The sensor safety switch #2 is connected
to the digital control circuit AND Gate Pin1 as shown in Figure 9. The safety sensor
switches #1 and #2 need to be setup to open the contact switch when the water level has
reached the ½” mark on the lip of the Christmas tree stand. The sensor level switch #3 is
the main sensor switch that floats on the water level to turn the water pump on and off.
When the sensor level switch #3 is in the up position the pump in turned off and in the
Mark McCuller Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System 11/04
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down position the pump is turned on. Sensor switch #3 is setup to stop the water pump
when the water level is ¾” from the top lip of the Christmas tree stand. For greater detail
the Sensor level switches is shown in Figure 5, 6, and 7.
Main Level Sensor #3
Safety Sensor #2
Safety Sensor #1
1/2"
3/4"
1/2"
Figure 5
Level Sensor Positions
Wire A
Common
Sensor Switch with
Long Lever
Wire B
Nuts 6/32
Bolt 6/32 x 4"
Bolts 6/32 x 1/2"
Metal Sensor Support
in RED
Styrofoam Ball Float
Figure 6
Water Level Sensor
Up Position
Down Position
Figure 7
On-Off Switch Positions
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SCHEMATICS
The schematic for the control system is listed below in Figure 9.The circuit works as
follows; When the Sensor safety switch #1 is not in contact with the water it will power
the 12VDC going to the relay. When sensor safety switch #2 is not in contact with the
water it will send a High (Logic 1, 5VDC) to the AND Gate Pin1. The output of the AND
Gate (Pin3) will send a logic High (1) to the common terminal of water level switch#3.
When the water level is good (Full) it will send a logic zero (Logic 0, 0V) to Pin4 and the
output of the last AND Gate (Pin6) will give a logic Zero (0, 0V) output. The AND Gate
output will not bias the transistor 2N2222 so the relay will be in the open position so the
water pump has no power. When the water level at switch#3 is low it will send logic
High (Logic 1, 5V) to Pin4 that will make the AND Gates output a Logic High (Pin6) to
the base of the transistor 2N2222 and this will bias the transistor and turn on the relay and
will power the water pump. The pump will turn off again when water level switch #3
rises to the full position. The schematic shown in Figure 10 is a Non-Digital simple
circuit that does the same as the digital circuit. The Allied Electronics parts list is shown
in Figure 8.
Amount
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
8
1
1
1
6
3
3
3
1
1
Parts Description
Quad 2 input AND GATE MC74HC08
1N4148 Diode
Relay DK1A-5V
2N2222 Transistors NPN
Resistors 1K Ohm 1/2W Carbon Film
ProtoBoard 0.1"x0.1" Spacing
Power Supply +12VDC and +5VDC
Level Sensor Switch
Dip Socket 14Pin
Terminal Block PCB Mount
Additional Parts Below
Automotive Windshield Water Pump
Plastic 1-Gal Reservoir
Plastic Tubing 12 Ft
Bolts and Nuts 6/32 x 1/2”
Bolts and Nuts 6/32 x 4”
Metal Support for Sensors
Styrofoam Float (1 ½” Balls)
Cable 18-2 Stranded Sensor Wire 15ft
Cable 18-2 Stranded Power Wire 10ft
Figure 8
Parts List
Allied Part #
568-3237
263-1538
788-0085
248-1004
832-9016
237-0119
800-8071
908-1180
512-4681
607-7155
Mark McCuller Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System 11/04
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Power Supply
12VDC
Sensor Safety
Switch #1
Sensor Safety
Switch #2
VCC
Common
NC
Common
NO
NO
Float Not
Touching Water
Sensor
Level Switch NC
#3
NC
Common
12VDC
NO
Water Level
Float
Float Not
Touching Water
Sensor Safety
Switch #2
On-Semiconductor
MC74HC08
Pin 7=GND
Pin 14= VCC +5V
VCC
AND
Gate
Sensor Safety
Switch #1
4
3
VCC
2
5
AND
Gate
12VDC
VCC
Com
12VDC
+
Relay
DK1A-5V
1N4148
-
NO
Collector
Base
1K Ohm
1/4W
Sensor
Level Switch
#3
6
Water Output
1
Power
12VDC
5VDC
Output
VCC
Christmas Tree Stand
Pump
Motor
Water Input
NPN 2N2222
Water Reservoir
Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System
Mark McCuller 11/04
Emitter
Figure 9
Schematic of Watering System
Sensor Safety
Switch #1
NC
Common
Sensor Safety
Switch #2
Sensor Level
Switch #3
Common
NC
Common
NO
Float Not Touching
Water
NO
NC
NO
Water Level
Float
Float Not Touching
Water
+
Pump
Motor
12VDC
Battery
Figure 10
Circuit Diagram Non-Digital
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3.
DESIGN ASSEMBLY
CONSTRUCTION
The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System works best with a large opening in the
reservoir for making water refilling easier. The plastic tubing is ¼” ID that is glued and
sealed in the water reservoir container and connected to the water inlet of the water pump
motor. Note different window washer pumps have different sizes on inlet and outlets.
The plastic tubing from the output of the water pump is supported ½” (Gap) above the
rim of the tree stand to prevent siphoning as shown in Figure 2. Solder in all components
listed on the schematic (Figure 9) the layout is shown below in Figure 11. Solder in the
terminal block for power, sensor, and pump motor connections. Wire up sensors, water
pump, and power. Test all three sensors for water pump operations and safety stops. Test
to make sure that there is no water leaks at all.
VCC for Sensor
Safety Switch #2
Sensor Safety Sensor Level
Switch #3
Switch #2
Pin
#1
Pin
#3
Pin Pin
#4 #6
AND Gate DIP
MC74HC08
Socket
Sensor Safety
Switch #1
Diode 1N4148
Resistor 1K Ohm
Transistor
2N2222
RELAY
Water Pump
Power Input
Figure 11
Component Layout
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4.
CONCLUSION
SAFETY ISSUES
When working around water and electricity use caution and adhere to all National
Electrical Codes (NEC) and local and state electrical codes to prevent electrical shock
and fire. It is your reasonability, so play it safe. The AC to DC power supply should be
on a GFI circuit. You can also power the Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System
from battery power to make it safer.
In CONCLUSION
The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System is a device that is so simple but works
so good and will be used for many years to come. I’ve had mine for over 15 years and it
still works great. I hope you enjoy the Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System as I
did making it. Send me an email mcculler@mail.com and let me know what you think
of the idea. Enjoy… Have a Merry Christmas.
Fill Tubing
Water Pump Water Reservoir
Safety Sensor #1
Safety Sensor #2
Power
Supply
Main Level Sensor #3
The Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System
Mark McCuller Electronic Christmas Tree Watering System 11/04
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