ECS2110-26T and ECS2100-52T CLI Reference Guide

ECS2110-26T
26-Port Web-smart Pro
10G Ethernet Switch
C L I R e f e r e n c e G u id e
ECS2100-52T
52-Port Web-smart Pro
Gigabit Ethernet Switch
Software Release v1.1.10.171
www.edge-core.com
CLI Reference Guide
ECS2110-26T Gigabit Ethernet Switch
Web-smart Pro 10G Ethernet Switch
with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports
and 2 10G SFP Ports
ECS2100-52T Gigabit Ethernet Switch
Web-smart Pro Gigabit Ethernet Switch
with 48 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports
and 4 Gigabit SFP Ports
E012017/ST-R01
How to Use This Guide
This guide includes detailed information on the switch software, including how to
operate and use the management functions of the switch. To deploy this switch
effectively and ensure trouble-free operation, you should first read the relevant
sections in this guide so that you are familiar with all of its software features.
Who Should Read This This guide is for network administrators who are responsible for operating and
Guide? maintaining network equipment. The guide assumes a basic working knowledge of
LANs (Local Area Networks), the Internet Protocol (IP), and Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
How This Guide is This guide describes the switch’s command line interface (CLI). For more detailed
Organized information on the switch’s key features or information about the web browser
management interface refer to the Web Management Guide.
The guide includes these sections:
◆
Section I “Getting Started” — Includes information on initial configuration.
◆
Section II “Command Line Interface” — Includes all management options
available through the CLI.
◆
Section III “Appendices” — Includes information on troubleshooting switch
management access.
Related This guide focuses on switch software configuration through the CLI.
Documentation
For information on how to manage the switch through the Web management
interface, see the following guide:
Web Management Guide
For information on how to install the switch, see the following guide:
Installation Guide
For all safety information and regulatory statements, see the following documents:
Quick Start Guide
Safety and Regulatory Information
– 3 –
How to Use This Guide
Conventions The following conventions are used throughout this guide to show information:
Note: Emphasizes important information or calls your attention to related features
or instructions.
Caution: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause loss of data, or damage
the system or equipment.
Revision History This section summarizes the changes in each revision of this guide.
Revision
Date
Change Description
v1.1.10.171
01/2017
Initial release
– 4 –
Contents
Section I
How to Use This Guide
3
Contents
5
Tables
31
Getting Started
37
1 Initial Switch Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
39
39
Configuration Options
39
Connecting to the Console Port
40
Logging Onto the Command Line Interface
41
Setting Passwords
41
Remote Connections
42
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
43
Using the Network Interface
43
Setting an IP Address
43
Enabling SNMP Management Access
49
Managing System Files
51
Upgrading the Operation Code
52
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
52
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
54
Downloading Operation Code from a File Server
54
Specifying a DHCP Client Identifier
57
Downloading a Configuration File and Other Parameters from a DHCP Server
58
Setting the System Clock
60
Setting the Time Manually
60
Configuring SNTP
61
Configuring NTP
61
– 5 –
Contents
Section II
Command Line Interface
2 Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
63
65
65
Console Connection
65
Telnet Connection
66
Entering Commands
67
Keywords and Arguments
67
Minimum Abbreviation
67
Command Completion
67
Getting Help on Commands
68
Partial Keyword Lookup
70
Negating the Effect of Commands
70
Using Command History
70
Understanding Command Modes
70
Exec Commands
71
Configuration Commands
72
Command Line Processing
73
Showing Status Information
74
CLI Command Groups
75
3 General Commands
77
prompt
77
reload (Global Configuration)
78
enable
79
quit
80
show history
80
configure
81
disable
82
reload (Privileged Exec)
82
show reload
83
end
83
exit
83
4 System Management Commands
– 6 –
85
Contents
Device Designation
85
hostname
86
System Status
86
show access-list tcam-utilization
87
show license file
88
show memory
89
show process cpu
90
show process cpu guard
90
show process cpu task
91
show running-config
93
show startup-config
94
show system
95
show tech-support
96
show users
97
show version
98
show watchdog
98
watchdog software
99
Fan Control
99
fan-speed force-full
Frame Size
99
100
jumbo frame
100
File Management
101
General Commands
102
boot system
102
copy
103
delete
107
dir
108
whichboot
109
Automatic Code Upgrade Commands
109
upgrade opcode auto
109
upgrade opcode path
110
upgrade opcode reload
111
show upgrade
112
TFTP Configuration Commands
ip tftp retry
112
112
– 7 –
Contents
ip tftp timeout
113
show ip tftp
113
Line
114
line
115
databits
115
exec-timeout
116
login
117
parity
118
password
118
password-thresh
119
silent-time
120
speed
121
stopbits
121
timeout login response
122
disconnect
122
terminal
123
show line
124
Event Logging
125
logging command
125
logging facility
126
logging history
126
logging host
127
logging on
128
logging trap
129
clear log
129
show log
130
show logging
131
SMTP Alerts
132
logging sendmail
133
logging sendmail destination-email
133
logging sendmail host
134
logging sendmail level
134
logging sendmail source-email
135
show logging sendmail
136
– 8 –
Contents
Time
136
SNTP Commands
137
sntp client
137
sntp poll
138
sntp server
138
show sntp
139
NTP Commands
140
ntp authenticate
140
ntp authentication-key
140
ntp client
141
ntp server
142
show ntp
143
Manual Configuration Commands
143
clock summer-time (date)
143
clock summer-time (predefined)
145
clock summer-time (recurring)
146
clock timezone
147
calendar set
148
show calendar
149
Time Range
149
time-range
149
absolute
150
periodic
151
show time-range
152
Switch Clustering
152
cluster
153
cluster commander
154
cluster ip-pool
155
cluster member
156
rcommand
156
show cluster
157
show cluster members
157
show cluster candidates
158
– 9 –
Contents
5 SNMP Commands
159
General SNMP Commands
161
snmp-server
161
snmp-server community
161
snmp-server contact
162
snmp-server location
163
show snmp
163
SNMP Target Host Commands
164
snmp-server enable traps
164
snmp-server host
165
snmp-server enable port-traps link-up-down
167
snmp-server enable port-traps mac-notification
168
show snmp-server enable port-traps
168
SNMPv3 Commands
169
snmp-server engine-id
169
snmp-server group
170
snmp-server user
171
snmp-server view
173
show snmp engine-id
174
show snmp group
175
show snmp user
176
show snmp view
177
Notification Log Commands
177
nlm
177
snmp-server notify-filter
178
show nlm oper-status
180
show snmp notify-filter
180
Additional Trap Commands
180
memory
180
process cpu
181
process cpu guard
182
6 Remote Monitoring Commands
185
rmon alarm
186
rmon event
187
– 10 –
Contents
rmon collection history
188
rmon collection rmon1
189
show rmon alarms
190
show rmon events
190
show rmon history
191
show rmon statistics
191
7 Flow Sampling Commands
193
sflow owner
193
sflow polling instance
195
sflow sampling instance
196
show sflow
197
8 Authentication Commands
199
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
200
enable password
200
username
201
privilege
203
show privilege
203
Authentication Sequence
204
authentication enable
204
authentication login
205
RADIUS Client
206
radius-server acct-port
206
radius-server auth-port
207
radius-server host
207
radius-server key
208
radius-server retransmit
209
radius-server timeout
209
show radius-server
210
TACACS+ Client
210
tacacs-server host
211
tacacs-server key
211
tacacs-server port
212
tacacs-server retransmit
212
tacacs-server timeout
213
– 11 –
Contents
show tacacs-server
AAA
213
214
aaa accounting commands
215
aaa accounting dot1x
216
aaa accounting exec
217
aaa accounting update
218
aaa authorization commands
218
aaa authorization exec
219
aaa group server
220
server
221
accounting dot1x
221
accounting commands
222
accounting exec
222
authorization commands
223
authorization exec
224
show accounting
224
show authorization
225
Web Server
226
ip http authentication
227
ip http port
227
ip http server
228
ip http secure-port
228
ip http secure-server
229
Telnet Server
230
ip telnet max-sessions
231
ip telnet port
231
ip telnet server
232
telnet (client)
232
show ip telnet
233
Secure Shell
233
ip ssh authentication-retries
236
ip ssh server
236
ip ssh server-key size
237
ip ssh timeout
238
delete public-key
238
– 12 –
Contents
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
239
ip ssh crypto zeroize
240
ip ssh save host-key
240
show ip ssh
241
show public-key
241
show ssh
242
802.1X Port Authentication
243
General Commands
244
dot1x default
244
dot1x system-auth-control
244
Authenticator Commands
245
dot1x intrusion-action
245
dot1x max-reauth-req
246
dot1x max-req
246
dot1x operation-mode
247
dot1x port-control
248
dot1x re-authentication
248
dot1x timeout quiet-period
249
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
249
dot1x timeout supp-timeout
250
dot1x timeout tx-period
250
dot1x re-authenticate
251
Supplicant Commands
252
dot1x timeout auth-period
252
dot1x timeout held-period
252
Information Display Commands
show dot1x
253
253
Management IP Filter
255
management
255
show management
256
9 General Security Measures
Port Security
259
260
mac-learning
260
port security
261
– 13 –
Contents
show port security
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
263
265
network-access aging
265
network-access mac-filter
266
mac-authentication reauth-time
267
network-access dynamic-qos
268
network-access dynamic-vlan
269
network-access guest-vlan
270
network-access max-mac-count
270
network-access mode mac-authentication
271
network-access port-mac-filter
272
mac-authentication intrusion-action
273
mac-authentication max-mac-count
273
clear network-access
274
show network-access
274
show network-access mac-address-table
275
show network-access mac-filter
276
Web Authentication
276
web-auth login-attempts
277
web-auth quiet-period
278
web-auth session-timeout
278
web-auth system-auth-control
279
web-auth
279
web-auth re-authenticate (Port)
280
web-auth re-authenticate (IP)
280
show web-auth
281
show web-auth interface
281
show web-auth summary
282
DHCPv4 Snooping
282
ip dhcp snooping
283
ip dhcp snooping information option
285
ip dhcp snooping information option encode no-subtype
286
ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id
288
ip dhcp snooping information option tr101 board-id
289
ip dhcp snooping information policy
289
– 14 –
Contents
ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
290
ip dhcp snooping vlan
291
ip dhcp snooping information option circuit-id
292
ip dhcp snooping trust
293
ip dhcp snooping max-number
294
ip dhcp snooping trust
295
clear ip dhcp snooping binding
296
clear ip dhcp snooping database flash
296
ip dhcp snooping database flash
296
show ip dhcp snooping
297
show ip dhcp snooping binding
297
IPv4 Source Guard
298
ip source-guard binding
298
ip source-guard
300
ip source-guard max-binding
302
ip source-guard mode
303
clear ip source-guard binding blocked
303
show ip source-guard
304
show ip source-guard binding
304
ARP Inspection
305
ip arp inspection
306
ip arp inspection filter
307
ip arp inspection log-buffer logs
308
ip arp inspection validate
309
ip arp inspection vlan
310
ip arp inspection limit
311
ip arp inspection trust
311
show ip arp inspection configuration
312
show ip arp inspection interface
312
show ip arp inspection log
313
show ip arp inspection statistics
313
show ip arp inspection vlan
313
Denial of Service Protection
314
dos-protection echo-chargen
314
dos-protection smurf
315
– 15 –
Contents
dos-protection tcp-flooding
315
dos-protection tcp-null-scan
316
dos-protection tcp-syn-fin-scan
316
dos-protection tcp-xmas-scan
317
dos-protection udp-flooding
317
dos-protection win-nuke
318
show dos-protection
318
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
319
traffic-segmentation
319
traffic-segmentation session
320
traffic-segmentation uplink/downlink
321
traffic-segmentation uplink-to-uplink
322
show traffic-segmentation
323
10 Access Control Lists
325
IPv4 ACLs
325
access-list ip
326
permit, deny (Standard IP ACL)
326
permit, deny (Extended IPv4 ACL)
327
ip access-group
330
show ip access-group
331
show ip access-list
331
IPv6 ACLs
332
access-list ipv6
332
permit, deny (Standard IPv6 ACL)
333
permit, deny (Extended IPv6 ACL)
334
ipv6 access-group
337
show ipv6 access-group
337
show ipv6 access-list
338
MAC ACLs
338
access-list mac
339
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
339
mac access-group
342
show mac access-group
343
show mac access-list
343
– 16 –
Contents
ARP ACLs
344
access-list arp
344
permit, deny (ARP ACL)
345
show access-list arp
346
ACL Information
346
clear access-list hardware counters
347
show access-group
347
show access-list
348
11 Interface Commands
349
Interface Configuration
350
interface
350
capabilities
351
description
352
flowcontrol
352
history
353
media-type
354
negotiation
355
shutdown
355
speed-duplex
356
clear counters
357
show interfaces brief
358
show interfaces counters
358
show interfaces history
362
show interfaces status
364
show interfaces switchport
365
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
366
transceiver-monitor
366
transceiver-threshold-auto
367
transceiver-threshold current
367
transceiver-threshold rx-power
368
transceiver-threshold temperature
369
transceiver-threshold tx-power
370
transceiver-threshold voltage
371
show interfaces transceiver
372
– 17 –
Contents
show interfaces transceiver-threshold
Cable Diagnostics
373
374
test cable-diagnostics
374
show cable-diagnostics
375
Power Savings
376
power-save
376
show power-save
377
12 Link Aggregation Commands
379
Manual Configuration Commands
380
port channel load-balance
380
channel-group
382
Dynamic Configuration Commands
383
lacp
383
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
384
lacp port-priority
385
lacp system-priority
386
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
387
lacp timeout
388
Trunk Status Display Commands
389
show lacp
389
show port-channel load-balance
392
13 Port Mirroring Commands
Local Port Mirroring Commands
393
393
port monitor
393
show port monitor
394
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
395
rspan source
397
rspan destination
398
rspan remote vlan
399
no rspan session
400
show rspan
401
– 18 –
Contents
14 Congestion Control Commands
Rate Limit Commands
403
403
rate-limit
404
Storm Control Commands
405
switchport packet-rate
15 Loopback Detection Commands
405
407
loopback-detection
408
loopback-detection action
408
loopback-detection recover-time
409
loopback-detection transmit-interval
410
loopback detection trap
410
loopback-detection release
411
show loopback-detection
411
16 Address Table Commands
413
mac-address-table aging-time
413
mac-address-table static
414
clear collision-mac-address-table
415
clear mac-address-table dynamic
415
show collision-mac-address-table
415
show mac-address-table
416
show mac-address-table aging-time
417
show mac-address-table count
417
17 Spanning Tree Commands
419
spanning-tree
420
spanning-tree cisco-prestandard
421
spanning-tree forward-time
421
spanning-tree hello-time
422
spanning-tree max-age
423
spanning-tree mode
423
spanning-tree mst configuration
425
spanning-tree pathcost method
425
spanning-tree priority
426
spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding
427
– 19 –
Contents
spanning-tree tc-prop
427
spanning-tree transmission-limit
428
max-hops
429
mst priority
429
mst vlan
430
name
431
revision
431
spanning-tree bpdu-filter
432
spanning-tree bpdu-guard
433
spanning-tree cost
434
spanning-tree edge-port
435
spanning-tree link-type
436
spanning-tree loopback-detection
436
spanning-tree loopback-detection action
437
spanning-tree loopback-detection release-mode
438
spanning-tree loopback-detection trap
439
spanning-tree mst cost
439
spanning-tree mst port-priority
440
spanning-tree port-bpdu-flooding
441
spanning-tree port-priority
441
spanning-tree root-guard
442
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
443
spanning-tree tc-prop-stop
443
spanning-tree loopback-detection release
444
spanning-tree protocol-migration
445
show spanning-tree
445
show spanning-tree mst configuration
448
show spanning-tree tc-prop
448
18 VLAN Commands
449
Editing VLAN Groups
449
vlan database
450
vlan
450
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
451
interface vlan
452
– 20 –
Contents
switchport acceptable-frame-types
453
switchport allowed vlan
453
switchport ingress-filtering
455
switchport mode
455
switchport native vlan
456
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
457
457
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
458
dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
459
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
460
switchport dot1q-tunnel priority map
461
switchport dot1q-tunnel service match cvid
461
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid
463
show dot1q-tunnel
464
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
465
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
466
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
467
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
468
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
469
Configuring MAC Based VLANs
469
mac-vlan
470
show mac-vlan
471
Configuring Voice VLANs
471
voice vlan
472
voice vlan aging
473
voice vlan mac-address
474
switchport voice vlan
475
switchport voice vlan priority
475
switchport voice vlan rule
476
switchport voice vlan security
477
show voice vlan
477
19 ERPS Commands
479
erps
481
erps domain
482
– 21 –
Contents
control-vlan
482
enable
483
guard-timer
484
holdoff-timer
485
major-domain
485
meg-level
486
mep-monitor
487
node-id
488
non-erps-dev-protect
488
non-revertive
490
propagate-tc
493
raps-def-mac
494
raps-without-vc
495
ring-port
497
rpl neighbor
498
rpl owner
498
version
499
wtr-timer
500
clear erps statistics
501
erps clear
501
erps forced-switch
502
erps manual-switch
504
show erps
505
20 Class of Service Commands
511
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
511
queue mode
512
queue weight
513
switchport priority default
514
show queue mode
515
show queue weight
515
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
516
qos map cos-queue
516
qos map dscp-queue
518
qos map trust-mode
519
– 22 –
Contents
show qos map cos-queue
520
show qos map dscp-queue
521
show qos map trust-mode
521
21 Quality of Service Commands
523
class-map
524
description
525
match
526
rename
527
policy-map
527
class
528
police rate
529
set cos
530
service-policy
531
show class-map
531
show policy-map
532
show policy-map interface
533
22 Multicast Filtering Commands
535
IGMP Snooping
535
ip igmp snooping
537
ip igmp snooping priority
538
ip igmp snooping proxy-reporting
538
ip igmp snooping querier
539
ip igmp snooping router-alert-option-check
540
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
540
ip igmp snooping tcn-flood
541
ip igmp snooping tcn-query-solicit
542
ip igmp snooping unregistered-data-flood
543
ip igmp snooping unsolicited-report-interval
543
ip igmp snooping version
544
ip igmp snooping version-exclusive
545
ip igmp snooping vlan general-query-suppression
545
ip igmp snooping vlan immediate-leave
546
ip igmp snooping vlan last-memb-query-count
547
ip igmp snooping vlan last-memb-query-intvl
548
– 23 –
Contents
ip igmp snooping vlan mrd
548
ip igmp snooping vlan proxy-address
549
ip igmp snooping vlan query-interval
551
ip igmp snooping vlan query-resp-intvl
551
ip igmp snooping vlan static
552
clear ip igmp snooping groups dynamic
553
clear ip igmp snooping statistics
553
show ip igmp snooping
554
show ip igmp snooping group
555
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
556
show ip igmp snooping statistics
556
Static Multicast Routing
559
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
559
560
ip igmp filter (Global Configuration)
561
ip igmp profile
561
permit, deny
562
range
562
ip igmp filter (Interface Configuration)
563
ip igmp max-groups
564
ip igmp max-groups action
564
ip igmp query-drop
565
ip multicast-data-drop
565
show ip igmp filter
566
show ip igmp profile
567
show ip igmp query-drop
567
show ip igmp throttle interface
568
show ip multicast-data-drop
569
MLD Snooping
569
ipv6 mld snooping
571
ipv6 mld snooping proxy-reporting
571
ipv6 mld snooping querier
572
ipv6 mld snooping query-interval
572
ipv6 mld snooping query-max-response-time
573
ipv6 mld snooping robustness
573
– 24 –
Contents
ipv6 mld snooping router-port-expire-time
574
ipv6 mld snooping unknown-multicast mode
575
ipv6 mld snooping unsolicited-report-interval
575
ipv6 mld snooping version
576
ipv6 mld snooping vlan immediate-leave
576
ipv6 mld snooping vlan mrouter
577
ipv6 mld snooping vlan static
578
clear ipv6 mld snooping groups dynamic
578
clear ipv6 mld snooping statistics
579
show ipv6 mld snooping
579
show ipv6 mld snooping group
580
show ipv6 mld snooping group source-list
581
show ipv6 mld snooping mrouter
581
show ipv6 mld snooping statistics
582
MLD Filtering and Throttling
586
ipv6 mld filter (Global Configuration)
586
ipv6 mld profile
587
permit, deny
588
range
588
ipv6 mld filter (Interface Configuration)
589
ipv6 mld max-groups
589
ipv6 mld max-groups action
590
ipv6 mld query-drop
591
show ipv6 mld filter
591
show ipv6 mld profile
592
show ipv6 mld query-drop
592
show ipv6 mld throttle interface
593
23 LLDP Commands
595
lldp
597
lldp holdtime-multiplier
597
lldp med-fast-start-count
598
lldp notification-interval
598
lldp refresh-interval
599
lldp reinit-delay
599
– 25 –
Contents
lldp tx-delay
600
lldp admin-status
601
lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
601
lldp basic-tlv port-description
602
lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
602
lldp basic-tlv system-description
603
lldp basic-tlv system-name
603
lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
604
lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
604
lldp dot1-tlv pvid
605
lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
605
lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
606
lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
606
lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
607
lldp med-location civic-addr
608
lldp med-notification
609
lldp med-tlv inventory
610
lldp med-tlv location
611
lldp med-tlv med-cap
611
lldp med-tlv network-policy
612
lldp notification
612
show lldp config
613
show lldp info local-device
614
show lldp info remote-device
615
show lldp info statistics
617
24 Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
619
620
ip domain-list
620
ip domain-lookup
621
ip domain-name
622
ip host
622
ip name-server
623
ipv6 host
624
clear dns cache
625
– 26 –
Contents
clear host
625
show dns
626
show dns cache
626
show hosts
627
Multicast DNS Commands
627
ip mdns
627
show ip mdns
628
25 DHCP Commands
629
DHCP Client
629
DHCP for IPv4
630
ip dhcp dynamic-provision
630
ip dhcp client class-id
631
ip dhcp restart client
633
show ip dhcp dynamic-provision
633
DHCP for IPv6
634
ipv6 dhcp client rapid-commit vlan
634
ipv6 dhcp restart client vlan
634
show ipv6 dhcp duid
636
show ipv6 dhcp vlan
636
DHCP Relay
637
ip dhcp relay server
637
ip dhcp restart relay
638
26 IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
641
641
Basic IPv4 Configuration
642
ip address
642
ip default-gateway
644
show ip default-gateway
645
show ip interface
645
show ip traffic
646
traceroute
647
ping
648
ARP Configuration
649
arp
649
– 27 –
Contents
ip proxy-arp
650
clear arp-cache
651
show arp
651
IPv6 Interface
652
Interface Address Configuration and Utilities
653
ipv6 default-gateway
653
ipv6 address
654
ipv6 address autoconfig
655
ipv6 address eui-64
657
ipv6 address link-local
659
ipv6 enable
660
ipv6 mtu
661
show ipv6 default-gateway
662
show ipv6 interface
662
show ipv6 mtu
665
show ipv6 traffic
665
clear ipv6 traffic
670
ping6
670
traceroute6
671
Neighbor Discovery
673
ipv6 nd dad attempts
673
ipv6 nd ns-interval
674
ipv6 nd reachable-time
676
clear ipv6 neighbors
677
show ipv6 neighbors
677
28 IP Routing Commands
Global Routing Configuration
679
679
IPv4 Commands
680
ip route
680
show ip route
681
– 28 –
Contents
Section III
Appendices
683
A Troubleshooting
685
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
685
Using System Logs
686
B License Information
687
The GNU General Public License
687
Glossary
691
Commands
699
Index
707
– 29 –
Contents
– 30 –
Tables
Table 1: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
59
Table 2: Options 55 and 124 Statements
59
Table 3: General Command Modes
71
Table 4: Configuration Command Modes
73
Table 5: Keystroke Commands
73
Table 6: Command Group Index
75
Table 7: General Commands
77
Table 8: System Management Commands
85
Table 9: Device Designation Commands
85
Table 10: System Status Commands
86
Table 11: show access-list tcam-utilization - display description
88
Table 12: show process cpu guard - display description
91
Table 13:
show system – display description
95
Table 14: show version – display description
98
Table 15: Fan Control Commands
99
Table 16: Frame Size Commands
100
Table 17: Flash/File Commands
101
Table 18: File Directory Information
108
Table 19: Line Commands
114
Table 20: Event Logging Commands
125
Table 21: Logging Levels
127
Table 22: show logging flash/ram - display description
131
Table 23: show logging trap - display description
132
Table 24: Event Logging Commands
132
Table 25: Time Commands
136
Table 26: Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
145
Table 27: Time Range Commands
149
Table 28: Switch Cluster Commands
152
Table 29: SNMP Commands
159
– 31 –
Tables
Table 30: show snmp engine-id - display description
174
Table 31: show snmp group - display description
175
Table 32: show snmp user - display description
176
Table 33: show snmp view - display description
177
Table 34: RMON Commands
185
Table 35: sFlow Commands
193
Table 36: Authentication Commands
199
Table 37: User Access Commands
200
Table 38: Default Login Settings
202
Table 39: Authentication Sequence Commands
204
Table 40: RADIUS Client Commands
206
Table 41: TACACS+ Client Commands
210
Table 42: AAA Commands
214
Table 43: Web Server Commands
226
Table 44: HTTPS System Support
230
Table 45: Telnet Server Commands
230
Table 46: Secure Shell Commands
233
Table 47: show ssh - display description
242
Table 48: 802.1X Port Authentication Commands
243
Table 49: Management IP Filter Commands
255
Table 50: General Security Commands
259
Table 51: Management IP Filter Commands
260
Table 52: show port security - display description
263
Table 53: Network Access Commands
265
Table 54: Dynamic QoS Profiles
268
Table 55: Web Authentication
277
Table 56: DHCP Snooping Commands
282
Table 57: Option 82 information
287
Table 58: Option 82 information
292
Table 59: IPv4 Source Guard Commands
298
Table 60: ARP Inspection Commands
305
Table 61: DoS Protection Commands
314
Table 62: Commands for Configuring Traffic Segmentation
319
Table 63: Traffic Segmentation Forwarding
320
Table 64: Access Control List Commands
325
– 32 –
Tables
Table 65: IPv4 ACL Commands
325
Table 66: IPv6 ACL Commands
332
Table 67: MAC ACL Commands
338
Table 68: ARP ACL Commands
344
Table 69: ACL Information Commands
346
Table 70: Interface Commands
349
Table 71: show interfaces counters - display description
360
Table 72: show interfaces switchport - display description
365
Table 73: Link Aggregation Commands
379
Table 74: show lacp counters - display description
389
Table 75: show lacp internal - display description
390
Table 76: show lacp neighbors - display description
391
Table 77: show lacp sysid - display description
392
Table 78: Port Mirroring Commands
393
Table 79: Mirror Port Commands
393
Table 80: RSPAN Commands
395
Table 81: Congestion Control Commands
403
Table 82: Rate Limit Commands
403
Table 83: Rate Limit Commands
405
Table 84: Loopback Detection Commands
407
Table 85: Address Table Commands
413
Table 86: Spanning Tree Commands
419
Table 87: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
434
Table 88: Default STA Path Costs
434
Table 89: VLAN Commands
449
Table 90: Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
449
Table 91: Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
451
Table 92: Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
457
Table 93:
458
802.1Q Tunneling Commands
Table 94: Protocol-based VLAN Commands
466
Table 95: MAC Based VLAN Commands
469
Table 96: Voice VLAN Commands
471
Table 97: ERPS Commands
479
Table 98: ERPS Request/State Priority
503
Table 99: show erps - summary display description
506
– 33 –
Tables
Table 100: show erps domain - detailed display description
507
Table 101: show erps statistics - detailed display description
509
Table 102: Priority Commands
511
Table 103: Priority Commands (Layer 2)
511
Table 104: Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
516
Table 105: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI Values to Queue/CFI
517
Table 106: Default Mapping of DSCP/CFI Values to Queue
518
Table 107: Quality of Service Commands
523
Table 108: Multicast Filtering Commands
535
Table 109: IGMP Snooping Commands
535
Table 110: show ip igmp snooping statistics input - display description
557
Table 111: show ip igmp snooping statistics output - display description
557
Table 112: show ip igmp snooping statistics vlan query - display description
558
Table 113: Static Multicast Interface Commands
559
Table 114: IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
560
Table 115: MLD Snooping Commands
570
Table 116: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics input - display description
582
Table 117: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics output - display description
583
Table 118: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics query - display description
584
Table 119: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics summary - display description
585
Table 120: MLD Filtering and Throttling Commands
586
Table 121: LLDP Commands
595
Table 122: LLDP MED Location CA Types
608
Table 123: Address Table Commands
619
Table 124: show dns cache - display description
626
Table 125: show hosts - display description
627
Table 126: DHCP Commands
629
Table 127: DHCP Client Commands
629
Table 128: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
632
Table 129: Options 55 and 124 Statements
632
Table 130: DHCP Relay Option 82 Commands
637
Table 131: IP Interface Commands
641
Table 132: IPv4 Interface Commands
641
Table 133: Basic IP Configuration Commands
642
Table 134: Address Resolution Protocol Commands
649
– 34 –
Tables
Table 135: IPv6 Configuration Commands
652
Table 136: show ipv6 interface - display description
663
Table 137: show ipv6 mtu - display description
665
Table 138: show ipv6 traffic - display description
666
Table 139: show ipv6 neighbors - display description
677
Table 160: IP Routing Commands
679
Table 161: Global Routing Configuration Commands
679
Table 162: Troubleshooting Chart
685
– 35 –
Tables
– 36 –
Section I
Getting Started
This section describes how to configure the switch for management access through
the web interface or SNMP.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
"Initial Switch Configuration" on page 39
– 37 –
Section I | Getting Started
– 38 –
1
Initial Switch Configuration
This chapter includes information on connecting to the switch and basic
configuration procedures.
Connecting to the Switch
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a
variety of management options, including SNMP, RMON and a web-based interface.
A PC may also be connected directly to the switch for configuration and monitoring
via a command line interface (CLI).
Note: An IPv4 address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To change
this address, see “Setting an IP Address” on page 43.
Configuration Options The switch’s HTTP web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics using a standard web browser such as
Internet Explorer 9, Mozilla Firefox 39, or Google Chrome 44, or more recent
versions. The switch’s web management interface can be accessed from any
computer attached to the network.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from
any system in the network using network management software.
The switch’s web interface, console interface, and SNMP agent allow you to
perform the following management functions:
◆
Set user names and passwords
◆
Set an IP interface for any VLAN
◆
Configure SNMP parameters
◆
Enable/disable any port
◆
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
◆
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
◆
Control port access through IEEE 802.1X security or static address filtering
– 39 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
◆
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
◆
Configure up to 4094 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
◆
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
◆
Configure IP routing for unicast traffic
◆
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
◆
Upload and download system firmware or configuration files via HTTP (using
the web interface) or FTP/SFTP/TFTP (using the command line or web interface)
◆
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
◆
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
◆
Configure static or LACP trunks (up to 8)
◆
Enable port mirroring
◆
Set storm control on any port for excessive broadcast, multicast, or unknown
unicast traffic
◆
Display system information and statistics
Connecting to the The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
Console Port terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in the
Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1. Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2. Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-45 serial port on the switch.
3. Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
■
Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
■
Set the baud rate to 115200 bps.
■
Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
■
Set flow control to none.
■
Set the emulation mode to VT100.
■
When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
– 40 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
4. Power on the switch.
After the system completes the boot cycle, the logon screen appears.
Logging Onto the The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
Command Line (Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
Interface available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1. To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2. At the User Name prompt, enter “admin.”
3. At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
4. The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
Setting Passwords If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1. Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin”
to access the Privileged Exec level.
2. Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
3. Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
– 41 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
4. Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T* is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
* This manual covers the ECS2110-26T and the ECS2100-52T Gigabit Ethernet
switch. Other than the difference in port types, there are no significant
differences.
Remote Connections Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IPv4 or IPv6 address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using a console connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. To configure this device as
the default gateway, use the ip default-gateway command.
An IPv4 address for the switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually
configure this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP, see
“Setting an IP Address” on page 43.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet or SSH from any computer
attached to the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a
web browser (Internet Explorer 6, Mozilla Firefox 4, or Google Chrome 29, or more
recent versions), or from a network computer using SNMP network management
software.
Note: This switch supports eight Telnet sessions or SSH sessions.
Note: Any VLAN group can be assigned an IP interface address (page 43) for
managing the switch.
The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use SNMP-based
network management software.
– 42 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
Using the Network The switch can be managed through the operational network, known as in-band
Interface management. Because in-band management traffic is mixed in with operational
network traffic, it is subject to all of the filtering rules usually applied to a standard
network ports such as ACLs and VLAN tagging. In-band network management can
be accessed via a connection to any network port (1-26/52).
Setting an IP Address You must establish IP address information for a switch to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet
mask. If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the switch, you
will also need to specify the default gateway router. To configure this device as the
default gateway, use the ip default-gateway command.
◆
Dynamic — The switch can send IPv4 configuration requests to BOOTP or
DHCP address allocation servers on the network, or automatically generate a
unique IPv6 host address based on the local subnet address prefix received in
router advertisement messages. An IPv6 link local address for use in a local
network can also be dynamically generated as described in “Obtaining an IPv6
Address” on page 48.
This switch is designed as a router, and therefore does not support DHCP for
IPv6, so an IPv6 global unicast address for use in a network containing more
than one subnet can only be manually configured as described in “Assigning an
IPv6 Address” on page 44.
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify a
default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment. Valid IPv4 addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Note: The default IPv4 address and subnet mask for VLAN 1 is 192.168.2.10
255.255.255.255, with no defined default gateway.
– 43 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
Assigning an IPv4 Address
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
◆
IP address for the switch
◆
Network mask for this network
◆
Default gateway for the network
To assign an IPv4 address to the switch, complete the following steps
1. From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2. Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3. Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4. To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Assigning an IPv6 Address
This section describes how to configure a “link local” address for connectivity
within the local subnet only, and also how to configure a “global unicast” address,
including a network prefix for use on a multi-segment network and the host
portion of the address.
An IPv6 prefix or address must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One
double colon may be used to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to
fill the undefined fields. For detailed information on the other ways to assign IPv6
addresses, see “IPv6 Interface” on page 652.
Link Local Address — All link-local addresses must be configured with a prefix in
the range of FE80~FEBF. Remember that this address type makes the switch
accessible over IPv6 for all devices attached to the same local subnet only. Also, if
the switch detects that the address you configured conflicts with that in use by
another device on the subnet, it will stop using the address in question, and
automatically generate a link local address that does not conflict with any other
devices on the local subnet.
– 44 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
To configure an IPv6 link local address for the switch, complete the following steps:
1. From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2. Type “ipv6 address” followed by up to 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values for the ipv6-address similar to that shown in the example, followed by
the “link-local” command parameter. Then press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6700 link-local
Console(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled.
Link-local address:
fe80::260:3eff:fe11:6700%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
(None)
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff11:6700
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Address for Multi-segment Network — Before you can assign an IPv6 address to the
switch that will be used to connect to a multi-segment network, you must obtain
the following information from your network administrator:
◆
Prefix for this network
◆
IP address for the switch
◆
Default gateway for the network
For networks that encompass several different subnets, you must define the full
address, including a network prefix and the host address for the switch. You can
specify either the full IPv6 address, or the IPv6 address and prefix length. The prefix
length for an IPv6 network is the number of bits (from the left) of the prefix that
form the network address, and is expressed as a decimal number. For example, all
IPv6 addresses that start with the first byte of 73 (hexadecimal) could be expressed
as 73:0:0:0:0:0:0:0/8 or 73::/8.
– 45 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
To generate an IPv6 global unicast address for the switch, complete the following
steps:
1. From the global configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2. From the interface prompt, type “ipv6 address ipv6-address” or “ipv6 address
ipv6-address/prefix-length,” where “prefix-length” indicates the address bits
used to form the network portion of the address. (The network address starts
from the left of the prefix and should encompass some of the ipv6-address
bits.) The remaining bits are assigned to the host interface. Press <Enter>.
3. Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4. To set the IP address of the IPv6 default gateway for the network to which the
switch belongs, type “ipv6 default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the
IPv6 address of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2222:7272::/64
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ipv6 default-gateway 2001:DB8:2222:7272::254
Console(config)end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is Administrative Up - Link Up
Address is 00-E0-0C-00-00-FD
Index: 1001, MTU: 1500
Address Mode is DHCP
IPv6 is enabled.
Link-local address:
fe80::260:3eff:fe11:6700%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:2222:7272::/64, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/64
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff00:0
ff02::1:ff11:6700
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#show ipv6 default-gateway
IPv6 default gateway 2001:db8:2222:7272::254
Console#
– 46 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
Dynamic Configuration
Obtaining an IPv4 Address
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, the system will immediately start
broadcasting service requests. IP will be enabled but will not function until a
BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests are broadcast every few minutes
using exponential backoff until IP configuration information is obtained from a
BOOTP or DHCP server. BOOTP and DHCP values can include the IP address, subnet
mask, and default gateway. If the DHCP/BOOTP server is slow to respond, you may
need to use the “ip dhcp restart client” command to re-start broadcasting service
requests.
Note that the “ip dhcp restart client” command can also be used to start
broadcasting service requests for all VLANs configured to obtain address
assignments through BOOTP or DHCP. It may be necessary to use this command
when DHCP is configured on a VLAN, and the member ports which were previously
shut down are now enabled.
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file (step 6), then the
switch will start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1. From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2. At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following
commands:
■
To obtain IP settings via DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press <Enter>.
■
To obtain IP settings via BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press <Enter>.
3. Type “end” to return to the Privileged Exec mode. Press <Enter>.
4. Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
5. Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config startupconfig.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
– 47 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Configuring the Switch for Remote Management
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ip interface
VLAN 1 is Administrative Up - Link Up
Address is 00-E0-0C-00-00-FD
Index: 1001, MTU: 1500
Address Mode is DHCP
IP Address: 192.168.0.4 Mask: 255.255.255.0
Proxy ARP is disabled
DHCP Client Vendor Class ID (text): ECS4110-28
DHCP Relay Server:
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Obtaining an IPv6 Address
Link Local Address — There are several ways to configure IPv6 addresses. The
simplest method is to automatically generate a “link local” address (identified by an
address prefix in the range of FE80~FEBF). This address type makes the switch
accessible over IPv6 for all devices attached to the same local subnet.
To generate an IPv6 link local address for the switch, complete the following steps:
1. From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2. Type “ipv6 enable” and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled.
Link-local address:
fe80::2e0:cff:fe00:fd%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:2222:7272::/64, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/64
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff00:0
ff02::1:ff11:6700
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
– 48 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications such as Edge-Core ECView Pro.
You can configure the switch to respond to SNMP requests or generate SNMP traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets
the specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
The switch includes an SNMP agent that supports SNMP version 1, 2c, and 3 clients.
To provide management access for version 1 or 2c clients, you must specify a
community string. The switch provides a default MIB View (i.e., an SNMPv3
construct) for the default “public” community string that provides read access to
the entire MIB tree, and a default view for the “private” community string that
provides read/write access to the entire MIB tree. However, you may assign new
views to version 1 or 2c community strings that suit your specific security
requirements (see snmp-server view command).
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP version 1 and
2c stations, as well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from the
switch. You therefore need to assign community strings to specified users, and set
the access level.
The default strings are:
◆
public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able
to retrieve MIB objects.
◆
private - with read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to
both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch from SNMP version 1 or 2c clients, it is
recommended that you change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1. From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type “snmpserver community string mode,” where “string” is the community access string
and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>. (Note that the
default mode is read only.)
2. To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
– 49 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
Note: If you do not intend to support access to SNMP version 1 and 2c clients, we
recommend that you delete both of the default community strings. If there are no
community strings, then SNMP management access from SNMP v1 and v2c clients
is disabled.
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch. To
configure a trap receiver, use the “snmp-server host” command. From the
Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type:
“snmp-server host host-address community-string [version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth |
noauth | priv}}]”
where “host-address” is the IP address for the trap receiver, “community-string”
specifies access rights for a version 1/2c host, or is the user name of a version 3 host,
“version” indicates the SNMP client version, and “auth | noauth | priv” means that
authentication, no authentication, or authentication and privacy is used for v3
clients. Then press <Enter>. For a more detailed description of these parameters,
see the snmp-server host command. The following example creates a trap host for
each type of SNMP client.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.98 robin version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.34 barbie version 3 auth
Console(config)#
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
To configure management access for SNMPv3 clients, you need to first create a
view that defines the portions of MIB that the client can read or write, assign the
view to a group, and then assign the user to a group. The following example creates
one view called “mib-2” that includes the entire MIB-2 tree branch, and then
another view that includes the IEEE 802.1d bridge MIB. It assigns these respective
read and read/write views to a group call “r&d” and specifies group authentication
via MD5 or SHA. In the last step, it assigns a v3 user to this group, indicating that
MD5 will be used for authentication, provides the password “greenpeace” for
authentication, and the password “einstien” for encryption.
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#snmp-server
des56 einstien
Console(config)#
– 50 –
view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
view 802.1d 1.3.6.1.2.1.17 included
group r&d v3 auth read mib-2 write 802.1d
user steve group r&d v3 auth md5 greenpeace priv
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Managing System Files
For a more detailed explanation on how to configure the switch for access from
SNMP v3 clients, refer to “SNMP Commands” on page 159 or to the Web
Management Guide.
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be
managed by the CLI program, the web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system
allows files to be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up
file.
The types of files are:
◆
Configuration — This file type stores system configuration information and is
created when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be
selected as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via FTP/SFTP/TFTP to a
server for backup. The file named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the
system default settings and cannot be deleted from the system. If the system is
booted with the factory default settings, the switch will also create a file named
“startup1.cfg” that contains system settings for switch initialization, including
information about the unit identifier, and MAC address for the switch. The
configuration settings from the factory defaults configuration file are copied to
this file, which is then used to boot the switch. See “Saving or Restoring
Configuration Settings” on page 52 for more information.
◆
Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also
known as run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the
CLI and web management interfaces.
◆
Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
Note: The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the
FTP/SFTP/TFTP server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new
firmware, or contact your distributor for help.
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files. However, you can have as many diagnostic code files and configuration
files as available flash memory space allows. The switch has a total of 128 Mbytes of
flash memory for system files.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects
the contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-
– 51 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Managing System Files
config, the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
Upgrading the The following example shows how to download new firmware to the switch and
Operation Code activate it. The TFTP server could be any standards-compliant server running on
Windows or Linux. When downloading from an FTP server, the logon interface will
prompt for a user name and password configured on the remote server. Note that
“anonymous” is set as the default user name.
File names on the switch are case-sensitive. The destination file name should not
contain slashes (\ or /), and the maximum length for file names is 32 characters for
files on the switch or 128 characters for files on the server. (Valid characters: A-Z,
a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”)
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: 2
Source file name: m360.bix
Destination file name: m360.bix
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode: m360.bix
Console(config)#exit
Console#dir
File Name
Type
Startup Modified Time
Size (bytes)
------------------------------ ------- ------- ------------------- -----------Unit 1:
ECS2110_V0.0.2.5.bix
OpCode Y
2016-07-06 10:51:57
8941832
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config N
2015-07-01 07:24:11
455
startup1.cfg
Config Y
2015-07-01 07:24:22
1343
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Free space for compressed user config files:
24043520
Total space:
32 MB
Console#
Saving or Restoring Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
Configuration saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
Settings nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
New startup configuration files must have a name specified. File names on the
switch are case-sensitive, can be from 1 to 31 characters, must not contain slashes
(\ or /), and the leading letter of the file name must not be a period (.). (Valid
characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
There can be more than one user-defined configuration file saved in the switch’s
flash memory, but only one is designated as the “startup” file that is loaded when
the switch boots. The copy running-config startup-config command always sets
– 52 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Managing System Files
the new file as the startup file. To select a previously saved configuration file, use
the boot system config:<filename> command.
The maximum number of saved configuration files depends on available flash
memory. The amount of available flash memory can be checked by using the dir
command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1. From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config startupconfig” and press <Enter>.
2. Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
To restore configuration settings from a backup server, enter the following
command:
1. From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy tftp startup-config” and
press <Enter>.
2. Enter the address of the TFTP server. Press <Enter>.
3. Enter the name of the startup file stored on the server. Press <Enter>.
4. Enter the name for the startup file on the switch. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.0.4
Source configuration file name: startup-rd.cfg
Startup configuration file name [startup1.cfg]:
Success.
Console#
– 53 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
Downloading Automatic Operation Code Upgrade can automatically download an operation
Operation Code code file when a file newer than the currently installed one is discovered on the file
from a File Server server. After the file is transferred from the server and successfully written to the file
system, it is automatically set as the startup file, and the switch is rebooted.
Usage Guidelines
◆ If this feature is enabled, the switch searches the defined URL once during the
bootup sequence.
◆
FTP (port 21) and TFTP (port 69) are both supported. Note that the TCP/UDP
port bindings cannot be modified to support servers listening on non-standard
ports.
◆
The host portion of the upgrade file location URL must be a valid IPv4 IP
address. DNS host names are not recognized. Valid IP addresses consist of four
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
◆
The path to the directory must also be defined. If the file is stored in the root
directory for the FTP/TFTP service, then use the “/” to indicate this (e.g.,
ftp://192.168.0.1/).
◆
The file name must not be included in the upgrade file location URL. The file
name of the code stored on the remote server must be ECS2110-series.bix
(using lower case letters as indicated).
◆
The FTP connection is made with PASV mode enabled. PASV mode is needed to
traverse some fire walls, even if FTP traffic is not blocked. PASV mode cannot be
disabled.
◆
The switch-based search function is case-insensitive in that it will accept a file
name in upper or lower case (i.e., the switch will accept ECS2110-Series.BIX from
the server even though ECS2110-series.bix was requested). However, keep in
mind that the file systems of many operating systems such as Unix and most
Unix-like systems (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and most Linux distributions,
etc.) are case-sensitive, meaning that two files in the same directory,
ecs2110_series.bix and ECS2110_Series.BIX are considered to be unique files.
Thus, if the upgrade file is stored as ECS2110_Series.BIX (or even
Ecs2110_Series.bix) on a case-sensitive server, then the switch (requesting
ECS2110_Series.BIX) will not be upgraded because the server does not
recognize the requested file name and the stored file name as being equal. A
notable exception in the list of case-sensitive Unix-like operating systems is
Mac OS X, which by default is case-insensitive. Please check the documentation
for your server’s operating system if you are unsure of its file system’s behavior.
– 54 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
◆
Note that the switch itself does not distinguish between upper and lower-case
file names, and only checks to see if the file stored on the server is more recent
than the current runtime image.
◆
If two operation code image files are already stored on the switch’s file system,
then the non-startup image is deleted before the upgrade image is transferred.
◆
The automatic upgrade process will take place in the background without
impeding normal operations (data switching, etc.) of the switch.
◆
During the automatic search and transfer process, the administrator cannot
transfer or update another operation code image, configuration file, public key,
or HTTPS certificate (i.e., no other concurrent file management operations are
possible).
◆
The upgrade operation code image is set as the startup image after it has been
successfully written to the file system.
◆
The switch will send an SNMP trap and make a log entry upon all upgrade
successes and failures.
◆
The switch will immediately restart after the upgrade file is successfully written
to the file system and set as the startup image.
To enable automatic upgrade, enter the following commands:
1. Specify the TFTP or FTP server to check for new operation code.
■
When specifying a TFTP server, the following syntax must be used, where
filedir indicates the path to the directory containing the new image:
tftp://192.168.0.1[/filedir]/
■
When specifying an FTP server, the following syntax must be used, where
filedir indicates the path to the directory containing the new image:
ftp://[username[:password@]]192.168.0.1[/filedir]/
If the user name is omitted, “anonymous” will be used for the connection. If
the password is omitted a null string (“”) will be used for the connection.
If no user name nor password is required for the connection, then the “@”
character cannot be used in the path name.
This shows how to specify a TFTP server where new code is stored.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode path tftp://192.168.0.1/sm24/
Console(config)#
– 55 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
This shows how to specify an FTP server where new code is stored.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode path ftp://site9:billy@192.168.0.1/sm24/
Console(config)#
2. Set the switch to automatically reboot and load the new code after the opcode
upgrade is completed.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode reload
Console(config)#
3. Set the switch to automatically upgrade the current operational code when a
new version is detected on the server. When the switch starts up and automatic
image upgrade is enabled by this command, the switch will follow these steps
when it boots up:
a. It will search for a new version of the image at the location specified by
upgrade opcode path command. The name for the new image stored on
the FTP/SFTP/TFTP server must be ECS2110-series.bix. If the switch detects
a code version newer than the one currently in use, it will download the
new image. If two code images are already stored in the switch, the image
not set to start up the system will be overwritten by the new version.
b. After the image has been downloaded, the switch will send a trap message
to log whether or not the upgrade operation was successful.
c. It sets the new version as the startup image.
d. It then restarts the system to start using the new image.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode auto
Console(config)#
4. Display the automatic upgrade settings.
Console#show upgrade
Auto Image Upgrade Global Settings:
Status
: Enabled
Reload Status : Enabled
Path
:
File Name : ECS2110-series.bix
Console#
The following shows an example of the upgrade process.
Console#dir
File Name
Type Startup Modify Time
Size(bytes)
-------------------------- -------------- ------- ------------------- ------Unit 1:
ECS2110_V1.1.1.25.bix
OpCode
Y
2015-11-30 08:40:36
8037063
– 56 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Automatic Installation of Operation Code and Configuration Settings
ECS2110_V1.1.10.171.bix
OpCode
Y
2015-11-30 08:40:36
8058496
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config
N
2015-04-13 13:55:58
455
startup1.cfg
Config
Y
2015-07-13 04:03:49
1707
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Free space for compressed user config files:
1355776
Total space:
32 MB
...
Press ENTER to start session
Automatic Upgrade is looking for a new image
New image detected: current version V1.1.1.27; new version V1.1.1.31
Image upgrade in progress
Downloading new image
Flash programming started
Flash programming completed
Success
The switch will now restart
...
Press ENTER to start session
Automatic Upgrade is looking for a new image
No new image detected
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#dir
File Name
Type Startup Modify Time
Size(bytes)
-------------------------- -------------- ------- ------------------- ------Unit 1:
ECS2110_V1.1.1.27.bix
OpCode
N
2015-06-10 11:21:26
8058496
ECS2110_V1.1.10.171.bix
OpCode
Y
2015-11-30 08:40:36
8098056
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config
N
2015-04-13 13:55:58
455
startup1.cfg
Config
Y
2015-07-13 04:03:49
1707
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Free space for compressed user config files:
1310720
Total space:
32 MB
Console#
Specifying a DHCP DHCP servers index their database of address bindings using the client’s Media
Client Identifier Access Control (MAC) Address or a unique client identifier. The client identifier is
used to identify the vendor class and configuration of the switch to the DHCP
server, which then uses this information to decide on how to service the client or
the type of information to return.
DHCP client Identifier (Option 60) is used by DHCP clients to specify their unique
identifier. The client identifier is optional and can be specified while configuring
DHCP on the primary network interface. DHCP Option 60 is disabled by default.
The general framework for this DHCP option is set out in RFC 2132 (Option 60). This
information is used to convey configuration settings or other identification
information about a client, but the specific string to use should be supplied by your
service provider or network administrator. Options 60 (vendor-class-identifier), 66
(tftp-server-name) and 67 (bootfile-name) statements can be added to the server
daemon’s configuration file as described in the following section.
– 57 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Downloading a Configuration File and Other Parameters from a DHCP Server
If the DHCP server has an index entry for a switch requesting service, it should reply
with the TFTP server name and boot file name. Note that the vendor class identifier
can be formatted in either text or hexadecimal, but the format used by both the
client and server must be the same.
Console(config)#interface vlan 2
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp client class-id hex 0000e8666572
Console(config-if)#
Downloading a Configuration File and Other Parameters from a DHCP Server
Information passed on to the switch from a DHCP server may also include a
configuration file to be downloaded and the TFTP servers where that file can be
accessed, as well as other parameters. If the Factory Default Configuration file is
used to provision the switch at startup, in addition to requesting IP configuration
settings from the DHCP server, it will also ask for the name of a bootup
configuration file and TFTP servers where that file is stored.
If the switch receives information that allows it to download the remote bootup file,
it will save this file to a local buffer, and then restart the provision process.
Note the following DHCP client behavior:
◆
To enable dynamic provisioning via a DHCP server, this feature must be
enabled using the ip dhcp dynamic-provision command.
◆
The bootup configuration file received from a TFTP server is stored on the
switch with the original file name. If this file name already exists in the switch,
the file is overwritten.
◆
If the name of the bootup configuration file is the same as the Factory Default
Configuration file, the download procedure will be terminated, and the switch
will not send any further DHCP client requests.
◆
If the switch fails to download the bootup configuration file based on
information passed by the DHCP server, it will not send any further DHCP client
requests.
◆
If the switch does not receive a DHCP response prior to completing the bootup
process, it will continue to send a DHCP client request once a minute. These
requests will only be terminated if the switch’s address is manually configured,
but will resume if the address mode is set back to DHCP.
– 58 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Downloading a Configuration File and Other Parameters from a DHCP Server
To successfully transmit a bootup configuration file to the switch, the DHCP
daemon (using a Linux based system for this example) must be configured with the
following information:
◆
Options 60, 66 and 67 statements can be added to the daemon’s configuration
file.
Table 1: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
Statement
Option
◆
Keyword
Parameter
60
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
66
tftp-server-name
a string indicating the tftp server name
67
bootfile-name
a string indicating the bootfile name
By default, DHCP option 66/67 parameters are not carried in a DHCP server
reply. To ask for a DHCP reply with option 66/67 information, the DHCP client
request sent by this switch includes a “parameter request list” asking for this
information. Besides these items, the client request also includes a “vendor
class identifier” that allows the DHCP server to identify the device, and select
the appropriate configuration file for download. This information is included in
Option 55 and 124.
Table 2: Options 55 and 124 Statements
Statement
Option
Keyword
Parameter
55
dhcp-parameter-request-list
a list of parameters, separated by a comma ', '
124
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
The following configuration example is provided for a Linux-based DHCP daemon
(dhcpd.conf file). In the “Vendor class” section, the server will always send Option
66 and 67 to tell the switch to download the “test” configuration file from server
192.168.255.101.
ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
log-facility local7;
server-name "Server1";
Server-identifier 192.168.255.250;
#option 66, 67
option space dynamicProvision code width 1 length 1 hash size 2;
option dynamicProvision.tftp-server-name code 66 = text;
option dynamicProvision.bootfile-name code 67 = text;
– 59 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Setting the System Clock
subnet 192.168.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.255.160 192.168.255.200;
option routers 192.168.255.101;
option tftp-server-name "192.168.255.100"; #Default Option 66
option bootfile-name "bootfile";
#Default Option 67
}
class "Option66,67_1" {
#DHCP Option 60 Vendor class
two
match if option vendor-class-identifier = "ecs2110-26t.cfg";
option tftp-server-name "192.168.255.101";
option bootfile-name "test";
}
Note: Use “ecs2110-26t.cfg” for the vendor-class-identifier in the dhcpd.conf file.
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) or Network Time Protocol (NTP) can be used
to set the switch’s internal clock based on periodic updates from a time server.
Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record
meaningful dates and times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock. If
the clock is not set manually or via SNTP or NTP, the switch will only record the time
from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
The switch also supports the following time settings:
◆
Time Zone – You can specify the offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),
also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
◆
Summer Time/Daylight Saving Time (DST) – In some regions, the time shifts by
one hour in the fall and spring. The switch supports manual entry for one-time
or recurring clock shifts.
Setting the Time To manually set the clock to 14:11:36, April 1st, 2013, enter this command.
Manually
Console#calendar set 14 11 36 1 April 2013
Console#
To set the time zone, enter a command similar to the following.
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 after-UTC
Console(config)#
– 60 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Setting the System Clock
To set the time shift for summer time, enter a command similar to the following.
Console(config)#clock summer-time SUMMER date 2 april 2013 0 0 30 june 2013 0
0
Console(config)#
To display the clock configuration settings, enter the following command.
Console#show calendar
Current Time
Time Zone
Summer Time
: Jul 28 00:54:20 2015
: Japan, 08:00
: SUMMER, offset 60 minutes
Apr 2 2013 00:00 to Jun 30 2015 00:00
Summer Time in Effect : Yes
Console#
Configuring SNTP Setting the clock based on an SNTP server can provide more accurate clock
synchronization across network switches than manually-configured time. To
configure SNTP, set the switch as an SNTP client, and then set the polling interval,
and specify a time server as shown in the following example.
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#exit
Console#show sntp
Current Time
: Apr 2 16:06:07 2013
Poll Interval : 60 seconds
Current Mode
: Unicast
SNTP Status
: Enabled
SNTP Server
: 10.1.0.19
Current Server : 10.1.0.19
Console#
Configuring NTP Requesting the time from a an NTP server is the most secure method. You can
enable NTP authentication to ensure that reliable updates are received from only
authorized NTP servers. The authentication keys and their associated key number
must be centrally managed and manually distributed to NTP servers and clients.
The key numbers and key values must match on both the server and client.
When more than one time server is configured, the client will poll all of the time
servers, and compare the responses to determine the most reliable and accurate
time update for the switch.
To configure NTP time synchronization, enter commands similar to the following.
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
client
authentication-key 45 md5 thisiskey45
authenticate
server 192.168.3.20
– 61 –
Chapter 1 | Initial Switch Configuration
Setting the System Clock
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.3.21
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.5.23 key 19
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ntp
Current Time
: Apr 29 13:57:32 2011
Polling
: 1024 seconds
Current Mode
: unicast
NTP Status
: Enabled
NTP Authenticate Status : Enabled
Last Update NTP Server
: 192.168.0.88
Port: 123
Last Update Time
: Mar 12 02:41:01 2013 UTC
NTP Server 192.168.0.88 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.21 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.4.22 version 3 key 19
NTP Authentication Key 19 md5 42V68751663T6K11P2J307210R885
Current Time
: Apr 2 16:28:34 2013
Polling
: 1024 seconds
Current Mode
: unicast
NTP Status
: Enabled
NTP Authenticate Status : Enabled
Last Update NTP Server
: 192.168.5.23
Port: 0
Last Update Time
: Apr 2 16:00:00 2013 UTC
NTP Server 192.168.3.20 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.21 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.5.23 version 3 key 19
NTP Authentication Key 45 md5 2662T75S5658RU5424180034777
Console#
– 62 –
Section II
Command Line Interface
This section provides a detailed description of the Command Line Interface, along
with examples for all of the commands.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
“Using the Command Line Interface” on page 65
◆
“General Commands” on page 77
◆
“System Management Commands” on page 85
◆
“SNMP Commands” on page 159
◆
“Remote Monitoring Commands” on page 185
◆
“Flow Sampling Commands” on page 193
◆
“Authentication Commands” on page 199
◆
“General Security Measures” on page 259
◆
“Access Control Lists” on page 325
◆
“Interface Commands” on page 349
◆
“Link Aggregation Commands” on page 379
◆
“Port Mirroring Commands” on page 393
◆
“Congestion Control Commands” on page 403
◆
“Loopback Detection Commands” on page 407
◆
“Address Table Commands” on page 413
◆
“Spanning Tree Commands” on page 419
– 63 –
Section II | Command Line Interface
◆
“VLAN Commands” on page 449
◆
“ERPS Commands” on page 479
◆
“Class of Service Commands” on page 511
◆
“Quality of Service Commands” on page 523
◆
“Multicast Filtering Commands” on page 535
◆
“LLDP Commands” on page 595
◆
“Domain Name Service Commands” on page 619
◆
“DHCP Commands” on page 629
◆
“IP Interface Commands” on page 641
◆
“IP Routing Commands” on page 679
– 64 –
2
Using the Command Line
Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Note: You can only access the console interface through the Master unit in the
stack.
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet or Secure Shell connection (SSH), the
switch can be managed by entering command keywords and parameters at the
prompt. Using the switch's command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering
commands on a UNIX system.
Console Connection To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1. At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2. Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3. When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
– 65 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Telnet Connection Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the
network must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0
to 255, separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host
portion. For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, consists of a
network portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the Master unit, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
Console(config)#
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps:
1. From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address or host
name of the device you want to access.
2. At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-n#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-n>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec), where n indicates the number
of the current Telnet session.
3. Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4. When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
– 66 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Note: You can open up to eight sessions to the device via Telnet or SSH.
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
Arguments command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
◆
To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
◆
To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter the following commands. The default password “super” is
used to change from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec mode:
Console>enable
Password:
Console#show startup-config
◆
To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters
after the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the
administrator, enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
Abbreviation command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
Completion partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example,
typing log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
– 67 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Getting Help You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
on Commands command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords or command groups. You can also display a list of valid keywords for a
specific command. For example, the command “show system ?” displays a list of
possible show commands:
Console#show ?
cluster
dns
dot1q-tunnel
sflow
upgrade
access-group
access-list
accounting
arp
authorization
bridge-ext
cable-diagnostics
calendar
class-map
debug
dns
dos-protection
dot1q-tunnel
dot1x
erps
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
ipv6
lacp
license
line
lldp
log
logging
loopback-detection
mac
mac-address-table
mac-vlan
management
memory
network-access
nlm
ntp
policy-map
port
port-channel
power-save
privilege
process
protocol-vlan
public-key
qos
Display cluster
DNS information
802.1Q tunnel
Shows the sflow information
Shows upgrade information
Access groups
Access lists
Uses the specified accounting list
Information of ARP cache
Enables EXEC accounting
Bridge extension information
Shows the information of cable diagnostics
Date and time information
Displays class maps
State of each debugging option
DNS information
Shows the system dos-protection summary information
802.1Q tunnel
802.1X content
Displays ERPS configuration
Shows history information
Host information
Shows interface information
IP information
IPv6 information
LACP statistics
Show license
TTY line information
LLDP
Log records
Logging setting
Shows loopback detection information
MAC access list
Configuration of the address table
MAC-based VLAN information
Shows management information
Memory utilization
Shows the entries of the secure port.
Show notification log
Network Time Protocol configuration
Displays policy maps
Port characteristics
Port channel information
Shows the power saving information
Shows current privilege level
Device process
Protocol-VLAN information
Public key information
Quality of Service
– 68 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
queue
radius-server
reload
rmon
rspan
running-config
sflow
snmp
snmp-server
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
subnet-vlan
system
tacacs-server
tech-support
time-range
traffic-segmentation
upgrade
users
version
vlan
voice
watchdog
web-auth
Console#show
Priority queue information
RADIUS server information
Shows the reload settings
Remote monitoring information
Display status of the current RSPAN configuration
Information on the running configuration
Shows the sflow information
Simple Network Management Protocol configuration and
statistics
Displays SNMP server configuration
Simple Network Time Protocol configuration
Spanning-tree configuration
Secure shell server connections
Startup system configuration
IP subnet-based VLAN information
System information
TACACS server information
Technical information
Time range
Traffic segmentation information
Shows upgrade information
Information about users logged in
System hardware and software versions
Shows virtual LAN settings
Shows the voice VLAN information
Displays watchdog status
Shows web authentication configuration
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
brief
Shows brief interface description
counters
Interface counters information
history
Historical sample of interface counters information
protocol-vlan
Protocol-VLAN information
status
Shows interface status
switchport
Shows interface switchport information
transceiver
Interface of transceiver information
transceiver-threshold Interface of transceiver-threshold information
Console#
Show commands which display more than one page of information (e.g., show
running-config) pause and require you to press the [Space] bar to continue
displaying one more page, the [Enter] key to display one more line, or the [a] key to
display the rest of the information without stopping. You can press any other key to
terminate the display.
– 69 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Partial Keyword If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
Lookup initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
sflow
snmp
ssh
startup-config
Console#show s
snmp-server
system
sntp
spanning-tree
Negating the Effect of For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
Commands the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For
example, the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To
disable logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the
negation effect for all applicable commands.
Using Command The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
History back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any
command displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and
then executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
Understanding The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
Command Modes generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or
enable certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different
modes. Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
– 70 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Table 3: General Command Modes
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
Class Map
DHCP
IGMP Profile
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
Policy Map
Time Range
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super.”
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
– 71 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Configuration Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
Commands settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in nonvolatile storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
◆
Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
◆
Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet
filtering.
◆
Class Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ class map for a specified traffic
type.
◆
IGMP Profile - Sets a profile group and enters IGMP filter profile configuration
mode.
◆
Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such
as speed-duplex and negotiation.
◆
Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include command such as parity and databits.
◆
Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration - These commands configure settings for
the selected multiple spanning tree instance.
◆
Policy Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ policy map for multiple interfaces.
◆
Time Range - Sets a time range for use by other functions, such as Access
Control Lists.
◆
VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in
Privileged Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which
gives you access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
– 72 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Table 4: Configuration Command Modes
Mode
Command
Prompt
Page
Access Control access-list arp
List
access-list ip standard
access-list ip extended
access-list ipv6 standard
access-list ipv6 extended
access-list mac
Console(config-arp-acl)
Console(config-std-acl)
Console(config-ext-acl)
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)
Console(config-mac-acl)
344
326
326
332
332
339
Class Map
class-map
Console(config-cmap)
524
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id | Console(config-if )
vlan id}
350
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)
115
MSTP
spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)
425
Policy Map
policy-map
Console(config-pmap)
527
Time Range
time-range
Console(config-time-range)
149
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)
450
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
Command Line Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
Processing as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other
currently available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete
partial commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to
display a list of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes
for command-line processing:
Table 5: Keystroke Commands
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
– 73 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
Entering Commands
Table 5: Keystroke Commands (Continued)
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete key or
backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
Showing Status There are various “show” commands which display configuration settings or the
Information status of specified processes. Many of these commands will not display any
information unless the switch is properly configured, and in some cases the
interface to which a command applies is up.
For example, if a static router port is configured, the corresponding show command
will not display any information unless IGMP snooping is enabled, and the link for
the static router port is up.
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter
VLAN M'cast Router Ports Type
---- ------------------- ------Console#configure
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter
VLAN M'cast Router Ports Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11
Static
Console#
– 74 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
CLI Command Groups
CLI Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown
below.
Table 6: Command Group Index
Command Group
Description
Page
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode,
restarting the system, or quitting the CLI
77
System Management
Display and setting of system information, basic modes of
operation, maximum frame size, file management, console
port and telnet settings, system logs, SMTP alerts, and the
system clock
85
Simple Network
Management Protocol
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community 159
access strings, and trap receivers
Remote Monitoring
Supports statistics, history, alarm and event groups
185
User Authentication
Configures user names and passwords, command privilege
levels, logon access using local or remote authentication,
management access through the web server, Telnet server
and Secure Shell; as well as port security, IEEE 802.1X port
access control, and restricted access based on specified IP
addresses
199
General Security Measures
Segregates traffic for clients attached to common data ports; 259
and prevents unauthorized access by configuring valid static
or dynamic addresses, MAC address authentication, filtering
DHCP requests and replies, and discarding invalid ARP
responses
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IPv4 frames (based on address, protocol, 325
TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames
(based on address, DSCP traffic class, or next header), or nonIP frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type)
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
349
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk;
configures Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
379
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the 393
data passing through or the performance of the monitored
port
Congestion Control
Sets the input/output rate limits, traffic storm thresholds, and 403
thresholds for broadcast and multicast storms which can be
used to trigger configured rate limits or to shut down a port.
Loopback Detection
Detects general loopback conditions caused by hardware
problems or faulty protocol settings
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, 413
displays current entries, clears the table, or sets the aging time
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
419
ERPS
Configures Ethernet Ring Protection Switching for increased
availability of Ethernet rings commonly used in service
provider networks
479
– 75 –
407
Chapter 2 | Using the Command Line Interface
CLI Command Groups
Table 6: Command Group Index (Continued)
Command Group
Description
Page
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for
VLAN groups; also enables or configures private VLANs,
protocol VLANs, voice VLANs, and QinQ tunneling
449
Class of Service
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or 511
weighted round robin, relative weight for each priority queue,
also sets priority for DSCP
Quality of Service
Configures Differentiated Services
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query, profile, and proxy 535
parameters; specifies ports attached to a multicast router; also
configures multicast VLAN registration, and IPv6 MLD
snooping
Link Layer Discovery
Protocol
Configures LLDP settings to enable information discovery
about neighbor devices
595
Domain Name Service
Configures DNS services.
619
Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol
Configures DHCP client and relayfunctions
629
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch interfaces; also
configures ARP parameters
641
IP Routing
Configures static and dynamic unicast routing
679
Debug
Displays debugging information for all key functions
523
These commands are not described in this manual.
Please refer to the prompt messages included in the CLI interface.
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
CM (Class Map Configuration)
ERPS (Ethernet Ring Protection Switching Configuration)
GC (Global Configuration)
IC (Interface Configuration)
IPC (IGMP Profile Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
NE (Normal Exec)
PE (Privileged Exec)
PM (Policy Map Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
– 76 –
3
General Commands
The general commands are used to control the command access mode,
configuration mode, and other basic functions.
Table 7: General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
prompt
Customizes the CLI prompt
GC
reload
Restarts the system at a specified time, after a specified delay, or at a GC
periodic interval
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
reload
Restarts the system immediately
PE
show reload
Displays the current reload settings, and the time at which next
scheduled reload will take place
PE
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any config.
mode
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any mode
help
Shows how to use help
any mode
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any mode
prompt This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default
prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
– 77 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command and the hostname command can be used to set the command line
prompt as shown in the example below. Using the no form of either command will
restore the default command line prompt.
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
reload This command restarts the system at a specified time, after a specified delay, or at a
(Global Configuration) periodic interval. You can reboot the system immediately, or you can configure the
switch to reset after a specified amount of time. Use the cancel option to remove a
configured setting.
Syntax
reload {at hour minute [{month day | day month} [year]] |
in {hour hours | minute minutes | hour hours minute minutes} |
regulary hour minute [period {daily | weekly day-of-week |
monthly day-of-month}] | cancel [at | in | regulary]}
reload at - A specified time at which to reload the switch.
hour - The hour at which to reload. (Range: 0-23)
minute - The minute at which to reload. (Range: 0-59)
month - The month at which to reload. (january ... december)
day - The day of the month at which to reload. (Range: 1-31)
year - The year at which to reload. (Range: 1970-2037)
reload in - An interval after which to reload the switch.
hours - The number of hours, combined with the minutes, before the
switch resets. (Range: 0-576)
minutes - The number of minutes, combined with the hours, before the
switch resets. (Range: 0-59)
reload regulary - A periodic interval at which to reload the switch.
hour - The hour at which to reload. (Range: 0-23)
minute - The minute at which to reload. (Range: 0-59)
day-of-week - Day of the week at which to reload.
(Range: monday ... saturday)
day-of-month - Day of the month at which to reload. (Range: 1-31)
reload cancel - Cancels the specified reload option.
– 78 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command resets the entire system.
◆
Any combination of reload options may be specified. If the same option is respecified, the previous setting will be overwritten.
◆
When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will
also retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the
copy running-config startup-config command (See “copy” on page 103).
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch after 30 minutes:
Console(config)#reload in minute 30
***
*** --- Rebooting at January 1 02:10:43 2016 --***
Are you sure to reboot the system at the specified time? <y/n>
enable This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information.
See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 70.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
“super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable password
command.)
◆
– 79 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
◆
The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (82)
enable password (200)
quit This command exits the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
show history This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and 10 Configuration
commands.
– 80 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
configure This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to
modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, such as Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, and VLAN Database Configuration. See
“Understanding Command Modes” on page 70.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end (83)
– 81 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
disable This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration
or Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 70.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the system
is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (79)
reload (Privileged Exec) This command restarts the system.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will
also retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the copy
running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
– 82 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
show reload This command displays the current reload settings, and the time at which next
scheduled reload will take place.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show reload
Reloading switch in time:
0 hours 29 minutes.
The switch will be rebooted at January 1 02:11:50 2015.
Remaining Time: 0 days, 0 hours, 29 minutes, 52 seconds.
Console#
end This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database
Configuration, and Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
exit This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exits the
configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
– 83 –
Chapter 3 | General Commands
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
– 84 –
4
System Management
Commands
The system management commands are used to control system logs, passwords,
user names, management options, and display or configure a variety of other
system information.
Table 8: System Management Commands
Command Group
Function
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version
information
Fan Control (ECS2100-52T)
Forces fans to full speed
Frame Size
Enables support for jumbo frames
File Management
Manages code image or switch configuration files
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud rate
and console time-out
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
SMTP Alerts
Configures SMTP email alerts
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP server or manually
Time Range
Sets a time range for use by other functions, such as Access Control Lists
Switch Clustering
Configures management of multiple devices via a single IP address
Device Designation
This section describes commands used to configure information that uniquely
identifies the switch.
Table 9: Device Designation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
– 85 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
hostname This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form
to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The host name specified by this command is displayed by the show system
command and on the Show > System web page.
◆
This command and the prompt command can be used to set the command line
prompt as shown in the example below. Using the no form of either command
will restore the default command line prompt.
Example
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
Console(config)#
System Status
This section describes commands used to display system information.
Table 10: System Status Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show access-list
tcam-utilization
Shows utilization parameters for TCAM
PE
show license file
Shows information on the installed license file required for PE
the network ports
show memory
Shows memory utilization parameters
PE
show process cpu
Shows CPU utilization parameters
PE
show process cpu guard
Shows the CPU utilization watermark and threshold
NE
show process cpu task
Shows CPU utilization per process
PE
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
– 86 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
Table 10: System Status Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in
flash memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
show tech-support
Displays a detailed list of system settings designed to help PE
technical support resolve configuration or functional
problems
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user NE, PE
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
show watchdog
Shows if watchdog debugging is enabled
PE
watchdog software
Monitors key processes, and automatically reboots the
system if any of these processes are not responding
correctly
PE
show access-list This command shows utilization parameters for TCAM (Ternary Content
tcam-utilization Addressable Memory), including the number policy control entries in use, and the
number of free entries.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Policy control entries (PCEs) are used by various system functions which rely on
rule-based searches, including Access Control Lists (ACLs), IP Source Guard filter
rules, Quality of Service (QoS) processes, or traps.
For example, when binding an ACL to a port, each rule in an ACL will use two PCEs;
and when setting an IP Source Guard filter rule for a port, the system will also use
two PCEs.
Example
Console#show access-list tcam-utilization
Pool capability code:
AM - MAC ACL, A4 - IPv4 ACL, A6S - IPv6 Standard ACL,
A6E - IPv6 extended ACL, DM - MAC diffServ, D4 - IPv4 diffServ,
D6S - IPv6 standard diffServ, D6E - IPv6 extended diffServ,
AEM - Egress MAC ACL, AE4 - Egress IPv4 ACL,
AE6S - Egress IPv6 standard ACL, AE6E - Egress IPv6 extended ACL,
DEM - Egress MAC diffServ, DE4 - Egress IPv4 diffServ,
DE6S - Egress IPv6 standard diffServ,
DE6E - Egress IPv6 extended diffServ, W - Web authentication,
I - IP source guard, C - CPU interface, L - Link local,
MV - Mac based VLAN, PV - Protocol based VLAN, VV - Voice VLAN,
R - Routing, QINQ - QinQ, Reserved - Reserved,
ALL - All supported function,
Unit Device Pool Total Used Free Capability
---- ------ ---- ----- ----- ----- ---------------------------------------1
0
0
128
128
0 R
– 87 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
64
128
128
64
128
128
128
64
64
64
64
64
128
128
64
128
128
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
64
64
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
64
128
128
64
128
128
128
64
0
0
0
64
128
128
64
128
128
A6S A6E
A4
AM
D6S D6E
D4 W
DM
MV PV VV
I
Reserved
C
C L
AE6S AE6E
AE4
AEM
DE6S DE6E
DE4
DEM QINQ
Console#
Table 11: show access-list tcam-utilization - display description
Field
Description
Pool Capability Code
Abbreviation for processes shown in the TCAM List.
Unit
Stack unit identifier.
Device
Memory chip used for indicated pools.
Pool
Rule slice (or call group). Each slice has a fixed number of rules that are
used for the specified features.
Total
The maximum number of policy control entries allocated to the each
pool.
Used
The number of policy control entries used by the operating system.
Free
The number of policy control entries available for use.
Capability
The processes assigned to each pool.
show license file This command shows information on the license file used to enable the network
ports.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show license file
aos-license/1.0
Name: EC
CPU-MAC-Address: CC-37-AB-BC-4C-5A
Project-Number: ECS2110
Accept-Mode: legacy
License-Number: b0188fea-5b33-4a51-9fa4-c72a5cc7315c
License-Issue-Date: Thu Oct 20 03:05:03 2016
License-Valid-Start-Date: Tue Oct 18 00:00:00 2016
License-Valid-End-Date: Sat Dec 31 00:00:00 2016
– 88 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
License-Access-List: s/
gf5zGdtiN8WPaSgQEPBm7WsU0MvylPKyKIC0mfIjbeCRz1GrK1TVm3IB
Yk9QLzbZl2Yq5OfZyseMpOszYpRFmxD969aLn9oWFYfUAX9pZi2KRp+A6m+PwYYaABDFw5NxoumC
yqS0vvZO63d8jpvoZMuBu+C69uIHmGw0dWKjtGwHty5xWDfMY44LvZbfktH7vTmVgnm/Ty/mSwll
lJd FtWTPfC7rRzXcngfiiMUmbJs=
Signature1: ImNS2m9IqBDVxzTsw+PZnHvFC6Z+irLIDylJNWPn65Lpv/AtxzmEAAhPrXgHJk4P9
VcNnYGmJ6CB0X9jnWYox86W5RCB6p+HbC7MFDY0gtUFmfNz16th+DaWOi+m2gAvc5Y/mXS9l/LZt
9Kcm4EfBi7Qxv2r0qayPu/QN9LMqOAi0RFs48Rz752fCwnCWgUYtgzI9YnK/Eq3lsWDC+w7y2CDS
vF/5IWGvr2xF5QFXJM8UG7BmK6A1fED/4CBjxwCgjRdTC/EAAllBN1/rHNNVGE82b6RhcBbmpgay
ijNc+ouARNguSIQdNfL8OrE7EdB3xLuxqw0WkAkLxvLMdJwtA==
Signature2: Gnd3p8D/
TuSee5ol1s3TF3fuGazqWaqYSy270I97Syoaztq3DfsAtd0NPoVOabb8iWqIGFqy43ieDkIaYB+E
pTZkUY8vFt6JOiIDsPQLrzu8W+HU6xcX9YS0UmBisZoSHSu+eJeHzpGupwdYhccOQ5gL2O5YK9f1
LGjsQz8sjHVwaa7u7NsOu26zt1XGrwq1Pj5jIzJc6uJ7QZBicjqbpqhNyUM9vmx2qnwYALfz2k8e
4IEsim3NrkleEkMcJTcHk7KiAkat5sEq83vgOoA0l+m/4fGC8Gmw84LPhSbeHwZDqY8Ziedt
tfX9IYDhU1DMh7ZlhMXsDVOWv+WQVYi22Q==
Console#
show memory This command shows memory utilization parameters, and alarm thresholds.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command shows the amount of memory currently free for use, the amount of
memory allocated to active processes, the total amount of system memory, and the
alarm thresholds.
Example
Console#show memory
Status Bytes
%
------ ---------- --Free
111706112 41
Used
156729344 59
Total
268435456
Alarm Configuration
Rising Threshold
Falling Threshold
: 95%
: 90%
Console#
Related Commands
memory (180)
– 89 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
show process cpu This command shows the CPU utilization parameters, alarm status, and alarm
thresholds.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show process cpu
CPU Utilization in the past 5 seconds : 24%
CPU Utilization in the past 60 seconds
Average Utilization
: 24%
Maximum Utilization
: 25%
Alarm Status
Current Alarm Status
: Off
Last Alarm Start Time
: Dec 31 00:00:19 2000
Last Alarm Duration Time : 15 seconds
Alarm Configuration
Rising Threshold
Falling Threshold
: 90%
: 70%
Console#
Related Commands
process cpu (181)
show process cpu This command shows the CPU utilization watermark and threshold settings.
guard
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show process cpu guard
CPU Guard Configuration
Status
: Disabled
High Watermark
: 90%
Low Watermark
: 70%
Maximum Threshold : 500 packets per second
Minimum Threshold : 50 packets per second
Trap Status
: Disabled
CPU Guard Operation
Current Threshold : 500 packets per second
Console#
– 90 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
Table 12: show process cpu guard - display description
Field
Description
CPU Guard Configuration
Status
Shows if CPU Guard has been enabled.
High Watermark
If the percentage of CPU usage time is higher than the high-watermark,
the switch stops packet flow to the CPU (allowing it to catch up with
packets already in the buffer) until usage time falls below the low
watermark.
Low Watermark
If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the high watermark,
normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath the low
watermark.
Maximum Threshold
If the number of packets being processed by the CPU is higher than the
maximum threshold, the switch stops packet flow to the CPU (allowing
it to catch up with packets already in the buffer) until the number of
packets being processed falls below the minimum threshold.
Minimum Threshold
If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the maximum
threshold, normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath the
minimum threshold.
Trap Status
Shows if an alarm message will be generated when utilization exceeds
the high watermark or exceeds the maximum threshold.
CPU Guard Operation
Current Threshold
Shows the configured threshold in packets per second.
Related Commands
process cpu guard (182)
show process cpu task This command shows the CPU utilization per process.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show process cpu task
Task
Util (%) Avg (%) Max (%)
--------------- -------- -------- -------AMTR_ADDRESS
0.00
0.00
0.00
AMTRL3
0.00
0.00
0.00
AMTRL3_GROUP
0.00
0.00
0.00
APP_PROTOCOL_PR
0.00
0.00
0.00
AUTH_GROUP
0.00
0.00
0.00
AUTH_PROC
0.00
0.00
0.00
BGP_TD
0.00
0.00
0.00
CFGDB_TD
0.00
0.00
0.00
CFM_GROUP
0.00
0.00
0.00
CLITASK0
0.00
0.00
0.00
CORE_UTIL_PROC
0.00
0.00
0.00
DHCPSNP_GROUP
0.00
0.00
0.00
DOT1X_SUP_GROUP
0.00
0.00
0.00
DRIVER_GROUP
1.00
0.75
2.00
DRIVER_GROUP_FR
0.00
0.00
0.00
DRIVER_GROUP_TX
0.00
0.00
0.00
– 91 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
FS
HTTP_TD
HW_WTDOG_TD
IML_TX
IP_SERVICE_GROU
KEYGEN_TD
L2_L4_PROCESS
L2MCAST_GROUP
L2MUX_GROUP
L4_GROUP
LACP_GROUP
MSL_TD
NETACCESS_GROUP
NETACCESS_NMTR
NETCFG_GROUP
NETCFG_PROC
NIC
NMTRDRV
NSM_GROUP
NSM_PROC
NSM_TD
OSPF6_TD
OSPF_TD
PIM_GROUP
PIM_PROC
PIM_SM_TD
POE_PROC
RIP_TD
SNMP_GROUP
SNMP_TD
SSH_GROUP
SSH_TD
STA_GROUP
STKCTRL_GROUP
STKTPLG_GROUP
SWCTRL_GROUP
SWCTRL_TD
SWDRV_MONITOR
SYS_MGMT_PROC
SYSDRV
SYSLOG_TD
SYSMGMT_GROUP
SYSTEM
UDLD_GROUP
WTDOG_PROC
XFER_GROUP
XFER_TD
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
21.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Console#
– 92 –
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.08
0.00
1.66
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
19.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
4.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
21.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
show running-config This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Syntax
show running-config [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Use the interface keyword to display configuration data for the specified
interface.
◆
Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in nonvolatile memory.
◆
This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group is
separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command, and
corresponding commands. This command displays the following information:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
◆
MAC address for
SNMP community strings
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address configured for VLANs
Spanning tree settings
Interface settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
For security reasons, user passwords are only displayed in encrypted format.
Example
Console#show running-config
!<stackingDB>00</stackingDB>
!<stackingMac>01_00-e0-0c-00-00-fd_03</stackingMac>
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw
!
– 93 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
enable password 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
VLAN 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet
!
spanning-tree mst configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
no negotiation
...
interface ethernet 1/28
no negotiation
!
interface vlan 1
ip address dhcp
!
interface vlan 1
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
!
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config (94)
show startup-config This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is
used to start up the system.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in nonvolatile memory.
◆
This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group is
separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command, and
corresponding commands. This command displays the following information:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
MAC address for
SNMP community strings
SNMP trap authentication
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
Interface settings and VLAN configuration settings for each interface
IP address for VLANs
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
– 94 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
Example
Refer to the example for the running configuration file.
Related Commands
show running-config (93)
show system This command displays system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show system
System Description : ECS2110-26T
System OID String : 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.44.102
System Information
System Up Time
: 0 days, 2 hours, 25 minutes, and 27.66 seconds
System Name
:
System Location
:
System Contact
:
MAC Address (Unit 1)
: 00-E0-0C-00-00-FD
Web Server
: Enabled
Web Server Port
: 80
Web Secure Server
: Enabled
Web Secure Server Port : 443
Telnet Server
: Enabled
Telnet Server Port
: 23
Jumbo Frame
: Disabled
System Fan:
Force Fan Speed Full
Unit 1
Fan 1: Ok
: Disabled
System Temperature:
Unit 1
Temperature 1: 41 degrees
Unit 1
Main Power Status
Console#
: Up
Table 13: show system – display description
Parameter
Description
System Description
Brief description of device type.
System OID String
MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
System Up Time
Length of time the management agent has been up.
– 95 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
Table 13: show system – display description (Continued)
Parameter
Description
System Name
Name assigned to the switch system.
System Location
Specifies the system location.
System Contact
Administrator responsible for the system.
MAC Address
MAC address assigned to this switch.
Web Server/Port
Shows administrative status of web server and UDP port number.
Web Secure Server/Port
Shows administrative status of secure web server and UDP port
number.
Telnet Server/Port
Shows administrative status of Telnet server and TCP port number.
Jumbo Frame
Shows if jumbo frames are enabled or disabled.
System Fan (ECS2100-52T)
Shows if forced full-speed mode is enabled.
System Temperature
Temperature at specified thermal detection point.
Main Power Status
Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Redundant Power Status
Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
show tech-support This command displays a detailed list of system settings designed to help technical
support resolve configuration or functional problems.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command generates a long list of information including detailed system and
interface settings. It is therefore advisable to direct the output to a file using any
suitable output capture function provided with your terminal emulation program.
Example
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-2#show tech-support
dir:
File Name
Type
Startup Modified Time
Size (bytes)
------------------------------ ------- ------- ------------------- ---------Unit 1:
ECS2110_V1.1.7.164.bix
OpCode N
2016-11-08 09:43:43
8655112
ECS2110_V1.1.9.164.bix
OpCode Y
2016-11-23 11:43:46
8651016
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config N
2015-07-01 07:24:11
455
startup1.cfg
Config Y
2015-07-01 07:24:22
1343
– 96 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Free space for compressed user config files:
24018944
Total space:
32 MB
show arp:
ARP Cache Timeout: 1200 (seconds)
IP Address
MAC Address
Type
Interface
--------------- ----------------- --------- ----------192.168.2.99
F0-79-59-8F-2B-FE dynamic
VLAN 1
Total entry : 1
show interfaces brief:
Interface Name
--------- ---------------Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 2
Eth 1/ 3
Eth 1/ 4
Eth 1/ 5
...
Status
--------Up
Dowm
Dowm
Dowm
Dowm
PVID
---1
1
1
1
1
Pri
--0
0
0
0
0
Speed/Duplex
------------Auto-100full
Auto-100full
Auto-100full
Auto-100full
Auto-100full
Type
Trunk
----------- ----1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
show users Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to the
Line (i.e., session) index number.
Example
Console#show users
User Name Accounts:
User Name
Privilege
-------------------- ---------admin
15
guest
0
Public-Key
--------------None
None
Online Users:
Line
Session ID User Name
Idle Time (h:m:s) Remote IP Addr
--------- ---------- -------------------- ----------------- ----------------*Console
0 admin
0:00:01
Web Online Users:
Line
User Name
Idle Time (h:m:s)
Remote IP Addr
---------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------Console#
– 97 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
System Status
show version This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial Number
Hardware Version
Number of Ports
Main Power Status
Role
Loader Version
Linux Kernel Version
Operation Code Version
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
S123456
R01
28
Up
Master
0.1.1.6
2.6.19
1.2.0.4
Console#
Table 14: show version – display description
Parameter
Description
Serial Number
The serial number of the switch.
Hardware Version
Hardware version of the main board.
Number of Ports
Number of built-in ports.
Main Power Status
Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Role
Shows that this switch is operating as Master or Slave.
Loader Version
Version number of loader code.
Linux Kernel Version
Version number of Linux kernel.
Operation Code Version
Version number of runtime code.
show watchdog This command shows if watchdog debugging is enabled.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show watchdog
Software Watchdog Information
Status :
Enabled
AutoReload :
Enabled
Console#
– 98 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Fan Control
watchdog software This command monitors key processes, and automatically reboots the system if any
of these processes are not responding correctly.
Syntax
watchdog software {disable | enable}
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#watchdog software disable
Console#
Fan Control
This section describes the command used to force fan speed for the ECS2100-52T.
Table 15: Fan Control Commands
Command
Function
Mode
fan-speed force-full
Forces fans to full speed
GC
show system
Shows if full fan speed is enabled
NE, PE
fan-speed force-full This command sets all fans to full speed. Use the no form to reset the fans to normal
operating speed.
Syntax
[no] fan-speed force-full
Default Setting
Normal speed
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#fan-speed force-full
Console(config)#
– 99 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Frame Size
Frame Size
This section describes commands used to configure the Ethernet frame size on the
switch.
Table 16: Frame Size Commands
Command
Function
Mode
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
jumbo frame This command enables support for layer 2 jumbo frames for Gigabit and 10 Gigabit
Ethernet ports. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] jumbo frame
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting layer 2 jumbo frames on Gigabit and 10 Gigabit
Ethernet ports or trunks up to 10240 bytes. Compared to standard Ethernet
frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames significantly reduces the
per-packet overhead required to process protocol encapsulation fields.
◆
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end
nodes must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo
frames.
◆
The current setting for jumbo frames can be displayed with the show system
command.
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show system (95)
show ipv6 mtu (665)
– 100 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
File Management
Managing Firmware
Firmware can be uploaded and downloaded to or from an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server. By
saving runtime code to a file on an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore operation. The switch can also be set to use
new firmware without overwriting the previous version.
When downloading runtime code, the destination file name can be specified to
replace the current image, or the file can be first downloaded using a different
name from the current runtime code file, and then the new file set as the startup
file.
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Configuration settings can be uploaded and downloaded to and from an FTP/SFTP/
TFTP server. The configuration file can be later downloaded to restore switch
settings.
The configuration file can be downloaded under a new file name and then set as
the startup file, or the current startup configuration file can be specified as the
destination file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg”
can be copied to the FTP/SFTP/TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination
on the switch.
Table 17: Flash/File Commands
Command
Function
Mode
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from
flash memory or an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server
PE
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
General Commands
Automatic Code Upgrade Commands
upgrade opcode auto
Automatically upgrades the current image when a new
version is detected on the indicated server
GC
upgrade opcode path
Specifies an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server and directory in which
the new opcode is stored
GC
upgrade opcode reload
Reloads the switch automatically after the opcode upgrade GC
is completed
show upgrade
Shows the opcode upgrade configuration settings.
– 101 –
PE
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
Table 17: Flash/File Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
TFTP Configuration Commands
ip tftp retry
Specifies the number of times the switch can retry
transmitting a request to a TFTP server
ip tftp timeout
Specifies the time the switch can wait for a response from a GC
TFTP server before retransmitting a request or timing out
for the last retry
show ip tftp
Displays information about TFTP settings
General Commands
boot system This command specifies the file or image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system {config | opcode}: filename
config* - Configuration file.
opcode* - Run-time operation code.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
* The colon (:) is required.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A colon (:) is required after the specified file type.
◆
◆
If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (108)
whichboot (109)
– 102 –
GC
PE
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
copy This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server. When you save
the system code or configuration settings to a file on an FTP/SFTP/TFTP server, that
file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success
of the file transfer depends on the accessibility of the FTP/SFTP/TFTP server and the
quality of the network connection.
Syntax
copy file {file | ftp | running-config | sftp | startup-config | tftp}
copy ftp {add-to-running-config | file | https-certificate | public-key |
running-config | sftp | startup-config}
copy running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
copy startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
copy tftp {add-to-running-config | file | https-certificate | public-key |
running-config | startup-config}
add-to-running-config - Keyword that adds the settings listed in the
specified file to the running configuration.
file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
ftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from an FTP server.
https-certificate - Keyword that allows you to copy the HTTPS secure site
certificate.
public-key - Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP server.
(See “Secure Shell” on page 233.)
running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
sftp - Keyword that copies a file to or from an SFTP server.
startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
◆
The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), and the maximum
length for file names is 32 characters for files on the switch or 127 characters for
files on the server. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”)
– 103 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
◆
The switch supports only two operation code files, but the maximum number
of user-defined configuration files is 16.
◆
You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
◆
To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
◆
The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the FTP/
SFTP/TFTP server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new
firmware, or contact your distributor for help.
◆
For information on specifying an https-certificate, see “Replacing the Default
Secure-site Certificate” in the Web Management Guide. For information on
configuring the switch to use HTTPS for a secure connection, see the ip http
secure-server command.
◆
The reload command will not be accepted during copy operations to flash
memory.
◆
When logging into an FTP server, the interface prompts for a user name and
password configured on the remote server. Note that “anonymous” is set as the
default user name.
◆
When logging into a remote SFTP server, the interface prompts for a user name
and password configured on the remote server. If this is a first time connection,
the system checks to see if the public key offered by the server matches one
stored locally. If not, the server’s public key will be copied to the local system.
◆
Secure Shell FTP (SFTP) provides a method of transferring files between two
network devices over an SSH2-secured connection. SFTP functions similar to
Secure Copy (SCP), using SSH for user authentication and data encryption.
Although the underlying premises of SFTP are similar to SCP, it requires some
additional steps to verify the protocol versions and perform security checks.
SFTP connection setup includes verification of the DSS signature, creation of
session keys, creation of client-server and server-client ciphers, SSH key
exchange, and user authentication. An SFTP channel is then opened, the SFTP
protocol version compatibility verified, and SFTP finally initialized.
◆
The reload command will not be accepted during copy operations to flash
memory.
Example
The following example shows how to download new firmware from a TFTP server:
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: 2
Source file name: m360.bix
– 104 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
Destination file name: m360.bix
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup
file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It
then reboots the switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
– 105 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
This example shows how to copy a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server.
Note that public key authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured
locally on the switch.
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: steve.pub
Username: steve
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a file to an FTP server.
Console#copy ftp file
FTP server IP address: 169.254.1.11
User[anonymous]: admin
Password[]: *****
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: 2
Source file name: BLANC.BIX
Destination file name: BLANC.BIX
Console#
This example shows how to copy a file from an SFTP server. Note that the public key
offered by the server is not found on the local system, but is saved locally after the
user selects to continue the copy operation.
Console#copy sftp file
SFTP server IP address: 192.168.0.110
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: 1
Source file name: startup2.cfg
Destination file name: startup2.cfg
Login User Name: admin
Login User Password:
Press 'y' to allow connect to new sftp server,
and 'N' to deny connect to new sftp server: y
Success.
Console#
– 106 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
delete This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax
delete {file name filename | https-certificate | public-key username [dsa |
rsa]}
file - Keyword that allows you to delete a file.
name - Keyword indicating a file.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
https-certificate - Keyword that allows you to delete the HTTPS secure site
certificate. You must reboot the switch to load the default certificate.
public-key - Keyword that allows you to delete a SSH key on the switch.
(See “Secure Shell” on page 233.)
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
dsa – DSA public key type.
rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
◆
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
◆
If the public key type is not specified, then both DSA and RSA keys will be
deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash
memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (108)
delete public-key (238)
– 107 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
dir This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir {config | opcode}: [filename]}
config - Switch configuration file.
opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image. If this file exists but
contains errors, information on this file cannot be shown.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all files.
File information is shown below:
Table 18: File Directory Information
Column Heading
Description
File Name
The name of the file.
File Type
File types: Operation Code, and Config file.
Startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
Modify Time
The date and time the file was last modified.
Size
The length of the file in bytes.
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir
File Name
Type
Startup Modified Time
Size (bytes)
------------------------------ ------- ------- ------------------- -----------Unit 1:
ECS2100_V1.1.2.10.bix
OpCode N
2016-08-25 11:21:47
8085768
ECS2100_V1.1.10.171.bix
OpCode Y
2016-08-05 05:38:37
8593672
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config N
2016-08-05 05:32:24
477
startup1.cfg
Config N
2016-08-03 09:18:32
961
startup2.cfg
Config Y
2016-11-24 04:11:10
920
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Free space for compressed user config files:
16244736
Total space:
32 MB
Total space:
32 MB
Console#
– 108 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
whichboot This command displays which files were booted when the system powered up.
Syntax
whichboot
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed
by this command.
Console#whichboot
File Name
-----------------------------Unit 1:
ECS2110_V1.1.10.171.bix
startup1.cfg
Console#
Type
Startup Modified Time
Size (bytes)
------- ------- ------------------- -----------OpCode
Config
Y
Y
2016-04-07 13:18:37
2015-07-01 07:24:22
8790280
1343
Automatic Code Upgrade Commands
upgrade opcode auto This command automatically upgrades the current operational code when a new
version is detected on the server indicated by the upgrade opcode path command.
Use the no form of this command to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] upgrade opcode auto
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command is used to enable or disable automatic upgrade of the
operational code. When the switch starts up and automatic image upgrade is
enabled by this command, the switch will follow these steps when it boots up:
1. It will search for a new version of the image at the location specified by
upgrade opcode path command. The name for the new image stored on
the TFTP server must be ECS2100-series.bix. If the switch detects a code
– 109 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
version newer than the one currently in use, it will download the new
image. If two code images are already stored in the switch, the image not
set to start up the system will be overwritten by the new version.
2. After the image has been downloaded, the switch will send a trap message
to log whether or not the upgrade operation was successful.
3. It sets the new version as the startup image.
4. It then restarts the system to start using the new image.
◆
Any changes made to the default setting can be displayed with the show
running-config or show startup-config commands.
Example
Console(config)#upgrade opcode auto
Console(config)#upgrade opcode path tftp://192.168.0.1/sm24/
Console(config)#
If a new image is found at the specified location, the following type of messages
will be displayed during bootup.
.
.
.
Automatic Upgrade is looking for a new image
New image detected: current version 1.1.1.0; new version 1.1.1.2
Image upgrade in progress
The switch will restart after upgrade succeeds
Downloading new image
Flash programming started
Flash programming completed
The switch will now restart
.
.
.
upgrade opcode path This command specifies an TFTP server and directory in which the new opcode is
stored. Use the no form of this command to clear the current setting.
Syntax
upgrade opcode path opcode-dir-url
no upgrade opcode path
opcode-dir-url - The location of the new code.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 110 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
Command Usage
◆ This command is used in conjunction with the upgrade opcode auto command
to facilitate automatic upgrade of new operational code stored at the location
indicated by this command.
◆
The name for the new image stored on the TFTP server must be ECS2100series.bix. However, note that file name is not to be included in this command.
◆
When specifying a TFTP server, the following syntax must be used, where filedir
indicates the path to the directory containing the new image:
tftp://192.168.0.1[/filedir]/
◆
When specifying an FTP server, the following syntax must be used, where filedir
indicates the path to the directory containing the new image:
ftp://[username[:password@]]192.168.0.1[/filedir]/
If the user name is omitted, “anonymous” will be used for the connection. If the
password is omitted a null string (“”) will be used for the connection.
Example
This shows how to specify a TFTP server where new code is stored.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode path tftp://192.168.0.1/sm24/
Console(config)#
This shows how to specify an FTP server where new code is stored.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode path ftp://admin:billy@192.168.0.1/sm24/
Console(config)#
upgrade opcode This command reloads the switch automatically after the opcode upgrade is
reload completed. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] upgrade opcode reload
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 111 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
Example
This shows how to specify a TFTP server where new code is stored.
Console(config)#upgrade opcode reload
Console(config)#
show upgrade This command shows the opcode upgrade configuration settings.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show upgrade
Auto Image Upgrade Global Settings:
Status
: Disabled
Reload Status : Disabled
Path
:
File Name : ECS2110-series.bix
Console#
TFTP Configuration Commands
ip tftp retry This command specifies the number of times the switch can retry transmitting a
request to a TFTP server after waiting for the configured timeout period and
receiving no response. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip tftp retry retries
no ip tftp retry
retries - The number of times the switch can resend a request to a TFTP
server before it aborts the connection. (Range: 1-16)
Default Setting
15
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip tftp retry 10
Console(config)#
– 112 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
File Management
ip tftp timeout This command specifies the time the switch can wait for a response from a TFTP
server before retransmitting a request or timing out for the last retry. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip tftp timeout seconds
no ip tftp timeout
seconds - The the time the switch can wait for a response from a TFTP server
before retransmitting a request or timing out. (Range: 1-65535 seconds)
Default Setting
5 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip tftp timeout 10
Console(config)#
show ip tftp This command displays information about the TFTP settings configured on this
switch.
Syntax
show ip tftp
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip tftp
TFTP Settings:
Retries : 15
Timeout : 5 seconds
Console#
– 113 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Line
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Table 19: Line Commands
Command
Function
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line GC
configuration mode
accounting commands
Applies an accounting method to commands entered at
specific CLI privilege levels
LC
accounting exec
Applies an accounting method to local console, Telnet or
SSH connections
LC
authorization commands
Applies an authorization method to commands entered at LC
specific CLI privilege levels
authorization exec
Applies an authorization method to local console, Telnet or LC
SSH connections
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are
interpreted and generated by hardware
LC
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until
user input is detected
LC
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
LC
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts
LC
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is
inaccessible after the number of unsuccessful logon
attempts exceeds the threshold set by the passwordthresh command
LC
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
timeout login response
Sets the interval that the system waits for a login attempt
LC
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
terminal
Configures terminal settings, including escape-character,
line length, terminal type, and width
PE
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
– 114 –
Mode
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
line This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process
subsequent line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
console - Console terminal line.
vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “VTY” in
screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication parameters
(e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (124)
show users (97)
databits This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
7 - Seven data bits per character.
8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
– 115 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from devices
that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits
per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per character.
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#databits 7
Console(config-line-console)#
Related Commands
parity (118)
exec-timeout This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 60 - 65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
10 minutes
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
◆
This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
◆
The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
◆
Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line-console)#
– 116 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
login This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the user
name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
◆ There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
◆
■
login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
■
login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
■
no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use the
RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
Example
Console(config-line-console)#login local
Console(config-line-console)#
Related Commands
username (201)
password (118)
– 117 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
parity This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
none - No parity
even - Even parity
odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#parity none
Console(config-line-console)#
password This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
{0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 32 characters plain text or encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
– 118 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Command Usage
◆ When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system shows
a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the number of
times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system terminates the
line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
◆
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file from
an FTP/SFTP server during system bootup. There is no need for you to manually
configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line-console)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line-console)#
Related Commands
login (117)
password-thresh (119)
password-thresh This command sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number of
failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts. (Range: 1-120; 0: no
threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes silent
for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt. (Use the
silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is reached for Telnet,
the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
– 119 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line-console)#
Related Commands
silent-time (120)
silent-time This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time value.
Syntax
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; where 0 means disabled)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line-console)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (119)
– 120 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
speed This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps)
Default Setting
115200 bps
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial port.
Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#speed 57600
Console(config-line-console)#
stopbits This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
no stopbits
1 - One stop bit
2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
– 121 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line-console)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line-console)#
timeout login This command sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the CLI.
response Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
timeout login response [seconds]
no timeout login response
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 10 - 300 seconds)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session.
◆
This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
◆
The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
◆
Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 120
Console(config-line)#
disconnect This command terminates an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax
disconnect session-id
session-id – The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console connection.
(Range: 0-8)
– 122 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection. Specifying
any other identifiers for an active session will disconnect an SSH or Telnet
connection.
Example
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh (242)
show users (97)
terminal This command configures terminal settings, including escape-character, lines
displayed, terminal type, width, and command history. Use the no form with the
appropriate keyword to restore the default setting.
Syntax
terminal {escape-character {ascii-number | character} | history [size size] |
length length | terminal-type {ansi-bbs | vt-100 | vt-102} | width width}
escape-character - The keyboard character used to escape from current
line input.
ascii-number - ASCII decimal equivalent. (Range: 0-255)
character - Any valid keyboard character.
history - The number of lines stored in the command buffer, and recalled
using the arrow keys. (Range: 0-256)
length - The number of lines displayed on the screen. (Range: 24-200,
where 0 means not to pause)
terminal-type - The type of terminal emulation used.
ansi-bbs - ANSI-BBS
vt-100 - VT-100
vt-102 - VT-102
width - The number of character columns displayed on the terminal.
(Range: 0-80)
Default Setting
Escape Character: 27 (ASCII-number)
History: 10
Length: 24
– 123 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Line
Terminal Type: VT100
Width: 80
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example sets the number of lines displayed by commands with lengthy output
such as show running-config to 48 lines.
Console#terminal length 48
Console#
show line This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
console - Console terminal line.
vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Terminal Configuration for this
Length
Width
History Size
Escape Character(ASCII-number)
Terminal Type
session:
: 24
: 80
: 10
: 27
: VT100
Console Configuration:
Password Threshold : 3 times
EXEC Timeout
: 600 seconds
Login Timeout
: 300 seconds
Silent Time
: Disabled
Baud Rate
: 115200
Data Bits
: 8
Parity
: None
Stop Bits
: 1
VTY Configuration:
Password Threshold : 3 times
EXEC Timeout
: 600 seconds
– 124 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
Login Timeout
Silent Time
Console#
: 300 sec.
: Disabled
Event Logging
This section describes commands used to configure event logging on the switch.
Table 20: Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging command
Stores CLI command execution records in syslog RAM and GC
flash
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages GC
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on GC
severity
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive
logging messages
GC
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on GC
severity
clear log
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
show log
Displays log messages
PE
show logging
Displays the state of logging
PE
logging command This command stores CLI command execution records in syslog RAM and flash. Use
the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] logging command
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The records stored include the commands executed from the CLI, command
execution time and information about the CLI user including user name, user
interface (console, Telnet, SSH) and user IP address. The severity level for this record
type is 6 (see the logging facility command).
– 125 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
logging facility This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the
no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
logging facility type
no logging facility
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC
3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch.
However, it may be used by the syslog server to sort messages or to store messages
in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
logging history This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity.
The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
– 126 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
level - One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected
level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
Table 21: Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
debugging
Debugging messages
6
informational
Informational messages only
5
notifications
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
warnings
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
errors
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free memory
error - resource exhausted)
1
alerts
Immediate action needed
0
emergencies
System unusable
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: debugging (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (i.e.,
numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
logging host This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
logging host host-ip-address [port udp-port]
no logging host host-ip-address
host-ip-address - The IPv4 or IPv6 address of a syslog server.
udp-port - UDP port number used by the remote server. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
UPD Port: 514
– 127 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Use this command more than once to build up a list of host IP addresses.
◆
The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging on This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error
messages to a logging process. The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax
[no] logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory or sent to
remote syslog servers. You can use the logging history command to control the
type of error messages that are stored in memory. You can use the logging trap
command to control the type of error messages that are sent to specified syslog
servers.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (126)
logging trap (129)
clear log (129)
– 128 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
logging trap This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or
limits the syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this
command without a specified level to enable remote logging. Use the no form to
disable remote logging.
Syntax
logging trap [level level]
no logging trap [level]
level - One of the syslog severity levels listed in the table on page 126.
Messages sent include the selected level through level 0.
Default Setting
Disabled
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Using this command with a specified level enables remote logging and sets the
minimum severity level to be saved.
◆
◆
Using this command without a specified level also enables remote logging, but
restores the minimum severity level to the default.
Example
Console(config)#logging trap level 4
Console(config)#
clear log This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear log [flash | ram]
flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 129 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
Example
Console#clear log
Console#
Related Commands
show log (130)
show log This command displays the log messages stored in local memory.
Syntax
show log {flash | ram}
flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ All log messages are retained in RAM and Flash after a warm restart (i.e., power
is reset through the command interface).
◆
All log messages are retained in Flash and purged from RAM after a cold restart
(i.e., power is turned off and then on through the power source).
Example
The following example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[1] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"VLAN 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
[0] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"Unit 1, Port 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
– 130 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Event Logging
show logging This command displays the configuration settings for logging messages to local
switch memory, to an SMTP event handler, or to a remote syslog server.
Syntax
show logging {command | flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
command - Stores CLI command execution records in syslog RAM and
flash.
flash - Displays settings for storing event messages in flash memory
(i.e., permanent memory).
ram - Displays settings for storing event messages in temporary RAM
(i.e., memory flushed on power reset).
sendmail - Displays settings for the SMTP event handler (page 136).
trap - Displays settings for the trap function.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), and the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0).
Console#show logging flash
Global Configuration:
Syslog Logging
:
Flash Logging Configuration:
History Logging in Flash :
Console#show logging ram
Global Configuration:
Syslog Logging
:
Ram Logging Configuration:
History Logging in RAM
:
Console#
Enabled
Level Errors (3)
Enabled
Level Debugging (7)
Table 22: show logging flash/ram - display description
Field
Description
Syslog Logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on
command.
History Logging in Flash
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History Logging in RAM
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
– 131 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
SMTP Alerts
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Global Configuration:
Syslog Logging
: Enabled
Remote Logging Configuration:
Status
: Disabled
Facility Type
: Local use 7 (23)
Level Type
: Debugging messages (7)
Console#
Table 23: show logging trap - display description
Field
Description
Global Configuration
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on
command.
Remote Logging Configuration
Status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap
command.
Facility Type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in
the logging facility command.
Level Type
The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as
specified in the logging trap command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail (136)
SMTP Alerts
These commands configure SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert
messages to the specified SMTP servers and email recipients.
Table 24: Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
logging sendmail
destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
logging sendmail sourceemail
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
– 132 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
SMTP Alerts
logging sendmail This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this
function.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
logging sendmail This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to
destination-email remove a recipient.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. However, you must enter a
separate command to specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
– 133 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
SMTP Alerts
logging sendmail host This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no
form to remove an SMTP server.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail host ip-address
ip-address - IPv4 address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert messages
for event handling.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. However, you must
enter a separate command to specify each server.
◆
◆
To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email
alerts waiting in the queue one by one, and finally closes the connection.
◆
To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent
mail during the last connection, or the first server configured by this command.
If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next server in the list and tries to
send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a
connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
logging sendmail level This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
logging sendmail level level
no logging sendmail level
level - One of the system message levels (page 126). Messages sent include
the selected level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7; Default: 7)
Default Setting
Level 7
– 134 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
SMTP Alerts
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or higher will
be sent to the configured email recipients. (For example, using Level 7 will report all
events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#
logging sendmail This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
source-email Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
logging sendmail source-email email-address
no logging sendmail source-email
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You may use an symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the address of
an administrator responsible for the switch.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email bill@this-company.com
Console(config)#
– 135 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
show logging This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
sendmail
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP Servers
----------------------------------------------192.168.1.19
SMTP Minimum Severity Level: 7
SMTP Destination E-mail Addresses
----------------------------------------------ted@this-company.com
SMTP Source E-mail Address: bill@this-company.com
SMTP Status: Enabled
Console#
Time
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers
(NTP or SNTP). Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log
to record meaningful dates and times for event entries. If the clock is not set, the
switch will only record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
Table 25: Time Commands
Command
Function
Mode
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
ntp authenticate
Enables authentication for NTP traffic
GC
ntp authentication-key
Configures authentication keys
GC
ntp client
Enables the NTP client for time updates from specified
servers
GC
ntp server
Specifies NTP servers to poll for time updates
GC
show ntp
Shows current NTP configuration settings
NE, PE
SNTP Commands
NTP Commands
– 136 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Table 25: Time Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
Manual Configuration Commands
clock summer-time (date)
Configures summer time* for the switch’s internal clock
GC
clock summer-time
(predefined)
Configures summer time* for the switch’s internal clock
GC
clock summer-time
(recurring)
Configures summer time* for the switch’s internal clock
GC
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
* Daylight savings time.
SNTP Commands
sntp client This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or
SNTP time servers specified with the sntp server command. Use the no form to
disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and times
for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting from the
factory default set at the last bootup (e.g., Dec 31 07:32:04 2014).
◆
This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp server command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current Time: Dec 23 02:52:44 2015
Poll Interval: 60
Current Mode: Unicast
– 137 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
SNTP Status : Enabled
SNTP Server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current Server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server (138)
sntp poll (138)
show sntp (139)
sntp poll This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (137)
sntp server This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are
issued. Use the this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the
current list. Use the no form to clear all time servers from the current list, or to clear
a specific server.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
no sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IPv4 or IPv6 address of a time server (NTP or SNTP).
(Range: 1 - 3 addresses)
– 138 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in the
order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization requests
based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (137)
sntp poll (138)
show sntp (139)
show sntp This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending time
synchronization requests, and the current SNTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current Time
: Nov 5 18:51:22 2015
Poll Interval : 16 seconds
Current Mode
: Unicast
SNTP Status
: Enabled
SNTP Server
: 137.92.140.80
: 137.92.140.90
: 137.92.140.99
Current Server : 137.92.140.80
Console#
– 139 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
NTP Commands
ntp authenticate This command enables authentication for NTP client-server communications. Use
the no form to disable authentication.
Syntax
[no] ntp authenticate
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can enable NTP authentication to ensure that reliable updates are received
from only authorized NTP servers. The authentication keys and their associated key
number must be centrally managed and manually distributed to NTP servers and
clients. The key numbers and key values must match on both the server and client.
Example
Console(config)#ntp authenticate
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp authentication-key (140)
ntp This command configures authentication keys and key numbers to use when NTP
authentication-key authentication is enabled. Use the no form of the command to clear a specific
authentication key or all keys from the current list.
Syntax
ntp authentication-key number md5 key
no ntp authentication-key [number]
number - The NTP authentication key ID number. (Range: 1-65535)
md5 - Specifies that authentication is provided by using the message
digest algorithm 5.
key - An MD5 authentication key string. The key string can be up to 32 casesensitive printable ASCII characters (no spaces).
Default Setting
None
– 140 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The key number specifies a key value in the NTP authentication key list. Up to
255 keys can be configured on the switch. Re-enter this command for each
server you want to configure.
◆
Note that NTP authentication key numbers and values must match on both the
server and client.
◆
NTP authentication is optional. When enabled with the ntp authenticate
command, you must also configure at least one key number using this
command.
◆
Use the no form of this command without an argument to clear all
authentication keys in the list.
Example
Console(config)#ntp authentication-key 45 md5 thisiskey45
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp authenticate (140)
ntp client This command enables NTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP time
servers specified with the ntp servers command. Use the no form to disable NTP
client requests.
Syntax
[no] ntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The SNTP and NTP clients cannot be enabled at the same time. First disable the
SNTP client before using this command.
◆
The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and times
for log events. Without NTP, the switch only records the time starting from the
factory default set at the last bootup (e.g., Dec 10 16:04:43 2014).
– 141 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
◆
This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
ntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the ntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#ntp client
Console(config)#
Related Commands
sntp client (137)
ntp server (142)
ntp server This command sets the IP addresses of the servers to which NTP time requests are
issued. Use the no form of the command to clear a specific time server or all servers
from the current list.
Syntax
ntp server ip-address [key key-number]
no ntp server [ip-address]
ip-address - IP address of an NTP time server.
key-number - The number of an authentication key to use in
communications with the server. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
Version number: 3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command specifies time servers that the switch will poll for time updates
when set to NTP client mode. It issues time synchronization requests based on
the interval set with the ntp poll command. The client will poll all the time
servers configured, the responses received are filtered and compared to
determine the most reliable and accurate time update for the switch.
◆
You can configure up to 50 NTP servers on the switch. Re-enter this command
for each server you want to configure.
◆
NTP authentication is optional. If enabled with the ntp authenticate
command, you must also configure at least one key number using the ntp
authentication-key command.
◆
Use the no form of this command without an argument to clear all configured
servers in the list.
– 142 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Example
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.3.20
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.3.21
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.5.23 key 19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp client (141)
show ntp (143)
show ntp This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the NTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending time
synchronization requests, and the current NTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show ntp
Current Time
: Apr 29 13:57:32 2015
Polling
: 1024 seconds
Current Mode
: unicast
NTP Status
: Disabled
NTP Authenticate Status : Enabled
Last Update NTP Server
: 0.0.0.0
Port: 0
Last Update Time
: Jan 1 00:00:00 1970 UTC
NTP Server 192.168.3.20 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.21 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.4.22 version 3 key 19
NTP Authentication Key 19 md5 42V68751663T6K11P2J307210R885
Console#
Manual Configuration Commands
clock summer-time This command sets the start, end, and offset times of summer time (daylight
(date) savings time) for the switch on a one-time basis. Use the no form to disable
summer time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name date b-date b-month b-year b-hour b-minute e-date
e-month e-year e-hour e-minute [offset]
no clock summer-time
name - Name of the time zone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
– 143 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
b-date - Day of the month when summer time will begin. (Range: 1-31)
b-month - The month when summer time will begin. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
b-year- The year summer time will begin.
b-hour - The hour summer time will begin. (Range: 0-23 hours)
b-minute - The minute summer time will begin. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
e-date - Day of the month when summer time will end. (Range: 1-31)
e-month - The month when summer time will end. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
e-year - The year summer time will end.
e-hour - The hour summer time will end. (Range: 0-23 hours)
e-minute - The minute summer time will end. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
offset - Summer time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 1-120 minutes)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known as
Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are adjusted
forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward in autumn.
◆
This command sets the summer-time time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone (that is, the
offset).
Example
The following example sets the 2014 Summer Time ahead by 60 minutes on March
9th and returns to normal time on November 2nd.
Console(config)#clock summer-time DEST date march 9 2014 01 59 november 2
2014 01 59 60
Console(config)#
– 144 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Related Commands
show sntp (139)
clock summer-time This command configures the summer time (daylight savings time) status and
(predefined) settings for the switch using predefined configurations for several major regions in
the world. Use the no form to disable summer time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name predefined [australia | europe | new-zealand |
usa]
no clock summer-time
name - Name of the timezone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known as
Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are adjusted
forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward in autumn.
◆
This command sets the summer-time time relative to the configured time zone.
To specify the time corresponding to your local time when summer time is in
effect, select the predefined summer-time time zone appropriate for your
location, or manually configure summer time if these predefined
configurations do not apply to your location (see clock summer-time (date) or
clock summer-time (recurring).
Table 26: Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
Region
Start Time, Day,
Week, & Month
End Time, Day,
Week, & Month
Rel. Offset
Australia
00:00:00, Sunday,
Week 5 of October
23:59:59, Sunday,
Week 5 of March
60 min
Europe
00:00:00, Sunday,
Week 5 of March
23:59:59, Sunday,
Week 5 of October
60 min
New Zealand
00:00:00, Sunday,
Week 1 of October
23:59:59, Sunday,
Week 3 of March
60 min
USA
00:00:00, Sunday,
Week 2 of March
23:59:59, Sunday,
Week 1 of November
60 min
– 145 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Example
The following example sets the Summer Time setting to use the predefined
settings for the European region.
Console(config)#clock summer-time MESZ predefined europe
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (139)
clock summer-time This command allows the user to manually configure the start, end, and offset
(recurring) times of summer time (daylight savings time) for the switch on a recurring basis.
Use the no form to disable summer-time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name recurring b-week b-day b-month b-hour b-minute eweek e-day e-month e-hour e-minute [offset]
no clock summer-time
name - Name of the timezone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
b-week - The week of the month when summer time will begin. (Range: 1-5)
b-day - The day of the week when summer time will begin. (Options:
sunday | monday | tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
b-month - The month when summer time will begin. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
b-hour - The hour when summer time will begin. (Range: 0-23 hours)
b-minute - The minute when summer time will begin. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
e-week - The week of the month when summer time will end. (Range: 1-5)
e-day - The day of the week summer time will end. (Options: sunday |
monday | tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
e-month - The month when summer time will end. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
e-hour - The hour when summer time will end. (Range: 0-23 hours)
e-minute - The minute when summer time will end. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
offset - Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 1-120 minutes)
Default Setting
Disabled
– 146 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known as
Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are adjusted
forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward in autumn.
◆
This command sets the summer-time time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To display a time corresponding to your local time when
summer time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone (that is, the
offset).
Example
The following example sets a recurring 60 minute offset summer-time to begin on
the Friday of the 1st week of March at 01:59 hours and summer time to end on the
Saturday of the 2nd week of November at 01:59 hours.
Console(config)#clock summer-time MESZ recurring 1 friday march 01 59 3
saturday november 1 59 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (139)
clock timezone This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes
{before-utc | after-utc}
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-12 hours before UTC,
0-13 hours after UTC)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 147 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s prime meridian,
zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to your local time, you
must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or
west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (139)
calendar set This command sets the system clock. It may be used if there is no time server on
your network, or if you have not configured the switch to receive signals from a
time server.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 1970 - 2037)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Note that when SNTP is enabled, the system clock cannot be manually configured.
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, February 1st, 2015.
Console#calendar set 15:12:34 1 February 2015
Console#
– 148 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time Range
show calendar This command displays the system clock.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar
Current Time
Time Zone
Summer Time
Summer Time in Effect
Console#
:
:
:
:
May 13 14:08:18 2014
UTC, 08:00
Not configured
No
Time Range
This section describes the commands used to sets a time range for use by other
functions, such as Access Control Lists.
Table 27: Time Range Commands
Command
Function
Mode
time-range
Specifies the name of a time range, and enters time range GC
configuration mode
absolute
Sets the absolute time range for the execution of a
command
TR
periodic
Sets the time range for the periodic execution of a
command
TR
show time-range
Shows configured time ranges.
PE
time-range This command specifies the name of a time range, and enters time range
configuration mode. Use the no form to remove a previously specified time range.
Syntax
[no] time-range name
name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 149 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time Range
Command Usage
◆ This command sets a time range for use by other functions, such as Access
Control Lists.
◆
A maximum of eight rules can be configured for a time range.
Example
Console(config)#time-range r&d
Console(config-time-range)#
Related Commands
Access Control Lists (325)
absolute This command sets the absolute time range for the execution of a command. Use
the no form to remove a previously specified time.
Syntax
absolute start hour minute day month year
[end hour minutes day month year]
absolute end hour minutes day month year
no absolute
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0-23)
minute - Minute. (Range: 0-59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1-31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2013-2037)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Time Range Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If a time range is already configured, you must use the no form of this
command to remove the current entry prior to configuring a new time range.
◆
If both an absolute rule and one or more periodic rules are configured for the
same time range (i.e., named entry), that entry will only take effect if the current
time is within the absolute time range and one of the periodic time ranges.
– 150 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Time Range
Example
This example configures the time for the single occurrence of an event.
Console(config)#time-range r&d
Console(config-time-range)#absolute start 1 1 1 april 2009 end 2 1 1 april
2009
Console(config-time-range)#
periodic This command sets the time range for the periodic execution of a command. Use
the no form to remove a previously specified time range.
Syntax
[no] periodic {daily | friday | monday | saturday | sunday | thursday |
tuesday | wednesday | weekdays | weekend} hour minute to {daily | friday |
monday | saturday | sunday | thursday | tuesday | wednesday | weekdays
| weekend | hour minute}
daily - Daily
friday - Friday
monday - Monday
saturday - Saturday
sunday - Sunday
thursday - Thursday
tuesday - Tuesday
wednesday - Wednesday
weekdays - Weekdays
weekend - Weekends
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0-23)
minute - Minute. (Range: 0-59)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Time Range Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If a time range is already configured, you must use the no form of this
command to remove the current entry prior to configuring a new time range.
◆
If both an absolute rule and one or more periodic rules are configured for the
same time range (i.e., named entry), that entry will only take effect if the current
time is within the absolute time range and one of the periodic time ranges.
– 151 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
Example
This example configures a time range for the periodic occurrence of an event.
Console(config)#time-range sales
Console(config-time-range)#periodic daily 1 1 to 2 1
Console(config-time-range)#
show time-range This command shows configured time ranges.
Syntax
show time-range [name]
name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show time-range r&d
Time-range r&d:
status: inactive
absolute start 01:01 01 April 2015
periodic
Daily 01:01 to
Daily 02:01
periodic
Daily 02:01 to
Daily 03:01
Console#
Switch Clustering
Switch Clustering is a method of grouping switches together to enable centralized
management through a single unit. Switches that support clustering can be
grouped together regardless of physical location or switch type, as long as they are
connected to the same local network.
Table 28: Switch Cluster Commands
Command
Function
Mode
cluster
Configures clustering on the switch
GC
cluster commander
Configures the switch as a cluster Commander
GC
cluster ip-pool
Sets the cluster IP address pool for Members
GC
cluster member
Sets Candidate switches as cluster members
GC
rcommand
Provides configuration access to Member switches
PE
– 152 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
Table 28: Switch Cluster Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show cluster
Displays the switch clustering status
PE
show cluster members
Displays current cluster Members
PE
show cluster candidates
Displays current cluster Candidates in the network
PE
Using Switch Clustering
◆
A switch cluster has a primary unit called the “Commander” which is used to
manage all other “Member” switches in the cluster. The management station
can use either Telnet or the web interface to communicate directly with the
Commander through its IP address, and then use the Commander to manage
the Member switches through the cluster’s “internal” IP addresses.
◆
Clustered switches must be in the same Ethernet broadcast domain. In other
words, clustering only functions for switches which can pass information
between the Commander and potential Candidates or active Members
through VLAN 4093.
◆
Once a switch has been configured to be a cluster Commander, it automatically
discovers other cluster-enabled switches in the network. These “Candidate”
switches only become cluster Members when manually selected by the
administrator through the management station.
◆
The cluster VLAN 4093 is not configured by default. Before using clustering,
take the following actions to set up this VLAN:
1. Create VLAN 4093 (see “Editing VLAN Groups” on page 449).
2. Add the participating ports to this VLAN (see “Configuring VLAN Interfaces”
on page 451), and set them to hybrid mode, tagged members, PVID = 1,
and acceptable frame type = all.
Note: Cluster Member switches can be managed either through a Telnet
connection to the Commander, or through a web management connection to the
Commander. When using a console connection, from the Commander CLI prompt,
use the rcommand to connect to the Member switch.
cluster This command enables clustering on the switch. Use the no form to disable
clustering.
Syntax
[no] cluster
– 153 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ To create a switch cluster, first be sure that clustering is enabled on the switch
(the default is disabled), then set the switch as a Cluster Commander. Set a
Cluster IP Pool that does not conflict with any other IP subnets in the network.
Cluster IP addresses are assigned to switches when they become Members and
are used for communication between Member switches and the Commander.
◆
Switch clusters are limited to the same Ethernet broadcast domain.
◆
There can be up to 100 candidates and 36 member switches in one cluster.
◆
A switch can only be a Member of one cluster.
◆
Configured switch clusters are maintained across power resets and network
changes.
Example
Console(config)#cluster
Console(config)#
cluster commander This command enables the switch as a cluster Commander. Use the no form to
disable the switch as cluster Commander.
Syntax
[no] cluster commander
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Once a switch has been configured to be a cluster Commander, it automatically
discovers other cluster-enabled switches in the network. These “Candidate”
switches only become cluster Members when manually selected by the
administrator through the management station.
– 154 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
◆
Cluster Member switches can be managed through a Telnet connection to the
Commander. From the Commander CLI prompt, use the rcommand id
command to connect to the Member switch.
Example
Console(config)#cluster commander
Console(config)#
cluster ip-pool This command sets the cluster IP address pool. Use the no form to reset to the
default address.
Syntax
cluster ip-pool ip-address
no cluster ip-pool
ip-address - The base IP address for IP addresses assigned to cluster
Members. The IP address must start 10.x.x.x.
Default Setting
10.254.254.1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ An “internal” IP address pool is used to assign IP addresses to Member switches
in the cluster. Internal cluster IP addresses are in the form 10.x.x.member-ID.
Only the base IP address of the pool needs to be set since Member IDs can only
be between 1 and 36.
◆
Set a Cluster IP Pool that does not conflict with addresses in the network IP
subnet. Cluster IP addresses are assigned to switches when they become
Members and are used for communication between Member switches and the
Commander.
◆
You cannot change the cluster IP pool when the switch is currently in
Commander mode. Commander mode must first be disabled.
Example
Console(config)#cluster ip-pool 10.2.3.4
Console(config)#
– 155 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
cluster member This command configures a Candidate switch as a cluster Member. Use the no form
to remove a Member switch from the cluster.
Syntax
cluster member mac-address mac-address id member-id
no cluster member id member-id
mac-address - The MAC address of the Candidate switch.
member-id - The ID number to assign to the Member switch. (Range: 1-36)
Default Setting
No Members
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The maximum number of cluster Members is 36.
◆
The maximum number of cluster Candidates is 100.
Example
Console(config)#cluster member mac-address 00-12-34-56-78-9a id 5
Console(config)#
rcommand This command provides access to a cluster Member CLI for configuration.
Syntax
rcommand id member-id
member-id - The ID number of the Member switch. (Range: 1-36)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ This command only operates through a Telnet connection to the Member
switch. Managing cluster Members using the local console CLI on the
Commander is not supported.
◆
There is no need to enter the username and password for access to the Member
switch CLI.
– 156 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
Example
Console#rcommand id 1
CLI session with the ECS2110-26T is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
show cluster This command shows the switch clustering configuration.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster
Role
Interval Heartbeat
Heartbeat Loss Count
Number of Members
Number of Candidates
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
commander
30
3 seconds
1
2
show cluster members This command shows the current switch cluster members.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster members
Cluster Members:
ID
: 1
Role
: Active member
IP Address : 10.254.254.2
MAC Address : 00-E0-0C-00-00-FE
Description : ECS2100-10T
Console#
– 157 –
Chapter 4 | System Management Commands
Switch Clustering
show cluster This command shows the discovered Candidate switches in the network.
candidates
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster candidates
Cluster Candidates:
Role
MAC Address
--------------- ----------------Candidate join 00-E0-0C-00-00-FE
Candidate
00-12-CF-0B-47-A0
Console#
– 158 –
Description
---------------------------------------ECS2110-26T
ECS2110-26T
5
SNMP Commands
SNMP commands control access to this switch from management stations using
the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent
to trap managers.
SNMP Version 3 also provides security features that cover message integrity,
authentication, and encryption; as well as controlling user access to specific areas
of the MIB tree. To use SNMPv3, first set an SNMP engine ID (or accept the default),
specify read and write access views for the MIB tree, configure SNMP user groups
with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c or v3) and security level (i.e.,
authentication and privacy), and then assign SNMP users to these groups, along
with their specific authentication and privacy passwords.
Table 29: SNMP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server
Enables the SNMP agent
GC
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
GC
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
show snmp
Displays the status of SNMP communications
NE, PE
snmp-server enable traps
Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
GC
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
snmp-server
enable port-traps
link-up-down
Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications) when a link-up or link-down state change
occurs
IC
snmp-server
enable port-traps
mac-notification
Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications) when a dynamic MAC address is added or
removed
IC
show snmp-server enable
port-traps
Shows if SNMP traps are enabled or disabled for the
specified interfaces
PE
snmp-server engine-id
Sets the SNMP engine ID
GC
snmp-server group
Adds an SNMP group, mapping users to views
GC
snmp-server user
Adds a user to an SNMP group
GC
snmp-server view
Adds an SNMP view
GC
General SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
SNMPv3 Engine Commands
– 159 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Table 29: SNMP Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show snmp engine-id
Shows the SNMP engine ID
PE
show snmp group
Shows the SNMP groups
PE
show snmp user
Shows the SNMP users
PE
show snmp view
Shows the SNMP views
PE
nlm
Enables the specified notification log
GC
snmp-server notify-filter
Creates a notification log and specifies the target host
GC
show nlm oper-status
Shows operation status of configured notification logs
PE
show snmp notify-filter
Displays the configured notification logs
PE
Notification Log Commands
ATC Trap Commands
snmp-server enable porttraps atc broadcast-alarmclear
Sends a trap when broadcast traffic falls beneath the lower IC (Port)
threshold after a storm control response has been
triggered
snmp-server enable porttraps atc broadcast-alarmfire
Sends a trap when broadcast traffic exceeds the upper
threshold for automatic storm control
IC (Port)
snmp-server enable portSends a trap when broadcast traffic exceeds the upper
IC (Port)
traps atc broadcast-control- threshold for automatic storm control and the apply timer
apply
expires
snmp-server enable portSends a trap when broadcast traffic falls beneath the lower IC (Port)
traps atc broadcast-control- threshold after a storm control response has been
release
triggered and the release timer expires
snmp-server enable porttraps atc multicast-alarmclear
Sends a trap when multicast traffic falls beneath the lower IC (Port)
threshold after a storm control response has been
triggered
snmp-server enable porttraps atc multicast-alarmfire
Sends a trap when multicast traffic exceeds the upper
threshold for automatic storm control
IC (Port)
snmp-server enable portSends a trap when multicast traffic exceeds the upper
IC (Port)
traps atc multicast-control- threshold for automatic storm control and the apply timer
apply
expires
snmp-server enable portSends a trap when multicast traffic falls beneath the lower IC (Port)
traps atc multicast-control- threshold after a storm control response has been
release
triggered and the release timer expires
Transceiver Power Threshold Trap Commands
transceiver-threshold
current
Sends a trap when the transceiver current falls outside the IC (Port)
specified thresholds
transceiver-threshold
rx-power
Sends a trap when the power level of the received signal
falls outside the specified thresholds
IC (Port)
transceiver-threshold
temperature
Sends a trap when the transceiver temperature falls
outside the specified thresholds
IC (Port)
transceiver-threshold
tx-power
Sends a trap when the power level of the transmitted signal IC (Port)
power outside the specified thresholds
transceiver-threshold
voltage
Sends a trap when the transceiver voltage falls outside the IC (Port)
specified thresholds
– 160 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
General SNMP Commands
Table 29: SNMP Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
memory
Sets the rising and falling threshold for the memory
utilization alarm
GC
process cpu
Sets the rising and falling threshold for the CPU utilization GC
alarm
process cpu guard
Sets the CPU utilization watermark and threshold
GC
show memory
Shows memory utilization parameters
PE
show process cpu
Shows CPU utilization parameters
NE, PE
show process cpu guard
Shows the CPU utilization watermark and threshold
PE
show process cpu task
Shows CPU utilization per process
NE, PE
Additional Trap Commands
General SNMP Commands
snmp-server This command enables the SNMPv3 engine and services for all management clients
(i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3). Use the no form to disable the server.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
snmp-server This command defines community access strings used to authorize management
community access by clients using SNMP v1 or v2c. Use the no form to remove the specified
community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro | rw]
no snmp-server community string
string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive;
Maximum number of strings: 5)
– 161 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
General SNMP Commands
ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
◆ public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
◆ private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (163)
– 162 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
General SNMP Commands
snmp-server location This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (162)
show snmp This command can be used to check the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counters for
SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not SNMP logging has
been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps command.
Example
Console#show snmp
SNMP Agent : Enabled
SNMP Traps :
Authentication : Enabled
MAC-notification : Disabled
MAC-notification interval : 1 second(s)
SNMP Communities :
1. public, and the access level is read-only
– 163 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
2. private, and the access level is read/write
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP Logging: Disabled
Console#
SNMP Target Host Commands
snmp-server This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol
enable traps traps or informs (i.e., SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP
notifications.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | mac-notification
[interval seconds]]
authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure notifications.
mac-notification - Keyword to issue trap when a dynamic MAC address is
added or removed.
interval - Specifies the interval between issuing two consecutive traps.
(Range: 1-3600 seconds; Default: 1 second)
Default Setting
Issue authentication traps
Other traps are disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
– 164 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a keyword, only the
notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
◆
The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to specify
which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send notifications,
you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
◆
The authentication traps are legacy notifications, and therefore when used for
SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must be enabled in conjunction with the
corresponding entries in the Notify View assigned by the snmp-server group
command.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps authentication
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (165)
snmp-server host This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol
notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host host-addr [inform [retry retries | timeout seconds]]
community-string [version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv} [udp-port port]}
no snmp-server host host-addr
host-addr - IPv4 or IPv6 address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
inform - Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
retries - The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
seconds - The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment
before resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647
centiseconds; Default: 1500 centiseconds)
community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation to SNMP V1 and V2c hosts. Although you can set this
string using the snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend
defining it with the snmp-server community command prior to using the
snmp-server host command. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
– 165 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP Version 1, 2c or 3
traps. (Range: 1, 2c, 3; Default: 1)
auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple
Network Management Protocol” in the Web Management Guide for
further information about these authentication and encryption
options.
port - Host UDP port to use. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 162)
Default Setting
Host Address: None
Notification Type: Traps
SNMP Version: 1
UDP Port: 162
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent. In
order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
◆
◆
The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the snmp-server
enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps command to enable
the sending of traps or informs and to specify which SNMP notifications are
sent globally. For a host to receive notifications, at least one snmp-server
enable traps command and the snmp-server host command for that host
must be enabled.
◆
Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server
enable traps command. For example, some notification types are always
enabled.
◆
Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The recipient
of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are therefore
not as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for
acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical
information is received by the host. However, note that informs consume more
system resources because they must be kept in memory until a response is
received. Informs also add to network traffic. You should consider these effects
when deciding whether to issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 161).
2. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 173).
3. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 170).
– 166 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
4. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 164).
5. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 161).
2. Create a remote SNMPv3 user to use in the message exchange process
3.
4.
5.
6.
(page 171).
Create a view with the required notification messages (page 173).
Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 170).
Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 164).
Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
◆
The switch can send SNMP Version 1, 2c or 3 notifications to a host IP address,
depending on the SNMP version that the management station supports. If the
snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP version, the default is
to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
◆
If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the community string is interpreted
as an SNMP user name. The user name must first be defined with the snmpserver user command. Otherwise, an SNMPv3 group will be automatically
created by the snmp-server host command using the name of the specified
community string, and default settings for the read, write, and notify view.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (164)
snmp-server This command enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP notifications)
enable port-traps when a link-up or link-down state change occurs. Use the no form to restore the
link-up-down default setting.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable port-traps link-up-down
link-up-down - Keyword to issue trap when a link-up or link-down state
change occurs.
Default Setting
Disabled
– 167 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMP Target Host Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#snmp-server enable port-traps mac-notification
Console(config)#
snmp-server This command enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP notifications)
enable port-traps when a dynamic MAC address is added or removed. Use the no form to restore the
mac-notification default setting.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable port-traps mac-notification
mac-notification - Keyword to issue trap when a dynamic MAC address is
added or removed.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command can enable MAC authentication traps on the current interface only if
they are also enabled at the global level with the snmp-server enable traps macauthentication command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#snmp-server enable port-traps mac-notification
Console(config)#
show snmp-server This command shows if SNMP traps are enabled or disabled for the specified
enable port-traps interfaces.
Syntax
show snmp-server enable port-traps interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
– 168 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp-server enable port-traps interface
Interface MAC Notification Trap
--------- --------------------Eth 1/1
No
Eth 1/2
No
Eth
1/3
No
.
.
.
SNMPv3 Commands
snmp-server This command configures an identification string for the SNMPv3 engine. Use the
engine-id no form to restore the default.
Syntax
snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}} engineid-string
no snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}}
local - Specifies the SNMP engine on this switch.
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - IPv4 or IPv6 address of the remote device.
engineid-string - String identifying the engine ID. (Range: 9-64 hexadecimal
characters)
Default Setting
A unique engine ID is automatically generated by the switch based on its MAC
address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ An SNMP engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides either on this
switch or on a remote device. This engine protects against message replay,
delay, and redirection. The engine ID is also used in combination with user
passwords to generate the security keys for authenticating and encrypting
SNMPv3 packets.
◆
A remote engine ID is required when using SNMPv3 informs. (See the snmpserver host command.) The remote engine ID is used to compute the security
digest for authentication and encryption of packets passed between the switch
and a user on the remote host. SNMP passwords are localized using the engine
– 169 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
ID of the authoritative agent. For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the
remote agent. You therefore need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP
engine ID before you can send proxy requests or informs to it.
◆
Trailing zeroes need not be entered to uniquely specify a engine ID. In other
words, the value “0123456789” is equivalent to “0123456789” followed by 16
zeroes for a local engine ID.
◆
A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This is
referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine ID is deleted or changed,
all SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all existing users
(page 171).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 1234567890
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id remote 192.168.1.19 9876543210
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (165)
snmp-server group This command adds an SNMP group, mapping SNMP users to SNMP views. Use the
no form to remove an SNMP group.
Syntax
snmp-server group groupname
{v1 | v2c | v3 {auth | noauth | priv}}
[read readview] [write writeview] [notify notifyview]
no snmp-server group groupname
groupname - Name of an SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple Network
Management Protocol” in the Web Management Guide for further
information about these authentication and encryption options.
readview - Defines the view for read access. (1-32 characters)
writeview - Defines the view for write access. (1-32 characters)
notifyview - Defines the view for notifications. (1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Default groups: public1 (read only), private2 (read/write)
readview - Every object belonging to the Internet OID space (1).
writeview - Nothing is defined.
notifyview - Nothing is defined.
– 170 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ A group sets the access policy for the assigned users.
◆
When authentication is selected, the MD5 or SHA algorithm is used as specified
in the snmp-server user command.
◆
When privacy is selected, the DES 56-bit algorithm is used for data encryption.
◆
For additional information on the notification messages supported by this
switch, see table for “Supported Notification Messages” in the Web
Management Guide. Also, note that the authentication, link-up and link-down
messages are legacy traps and must therefore be enabled in conjunction with
the snmp-server enable traps command.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth write daily
Console(config)#
snmp-server user This command adds a user to an SNMP group, restricting the user to a specific
SNMP Read, Write, or Notify View. Use the no form to remove a user from an SNMP
group.
Syntax
snmp-server user username groupname
{v1 | v2c | v3 [encrypted] [auth {md5 | sha} auth-password [priv {3des |
aes128 | aes192 | aes256 | des56} priv-password]]
snmp-server user username groupname remote ip-address
{v3 [encrypted] [auth {md5 | sha} auth-password [priv {3des | aes128 |
aes192 | aes256 | des56} priv-password]]
no snmp-server user username {v1 | v2c | v3 | remote ip-address v3}
username - Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
groupname - Name of an SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - IPv4 address of the remote device.
v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
encrypted - Accepts the password as encrypted input.
1. No view is defined.
2. Maps to the defaultview.
– 171 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
auth - Uses SNMPv3 with authentication.
md5 | sha - Uses MD5 or SHA authentication.
auth-password - Authentication password. Enter as plain text if the
encrypted option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
(Range: 8-32 characters for unencrypted password.)
If the encrypted option is selected, enter an encrypted password.
(Range: 32 characters for MD5 encrypted password, 40 characters for SHA
encrypted password)
3des - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with 3DES (168-bit) encryption.
aes128 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with AES128 encryption.
aes192 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with AES192 encryption.
aes256 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with AES256 encryption.
des56 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with DES56 encryption.
priv-password - Privacy password. Enter as plain text if the encrypted
option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
(Range: 8-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Local users (i.e., the command does not specify a remote engine identifier)
must be configured to authorize management access for SNMPv3 clients, or to
identify the source of SNMPv3 trap messages sent from the local switch.
◆
Remote users (i.e., the command specifies a remote engine identifier) must be
configured to identify the source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the
local switch.
◆
The SNMP engine ID is used to compute the authentication/privacy digests
from the password. You should therefore configure the engine ID with the
snmp-server engine-id command before using this configuration command.
◆
Before you configure a remote user, use the snmp-server engine-id command
to specify the engine ID for the remote device where the user resides. Then use
the snmp-server user command to specify the user and the IP address for the
remote device where the user resides. The remote agent’s SNMP engine ID is
used to compute authentication/privacy digests from the user’s password. If the
remote engine ID is not first configured, the snmp-server user command
specifying a remote user will fail.
◆
SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent.
For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore
– 172 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send
proxy requests or informs to it.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve r&d v3 auth md5 greenpeace priv des56
einstien
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id remote 192.168.1.19 9876543210
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
snmp-server view This command adds an SNMP view which controls user access to the MIB. Use the
no form to remove an SNMP view.
Syntax
snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {included | excluded}
no snmp-server view view-name
view-name - Name of an SNMP view. (Range: 1-32 characters)
oid-tree - Object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree. Wild cards can be
used to mask a specific portion of the OID string. (Refer to the examples.)
included - Defines an included view.
excluded - Defines an excluded view.
Default Setting
defaultview (includes access to the entire MIB tree)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Views are used in the snmp-server group command to restrict user access to
specified portions of the MIB tree.
◆
The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Examples
This view includes MIB-2.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#
– 173 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, ifDescr. The wild card is used to select
all the index values in the following table.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.2 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.*.2 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the mask selects all index entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.* included
Console(config)#
show snmp engine-id This command shows the SNMP engine ID.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the default engine ID.
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP EngineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP EngineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP Engine ID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
IP address
192.168.1.19
Table 30: show snmp engine-id - display description
Field
Description
Local SNMP engineID
String identifying the engine ID.
Local SNMP engineBoots
The number of times that the engine has (re-)initialized since the snmp
EngineID was last configured.
Remote SNMP engineID
String identifying an engine ID on a remote device.
IP address
IP address of the device containing the corresponding remote SNMP
engine.
– 174 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
show snmp group Four default groups are provided – SNMPv1 read-only access and read/write access,
and SNMPv2c read-only access and read/write access.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp group
Group Name
: r&d
Security Model : v3
Security Level : Authentication and privacy
Read View
: No readview specified
Write View
: No writeview specified
Notify View
: No notifyview specified
Storage Type
: Nonvolatile
Row Status
: Active
Group Name
Security Model
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Storage Type
Row Status
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
public
v1
defaultview
No writeview specified
No notifyview specified
Volatile
Active
Group Name
Security Model
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Storage Type
Row Status
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
public
v2c
defaultview
No writeview specified
No notifyview specified
Volatile
Active
Group Name
Security Model
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Storage Type
Row Status
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
private
v1
defaultview
defaultview
No notifyview specified
Volatile
Active
Group Name
Security Model
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Storage Type
Row Status
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
private
v2c
defaultview
defaultview
No notifyview specified
Volatile
Active
Table 31: show snmp group - display description
Field
Description
Group Name
Name of an SNMP group.
Security Model
The SNMP version.
Security Level
This associated security level can use SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy.
– 175 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
SNMPv3 Commands
Table 31: show snmp group - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Read View
The associated read view.
Write View
The associated write view.
Notify View
The associated notify view.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
show snmp user This command shows information on SNMP users.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp user
Engine ID
User Name
Group Name
Security Model
Security Level
Authentication Protocol
Privacy Protocol
Storage Type
Row Status
SNMP remote user
Engine ID
User Name
Group Name
Security Model
Security Level
Authentication Protocol
Privacy Protocol
Storage Type
Row Status
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
800001030300e00c0000fd0000
steve
rd
v1
Authentication and privacy
None
None
Nonvolatile
Active
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0000937564846450000
mark
public
v3
Anthentication and privacy
MD5
DES56
Nonvolatile
Active
Table 32: show snmp user - display description
Field
Description
Engine ID
String identifying the engine ID.
User Name
Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
Group Name
Name of an SNMP group.
Security Model
The user security model: SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
Security Level
Indicates if authentication or encryption are used.
Authentication Protocol
The authentication protocol used with SNMPv3.
Privacy Protocol
The privacy protocol used with SNMPv3.
– 176 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Notification Log Commands
Table 32: show snmp user - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
SNMP remote user
A user associated with an SNMP engine on a remote device.
show snmp view This command shows information on the SNMP views.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp view
View Name: mib-2
Subtree OID: 1.2.2.3.6.2.1
View Type: included
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
View Name
Subtree OID
View Type
Storage Type
Row Status
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
defaultview
1
included
volatile
active
Table 33: show snmp view - display description
Field
Description
View Name
Name of an SNMP view.
Subtree OID
A branch in the MIB tree.
View Type
Indicates if the view is included or excluded.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
Notification Log Commands
nlm This command enables or disables the specified notification log.
Syntax
[no] nlm filter-name
filter-name - Notification log name. (Range: 1-32 characters)
– 177 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Notification Log Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Notification logging is enabled by default, but will not start recording
information until a logging profile specified by the snmp-server notify-filter
command is enabled by the nlm command.
◆
Disabling logging with this command does not delete the entries stored in the
notification log.
Example
This example enables the notification log A1.
Console(config)#nlm A1
Console(config)#
snmp-server This command creates an SNMP notification log. Use the no form to remove this
notify-filter log.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server notify-filter profile-name remote ip-address
profile-name - Notification log profile name. (Range: 1-32 characters)
ip-address - IPv4 or IPv6 address of a remote device. The specified target
host must already have been configured using the snmp-server host
command.
Note: The notification log is stored locally. It is not sent to a remote device. This
remote host parameter is only required to complete mandatory fields in the SNMP
Notification MIB.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Systems that support SNMP often need a mechanism for recording Notification
information as a hedge against lost notifications, whether there are Traps or
Informs that may exceed retransmission limits. The Notification Log MIB (NLM,
– 178 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Notification Log Commands
RFC 3014) provides an infrastructure in which information from other MIBs may
be logged.
◆
Given the service provided by the NLM, individual MIBs can now bear less
responsibility to record transient information associated with an event against
the possibility that the Notification message is lost, and applications can poll
the log to verify that they have not missed any important Notifications.
◆
If notification logging is not configured and enabled, when the switch reboots,
some SNMP traps (such as warm start) cannot be logged.
◆
To avoid this problem, notification logging should be configured and enabled
using the snmp-server notify-filter command and nlm command, and these
commands stored in the startup configuration file. Then when the switch
reboots, SNMP traps (such as warm start) can now be logged.
◆
When this command is executed, a notification log is created (with the default
parameters defined in RFC 3014). Notification logging is enabled by default
(see the nlm command), but will not start recording information until a logging
profile specified with this command is enabled with the nlm command.
◆
Based on the default settings used in RFC 3014, a notification log can contain
up to 256 entries, and the entry aging time is 1440 minutes. Information
recorded in a notification log, and the entry aging time can only be configured
using SNMP from a network management station.
◆
When a trap host is created with the snmp-server host command, a default
notify filter will be created as shown in the example under the show snmp
notify-filter command.
Example
This example first creates an entry for a remote host, and then instructs the switch
to record this device as the remote host for the specified notification log.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server notify-filter A1 remote 10.1.19.23
Console#
– 179 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Additional Trap Commands
show nlm oper-status This command shows the operational status of configured notification logs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show nlm oper-status
Filter Name: A1
Oper-Status: Operational
Console#
show snmp This command displays the configured notification logs.
notify-filter
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example displays the configured notification logs and associated target hosts.
Console#show snmp notify-filter
Filter profile name
IP address
---------------------------- ---------------A1
10.1.19.23
Console#
Additional Trap Commands
memory This command sets an SNMP trap based on configured thresholds for memory
utilization. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
memory {rising rising-threshold | falling falling-threshold}
no memory {rising | falling}
rising-threshold - Rising threshold for memory utilization alarm expressed in
percentage. (Range: 1-100)
falling-threshold - Falling threshold for memory utilization alarm expressed
in percentage. (Range: 1-100)
Default Setting
Rising Threshold: 90%
Falling Threshold: 70%
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 180 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Additional Trap Commands
Command Usage
Once the rising alarm threshold is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the
falling threshold before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the rising
threshold again before another alarm is triggered.
Example
Console(config)#memory rising 80
Console(config)#memory falling 60
Console#
Related Commands
show memory (89)
process cpu This command sets an SNMP trap based on configured thresholds for CPU
utilization. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
process cpu {rising rising-threshold | falling falling-threshold}
no process cpu {rising | falling}
rising-threshold - Rising threshold for CPU utilization alarm expressed in
percentage. (Range: 1-100)
falling-threshold - Falling threshold for CPU utilization alarm expressed in
percentage. (Range: 1-100)
Default Setting
Rising Threshold: 90%
Falling Threshold: 70%
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Once the rising alarm threshold is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the
falling threshold before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the rising
threshold again before another alarm is triggered.
Example
Console(config)#process cpu rising 80
Console(config)#process cpu falling 60
Console#
Related Commands
show process cpu (90)
– 181 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Additional Trap Commands
process cpu guard This command sets the CPU utilization high and low watermarks in percentage of
CPU time utilized and the CPU high and low thresholds in the number of packets
being processed per second. Use the no form of this command without any
parameters to restore all of the default settings, or with a specific parameter to
restore the default setting for that item.
Syntax
process cpu guard [high-watermark high-watermark |
low-watermark low-watermark | max-threshold max-threshold |
min-threshold min-threshold | trap]
high-watermark - If the percentage of CPU usage time is higher than the
high-watermark, the switch stops packet flow to the CPU (allowing it to
catch up with packets already in the buffer) until usage time falls below the
low watermark. (Range: 40-100%)
low-watermark - If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the high
watermark, normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath the low
watermark. (Range: 40-100%)
max-threshold - If the number of packets being processed per second by
the CPU is higher than the maximum threshold, the switch stops packet
flow to the CPU (allowing it to catch up with packets already in the buffer)
until the number of packets being processed falls below the minimum
threshold. (Range: 50-500 pps)
min-threshold - If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the
maximum threshold, normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath
the minimum threshold. (Range: 50-500 pps)
trap - If traps are enabled, the switch will send an alarm message if CPU
utilization exceeds the high watermark in percentage of CPU usage time or
exceeds the maximum threshold in the number of packets being processed
by the CPU.
Default Setting
Guard Status: Disabled
High Watermark: 90%
Low Watermark: 70%
Maximum Threshold: 500 packets per second
Minimum Threshold: 50 packets per second
Trap Status: Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Once the high watermark is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the low
watermark before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the high
watermark again before another alarm is triggered.
◆
– 182 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Additional Trap Commands
◆
Once the maximum threshold is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the
minimum threshold before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the
maximum threshold again before another alarm is triggered.
Example
Console(config)#process cpu guard high-watermark 80
Console(config)#process cpu guard low-watermark 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show process cpu guard (90)
– 183 –
Chapter 5 | SNMP Commands
Additional Trap Commands
– 184 –
6
Remote Monitoring Commands
Remote Monitoring allows a remote device to collect information or respond to
specified events on an independent basis. This switch is an RMON-capable device
which can independently perform a wide range of tasks, significantly reducing
network management traffic. It can continuously run diagnostics and log
information on network performance. If an event is triggered, it can automatically
notify the network administrator of a failure and provide historical information
about the event. If it cannot connect to the management agent, it will continue to
perform any specified tasks and pass data back to the management station the
next time it is contacted.
This switch supports mini-RMON, which consists of the Statistics, History, Event and
Alarm groups. When RMON is enabled, the system gradually builds up information
about its physical interfaces, storing this information in the relevant RMON
database group. A management agent then periodically communicates with the
switch using the SNMP protocol. However, if the switch encounters a critical event,
it can automatically send a trap message to the management agent which can then
respond to the event if so configured.
Table 34: RMON Commands
Command
Function
Mode
rmon alarm
Sets threshold bounds for a monitored variable
GC
rmon event
Creates a response event for an alarm
GC
rmon collection history
Periodically samples statistics
IC
rmon collection rmon1
Enables statistics collection
IC
show rmon alarms
Shows the settings for all configured alarms
PE
show rmon events
Shows the settings for all configured events
PE
show rmon history
Shows the sampling parameters for each entry
PE
show rmon statistics
Shows the collected statistics
PE
– 185 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
rmon alarm This command sets threshold bounds for a monitored variable. Use the no form to
remove an alarm.
Syntax
rmon alarm index variable interval {absolute | delta}
rising-threshold threshold [event-index] falling-threshold threshold
[event-index] [owner name]
no rmon alarm index
index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
variable – The object identifier of the MIB variable to be sampled. Only
variables of the type etherStatsEntry.n.n may be sampled. Note that
etherStatsEntry.n uniquely defines the MIB variable, and
etherStatsEntry.n.n defines the MIB variable, plus the etherStatsIndex. For
example, 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6.1 denotes etherStatsBroadcastPkts, plus the
etherStatsIndex of 1.
interval – The polling interval. (Range: 1-31622400 seconds)
absolute – The variable is compared directly to the thresholds at the end of
the sampling period.
delta – The last sample is subtracted from the current value and the
difference is then compared to the thresholds.
threshold – An alarm threshold for the sampled variable.
(Range: 0-2147483647)
event-index – The index of the event to use if an alarm is triggered. If there is
no corresponding entry in the event control table, then no event will be
generated. (Range: 1-65535)
name – Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-127
characters)
Default Setting
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.104.1 - 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.102.26/
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.101.52
Taking delta samples every 30 seconds,
Rising threshold is 892800, assigned to event 0
Falling threshold is 446400, assigned to event 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If an event is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted before any
changes can be made with this command.
◆
If the current value is greater than or equal to the rising threshold, and the last
sample value was less than this threshold, then an alarm will be generated.
After a rising event has been generated, another such event will not be
– 186 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
generated until the sampled value has fallen below the rising threshold,
reaches the falling threshold, and again moves back up to the rising threshold.
◆
If the current value is less than or equal to the falling threshold, and the last
sample value was greater than this threshold, then an alarm will be generated.
After a falling event has been generated, another such event will not be
generated until the sampled value has risen above the falling threshold,
reaches the rising threshold, and again moves back down to the failing
threshold.
Example
Console(config)#rmon alarm 1 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6.1 15 delta
rising-threshold 100 1 falling-threshold 30 1 owner mike
Console(config)#
rmon event This command creates a response event for an alarm. Use the no form to remove an
event.
Syntax
rmon event index [log] | [trap community] | [description string] | [owner name]
no rmon event index
index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
log – Generates an RMON log entry when the event is triggered. Log
messages are processed based on the current configuration settings for
event logging (see “Event Logging” on page 125).
trap – Sends a trap message to all configured trap managers (see the
snmp-server host command).
community – A password-like community string sent with the trap
operation to SNMP v1 and v2c hosts. Although this string can be set using
the rmon event command by itself, it is recommended that the string be
defined using the snmp-server community command prior to using the
rmon event command. (Range: 1-32 characters)
string – A comment that describes this event. (Range: 1-127 characters)
name – Name of the person who created this entry.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 187 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
Command Usage
◆ If an event is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted before any
changes can be made with this command.
◆
The specified events determine the action to take when an alarm triggers this
event. The response to an alarm can include logging the alarm or sending a
message to a trap manager.
Example
Console(config)#rmon event 2 log description urgent owner mike
Console(config)#
rmon collection This command periodically samples statistics on a physical interface. Use the no
history form to disable periodic sampling.
Syntax
rmon collection history controlEntry index
[buckets number [interval seconds]] |
[interval seconds] |
[owner name [buckets number [interval seconds]]
no rmon collection history controlEntry index
index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
number – The number of buckets requested for this entry. (Range: 1-65536)
seconds – The polling interval. (Range: 1-3600 seconds)
name – Name of the person who created this entry.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.104.1 - 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.104.102.26/
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.10.1.43.101.52
Buckets: 8
Interval: 30 seconds for even numbered entries,
1800 seconds for odd numbered entries
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
By default, each index number equates to a port on the switch, but can be
changed to any number not currently in use.
◆
◆
If periodic sampling is already enabled on an interface, the entry must be
deleted before any changes can be made with this command.
– 188 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
◆
The information collected for each sample includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize packets,
oversize packets, fragments, jabbers, CRC alignment errors, collisions, drop
events, and network utilization.
◆
The switch reserves two controlEntry index entries for each port. If a default
index entry is re-assigned to another port by this command, the show
running-config command will display a message indicating that this index is
not available for the port to which is normally assigned.
For example, if control entry 15 is assigned to port 5 as shown below, the show
running-config command will indicate that this entry is not available for port
8.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#rmon collection history controlEntry 15
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show running-config
!
interface ethernet 1/5
rmon collection history controlEntry 15 buckets 50 interval 1800
...
interface ethernet 1/8
no rmon collection history controlEntry 15
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rmon collection history controlentry 21 owner mike buckets
24 interval 60
Console(config-if)#
rmon collection This command enables the collection of statistics on a physical interface. Use the
rmon1 no form to disable statistics collection.
Syntax
rmon collection rmon1 controlEntry index [owner name]
no rmon collection rmon1 controlEntry index
index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
name – Name of the person who created this entry.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
– 189 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
Command Usage
◆ By default, each index number equates to a port on the switch, but can be
changed to any number not currently in use.
◆
If statistics collection is already enabled on an interface, the entry must be
deleted before any changes can be made with this command.
◆
The information collected for each entry includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize packets,
oversize packets, fragments, jabbers, CRC alignment errors, collisions, drop
events, and packets of specified lengths
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rmon collection rmon1 controlentry 1 owner mike
Console(config-if)#
show rmon alarms This command shows the settings for all configured alarms.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show rmon alarms
Alarm 1 is valid, owned by
Monitors 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6.1 every 30 seconds
Taking delta samples, last value was 0
Rising threshold is 892800, assigned to event 0
Falling threshold is 446400, assigned to event 0
.
.
.
show rmon events This command shows the settings for all configured events.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show rmon events
Event 2 is valid, owned by mike
Description is urgent
Event firing causes log and trap to community , last fired
Console#
– 190 –
00:00:00
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
show rmon history This command shows the sampling parameters configured for each entry in the
history group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show rmon history
Entry 1 is valid, and owned by
Monitors 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1 every 1800 seconds
Requested # of time intervals, ie buckets, is 8
Granted # of time intervals, ie buckets, is 8
Sample # 1 began measuring at 00:00:01
Received 77671 octets, 1077 packets,
61 broadcast and 978 multicast packets,
0 undersized and 0 oversized packets,
0 fragments and 0 jabbers packets,
0 CRC alignment errors and 0 collisions.
# of dropped packet events is 0
Network utilization is estimated at 0
.
.
.
show rmon statistics This command shows the information collected for all configured entries in the
statistics group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show rmon statistics
Interface 1 is valid, and owned by
Monitors 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1 which has
Received 164289 octets, 2372 packets,
120 broadcast and 2211 multicast packets,
0 undersized and 0 oversized packets,
0 fragments and 0 jabbers,
0 CRC alignment errors and 0 collisions.
# of dropped packet events (due to lack of resources): 0
# of packets received of length (in octets):
64: 2245, 65-127: 87, 128-255: 31,
256-511: 5, 512-1023: 2, 1024-1518: 2
.
.
.
– 191 –
Chapter 6 | Remote Monitoring Commands
– 192 –
7
Flow Sampling Commands
Flow sampling (sFlow) can be used with a remote sFlow Collector to provide an
accurate, detailed and real-time overview of the types and levels of traffic present
on the network. The sFlow Agent samples 1 out of n packets from all data
traversing the switch, re-encapsulates the samples as sFlow datagrams and
transmits them to the sFlow Collector. This sampling occurs at the internal
hardware level where all traffic is seen, whereas traditional probes only have a
partial view of traffic as it is sampled at the monitored interface. Moreover, the
processor and memory load imposed by the sFlow agent is minimal since local
analysis does not take place.
Note: The terms “collector”, “receiver” and “owner”, in the context of this chapter, all
refer to a remote server capable of receiving the sFlow datagrams generated by the
sFlow agent of the switch.
Table 35: sFlow Commands
Command
Function
Mode
sflow owner
Creates an sFlow collector which the switch uses to send
samples to.
PE
sflow polling instance
Configures an sFlow polling data source that takes samples PE
periodically based on time.
sflow sampling instance
Configures an sFlow sampling data source that samples
periodically based on a packet count.
PE
show sflow
Shows the global and interface settings for the sFlow
process
PE
sflow owner This command creates an sFlow collector on the switch. Use the no form to remove
the sFlow receiver.
Syntax
sflow owner owner-name timeout timeout-value
[destination {ipv4-address | ipv6-address}] [port destination-udp-port]
[max-datagram-size max-datagram-size] [version {v4 | v5}]
no sflow owner owner-name
owner-name - Name of the collector. (Range: 1-30 alphanumeric characters)
timeout-value - The length of time the sFlow interface is available to send
samples to a receiver, after which the owner and associated polling and
– 193 –
Chapter 7 | Flow Sampling Commands
sampling data source instances are removed from the configuration.
(Range: 30-10000000 seconds)
ipv4-address - IPv4 address of the sFlow collector. Valid IPv4 addresses
consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
ipv6-address - IPv6 address of the sFlow collector. A full IPv6 address
including the network prefix and host address bits. An IPv6 address consists
of 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may be
used to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to fill the
undefined fields.
destination-udp-port - The UDP port on which the collector is listening for
sFlow streams. (Range: 1-65535)
max-datagram-size - The maximum size of the sFlow datagram payload.
(Range: 200-1500 bytes)
version {v4 | v5} - Sends either v4 or v5 sFlow datagrams to the receiver.
Default Setting
No owner is configured
UDP Port: 6343
Version: v4
Maximum Datagram Size: 1400 bytes
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use the sflow owner command to create an owner instance of an sFlow
collector. If the socket port, maximum datagram size, and datagram version are
not specified, then the default values are used.
◆
◆
Once an owner is created, the sflow owner command can again be used to
modify the owner’s port number. All other parameter values for the owner will
be retained if the port is modified.
◆
Use the no sflow owner command to remove the collector.
◆
When the sflow owner command is issued, it’s associated timeout value will
immediately begin to count down. Once the timeout value has reached zero
seconds, the sFlow owner and it’s associated sampling sources will be deleted
from the configuration.
Example
This example shows an sflow collector being created on the switch.
Console(config)#sflow owner stat_server1 timeout 100 destination
192.168.220.225 port 22500 max-datagram-size 512 version v5
Console(config)#
– 194 –
Chapter 7 | Flow Sampling Commands
This example shows how to modify the sFlow port number for an already
configured collector.
Console(config)#sflow owner stat_server1 timeout 100 port 35100
Console(config)#
sflow polling instance This command enables an sFlow polling data source, for a specified interface, that
polls periodically based on a specified time interval. Use the no form to remove the
polling data source instance from the switch’s sFlow configuration.
Syntax
sflow polling {interface interface} instance instance-id receiver owner-name
polling-interval seconds
no sflow polling {interface interface} instance instance-id
interface - The source from which the samples will be taken at specified
intervals and sent to a collector.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
instance-id - An instance ID used to identify the sampling source. (Range: 1)
owner-name - The associated receiver, to which the samples will be sent.
(Range: 1-30 alphanumeric characters)
polling-interval - The time interval at which the sFlow process adds
counter values to the sample datagram. (Range: 0-10000000 seconds, 0
disables this feature)
Default Setting
No sFlow polling instance is configured.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command enables a polling data source and configures the interval at which
counter values are added to the sample datagram.
Example
This example sets the polling interval to 10 seconds.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/9
Console(config-if)#sflow polling-interval 10
Console(config-if)#
– 195 –
Chapter 7 | Flow Sampling Commands
sflow sampling This command enables an sFlow data source instance for a specific interface that
instance takes samples periodically based on the number of packets processed. Use the no
form to remove the sampling data source instance from the switch’s sFlow
configuration.
Syntax
sflow sampling {interface interface} instance instance-id receiver owner-name
sampling-rate sample-rate
[max-header-size max-header-size]
no sflow sample {interface interface} instance instance-id
interface - The source from which the samples will be taken and sent to a
collector.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
instance-id - An instance ID used to identify the sampling source. (Range: 1)
owner-name - The associated receiver, to which the samples will be sent.
(Range: 1-30 alphanumeric characters)
sample-rate - The packet sampling rate, or the number of packets out of
which one sample will be taken. (Range: 256-16777215 packets)
max-header-size - The maximum size of the sFlow datagram header.
(Range: 64-256 bytes)
Default Setting
No sFlow sampling instance id configured.
Maximum Header Size: 128 bytes
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example enables a sampling data source on Ethernet interface 1/1, an
associated receiver named “owner1”, and a sampling rate of one out of 100. The
maximum header size is also set to 200 bytes.
Console# sflow sampling interface ethernet 1/1 instance 1 receiver owner1
sampling-rate 100 max-header-size 200
Console#
– 196 –
Chapter 7 | Flow Sampling Commands
The following command removes a sampling data source from Ethernet interface
1/1.
Console# no sflow sampling interface ethernet 1/1 instance 1
Console#
show sflow This command shows the global and interface settings for the sFlow process.
Syntax
show sflow [owner owner-name | interface interface]
owner-name - The associated receiver, to which the samples are sent.
(Range: 1-30 alphanumeric characters)
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show sflow interface ethernet 1/2
Receiver Owner Name
Receiver Timeout
Receiver Destination
Receiver Socket Port
Maximum Datagram Size
Datagram Version
:
:
:
:
:
:
stat1
99633 sec
192.168.32.32
6343
1400 bytes
4
Data Source
Sampling Instance ID
Sampling Rate
Maximum Header Size
:
:
:
:
Eth 1/2
1
512
128 bytes
Console#
– 197 –
Chapter 7 | Flow Sampling Commands
– 198 –
8
Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or remote authentication methods. Port-based
authentication using IEEE 802.1X can also be configured to control either
management access to the uplink ports or client access3 to the data ports.
Table 36: Authentication Commands
Command Group
Function
User Accounts and
Privilege Levels
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management
access, and assigns a privilege level to specified command groups or
individual commands
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
AAA
Configures authentication, authorization, and accounting for network
access
Web Server
Enables management access via a web browser
Telnet Server
Enables management access via Telnet
Secure Shell
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
802.1X Port Authentication Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
Management IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
3. For other methods of controlling client access, see “General Security Measures” on
page 259.
– 199 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
The basic commands required for management access and assigning command
privilege levels are listed in this section. This switch also includes other options for
password checking via the console or a Telnet connection (page 114), user
authentication via a remote authentication server (page 199), and host access
authentication for specific ports (page 243).
Table 37: User Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec
level
GC
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at
login
GC
privilege
Assigns a privilege level to specified command groups or
individual commands
GC
show privilege
Shows the privilege level for the current user, or the
privilege level for commands modified by the privilege
command
PE
enable password After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. This command controls access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
level level - Sets the command access privileges. (Range: 0-15)
Level 0, 8 and 15 are designed for users (guest), managers (network
maintenance), and administrators (top-level access). The other levels can
be used to configured specialized access profiles.
Level 0-7 provide the same default access privileges, all within Normal
Exec mode under the “Console>” command prompt.
Level 8-14 provide the same default access privileges, including
additional commands in Normal Exec mode, and a subset of commands
in Privileged Exec mode under the “Console#” command prompt.
Level 15 provides full access to all commands.
The privilege level associated with any command can be changed using
the privilege command.
{0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
password - Password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 32 characters plain text or encrypted, case sensitive)
– 200 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
Default Setting
The default is level 15.
The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change the
command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command.
◆
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup. There is no need for you to manually configure
encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (79)
authentication enable (204)
username This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or
changes a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specifies or
changes a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword | password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
name - The name of the user. (Maximum length: 32 characters,
case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
The device has two predefined users, guest which is assigned privilege
level 0 (Normal Exec) and has access to a limited number of commands,
and admin which is assigned privilege level 15 and has full access to all
commands.
access-level level - Specifies command access privileges. (Range: 0-15)
Level 0, 8 and 15 are designed for users (guest), managers (network
maintenance), and administrators (top-level access). The other levels can
be used to configured specialized access profiles.
Level 0-7 provide the same default access privileges, all within Normal
Exec mode under the “Console>” command prompt.
– 201 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
Level 8-14 provide the same default access privileges, including
additional commands in Normal Exec mode, and a subset of commands
in Privileged Exec mode under the “Console#” command prompt.
Level 15 provides full access to all commands.
The privilege level associated with any command can be changed using
the privilege command.
Any privilege level can access all of the commands assigned to lower
privilege levels. For example, privilege level 8 can access all commands
assigned to privilege levels 7-0 according to default settings, and to any
other commands assigned to levels 7-0 using the privilege command.
nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
{0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
password password - The authentication password for the user. (Maximum
length: 32 characters plain text or encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
The default access level is 0 (Normal Exec).
The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
Table 38: Default Login Settings
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted
passwords.
Example
This example shows how the set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
– 202 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
User Accounts and Privilege Levels
privilege This command assigns a privilege level to specified command groups or individual
commands. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
privilege mode [all] level level command
no privilege mode [all] command
mode - The configuration mode containing the specified command.
(See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 70 and “Configuration
Commands” on page 72.)
all - Modifies the privilege level for all subcommands under the specified
command.
level level - Specifies the privilege level for the specified command. Refer to
the default settings described for the access level parameter under the
username command. (Range: 0-15)
command - Specifies any command contained within the specified mode.
Default Setting
Privilege level 0 provides access to a limited number of the commands which
display the current status of the switch, as well as several database clear and reset
functions. Level 8 provides access to all display status and configuration
commands, except for those controlling various authentication and security
features. Level 15 provides full access to all commands.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
This example sets the privilege level for the ping command to Privileged Exec.
Console(config)#privilege exec level 15 ping
Console(config)#
show privilege This command shows the privilege level for the current user, or the privilege level
for commands modified by the privilege command.
Syntax
show privilege [command]
command - Displays the privilege level for all commands modified by the
privilege command.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 203 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
Example
This example shows the privilege level for any command modified by the privilege
command.
Console#show privilege command
privilege line all level 0 accounting
privilege exec level 15 ping
Console(config)#
Authentication Sequence
Three authentication methods can be specified to authenticate users logging into
the system for management access. The commands in this section can be used to
define the authentication method and sequence.
Table 39: Authentication Sequence Commands
Command
Function
Mode
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for
command mode change
GC
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
authentication enable This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when
changing from Exec command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the
enable command. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
local - Use local password only.
radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS
encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the
server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
– 204 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
◆
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level for
each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and privilege
level must be configured on the authentication server.
◆
You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication
enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication
is attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available, the
local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password - sets the password for changing command modes (200)
authentication login This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
local - Use local password.
radius - Use RADIUS server password.
tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS
encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the
server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
◆
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level for
each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and privilege
level must be configured on the authentication server.
– 205 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
◆
You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available, the
local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username - for setting the local user names and passwords (201)
RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to RADIUSaware devices on the network. An authentication server contains a database of
multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user or
group that require management access to a switch.
Table 40: RADIUS Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server acct-port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
radius-server auth-port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
PE
radius-server This command sets the RADIUS server network port for accounting messages. Use
acct-port the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server acct-port port-number
no radius-server acct-port
port-number - RADIUS server UDP port used for accounting messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
– 206 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
Default Setting
1813
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server acct-port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the
auth-port default.
Syntax
radius-server auth-port port-number
no radius-server auth-port
port-number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server auth-port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server host This command specifies primary and backup RADIUS servers, and authentication
and accounting parameters that apply to each server. Use the no form to remove a
specified server, or to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] radius-server index host host-ip-address [acct-port acct-port] [authport auth-port] [key key] [retransmit retransmit] [timeout timeout]
index - Allows you to specify up to five servers. These servers are queried in
sequence until a server responds or the retransmit period expires.
host-ip-address - IP address of server.
acct-port - RADIUS server UDP port used for accounting messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
– 207 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
auth-port - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
key - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Enclose
any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
retransmit - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon
access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1-30)
timeout - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending
a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
auth-port - 1812
acct-port - 1813
timeout - 5 seconds
retransmit - 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.20 port 181 timeout 10
retransmit 5 key green
Console(config)#
radius-server key This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key-string
no radius-server key
key-string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Enclose any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
– 208 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
radius-server This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
retransmit
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number-of-retries
no radius-server retransmit
number-of-retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
radius-server timeout This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to
the RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number-of-seconds
no radius-server timeout
number-of-seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before
resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
– 209 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
TACACS+ Client
show radius-server This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote RADIUS Server Configuration:
Global Settings:
Authentication Port Number
Accounting Port Number
Retransmit Times
Request Timeout
:
:
:
:
1812
1813
2
5
Server 1:
Server IP Address
Authentication Port Number
Accounting Port Number
Retransmit Times
Request Timeout
:
:
:
:
:
192.168.1.1
1812
1813
2
5
RADIUS Server Group:
Group Name
Member Index
------------------------- ------------radius
1
Console#
TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to control
access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains
a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels
for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 41: TACACS+ Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server and optional parameters
GC
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
tacacs-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
tacacs-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
– 210 –
GC
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
TACACS+ Client
tacacs-server host This command specifies the TACACS+ server and other optional parameters. Use
the no form to remove the server, or to restore the default values.
Syntax
tacacs-server index host host-ip-address [key key] [port port-number]
[retransmit retransmit] [timeout timeout]
no tacacs-server index
index - The index for this server. (Range: 1)
host-ip-address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
key - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the client.
Enclose any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
port-number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
retransmit - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon
access via the TACACS+ server. (Range: 1-30)
timeout - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending
a request. (Range: 1-540)
Default Setting
authentication port - 49
timeout - 5 seconds
retransmit - 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server 1 host 192.168.1.25 port 181 timeout 10
retransmit 5 key green
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server key key-string
no tacacs-server key
key-string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the client.
Enclose any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
– 211 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
TACACS+ Client
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port-number
no tacacs-server port
port-number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
retransmit
Syntax
tacacs-server retransmit number-of-retries
no tacacs-server retransmit
number-of-retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the TACACS+ server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 212 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
TACACS+ Client
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
tacacs-server timeout This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to
the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server timeout number-of-seconds
no tacacs-server timeout
number-of-seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before
resending a request. (Range: 1-540)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show tacacs-server This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS+ Server Configuration:
Global Settings:
Server Port Number : 49
Retransmit Times
: 2
Timeout
: 5
Server 1:
Server IP Address
Server Port Number
Retransmit Times
Timeout
:
:
:
:
10.11.12.13
49
2
4
– 213 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
TACACS+ Server Group:
Group Name
Member Index
------------------------- ------------tacacs+
1
Console#
AAA
The Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) feature provides the
main framework for configuring access control on the switch. The AAA functions
require the use of configured RADIUS or TACACS+ servers in the network.
Table 42: AAA Commands
Command
Function
Mode
aaa accounting commands
Enables accounting of Exec mode commands
GC
aaa accounting dot1x
Enables accounting of 802.1X services
GC
aaa accounting exec
Enables accounting of Exec services
GC
aaa accounting update
Enables periodoc updates to be sent to the accounting
server
GC
aaa authorization commands Enables accounting of Exec mode commands
GC
aaa authorization exec
Enables authorization of Exec sessions
GC
aaa group server
Groups security servers in to defined lists
GC
server
Configures the IP address of a server in a group list
SG
accounting dot1x
Applies an accounting method to an interface for 802.1X
service requests
IC
accounting commands
Applies an accounting method to CLI commands entered
by a user
Line
accounting exec
Applies an accounting method to local console, Telnet or
SSH connections
Line
authorization commands
Applies an authorization method to CLI commands
entered by a user
Line
authorization exec
Applies an authorization method to local console, Telnet or Line
SSH connections
show accounting
Displays all accounting information
PE
show authorization
Displays all authorization information
PE
– 214 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
aaa accounting This command enables the accounting of Exec mode commands. Use the no form
commands to disable the accounting service.
Syntax
aaa accounting commands level {default | method-name} start-stop group
{tacacs+ | server-group}
no aaa accounting commands level {default | method-name}
level - The privilege level for executing commands. (Range: 0-15)
default - Specifies the default accounting method for service requests.
method-name - Specifies an accounting method for service requests.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
start-stop - Records accounting from starting point and stopping point.
group - Specifies the server group to use.
tacacs+ - Specifies all TACACS+ hosts configured with the tacacs-server
host command.
server-group - Specifies the name of a server group configured with the
aaa group server command. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Accounting is not enabled
No servers are specified
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The accounting of Exec mode commands is only supported by TACACS+
servers.
◆
Note that the default and method-name fields are only used to describe the
accounting method(s) configured on the specified TACACS+ server, and do not
actually send any information to the server about the methods to use.
Example
Console(config)#aaa accounting commands 15 default start-stop group tacacs+
Console(config)#
– 215 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
aaa accounting dot1x This command enables the accounting of requested 802.1X services for network
access. Use the no form to disable the accounting service.
Syntax
aaa accounting dot1x {default | method-name}
start-stop group {radius | tacacs+ |server-group}
no aaa accounting dot1x {default | method-name}
default - Specifies the default accounting method for service requests.
method-name - Specifies an accounting method for service requests.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
start-stop - Records accounting from starting point and stopping point.
group - Specifies the server group to use.
radius - Specifies all RADIUS hosts configure with the radius-server
host command.
tacacs+ - Specifies all TACACS+ hosts configure with the tacacs-server
host command.
server-group - Specifies the name of a server group configured with the
aaa group server command. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Accounting is not enabled
No servers are specified
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Note that the default and method-name fields are only used to describe the
accounting method(s) configured on the specified RADIUS or TACACS+ servers, and
do not actually send any information to the servers about the methods to use.
Example
Console(config)#aaa accounting dot1x default start-stop group radius
Console(config)#
– 216 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
aaa accounting exec This command enables the accounting of requested Exec services for network
access. Use the no form to disable the accounting service.
Syntax
aaa accounting exec {default | method-name}
start-stop group {radius | tacacs+ |server-group}
no aaa accounting exec {default | method-name}
default - Specifies the default accounting method for service requests.
method-name - Specifies an accounting method for service requests.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
start-stop - Records accounting from starting point and stopping point.
group - Specifies the server group to use.
radius - Specifies all RADIUS hosts configure with the radius-server
host command.
tacacs+ - Specifies all TACACS+ hosts configure with the tacacs-server
host command.
server-group - Specifies the name of a server group configured with the
aaa group server command. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Accounting is not enabled
No servers are specified
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command runs accounting for Exec service requests for the local console
and Telnet connections.
◆
Note that the default and method-name fields are only used to describe the
accounting method(s) configured on the specified RADIUS or TACACS+ servers,
and do not actually send any information to the servers about the methods to
use.
Example
Console(config)#aaa accounting exec default start-stop group tacacs+
Console(config)#
– 217 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
aaa accounting This command enables the sending of periodic updates to the accounting server.
update Use the no form to disable accounting updates.
Syntax
aaa accounting update [periodic interval]
no aaa accounting update
interval - Sends an interim accounting record to the server at this interval.
(Range: 1-2147483647 minutes)
Default Setting
1 minute
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When accounting updates are enabled, the switch issues periodic interim
accounting records for all users on the system.
◆
Using the command without specifying an interim interval enables updates,
but does not change the current interval setting.
Example
Console(config)#aaa accounting update periodic 30
Console(config)#
aaa authorization This command enables the authorization of Exec mode commands. Use the no
commands form to disable the authorization service.
Syntax
aaa authorization commands level {default | method-name} start-stop group
{tacacs+ | server-group}
no aaa authorization commands level {default | method-name}
level - The privilege level for executing commands. (Range: 0-15)
default - Specifies the default authorization method for service requests.
method-name - Specifies an authorization method for service requests.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
start-stop - Records authorization from starting point and stopping point.
group - Specifies the server group to use.
tacacs+ - Specifies all TACACS+ hosts configured with the tacacs-server
host command.
– 218 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
server-group - Specifies the name of a server group configured with the
aaa group server command. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Authorization is not enabled
No servers are specified
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The authorization of Exec mode commands is only supported by TACACS+
servers.
◆
◆
Note that the default and method-name fields are only used to describe the
authorization method(s) configured on the specified TACACS+ server, and do
not actually send any information to the server about the methods to use.
Example
Console(config)#aaa authorization commands 15 default start-stop group
tacacs+
Console(config)#
aaa authorization exec This command enables the authorization for Exec access. Use the no form to
disable the authorization service.
Syntax
aaa authorization exec {default | method-name}
group {tacacs+ | server-group}
no aaa authorization exec {default | method-name}
default - Specifies the default authorization method for Exec access.
method-name - Specifies an authorization method for Exec access.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
group - Specifies the server group to use.
tacacs+ - Specifies all TACACS+ hosts configured with the tacacs-server
host command.
server-group - Specifies the name of a server group configured with the
aaa group server command. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Authorization is not enabled
No servers are specified
– 219 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command performs authorization to determine if a user is allowed to run
an Exec shell for local console, Telnet, or SSH connections.
◆
AAA authentication must be enabled before authorization is enabled.
◆
If this command is issued without a specified named method, the default
method list is applied to all interfaces or lines (where this authorization type
applies), except those that have a named method explicitly defined.
Example
Console(config)#aaa authorization exec default group tacacs+
Console(config)#
aaa group server Use this command to name a group of security server hosts. To remove a server
group from the configuration list, enter the no form of this command.
Syntax
[no] aaa group server {radius | tacacs+} group-name
radius - Defines a RADIUS server group.
tacacs+ - Defines a TACACS+ server group.
group-name - A text string that names a security server group.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#aaa group server radius tps
Console(config-sg-radius)#
– 220 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
server This command adds a security server to an AAA server group. Use the no form to
remove the associated server from the group.
Syntax
[no] server {index | ip-address}
index - Specifies the server index. (Range: RADIUS 1-5, TACACS+ 1)
ip-address - Specifies the host IP address of a server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Server Group Configuration
Command Usage
When specifying the index for a RADIUS server, that server index must already
be defined by the radius-server host command.
◆
◆
When specifying the index for a TACACS+ server, that server index must already
be defined by the tacacs-server host command.
Example
Console(config)#aaa group server radius tps
Console(config-sg-radius)#server 10.2.68.120
Console(config-sg-radius)#
accounting dot1x This command applies an accounting method for 802.1X service requests on an
interface. Use the no form to disable accounting on the interface.
Syntax
accounting dot1x {default | list-name}
no accounting dot1x
default - Specifies the default method list created with the aaa accounting
dot1x command.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa accounting dot1x
command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
– 221 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#accounting dot1x tps
Console(config-if)#
accounting This command applies an accounting method to entered CLI commands. Use the
commands no form to disable accounting for entered CLI commands.
Syntax
accounting commands level {default | list-name}
no accounting commands level
level - The privilege level for executing commands. (Range: 0-15)
default - Specifies the default method list created with the aaa accounting
commands command.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa accounting
commands command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#accounting commands 15 default
Console(config-line)#
accounting exec This command applies an accounting method to local console, Telnet or SSH
connections. Use the no form to disable accounting on the line.
Syntax
accounting exec {default | list-name}
no accounting exec
default - Specifies the default method list created with the aaa accounting
exec command.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa accounting exec
command.
Default Setting
None
– 222 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#accounting exec tps
Console(config-line)#exit
Console(config)#line vty
Console(config-line)#accounting exec default
Console(config-line)#
authorization This command applies an authorization method to entered CLI commands. Use the
commands no form to disable authorization for entered CLI commands.
Syntax
authorization commands level {default | list-name}
no authorization commands level
level - The privilege level for executing commands. (Range: 0-15)
default - Specifies the default method list created with the aaa
authorization commands command.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa authorization
commands command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#authorization commands 15 default
Console(config-line)#
– 223 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
authorization exec This command applies an authorization method to local console, Telnet or SSH
connections. Use the no form to disable authorization on the line.
Syntax
authorization exec {default | list-name}
no authorization exec
default - Specifies the default method list created with the aaa
authorization exec command.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa authorization exec
command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#authorization exec tps
Console(config-line)#exit
Console(config)#line vty
Console(config-line)#authorization exec default
Console(config-line)#
show accounting This command displays the current accounting settings per function and per port.
Syntax
show accounting [commands [level]] |
[[dot1x [statistics [username user-name | interface interface]] |
exec [statistics] | statistics]
commands - Displays command accounting information.
level - Displays command accounting information for a specifiable
command level.
dot1x - Displays dot1x accounting information.
exec - Displays Exec accounting records.
statistics - Displays accounting records.
user-name - Displays accounting records for a specifiable username.
– 224 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
AAA
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show accounting
Accounting Type : dot1x
Method List
: default
Group List
: radius
Interface
: Eth 1/1
Method List
Group List
Interface
: tps
: radius
: Eth 1/2
Accounting Type
Method List
Group List
Interface
:
:
:
:
EXEC
default
tacacs+
vty
Accounting Type
Method List
Group List
Interface
.
.
.
Accounting Type
Method List
Group List
Interface
: Commands 0
: default
: tacacs+
:
: Commands 15
: default
: tacacs+
:
Console#
show authorization This command displays the current authorization settings per function and per
port.
Syntax
show authorization [commands [level] | exec]
commands - Displays command authorization information.
level - Displays command authorization information for a specifiable
command level.
exec - Displays Exec authorization records.
– 225 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Web Server
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show authorization
Authorization Type : EXEC
Method List
: default
Group List
: tacacs+
Interface
: vty
Authorization Type : Commands 0
Method List
: default
Group List
: tacacs+
Interface
:
.
.
.
Authorization Type : Commands 15
Method List
: default
Group List
: tacacs+
Interface
:
Console#
Web Server
This section describes commands used to configure web browser management
access to the switch.
Table 43: Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip http authentication
Sets the method list for EXEC authorization of an EXEC
session
GC
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the web browser interface GC
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a
browser
GC
ip http secure-port
Specifies the TCP port number for HTTPS
GC
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS (HTTP/SSL) for encrypted communications GC
show authorization
Displays all authorization information
PE
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
Note: Users are automatically logged off of the HTTP server or HTTPS server if no
input is detected for 300 seconds.
– 226 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Web Server
ip http authentication This command specifies the method list for EXEC authorization for starting an EXEC
session used by the web browser interface. Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http authentication aaa exec-authorization {default | list-name}
no ip http authentication aaa exec-authorization
default - Specifies the default method list used for authorization requests.
list-name - Specifies a method list created with the aaa authorization
commands command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http authentication aaa exec-authorization default
Console(config)#
Related Commands
aaa authorization commands (218)
ip http server (228)
show system (95)
ip http port This command specifies the TCP port number used by the web browser interface.
Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 227 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Web Server
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server (228)
show system (95)
ip http server This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from a browser.
Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http authentication (227)
show system (95)
ip http secure-port This command specifies the TCP port number used for HTTPS connection to the
switch’s web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The TCP port used for HTTPS. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 228 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Web Server
Command Usage
◆ You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
◆
If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format: https://
device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (229)
show system (95)
ip http secure-server This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted connection)
to the switch’s web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same
UDP port.
◆
If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
◆
When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
■
The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
■
The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
■
The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
– 229 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Telnet Server
◆
The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 11, Mozilla
Firefox 40, or Google Chrome 45, or more recent versions.
The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 44: HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 11 or later
Windows 7, 8, 10
Mozilla Firefox 40 or later
Windows 7, 8, 10, Linux
Google Chrome 45 or later
Windows 7, 8, 10
◆
To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” in the Web Management Guide. Also refer to the copy tftp httpscertificate command.
◆
Connection to the web interface is not supported for HTTPS using an IPv6 link
local address.
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (228)
copy tftp https-certificate (103)
show system (95)
Telnet Server
This section describes commands used to configure Telnet management access to
the switch.
Table 45: Telnet Server Commands
Command
Function
ip telnet max-sessions
Specifies the maximum number of Telnet sessions that can GC
simultaneously connect to this system
ip telnet port
Specifies the port to be used by the Telnet interface
GC
ip telnet server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from
Telnet
GC
telnet (client)
Accesses a remote device using a Telnet connection
PE
show ip telnet
Displays configuration settings for the Telnet server
PE
– 230 –
Mode
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Telnet Server
Note: This switch also supports a Telnet client function. A Telnet connection can be
made from this switch to another device by entering the telnet command at the
Privileged Exec configuration level.
ip telnet max-sessions This command specifies the maximum number of Telnet sessions that can
simultaneously connect to this system. Use the no from to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
ip telnet max-sessions session-count
no ip telnet max-sessions
session-count - The maximum number of allowed Telnet session.
(Range: 0-8)
Default Setting
8 sessions
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A maximum of eight sessions can be concurrently opened for Telnet and Secure
Shell (i.e., both Telnet and SSH share a maximum number of eight sessions).
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet max-sessions 1
Console(config)#
ip telnet port This command specifies the TCP port number used by the Telnet interface. Use the
no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip telnet port port-number
no telnet port
port-number - The TCP port number to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
23
– 231 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Telnet Server
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet port 123
Console(config)#
ip telnet server This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from Telnet. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip telnet server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet server
Console(config)#
telnet (client) This command accesses a remote device using a Telnet connection.
Syntax
telnet host
host - IP address or alias of a remote device.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#telnet 192.168.2.254
Connect To 192.168.2.254...
***************************************************************
WARNING - MONITORED ACTIONS AND ACCESSES
User Access Verification
Username:
Console(config)#
– 232 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
show ip telnet This command displays the configuration settings for the Telnet server.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip telnet
IP Telnet Configuration:
Telnet Status: Enabled
Telnet Service Port: 23
Telnet Max Session: 8
Console#
Secure Shell
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. Note that
you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when using this
protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Table 46: Secure Shell Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip ssh
authentication-retries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the
switch
PE
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
ip ssh crypto
host-key generate
Generates the host key
PE
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured
values for authentication timeout and retries
PE
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
– 233 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
Table 46: Secure Shell Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key
type
PE
Configuration Guidelines
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command. If public
key authentication is specified by the client, then you must configure
authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the following
section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and
enable the SSH server.
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1. Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate command to
create a host public/private key pair.
2. Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the
known hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956
108259132128902337654680172627257141342876294130119619556678259566410486957427
888146206519417467729848654686157177393901647793559423035774130980227370877945
4524083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s
granted management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be
configured locally on the switch with the username command.) The clients are
subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current firmware only
accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown in the
following example for an RSA key:
1024 35
134108168560989392104094492015542534763164192187295892114317388005553616163105
177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199696317813662774141689
851320491172048303392543241016379975923714490119380060902539484084827178194372
288402533115952134861022902978982721353267131629432532818915045306393916643
steve@192.168.1.19
– 234 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
4. Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the
authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5. Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH server
on the switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still
be given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client's keys.
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in
memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a
random 256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the
user’s public key, and sends it to the client.
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string,
computes the MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the
switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match,
this means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized
public key, and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the
client to proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it
rejects the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the
switch.
– 235 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the
supplied key is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks
whether the signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is
authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to eight client sessions. The maximum number
of client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
Note: The SSH server can be accessed using any configured IPv4 or IPv6 interface
address on the switch.
ip ssh This command configures the number of times the SSH server attempts to
authentication-retries reauthenticate a user. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset. (Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (241)
ip ssh server This command enables the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no
form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
– 236 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The SSH server supports up to eight client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
◆
The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
◆
You must generate DSA and RSA host keys before enabling the SSH server.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (239)
show ssh (242)
ip ssh server-key size This command sets the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size – The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default Setting
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
– 237 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
ip ssh timeout This command configures the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
Default Setting
120 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the client
during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been established, the
timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout (116)
show ip ssh (241)
delete public-key This command deletes the specified user’s public key.
Syntax
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
dsa – DSA public key type.
rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 238 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
Example
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
ip ssh crypto This command generates the host key pair (i.e., public and private).
host-key generate
Syntax
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
dsa – DSA (Version 2) key type.
rsa – RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default Setting
Generates both the DSA and RSA key pairs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
◆
This command stores the host key pair in memory (i.e., RAM). Use the ip ssh
save host-key command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
◆
Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known hosts
file as part of the configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually create a
known hosts file and place the host public key in it.
◆
The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption
method with the client trying to connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize (240)
ip ssh save host-key (240)
– 239 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
ip ssh crypto zeroize This command clears the host key from memory (i.e. RAM).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
dsa – DSA key type.
rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Clears both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no ip
ssh save host-key command to clear the host key from flash memory.
◆
The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (239)
ip ssh save host-key (240)
no ip ssh server (236)
ip ssh save host-key This command saves the host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax
ip ssh save host-key
Default Setting
Saves both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key dsa
Console#
– 240 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (239)
show ip ssh This command displays the connection settings used when authenticating client
access to the SSH server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - Version 2.0
Negotiation Timeout : 120 seconds; Authentication Retries : 3
Server Key Size
: 768 bits
Console#
show public-key This command shows the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is
entered, but no user name is specified, then the public keys for all users are
displayed.
◆
When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key
(e.g., 1024), the second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and the
last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is displayed, the first field
indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital
Signature Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
Example
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 13236940658254764031382795526536375927835525327972629521130241
071942106165575942459093923609695405036277525755625100386613098939383452310
332802149888661921595568598879891919505883940181387440468908779160305837768
– 241 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Secure Shell
185490002831341625008348718449522087429212255691665655296328163516964040831
5547660664151657116381
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjwbv
wrNLaQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7
w0W
Console#
show ssh This command displays the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
1
2.0
Session-Started
Username Encryption
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
Table 47: show ssh - display description
Field
Description
Connection
The session number. (Range: 1-8)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state.
(Values: Negotiation-Started, Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
– 242 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
802.1X Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials
for authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by a RADIUS server
using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Table 48: 802.1X Port Authentication Commands
Command
Function
Mode
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
dot1x system-auth-control
Enables dot1x globally on the switch.
GC
dot1x intrusion-action
Sets the port response to intrusion when authentication
fails
IC
dot1x max-reauth-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch sends IC
an EAP-request/identity frame to the client before
restarting the authentication process
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch
retransmits an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
IC
dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
IC
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request IC
Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a
new client
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must
be re-authenticated
IC
dot1x timeout supp-timeout
Sets the interval for a supplicant to respond
IC
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that IC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
dot1x timeout auth-period
Sets the time that a supplicant port waits for a response
from the authenticator
IC
dot1x timeout held-period
Sets the time a port waits after the maximum start count
has been exceeded before attempting to find another
authenticator
IC
Shows all dot1x related information
PE
General Commands
Authenticator Commands
Supplicant Commands
Information Display Commands
show dot1x
– 243 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
General Commands
dot1x default This command sets all configurable dot1x authenticator global and port settings to
their default values.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command resets the following commands to their default settings:
◆
dot1x system-auth-control
◆
dot1x eapol-pass-through
◆
dot1x port-control
◆
dot1x port-control multi-host max-count
◆
dot1x operation-mode
◆
dot1x max-req
◆
dot1x timeout quiet-period
◆
dot1x timeout tx-period
◆
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
◆
dot1x timeout sup-timeout
◆
dot1x re-authentication
◆
dot1x intrusion-action
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
dot1x system- This command enables IEEE 802.1X port authentication globally on the switch.
auth-control Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] dot1x system-auth-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 244 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Example
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
Authenticator Commands
dot1x intrusion-action This command sets the port’s response to a failed authentication, either to block all
traffic, or to assign all traffic for the port to a guest VLAN. Use the no form to reset
the default.
Syntax
dot1x intrusion-action {block-traffic | guest-vlan}
no dot1x intrusion-action
block-traffic - Blocks traffic on this port.
guest-vlan - Assigns the user to the Guest VLAN.
Default
block-traffic
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ For guest VLAN assignment to be successful, the VLAN must be configured and
set as active (see the vlan database command) and assigned as the guest VLAN
for the port (see the network-access guest-vlan command).
◆
A port can only be assigned to the guest VLAN in case of failed authentication,
if switchport mode is set to Hybrid.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x intrusion-action guest-vlan
Console(config-if)#
– 245 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x max-reauth-req This command sets the maximum number of times that the switch sends an EAPrequest/identity frame to the client before restarting the authentication process.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-reauth-req count
no dot1x max-reauth-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-reauth-req 2
Console(config-if)#
dot1x max-req This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit
an EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config-if)#
– 246 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x This command allows hosts (clients) to connect to an 802.1X-authorized port. Use
operation-mode the no form with no keywords to restore the default to single host. Use the no form
with the multi-host max-count keywords to restore the default maximum count.
Syntax
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count] | macbased-auth}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
single-host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
multi-host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
max-count – Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port.
(Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
mac-based – Allows multiple hosts to connect to this port, with each host
needing to be authenticated.
Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The “max-count” parameter specified by this command is only effective if the
dot1x mode is set to “auto” by the dot1x port-control command.
◆
In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a port
can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails reauthentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
◆
In “mac-based-auth” mode, each host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication. The number of hosts allowed access to a port operating in this
mode is limited only by the available space in the secure address table (i.e., up
to 1024 addresses).
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
– 247 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x port-control This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
dot1x This command enables periodic re-authentication for a specified port. Use the no
re-authentication form to disable re-authentication.
Syntax
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and
password on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains
connected the network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x
client software. Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
◆
The connected client is re-authenticated after the interval specified by the
dot1x timeout re-authperiod command. The default is 3600 seconds.
– 248 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
dot1x timeout re-authperiod (249)
dot1x timeout This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the maximum request
quiet-period count (see page 246) has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
Use the no form to reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout This command sets the time period after which a connected client must be rere-authperiod authenticated. Use the no form of this command to reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
– 249 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout This command sets the time that an interface on the switch waits for a response to
supp-timeout an EAP request from a client before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form
to reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout supp-timeout seconds
no dot1x timeout supp-timeout
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the timeout for EAP-request frames other than EAP-request/
identity frames. If dot1x authentication is enabled on a port, the switch will initiate
authentication when the port link state comes up. It will send an EAP-request/
identity frame to the client to request its identity, followed by one or more requests
for authentication information. It may also send other EAP-request frames to the
client during an active connection as required for reauthentication.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout supp-timeout 300
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout This command sets the time that an interface on the switch waits during an
tx-period authentication session before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to
reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
– 250 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config-if)#
dot1x re-authenticate This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and password
on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains connected the
network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x client software.
Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
– 251 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Supplicant Commands
dot1x timeout This command sets the time that a supplicant port waits for a response from the
auth-period authenticator. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
dot1x timeout auth-period seconds
no dot1x timeout auth-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time that the supplicant waits for a response from the
authenticator for packets other than EAPOL-Start.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout auth-period 60
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout This command sets the time that a supplicant port waits before resending its
held-period credentials to find a new an authenticator. Use the no form to reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout held-period seconds
no dot1x timeout held-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout held-period 120
Console(config-if)#
– 252 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Information Display Commands
show dot1x This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or
a specific interface.
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
statistics - Displays dot1x status for each port.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
◆
Global 802.1X Parameters – Shows whether or not 802.1X port authentication is
globally enabled on the switch (page 244).
◆
802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface that has enabled 802.1X, including the following items:
■
■
■
■
◆
Type – Administrative state for port access control (Enabled, Authenticator,
or Supplicant).
Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (page 247).
Control Mode – Dot1x port control mode (page 248).
Authorized – Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
802.1X Port Details – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface, including the following items:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Reauthentication – Periodic re-authentication (page 248).
Reauth Period – Time after which a connected client must be reauthenticated (page 249).
Quiet Period – Time a port waits after Max Request Count is exceeded
before attempting to acquire a new client (page 249).
TX Period – Time a port waits during authentication session before retransmitting EAP packet (page 250).
Supplicant Timeout – Supplicant timeout.
Server Timeout – Server timeout. A RADIUS server must be set before the
correct operational value of 10 seconds will be displayed in this field.
Reauth Max Retries – Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
Max Request – Maximum number of times a port will retransmit an EAP
request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session (page 246).
– 253 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
■
■
■
■
◆
Authenticator PAE State Machine
■
■
■
◆
State – Current state (including initialize, disconnected, connecting,
authenticating, authenticated, aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
Reauth Count– Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
Current Identifier– The integer (0-255) used by the Authenticator to identify
the current authentication session.
Backend State Machine
■
■
■
◆
Operation Mode– Shows if single or multiple hosts (clients) can connect to
an 802.1X-authorized port.
Port Control–Shows the dot1x mode on a port as auto, force-authorized, or
force-unauthorized (page 248).
Intrusion Action– Shows the port response to intrusion when
authentication fails (page 245).
Supplicant– MAC address of authorized client.
State – Current state (including request, response, success, fail, timeout,
idle, initialize).
Request Count– Number of EAP Request packets sent to the Supplicant
without receiving a response.
Identifier (Server)– Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success, Failure
or Request packet received from the Authentication Server.
Reauthentication State Machine
State – Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
System Auth Control
: Enabled
Authenticator Parameters:
EAPOL Pass Through
: Disabled
802.1X Port Summary
Port
-------Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 2
,,,
Eth 1/25
Eth 1/26
Type
------------Disabled
Disabled
Operation Mode
-------------Single-Host
Single-Host
Control Mode
-----------------Force-Authorized
Force-Authorized
Authorized
---------Yes
Yes
Disabled
Enabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
Force-Authorized
Auto
Yes
Yes
Console#show dot1x interface ethernet 1/2
802.1X Authenticator is enabled on port 2
Reauthentication
: Enabled
Reauth Period
: 3600
Quiet Period
: 60
TX Period
: 30
Supplicant Timeout
: 30
Server Timeout
: 10
– 254 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Management IP Filter
Reauth Max Retries
Max Request
Operation Mode
Port Control
Intrusion Action
Supplicant
:
:
:
:
:
2
2
Multi-host
Auto
Block traffic
: 00-e0-29-94-34-65
Authenticator PAE State Machine
State
: Authenticated
Reauth Count
: 0
Current Identifier : 3
Backend State Machine
State
: Idle
Request Count
: 0
Identifier(Server) : 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
: Initialize
Console#
Management IP Filter
This section describes commands used to configure IP management access to the
switch.
Table 49: Management IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
Mode
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management
access
GC
show management
Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a
browser
PE
management This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols. A list of up to 15 IP addresses or IP
address groups can be specified. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
start-address [end-address]
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to all groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
start-address - A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address - The end address of a range.
– 255 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Management IP Filter
Default Setting
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you
add an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
◆
If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
◆
IP address can be configured for SNMP, web, and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
◆
When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web, or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
◆
You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and re-enter the addresses.
◆
You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console#
show management This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols.
Syntax
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
all-client - Displays IP addresses for all groups.
http-client - Displays IP addresses for the web group.
snmp-client - Displays IP addresses for the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Displays IP addresses for the Telnet group.
– 256 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Management IP Filter
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
– 257 –
Chapter 8 | Authentication Commands
Management IP Filter
– 258 –
9
General Security Measures
This switch supports many methods of segregating traffic for clients attached to
each of the data ports, and for ensuring that only authorized clients gain access to
the network. Port-based authentication using IEEE 802.1X is commonly used for
these purposes. In addition to these method, several other options of providing
client security are described in this chapter. These include port-based
authentication, which can be configured to allow network client access
by specifying a fixed set of MAC addresses. The addresses assigned to DHCP clients
can also be carefully controlled with IP Source Guard and DHCP Snooping
commands.
Table 50: General Security Commands
Command Group
Function
Port Security*
Configures secure addresses for a port
802.1X Port
Authentication*
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
Network Access*
Configures MAC authentication and dynamic VLAN assignment
Web Authentication*
Configures Web authentication
Access Control Lists*
Provides filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP
port number or TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type)
DHCPv4 Snooping*
Filters untrusted DHCPv4 messages on unsecure ports by building and
maintaining a DHCPv4 snooping binding table
IPv4 Source Guard*
Filters IP traffic on insecure ports for which the source address cannot
be identified via DHCP snooping nor static source bindings
ARP Inspection
Validates the MAC-to-IP address bindings in ARP packets
DoS Protection
Protects against Denial-of-Service attacks
Port-based Traffic
Segmentation
Configures traffic segmentation for different client sessions based on
specified downlink and uplink ports
* The priority of execution for these filtering commands is Port Security, Port Authentication,
Network Access, Web Authentication, Access Control Lists, DHCP Snooping, and then IPv4
Source Guard.
– 259 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port Security
Port Security
These commands can be used to enable port security on a port.
When MAC address learning is disabled on an interface, only incoming traffic with
source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table for this port
will be authorized to access the network.
When using port security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the
specified port when it has reached a configured maximum number. Only incoming
traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table
for this port will be authorized to access the network. The port will drop any
incoming frames with a source MAC address that is unknown or has been
previously learned from another port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC
address attempts to use the switch port, the intrusion will be detected and the
switch can automatically take action by disabling the port and sending a trap
message.
Table 51: Management IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
mac-learning
Enables MAC address learning on the selected physical
interface or VLAN
IC
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
show port security
Displays port security status and secure address count
PE
mac-learning This command enables MAC address learning on the selected interface. Use the no
form to disable MAC address learning.
Syntax
[no] mac-learning
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet or Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The no mac-learning command immediately stops the switch from learning
new MAC addresses on the specified port or trunk. Incoming traffic with source
addresses not stored in the static address table, will be flooded. However, if a
security function such as 802.1X or DHCP snooping is enabled and maclearning is disabled, then only incoming traffic with source addresses stored in
– 260 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port Security
the static address table will be accepted, all other packets are dropped. Note
that the dynamic addresses stored in the address table when MAC address
learning is disabled are flushed from the system, and no dynamic addresses are
subsequently learned until MAC address learning has been re-enabled.
◆
The mac-learning commands cannot be used if 802.1X Port Authentication has
been globally enabled on the switch with the dot1x system-auth-control
command, or if MAC Address Security has been enabled by the port security
command on the same interface.
Example
The following example disables MAC address learning for port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#no mac-learning
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces status (364)
port security This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any
keywords to disable port security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to
restore the default settings for a response to security violation or for the maximum
number of allowed addresses.
Syntax
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown} |
max-mac-count address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
action - Response to take when port security is violated.
shutdown - Disable port only.
trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
max-mac-count
address-count - The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
Default Setting
Status: Disabled
Action: None
Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
– 261 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port Security
Command Usage
◆ The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is
zero (that is, port security is disabled). To use port security, you must configure
the maximum number of addresses allowed on a port using the port security
max-mac-count command.
◆
When port security is enabled using the port security command, or the
maximum number or allowed addresses is set to a value lower than the current
limit after port security has been enabled, the switch first clears all dynamically
learned entries from the address table. It then starts learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port, and stops learning addresses when it reaches a
configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses
already stored in the dynamic or static address table will be accepted.
◆
To configure the maximum number of address entries which can be learned on
a port, specify the maximum number of dynamic addresses allowed. The switch
will learn up to the maximum number of allowed address pairs <source MAC
address, VLAN> for frames received on the port. (The specified maximum
address count is effective when port security is enabled or disabled.) Note that
you can manually add additional secure addresses to a port using the macaddress-table static command. When the port has reached the maximum
number of MAC addresses, the port will stop learning new addresses. The MAC
addresses already in the address table will be retained and will not be aged out.
◆
If port security is enabled, and the maximum number of allowed addresses are
set to a non-zero value, any device not in the address table that attempts to use
the port will be prevented from accessing the switch.
◆
If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled
using the no shutdown command.
◆
A secure port has the following restrictions:
■
Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
■
Cannot be a trunk port.
■
RSPAN and port security are mutually exclusive functions. If port security is
enabled on a port, that port cannot be set as an RSPAN uplink port. Also,
when a port is configured as an RSPAN uplink port, source port, or
destination port, port security cannot be enabled on that port.
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a
security violation to issue a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
– 262 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port Security
Related Commands
show interfaces status (364)
shutdown (355)
mac-address-table static (414)
show port security This command displays port security status and the secure address count.
Syntax
show port security [interface interface]
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the port security settings and number of secure addresses for
all ports.
Console#show port security
Global Port Security Parameters
Secure MAC Aging Mode : Disabled
Port Security Port Summary
Port
Port Security Port Status Intrusion Action MaxMacCnt CurrMacCnt
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 Disabled
Secure/Down None
0
2
Eth 1/ 2 Enabled
Secure/Up
None
10
0
Eth 1/ 3 Disabled
Secure/Down None
0
0
Eth 1/ 4 Disabled
Secure/Down None
0
0
Eth 1/ 5 Disabled
Secure/Down None
0
0
.
.
.
Table 52: show port security - display description
Field
Description
Port Security
The configured status (enabled or disabled).
Port Status
The operational status:
◆
Secure/Down – Port security is disabled.
◆
Secure/Up – Port security is enabled.
◆
Shutdown – Port is shut down due to a response to a port security violation.
Intrusion Action
The configured intrusion response.
– 263 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port Security
Table 52: show port security - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
MaxMacCnt
The maximum number of addresses which can be stored in the address table for
this interface (either dynamic or static).
CurrMacCnt
The current number of secure entries in the address table.
The following example shows the port security settings and number of secure
addresses for a specific port. The Last Intrusion MAC and Last Time Detected
Intrusion MAC fields show information about the last detected intrusion MAC
address. These fields are not applicable if no intrusion has been detected or port
security is disabled. The MAC Filter ID field is configured by the network-access
mac-filter command. If this field displays Disabled, then any unknown source MAC
address can be learned as a secure MAC address. If it displays a filter identifier, then
only source MAC address entries in MAC Filter table can be learned as secure MAC
addresses.
Console#show port security interface ethernet 1/2
Global Port Security Parameters
Secure MAC Aging Mode : Disabled
Port Security Details
Port
Port Security
Port Status
Intrusion Action
Max MAC Count
Current MAC Count
MAC Filter
Last Intrusion MAC
Last Time Detected Intrusion MAC
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1/2
Enabled
Secure/Up
None
0
0
Disabled
NA
NA
This example shows information about a detected intrusion.
Console#show port security interface ethernet 1/2
Global Port Security Parameters
Secure MAC Aging Mode : Disabled
Port Security Details
Port
Port Security
Port Status
Intrusion Action
Max MAC Count
Current MAC Count
MAC Filter
Last Intrusion MAC
Last Time Detected Intrusion MAC
Console#
– 264 –
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1/2
Enabled
Secure/Up
None
0
0
Disabled
00-10-22-00-00-01
2015/7/29 15:13:03
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Network Access authentication controls access to the network by authenticating
the MAC address of each host that attempts to connect to a switch port. Traffic
received from a specific MAC address is forwarded by the switch only if the source
MAC address is successfully authenticated by a central RADIUS server. While
authentication for a MAC address is in progress, all traffic is blocked until
authentication is completed. Once successfully authenticated, the RADIUS server
may optionally assign VLAN and QoS settings for the switch port.
Table 53: Network Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
network-access aging
Enables MAC address aging
GC
network-access mac-filter
Adds a MAC address to a filter table
GC
mac-authentication reauth-time Sets the time period after which a connected MAC
address must be re-authenticated
GC
network-access dynamic-qos
Enables the dynamic quality of service feature
IC
network-access dynamic-vlan
Enables dynamic VLAN assignment from a RADIUS server IC
network-access guest-vlan
Specifies the guest VLAN
IC
network-access max-mac-count Sets the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be IC
authenticated on a port via all forms of authentication
network-access mode
mac-authentication
Enables MAC authentication on an interface
IC
network-access port-mac-filter
Enables the specified MAC address filter
IC
mac-authentication
intrusion-action
Determines the port response when a connected host
fails MAC authentication.
IC
mac-authentication
max-mac-count
Sets the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be IC
authenticated on a port via MAC authentication
clear network-access
Clears authenticated MAC addresses from the address
table
PE
show network-access
Displays the MAC authentication settings for port
interfaces
PE
show network-access
mac-address-table
Displays information for entries in the secure MAC
address table
PE
show network-access mac-filter Displays information for entries in the MAC filter tables
PE
network-access aging Use this command to enable aging for authenticated MAC addresses stored in the
secure MAC address table. Use the no form of this command to disable address
aging.
Syntax
[no] network-access aging
– 265 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch’s
secure MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires. The
address aging time is determined by the mac-address-table aging-time
command.
◆
This parameter applies to authenticated MAC addresses configured by the MAC
Address Authentication process described in this section, as well as to any
secure MAC addresses authenticated by 802.1X, regardless of the 802.1X
Operation Mode (Single-Host, Multi-Host, or MAC-Based authentication as
described on page 247).
◆
The maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch
system is 1024.
Example
Console(config)#network-access aging
Console(config)#
network-access Use this command to add a MAC address into a filter table. Use the no form of this
mac-filter command to remove the specified MAC address.
Syntax
[no] network-access mac-filter filter-id
mac-address mac-address [mask mask-address]
filter-id - Specifies a MAC address filter table. (Range: 1-64)
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
mask - Specifies a MAC address bit mask for a range of addresses.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Specified addresses are exempt from network access authentication.
– 266 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
◆
This command is different from configuring static addresses with the macaddress-table static command in that it allows you configure a range of
addresses when using a mask, and then to assign these addresses to one or
more ports with the network-access mac-filter command.
◆
Up to 64 filter tables can be defined.
◆
There is no limitation on the number of entries that can entered in a filter table.
Example
Console(config)#network-access mac-filter 1 mac-address 11-22-33-44-55-66
Console(config)#
mac-authentication Use this command to set the time period after which a connected MAC address
reauth-time must be re-authenticated. Use the no form of this command to restore the default
value.
Syntax
mac-authentication reauth-time seconds
no mac-authentication reauth-time
seconds - The reauthentication time period. (Range: 120-1000000 seconds)
Default Setting
1800
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The reauthentication time is a global setting and applies to all ports.
◆
When the reauthentication time expires for a secure MAC address it is
reauthenticated with the RADIUS server. During the reauthentication process
traffic through the port remains unaffected.
Example
Console(config)#mac-authentication reauth-time 300
Console(config)#
– 267 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
network-access Use this command to enable the dynamic QoS feature for an authenticated port.
dynamic-qos Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] network-access dynamic-qos
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The RADIUS server may optionally return dynamic QoS assignments to be
applied to a switch port for an authenticated user. The “Filter-ID” attribute
(attribute 11) can be configured on the RADIUS server to pass the following
QoS information:
Table 54: Dynamic QoS Profiles
Profile
Attribute Syntax
Example
DiffServ
service-policy-in=policy-map-name
service-policy-in=p1
Rate Limit
rate-limit-input=rate (Kbps)
rate-limit-input=100 (Kbps)
rate-limit-output=rate (Kbps)
rate-limit-output=200 (Kbps)
802.1p
switchport-priority-default=value
switchport-priority-default=2
IP ACL
ip-access-group-in=ip-acl-name
ip-access-group-in=ipv4acl
IPv6 ACL
ipv6-access-group-in=ipv6-acl-name
ipv6-access-group-in=ipv6acl
MAC ACL
mac-access-group-in=mac-acl-name
mac-access-group-in=macAcl
◆
When the last user logs off of a port with a dynamic QoS assignment, the switch
restores the original QoS configuration for the port.
◆
When a user attempts to log into the network with a returned dynamic QoS
profile that is different from users already logged on to the same port, the user
is denied access.
◆
While a port has an assigned dynamic QoS profile, any manual QoS
configuration changes only take effect after all users have logged off of the
port.
Note: Any configuration changes for dynamic QoS are not saved to the switch
configuration file.
– 268 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Example
The following example enables the dynamic QoS feature on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access dynamic-qos
Console(config-if)#
network-access Use this command to enable dynamic VLAN assignment for an authenticated port.
dynamic-vlan Use the no form to disable dynamic VLAN assignment.
Syntax
[no] network-access dynamic-vlan
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When enabled, the VLAN identifiers returned by the RADIUS server through the
802.1X authentication process will be applied to the port, providing the VLANs
have already been created on the switch.
◆
The VLAN settings specified by the first authenticated MAC address are
implemented for a port. Other authenticated MAC addresses on the port must
have same VLAN configuration, or they are treated as an authentication failure.
◆
If dynamic VLAN assignment is enabled on a port and the RADIUS server
returns no VLAN configuration, the authentication is still treated as a success,
and the host assigned to the default untagged VLAN.
◆
When the dynamic VLAN assignment status is changed on a port, all
authenticated addresses are cleared from the secure MAC address table.
Example
The following example enables dynamic VLAN assignment on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access dynamic-vlan
Console(config-if)#
– 269 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
network-access Use this command to assign all traffic on a port to a guest VLAN when 802.1x
guest-vlan authentication or MAC authentication is rejected. Use the no form of this command
to disable guest VLAN assignment.
Syntax
network-access guest-vlan vlan-id
no network-access guest-vlan
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The VLAN to be used as the guest VLAN must be defined and set as active (See
the vlan database command).
◆
When used with 802.1X authentication, the intrusion-action must be set for
“guest-vlan” to be effective (see the dot1x intrusion-action command).
◆
A port can only be assigned to the guest VLAN in case of failed authentication,
if switchport mode is set to Hybrid.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access guest-vlan 25
Console(config-if)#
network-access max- Use this command to set the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
mac-count authenticated on a port interface via all forms of authentication. Use the no form of
this command to restore the default.
Syntax
network-access max-mac-count count
no network-access max-mac-count
count - The maximum number of authenticated IEEE 802.1X and MAC
addresses allowed. (Range: 0-1024; 0 for unlimited)
Default Setting
1024
– 270 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
The maximum number of MAC addresses per port is 1024, and the maximum
number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system is 1024. When
the limit is reached, all new MAC addresses are treated as authentication failures.
Example
Console(config-if)#network-access max-mac-count 5
Console(config-if)#
network-access mode Use this command to enable network access authentication on a port. Use the no
mac-authentication form of this command to disable network access authentication.
Syntax
[no] network-access mode mac-authentication
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When enabled on a port, the authentication process sends a Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP) request to a configured RADIUS server. The user
name and password are both equal to the MAC address being authenticated.
◆
On the RADIUS server, PAP user name and passwords must be configured in the
MAC address format XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (all in upper case).
◆
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch
secure MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires. The
maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system is
1024.
◆
Configured static MAC addresses are added to the secure address table when
seen on a switch port. Static addresses are treated as authenticated without
sending a request to a RADIUS server.
◆
MAC authentication, 802.1X, and port security cannot be configured together
on the same port. Only one security mechanism can be applied.
◆
MAC authentication cannot be configured on trunks (i.e., static nor dynamic).
– 271 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
◆
When port status changes to down, all MAC addresses are cleared from the
secure MAC address table. Static VLAN assignments are not restored.
◆
The RADIUS server may optionally return a VLAN identifier list. VLAN identifier
list is carried in the “Tunnel-Private-Group-ID” attribute. The VLAN list can
contain multiple VLAN identifiers in the format “1u,2t,” where “u” indicates
untagged VLAN and “t” tagged VLAN. The “Tunnel-Type” attribute should be
set to “VLAN,” and the “Tunnel-Medium-Type” attribute set to “802.”
Example
Console(config-if)#network-access mode mac-authentication
Console(config-if)#
network-access port- Use this command to enable the specified MAC address filter. Use the no form of
mac-filter this command to disable the specified MAC address filter.
Syntax
network-access port-mac-filter filter-id
no network-access port-mac-filter
filter-id - Specifies a MAC address filter table. (Range: 1-64)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Mode
◆ Entries in the MAC address filter table can be configured with the networkaccess mac-filter command.
◆
Only one filter table can be assigned to a port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access port-mac-filter 1
Console(config-if)#
– 272 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
mac-authentication Use this command to configure the port response to a host MAC authentication
intrusion-action failure. Use the no form of this command to restore the default.
Syntax
mac-authentication intrusion-action {block traffic | pass traffic}
no mac-authentication intrusion-action
Default Setting
Block Traffic
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config-if)#mac-authentication intrusion-action block-traffic
Console(config-if)#
mac-authentication Use this command to set the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
max-mac-count authenticated on a port via MAC authentication. Use the no form of this command
to restore the default.
Syntax
mac-authentication max-mac-count count
no mac-authentication max-mac-count
count - The maximum number of MAC-authenticated MAC addresses
allowed. (Range: 1-1024)
Default Setting
1024
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config-if)#mac-authentication max-mac-count 32
Console(config-if)#
– 273 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
clear network-access Use this command to clear entries from the secure MAC addresses table.
Syntax
clear network-access mac-address-table [static | dynamic]
[address mac-address] [interface interface]
static - Specifies static address entries.
dynamic - Specifies dynamic address entries.
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear network-access mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Console#
show network-access Use this command to display the MAC authentication settings for port interfaces.
Syntax
show network-access [interface interface]
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
Displays the settings for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 274 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Example
Console#show network-access interface ethernet 1/1
Global secure port information
Reauthentication Time
: 1800
MAC Address Aging
: Disabled
Port : 1/1
MAC Authentication
MAC Authentication Intrusion Action
MAC Authentication Maximum MAC Counts
Maximum MAC Counts
Dynamic VLAN Assignment
Dynamic QoS Assignment
MAC Filter ID
Guest VLAN
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Disabled
Block traffic
1024
1024
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
show network-access Use this command to display secure MAC address table entries.
mac-address-table
Syntax
show network-access mac-address-table [static | dynamic]
[address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface] [sort {address |
interface}]
static - Specifies static address entries.
dynamic - Specifies dynamic address entries.
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry.
(Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
mask - Specifies a MAC address bit mask for filtering displayed addresses.
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
sort - Sorts displayed entries by either MAC address or interface.
Default Setting
Displays all filters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
When using a bit mask to filter displayed MAC addresses, a 1 means “care” and a 0
means “don't care”. For example, a MAC of 00-00-01-02-03-04 and mask FF-FF-FF00-00-00 would result in all MACs in the range 00-00-01-00-00-00 to 00-00-01-FFFF-FF to be displayed. All other MACs would be filtered out.
– 275 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
Example
Console#show network-access
Interface MAC Address
--------- ----------------1/1
00-00-01-02-03-04
1/1
00-00-01-02-03-05
1/1
00-00-01-02-03-06
1/3
00-00-01-02-03-07
mac-address-table
RADIUS Server
Time
--------------- ------------------------172.155.120.17 00d06h32m50s
172.155.120.17 00d06h33m20s
172.155.120.17 00d06h35m10s
172.155.120.17 00d06h34m20s
Attribute
--------Static
Dynamic
Static
Dynamic
Console#
show network-access Use this command to display information for entries in the MAC filter tables.
mac-filter
Syntax
show network-access mac-filter [filter-id]
filter-id - Specifies a MAC address filter table. (Range: 1-64)
Default Setting
Displays all filters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show network-access
Filter ID MAC Address
--------- ----------------1 00-00-01-02-03-08
Console#
mac-filter
MAC Mask
----------------FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
Web Authentication
Web authentication allows stations to authenticate and access the network in
situations where 802.1X or Network Access authentication are infeasible or
impractical. The web authentication feature allows unauthenticated hosts to
request and receive a DHCP assigned IP address and perform DNS queries. All other
traffic, except for HTTP protocol traffic, is blocked. The switch intercepts HTTP
protocol traffic and redirects it to a switch-generated web page that facilitates user
name and password authentication via RADIUS. Once authentication is successful,
the web browser is forwarded on to the originally requested web page. Successful
authentication is valid for all hosts connected to the port.
Note: RADIUS authentication must be activated and configured for the web
authentication feature to work properly (see “Authentication Sequence” on
page 188).
– 276 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
Note: Web authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports.
Table 55: Web Authentication
Command
Function
Mode
web-auth login-attempts
Defines the limit for failed web authentication login
attempts
GC
web-auth quiet-period
Defines the amount of time to wait after the limit for
failed login attempts is exceeded.
GC
web-auth session-timeout
Defines the amount of time a session remains valid
GC
web-auth system-auth-control
Enables web authentication globally for the switch
GC
web-auth
Enables web authentication for an interface
IC
web-auth re-authenticate (Port) Ends all web authentication sessions on the port and
forces the users to re-authenticate
PE
web-auth re-authenticate (IP)
Ends the web authentication session associated with the PE
designated IP address and forces the user to reauthenticate
show web-auth
Displays global web authentication parameters
PE
show web-auth interface
Displays interface-specific web authentication
parameters and statistics
PE
show web-auth summary
Displays a summary of web authentication port
parameters and statistics
PE
web-auth This command defines the limit for failed web authentication login attempts. After
login-attempts the limit is reached, the switch refuses further login attempts until the quiet time
expires. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
web-auth login-attempts count
no web-auth login-attempts
count - The limit of allowed failed login attempts. (Range: 1-3)
Default Setting
3 login attempts
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#web-auth login-attempts 2
Console(config)#
– 277 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
web-auth This command defines the amount of time a host must wait after exceeding the
quiet-period limit for failed login attempts, before it may attempt web authentication again. Use
the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
web-auth quiet-period time
no web-auth quiet period
time - The amount of time the host must wait before attempting
authentication again. (Range: 1-180 seconds)
Default Setting
60 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#web-auth quiet-period 120
Console(config)#
web-auth This command defines the amount of time a web-authentication session remains
session-timeout valid. When the session timeout has been reached, the host is logged off and must
re-authenticate itself the next time data transmission takes place. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
web-auth session-timeout timeout
no web-auth session timeout
timeout - The amount of time that an authenticated session remains valid.
(Range: 300-3600 seconds)
Default Setting
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#web-auth session-timeout 1800
Console(config)#
– 278 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
web-auth system- This command globally enables web authentication for the switch. Use the no form
auth-control to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] web-auth system-auth-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Both web-auth system-auth-control for the switch and web-auth for an interface
must be enabled for the web authentication feature to be active.
Example
Console(config)#web-auth system-auth-control
Console(config)#
web-auth This command enables web authentication for an interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
[no] web-auth
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
Both web-auth system-auth-control for the switch and web-auth for a port must
be enabled for the web authentication feature to be active.
Example
Console(config-if)#web-auth
Console(config-if)#
– 279 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
web-auth re- This command ends all web authentication sessions connected to the port and
authenticate (Port) forces the users to re-authenticate.
Syntax
web-auth re-authenticate interface interface
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#web-auth re-authenticate interface ethernet 1/2
Console#
web-auth re- This command ends the web authentication session associated with the
authenticate (IP) designated IP address and forces the user to re-authenticate.
Syntax
web-auth re-authenticate interface interface ip
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
ip - IPv4 formatted IP address
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#web-auth re-authenticate interface ethernet 1/2 192.168.1.5
Console#
– 280 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Web Authentication
show web-auth This command displays global web authentication parameters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show web-auth
Global Web-Auth Parameters
System Auth Control
Session Timeout
Quiet Period
Max Login Attempts
Console#
:
:
:
:
Enabled
3600
60
3
show web-auth This command displays interface-specific web authentication parameters and
interface statistics.
Syntax
show web-auth interface interface
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show web-auth interface ethernet 1/2
Web Auth Status
: Enabled
Host Summary
IP address
--------------1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
Console#
Web-Auth-State
-------------Authenticated
Authenticated
– 281 –
Remaining-Session-Time
---------------------295
111
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
show web-auth This command displays a summary of web authentication port parameters and
summary statistics.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show web-auth summary
Global Web-Auth Parameters
System Auth Control
: Enabled
Port
Status
Authenticated Host Count
-------------------------------1/ 1
Disabled
0
1/ 2
Enabled
8
1/ 3
Disabled
0
1/ 4
Disabled
0
1/ 5
Disabled
0
.
.
.
DHCPv4 Snooping
DHCPv4 snooping allows a switch to protect a network from rogue DHCPv4 servers
or other devices which send port-related information to a DHCPv4 server. This
information can be useful in tracking an IP address back to a physical port. This
section describes commands used to configure DHCPv4 snooping.
Table 56: DHCP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip dhcp snooping
Enables DHCP snooping globally
GC
ip dhcp snooping information Enables or disables the use of DHCP Option 82
GC
option
information, and specifies frame format for the remote-id
ip dhcp snooping information Disables use of sub-type and sub-length for the
option encode no-subtype
CID/RID in Option 82 information
GC
ip dhcp snooping information Sets the remote ID to the switch’s IP address, MAC
GC
option remote-id
address, or arbitrary string, TR-101 compliant node
identifier, or removes VLAN ID from the end of the TR101
field
ip dhcp snooping information Sets the board identifier used in Option 82 information
option tr101 board-id
based on TR-101 syntax
GC
ip dhcp snooping information Sets the information option policy for DHCP client
policy
packets that include Option 82 information
GC
ip dhcp snooping verify
mac-address
Verifies the client’s hardware address stored in the DHCP GC
packet against the source MAC address in the Ethernet
header
ip dhcp snooping vlan
Enables DHCP snooping on the specified VLAN
ip dhcp snooping information Enables or disables the use of DHCP Option 82
option circuit-id
information circuit-id suboption
– 282 –
GC
IC
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
Table 56: DHCP Snooping Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
ip dhcp snooping trust
Configures the specified interface as trusted
IC
ip dhcp snooping maxnumber
configures the maximum number of DHCP clients which IC
can be supported per interface
ip dhcp snooping information Enables or disables the use of DHCP Option 82
option circuit-id
information circuit-id suboption
IC
ip dhcp snooping trust
Configures the specified interface as trusted
IC
clear ip dhcp snooping
binding
Clears DHCP snooping binding table entries from RAM
PE
clear ip dhcp snooping
database flash
Removes all dynamically learned snooping entries from
flash memory.
PE
ip dhcp snooping database
flash
Writes all dynamically learned snooping entries to flash
memory
PE
show ip dhcp snooping
Shows the DHCP snooping configuration settings
PE
show ip dhcp snooping
binding
Shows the DHCP snooping binding table entries
PE
ip dhcp snooping This command enables DHCP snooping globally. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Network traffic may be disrupted when malicious DHCP messages are received
from an outside source. DHCP snooping is used to filter DHCP messages
received on an unsecure interface from outside the network or fire wall. When
DHCP snooping is enabled globally by this command, and enabled on a VLAN
interface by the ip dhcp snooping vlan command, DHCP messages received on
an untrusted interface (as specified by the no ip dhcp snooping trust
command) from a device not listed in the DHCP snooping table will be
dropped.
◆
When enabled, DHCP messages entering an untrusted interface are filtered
based upon dynamic entries learned via DHCP snooping.
◆
Table entries are only learned for trusted interfaces. Each entry includes a MAC
address, IP address, lease time, VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
– 283 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
◆
When DHCP snooping is enabled, the rate limit for the number of DHCP
messages that can be processed by the switch is 100 packets per second. Any
DHCP packets in excess of this limit are dropped.
◆
Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
■
If global DHCP snooping is disabled, all DHCP packets are forwarded.
■
If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, all DHCP packets are forwarded for a trusted
port. If the received packet is a DHCP ACK message, a dynamic DHCP
snooping entry is also added to the binding table.
■
If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, but the port is not trusted, it is processed as
follows:
■
If the DHCP packet is a reply packet from a DHCP server (including
OFFER, ACK or NAK messages), the packet is dropped.
■
If the DHCP packet is from a client, such as a DECLINE or RELEASE
message, the switch forwards the packet only if the corresponding
entry is found in the binding table.
■
If the DHCP packet is from client, such as a DISCOVER, REQUEST,
INFORM, DECLINE or RELEASE message, the packet is forwarded if MAC
address verification is disabled (as specified by the ip dhcp snooping
verify mac-address command). However, if MAC address verification is
enabled, then the packet will only be forwarded if the client’s hardware
address stored in the DHCP packet is the same as the source MAC
address in the Ethernet header.
■
If the DHCP packet is not a recognizable type, it is dropped.
■
If a DHCP packet from a client passes the filtering criteria above, it will only
be forwarded to trusted ports in the same VLAN.
■
If a DHCP packet is from server is received on a trusted port, it will be
forwarded to both trusted and untrusted ports in the same VLAN.
◆
If DHCP snooping is globally disabled, all dynamic bindings are removed from
the binding table.
◆
Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which the switch submits a client request to the DHCP server must be
configured as trusted (using the ip dhcp snooping trust command). Note that
the switch will not add a dynamic entry for itself to the binding table when it
receives an ACK message from a DHCP server. Also, when the switch sends out
DHCP client packets for itself, no filtering takes place. However, when the
– 284 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
switch receives any messages from a DHCP server, any packets received from
untrusted ports are dropped.
Example
This example enables DHCP snooping globally for the switch.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping vlan (291)
ip dhcp snooping trust (295)
ip dhcp snooping This command enables the use of DHCP Option 82 information for the switch, and
information option specifies the frame format to use for the remote-id when Option 82 information is
generated by the switch. Use the no form without any keywords to disable this
function, the no form with the encode no-subtype keyword to enable use of subtype and sub-length in CID/RID fields, or the no form with the remote-id keyword
to set the remote ID to the switch’s MAC address encoded in hexadecimal.
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping information option
[encode no-subtype] [remote-id {ip-address [encode {ascii | hex}] |
mac-address [encode {ascii | hex}] | string string}]
no ip dhcp snooping information option [encode no-subtype]
[remote-id [ip-address encode] | [mac-address encode]]
encode no-subtype - Disables use of sub-type and sub-length fields in
circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID (RID) in Option 82 information.
mac-address - Inserts a MAC address in the remote ID sub-option for the
DHCP snooping agent (that is, the MAC address of the switch’s CPU).
ip-address - Inserts an IP address in the remote ID sub-option for the DHCP
snooping agent (that is, the IP address of the management interface).
encode - Indicates encoding in ASCII or hexadecimal.
string - An arbitrary string inserted into the remote identifier field.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Option 82: Disabled
CID/RID sub-type: Enabled
Remote ID: MAC address (hexadecimal)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 285 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
Command Usage
◆ DHCP provides a relay mechanism for sending information about the switch
and its DHCP clients to the DHCP server. Known as DHCP Option 82, it allows
compatible DHCP servers to use the information when assigning IP addresses,
or to set other services or policies for clients.
◆
When the DHCP Snooping Information Option 82 is enabled, the requesting
client (or an intermediate relay agent that has used the information fields to
describe itself ) can be identified in the DHCP request packets forwarded by the
switch and in reply packets sent back from the DHCP server.
◆
When the DHCP Snooping Information Option is enabled, clients can be
identified by the switch port to which they are connected rather than just their
MAC address. DHCP client-server exchange messages are then forwarded
directly between the server and client without having to flood them to the
entire VLAN.
◆
DHCP snooping must be enabled for the DHCP Option 82 information to be
inserted into packets. When enabled, the switch will only add/remove option
82 information in incoming DHCP packets but not relay them. Packets are
processed as follows:
■
If an incoming packet is a DHCP request packet with option 82 information,
it will modify the option 82 information according to settings specified with
ip dhcp snooping information policy command.
■
If an incoming packet is a DHCP request packet without option 82
information, enabling the DHCP snooping information option will add
option 82 information to the packet.
■
If an incoming packet is a DHCP reply packet with option 82 information,
enabling the DHCP snooping information option will remove option 82
information from the packet.
Example
This example enables the DHCP Snooping Information Option.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping information option
Console(config)#
ip dhcp snooping This command disables the use of sub-type and sub-length fields for the
information option circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID (RID) in Option 82 information generated by the
encode no-subtype switch. Use the no form to enable the use of these fields.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping information option encode no-subtype
Default Setting
Enabled
– 286 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Option 82 information generated by the switch is based on TR-101 syntax as
shown below:
Table 57: Option 82 information
82
3-69
1
1-67
opt82
opt-len
sub-opt1
string-len
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x63
R-124 string
The circuit identifier used by this switch starts at sub-option1 and goes to the
end of the R-124 string. The R-124 string includes the following information:
■
sub-type - Distinguishes different types of circuit IDs.
■
sub-length - Length of the circuit ID type
■
access node identifier - ASCII string. Default is the MAC address of the
switch’s CPU. This field is set by the ip dhcp snooping information option
command,
■
eth - The second field is the fixed string “eth”
■
slot - The slot represents the stack unit for this system.
■
port - The port which received the DHCP request. If the packet arrives over
a trunk, the value is the ifIndex of the trunk.
■
vlan - Tag of the VLAN which received the DHCP request.
Note that the sub-type and sub-length fields can be enabled or disabled
using the ip dhcp snooping information option command.
■
◆
The ip dhcp snooping information option circuit-id command can be
used to modify the default settings described above.
The format for TR101 option 82 is: “<IP> eth <SID>/<PORT>[:<VLAN>]”. Note
that the SID (Switch ID) is always 0. By default the PVID is added to the end of
the TR101 field for untagged packets. For tagged packets, the VLAN ID is always
added.
EXAMPLE
This example enables the use of sub-type and sub-length fields for the
circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID (RID).
Console(config)#no ip dhcp snooping information option encode no-subtype
Console(config)#
– 287 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
ip dhcp snooping This command sets the remote ID to the switch’s IP address, MAC address, or
information option arbitrary string, TR-101 compliant node identifier, or removes VLAN ID from the end
remote-id of the TR101 field. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id
{ip-address [encode {ascii | hex}] |
mac-address [encode {ascii | hex}] | string string |
tr101 {node-identifier {ip | sysname} | no-vlan-field}
no ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id
[ip-address encode] | [mac-address encode] | [tr101 no-vlan-field]
mac-address - Inserts a MAC address in the remote ID sub-option for the
DHCP snooping agent (that is, the MAC address of the switch’s CPU).
ip-address - Inserts an IP address in the remote ID sub-option for the DHCP
snooping agent (that is, the IP address of the management interface).
encode - Indicates encoding in ASCII or hexadecimal.
string - An arbitrary string inserted into the remote identifier field.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
tr101 node-identifier - The remote ID generated by the switch is based on
TR-101 syntax (R-124, Access_Node_ID).
ip - Specifies the switch’s IP address as the node identifier.
sysname - Specifies the system name as the node identifier.
tr101 no-vlan-field - Do not add “:VLAN” in TR101 field for untagged
packets.
Default Setting
MAC address: hexadecimal
tr101 no-vlan-field: disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The format for TR101 option 82 is: “<IP> eth <SID>/<PORT>[:<VLAN>]”. Note that
the SID (Switch ID) is always 0. By default the PVID is added to the end of the TR101
field for untagged packets. For tagged packets, the VLAN ID is always added. Use
the ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id tr101 no-vlan-field
command to remove the VLAN ID from the end of the TR101 field for untagged
packets. Use the no form of this command to add the PVID for untagged packets at
the end of the TR101 field.
– 288 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
Example
This example sets the remote ID to the switch’s IP address.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id tr101
node-identifier ip
Console(config)#
ip dhcp snooping This command sets the board identifier used in Option 82 information based on
information option TR-101 syntax. Use the no form to remove the board identifier.
tr101 board-id
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping information option tr101 board-id board-id
no ip dhcp snooping information option tr101 board-id
board-id – TR101 Board ID. (Range: 0-9)
Default Setting
not defined
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
This example sets the board ID to 0.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping information option tr101 board-id 0
Console(config)#
ip dhcp snooping This command sets the DHCP snooping information option policy for DHCP client
information policy packets that include Option 82 information.
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping information policy {drop | keep | replace}
drop - Drops the client’s request packet instead of relaying it.
keep - Retains the Option 82 information in the client request, and
forwards the packets to trusted ports.
replace - Replaces the Option 82 information circuit-id and remote-id fields
in the client’s request with information about the relay agent itself, inserts
the relay agent’s address (when DHCP snooping is enabled), and forwards
the packets to trusted ports.
Default Setting
replace
– 289 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When the switch receives DHCP packets from clients that already include DHCP
Option 82 information, the switch can be configured to set the action policy for
these packets. The switch can either drop the DHCP packets, keep the existing
information, or replace it with the switch’s relay information.
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping information policy drop
Console(config)#
ip dhcp snooping This command verifies the client’s hardware address stored in the DHCP packet
verify mac-address against the source MAC address in the Ethernet header. Use the no form to disable
this function.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If MAC address verification is enabled, and the source MAC address in the Ethernet
header of the packet is not same as the client’s hardware address in the DHCP
packet, the packet is dropped.
Example
This example enables MAC address verification.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (283)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (291)
ip dhcp snooping trust (295)
– 290 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
ip dhcp snooping vlan This command enables DHCP snooping on the specified VLAN. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When DHCP snooping is enabled globally using the ip dhcp snooping
command, and enabled on a VLAN with this command, DHCP packet filtering
will be performed on any untrusted ports within the VLAN as specified by the ip
dhcp snooping trust command.
◆
When the DHCP snooping is globally disabled, DHCP snooping can still be
configured for specific VLANs, but the changes will not take effect until DHCP
snooping is globally re-enabled.
◆
When DHCP snooping is globally enabled, and then disabled on a VLAN, all
dynamic bindings learned for this VLAN are removed from the binding table.
Example
This example enables DHCP snooping for VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping vlan 1
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (283)
ip dhcp snooping trust (295)
– 291 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
ip dhcp snooping This command specifies DHCP Option 82 circuit-id suboption information. Use the
information option no form to use the default settings.
circuit-id
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping information option circuit-id string string |
{tr101 {node-identifier {ip | sysname} | no-vlan-field}
no dhcp snooping information option circuit-id [tr101 no-vlan-field]
string - An arbitrary string inserted into the circuit identifier field.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
tr101 node-identifier - The remote ID generated by the switch is based on
TR-101 syntax (R-124, Access_Node_ID).
ip - Specifies the switch’s IP address as the node identifier.
sysname - Specifies the system name as the node identifier.
tr101 no-vlan-field - Do not add “:VLAN” in TR101 field for untagged
packets.
Default Setting
VLAN-Unit-Port
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ DHCP provides a relay mechanism for sending information about the switch
and its DHCP clients to the DHCP server. DHCP Option 82 allows compatible
DHCP servers to use the information when assigning IP addresses, to set other
services or policies for clients. For more information of this process, refer to the
Command Usage section under the ip dhcp snooping information option
command.
◆
Option 82 information generated by the switch is based on TR-101 syntax as
shown below:
Table 58: Option 82 information
82
3-69
1
1-67
opt82
opt-len
sub-opt1
string-len
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x63
R-124 string
The circuit identifier used by this switch starts at sub-option1 and goes to the
end of the R-124 string. The R-124 string includes the following information:
■
sub-type - Distinguishes different types of circuit IDs.
■
sub-length - Length of the circuit ID type
– 292 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
■
access node identifier - ASCII string. Default is the MAC address of the
switch’s CPU. This field is set by the ip dhcp snooping information option
command,
■
eth - The second field is the fixed string “eth”
■
slot - The slot represents the stack unit for this system.
■
port - The port which received the DHCP request. If the packet arrives over
a trunk, the value is the ifIndex of the trunk.
■
vlan - Tag of the VLAN which received the DHCP request.
Note that the sub-type and sub-length fields can be enabled or disabled
using the ip dhcp snooping information option command.
■
◆
The ip dhcp snooping information option circuit-id command can be
used to modify the default settings described above.
The format for TR101 option 82 is: “<IP> eth <SID>/<PORT>[:<VLAN>]”. Note
that the SID (Switch ID) is always 0. By default the PVID is added to the end of
the TR101 field for untagged packets. For tagged packets, the VLAN ID is always
added. Use the ip dhcp snooping information option remote-id tr101 novlan-field command to remove the VLAN ID from the end of the TR101 field for
untagged packets. Use the no form of this command to add the PVID for
untagged packets at the end of the TR101 field.
Example
This example sets the DHCP Snooping Information circuit-id suboption string.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp snooping information option circuit-id string 4500
Console(config-if)#
ip dhcp snooping trust This command configures the specified interface as trusted. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping trust
Default Setting
All interfaces are untrusted
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ A trusted interface is an interface that is configured to receive only messages
from within the network. An untrusted interface is an interface that is
configured to receive messages from outside the network or fire wall.
– 293 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
◆
Set all ports connected to DHCP servers within the local network or fire wall to
trusted, and all other ports outside the local network or fire wall to untrusted.
◆
When DHCP snooping is enabled globally using the ip dhcp snooping
command, and enabled on a VLAN with ip dhcp snooping vlan command,
DHCP packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports within the
VLAN according to the default status, or as specifically configured for an
interface with the no ip dhcp snooping trust command.
◆
When an untrusted port is changed to a trusted port, all the dynamic DHCP
snooping bindings associated with this port are removed.
◆
Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which it submits a client request to the DHCP server must be
configured as trusted.
Example
This example sets port 5 to untrusted.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#no ip dhcp snooping trust
Console(config-if)#
ip dhcp snooping This command configures the maximum number of DHCP clients which can be
max-number supported per interface. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip dhcp snooping max-number max-number
no dhcp snooping max-number
max-number - Maximum number of DHCP clients. (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
16
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example sets the maximum number of DHCP clients supported on port 1 to 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp snooping max-number 2
Console(config-if)#
– 294 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
ip dhcp snooping trust This command configures the specified interface as trusted. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping trust
Default Setting
All interfaces are untrusted
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ A trusted interface is an interface that is configured to receive only messages
from within the network. An untrusted interface is an interface that is
configured to receive messages from outside the network or fire wall.
◆
Set all ports connected to DHCP servers within the local network or fire wall to
trusted, and all other ports outside the local network or fire wall to untrusted.
◆
When DHCP snooping is enabled globally using the ip dhcp snooping
command, and enabled on a VLAN with ip dhcp snooping vlan command,
DHCP packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports within the
VLAN according to the default status, or as specifically configured for an
interface with the no ip dhcp snooping trust command.
◆
When an untrusted port is changed to a trusted port, all the dynamic DHCP
snooping bindings associated with this port are removed.
◆
Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which it submits a client request to the DHCP server must be
configured as trusted.
Example
This example sets port 5 to untrusted.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#no ip dhcp snooping trust
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (283)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (291)
– 295 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
clear ip dhcp This command clears DHCP snooping binding table entries from RAM. Use this
snooping binding command without any optional keywords to clear all entries from the binding
table.
Syntax
clear ip dhcp snooping binding mac-address ip-address
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
ip-address - Specifies the IP address bound to this entry.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear ip dhcp snooping binding 11-22-33-44-55-66 vlan 1
Console#
clear ip dhcp This command removes all dynamically learned snooping entries from flash
snooping database memory.
flash
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear ip dhcp snooping database flash
Console#
ip dhcp snooping This command writes all dynamically learned snooping entries to flash memory.
database flash
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command can be used to store the currently learned dynamic DHCP snooping
entries to flash memory. These entries will be restored to the snooping table when
the switch is reset. However, note that the lease time shown for a dynamic entry
that has been restored from flash memory will no longer be valid.
Example
Console#ip dhcp snooping database flash
Console#
– 296 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
DHCPv4 Snooping
show ip dhcp This command shows the DHCP snooping configuration settings.
snooping
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp snooping
Global DHCP Snooping Status: disabled
DHCP Snooping Information Option Status: disabled
DHCP Snooping Information Option Sub-option Format: extra subtype included
DHCP Snooping Information Option Remote ID: MAC Address (hex encoded)
DHCP Snooping Information Option Remote ID TR101 VLAN Field: enabled
DHCP Snooping Information Option TR101 Board ID: none
DHCP Snooping Information Policy: replace
DHCP Snooping is configured on the following VLANs:
Verify Source MAC-Address: enabled
Circuit-ID
Interface Trusted Max-Number Mode
--------- ------- ---------- --------------Eth 1/1
No
16
VLAN-Unit-Port
Eth 1/2
No
16
VLAN-Unit-Port
Eth 1/3
No
16
VLAN-Unit-Port
Eth 1/4
No
16
VLAN-Unit-Port
Eth 1/5
No
16
VLAN-Unit-Port
Circuit-ID
Value
----------------------
Circuit-ID
TR101 VLAN Field
---------------enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
.
.
.
show ip dhcp This command shows the DHCP snooping binding table entries.
snooping binding
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp snooping binding
MAC Address
IP Address
Lease(sec) Type
VLAN Interface
----------------- --------------- ---------- -------------------- ---- -----11-22-33-44-55-66 192.168.0.99
0 Dynamic-DHCPSNP
1 Eth 1/5
Console#
– 297 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
IPv4 Source Guard
IPv4 Source Guard is a security feature that filters IPv4 traffic on network interfaces
based on manually configured entries in the IPv4 Source Guard table, or dynamic
entries in the DHCPv4 Snooping table when enabled (see “DHCPv4 Snooping” on
page 282). IPv4 source guard can be used to prevent traffic attacks caused when a
host tries to use the IPv4 address of a neighbor to access the network. This section
describes commands used to configure IPv4 Source Guard.
Table 59: IPv4 Source Guard Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip source-guard binding
Adds a static address to the source-guard binding table
GC
ip source-guard
Configures the switch to filter inbound traffic based on
source IP address, or source IP address and
corresponding MAC address
IC
ip source-guard max-binding Sets the maximum number of entries that can be bound IC
to an interface
ip source-guard mode
Sets the source-guard learning mode to search for
addresses in the ACL binding table or the MAC address
binding table
IC
clear ip source-guard
binding blocked
Remove all blocked records
PE
show ip source-guard
Shows whether source guard is enabled or disabled on
each interface
PE
show ip source-guard
binding
Shows the source guard binding table
PE
ip source-guard This command adds a static address to the source-guard ACL or MAC address
binding binding table. Use the no form to remove a static entry.
Syntax
ip source-guard binding [mode {acl | mac}] mac-address
vlan vlan-id ip-address interface ethernet unit/port-list
no ip source-guard binding [mode {acl | mac}] mac-address vlan vlan-id
mode - Specifies the binding mode.
acl - Adds binding to ACL table.
mac - Adds binding to MAC address table.
mac-address - A valid unicast MAC address.
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN for an ACL filtering table or a range of
VLANs for a MAC address filtering table. To specify a list separate
nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no spaces; use a
hyphen to designate a range of IDs. (Range: 1-4094)
ip-address - A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
– 298 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port-list - Physical port number or list of port numbers. Separate
nonconsecutive port numbers with a comma and no spaces; or use a
hyphen to designate a range of port numbers. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
No configured entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If the binding mode is not specified in this command, the entry is bound to the
ACL table by default.
◆
Table entries include a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type (Static-IPSG-Binding, Dynamic-DHCP-Binding), VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
◆
All static entries are configured with an infinite lease time, which is indicated
with a value of zero by the show ip source-guard command (page 304).
◆
When source guard is enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries
learned via DHCP snooping, or static addresses configured in the source guard
binding table with this command.
◆
An entry with same MAC address and a different VLAN ID cannot be added to
the binding table.
◆
Static bindings are processed as follows:
■
■
A valid static IP source guard entry will be added to the binding table in
ACL mode if one of the following conditions is true:
■
If there is no binding entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, a
new entry will be added to the binding table using the type of static IP
source guard binding.
■
If there is an entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the
type of entry is static IP source guard binding, then the new entry will
replace the old one.
■
If there is an entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the
type of the entry is dynamic DHCP snooping binding, then the new
entry will replace the old one and the entry type will be changed to
static IP source guard binding.
A valid static IP source guard entry will be added to the binding table in
MAC mode if one of the following conditions are true:
■
If there is no binding entry with the same IP address and MAC address,
a new entry will be added to the binding table using the type of static
IP source guard binding entry.
– 299 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
■
◆
If there is a binding entry with same IP address and MAC address, then
the new entry shall replace the old one.
Only unicast addresses are accepted for static bindings.
Example
This example configures a static source-guard binding on port 5. Since the binding
mode is not specified, the entry is bound to the ACL table by default.
Console(config)#ip source-guard binding 11-22-33-44-55-66 vlan 1 192.168.0.99
interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip source-guard (300)
ip dhcp snooping (283)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (291)
ip source-guard This command configures the switch to filter inbound traffic based on source IP
address, or source IP address and corresponding MAC address. Use the no form to
disable this function.
Syntax
ip source-guard {sip | sip-mac}
no ip source-guard
sip - Filters traffic based on IP addresses stored in the binding table.
sip-mac - Filters traffic based on IP addresses and corresponding MAC
addresses stored in the binding table.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ Source guard is used to filter traffic on an insecure port which receives
messages from outside the network or fire wall, and therefore may be subject
to traffic attacks caused by a host trying to use the IP address of a neighbor.
◆
Setting source guard mode to “sip” or “sip-mac” enables this function on the
selected port. Use the “sip” option to check the VLAN ID, source IP address, and
port number against all entries in the binding table. Use the “sip-mac” option
to check these same parameters, plus the source MAC address. Use the no ip
source guard command to disable this function on the selected port.
– 300 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
◆
When enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries learned via DHCP
snooping, or static addresses configured in the source guard binding table.
◆
Table entries include a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type (Static-IPSG-Binding, Dynamic-DHCP-Binding, VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
◆
Static addresses entered in the source guard binding table with the ip sourceguard binding command are automatically configured with an infinite lease
time. Dynamic entries learned via DHCP snooping are configured by the DHCP
server itself.
◆
If the IP source guard is enabled, an inbound packet’s IP address (sip option) or
both its IP address and corresponding MAC address (sip-mac option) will be
checked against the binding table. If no matching entry is found, the packet
will be dropped.
◆
Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
■
If DHCPv4 snooping is disabled (see page 283), IP source guard will check
the VLAN ID, source IP address, port number, and source MAC address (for
the sip-mac option). If a matching entry is found in the binding table and
the entry type is static IP source guard binding, the packet will be
forwarded.
■
If the DHCP snooping is enabled, IP source guard will check the VLAN ID,
source IP address, port number, and source MAC address (for the sip-mac
option). If a matching entry is found in the binding table and the entry type
is static IP source guard binding, or dynamic DHCP snooping binding, the
packet will be forwarded.
■
If IP source guard is enabled on an interface for which IP source bindings
(dynamically learned via DHCP snooping or manually configured) are not
yet configured, the switch will drop all IP traffic on that port, except for
DHCP packets allowed by DHCP snooping.
■
Only unicast addresses are accepted for static bindings.
Example
This example enables IP source guard on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#ip source-guard sip
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip source-guard binding (298)
ip dhcp snooping (283)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (291)
– 301 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
ip source-guard This command sets the maximum number of entries that can be bound to an
max-binding interface. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip source-guard [mode {acl | mac}] max-binding number
no ip source-guard [mode {acl | mac}] max-binding
mode - Specifies the learning mode.
acl - Searches for addresses in the ACL table.
mac - Searches for addresses in the MAC address table.
number - The maximum number of IP addresses that can be mapped to an
interface in the binding table. (Range: 1-5 for ACL mode; 1-32 for MAC
mode)
Default Setting
Mode: ACL, Maximum Binding: 5
Mode: MAC, Maximum Binding: 16
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ This command sets the maximum number of address entries that can be
mapped to an interface in the binding table for the specified mode (ACL
binding table or MAC address table) including dynamic entries discovered by
DHCP snooping and static entries set by the ip source-guard command.
◆
The maximum binding for ACL mode restricts the number of “active” entries
per port. If binding entries exceed the maximum number in IP source guard,
only the maximum number of binding entries will be set. Dynamic binding
entries exceeding the maximum number will be created but will not be active.
◆
The maximum binding for MAC mode restricts the number of MAC addresses
learned per port. Authenticated IP traffic with different source MAC addresses
cannot be learned if it would exceed this maximum number.
Example
This example sets the maximum number of allowed entries in the binding table for
port 5 to one entry. The mode is not specified, and therefore defaults to the ACL
binding table.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#ip source-guard max-binding 1
Console(config-if)#
– 302 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
ip source-guard mode This command sets the source-guard learning mode to search for addresses in the
ACL binding table or the MAC address binding table. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
ip source-guard mode {acl | mac}
no ip source-guard mode
mode - Specifies the learning mode.
acl - Searches for addresses in the ACL binding table.
mac - Searches for addresses in the MAC address binding table.
Default Setting
ACL
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
There are two modes for the filtering table:
◆
ACL - IP traffic will be forwarded if it passes the checking process in the ACL
mode binding table.
◆
MAC - A MAC entry will be added in MAC address table if IP traffic passes the
checking process in MAC mode binding table.
Example
This command sets the binding table mode for the specified interface to MAC
mode:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#ip source-guard mode mac
Console(config-if)#
clear ip source-guard This command clears source-guard binding table entries from RAM.
binding blocked
Syntax
clear ip source-guard binding blocked
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
When IP Source-Guard detects an invalid packet it creates a blocked
record. These records can be viewed using the show ip source-guard
binding blocked command. A maximum of 512 blocked records can be
– 303 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
stored before the switch overwrites the oldest record with new blocked
records. Use the clear ip source-guard binding blocked command to
clear this table.
Example
This command clears the blocked record table.
Console(config)#clear ip source-guard binding blocked
Console(config)#
show ip source-guard This command shows whether source guard is enabled or disabled on each
interface.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip source-guard
Interface
--------Eth 1/1
Eth 1/2
Eth 1/3
Eth 1/4
Eth
1/5
.
.
.
Filter-type
----------DISABLED
DISABLED
DISABLED
DISABLED
DISABLED
Filter-table
-----------ACL
ACL
ACL
ACL
ACL
ACL Table
Max-binding
----------5
5
5
5
5
MAC Table
Max-binding
----------1024
1024
1024
1024
1024
show ip source-guard This command shows the source guard binding table.
binding
Syntax
show ip source-guard binding [dhcp-snooping | static [acl | mac] |
blocked [vlan vlan-id | interface interface]
dhcp-snooping - Shows dynamic entries configured with DHCP Snooping
commands (see page 282)
static - Shows static entries configured with the ip source-guard binding
command.
acl - Shows static entries in the ACL binding table.
mac - Shows static entries in the MAC address binding table.
blocked - Shows MAC addresses which have been blocked by IP Source
Guard.
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4094)
– 304 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
interface - Specifies a port interface.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip source-guard binding
MAC Address
IP Address
Type
VLAN
Interface
----------------- --------------- -------------- --------- --------00-10-b5-f4-d0-01 10.2.44.96
static-acl
1 Eth 1/1
Console#
ARP Inspection
ARP Inspection validates the MAC-to-IP address bindings in Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) packets. It protects against ARP traffic with invalid address bindings,
which forms the basis for certain “man-in-the-middle” attacks. This is accomplished
by intercepting all ARP requests and responses and verifying each of these packets
before the local ARP cache is updated or the packet is forwarded to the appropriate
destination, dropping any invalid ARP packets.
ARP Inspection determines the validity of an ARP packet based on valid IP-to-MAC
address bindings stored in a trusted database – the DHCP snooping binding
database. ARP Inspection can also validate ARP packets against user-configured
ARP access control lists (ACLs) for hosts with statically configured IP addresses.
This section describes commands used to configure ARP Inspection.
Table 60: ARP Inspection Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip arp inspection
Enables ARP Inspection globally on the switch
GC
ip arp inspection filter
Specifies an ARP ACL to apply to one or more VLANs
GC
ip arp inspection log-buffer
logs
Sets the maximum number of entries saved in a log
message, and the rate at these messages are sent
GC
ip arp inspection validate
Specifies additional validation of address components in GC
an ARP packet
ip arp inspection vlan
Enables ARP Inspection for a specified VLAN or range of
VLANs
GC
ip arp inspection limit
Sets a rate limit for the ARP packets received on a port
IC
ip arp inspection trust
Sets a port as trusted, and thus exempted from ARP
Inspection
IC
– 305 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
Table 60: ARP Inspection Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show ip arp inspection
configuration
Displays the global configuration settings for ARP
Inspection
PE
show ip arp inspection
interface
Shows the trust status and inspection rate limit for ports PE
show ip arp inspection log
Shows information about entries stored in the log,
including the associated VLAN, port, and address
components
PE
show ip arp inspection
statistics
Shows statistics about the number of ARP packets
processed, or dropped for various reasons
PE
show ip arp inspection vlan
Shows configuration setting for VLANs, including ARP
Inspection status, the ARP ACL name, and if the DHCP
Snooping database is used after ACL validation is
completed
PE
ip arp inspection This command enables ARP Inspection globally on the switch. Use the no form to
disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip arp inspection
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When ARP Inspection is enabled globally with this command, it becomes active
only on those VLANs where it has been enabled with the ip arp inspection vlan
command.
◆
◆
When ARP Inspection is enabled globally and enabled on selected VLANs, all
ARP request and reply packets on those VLANs are redirected to the CPU and
their switching is handled by the ARP Inspection engine.
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled globally, it becomes inactive for all VLANs,
including those where ARP Inspection is enabled.
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled, all ARP request and reply packets bypass the
ARP Inspection engine and their manner of switching matches that of all other
packets.
◆
Disabling and then re-enabling global ARP Inspection will not affect the ARP
Inspection configuration for any VLANs.
– 306 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled globally, it is still possible to configure ARP
Inspection for individual VLANs. These configuration changes will only become
active after ARP Inspection is globally enabled again.
Example
Console(config)#ip arp inspection
Console(config)#
ip arp inspection filter This command specifies an ARP ACL to apply to one or more VLANs. Use the no
form to remove an ACL binding. Use the no form to remove an ACL binding.
Syntax
ip arp inspection filter arp-acl-name vlan {vlan-id | vlan-range} [static]
no ip arp inspection filter arp-acl-name vlan {vlan-id | vlan-range}
arp-acl-name - Name of an ARP ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
vlan-id - VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
vlan-range - A consecutive range of VLANs indicated by the use a hyphen,
or a random group of VLANs with each entry separated by a comma.
static - ARP packets are only validated against the specified ACL, address
bindings in the DHCP snooping database is not checked.
Default Setting
ARP ACLs are not bound to any VLAN
Static mode is not enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ ARP ACLs are configured with the commands described on page 344.
◆
If static mode is enabled, the switch compares ARP packets to the specified ARP
ACLs. Packets matching an IP-to-MAC address binding in a permit or deny rule
are processed accordingly. Packets not matching any of the ACL rules are
dropped. Address bindings in the DHCP snooping database are not checked.
◆
If static mode is not enabled, packets are first validated against the specified
ARP ACL. Packets matching a deny rule are dropped. All remaining packets are
validated against the address bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Example
Console(config)#ip arp inspection filter sales vlan 1
Console(config)#
– 307 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
ip arp inspection This command sets the maximum number of entries saved in a log message, and
log-buffer logs the rate at which these messages are sent. Use the no form to restore the default
settings.
Syntax
ip arp inspection log-buffer logs message-number interval seconds
no ip arp inspection log-buffer logs
message-number - The maximum number of entries saved in a log message.
(Range: 0-256, where 0 means no events are saved and no messages sent)
seconds - The interval at which log messages are sent. (Range: 0-86400)
Default Setting
Message Number: 20
Interval: 10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ ARP Inspection must be enabled with the ip arp inspection command before
this command will be accepted by the switch.
◆
By default, logging is active for ARP Inspection, and cannot be disabled.
◆
When the switch drops a packet, it places an entry in the log buffer. Each entry
contains flow information, such as the receiving VLAN, the port number, the
source and destination IP addresses, and the source and destination MAC
addresses.
◆
If multiple, identical invalid ARP packets are received consecutively on the
same VLAN, then the logging facility will only generate one entry in the log
buffer and one corresponding system message.
◆
The maximum number of entries that can be stored in the log buffer is
determined by the message-number parameter. If the log buffer fills up before a
message is sent, the oldest entry will be replaced with the newest one.
◆
The switch generates a system message on a rate-controlled basis determined
by the seconds values. After the system message is generated, all entries are
cleared from the log buffer.
Example
Console(config)#ip arp inspection log-buffer logs 1 interval 10
Console(config)#
– 308 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
ip arp inspection This command specifies additional validation of address components in an ARP
validate packet. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip arp inspection validate
{dst-mac [ip [allow-zeros] [src-mac]] |
ip [allow-zeros] [src-mac]] | src-mac}
no ip arp inspection validate
dst-mac - Checks the destination MAC address in the Ethernet header
against the target MAC address in the ARP body. This check is performed
for ARP responses. When enabled, packets with different MAC addresses
are classified as invalid and are dropped.
ip - Checks the ARP body for invalid and unexpected IP addresses.
Addresses include 0.0.0.0, 255.255.255.255, and all IP multicast addresses.
Sender IP addresses are checked in all ARP requests and responses, while
target IP addresses are checked only in ARP responses.
allow-zeros - Allows sender IP address to be 0.0.0.0.
src-mac - Checks the source MAC address in the Ethernet header against
the sender MAC address in the ARP body. This check is performed on both
ARP requests and responses. When enabled, packets with different MAC
addresses are classified as invalid and are dropped.
Default Setting
No additional validation is performed
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
By default, ARP Inspection only checks the IP-to-MAC address bindings specified in
an ARP ACL or in the DHCP Snooping database.
Example
Console(config)#ip arp inspection validate dst-mac
Console(config)#
– 309 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
ip arp inspection vlan This command enables ARP Inspection for a specified VLAN or range of VLANs. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip arp inspection vlan {vlan-id | vlan-range}
vlan-id - VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
vlan-range - A consecutive range of VLANs indicated by the use a hyphen,
or a random group of VLANs with each entry separated by a comma.
Default Setting
Disabled on all VLANs
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When ARP Inspection is enabled globally with the ip arp inspection command,
it becomes active only on those VLANs where it has been enabled with this
command.
◆
When ARP Inspection is enabled globally and enabled on selected VLANs, all
ARP request and reply packets on those VLANs are redirected to the CPU and
their switching is handled by the ARP Inspection engine.
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled globally, it becomes inactive for all VLANs,
including those where ARP Inspection is enabled.
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled, all ARP request and reply packets bypass the
ARP Inspection engine and their manner of switching matches that of all other
packets.
◆
Disabling and then re-enabling global ARP Inspection will not affect the ARP
Inspection configuration for any VLANs.
◆
When ARP Inspection is disabled globally, it is still possible to configure ARP
Inspection for individual VLANs. These configuration changes will only become
active after ARP Inspection is globally enabled again.
Example
Console(config)#ip arp inspection vlan 1,2
Console(config)#
– 310 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
ip arp inspection limit This command sets a rate limit for the ARP packets received on a port. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip arp inspection limit {rate pps | none}
no ip arp inspection limit
pps - The maximum number of ARP packets that can be processed by the
CPU per second on trusted or untrusted ports. (Range: 0-2048, where 0
means that no ARP packets can be forwarded)
none - There is no limit on the number of ARP packets that can be
processed by the CPU.
Default Setting
15
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port, Static Aggregation)
Command Usage
◆ This command applies to both trusted and untrusted ports.
◆
When the rate of incoming ARP packets exceeds the configured limit, the
switch drops all ARP packets in excess of the limit.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip arp inspection limit rate 150
Console(config-if)#
ip arp inspection trust This command sets a port as trusted, and thus exempted from ARP Inspection. Use
the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip arp inspection trust
Default Setting
Untrusted
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port, Static Aggregation)
Command Usage
Packets arriving on untrusted ports are subject to any configured ARP Inspection
and additional validation checks. Packets arriving on trusted ports bypass all of
these checks, and are forwarded according to normal switching rules.
– 311 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip arp inspection trust
Console(config-if)#
show ip arp inspection This command displays the global configuration settings for ARP Inspection.
configuration
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip arp inspection configuration
ARP Inspection Global Information:
Global IP ARP Inspection Status
Log Message Interval
Log Message Number
Need Additional Validation(s)
Additional Validation Type
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
disabled
1 s
5
Yes
Destination MAC address
show ip arp inspection This command shows the trust status and ARP Inspection rate limit for ports.
interface
Syntax
show ip arp inspection interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip arp inspection interface ethernet 1/1
Port Number
------------Eth 1/1
Console#
Trust Status
-------------------Trusted
– 312 –
Rate Limit (pps)
-----------------------------150
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
ARP Inspection
show ip arp inspection This command shows information about entries stored in the log, including the
log associated VLAN, port, and address components.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip arp inspection log
Total log entries number is 1
Num VLAN Port Src IP Address
--- ---- ---- -------------1
1
11 192.168.2.2
Console#
Dst IP Address
-------------192.168.2.1
Src MAC Address Dst MAC Address
--------------- -------------00-04-E2-A0-E2-7C FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
show ip arp inspection This command shows statistics about the number of ARP packets processed, or
statistics dropped for various reasons.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip arp inspection statistics
ARP packets received
:
ARP packets dropped due to rate limt
:
Total ARP packets processed by ARP Inspection
:
ARP packets dropped by additional validation (source MAC address)
:
ARP packets dropped by additional validation (destination MAC address):
ARP packets dropped by additional validation (IP address)
:
ARP packets dropped by ARP ACLs
:
ARP packets dropped by DHCP snooping
:
150
5
150
0
0
0
0
0
Console#
show ip arp inspection This command shows the configuration settings for VLANs, including ARP
vlan Inspection status, the ARP ACL name, and if the DHCP Snooping database is used
after ARP ACL validation is completed.
Syntax
show ip arp inspection vlan [vlan-id | vlan-range]
vlan-id - Identifier for configured VLANs.
vlan-range - A consecutive range of VLANs indicated by the use a hyphen,
or a random group of VLANs with each entry separated by a comma.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 313 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Denial of Service Protection
Example
Console#show ip arp inspection vlan 1
VLAN ID
-------1
Console#
DAI Status
--------------disabled
ACL Name
-------------------sales
ACL Status
-------------------static
Denial of Service Protection
A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is an attempt to block the services provided
by a computer or network resource. This kind of attack tries to prevent an Internet
site or service from functioning efficiently or at all. In general, DoS attacks are
implemented by either forcing the target to reset, to consume most of its resources
so that it can no longer provide its intended service, or to obstruct the
communication media between the intended users and the target so that they can
no longer communicate adequately.
This section describes commands used to protect against DoS attacks.
Table 61: DoS Protection Commands
Command
Function
Mode
dos-protection echo-chargen
Protects against DoS echo/chargen attacks
GC
dos-protection smurf
Protects against DoS smurf attacks
GC
dos-protection tcp-flooding
Protects against DoS TCP-flooding attacks
GC
dos-protection tcp-null-scan
Protects against DoS TCP-null-scan attacks
GC
dos-protection tcp-syn-fin-scan
Protects against DoS TCP-SYN/FIN-scan attacks
GC
dos-protection tcp-xmas-scan
Protects against DoS TCP-XMAS-scan attacks
GC
dos-protection udp-flooding
Protects against DoS UDP-flooding attacks
GC
dos-protection win-nuke
Protects against DoS WinNuke attacks
GC
show dos-protection
Shows the configuration settings for DoS protection PE
dos-protection This command protects against DoS echo/chargen attacks in which the echo
echo-chargen service repeats anything sent to it, and the chargen (character generator) service
generates a continuous stream of data. When used together, they create an infinite
loop and result in a denial-of-service. Use the no form without the bit rate
parameter to disable this feature, or with the bit rate parameter to restore the
defautl rate limit.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection echo-chargen [bit-rate-in-kilo rate]
rate – Maximum allowed rate. (Range: 64-2000 kbits/second)
– 314 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Denial of Service Protection
Default Setting
Disabled, 1000 kbits/second
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection echo-chargen bit-rate-in-kilo 65
Console(config)#
dos-protection smurf This command protects against DoS smurf attacks in which a perpetrator generates
a large amount of spoofed ICMP Echo Request traffic to the broadcast destination
IP address (255.255.255.255), all of which uses a spoofed source address of the
intended victim. The victim should crash due to the many interrupts required to
send ICMP Echo response packets. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection smurf
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection smurf
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS TCP-flooding attacks in which a perpetrator
tcp-flooding sends a succession of TCP SYN requests (with or without a spoofed-Source IP) to a
target and never returns ACK packets. These half-open connections will bind
resources on the target, and no new connections can be made, resulting in a denial
of service. Use the no form without the bit rate parameter to disable this feature, or
with the bit rate parameter to restore the default rate limit.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection tcp-flooding [bit-rate-in-kilo rate]
rate – Maximum allowed rate. (Range: 64-2000 kbits/second)
Default Setting
Disabled, 1000 kbits/second
– 315 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Denial of Service Protection
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection tcp-flooding bit-rate-in-kilo 65
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS TCP-null-scan attacks in which a TCP NULL
tcp-null-scan scan message is used to identify listening TCP ports. The scan uses a series of
strangely configured TCP packets which contain a sequence number of 0 and no
flags. If the target's TCP port is closed, the target replies with a TCP RST (reset)
packet. If the target TCP port is open, it simply discards the TCP NULL scan. Use the
no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection tcp-null-scan
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection tcp-null-scan
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS TCP-SYN/FIN-scan attacks in which a TCP SYN/
tcp-syn-fin-scan FIN scan message is used to identify listening TCP ports. The scan uses a series of
strangely configured TCP packets which contain SYN (synchronize) and FIN (finish)
flags. If the target's TCP port is closed, the target replies with a TCP RST (reset)
packet. If the target TCP port is open, it simply discards the TCP SYN FIN scan. Use
the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection tcp-syn-fin-scan
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 316 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Denial of Service Protection
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection syn-fin-scan
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS TCP-xmas-scan in which a so-called TCP XMAS
tcp-xmas-scan scan message is used to identify listening TCP ports. This scan uses a series of
strangely configured TCP packets which contain a sequence number of 0 and the
URG, PSH and FIN flags. If the target's TCP port is closed, the target replies with a
TCP RST packet. If the target TCP port is open, it simply discards the TCP XMAS scan.
Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection tcp-xmas-scan
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection tcp-xmas-scan
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS UDP-flooding attacks in which a perpetrator
udp-flooding sends a large number of UDP packets (with or without a spoofed-Source IP) to
random ports on a remote host. The target will determine that application is
listening at that port, and reply with an ICMP Destination Unreachable packet. It
will be forced to send many ICMP packets, eventually leading it to be unreachable
by other clients. Use the no form without the bit rate parameter to disable this
feature, or with the bit rate parameter to restore the default rate limit.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection udp-flooding [bit-rate-in-kilo rate]
rate – Maximum allowed rate. (Range: 64-2000 kbits/second)
Default Setting
Disabled, 1000 kbits/second
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 317 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Denial of Service Protection
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection udp-flooding bit-rate-in-kilo 65
Console(config)#
dos-protection This command protects against DoS WinNuke attacks in which affected the
win-nuke Microsoft Windows 3.1x/95/NT operating systems. In this type of attack, the
perpetrator sends the string of OOB out-of-band (OOB) packets contained a TCP
URG flag to the target computer on TCP port 139 (NetBIOS), casing it to lock up and
display a “Blue Screen of Death.” This did not cause any damage to, or change data
on, the computer’s hard disk, but any unsaved data would be lost. Microsoft made
patches to prevent the WinNuke attack, but the OOB packets still put the service in
a tight loop that consumed all available CPU time. Use the no form without the bit
rate parameter to disable this feature, or with the bit rate parameter to restore the
default rate limit.
Syntax
[no] dos-protection win-nuke [bit-rate-in-kilo rate]
rate – Maximum allowed rate. (Range: 64-2000 kbits/second)
Default Setting
Disabled, 1000 kbits/second
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dos-protection win-nuke bit-rate-in-kilo65
Console(config)#
show dos-protection This command shows the configuration settings for the DoS protection commands.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dos-protection
Global DoS Protection:
Echo/Chargen Attack
Smurf Attack
TCP Flooding Attack
TCP Null Scan
TCP SYN/FIN Scan
TCP XMAS Scan
UDP Flooding Attack
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
– 318 –
Disabled, 1000 kilobits per second
Enabled
Disabled, 1000 kilobits per second
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled, 1000 kilobits per second
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
WinNuke Attack
Console#
: Disabled, 1000 kilobits per second
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
If tighter security is required for passing traffic from different clients through
downlink ports on the local network and over uplink ports to the service provider,
port-based traffic segmentation can be used to isolate traffic for individual clients.
Traffic belonging to each client is isolated to the allocated downlink ports. But the
switch can be configured to either isolate traffic passing across a client’s allocated
uplink ports from the uplink ports assigned to other clients, or to forward traffic
through the uplink ports used by other clients, allowing different clients to share
access to their uplink ports where security is less likely to be compromised.
Table 62: Commands for Configuring Traffic Segmentation
Command
Function
Mode
traffic-segmentation
Enables traffic segmentation
GC
traffic-segmentation session
Creates a client session
GC
traffic-segmentation uplink/
downlink
Configures uplink/downlink ports for client sessions
GC
traffic-segmentation
uplink-to-uplink
Specifies whether or not traffic can be forwarded
between uplink ports assigned to different client
sessions
GC
show traffic-segmentation
Displays the configured traffic segments
PE
traffic-segmentation This command enables traffic segmentation. Use the no form to disable traffic
segmentation.
Syntax
[no] traffic-segmentation
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Traffic segmentation provides port-based security and isolation between ports
within the VLAN. Data traffic on the downlink ports can only be forwarded to,
and from, the designated uplink port(s). Data cannot pass between downlink
ports in the same segmented group, nor to ports which do not belong to the
same group.
– 319 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
◆
Traffic segmentation and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously within the
same switch. Traffic may pass freely between uplink ports in segmented groups
and ports in normal VLANs.
◆
When traffic segmentation is enabled, the forwarding state for the uplink and
downlink ports assigned to different client sessions is shown below.
Table 63: Traffic Segmentation Forwarding
Destination
Source
Session #1
Downlinks
Session #1
Uplinks
Session #2
Downlinks
Session #2
Uplinks
Normal
Ports
Session #1
Downlink Ports
Blocking
Forwarding
Blocking
Blocking
Blocking
Session #1
Uplink Ports
Forwarding
Forwarding
Blocking
Blocking/
Forwarding*
Forwarding
Session #2
Downlink Ports
Blocking
Blocking
Blocking
Forwarding
Blocking
Session #2
Uplink Ports
Blocking
Blocking/
Forwarding*
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Normal Ports
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
*
The forwarding state for uplink-to-uplink ports is configured by the trafficsegmentation uplink-to-uplink command.
◆
When traffic segmentation is disabled, all ports operate in normal forwarding
mode based on the settings specified by other functions such as VLANs and
spanning tree protocol.
◆
Enter the traffic-segmentation command without any parameters to enable
traffic segmentation. Then set the interface members for segmented groups
using the traffic-segmentation uplink/downlink command.
◆
Enter no traffic-segmentation to disable traffic segmentation and clear the
configuration settings for segmented groups.
Example
This example enables traffic segmentation globally on the switch.
Console(config)#traffic-segmentation
Console(config)#
traffic-segmentation This command creates a traffic-segmentation client session. Use the no form to
session remove a client session.
Syntax
[no] traffic-segmentation session session-id
session-id – Traffic segmentation session. (Range: 1-4)
– 320 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Use this command to create a new traffic-segmentation client session.
◆
Using the no form of this command will remove any assigned uplink or
downlink ports, restoring these interfaces to normal operating mode.
Example
Console(config)#traffic-segmentation session 1
Console(config)#
traffic-segmentation This command configures the uplink and down-link ports for a segmented group of
uplink/downlink ports. Use the no form to remove a port from the segmented group.
Syntax
[no] traffic-segmentation [session session-id] {uplink interface-list
[downlink interface-list] | downlink interface-list}
session-id – Traffic segmentation session. (Range: 1-4)
uplink – Specifies an uplink interface.
downlink – Specifies a downlink interface.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-26)
Default Setting
Session 1 if not defined
No segmented port groups are defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ A port cannot be configured in both an uplink and downlink list.
◆
A port can only be assigned to one traffic-segmentation session.
– 321 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
◆
When specifying an uplink or downlink, a list of ports may be entered by using
a hyphen or comma in the port field. Note that lists are not supported for the
channel-id field.
◆
A downlink port can only communicate with an uplink port in the same session.
Therefore, if an uplink port is not configured for a session, the assigned
downlink ports will not be able to communicate with any other ports.
◆
If a downlink port is not configured for the session, the assigned uplink ports
will operate as normal ports.
Example
This example enables traffic segmentation, and then sets port 10 as the uplink and
ports 5-8 as downlinks.
Console(config)#traffic-segmentation
Console(config)#traffic-segmentation uplink ethernet 1/10
downlink ethernet 1/5-8
Console(config)#
traffic-segmentation This command specifies whether or not traffic can be forwarded between uplink
uplink-to-uplink ports assigned to different client sessions. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] traffic-segmentation uplink-to-uplink {blocking | forwarding}
blocking – Blocks traffic between uplink ports assigned to different
sessions.
forwarding – Forwards traffic between uplink ports assigned to different
sessions.
Default Setting
Blocking
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
This example enables forwarding of traffic between uplink ports assigned to
different client sessions.
Console(config)#traffic-segmentation uplink-to-uplink forwarding
Console(config)#
– 322 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
show This command displays the configured traffic segments.
traffic-segmentation
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show traffic-segmentation
Traffic segmentation Status :
Uplink-to-Uplink Mode :
Traffic segmentation Status :
Uplink-to-Uplink Mode
:
Disabled
Forwarding
Disabled
Forwarding
Session
Uplink Ports
Downlink Ports
--------- ------------------------------ ----------------------------1
Ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/2
Ethernet 1/3
Ethernet 1/4
Console#
– 323 –
Chapter 9 | General Security Measures
Port-based Traffic Segmentation
– 324 –
10
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IPv4 frames (based on
address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames
(based on address, DSCP traffic class, or next header type), or any frames (based on
MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter packets, first create an access list, add the
required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port. This section describes the
Access Control List commands.
Table 64: Access Control List Commands
Command Group
Function
IPv4 ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IPv4 addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
IPv6 ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IPv6 addresses, DSCP traffic class, or next
header type
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type
ARP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on ARP messages addresses
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port
IPv4 ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on IPv4 addresses, TCP/UDP
port number, protocol type, and TCP control code. To configure IPv4 ACLs, first
create an access list containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the
access list to one or more ports.
Table 65: IPv4 ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode for
standard or extended IPv4 ACLs
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IPv4 address
IPv4-STD-ACL
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
source and destination IPv4 address, TCP/UDP port
number, protocol type, and TCP control code
IPv4-EXT-ACL
ip access-group
Binds an IPv4 ACL to a port
IC
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IPv4 ACLs
PE
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IPv4 ACLs
PE
– 325 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
access-list ip This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IPv4 ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl-name
standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
◆
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
◆
An ACL can contain up to 1K rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (326)
show ip access-list (331)
permit, deny This command adds a rule to a Standard IPv4 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
(Standard IP ACL) packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
– 326 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
bitmask – Dotted decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard IPv4 ACL
Command Usage
New rules are appended to the end of the list.
◆
◆
Address bit masks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from 0
to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (326)
Time Range (149)
permit, deny This command adds a rule to an Extended IPv4 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
(Extended IPv4 ACL) for packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source
or destination protocol ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no form to remove a
rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[dscp dscp] [precedence precedence]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[time-range time-range-name]
– 327 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
no {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[dscp dscp] [precedence precedence]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
{permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[dscp dscp] [precedence precedence]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[dscp dscp] [precedence precedence]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
address-bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
sport – Protocol4 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol4 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
port-bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
control-flags – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended IPv4 ACL
4. Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types.
– 328 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
Command Usage
◆ All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
◆
Address bit masks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from 0
to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bit mask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
◆
The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
■
■
■
■
■
■
1 (fin) – Finish
2 (syn) – Synchronize
4 (rst) – Reset
8 (psh) – Push
16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
■
■
■
◆
SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
If an Extended IPv4 rule and MAC rule match the same packet, and these rules
specify a “permit” entry and “deny” entry, the “deny” action takes precedence.
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port
80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
– 329 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control
code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any controlflag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (326)
Time Range (149)
ip access-group This command binds an IPv4 ACL to a port. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
ip access-group acl-name in
[time-range time-range-name] [counter]
no ip access-group acl-name in
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
counter – Enables counter for ACL statistics.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
If an ACL is already bound to a port and you bind a different ACL to it, the switch
will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (331)
Time Range (149)
– 330 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv4 ACLs
show ip access-group This command shows the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP access-list david in
Console#
show ip access-list This command displays the rules for configured IPv4 ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl-name]
standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny (326)
– 331 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
IPv6 ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on IPv6 addresses, DSCP traffic
class, or next header type. To configure IPv6 ACLs, first create an access list
containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the access list to one or
more ports.
Table 66: IPv6 ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ipv6
Creates an IPv6 ACL and enters configuration mode for
standard or extended IPv6 ACLs
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IPv6 address
IPv6- STD-ACL
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
source or destination IPv6 address, DSCP traffic class, or
next header type
IPv6- EXT-ACL
ipv6 access-group
Binds an IPv6 ACL to a port
IC
show ipv6 access-group
Shows port assignments for IPv6 ACLs
PE
show ipv6 access-list
Displays the rules for configured IPv6 ACLs
PE
access-list ipv6 This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IPv6 ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ipv6 {standard | extended} acl-name
standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the destination IP
address, and other more specific criteria.
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list. To
create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
◆
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
– 332 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
◆
An ACL can contain up to 64 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ipv6 standard david
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (Standard IPv6 ACL) (333)
permit, deny (Extended IPv6 ACL) (334)
ipv6 access-group (337)
show ipv6 access-list (338)
permit, deny This command adds a rule to a Standard IPv6 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
(Standard IPv6 ACL) packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny} {any | host source-ipv6-address |
source-ipv6-address/prefix-length}
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} {any | host source-ipv6-address |
source-ipv6-address/prefix-length}
any – Any source IP address.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
source-ipv6-address - An IPv6 source address or network class. The address
must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,”
using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may
be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix; i.e., the network portion of the
address. (Range: 0-128)
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard IPv6 ACL
Command Usage
New rules are appended to the end of the list.
– 333 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 2009:DB9:2229::79
and another rule for the addresses with the network prefix 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64.
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit host 2009:DB9:2229::79
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ipv6 (332)
Time Range (149)
permit, deny This command adds a rule to an Extended IPv6 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
(Extended IPv6 ACL) for packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, or next header type.
Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
{any | host source-ipv6-address | source-ipv6-address[/prefix-length]}
{any | destination-ipv6-address[/prefix-length]}
[dscp dscp] [next-header next-header]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny}
{any | host source-ipv6-address | source-ipv6-address[/prefix-length]}
{any | destination-ipv6-address[/prefix-length]}
[dscp dscp] [next-header next-header]
[source-port sport [bitmask]]
[destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
any – Any IP address (an abbreviation for the IPv6 prefix ::/0).
host – Keyword followed by a specific source IP address.
source-ipv6-address - An IPv6 source address or network class. The address
must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,”
using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may
be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
destination-ipv6-address - An IPv6 destination address or network class. The
address must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One
double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate
number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields. (The switch only
checks the first 128 bits of the destination address.)
– 334 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix; i.e., the network portion of the
address. (Range: 0-128 for source prefix, 0-128 for destination prefix)
dscp – DSCP traffic class. (Range: 0-63)
next-header – Identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6
header. (Range: 0-255)
sport – Protocol5 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol4 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
port-bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended IPv6 ACL
Command Usage
All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
◆
◆
Optional internet-layer information is encoded in separate headers that may be
placed between the IPv6 header and the upper-layer header in a packet. There
are a small number of such extension headers, each identified by a distinct Next
Header value. IPv6 supports the values defined for the IPv4 Protocol field in RFC
1700, including these commonly used headers:
0
6
17
43
44
51
50
60
: Hop-by-Hop Options
: TCP Upper-layer Header
: UDP Upper-layer Header
: Routing
: Fragment
: Authentication
: Encapsulating Security Payload
: Destination Options
(RFC 2460)
(RFC 1700)
(RFC 1700)
(RFC 2460)
(RFC 2460)
(RFC 2402)
(RFC 2406)
(RFC 2460)
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the destination address is
2009:DB9:2229::79/8.
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit any 2009:db90:2229::79/8
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
5. Includes TCP and UDP.
– 335 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
This allows packets to any destination address when the DSCP value is 5.
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit any any dscp 5
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
This allows any packets sent from any source to any destination when the next
header is 43.”
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit any any next-header 43
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
Here is a more detailed example for setting the CPU rate limit for SNMP packets.
Set ACL
Console(config)#access-list ip extended snmp-acl
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit any any destination-port 161
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit any any destination-port 162
Console(config-ext-acl)#exit
Set class map
Console(config)#class-map snmp-class
Console(config-cmap)#match access-list snmp-acl
Console(config-cmap)#
Set policy map and rate-limit
Console(config)#policy-map cpu-rate-limit-policy
Console(config-pmap)#class snmp-class
Console(config-pmap-c)police flow 10000 20000 conform-action transmit
violate-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)exit
Console(config-pmap)#exit
Bind the service-policy to control-plane
Console(config)#control-plane
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#service-policy input cpu-rate-limit-policy
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
access-list ipv6 (332)
Time Range (149)
– 336 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
IPv6 ACLs
ipv6 access-group This command binds an IPv6 ACL to a port. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
ipv6 access-group acl-name in
[time-range time-range-name] [counter]
no ipv6 access-group acl-name in
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
counter – Enables counter for ACL statistics.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the switch
will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ipv6 access-group standard david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 access-list (338)
Time Range (149)
show ipv6 This command shows the ports assigned to IPv6 ACLs.
access-group
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ipv6 access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IPv6 standard access-list david in
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 access-group (337)
– 337 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
show ipv6 access-list This command displays the rules for configured IPv6 ACLs.
Syntax
show ipv6 access-list {standard | extended} [acl-name]
standard – Specifies a standard IPv6 ACL.
extended – Specifies an extended IPv6 ACL.
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ipv6 access-list standard
IPv6 standard access-list david:
permit host 2009:DB9:2229::79
permit 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny (Standard IPv6 ACL) (333)
permit, deny (Extended IPv6 ACL) (334)
ipv6 access-group (337)
MAC ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet
format, and Ethernet type. The ACLs can further specify optional IP and IPv6
addresses including protocol type and upper layer ports. To configure MAC ACLs,
first create an access list containing the required permit or deny rules, and then
bind the access list to one or more ports.
Table 67: MAC ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and destination MAC-ACL
address, packet format, and Ethernet type. They can be
further specified using optional IP and IPv6 addresses
including protocol type and upper layer ports.
mac access-group
Binds a MAC ACL to a port
IC
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
– 338 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
access-list mac This command enters MAC ACL configuration mode. Rules can be added to filter
packets matching a specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer
address), or Ethernet protocol type. Rules can also be used to filter packets based
on IPv4/v6 addresses, including Layer 4 ports and protocol types. Use the no form
to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list mac acl-name
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters,)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
◆
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
◆
An ACL can contain up to 2048 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (339)
mac access-group (342)
show mac access-list (343)
permit, deny (MAC ACL) This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Rules can also filter packets based on IPv4/v6 addresses,
including Layer 4 ports and protocol types. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
[time-range time-range-name]
– 339 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
no {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
Note: The default is for Ethernet II packets.
{permit | deny} tagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} tagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
{permit | deny} untagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} untagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[ethertype ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
{permit | deny} tagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} tagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[cos cos cos-bitmask] [vid vid vid-bitmask]
{permit | deny} untagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[time-range time-range-name]
no {permit | deny} untagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
– 340 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
any – Any MAC, IPv4 or IPv6 source or destination address.
host – A specific MAC, IPv4 or IPv6 address.
source – Source MAC, IPv4 or IPv6 address.
destination – Destination MAC, IPv4 or IPv6 address.
address-bitmask6 – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexadecimal format).
network-mask – Network mask for IP subnet. This mask identifies the host
address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
prefix-length - Length of IPv6 prefix. A decimal value indicating how many
contiguous bits (from the left) of the address comprise the prefix; i.e., the
network portion of the address. (Range: 0-128)
cos – Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
cos-bitmask6 – Class-of-Service bitmask. (Range: 0-7)
vid – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
vid-bitmask6 – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4095)
ethertype – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 0-ffff hex)
ethertype-bitmask6 – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 0-ffff hex)
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
◆ New rules are added to the end of the list.
◆
The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
◆
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of
the more common types include the following:
■
■
■
◆
0800 - IP
0806 - ARP
8137 - IPX
If an Extended IPv4 rule and MAC rule match the same packet, and these rules
specify a “permit” entry and “deny” entry, the “deny” action takes precedence.
6. For all bitmasks, “1” means relevant and “0” means ignore.
– 341 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (339)
Time Range (149)
mac access-group This command binds a MAC ACL to a port. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
mac access-group acl-name in
[time-range time-range-name] [counter]
no mac access-group acl-name in
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
time-range-name - Name of the time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
counter – Enables counter for ACL statistics.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
If an ACL is already bound to a port and you bind a different ACL to it, the switch
will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list (343)
Time Range (149)
– 342 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
MAC ACLs
show mac This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
access-group
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/5
MAC access-list M5 in
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (342)
show mac access-list This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl-name]
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny (339)
mac access-group (342)
– 343 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
ARP ACLs
ARP ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on the IP or MAC address
contained in ARP request and reply messages. To configure ARP ACLs, first create an
access list containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the access
list to one or more VLANs using the ip arp inspection vlan command.
Table 68: ARP ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list arp
Creates a ARP ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source or destination
address in ARP messages
ARP-ACL
show access-list arp
Displays the rules for configured ARP ACLs
PE
access-list arp This command adds an ARP access list and enters ARP ACL configuration mode. Use
the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list arp acl-name
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list. To
create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
◆
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
◆
An ACL can contain up to 128 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list arp factory
Console(config-arp-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (345)
show access-list arp (346)
– 344 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
ARP ACLs
permit, deny (ARP ACL) This command adds a rule to an ARP ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified source or destination address in ARP messages. Use the no form to
remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} ip
{any | host source-ip | source-ip ip-address-bitmask}
{any | host destination-ip | destination-ip ip-address-bitmask}
mac {any | host source-mac | source-mac mac-address-bitmask}
[any | host destination-mac | destination-mac mac-address-bitmask] [log]
This form indicates either request or response packets.
[no] {permit | deny} request
ip {any | host source-ip | source-ip ip-address-bitmask}
{any | host destination-ip | destination-ip ip-address-bitmask}
mac {any | host source-mac | source-mac mac-address-bitmask}
[any | host destination-mac | destination-mac mac-address-bitmask] [log]
[no] {permit | deny} response
ip {any | host source-ip | source-ip ip-address-bitmask}
{any | host destination-ip | destination-ip ip-address-bitmask}
mac {any | host source-mac | source-mac mac-address-bitmask}
[any | host destination-mac | destination-mac mac-address-bitmask] [log]
source-ip – Source IP address.
destination-ip – Destination IP address with bitmask.
ip-address-bitmask7 – IPv4 number representing the address bits to match.
source-mac – Source MAC address.
destination-mac – Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
mac-address-bitmask7 – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexadecimal format).
log - Logs a packet when it matches the access control entry.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
ARP ACL
Command Usage
New rules are added to the end of the list.
7. For all bitmasks, binary “1” means relevant and “0” means ignore.
– 345 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
ACL Information
Example
This rule permits packets from any source IP and MAC address to the destination
subnet address 192.168.0.0.
Console(config-arp-acl)#$permit response ip any 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 mac
any any
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list arp (344)
show access-list arp This command displays the rules for configured ARP ACLs.
Syntax
show access-list arp [acl-name]
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list arp
ARP access-list factory:
permit response ip any 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 mac any any
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny (345)
ACL Information
This section describes commands used to display ACL information.
Table 69: ACL Information Commands
Command
Function
Mode
clear access-list
hardware counters
Clears hit counter for rules in all ACLs, or in a specified ACL
PE
show access-group
Shows the ACLs assigned to each port
PE
show access-list
Show all ACLs and associated rules
PE
– 346 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
ACL Information
clear access-list This command clears the hit counter for the rules in all ACLs, or for the rules in a
hardware counters specified ACL.
Syntax
clear access-list hardware counters
[direction in [interface interface]] |
[interface interface] | [name acl-name]
in – Clears counter for ingress rules.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear access-list hardware counters
Console#
show access-group This command shows the port assignments of ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP access-list david
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
– 347 –
Chapter 10 | Access Control Lists
ACL Information
show access-list This command shows all ACLs and associated rules.
Syntax
show access-list
[[arp [acl-name]] |
[ip [extended [acl-name] | standard [acl-name]] |
[ipv6 [extended [acl-name] | standard [acl-name]] |
[mac [acl-name]] | [tcam-utilization] | [hardware counters]]
arp – Shows ingress or egress rules for ARP ACLs.
hardware counters – Shows statistics for all ACLs.8
ip extended – Shows ingress or egress rules for Extended IPv4 ACLs.
ip standard – Shows ingress or egress rules for Standard IPv4 ACLs.
ipv6 extended – Shows ingress or egress rules for Extended IPv6 ACLs.
ipv6 standard – Shows ingress or egress rules for Standard IPv6 ACLs.
mac – Shows ingress or egress rules for MAC ACLs.
tcam-utilization – Shows the percentage of user configured ACL rules as a
percentage of total ACL rules
acl-name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port 80 80
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
Console#
8. Due to a hardware limitation, this option only displays statistics for permit rules.
– 348 –
11
Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN; or perform cable diagnostics on the
specified interface.
Table 70: Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface
configuration mode
GC
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
history
Configures a periodic sampling of statistics, specifying the IC
sampling interval and number of samples
media-type
Forces transceiver mode to use for SFP+ ports
IC
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given
interface when autonegotiation is disabled
IC
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
show interfaces brief
Displays a summary of key information, including
PE
operational status, native VLAN ID, default priority, speed/
duplex mode, and port type
show interfaces counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
show interfaces history
Displays periodic sampling of statistics, including the
NE, PE
sampling interval, number of samples, and counter values
show interfaces status
Displays status for the specified interface
Interface Configuration
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
NE, PE
NE, PE
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
transceiver-monitor
Sends a trap when any of the transceiver’s operational
values fall outside specified thresholds
IC
transceiver-threshold-auto
Uses default threshold settings obtained from the
transceiver to determine when an alarm or trap message
should be sent
IC
transceiver-threshold
current
Sets thresholds for transceiver current which can be used
to trigger an alarm or warning message
IC
– 349 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Table 70: Interface Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
transceiver-threshold
rx-power
Sets thresholds for the transceiver power level of the
received signal which can be used to trigger an alarm or
warning message
IC
transceiver-threshold
temperature
Sets thresholds for the transceiver temperature which can IC
be used to trigger an alarm or warning message
transceiver-threshold
tx-power
Sets thresholds for the transceiver power level of the
IC
transmitted signal which can be used to trigger an alarm or
warning message
transceiver-threshold
voltage
Sets thresholds for the transceiver voltage which can be
used to trigger an alarm or warning message
IC
show interfaces transceiver Displays the temperature, voltage, bias current, transmit
power, and receive power
PE
show interfaces transceiver- Displays the alarm/warning thresholds for temperature,
threshold
voltage, bias current, transmit power, and receive power
PE
Cable Diagnostics
test cable-diagnostics
Performs cable diagnostics on the specified port
PE
show cable-diagnostics
Shows the results of a cable diagnostics test
PE
power-save
Enables power savings mode on the specified port
IC
show power-save
Shows the configuration settings for power savings
PE
Power Savings
Interface Configuration
interface This command configures an interface type and enters interface configuration
mode. Use the no form with a trunk to remove an inactive interface. Use the no
form with a Layer 3 VLAN (normal type) to change it back to a Layer 2 interface.
Syntax
[no] interface interface
interface
ethernet unit/port-list
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port-list - Physical port number or list of port numbers. Separate
nonconsecutive port numbers with a comma and no spaces; or use
a hyphen to designate a range of port numbers. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Only two trunks are supported for 10G ports.
vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
– 350 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify several different ports, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/17-20,23
Console(config-if)#
capabilities This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised capability,
or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol}
1000full - Supports 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol - Supports flow control
Default Setting
1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
1000BASE-SX/LX/LHX/ZX (SFP+): 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or
trunk.
◆
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilities command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to include 100half
and 100full.
– 351 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (355)
speed-duplex (356)
flowcontrol (352)
description This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the
description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The description is displayed by the show interfaces status command and in the
running-configuration file. An example of the value which a network manager
might store in this object is the name of the manufacturer, and the product name.
Example
The following example adds a description to port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
flowcontrol This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
[no] flowcontrol
– 352 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ 1000BASE-T does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation should always be
used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or trunk.
◆
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3-2002 (formally
IEEE 802.3x) for full-duplex operation.
◆
To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
◆
When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the optimal
settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable flow
control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (355)
capabilities (351)
history This command configures a periodic sampling of statistics, specifying the sampling
interval and number of samples. Use the no form to remove a named entry from
the sampling table.
Syntax
history name interval buckets
no history name
name - A symbolic name for this entry in the sampling table. (Range: 1-32
characters)
interval - The interval for sampling statistics. (Range: 1-1440 minutes.
– 353 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
buckets - The number of samples to take. (Range: 1-96)
Default Setting
15min - 15 minute interval, 96 buckets
1day - 1 day interval, 7 buckets
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example sets a interval of 15 minutes for sampling standard statistical values
on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#history 15min 15 10
Console(config-if)#
media-type This command forces the transceiver mode to use for SFP+ ports. Use the
no form to restore the default mode.
Syntax
media-type {sfp-forced [mode]}
no media-type
sfp-forced - Forces transceiver mode for the SFP+ port.
mode
1000sfp - Always uses 1000BASE SFP mode.
Default Setting
SFP+ ports: None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
Available sfp-forced modes include:
ECS2110-26T:
Ports 25-26 (1000BASE SFP) support 1000sfp
ECS2001-52T:
Ports 49-52 (1000BASE SFP) support 1000sfp
Example
This forces the switch to use the 1000sfp mode for SFP port 28.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/28
Console(config-if)#media-type sfp-forced 1000sfp
Console(config-if)#
– 354 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
negotiation This command enables auto-negotiation for a given interface. Use the no form to
disable auto-negotiation.
Syntax
[no] negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ 1000BASE-T does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation should always be
used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or trunk.
◆
When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
◆
If auto-negotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 10 to use auto-negotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities (351)
speed-duplex (356)
shutdown This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
[no] shutdown
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 355 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then re-enable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
speed-duplex This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when
auto-negotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
Default Setting
◆ Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
◆
When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is 100full
for 1000BASE-T ports.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or
trunk. If not used, the success of the link process cannot be guaranteed when
connecting to other types of switches.
◆
To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
◆
When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the optimal
settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the speed/
– 356 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be specified in
the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (355)
capabilities (351)
clear counters This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base value for
displayed statistics to zero for the current management session. However, if you log
out and back into the management interface, the statistics displayed will show the
absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
– 357 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
show interfaces brief This command displays a summary of key information, including operational
status, native VLAN ID, default priority, speed/duplex mode, and port type for all
ports.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ If an SFP transceiver is inserted in a port, the Type field will show the SFP type
as interpreted from Ethernet Compliance Codes (Data Byte 6 in Address A0h).
The Ethernet Compliance Code is a bitmap value, of which one bit is
supposedly turned on. However, if the read-out is not recognizable (e.g., 2 or
more bits on, or all 0s), the Type field just displays the raw data (hexadecimal
value).
◆
The Type field will always display “NA” for a trunk entry because a trunk allows
for mixed port types such as 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE SFP.
Example
Console#show interfaces brief
Interface Name
Status
PVID Pri Speed/Duplex
--------- ----------------- --------- ---- --- ------------Eth 1/ 1
Down
1
0 Auto
Eth 1/ 2
Down
1
0 Auto
Eth 1/ 3
Down
1
0 Auto
Eth 1/ 4
Down
1
0 Auto
Eth 1/ 5
Down
1
0 Auto
Eth
1/
6
Down
1
0 Auto
.
.
.
show interfaces This command displays interface statistics.
counters
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
– 358 –
Type
Trunk
------------ ----1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
1000BASE-T
None
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/ 1
===== IF table Stats =====
2166458 Octets Input
14734059 Octets Output
14707 Unicast Input
19806 Unicast Output
0 Discard Input
0 Discard Output
0 Error Input
===== Extended Iftable Stats =====
23 Multi-cast Input
5525 Multi-cast Output
170 Broadcast Input
11 Broadcast Output
===== Ether-like Stats =====
0 FCS Errors
0 Single Collision Frames
0 Multiple Collision Frames
0 Deferred Transmissions
0 Late Collisions
0 Excessive Collisions
0 Internal Mac Transmit Errors
0 Frames Too Long
0 Symbol Errors
0 Pause Frames Input
0 Pause Frames Output
===== RMON Stats =====
0 Drop Events
16900558 Octets
40243 Packets
170 Broadcast PKTS
23 Multi-cast PKTS
0 Undersize PKTS
0 Oversize PKTS
0 Fragments
0 Jabbers
0 CRC Align Errors
0 Collisions
5271 Packet Size <= 64 Octets
3589 Packet Size 65 to 127 Octets
222 Packet Size 128 to 255 Octets
313 Packet Size 256 to 511 Octets
190 Packet Size 512 to 1023 Octets
444 Packet Size 1024 to 1518 Octets
===== Port Utilization =====
111 Octets Input in kbits per second
0 Packets Input per second
0.00 % Input Utilization
606 Octets Output in kbits per second
1 Packets Output per second
0.00 % Output Utilization
Console#
– 359 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Table 71: show interfaces counters - display description
Parameter
Description
IF Table Stats
Octets Input
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Octets Output
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Unicast Input
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Unicast Output
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that
were discarded or not sent.
Discard Input
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded
even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being
deliverable to a higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for
discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer space.
Discard Output
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded
even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being
transmitted. One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be
to free up buffer space.
Error Input
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Extended IF Table Stats
Multicast Input
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub)layer, which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Multicast Output
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Broadcast Input
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub)layer, which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Broadcast Output
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Etherlike Statistics
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count
does not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-tooshort error.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission
is inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a
particular interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails
due to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
– 360 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Table 71: show interfaces counters - display description (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Internal MAC Transmit
Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails
due to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Symbol Errors
For an interface operating at 100 Mb/s, the number of times there was
an invalid data symbol when a valid carrier was present.
For an interface operating in half-duplex mode at 1000 Mb/s, the
number of times the receiving media is non-idle (a carrier event) for a
period of time equal to or greater than slotTime, and during which
there was at least one occurrence of an event that causes the PHY to
indicate
'Data reception error' or 'carrier extend error' on the GMII.
For an interface operating in full-duplex mode at 1000 Mb/s, the
number of times the receiving media is non-idle (a carrier event) for a
period of time equal to or greater than minFrameSize, and during
which there was at least one occurrence of an event that causes the
PHY to indicate 'Data reception error' on the GMII
RMON Statistics
Octets
Total number of octets of data received on the network. This statistic
can be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Packets
The total number of packets (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed to this
multicast address.
Undersize Packets
The total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise
well formed.
Oversize Packets
The total number of packets received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise
well formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in
length (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either
an FCS or alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an
FCS or alignment error.
CRC Align Errors
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
64 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were less than 64 octets in length (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
65-127 Octets
128-255 Octets
256-511 Octets
512-1023 Octets
1024-1518 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
– 361 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Table 71: show interfaces counters - display description (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Utilization Statistics
Octets input per second
Number of octets entering this interface in kbits per second.
Packets input per second
Number of packets entering this interface in packets per second.
Input utilization
The input utilization rate for this interface.
Octets output per second
Number of octets leaving this interface in kbits per second.
Packets output per second
Number of packets leaving this interface in packets per second.
Output utilization
The output utilization rate for this interface.
show interfaces This command displays periodic sampling of statistics, including the sampling
history interval, number of samples, and counter values.
Syntax
show interfaces history [interface [name [current | previous index count]
[input | output]]]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
name - Name of sample as defined in the history command.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
current - Statistics recorded in current interval.
previous - Statistics recorded in previous intervals.
index - An index into the buckets containing previous samples.
(Range: 1-96)
count - The number of historical samples to display. (Range: 1-96)
input - Ingress traffic.
output - Egress traffic.
Default Setting
Shows the historical settings and status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
– 362 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
Console#show interfaces history ethernet 1/1 15min
Interface
: Eth 1/ 1
Name
: 15min
Interval
: 900 second(s)
Buckets Requested : 96
Buckets Granted
: 1
Status
: Active
Current Entries
Start Time
%
Octets Input
Unicast
Multicast
Broadcast
------------ ------ --------------- ------------- ------------- -----------00d 00:15:04
0.00
72675
524
35
41
Discards
Errors
------------- ------------41
0
%
Octets Output
Unicast
Multicast
Broadcast
------ --------------- ------------- ------------- ------------0.00
513760
653
336
0
Discards
------------0
Previous Entries
Start Time
%
Octets Input
Unicast
Multicast
Broadcast
------------ ------ --------------- ------------- ------------- -----------00d 00:00:03
0.66
80758067
106273
619717
69176
Start Time
Discards
Errors
------------ ------------- ------------00d 00:00:03
69176
2
Start Time
%
Octets Output
Unicast
Multicast
Broadcast
------------ ------ --------------- ------------- ------------- -----------00d 00:00:03
0.00
677855
705
445
14
Start Time
Discards
------------ ------------00d 00:00:03
0
Console#
– 363 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
show interfaces status This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Basic Information:
Port Type
: 1000BASE-T
MAC Address
: 00-E0-0C-00-00-FE
Configuration:
Name
:
Port Admin
: Up
Speed-duplex
: Auto
Capabilities
: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Broadcast Storm
: Enabled
Broadcast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Multicast Storm
: Disabled
Multicast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Unknown Unicast Storm
: Disabled
Unknown Unicast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Flow Control
: Disabled
LACP
: Disabled
MAC Learning
: Enabled
Link-up-down Trap
: Enabled
Current Status:
Link Status
: Up
Port Operation Status : Up
Operation Speed-duplex : 100full
Up Time
: 0w 0d 1h 11m 2s (4262 seconds)
Flow Control Type
: None
Max Frame Size
: 1518 bytes (1522 bytes for tagged frames)
MAC Learning Status
: Enabled
Console#
– 364 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Interface Configuration
show interfaces This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified
switchport interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 1.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Broadcast Threshold
: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Multicast Threshold
: Disabled
Unknown Unicast Threshold
: Disabled
LACP Status
: Disabled
Ingress Rate Limit
: Disabled, 1000M bits per second
Egress Rate Limit
: Disabled, 1000M bits per second
VLAN Membership Mode
: Hybrid
Ingress Rule
: Disabled
Acceptable Frame Type
: All frames
Native VLAN
: 1
Priority for Untagged Traffic : 0
Allowed VLAN
:
1(u)
802.1Q Tunnel Status
: Disabled
802.1Q Tunnel Mode
: Normal
802.1Q Tunnel TPID
: 8100 (Hex)
Console#
Table 72: show interfaces switchport - display description
Field
Description
Broadcast
Threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 405).
Multicast Threshold Shows if multicast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 405).
– 365 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
Table 72: show interfaces switchport - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Unknown Unicast
Threshold
Shows if unknown unicast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled
it also shows the threshold level (page 405).
LACP Status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 383).
Ingress/Egress Rate Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit (page 1023).
Limit
VLAN Membership
Mode
Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 455).
Ingress Rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 455).
Acceptable Frame
Type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 453).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 456).
Priority for
Untagged Traffic
Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 514).
Allowed VLAN
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 453).
802.1Q-tunnel
Status
Shows if 802.1Q tunnel is enabled on this interface (page 459).
802.1Q-tunnel
Mode
Shows the tunnel mode as Normal, 802.1Q Tunnel or 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink
(page 460).
802.1Q-tunnel TPID Shows the Tag Protocol Identifier used for learning and switching packets
(page 463).
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
transceiver-monitor This command sends a trap when any of the transceiver’s operational values fall
outside of specified thresholds. Use the no form to disable trap messages.
Syntax
transceiver-monitor
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Example
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-monitor
Console#
– 366 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
transceiver-threshold- This command uses default threshold settings obtained from the transceiver to
auto determine when an alarm or warning message should be sent. Use the no form to
disable this feature.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold-auto
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Example
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold-auto
Console#
transceiver-threshold This command sets thresholds for transceiver current which can be used to trigger
current an alarm or warning message.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold current {high-alarm | high-warning | low-alarm |
low-warning} threshold-value
high-alarm – Sets the high current threshold for an alarm message.
high-warning – Sets the high current threshold for a warning message.
low-alarm – Sets the low current threshold for an alarm message.
low-warning – Sets the low current threshold for a warning message.
threshold-value – The threshold of the transceiver current.
(Range: 0-13100 in units of 0.01 mA)
Default Setting
High Alarm:
100 mA
HIgh Warning: 90 mA
Low Warning: 7 mA
Low Alarm:
6 mA
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Command Usage
◆ If trap messages are enabled with the transceiver-monitor command, and a
high-threshold alarm or warning message is sent if the current value is greater
than or equal to the threshold, and the last sample value was less than the
– 367 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
threshold. After a rising event has been generated, another such event will not
be generated until the sampled value has fallen below the high threshold and
reaches the low threshold.
◆
If trap messages are enabled with the transceiver-monitor command, and a
low-threshold alarm or warning message is sent if the current value is less than
or equal to the threshold, and the last sample value was greater than the
threshold. After a falling event has been generated, another such event will not
be generated until the sampled value has risen above the low threshold and
reaches the high threshold.
◆
Threshold events are triggered as described above to avoid a hysteresis effect
which would continuously trigger event messages if the power level were to
fluctuate just above and below either the high threshold or the low threshold.
◆
Trap messages enabled by the transceiver-monitor command are sent to any
management station configured by the snmp-server host command.
Example
The following example sets alarm thresholds for the transceiver current at port 1.
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold current low-alarm 100
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold rx-power high-alarm 700
Console#
transceiver-threshold This command sets thresholds for the transceiver power level of the received signal
rx-power which can be used to trigger an alarm or warning message.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold rx-power {high-alarm | high-warning | low-alarm |
low-warning} threshold-value
high-alarm – Sets the high power threshold for an alarm message.
high-warning – Sets the high power threshold for a warning message.
low-alarm – Sets the low power threshold for an alarm message.
low-warning – Sets the low power threshold for a warning message.
threshold-value – The power threshold of the received signal.
(Range: -4000 - 820 in units of 0.01 dBm)
Default Setting
High Alarm:
-3.00 dBm
HIgh Warning: -3.50 dBm
Low Warning: -21.00 dBm
Low Alarm:
-21.50 dBm
– 368 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Command Usage
◆ The threshold value is the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power
referenced to one milliwatt (mW).
◆
Refer to the Command Usage section under the transceiver-threshold current
command for more information on configuring transceiver thresholds.
◆
Trap messages enabled by the transceiver-monitor command are sent to any
management station configured by the snmp-server host command.
Example
The following example sets alarm thresholds for the signal power received at port
1.
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold rx-power low-alarm -21
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold rx-power high-alarm -3
Console#
transceiver-threshold This command sets thresholds for the transceiver temperature which can be used
temperature to trigger an alarm or warning message.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold temperature {high-alarm | high-warning | low-alarm
| low-warning} threshold-value
high-alarm – Sets the high temperature threshold for an alarm message.
high-warning – Sets the high temperature threshold for a warning
message.
low-alarm – Sets the low temperature threshold for an alarm message.
low-warning – Sets the low temperature threshold for a warning message.
threshold-value – The threshold of the transceiver temperature.
(Range: -12800 - 12800 in units of 0.01 Celsius)
Default Setting
High Alarm:
75.00 °C
HIgh Warning: 70.00 °C
Low Alarm:
-123.00 °C
Low Warning: 0.00 °C
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
– 369 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Refer to the Command Usage section under the transceiver-threshold current
command for more information on configuring transceiver thresholds.
◆
Trap messages enabled by the transceiver-monitor command are sent to any
management station configured by the snmp-server host command.
Example
The following example sets alarm thresholds for the transceiver temperature at
port 1.
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold temperature low-alarm 97
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold temperature high-alarm -83
Console#
transceiver-threshold This command sets thresholds for the transceiver power level of the transmitted
tx-power signal which can be used to trigger an alarm or warning message.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold tx-power {high-alarm | high-warning | low-alarm |
low-warning} threshold-value
high-alarm – Sets the high power threshold for an alarm message.
high-warning – Sets the high power threshold for a warning message.
low-alarm – Sets the low power threshold for an alarm message.
low-warning – Sets the low power threshold for a warning message.
threshold-value – The power threshold of the transmitted signal.
(Range: -4000 - 820 in units of 0.01 dBm)
Default Setting
High Alarm:
-9.00 dBm
HIgh Warning: -9.50 dBm
Low Warning: -11.50 dBm
Low Alarm:
-12.00 dBm
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Command Usage
◆ The threshold value is the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power
referenced to one milliwatt (mW).
◆
Refer to the Command Usage section under the transceiver-threshold current
command for more information on configuring transceiver thresholds.
– 370 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
◆
Trap messages enabled by the transceiver-monitor command are sent to any
management station configured by the snmp-server host command.
Example
The following example sets alarm thresholds for the signal power transmitted at
port 1.
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold tx-power low-alarm 8
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold tx-power high-alarm -3
Console#
transceiver-threshold This command sets thresholds for the transceiver voltage which can be used to
voltage trigger an alarm or warning message.
Syntax
transceiver-threshold voltage {high-alarm | high-warning | low-alarm |
low-warning} threshold-value
high-alarm – Sets the high voltage threshold for an alarm message.
high-warning – Sets the high voltage threshold for a warning message.
low-alarm – Sets the low voltage threshold for an alarm message.
low-warning – Sets the low voltage threshold for a warning message.
threshold-value – The threshold of the transceiver voltage.
(Range: 0-655 in units of 0.01 Volt)
Default Setting
High Alarm:
3.50 Volts
HIgh Warning: 3.45 Volts
Low Warning: 3.15 Volts
Low Alarm:
3.10 Volts
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (SFP+ Ports)
Command Usage
◆ Refer to the Command Usage section under the transceiver-threshold current
command for more information on configuring transceiver thresholds.
◆
Trap messages enabled by the transceiver-monitor command are sent to any
management station configured by the snmp-server host command.
– 371 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
Example
The following example sets alarm thresholds for the transceiver voltage at port 1.
Console(config)interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold voltage low-alarm 4
Console(config-if)#transceiver-threshold voltage high-alarm 2
Console#
show interfaces This command displays identifying information for the specified transceiver,
transceiver including connector type and vendor-related parameters, as well as the
temperature, voltage, bias current, transmit power, and receive power.
Syntax
show interfaces transceiver [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 25-26/49-52)
Default Setting
Shows all SFP interfaces.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The switch can display diagnostic information for SFP modules which support the
SFF-8472 Specification for Diagnostic Monitoring Interface for Optical Transceivers.
This information allows administrators to remotely diagnose problems with optical
devices. This feature, referred to as Digital Diagnostic Monitoring (DDM) in the
command display, provides information on transceiver parameters including
temperature, supply voltage, laser bias current, laser power, and received optical
power, and related alarm thresholds.
Example
Console#show interfaces transceiver ethernet 1/28
Information of Eth 1/49
Connector Type
: LC
Fiber Type
: [0x00]
Eth Compliance Codes : 1000BASE-ZX
Baud Rate
: 1300 MBd
Vendor OUI
: 00-00-5F
Vendor Name
: SumitomoElectric
Vendor PN
: SCP6G94-FN-BWH
Vendor Rev
: Z
Vendor SN
: SE08T712Z00006
Date Code
: 10-09-14
– 372 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Transceiver Threshold Configuration
DDM Info
Temperature
Vcc
Bias Current
TX Power
RX Power
DDM Thresholds
:
:
:
:
:
----------Temperature(Celsius)
Voltage(Volts)
Current(mA)
TxPower(dBm)
RxPower(dBm)
Console#
35.64 degree C
3.25 V
12.13 mA
2.36 dBm
-24.20 dBm
Low Alarm
------------45.00
2.90
1.00
-11.50
-23.98
Low Warning
------------40.00
3.00
3.00
-10.50
-23.01
High Warning
-----------85.00
3.60
50.00
-2.00
-1.00
High Alarm
-----------90.00
3.70
60.00
-1.00
0.00
show interfaces This command Displays the alarm/warning thresholds for temperature,
transceiver-threshold voltage, bias current, transmit power, and receive power. Syntax
Syntax
show interfaces transceiver-threshold [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 25-26/49-52)
Default Setting
Shows all SFP interfaces.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ The switch can display diagnostic information for SFP modules which support
the SFF-8472 Specification for Diagnostic Monitoring Interface for Optical
Transceivers. This information allows administrators to remotely diagnose
problems with optical devices. This feature, referred to as Digital Diagnostic
Monitoring (DDM) in the command display, provides information on
transceiver parameters including temperature, supply voltage, laser bias
current, laser power, received optical power, and related alarm thresholds.
◆
The DDM thresholds displayed by this command only apply to ports which
have a DDM-compliant transceiver inserted.
Example
Console#show interfaces transceiver-threshold ethernet 1/25
Information of Eth 1/25
DDM Thresholds
Transceiver-monitor
: Disabled
Transceiver-threshold-auto : Enabled
– 373 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Cable Diagnostics
----------Temperature(Celsius)
Voltage(Volts)
Current(mA)
TxPower(dBm)
RxPower(dBm)
Console#
Low Alarm
------------123.00
3.10
6.00
-12.00
-21.50
Low Warning
-----------0.00
3.15
7.00
-11.50
-21.00
High Warning
-----------70.00
3.45
90.00
-9.50
-3.50
High Alarm
-----------75.00
3.50
100.00
-9.00
-3.00
Cable Diagnostics
test cable-diagnostics This command performs cable diagnostics on the specified port to diagnose any
cable faults (short, open, etc.) and report the cable length.
Syntax
test cable-diagnostics dsp interface interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-22/48)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Cable diagnostics are performed using Digital Signal Processing (DSP) test
method when the port link-up speed is 1 Gbps. DSP analyses the cable by
sending a pulsed signal into the cable, and then examining the reflection of
that pulse. If the port link-up speed is not 1 Gbps, then Time Domain
Reflectometry (TDR) test method is used. TDR also detects a cable fault by
sending a signal through the cable and reading the signal that is reflected back.
However, note that TDR can only determine if a link is valid or faulty.
◆
This cable test is only accurate for Ethernet cables 7 - 100 meters long.
◆
The test takes approximately 5 seconds. Use the show cable-diagnostics
command to display the results of the test, including common cable failures, as
well as the status and approximate length of each cable pair.
◆
Ports are linked down while running cable diagnostics.
◆
To ensure more accurate measurement of the length to a fault, first disable
power-saving mode (using the no power-save command) on the link partner
before running cable diagnostics.
– 374 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Cable Diagnostics
Example
Console#test cable-diagnostics interface ethernet 1/24
Console#
show This command shows the results of a cable diagnostics test.
cable-diagnostics
Syntax
show cable-diagnostics dsp interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-22/48)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ The results include common cable failures, as well as the status and
approximate distance to a fault, or the approximate cable length if no fault is
found.
◆
For link-down ports, the reported distance to a fault is accurate to within +/- 2
meters. For link-up ports, the accuracy is +/- 10 meters.
◆
Potential conditions which may be listed by the diagnostics are shown by the
legend in the following example. Additional information is provided for the
following test results.
■
■
■
■
■
OK: Correctly terminated pair
ON: Open pair, no link partner
IE (Impedance mismatch): Terminating impedance is not in the reference
range.
NS (Not Supported): This message is displayed for any Gigabit Ethernet
ports linked up at a speed lower than 1000 Mbps.
UN: Unknown Error
Example
Console#show cable-diagnostics interface ethernet 1/24
Cable Diagnostics on interface Ethernet 1/1:
Cable Open with accuracy 0 meters.
Pair A Open, length 2 meters
Pair B Open, length 2 meters
Pair C Short, length 0 meters
Pair D Short, length 0 meters
Last Update 0n 2011-02-16 02:32:56
Console#
– 375 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Power Savings
Power Savings
power-save This command enables power savings mode on the specified port. Use the no form
to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] power-save
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet ports 1-22/48)
Command Usage
◆ IEEE 802.3 defines the Ethernet standard and subsequent power requirements
based on cable connections operating at 100 meters. Enabling power saving
mode can reduce power used for cable lengths of 60 meters or less, with more
significant reduction for cables of 20 meters or less, and continue to ensure
signal integrity.
◆
Power saving mode only applies to the Gigabit Ethernet ports using copper
media.
◆
Power savings can be enabled on Gigabit Ethernet RJ-45 ports.
◆
The power-saving methods provided by this switch include:
■
Power saving when there is no link partner:
Under normal operation, the switch continuously auto-negotiates to find a
link partner, keeping the MAC interface powered up even if no link
connection exists. When using power-savings mode, the switch checks for
energy on the circuit to determine if there is a link partner. If none is
detected, the switch automatically turns off the transmitter, and most of
the receive circuitry (entering Sleep Mode). In this mode, the low-power
energy-detection circuit continuously checks for energy on the cable. If
none is detected, the MAC interface is also powered down to save
additional energy. If energy is detected, the switch immediately turns on
both the transmitter and receiver functions, and powers up the MAC
interface.
■
Power saving when there is a link partner:
Traditional Ethernet connections typically operate with enough power to
support at least 100 meters of cable even though average network cable
length is shorter. When cable length is shorter, power consumption can be
reduced since signal attenuation is proportional to cable length. When
power-savings mode is enabled, the switch analyzes cable length to
– 376 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Power Savings
determine whether or not it can reduce the signal amplitude used on a
particular link.
Note: Power savings can only be implemented on Gigabit Ethernet ports using
twisted-pair cabling. Power-savings mode on a active link only works when
connection speed is 1 Gbps, and line length is less than 60 meters.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#power-save
Console(config-if)#
show power-save This command shows the configuration settings for power savings.
Syntax
show power-save [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-22/48)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show power-save interface ethernet 1/24
Power Saving Status:
Ethernet 1/24 : Enabled
Console#
– 377 –
Chapter 11 | Interface Commands
Power Savings
– 378 –
12
Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches
have to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the
switches have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to 16 trunks. For
example, a trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an aggregate
bandwidth of 4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Table 73: Link Aggregation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface
configuration mode for the trunk
GC
port channel
load-balance
Sets the load-distribution method among ports in
aggregated links
GC
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Ethernet)
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
IC (Ethernet)
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port Channel)
lacp timeout
Configures the timeout to wait for next LACPDU
IC (Port Channel)
Trunk Status Display Commands
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
show port-channel load- Shows the load-distribution method used on
balance
aggregated links
– 379 –
PE
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Manual Configuration Commands
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
General Guidelines –
◆
Finish configuring trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
◆
A trunk can have up to 8 ports.
◆
The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
◆
All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed and duplex mode), VLAN assignments, and
CoS settings.
◆
Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including
ports of different media types.
◆
All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
◆
STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
◆
Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
◆
Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
◆
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a
channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used by
the interfaces that joined the group.
◆
However, if the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must be
set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
◆
If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
Manual Configuration Commands
port channel This command sets the load-distribution method among ports in aggregated links
load-balance (for both static and dynamic trunks). Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
port channel load-balance {dst-ip | dst-mac | src-dst-ip | src-dst-mac | src-ip
| src-mac}
no port channel load-balance
dst-ip - Load balancing based on destination IP address.
dst-mac - Load balancing based on destination MAC address.
– 380 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Manual Configuration Commands
src-dst-ip - Load balancing based on source and destination IP address.
src-dst-mac - Load balancing based on source and destination MAC
address.
src-ip - Load balancing based on source IP address.
src-mac - Load balancing based on source MAC address.
Default Setting
src-dst-ip
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command applies to all static and dynamic trunks on the switch.
◆
◆
To ensure that the switch traffic load is distributed evenly across all links in a
trunk, select the source and destination addresses used in the load-balance
calculation to provide the best result for trunk connections:
■
dst-ip: All traffic with the same destination IP address is output on the
same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-to-router trunk links
where traffic through the switch is destined for many different hosts. Do
not use this mode for switch-to-server trunk links where the destination IP
address is the same for all traffic.
■
dst-mac: All traffic with the same destination MAC address is output on the
same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-to-switch trunk links
where traffic through the switch is destined for many different hosts. Do
not use this mode for switch-to-router trunk links where the destination
MAC address is the same for all traffic.
■
src-dst-ip: All traffic with the same source and destination IP address is
output on the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-torouter trunk links where traffic through the switch is received from and
destined for many different hosts.
■
src-dst-mac: All traffic with the same source and destination MAC address
is output on the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-toswitch trunk links where traffic through the switch is received from and
destined for many different hosts.
■
src-ip: All traffic with the same source IP address is output on the same link
in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-to-router or switch-to-server
trunk links where traffic through the switch is received from many different
hosts.
– 381 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Manual Configuration Commands
■
src-mac: All traffic with the same source MAC address is output on the
same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-to-switch trunk links
where traffic through the switch is received from many different hosts.
Example
Console(config)#port channel load-balance dst-ip
Console(config)#
channel-group This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a
trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
◆
Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
◆
Use no interface port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 10:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
– 382 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the
current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] lacp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
◆
A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
◆
If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
◆
If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP enabled,
the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be enabled if
one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 1-3. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status portchannel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic Information:
Port Type
: 1000BASE-T
MAC Address
: 12-34-12-34-12-3F
Configuration:
Name
:
Port Admin
: Up
Speed-duplex
: Auto
Capabilities
: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Broadcast Storm
: Enabled
Broadcast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
– 383 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
Multicast Storm
: Disabled
Multicast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Unknown Unicast Storm
: Disabled
Unknown Unicast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Storm Threshold Resolution : 1 packets/second
Flow Control
: Disabled
MAC Learning
: Enabled
Link-up-down Trap
: Enabled
Current status:
Created By
: LACP
Link Status
: Up
Port Operation Status : Up
Operation Speed-duplex : 1000full
Up Time
: 0w 0d 0h 0m 53s (53 seconds)
Flow Control Type
: None
Max Frame Size
: 1518 bytes (1522 bytes for tagged frames)
MAC Learning Status
: Enabled
Member Ports
: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3,
Active Member Ports
: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3,
Console#
lacp admin-key This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to
(Ethernet Interface) restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
no lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
actor - The local side an aggregate link.
partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
key - The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that
belong to the same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
Actor: 1, Partner: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port channel
key matches (if configured).
◆
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a
channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
– 384 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
◆
Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational settings
are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the partner only
applies to its administrative state, not its operational state.
Note: Configuring the partner admin-key does not affect remote or local switch
operation. The local switch just records the partner admin-key for user reference.
◆
By default, the actor’s operational key is determined by port's link speed
(1000f - 4, 100f - 3, 10f - 2), and copied to the admin key.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
lacp port-priority This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
actor - The local side an aggregate link.
partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
priority - LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
◆
If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will be
selected as the backup port.
◆
If an LAG already exists with the maximum number of allowed port members,
and LACP is subsequently enabled on another port using a higher priority than
an existing member, the newly configured port will replace an existing port
member that has a lower priority.
– 385 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
◆
Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational settings
are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the partner only
applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
lacp system-priority This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
actor - The local side an aggregate link.
partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
priority - This priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG)
membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
◆ Port must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
◆
System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
◆
Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational settings
are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the partner only
applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
– 386 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp admin-key This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the
(Port Channel) no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp admin-key key
no lacp admin-key
key - The port channel admin key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on this switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port channel
key matches (if configured).
◆
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a
channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used by
the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer used,
the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
◆
If the port channel admin key is set to a non-default value, the operational key
is based upon LACP PDUs received from the partner, and the channel admin
key is reset to the default value. The trunk identifier will also be changed by this
process.
Example
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
– 387 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp timeout This command configures the timeout to wait for the next LACP data unit
(LACPDU). Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp timeout {long | short}
no lacp timeout
long - Specifies a slow timeout of 90 seconds.
short - Specifies a fast timeout of 3 seconds.
Default Setting
long
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The timeout configured by this command is set in the LACP timeout bit of the
Actor State field in transmitted LACPDUs. When the partner switch receives an
LACPDU set with a short timeout from the actor switch, the partner adjusts the
transmit LACPDU interval to 1 second. When it receives an LACPDU set with a
long timeout from the actor, it adjusts the transmit LACPDU interval to 30
seconds.
◆
If the actor does not receive an LACPDU from its partner before the configured
timeout expires, the partner port information will be deleted from the LACP
group.
◆
When a dynamic port-channel member leaves a port-channel, the default
timeout value will be restored on that port.
◆
When a dynamic port-channel is torn down, the configured timeout value will
be retained. When the dynamic port-channel is constructed again, that timeout
value will be used.
Example
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp timeout short
Console(config-if)#
– 388 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Trunk Status Display Commands
Trunk Status Display Commands
show lacp This command displays LACP information.
Syntax
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sysid}
port-channel - Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-8)
counters - Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal - Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors - Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sysid - Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
Default Setting
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Port Channel: 1
Member Port
:
LACPDU Sent
:
LACPDU Received
:
MarkerPDU Sent
:
MarkerPDU Received
:
MarkerResponsePDU Sent
:
MarkerResponsePDU Received :
Unknown Packet Received
:
Illegal Packet Received
:
.
.
.
Eth 1/24
7
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 74: show lacp counters - display description
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
MarkerResponsePDU
Sent
Number of valid MarkerResponse PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
MarkerResponsePDU
Received
Number of valid MarkerResponse PDUs received by this channel group.
– 389 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Trunk Status Display Commands
Table 74: show lacp counters - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Unknown Packet
Received
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
Unknown Packet
Received
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but
contain a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Port Channel : 1
Admin Key
: 0
Oper Key
: 4
Timeout
: Long
-----------------------------------------------------------Member Port
: Eth 1/24
Periodic Time
: 30 seconds
System Priority : 32768
Port Priority
: 32768
Admin Key
: 4
Oper Key
: 4
Admin State
: Defaulted, Aggregatable, Long Timeout, Actvie LACP
Oper State
: Distributing, Collecting, Synchronization, Aggregatable,
Long Timeout, Actvie LACP
.
.
.
Table 75: show lacp internal - display description
Field
Description
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Timeout
Time to wait for the next LACPDU before deleting partner port information.
Periodic Time
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
◆ Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
◆ Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational
partner information, administratively configured for the partner.
◆ Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is
disabled; i.e., distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be
enabled in the absence of administrative changes or changes in received
protocol information.
◆ Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e.,
collection is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the
absence of administrative changes or changes in received protocol
information.
◆ Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has
been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link
Aggregation Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key
information transmitted.
– 390 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Trunk Status Display Commands
Table 75: show lacp internal - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Admin State,
Oper State
(continued)
◆
◆
◆
Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a
potential candidate for aggregation.
Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission
rate.
LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Port Channel : 1
-----------------------------------------------------------Member Port
: Eth 1/24
Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, FC-0A-81-B7-C7-E0
Partner Admin Port ID
: 32768, 24
Partner Oper Port ID
: 32768, 24
Partner Admin Key
: 0
Partner Oper Key
: 4
Partner Admin State
: Defaulted, Distributing, Collecting,
Synchronization, Long Timeout, Passive LACP
Partner Oper State
: Distributing, Collecting, Synchronization,
Aggregatable, Long Timeout, Actvie LACP
.
.
.
Table 76: show lacp neighbors - display description
Field
Description
Partner Admin
System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper
System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port ID
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Console#show lacp sysid
Port Channel
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
– 391 –
Chapter 12 | Link Aggregation Commands
Trunk Status Display Commands
.
.
.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
32768
32768
32768
32768
32768
32768
32768
32768
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
Table 77: show lacp sysid - display description
Field
Description
Channel group
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
System Priority*
LACP system priority for this channel group.
System MAC
Address*
System MAC address.
* The LACP system priority and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
show port-channel This command shows the load-distribution method used on aggregated links.
load-balance
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show port-channel load-balance
Trunk Load Balance Mode: Destination IP address
Console#
– 392 –
13
Port Mirroring Commands
Data can be mirrored from a local port on the same switch or from a remote port on
another switch for analysis at the target port using software monitoring tools or a
hardware probe. This switch supports the following mirroring modes.
Table 78: Port Mirroring Commands
Command
Function
Local Port Mirroring
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data passing
through or the performance of the monitored port
RSPAN Mirroring
Mirrors data from remote switches over a dedicated VLAN
Local Port Mirroring Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Table 79: Mirror Port Commands
Command
Function
Mode
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
port monitor This command configures a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx | both]
no port monitor interface
interface
ethernet unit/port (source port)
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
rx - Mirror received packets.
tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
– 393 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
Local Port Mirroring Commands
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
◆ No mirror session is defined.
◆
When enabled for an interface, default mirroring is for both received and
transmitted packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
Command Usage
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the destination
port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive
manner.
◆
◆
Set the destination port by specifying an Ethernet interface with the interface
configuration command, and then use the port monitor command to specify
the source of the traffic to mirror. Note that the destination port cannot be a
trunk or trunk member port.
◆
When mirroring traffic from a port, the mirror port and monitor port speeds
should match, otherwise traffic may be dropped from the monitor port.
◆
Spanning Tree BPDU packets are not mirrored to the target port.
◆
You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port.
◆
The destination port cannot be a trunk or trunk member port.
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror all packets from port 6 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 both
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor This command displays mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
– 394 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port, and
mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX, RX/TX).
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination Port (listen port) : Eth 1/12
Source Port (monitored Port)
: Eth 1/ 1
Mode
: RX/TX
Console#
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
Remote Switched Port Analyzer (RSPAN) allows you to mirror traffic from remote
switches for analysis on a local destination port.
Table 80: RSPAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
vlan rspan
Creates a VLAN dedicated to carrying RSPAN traffic
VC
rspan source
Specifies the source port and traffic type to be
mirrored
GC
rspan destination
Specifies the destination port to monitor the
mirrored traffic
GC
rspan remote vlan
Specifies the RSPAN VLAN, switch role (source,
intermediate or destination), and the uplink ports
GC
no rspan session
Deletes a configured RSPAN session
GC
show rspan
Displays the configuration settings for an RSPAN
session
PE
– 395 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
Configuration Guidelines
Take the following steps to configure an RSPAN session:
1. Use the vlan rspan command to configure a VLAN to use for RSPAN. (Default
VLAN 1 is prohibited.)
2. Use the rspan source command to specify the interfaces and the traffic type
(RX, TX or both) to be monitored.
3. Use the rspan destination command to specify the destination port for the
traffic mirrored by an RSPAN session.
4. Use the rspan remote vlan command to specify the VLAN to be used for an
RSPAN session, to specify the switch’s role as a source, intermediate relay, or
destination of the mirrored traffic, and to configure the uplink ports designated
to carry this traffic.
RSPAN Limitations
The following limitations apply to the use of RSPAN on this switch:
◆
RSPAN Ports – Only ports can be configured as an RSPAN source, destination, or
uplink; static and dynamic trunks are not allowed. A port can only be
configured as one type of RSPAN interface – source, destination, or uplink. Also,
note that the source port and destination port cannot be configured on the
same switch.
Only 802.1Q trunk or hybrid (i.e., general use) ports can be configured as an
RSPAN uplink or destination port – access ports are not allowed (see switchport
mode).
◆
Local/Remote Mirror – The destination of a local mirror session (created with the
port monitor command) cannot be used as the destination for RSPAN traffic.
◆
Spanning Tree – If the spanning tree is disabled, BPDUs will not be flooded onto
the RSPAN VLAN.
MAC address learning is not supported on RSPAN uplink ports when RSPAN is
enabled on the switch. Therefore, even if spanning tree is enabled after RSPAN
has been configured, MAC address learning will still not be re-started on the
RSPAN uplink ports.
◆
IEEE 802.1X – RSPAN and 802.1X are mutually exclusive functions. When 802.1X
is enabled globally, RSPAN uplink ports cannot be configured, even though
RSPAN source and destination ports can still be configured. When RSPAN uplink
ports are enabled on the switch, 802.1X cannot be enabled globally.
RSPAN uplink ports cannot be configured to use IEEE 802.1X Port
Authentication, but RSPAN source ports and destination ports can be
configured to use it
– 396 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
◆
Port Security – If port security is enabled on any port, that port cannot be set as
an RSPAN uplink port, even though it can still be configured as an RSPAN source
or destination port. Also, when a port is configured as an RSPAN uplink port,
port security cannot be enabled on that port.
rspan source Use this command to specify the source port and traffic type to be mirrored
remotely. Use the no form to disable RSPAN on the specified port, or with a traffic
type keyword to disable mirroring for the specified type.
Syntax
[no] rspan session session-id source interface interface-list [rx | tx | both]
session-id – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1-3)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring,
using different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
interface-list – One or more source ports. Use a hyphen to indicate a
consecutive list of ports or a comma between non-consecutive ports.
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
rx - Mirror received packets.
tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
Default Setting
Both TX and RX traffic is mirrored
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ One or more source ports can be assigned to the same RSPAN session, either on
the same switch or on different switches.
◆
Only ports can be configured as an RSPAN source – static and dynamic trunks
are not allowed.
◆
Only 802.1Q trunk or hybrid (i.e., general use) ports can be configured as an
RSPAN source port – access ports are not allowed (see switchport mode).
◆
The source port and destination port cannot be configured on the same switch.
– 397 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror received packets from port 2
and 3:
Console(config)#rspan session 1 source interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config)#rspan session 1 source interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config)#
rspan destination Use this command to specify the destination port to monitor the mirrored traffic.
Use the no form to disable RSPAN on the specified port.
Syntax
rspan session session-id destination interface interface [tagged | untagged]
no rspan session session-id destination interface interface
session-id – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1-3)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring,
using different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
tagged - Traffic exiting the destination port carries the RSPAN VLAN tag.
untagged - Traffic exiting the destination port is untagged.
Default Setting
Traffic exiting the destination port is untagged.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Only one destination port can be configured on the same switch per session,
but a destination port can be configured on more than one switch for the same
session.
◆
Only 802.1Q trunk or hybrid (i.e., general use) ports can be configured as an
RSPAN destination port – access ports are not allowed (see switchport mode).
◆
Only ports can be configured as an RSPAN destination – static and dynamic
trunks are not allowed.
◆
The source port and destination port cannot be configured on the same switch.
– 398 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
◆
A destination port can still send and receive switched traffic, and participate in
any Layer 2 protocols to which it has been assigned.
Example
The following example configures port 4 to receive mirrored RSPAN traffic:
Console(config)#rspan session 1 destination interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config)#
rspan remote vlan Use this command to specify the RSPAN VLAN, switch role (source, intermediate or
destination), and the uplink ports. Use the no form to disable the RSPAN on the
specified VLAN.
Syntax
[no] rspan session session-id remote vlan vlan-id
{source | intermediate | destination} uplink interface
session-id – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1-3)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring,
using different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
vlan-id - ID of configured RSPAN VLAN. (Range: 1-4094)
Use the vlan rspan command to reserve a VLAN for RSPAN mirroring before
enabling RSPAN with this command.
source - Specifies this device as the source of remotely mirrored traffic.
intermediate - Specifies this device as an intermediate switch,
transparently passing mirrored traffic from one or more sources to one or
more destinations.
destination - Specifies this device as a switch configured with a destination
port which is to receive mirrored traffic for this session.
uplink - A port configured to receive or transmit remotely mirrored traffic.
interface - ethernet unit/port
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 399 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
Command Usage
◆ Only 802.1Q trunk or hybrid (i.e., general use) ports can be configured as an
RSPAN uplink port – access ports are not allowed (see switchport mode).
◆
Only one uplink port can be configured on a source switch, but there is no
limitation on the number of uplink ports configured on an intermediate or
destination switch.
◆
Only destination and uplink ports will be assigned by the switch as members of
this VLAN. Ports cannot be manually assigned to an RSPAN VLAN with the
switchport allowed vlan command. Also, note that the show vlan command
will not display any members for an RSPAN VLAN, but will only show configured
RSPAN VLAN identifiers.
Example
The following example enables RSPAN on VLAN 2, specifies this device as an RSPAN
destination switch, and the uplink interface as port 3:
Console(config)#rspan session 1 remote vlan 2 destination uplink ethernet 1/3
Console(config)#
no rspan session Use this command to delete a configured RSPAN session.
Syntax
no rspan session session-id
session-id – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1-3)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring,
using different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The no rspan session command must be used to disable an RSPAN VLAN before it
can be deleted from the VLAN database (see the vlan command).
Example
Console(config)#no rspan session 1
Console(config)#
– 400 –
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
show rspan Use this command to displays the configuration settings for an RSPAN session.
Syntax
show rspan session [session-id]
session-id – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring,
using different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show rspan session
RSPAN Session ID
Source Ports (mirrored ports)
RX Only
TX Only
BOTH
Destination Port (monitor port)
Destination Tagged Mode
Switch Role
RSPAN VLAN
RSPAN Uplink Ports
Operation Status
Console#
– 401 –
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1
None
None
None
None
Eth 1/2
Untagged
Destination
2
Eth 1/3
Up
Chapter 13 | Port Mirroring Commands
RSPAN Mirroring Commands
– 402 –
14
Congestion Control Commands
The switch can set the maximum upload or download data transfer rate for any
port. It can control traffic storms by setting a maximum threshold for broadcast
traffic or multicast traffic. It can also set bounding thresholds for broadcast and
multicast storms which can be used to automatically trigger rate limits or to shut
down a port.
Table 81: Congestion Control Commands
Command Group
Function
Rate Limiting
Sets the input and output rate limits for a port.
Storm Control
Sets the traffic storm threshold for each port.
Rate Limit Commands
Rate limit commands allow the network manager to control the maximum rate for
traffic transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on
interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network.
Packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped.
Table 82: Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for an IC
interface
– 403 –
Mode
Chapter 14 | Congestion Control Commands
Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit This command defines the rate limit for a specific interface. Use this command
without specifying a rate to enable rate limiting. Use the no form to disable rate
limiting.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} [rate]
no rate-limit {input | output}
input – Input rate for specified interface
output – Output rate for specified interface
rate – Maximum value in kbps.
(Range: 64 - 1,000,000 kbits per second for Gigabit Ethernet ports;
64 - 10,000,000 kbits per second for 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports)
The resolution at which the rate can be configured is 16 kbits/sec.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Using both rate limiting and storm control on the same interface may lead to
unexpected results. It is therefore not advisable to use both of these commands on
the same interface.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 64
Console(config-if)#
Related Command
show interfaces switchport (365)
– 404 –
Chapter 14 | Congestion Control Commands
Storm Control Commands
Storm Control Commands
Storm control commands can be used to configure broadcast, multicast, and
unknown unicast storm control thresholds. Traffic storms may occur when a device
on your network is malfunctioning, or if application programs are not well
designed or properly configured. If there is too much traffic on your network,
performance can be severely degraded or everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from traffic storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast, multicast or unknown unicast traffic. Any packets exceeding the
specified threshold will then be dropped.
Table 83: Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
Mode
switchport packet-rate
Configures broadcast, multicast, and unknown
unicast storm control thresholds
IC
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status
of an interface
NE, PE
switchport This command configures broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast storm
packet-rate control. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport {broadcast | multicast | unknown-unicast} packet-rate rate
no switchport {broadcast | multicast | unknown-unicast}
broadcast - Specifies storm control for broadcast traffic.
multicast - Specifies storm control for multicast traffic.
unknown-unicast - Specifies storm control for unknown unicast traffic.
rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e. (Range: 1-262142 pps)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ When traffic exceeds the threshold specified for broadcast and multicast or
unknown unicast traffic, packets exceeding the threshold are dropped until the
rate falls back down beneath the threshold.
◆
Using both rate limiting and storm control on the same interface may lead to
unexpected results. It is therefore not advisable to use both of these commands
on the same interface.
– 405 –
Chapter 14 | Congestion Control Commands
Storm Control Commands
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per
second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (365)
– 406 –
15
Loopback Detection Commands
The switch can be configured to detect general loopback conditions caused by
hardware problems or faulty protocol settings. When enabled, a control frame is
transmitted on the participating ports, and the switch monitors inbound traffic to
see if the frame is looped back.
Table 84: Loopback Detection Commands
Command
Function
Mode
loopback-detection
Enables loopback detection globally on the switch
or on a specified interface
GC, IC
loopback-detection
action
Specifies the response to take for a detected
loopback condition
GC
loopback-detection
recover-time
Specifies the interval to wait before releasing an
interface from shutdown state
GC
loopback-detection
transmit-interval
Specifies the interval at which to transmit loopback GC
detection control frames
loopback detection trap Configures the switch to send a trap when a
loopback condition is detected or the switch
recover from a loopback
GC
loopback-detection
release
Manually releases all interfaces currently shut down PE
by the loopback detection feature
show loopbackdetection
Shows loopback detection configuration settings
for the switch or for a specified interface
PE
Usage Guidelines
◆ The default settings for the control frame transmit interval and recover time
may be adjusted to improve performance for your specific environment. The
shutdown mode may also need to be changed once you determine what kind
of packets are being looped back.
◆
General loopback detection provided by the commands described in this
section and loopback detection provided by the spanning tree protocol cannot
both be enabled at the same time. If loopback detection is enabled for the
spanning tree protocol, general loopback detection cannot be enabled on the
same interface.
◆
When a loopback event is detected on an interface or when a interface is
released from a shutdown state caused by a loopback event, a trap message is
sent and the event recorded in the system log.
◆
Loopback detection must be enabled both globally and on an interface for
loopback detection to take effect.
– 407 –
Chapter 15 | Loopback Detection Commands
loopback-detection This command enables loopback detection globally on the switch or on a specified
interface. Use the no form to disable loopback detection.
Syntax
[no] loopback-detection
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Loopback detection must be enabled globally for the switch by this command and
enabled for a specific interface for this function to take effect.
Example
This example enables general loopback detection on the switch, disables loopback
detection provided for the spanning tree protocol on port 1, and then enables
general loopback detection for that port.
Console(config)#loopback-detection
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree loopback-detection
Console(config-if)#loopback-detection
Console(config)#
loopback-detection This command specifies the protective action the switch takes when a loopback
action condition is detected. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
loopback-detection action {none | shutdown}
no loopback-detection action
none - No action is taken.
shutdown - Shuts down the interface.
Default Setting
Shut down
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 408 –
Chapter 15 | Loopback Detection Commands
Command Usage
◆ When a port receives a control frame sent by itself, this means that the port is in
looped state, and the VLAN in the frame payload is also in looped state with the
wrong VLAN tag. The looped port is therefore shut down.
◆
Use the loopback-detection recover-time command to set the time to wait
before re-enabling an interface shut down by the loopback detection process.
◆
When the loopback detection response is changed, any ports placed in
shutdown state by the loopback detection process will be immediately
restored to operation regardless of the remaining recover time.
Example
This example sets the loopback detection mode to shut down user traffic.
Console(config)#loopback-detection action shutdown
Console(config)#
loopback-detection This command specifies the interval to wait before the switch automatically
recover-time releases an interface from shutdown state. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
loopback-detection recover-time seconds
no loopback-detection recover-time
seconds - Recovery time from shutdown state. (Range: 60-1,000,000
seconds, or 0 to disable automatic recovery)
Default Setting
60 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When the loopback detection mode is changed, any ports placed in shutdown
state by the loopback detection process will be immediately restored to
operation regardless of the remaining recover time.
◆
If the recovery time is set to zero, all ports placed in shutdown state can be
restored to operation using the loopback-detection release command. To
restore a specific port, use the no shutdown command.
– 409 –
Chapter 15 | Loopback Detection Commands
Example
Console(config)#loopback-detection recover-time 120
Console(config-if)#
loopback-detection This command specifies the interval at which to transmit loopback detection
transmit-interval control frames. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
loopback-detection transmit-interval seconds
no loopback-detection transmit-interval
seconds - The transmission interval for loopback detection control frames.
(Range: 1-32767 seconds)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#loopback-detection transmit-interval 60
Console(config)#
loopback detection This command sends a trap when a loopback condition is detected, or when the
trap switch recovers from a loopback condition. Use the no form to restore the default
state.
Syntax
loopback-detection trap [both | detect | none | recover]
no loopback-detection trap
both - Sends an SNMP trap message when a loopback condition is
detected, or when the switch recovers from a loopback condition.
detect - Sends an SNMP trap message when a loopback condition is
detected.
none - Does not send an SNMP trap for loopback detection or recovery.
recover - Sends an SNMP trap message when the switch recovers from a
loopback condition.
Default Setting
None
– 410 –
Chapter 15 | Loopback Detection Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Refer to the loopback-detection recover-time command for information on
conditions which constitute loopback recovery.
Example
Console(config)#loopback-detection trap both
Console(config)#
loopback-detection This command releases all interfaces currently shut down by the loopback
release detection feature.
Syntax
loopback-detection release
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#loopback-detection release
Console(config)#
show loopback- This command shows loopback detection configuration settings for the switch or
detection for a specified interface.
Syntax
show loopback-detection [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show loopback-detection
Loopback Detection Global Information
Global Status
: Enabled
Transmit Interval : 10
– 411 –
Chapter 15 | Loopback Detection Commands
Recover Time
: 60
Action
: Shutdown
Trap
: None
Loopback Detection Port Information
Port
Admin State Oper State
-------- ----------- ---------Eth 1/ 1 Enabled
Normal
Eth 1/ 2 Disabled
Disabled
Eth 1/ 3 Disabled
Disabled
.
.
.
Console#show loopback-detection ethernet 1/1
Loopback Detection Information of Eth 1/1
Admin State : Enabled
Oper State : Normal
Looped VLAN : None
Console#
– 412 –
16
Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Table 85: Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
mac-address-table static Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
clear collision-macaddress-table
Removes all entries from the collision MAC address PE
table
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding
database
PE
show collision-macaddress-table
Shows a shows a list of MAC addresses that cannot
be learned by the switch due to hash collisions
PE
show mac-address-table Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database PE
show mac-address-table Shows the aging time for the address table
aging-time
PE
show mac-address-table Shows the number of MAC addresses used and the PE
count
number of available MAC addresses
mac-address-table This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form
aging-time to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
seconds - Aging time. (Range: 6-7200 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
– 413 –
Chapter 16 | Address Table Commands
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
mac-address-table This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no
static form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface vlan vlan-id [action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
mac-address - MAC address.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
action delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within a
specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC Address Table.
Static addresses have the following characteristics:
◆
Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
◆
Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored
and will not be written to the address table.
◆
A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is removed
with the no form of this command.
– 414 –
Chapter 16 | Address Table Commands
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface ethernet
1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
clear collision-mac- This command removes all entries from the collision MAC address table.
address-table
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear collision-mac-address-table
Console#
clear mac-address- This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database.
table dynamic
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Even if a hash collision for a MAC address is resolved, entries in collision MAC
address table are not removed until this command is issued to reset the table, or
the system is reset.
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
Console#
show collision-mac- This command shows a list of MAC addresses that cannot be learned by the switch
address-table due to hash collisions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 415 –
Chapter 16 | Address Table Commands
Example
Console#show collision-mac-address-table
MAC Address
VLAN Collision Count
----------------- ----- ---------------90-e6-ba-cb-cd-d6
1
2
Total collision mac number: 1
Console#
show mac-address- This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
table
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
mac-address - MAC address.
mask - Bits to match in the address.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
■
■
■
Learn - Dynamic address entries
Config - Static entry
Security - Port Security
◆
The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0” means
to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of 00-00-0000-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
◆
The maximum number of address entries is 16K.
– 416 –
Chapter 16 | Address Table Commands
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface MAC Address
VLAN
--------- ----------------- ---CPU
00-E0-00-00-00-01
1
Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-0C-10-90-09
1
Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-64
1
Console#
Type
-------CPU
Learn
Learn
Life Time
----------------Delete on Reset
Delete on Timeout
Delete on Timeout
show mac-address- This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
table aging-time
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging Status : Enabled
Aging Time: 300 sec.
Console#
show mac-address- This command shows the number of MAC addresses used and the number of
table count available MAC addresses for the overall system or for an interface.
Syntax
show mac-address-table count [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 417 –
Chapter 16 | Address Table Commands
Example
Console#show mac-address-table count interface ethernet 1/1
MAC Entries for Eth 1/1
Total Address Count
Static Address Count
Dynamic Address Count
:0
:0
:0
Console#show mac-address-table count
Compute the number of MAC Address...
Maximum number of MAC Address which can be created in the system:
Total Number of MAC Address
: 16384
Number of Static MAC Address
: 1024
Current number of entries which have been created in the system:
Total Number of MAC Address
: 3
Number of Static MAC Address
: 1
Number of Dynamic MAC Address
: 2
Console#
– 418 –
17
Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected
interface.
Table 86: Spanning Tree Commands
Command
Function
Mode
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
spanning-tree
cisco-prestandard
Configures spanning tree operation to be compatible with GC
Cisco prestandard versions
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
spanning-tree
mst configuration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
spanning-tree pathcost
method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
spanning-tree
system-bpdu-flooding
Floods BPDUs to all other ports or just to all other ports in
the same VLAN when global spanning tree is disabled
GC
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the
region before a BPDU is discarded
MST
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning
tree
MST
spanning-tree bpdu-filter
Filters BPDUs for edge ports
IC
spanning-tree bpdu-guard
Shuts down an edge port if it receives a BPDU
IC
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
spanning-tree
loopback-detection
Enables BPDU loopback detection for a port
IC
– 419 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Table 86: Spanning Tree Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
spanning-tree loopbackdetection action
Configures the response for loopback detection to block
user traffic or shut down the interface
IC
spanning-tree loopbackdetection release-mode
Configures loopback release mode for a port
IC
spanning-tree
loopback-detection trap
Enables BPDU loopback SNMP trap notification for a port
IC
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
spanning-tree
mst port-priority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
spanning-tree
port-bpdu-flooding
Floods BPDUs to other ports when global spanning tree is
disabled
IC
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
spanning-tree root-guard
Prevents a designated port from passing superior BPDUs
IC
spanning-tree
spanning-disabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
spanning-tree tc-prop-stop
Stops propagation of topology change information
IC
spanning-tree
loopback-detection release
Manually releases a port placed in discarding state by
loopback-detection
PE
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common
spanning tree (i.e., overall bridge), a selected interface, or
an instance within the multiple spanning tree
PE
show spanning-tree
mst configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
PE
show spanning-tree tc-prop
Shows configuration of topology change propagation
domains
PE
spanning-tree This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use
the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree
Default Setting
Spanning tree is disabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This
– 420 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STAcompliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one
route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
◆
When spanning tree is enabled globally by this command or enabled on an
interface (spanning-tree spanning-disabled command), loopback detection is
disabled.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree This command configures spanning tree operation to be compatible with Cisco
cisco-prestandard prestandard versions. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
[no] spanning-tree cisco-prestandard
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Cisco prestandard versions prior to Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SEC do not fully
follow the IEEE standard, causing some state machine procedures to function
incorrectly. The command forces the spanning tree protocol to function in a
manner compatible with Cisco prestandard versions.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree cisco-prestandard
Console(config)#
spanning-tree This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this
forward-time switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
– 421 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a port will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to the discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
spanning-tree This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this
hello-time switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) - 1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits
a configuration message.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (421)
spanning-tree max-age (423)
– 422 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this
max-age switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconverge. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a
root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (421)
spanning-tree hello-time (422)
spanning-tree mode This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
mstp - Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
– 423 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Default Setting
rstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Spanning Tree Protocol
This option uses RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode. It uses RSTP for the
internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This creates one
spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group
members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP
option.
◆
◆
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
■
STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
■
RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay
timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
■
To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
■
A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
■
Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing
modes stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts
the system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
– 424 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command changes to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
mst configuration
Default Setting
No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
mst vlan (430)
mst priority (429)
name (431)
revision (431)
max-hops (429)
spanning-tree This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and
pathcost method Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.
short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1 Spanning Tree Protocol.
Default Setting
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 434) takes precedence over port priority (page 441).
◆
– 425 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
◆
The path cost methods apply to all spanning tree modes (STP, RSTP and MSTP).
Specifically, the long method can be applied to STP since this mode is
supported by a backward compatible mode of RSTP.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
spanning-tree priority This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use
the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge. (Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options:
0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960,
45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated port.
The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value) becomes the STA
root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 40960
Console(config)#
– 426 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command configures the system to flood BPDUs to all other ports on the
system-bpdu-flooding switch or just to all other ports in the same VLAN when spanning tree is disabled
globally on the switch or disabled on a specific port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding {to-all | to-vlan}
no spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding
to-all - Floods BPDUs to all other ports on the switch.
to-vlan - Floods BPDUs to all other ports within the receiving port’s native
VLAN (i.e., as determined by port’s PVID).
Default Setting
Floods to all other ports in the same VLAN.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding command has no effect if BPDU
flooding is disabled on a port (see the spanning-tree port-bpdu-flooding
command).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding
Console(config)#
spanning-tree tc-prop This command configures a topology change propagation domain. Use the no
form to remove a propagation domain.
Syntax
spanning-tree tc-prop group group-id {ethernet interface |
port-channel trunk-id}
group-id - Group identifier. (Range: 1-255)
interface - unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number or list of ports. To enter a list, separate
nonconsecutive port identifiers with a comma and no spaces; use a
hyphen to designate a range of ports. (Range: 1-26/52)
trunk-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-8)
– 427 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Default Setting
All ports and trunks belong to a common group.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A port can only belong to one group. When an interface is added to a group, it is
removed from the default group. When a TCN BPDU or BPDU with the TC flag set is
received on an interface, that interface will only notify members in same group to
propagate this topology change.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree tc-prop group 1 ethernet 1/1-5
Console(config)#
spanning-tree This command configures the minimum interval between the transmission of
transmission-limit consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count - The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
– 428 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
max-hops This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a
BPDU is discarded. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
max-hops hop-number
hop-number - Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 1-40)
Default Setting
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
An MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols. Therefore,
the message age for BPDUs inside an MSTI region is never changed. However, each
spanning tree instance within a region, and the internal spanning tree (IST) that
connects these instances use a hop count to specify the maximum number of
bridges that will propagate a BPDU. Each bridge decrements the hop count by one
before passing on the BPDU. When the hop count reaches zero, the message is
dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
mst priority This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
mst instance-id priority priority
no mst instance-id priority
instance-id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
priority - Priority of the a spanning tree instance.
(Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384,
20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344,
61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
– 429 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
◆ MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the
specified instance. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lowest numerical
value) becomes the MSTI root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
◆
You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority of
0, or as the MSTI alternate device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#
mst vlan This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove
the specified VLANs. Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all
VLANs.
Syntax
[no] mst instance-id vlan vlan-range
instance-id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
vlan-range - Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
none
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP
generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and
allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
◆
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that
connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 64 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general
area of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges
within the same MSTI Region (page 431) with the same set of instances, and the
same instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that
RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the
Common Spanning Tree.
– 430 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
name This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which
this switch is located. Use the no form to clear the name.
Syntax
name name
name - Name of multiple spanning tree region. (Range: 1-32 alphanumeric
characters)
Default Setting
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
The MST region name and revision number (page 431) are used to designate a
unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device such as this
switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the same region must
be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
revision (431)
revision This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree
configuration of this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
revision number
number - Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
– 431 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
The MST region name (page 431) and revision number are used to designate a
unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device such as this
switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the same region must
be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name (431)
spanning-tree This command allows you to avoid transmitting BPDUs on configured edge ports
bpdu-filter that are connected to end nodes. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree bpdu-filter
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This command stops all Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) from being
transmitted on configured edge ports to save CPU processing time. This
function is designed to work in conjunction with edge ports which should only
connect end stations to the switch, and therefore do not need to process
BPDUs. However, note that if a trunking port connected to another switch or
bridging device is mistakenly configured as an edge port, and BPDU filtering is
enabled on this port, this might cause a loop in the spanning tree.
◆
BPDU filter can only be configured on an interface if the edge port attribute is
not disabled (that is, if edge port is set to enabled or auto with the spanningtree edge-port command).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree bpdu-filter
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (435)
– 432 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command shuts down an edge port (i.e., an interface set for fast forwarding) if
bpdu-guard it receives a BPDU. Use the no form without any keywords to disable this feature, or
with a keyword to restore the default settings.
Syntax
spanning-tree bpdu-guard [auto-recovery [interval interval]]
no spanning-tree bpdu-guard [auto-recovery [interval]]
auto-recovery - Automatically re-enables an interface after the specified
interval.
interval - The time to wait before re-enabling an interface. (Range: 30-86400
seconds)
Default Setting
BPDU Guard: Disabled
Auto-Recovery: Disabled
Auto-Recovery Interval: 300 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ An edge port should only be connected to end nodes which do not generate
BPDUs. If a BPDU is received on an edge port, this indicates an invalid network
configuration, or that the switch may be under attack by a hacker. If an
interface is shut down by BPDU Guard, it must be manually re-enabled using
the no spanning-tree spanning-disabled command if the auto-recovery
interval is not specified.
◆
BPDU guard can only be configured on an interface if the edge port attribute is
not disabled (that is, if edge port is set to enabled or auto with the spanningtree edge-port command).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree bpdu-guard
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (435)
spanning-tree spanning-disabled (443)
– 433 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree cost This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface.
Use the no form to restore the default auto-configuration mode.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535
for short path cost method, 1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)9
Table 87: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-2004)
Ethernet
50-600
200,000-20,000,000
Fast Ethernet
10-60
20,000-2,000,000
Gigabit Ethernet
3-10
2,000-200,000
10G Ethernet
1-5
200-20,000
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the short path cost
method is selected and the default path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w
standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
Table 88: Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-2004)
Ethernet
65,535
1,000,000
Fast Ethernet
65,535
100,000
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
10G Ethernet
1,000
1,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
9. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command to set the path cost method. The range
displayed in the CLI prompt message shows the maximum value for path cost. However,
note that the switch still enforces the rules for path cost based on the specified path cost
method (long or short).
– 434 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
◆
Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
◆
When the path cost method (page 425) is set to short, the maximum value for
path cost is 65,535.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the
edge-port default.
Syntax
spanning-tree edge-port [auto]
no spanning-tree edge-port
auto - Automatically determines if an interface is an edge port.
Default Setting
Auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that is at
the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot cause
forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related time out problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
◆
◆
When edge port is set as auto, the operational state is determined
automatically by the Bridge Detection State Machine described in 802.1D-2004,
where the edge port state may change dynamically based on environment
changes (e.g., receiving a BPDU or not within the required interval).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
– 435 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple
link-type Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
shared - Shared medium.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
◆
When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while a
half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
◆
RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of RSTP,
this same restriction applies.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
spanning-tree This command enables the detection and response to Spanning Tree loopback
loopback-detection BPDU packets on the port. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree loopback-detection
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 436 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
◆ If Port Loopback Detection is not enabled and a port receives it’s own BPDU,
then the port will drop the loopback BPDU according to IEEE Standard 802.1W2001 9.3.4 (Note 1).
◆
Port Loopback Detection will not be active if Spanning Tree is disabled on the
switch.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree loopback-detection
spanning-tree This command configures the response for loopback detection to shut down the
loopback-detection interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
action
Syntax
spanning-tree loopback-detection action {block | shutdown duration}
no spanning-tree loopback-detection action
shutdown - Shuts down the interface.
duration - The duration to shut down the interface.
(Range: 60-86400 seconds)
Default Setting
shutdown, 60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
If an interface is shut down by this command, and the release mode is set to
“auto” with the spanning-tree loopback-detection release-mode command, the
selected interface will be automatically enabled when the shutdown interval
has expired.
◆
◆
If an interface is shut down by this command, and the release mode is set to
“manual,” the interface can be re-enabled using the spanning-tree
loopback-detection release command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree loopback-detection action shutdown 600
Console(config-if)#
– 437 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command configures the release mode for a port that was placed in the
loopback-detection discarding state because a loopback BPDU was received. Use the no form to restore
release-mode the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree loopback-detection release-mode {auto | manual}
no spanning-tree loopback-detection release-mode
auto - Allows a port to automatically be released from the discarding state
when the loopback state ends.
manual - The port can only be released from the discarding state manually.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ If the port is configured for automatic loopback release, then the port will only
be returned to the forwarding state if one of the following conditions is
satisfied:
■
The port receives any other BPDU except for it’s own, or;
■
The port’s link status changes to link down and then link up again, or;
■
The port ceases to receive it’s own BPDUs in a forward delay interval.
◆
If Port Loopback Detection is not enabled and a port receives it’s own BPDU,
then the port will drop the loopback BPDU according to IEEE Standard 802.1W2001 9.3.4 (Note 1).
◆
Port Loopback Detection will not be active if Spanning Tree is disabled on the
switch.
◆
When configured for manual release mode, then a link down / up event will not
release the port from the discarding state. It can only be released using the
spanning-tree loopback-detection release command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree loopback-detection release-mode manual
Console(config-if)#
– 438 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command enables SNMP trap notification for Spanning Tree loopback BPDU
loopback-detection detections. Use the no form to restore the default.
trap
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree loopback-detection trap
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree loopback-detection trap
spanning-tree This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple
mst cost Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default auto-configuration mode.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance-id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance-id cost
instance-id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
cost - Path cost for an interface. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535
for short path cost method10, 1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
The recommended path cost range is listed in Table 87 on page 434.
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the short path cost
method is selected and the default path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w
standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535. The default path costs are
listed in Table 88 on page 434.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
◆
This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to
10. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command to set the path cost method.
– 439 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to interfaces
with slower media.
◆
Use the no spanning-tree mst cost command to specify auto-configuration
mode.
◆
Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface Ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority (440)
spanning-tree This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the
mst port-priority Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance-id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance-id port-priority
instance-id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
priority - Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple
spanning-tree. If the path cost for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the
interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an
active link in the spanning tree.
◆
Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
– 440 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost (439)
spanning-tree This command floods BPDUs to other ports when spanning tree is disabled globally
port-bpdu-flooding or disabled on a specific port. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree port-bpdu-flooding
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ When enabled, BPDUs are flooded to all other ports on the switch or to all other
ports within the receiving port’s native VLAN as specified by the spanning-tree
system-bpdu-flooding command.
◆
The spanning-tree system-bpdu-flooding command has no effect if BPDU
flooding is disabled on a port by the spanning-tree port-bpdu-flooding
command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-bpdu-flooding
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to
port-priority restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 441 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
◆ This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
◆
Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest
numeric identifier will be enabled.
◆
The criteria used for determining the port role is based on root bridge ID, root
path cost, designated bridge, designated port, port priority, and port number,
in that order and as applicable to the role under question.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (434)
spanning-tree This command prevents a designated port from taking superior BPDUs into
root-guard account and allowing a new STP root port to be elected. Use the no form to disable
this feature.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree root-guard
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ A bridge with a lower bridge identifier (or same identifier and lower MAC
address) can take over as the root bridge at any time.
◆
When Root Guard is enabled, and the switch receives a superior BPDU on this
port, it is set to the Discarding state until it stops receiving superior BPDUs for a
fixed recovery period. While in the discarding state, no traffic is forwarded
across the port.
◆
Root Guard can be used to ensure that the root bridge is not formed at a
suboptimal location. Root Guard should be enabled on any designated port
connected to low-speed bridges which could potentially overload a slower link
by taking over as the root port and forming a new spanning tree topology. It
– 442 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
could also be used to form a border around part of the network where the root
bridge is allowed.
◆
When spanning tree is initialized globally on the switch or on an interface, the
switch will wait for 20 seconds to ensure that the spanning tree has converged
before enabling Root Guard.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree root-guard
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use
spanning-disabled the no form to re-enable the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When spanning tree is enabled globally (spanning-tree command) or enabled on
an interface by this command, loopback detection is disabled.
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree This command stops the propagation of topology change notifications (TCN). Use
tc-prop-stop the no form to allow propagation of TCN messages.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree tc-prop-stop
Default Setting
Disabled
– 443 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When this command is enabled on an interface, topology change information
originating from the interface will still be propagated.
This command should not be used on an interface which is purposely configured in
a ring topology.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree tc-prop-stop
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree This command manually releases a port placed in discarding state by loopbackloopback-detection detection.
release
Syntax
spanning-tree loopback-detection release interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use this command to release an interface from discarding state if loopback
detection release mode is set to “manual” by the spanning-tree loopback-detection
release-mode command and BPDU loopback occurs.
Example
Console#spanning-tree loopback-detection release ethernet 1/1
Console#
– 444 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree This command re-checks the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
protocol-migration interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or Topology
Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected interface to forced
STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the spanning-tree protocolmigration command at any time to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU
format to send on the selected interfaces (i.e., RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console#spanning-tree protocol-migration ethernet 1/5
Console#
show spanning-tree This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST), for all
instances within the multiple spanning tree (MST), or for a specific instance within
the multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance-id | brief | stp-enabled-only]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
instance-id - Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094)
brief - Shows a summary of global and interface settings.
– 445 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
stp-enabled-only - Displays global settings, and settings for interfaces for
which STP is enabled.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch for the Common Spanning Tree
(CST) and for every interface in the tree.
◆
Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
◆
Use the show spanning-tree mst command to display the spanning tree
configuration for all instances within the Multiple Spanning Tree (MST),
including global settings and settings for active interfaces.
◆
Use the show spanning-tree mst instance-id command to display the
spanning tree configuration for an instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST), including global settings and settings for all interfaces.
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning Tree Information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning Tree Mode
: MSTP
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled : Enabled
Instance
: 0
VLANs Configured
: 1-4094
Priority
: 32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
: 2
Bridge Max. Age (sec.)
: 20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
: 15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
: 2
Root Max. Age (sec.)
: 20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
: 15
Max. Hops
: 20
Remaining Hops
: 20
Designated Root
: 32768.0.0001ECF8D8C6
Current Root Port
: 21
Current Root Cost
: 100000
Number of Topology Changes
: 5
Last Topology Change Time (sec.): 11409
Transmission Limit
: 3
Path Cost Method
: Long
Flooding Behavior
: To VLAN
Cisco Prestandard
: Disabled
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 Information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status
: Enabled
Role
: Disabled
– 446 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
State
External Admin Path Cost
Internal Admin Path Cost
External Oper Path Cost
Internal Oper Path Cost
Priority
Designated Cost
Designated Port
Designated Root
Designated Bridge
Forward Transitions
Admin Edge Port
Oper Edge Port
Admin Link Type
Oper Link Type
Flooding Behavior
Spanning-Tree Status
Loopback Detection Status
Loopback Detection Release Mode
Loopback Detection Trap
Loopback Detection Action
Root Guard Status
BPDU Guard Status
BPDU Guard Auto Recovery
BPDU Guard Auto Recovery Interval
BPDU Filter Status
TC Propagate Stop
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Discarding
0
0
100000
100000
128
100000
128.1
32768.0.0001ECF8D8C6
32768.0.123412341234
4
Disabled
Disabled
Auto
Point-to-point
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Auto
Disabled
Block
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
300
Disabled
Disabled
.
.
.
This example shows a brief summary of global and interface setting for the
spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree brief
Spanning Tree Mode
:
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled :
Designated Root
:
Current Root Port (Eth)
:
Current Root Cost
:
RSTP
Enabled
32768.0000E8944000
1/24
10000
Interface Pri Designated
Designated Oper
STP
Role State Oper
Bridge ID
Port ID
Cost
Status
Edge
--------- --- --------------------- ---------- -------- ------ ---- ----- --Eth 1/ 1 128 32768.0000E89382A0
128.1
100000 EN
DESG FWD
No
Eth 1/ 2 128 32768.0000E89382A0
128.2
10000 EN
DISB BLK
No
Eth 1/ 3 128 32768.0000E89382A0
128.3
10000 EN
DISB BLK
No
Eth 1/ 4 128 32768.0000E89382A0
128.4
10000 EN
DISB BLK
No
Eth 1/ 5 128 32768.0000E89382A0
128.5
10000 EN
DISB BLK
No
.
.
.
– 447 –
Chapter 17 | Spanning Tree Commands
show spanning-tree This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
mst configuration
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration Name : R&D
Revision Level
:0
Instance VLANs
-------------------------------------------------------------0
1-4094
Console#
show spanning-tree This command shows the configuration of topology change propagation domains.
tc-prop
Syntax
show spanning-tree tc-prop [group group-id]
group-id - Group identifier. (Range: 1-255)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree tc-prop group 1
Group 1
Eth 1/ 1, Eth 1/ 2, Eth 1/ 3, Eth 1/ 4, Eth 1/ 5
Console#
– 448 –
18
VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Table 89: VLAN Commands
Command Group
Function
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress
tagging mode, ingress filtering, and PVID
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q
Tunneling
Configures 802.1Q Tunneling (QinQ Tunneling)
Configuring Protocol-based Configures protocol-based VLANs based on frame type and protocol
VLANs*
Configuring MAC Based
VLANs*
Configures MAC-based VLANs
Configuring Voice VLANs
Configures VoIP traffic detection and enables a Voice VLAN
*
If a packet matches the rules defined by more than one of these functions, only one of them
is applied, with the precedence being MAC-based, protocol-based, and then native portbased (see the switchport priority default command).
Editing VLAN Groups
Table 90: Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
Command
Function
Mode
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
– 449 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Editing VLAN Groups
vlan database This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will take
effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
◆
Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (457)
vlan This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or
delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
[rspan]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
vlan-id - VLAN ID, specified as a single number, a range of consecutive
numbers separated by a hyphen, or multiple numbers separated by
commas. (Range: 1-4094)
name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
active - VLAN is operational.
suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
– 450 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
rspan - Keyword to create a VLAN used for mirroring traffic from
remote switches. The VLAN used for RSPAN cannot include VLAN 1 (the
switch’s default VLAN). Nor should it include VLAN 4093 (which is used
for switch clustering). Configuring VLAN 4093 for other purposes may
cause problems in the Clustering operation. For more information on
configuring RSPAN through the CLI, see “RSPAN Mirroring Commands”
on page 395.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
◆
◆
no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
◆
no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
◆
You can configure up to 4094 VLANs on the switch.
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN is
activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (457)
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 91: Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
switchport acceptableframe-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
switchport ingress-filtering Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
switchport mode
IC
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
– 451 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 91: Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
interface vlan This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to
configure VLAN parameters for a physical interface. Use the no form to change a
Layer 3 normal VLAN back to a Layer 2 interface.
Syntax
[no] interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Creating a “normal” VLAN with the vlan command initializes it as a Layer 2
interface. To change it to a Layer 3 interface, use the interface command to
enter interface configuration for the desired VLAN, enter any Layer 3
configuration commands, and save the configuration settings.
◆
◆
To change a Layer 3 normal VLAN back to a Layer 2 VLAN, use the no interface
command.
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (355)
interface (350)
vlan (450)
– 452 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
switchport This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to
acceptable-frame- restore the default.
types
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
tagged - The port only receives tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged are
assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to
tagged frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (455)
switchport This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form
allowed vlan to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {vlan-list | add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] |
remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
vlan-list - If a VLAN list is entered without using the add option, the
interface is assigned to the specified VLANs, and membership in all
previous VLANs is removed. The interface is added as a tagged member if
switchport mode is set to hybrid or access, or as an untagged member if
switchport mode is set to trunk.
– 453 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no spaces;
use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. (Range: 1-4094).
add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add. When the add option is used,
the interface is assigned to the specified VLANs, and membership in all
previous VLANs is retained.
remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
Default Setting
All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
The default frame type is untagged.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ If a port or trunk has switchport mode set to access, then only one VLAN can be
added with this command. If a VLAN list is specified, only the last VLAN in the
list will be added to the interface.
◆
A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
◆
If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
◆
Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
◆
If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs as
an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one VLAN
as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the interface.
◆
If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
– 454 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
switchport This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore
ingress-filtering the default.
Syntax
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
◆
If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
◆
If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
◆
Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
switchport mode This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {access | hybrid | trunk}
no switchport mode
access - Specifies an access VLAN interface. The port transmits and receives
untagged frames on a single VLAN only.
hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
– 455 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that
identify the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default
VLAN (i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
Default Setting
Hybrid mode, with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (453)
switchport native vlan This command configures the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ When using Access mode, and an interface is assigned to a new VLAN, its PVID
is automatically set to the identifier for that VLAN. When using Hybrid mode,
the PVID for an interface can be set to any VLAN for which it is an untagged
member.
◆
If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
– 456 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Displaying VLAN Information
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
Displaying VLAN Information
This section describes commands used to display VLAN information.
Table 92: Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
Command
Function
Mode
show interfaces status vlan Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
show vlan
NE, PE
Shows VLAN information
show vlan This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094)
name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN ID:
1
Type:
Static
Name:
DefaultVlan
Status:
Active
Ports/Port Channels : Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S) Eth1/ 3(S) Eth1/ 4(S) Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S) Eth1/ 8(S) Eth1/ 9(S) Eth1/10(S)
– 457 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S) Eth1/13(S) Eth1/14(S) Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S) Eth1/18(S) Eth1/19(S) Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S) Eth1/23(S) Eth1/24(S) Eth1/25(S)
Eth1/26(S)
Console#
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ tunneling) uses a single Service Provider VLAN
(SPVLAN) for customers who have multiple VLANs. Customer VLAN IDs are
preserved and traffic from different customers is segregated within the service
provider’s network even when they use the same customer-specific VLAN IDs. QinQ
tunneling expands VLAN space by using a VLAN-in-VLAN hierarchy, preserving the
customer’s original tagged packets, and adding SPVLAN tags to each frame (also
called double tagging).
This section describes commands used to configure QinQ tunneling.
Table 93: 802.1Q Tunneling Commands
Command
Function
dot1q-tunnel
system-tunnel-control
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ GC
mode
switchport dot1q-tunnel
mode
Configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port
IC
switchport dot1q-tunnel
priority map
Copies inner tag priority to outer tag priority
IC
switchport dot1q-tunnel
service match cvid
Creates a CVLAN to SPVLAN mapping entry
IC
switchport dot1q-tunnel
tpid
Sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port IC
show dot1q-tunnel
Displays the configuration of QinQ tunnel ports
show interfaces switchport Displays port QinQ operational status
Mode
PE
PE
General Configuration Guidelines for QinQ
1. Configure the switch to QinQ mode (dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control).
2. Create a SPVLAN (vlan).
3. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to dot1Q-tunnel access mode
(switchport dot1q-tunnel mode).
4. Set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel access port. This step is
required if the attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to
identify 802.1Q tagged frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (See
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid.)
– 458 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
5. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to join the SPVLAN as an untagged
member (switchport allowed vlan).
6. Configure the SPVLAN ID as the native VID on the QinQ tunnel access port
(switchport native vlan).
7. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to dot1Q-tunnel uplink mode
(switchport dot1q-tunnel mode).
8. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to join the SPVLAN as a tagged member
(switchport allowed vlan).
Limitations for QinQ
◆
The native VLAN for the tunnel uplink ports and tunnel access ports cannot be
the same. However, the same service VLANs can be set on both tunnel port
types.
◆
IGMP Snooping should not be enabled on a tunnel access port.
◆
If the spanning tree protocol is enabled, be aware that a tunnel access or tunnel
uplink port may be disabled if the spanning tree structure is automatically
reconfigured to overcome a break in the tree. It is therefore advisable to disable
spanning tree on these ports.
dot1q-tunnel This command sets the switch to operate in QinQ mode. Use the no form to disable
system-tunnel-control QinQ operating mode.
Syntax
[no] dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
QinQ tunnel mode must be enabled on the switch for QinQ interface settings to be
functional.
Example
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Console(config)#
– 459 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
Related Commands
show dot1q-tunnel (464)
show interfaces switchport (365)
switchport This command configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port. Use the no form to
dot1q-tunnel mode disable QinQ on the interface.
Syntax
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode {access | uplink}
no switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
access – Sets the port as an 802.1Q tunnel access port.
uplink – Sets the port as an 802.1Q tunnel uplink port.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ QinQ tunneling must be enabled on the switch using the dot1q-tunnel
system-tunnel-control command before the switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
interface command can take effect.
◆
When a tunnel uplink port receives a packet from a customer, the customer tag
(regardless of whether there are one or more tag layers) is retained in the inner
tag, and the service provider’s tag added to the outer tag.
◆
When a tunnel uplink port receives a packet from the service provider, the
outer service provider’s tag is stripped off, and the packet passed on to the
VLAN indicated by the inner tag. If no inner tag is found, the packet is passed
onto the native VLAN defined for the uplink port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show dot1q-tunnel (464)
show interfaces switchport (365)
– 460 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
switchport dot1q- This command copies the inner tag priority to the outer tag priority. Use the no
tunnel priority map form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] switchport dot1q-tunnel priority map
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When priority bits are found in the inner tag, these are also copied to the outer tag.
This allows the service provider to differentiate service based on the indicated
priority and appropriate methods of queue management at intermediate nodes
across the tunnel.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel priority map
Console(config-if)#
switchport This command creates a CVLAN to SPVLAN mapping entry. Use the no form to
dot1q-tunnel service delete a VLAN mapping entry.
match cvid
Syntax
switchport dot1q-tunnel service svid match cvid cvid
svid - VLAN ID for the outer VLAN tag (Service Provider VID). (Range: 1-4094)
cvid - VLAN ID for the inner VLAN tag (Customer VID). (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Default mapping uses the PVID of the ingress port on the edge router for the SPVID.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The inner VLAN tag of a customer packet entering the edge router of a service
provider’s network is mapped to an outer tag indicating the service provider
VLAN that will carry this traffic across the 802.1Q tunnel. This process is
performed in a transparent manner.
◆
When priority bits are found in the inner tag, these are also copied to the outer
tag. This allows the service provider to differentiate service based on the
– 461 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
indicated priority and appropriate methods of queue management at
intermediate nodes across the tunnel.
◆
Rather than relying on standard service paths and priority queuing, QinQ VLAN
mapping can be used to further enhance service by defining a set of
differentiated service pathways to follow across the service provider’s network
for traffic arriving from specified inbound customer VLANs.
◆
Note that all customer interfaces should be configured as access interfaces
(that is, a user-to-network interface) and service provider interfaces as uplink
interfaces (that is, a network-to-network interface). Use the switchport
dot1q-tunnel mode uplink command to set an interface to access or uplink
mode.
Example
This example sets the SVID to 99 in the outer tag for egress packets exiting port 1
when the packet’s CVID is 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel service 99 match cvid 2
Console(config-if)#
The following example maps C-VLAN 10 to S-VLAN 100, C-VLAN 20 to S-VLAN 200
and C-VLAN 30 to S-VLAN 300 for ingress traffic on port 1 of Switches A and B.
Figure 1: Mapping QinQ Service VLAN to Customer VLAN
Switch C
[SVID 100, CVID 10]
[SVID 200, CVID 20]
[SVID 300, CVID 30]
Port 1
Port 2
Port 1
[VID 10]
[VID 20]
[VID 30]
Switch A
Port 2
[SVID 100, CVID 10]
[SVID 200, CVID 20]
[SVID 300, CVID 30]
Port 2
Switch B
Port 1
[VID 10]
[VID 20]
[VID 30]
Step 1. Configure Switch A and B.
1. Create VLANs 100, 200 and 300.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 100,200,300 media ethernet state active
2. Enable QinQ.
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
3. Configure port 2 as a tagged member of VLANs 100, 200 and 300 using uplink
mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 100,200,300 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode uplink
– 462 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
4. Configures port 1 as an untagged member of VLANs 100, 200 and 300 using
access mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 100,200,300 untagged
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
5. Configure the following selective QinQ mapping entries.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel service 100 match cvid 10
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel service 200 match cvid 20
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel service 300 match cvid 30
6. Configures port 1 as member of VLANs 10, 20 and 30 to avoid filtering out
incoming frames tagged with VID 10, 20 or 30 on port 1
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 10,20,30
7. Verify configuration settings.
Console#show dot1q-tunnel service
802.1Q Tunnel Service Subscriptions
Port
Match C-VID S-VID
-------- ----------- ----Eth 1/ 1
10
100
Eth 1/ 1
20
200
Eth 1/ 1
30
300
Step 2. Configure Switch C.
1. Create VLAN 100, 200 and 300.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 100,200,300 media ethernet state active
2. Configure port 1 and port 2 as tagged members of VLAN 100, 200 and 300.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1,2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 100,200,300 tagged
switchport This command sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port. Use the
dot1q-tunnel tpid no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid tpid
no switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid
tpid – Sets the ethertype value for 802.1Q encapsulation. This identifier is
used to select a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged
frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (Range: 0800-FFFF
hexadecimal)
Default Setting
0x8100
– 463 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Use the switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid command to set a custom 802.1Q
ethertype value on the selected interface. This feature allows the switch to
interoperate with third-party switches that do not use the standard 0x8100
ethertype to identify 802.1Q-tagged frames. For example, 0x1234 is set as the
custom 802.1Q ethertype on a trunk port, incoming frames containing that
ethertype are assigned to the VLAN contained in the tag following the
ethertype field, as they would be with a standard 802.1Q trunk. Frames arriving
on the port containing any other ethertype are looked upon as untagged
frames, and assigned to the native VLAN of that port.
◆
The specified ethertype only applies to ports configured in Uplink mode using
the switchport dot1q-tunnel mode command. If the port is in normal mode (i.e,
unspecified), the TPID is always 8100. If the port is in Access mode, received
packets are processes as untagged packets.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid 9100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (365)
show dot1q-tunnel This command displays information about QinQ tunnel ports.
Syntax
show dot1q-tunnel [interface interface [service svid] | service [svid]]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
svid - VLAN ID for the outer VLAN tag (SPVID). (Range: 1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 464 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
Example
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode uplink
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show dot1q-tunnel
802.1Q Tunnel Status : Enabled
Port
Mode
TPID (hex)
-------- ------ ---------Eth 1/ 1 Access
8100
Eth 1/ 2 Uplink
8100
Eth
1/ 3 Normal
8100
.
.
.
Console#show dot1q-tunnel interface ethernet 1/5
802.1Q Tunnel Service Subscriptions
Port
Match C-VID S-VID
-------- ----------- ----Eth 1/ 5
1
100
Console#show dot1q-tunnel service 100
802.1Q Tunnel Service Subscriptions
Port
Match C-VID S-VID
-------- ----------- ----Eth 1/ 5
1
100
Eth 1/ 6
1
100
Console#
Related Commands
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode (460)
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily
grouped into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass
traffic between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating
in a specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits
of VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required
protocol. When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be
determined based on the protocol type in use by the inbound packets.
– 465 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
Table 94: Protocol-based VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
protocol-vlan
protocol-group
Create a protocol group, specifying the supported
protocols
GC
protocol-vlan
protocol-group
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
IC
show protocol-vlan
protocol-group
Shows the configuration of protocol groups
PE
show interfaces
protocol-vlan
protocol-group
Shows the interfaces mapped to a protocol group and the PE
corresponding VLAN
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1. First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 450).
Although not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each
major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this
time.
2. Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the protocol-vlan protocol-group command (Global Configuration
mode).
3. Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
protocol-vlan protocol-group command (Interface Configuration mode).
protocol-vlan This command creates a protocol group, or to add specific protocols to a group. Use
protocol-group the no form to remove a protocol group.
(Configuring Groups)
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id [{add | remove}
frame-type frame protocol-type protocol]
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id
group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
frame11 - Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: ethernet, rfc_1042,
llc_other)
protocol - Protocol type. The only option for the llc_other frame type is
ipx_raw. The options for all other frames types include: arp, ip, ipv6, rarp.
Default Setting
No protocol groups are configured.
11. SNAP frame types are not supported by this switch due to hardware limitations.
– 466 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following creates protocol group 1, and specifies Ethernet frames with IP and
ARP protocol types:
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
protocol-vlan This command maps a protocol group to a VLAN for the current interface. Use the
protocol-group no form to remove the protocol mapping for this interface.
(Configuring Interfaces)
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan vlan-id priority priority
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan
group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
vlan-id - VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded.
(Range: 1-4094)
priority - The priority assigned to untagged ingress traffic.
(Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
Default Setting
No protocol groups are mapped for any interface.
Priority: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces via this
command. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN commands
(such as the vlan command), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol
type into the associated VLAN.
◆
When MAC-based, IP subnet-based, and protocol-based VLANs are supported
concurrently, priority is applied in this sequence, and then port-based VLANs
last.
◆
When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
– 467 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
■
If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules
applied to tagged frames.
■
If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is
forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
■
If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Example
The following example maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol
type specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 2 priority 0
Console(config-if)#
show protocol-vlan This command shows the frame and protocol type associated with protocol groups.
protocol-group
Syntax
show protocol-vlan protocol-group [group-id]
group-id - Group identifier for a protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Default Setting
All protocol groups are displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows protocol group 1 configured for IP over Ethernet:
Console#show protocol-vlan protocol-group
Protocol Group ID
Frame Type
Protocol Type
------------------ ------------- --------------1
ethernet
08 00
Console#
– 468 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring MAC Based VLANs
show interfaces This command shows the mapping from protocol groups to VLANs for the selected
protocol-vlan interfaces.
protocol-group
Syntax
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
The mapping for all interfaces is displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows that traffic entering Port 1 that matches the specifications for protocol
group 1 will be mapped to VLAN 2:
Console#show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Port
Protocol Group ID VLAN ID Priority
-------- ----------------- ------- -------Eth 1/1
1
vlan2
0
Console#
Configuring MAC Based VLANs
When using IEEE 802.1Q port-based VLAN classification, all untagged frames
received by a port are classified as belonging to the VLAN whose VID (PVID) is
associated with that port.
When MAC-based VLAN classification is enabled, the source address of untagged
ingress frames are checked against the MAC address-to-VLAN mapping table. If an
entry is found for that address, these frames are assigned to the VLAN indicated in
the entry. If no MAC address is matched, the untagged frames are classified as
belonging to the receiving port’s VLAN ID (PVID).
Table 95: MAC Based VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mac-vlan
Defines the IP Subnet VLANs
GC
show mac-vlan
Displays IP Subnet VLAN settings
PE
– 469 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring MAC Based VLANs
mac-vlan This command configures MAC address-to-VLAN mapping. Use the no form to
remove an assignment.
Syntax
mac-vlan mac-address mac-address [mask mask-address] vlan vlan-id
[priority priority]
no mac-vlan mac-address {mac-address [mask mask-address] | all}
mac-address – The source MAC address to be matched. Configured MAC
addresses can only be unicast addresses. The MAC address must be
specified in the format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx.
mask-address - Identifies a range of MAC addresses. The mask can be
specified in the format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx, where an
equivalent binary value “1” means relevant and “0” means ignore.
vlan-id – VLAN to which the matching source MAC address traffic is
forwarded. (Range: 1-4094)
priority – The priority assigned to untagged ingress traffic. (Range: 0-7,
where 7 is the highest priority)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The MAC-to-VLAN mapping applies to all ports on the switch.
◆
Source MAC addresses can be mapped to only one VLAN ID.
◆
Configured MAC addresses cannot be broadcast or multicast addresses.
◆
When MAC-based, IP subnet-based, and protocol-based VLANs are supported
concurrently, priority is applied in this sequence, and then port-based VLANs
last.
◆
The binary equivalent mask matching the characters in the front of the first
non-zero character must all be 1s (e.g., 111, i.e., it cannot be 101 or 001...). A
mask for the MAC address: 00-50-6e-00-5f-b1 translated into binary:
MAC: 00000000-01010000-01101110-00000000-01011111-10110001
could be: 11111111-11xxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx
So the mask in hexadecimal for this example could be:
ff-fx-xx-xx-xx-xx/ff-c0-00-00-00-00/ff-e0-00-00-00-00
– 470 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
Example
The following example assigns traffic from source MAC address 00-00-00-11-22-33
to VLAN 10.
Console(config)#mac-vlan mac-address 00-00-00-11-22-33 mask FF-FF-FF-FF-00-00
vlan 10
Console(config)#
show mac-vlan This command displays MAC address-to-VLAN assignments.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use this command to display MAC address-to-VLAN mappings.
Example
The following example displays all configured MAC address-based VLANs.
Console#show mac-vlan
MAC Address
VLAN ID
----------------- -------00-00-00-11-22-33
10
Console#
Priority
-------0
Configuring Voice VLANs
The switch allows you to specify a Voice VLAN for the network and set a CoS priority
for the VoIP traffic. VoIP traffic can be detected on switch ports by using the source
MAC address of packets, or by using LLDP (IEEE 802.1AB) to discover connected
VoIP devices. When VoIP traffic is detected on a configured port, the switch
automatically assigns the port to the Voice VLAN. Alternatively, switch ports can be
manually configured.
Table 96: Voice VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
voice vlan
Defines the Voice VLAN ID
GC
voice vlan aging
Configures the aging time for Voice VLAN ports
GC
voice vlan mac-address
Configures VoIP device MAC addresses
GC
switchport voice vlan
Sets the Voice VLAN port mode
IC
switchport voice vlan
priority
Sets the VoIP traffic priority for ports
IC
switchport voice vlan rule
Sets the automatic VoIP traffic detection method for ports IC
– 471 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
Table 96: Voice VLAN Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
switchport voice vlan
security
Enables Voice VLAN security on ports
IC
show voice vlan
Displays Voice VLAN settings
PE
voice vlan This command enables VoIP traffic detection and defines the Voice VLAN ID. Use
the no form to disable the Voice VLAN.
Syntax
voice vlan voice-vlan-id
no voice vlan
voice-vlan-id - Specifies the voice VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When IP telephony is deployed in an enterprise network, it is recommended to
isolate the Voice over IP (VoIP) network traffic from other data traffic. Traffic
isolation helps prevent excessive packet delays, packet loss, and jitter, which
results in higher voice quality. This is best achieved by assigning all VoIP traffic
to a single VLAN.
◆
VoIP traffic can be detected on switch ports by using the source MAC address of
packets, or by using LLDP (IEEE 802.1AB) to discover connected VoIP devices.
When VoIP traffic is detected on a configured port, the switch automatically
assigns the port as a tagged member of the Voice VLAN.
◆
Only one Voice VLAN is supported and it must already be created on the switch
before it can be specified as the Voice VLAN.
◆
The Voice VLAN ID cannot be modified when the global auto-detection status
is enabled (see the switchport voice vlan command.
Example
The following example enables VoIP traffic detection and specifies the Voice VLAN
ID as 1234.
Console(config)#voice vlan 1234
Console(config)#
– 472 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
voice vlan aging This command sets the Voice VLAN ID time out. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
voice vlan aging minutes
no voice vlan
minutes - Specifies the port Voice VLAN membership time out.
(Range: 5-43200 minutes)
Default Setting
1440 minutes
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Voice VLAN aging time is the time after which a port is removed from the Voice
VLAN when VoIP traffic is no longer received on the port.
The VoIP aging time starts to count down when the OUI’s MAC address expires from
the MAC address table. Therefore, the MAC address aging time should be added to
the overall aging time. For example, if you configure the MAC address table aging
time to 30 seconds, and voice VLAN aging time to 5 minutes, then after 5.5 minutes,
a port will be removed from the voice VLAN when VoIP traffic is no longer received
on the port. Alternatively, if you clear the MAC address table manually, then the
switch will also start counting down the voice VLAN aging time.
Note that when the switchport voice vlan command is set to auto mode, the
remaining aging time displayed by the show voice vlan command will be
displayed. Otherwise, if the switchport voice vlan command is disabled or set to
manual mode, the remaining aging time will display “NA.”
Example
The following example configures the Voice VLAN aging time as 3000 minutes.
Console(config)#voice vlan aging 3000
Console(config)#
– 473 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
voice vlan This command specifies MAC address ranges to add to the OUI Telephony list. Use
mac-address the no form to remove an entry from the list.
Syntax
voice vlan mac-address mac-address mask mask-address
[description description]
no voice vlan mac-address mac-address mask mask-address
mac-address - Defines a MAC address OUI that identifies VoIP devices in the
network. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx; for example,
01-23-45-00-00-00)
mask-address - Identifies a range of MAC addresses. (Range: 80-00-00-0000-00 to FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF)
description - User-defined text that identifies the VoIP devices. (Range: 1-32
characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ VoIP devices attached to the switch can be identified by the manufacturer’s
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) in the source MAC address of received
packets. OUI numbers are assigned to manufacturers and form the first three
octets of device MAC addresses. The MAC OUI numbers for VoIP equipment can
be configured on the switch so that traffic from these devices is recognized as
VoIP.
◆
Setting a mask of FF-FF-FF-00-00-00 identifies all devices with the same OUI
(the first three octets). Other masks restrict the MAC address range. Setting a
mask of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF specifies a single MAC address.
Example
The following example adds a MAC OUI to the OUI Telephony list.
Console(config)#voice vlan mac-address 00-12-34-56-78-90 mask ff-ff-ff-00-0000 description A new phone
Console(config)#
– 474 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
switchport voice vlan This command specifies the Voice VLAN mode for ports. Use the no form to disable
the Voice VLAN feature on the port.
Syntax
switchport voice vlan {manual | auto}
no switchport voice vlan
manual - The Voice VLAN feature is enabled on the port, but the port must
be manually added to the Voice VLAN.
auto - The port will be added as a tagged member to the Voice VLAN when
VoIP traffic is detected on the port.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
When auto is selected, you must select the method to use for detecting VoIP
traffic, either OUI or 802.1AB (LLDP) using the switchport voice vlan rule
command. When OUI is selected, be sure to configure the MAC address ranges
in the Telephony OUI list using the voice vlan mac-address command.
◆
◆
All ports are set to VLAN hybrid mode by default. Prior to enabling VoIP for a
port (by setting the VoIP mode to Auto or Manual as described below), ensure
that VLAN membership is not set to access mode using the switchport mode
command.
Example
The following example sets port 1 to Voice VLAN auto mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport voice vlan auto
Console(config-if)#
switchport voice vlan This command specifies a CoS priority for VoIP traffic on a port. Use the no form to
priority restore the default priority on a port.
Syntax
switchport voice vlan priority priority-value
no switchport voice vlan priority
priority-value - The CoS priority value. (Range: 0-6)
– 475 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
Default Setting
6
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
Specifies a CoS priority to apply to the port VoIP traffic on the Voice VLAN. The
priority of any received VoIP packet is overwritten with the new priority when the
Voice VLAN feature is active for the port.
Example
The following example sets the CoS priority to 5 on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport voice vlan priority 5
Console(config-if)#
switchport voice vlan This command selects a method for detecting VoIP traffic on a port. Use the no
rule form to disable the detection method on the port.
Syntax
[no] switchport voice vlan rule {oui | lldp}
oui - Traffic from VoIP devices is detected by the Organizationally Unique
Identifier (OUI) of the source MAC address.
lldp - Uses LLDP to discover VoIP devices attached to the port.
Default Setting
OUI: Enabled
LLDP: Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When OUI is selected, be sure to configure the MAC address ranges in the
Telephony OUI list (see the voice vlan mac-address command. MAC address OUI
numbers must be configured in the Telephony OUI list so that the switch
recognizes the traffic as being from a VoIP device.
◆
LLDP checks that the “telephone bit” in the system capability TLV is turned on.
See “LLDP Commands” on page 595 for more information on LLDP.
– 476 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
Example
The following example enables the OUI method on port 1 for detecting VoIP traffic.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport voice vlan rule oui
Console(config-if)#
switchport voice vlan This command enables security filtering for VoIP traffic on a port. Use the no form
security to disable filtering on a port.
Syntax
[no] switchport voice vlan security
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Security filtering discards any non-VoIP packets received on the port that are
tagged with the voice VLAN ID. VoIP traffic is identified by source MAC
addresses configured in the Telephony OUI list, or through LLDP that discovers
VoIP devices attached to the switch. Packets received from non-VoIP sources
are dropped.
◆
When enabled, be sure the MAC address ranges for VoIP devices are configured
in the Telephony OUI list (voice vlan mac-address).
Example
The following example enables security filtering on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport voice vlan security
Console(config-if)#
show voice vlan This command displays the Voice VLAN settings on the switch and the OUI
Telephony list.
Syntax
show voice vlan {oui | status}
oui - Displays the OUI Telephony list.
status - Displays the global and port Voice VLAN settings.
– 477 –
Chapter 18 | VLAN Commands
Configuring Voice VLANs
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
When the switchport voice vlan command is set to auto mode, the remaining aging
time displayed by the show voice vlan command will be displayed (or “Not Start”
will be displayed). Otherwise, if the switchport voice vlan command is disabled or
set to manual mode, the remaining aging time will display “NA.”
Example
Console#show voice vlan status
Global Voice VLAN Status
Voice VLAN Status
: Enabled
Voice VLAN ID
: 1234
Voice VLAN aging time : 1440 minutes
Voice VLAN Port Summary
Port
Mode
Security Rule
Priority Remaining Age
(minutes)
-------- -------- -------- --------- -------- ------------Eth 1/ 1 Auto
Enabled OUI
6 100
Eth 1/ 2 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/ 3 Manual
Enabled OUI
5 100
Eth 1/ 4 Auto
Disabled OUI
6 Not Start
Eth 1/ 5 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/ 6 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/ 7 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/ 8 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/ 9 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Eth 1/10 Disabled Disabled OUI
6 NA
Console#show voice vlan oui
OUI Address
Mask
----------------- ----------------00-12-34-56-78-9A FF-FF-FF-00-00-00
00-11-22-33-44-55 FF-FF-FF-00-00-00
00-98-76-54-32-10 FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
Console#
– 478 –
Description
-----------------------------old phones
new phones
Chris' phone
19
ERPS Commands
The G.8032 recommendation, also referred to as Ethernet Ring Protection
Switching (ERPS), can be used to increase the availability and robustness of
Ethernet rings.
This chapter describes commands used to configure ERPS.
Table 97: ERPS Commands
Command
Function
Mode
erps
Enables ERPS globally on the switch
GC
erps domain
Creates an ERPS ring and enters ERPS configuration mode
GC
control-vlan
Adds a Control VLAN to an ERPS ring
ERPS
enable
Activates the current ERPS ring
ERPS
guard-timer
Sets the timer to prevent ring nodes from receiving outdated R-APS
messages
ERPS
holdoff-timer
Sets the timer to filter out intermittent link faults
ERPS
major-domain
Specifies the ERPS ring used for sending control packets
ERPS
meg-level
Sets the Maintenance Entity Group level for a ring
ERPS
mep-monitor
Specifies the CCM MEPs used to monitor the link on a ring node
ERPS
node-id
Sets the MAC address for a ring node
ERPS
non-erpsdev-protect
Sends non-standard health-check packets when in protection state
ERPS
non-revertive
Enables non-revertive mode, which requires the protection state on
the RPL to manually cleared
ERPS
propagate-tc
Enables propagation of topology change messages from a secondary ERPS
ring to the primary ring
raps-def-mac
Sets the switch’s MAC address to be used as the node identifier in RAPS messages
ERPS
raps-withoutvc
Terminates the R-APS channel at the primary ring to sub-ring
interconnection nodes
ERPS
ring-port
Configures a node’s connection to the ring through the east or west
interface
ERPS
rpl neighbor
Configures a ring node to be the RPL neighbor
ERPS
rpl owner
Configures a ring node to be the RPL owner
ERPS
version
Specifies compatibility with ERPS version 1 or 2
ERPS
wtr-timer
Sets timer to verify that the ring has stabilized before blocking the
RPL after recovery from a signal failure
ERPS
– 479 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Table 97: ERPS Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
clear erps
statistics
Clears statistics, including SF, NR, NR-RB, FS, MS, Event, and Health
protocol messages
PE
erps clear
Manually clears protection state which has been invoked by a Forced PE
Switch or Manual Switch command, and the node is operating under
non-revertive mode; or before the WTR or WTB timer expires when
the node is operating in revertive mode
erps
forced-switch
Blocks the specified ring port
erps
Blocks the specified ring port, in the absence of a failure or an erps
manual-switch forced-switch command
show erps
PE
PE
Displays status information for all configured rings, or for a specified PE
ring
Configuration Guidelines for ERPS
1. Create an ERPS ring: Create a ring using the erps domain command. The ring
name is used as an index in the G.8032 database.
2. Configure the east and west interfaces: Each node on the ring connects to it
through two ring ports. Use the ring-port command to configure one port
connected to the next node in the ring to the east (or clockwise direction); and
then use the ring-port command again to configure another port facing west in
the ring.
3. Configure the RPL owner: Configure one node in the ring as the Ring Protection
Link (RPL) owner using the rpl owner command. When this switch is configured
as the RPL owner, the west ring port is set as being connected to the RPL. Under
normal operations (Idle state), the RPL is blocked to ensure that a loop cannot
form in the ring. If a signal failure brings down any other link in the ring, the RPL
will be unblocked (Protection state) to ensure proper connectivity among all
ring nodes until the failure is recovered.
4. Configure ERPS timers: Use the guard-timer command to set the timer is used
to prevent ring nodes from receiving outdated R-APS messages, the holdofftimer command to filter out intermittent link faults, and the wtr-timer
command to verify that the ring has stabilized before blocking the RPL after
recovery from a signal failure.
5. Configure the ERPS Control VLAN (CVLAN): Use the control-vlan command to
create the VLAN used to pass R-APS ring maintenance commands. The CVLAN
must NOT be configured with an IP address. In addition, only ring ports may be
added to the CVLAN (prior to configuring the VLAN as a CVLAN). No other ports
can be members of this VLAN (once set as a CVLAN). Also, the ring ports of the
CVLAN must be tagged. Failure to observe these restrictions can result in a loop
in the network.
– 480 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
6. Enable ERPS: Before enabling a ring as described in the next step, first use the
erps command to globally enable ERPS on the switch. If ERPS has not yet been
enabled or has been disabled with the no erps command, no ERPS rings will
work.
7. Enable an ERPS ring: Before an ERPS ring can work, it must be enabled using the
enable command. When configuration is completed and the ring enabled, RAPS messages will start flowing in the control VLAN, and normal traffic will
begin to flow in the data VLANs. To stop a ring, it can be disabled on any node
using the no enable command.
8. Display ERPS status information: Use the show erps command to display
general ERPS status information or detailed ERPS status information for a
specific ring.
erps This command enables ERPS on the switch. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] erps
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
ERPS must be enabled globally on the switch before it can enabled on an ERPS ring
using the enable command.
Example
Console(config)#erps
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (483)
– 481 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
erps domain This command creates an ERPS ring and enters ERPS configuration mode for the
specified domain. Use the no form to delete a ring.
Syntax
erps domain ring-name [id ring-id]
no erps domain ring-name
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-12 characters)
ring-id - ERPS ring identifier used in R-APS messages. (Range: 1-255)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Service Instances within each ring are based on a unique maintenance
association for the specific users, distinguished by the ring name, maintenance
level, maintenance association’s name, and assigned VLAN. Up to 6 ERPS rings
can be configured on the switch.
◆
R-APS information is carried in an R-APS PDUs. The last octet of the MAC
address is designated as the Ring ID (01-19-A7-00-00-[Ring ID]). If use of the
default MAC address is disabled with the no raps-def-mac command, then the
Ring ID configured by the erps domain command will be used in R-APS PDUs.
Example
Console(config)#erps domain r&d id 1
Console(config-erps)#
control-vlan This command specifies a dedicated VLAN used for sending and receiving ERPS
protocol messages. Use the no form to remove the Control VLAN.
Syntax
[no] control-vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
– 482 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Command Usage
◆ Configure one control VLAN for each ERPS ring. First create the VLAN to be used
as the control VLAN (vlan, page 450), add the ring ports for the east and west
interface as tagged members to this VLAN (switchport allowed vlan, page 453),
and then use the control-vlan command to add it to the ring.
◆
◆
The following restrictions are recommended to avoid creating a loop in the
network or other problems which may occur under some situations:
■
The Control VLAN must not be configured as a Layer 3 interface (with an IP
address), a dynamic VLAN (with GVRP enabled), nor as a private VLAN.
■
In addition, only ring ports may be added to the Control VLAN. No other
ports can be members of this VLAN.
■
Also, the ring ports of the Control VLAN must be tagged.
Once the ring has been activated with the enable command, the configuration
of the control VLAN cannot be modified. Use the no enable command to stop
the ERPS ring before making any configuration changes to the control VLAN.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name rdc media ethernet state active
Console(config-vlan)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#erps domain rd1
Console(config-erps)#control-vlan 2
Console(config-erps)#
enable This command activates the current ERPS ring. Use the no form to disable the
current ring.
Syntax
[no] enable
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Before enabling a ring, the global ERPS function should be enabled with the
erps command, the east and west ring ports configured on each node with the
– 483 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
ring-port command, the RPL owner specified with the rpl owner command,
and the control VLAN configured with the control-vlan command.
◆
Once enabled, the RPL owner node and non-owner node state machines will
start, and the ring will enter idle state if no signal failures are detected.
Example
Console(config-erps)#enable
Console(config-erps)#
Related Commands
erps (481)
guard-timer This command sets the guard timer to prevent ring nodes from receiving outdated
R-APS messages. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
guard-timer milliseconds
milliseconds - The guard timer is used to prevent ring nodes from receiving
outdated R-APS messages. During the duration of the guard timer, all
received R-APS messages are ignored by the ring protection control
process, giving time for old messages still circulating on the ring to expire.
(Range: 10-2000 milliseconds, in steps of 10 milliseconds)
Default Setting
500 milliseconds
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
The guard timer duration should be greater than the maximum expected
forwarding delay for an R-APS message to pass around the ring. A side-effect of the
guard timer is that during its duration, a node will be unaware of new or existing
ring requests transmitted from other nodes.
Example
Console(config-erps)#guard-timer 300
Console(config-erps)#
– 484 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
holdoff-timer This command sets the timer to filter out intermittent link faults. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
holdoff-timer milliseconds
milliseconds - The hold-off timer is used to filter out intermittent link faults.
Faults will only be reported to the ring protection mechanism if this timer
expires. (Range: 0-10000 milliseconds, in steps of 100 milliseconds)
Default Setting
0 milliseconds
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
In order to coordinate timing of protection switches at multiple layers, a hold-off
timer may be required. Its purpose is to allow, for example, a server layer protection
switch to have a chance to fix the problem before switching at a client layer.
When a new defect or more severe defect occurs (new Signal Failure), this event will
not be reported immediately to the protection switching mechanism if the
provisioned hold-off timer value is non-zero. Instead, the hold-off timer will be
started. When the timer expires, whether a defect still exists or not, the timer will be
checked. If one does exist, that defect will be reported to the protection switching
mechanism. The reported defect need not be the same one that started the timer.
Example
Console(config-erps)#holdoff-timer 300
Console(config-erps)#
major-domain This command specifies the ERPS ring used for sending control packets. Use the no
form to remove the current setting.
Syntax
major-domain name
no major-domain
name - Name of the ERPS ring used for sending control packets.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
– 485 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This switch can support up to six rings. However, ERPS control packets can only
be sent on one ring. This command is used to indicate that the current ring is a
secondary ring, and to specify the major ring which will be used to send ERPS
control packets.
◆
The Ring Protection Link (RPL) is the west port and can not be configured. So
the physical port on a secondary ring must be the west port. In other words, if a
domain has two physical ring ports, this ring can only be a major ring, not a
secondary ring (or sub-domain) which can have only one physical ring port.
This command will therefore fail if the east port is already configured (see the
ring-port command).
Example
Console(config-erps)#major-domain rd0
Console(config-erps)#
meg-level This command sets the Maintenance Entity Group level for a ring. Use the no form
to restore the default setting.
Syntax
meg-level level
level - The maintenance entity group (MEG) level which provides a
communication channel for ring automatic protection switching (R-APS)
information. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
1
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This parameter is used to ensure that received R-APS PDUs are directed for this
ring. A unique level should be configured for each local ring if there are many RAPS PDUs passing through this switch.
◆
If CFM continuity check messages are used to monitor the link status of an ERPS
ring node as specified by the mep-monitor command, then the MEG level set
by the meg-level command must match the authorized maintenance level of
the CFM domain to which the specified MEP belongs. The MEP’s primary VLAN
must also be the same as that used for the ERPS ring’s control VLAN.
– 486 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Example
Console(config-erps)#meg-level 0
Console(config-erps)#
Related Commands
ethernet cfm domain (697)
ethernet cfm mep (702)
mep-monitor This command specifies the CFM MEPs used to monitor the link on a ring node. Use
the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
mep-monitor {east | west} mep mpid
east - Connects to next ring node to the east.
west - Connects to next ring node to the west.
mpid – Maintenance end point identifier. (Range: 1-8191)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If this command is used to monitor the link status of an ERPS node with CFM
continuity check messages, then the MEG level set by the meg-level command
must match the authorized maintenance level of the CFM domain to which the
specified MEP belongs.
◆
To ensure complete monitoring of a ring node, use the mep-monitor
command to specify the CFM MEPs used to monitor both the east and west
ports of the ring node.
◆
If CFM determines that a MEP node which has been configured to monitor a
ring port with this command has gone down, this information is passed to
ERPS, which in turn processes it as a ring node failure. For more information on
how ERPS recovers from a node failure, refer to “Ethernet Ring Protection
Switching” in the Web Management Guide.
Example
Console(config-erps)#mep-monitor east mep 1
Console(config-erps)#
– 487 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Related Commands
ethernet cfm domain (697)
ethernet cfm mep (702)
node-id This command sets the MAC address for a ring node. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
node-id mac-address
mac-address – A MAC address unique to the ring node. The MAC address
must be specified in the format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx.
Default Setting
CPU MAC address
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The ring node identifier is used to identify a node in R-APS messages for both
automatic and manual switching recovery operations.
For example, a node that has one ring port in SF condition and detects that the
condition has been cleared, will continuously transmit R-APS (NR) messages
with its own Node ID as priority information over both ring ports, informing its
neighbors that no request is present at this node. When another recovered
node holding the link blocked receives this message, it compares the Node ID
information with its own. If the received R-APS (NR) message has a higher
priority, this unblocks its ring ports. Otherwise, the block remains unchanged.
◆
The node identifier may also be used for debugging, such as to distinguish
messages when a node is connected to more than one ring.
Example
Console(config-erps)#node-id 00-12-CF-61-24-2D
Console(config-erps)#
non-erps-dev-protect This command sends non-standard health-check packets when an owner node
enters protection state without any link down event having been detected through
SF messages. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] non-erps-dev-protect
– 488 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The RPL owner node detects a failed link when it receives R-APS (SF - signal
fault) messages from nodes adjacent to the failed link. The owner then enters
protection state by unblocking the RPL. However, using this standard recovery
procedure may cause a non-EPRS device to become isolated when the ERPS
device adjacent to it detects a continuity check message (CCM) loss event and
blocks the link between the non-ERPS device and ERPS device.
CCMs are propagated by the Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) protocol as
described under “CFM Commands” on page 691. If the standard recovery
procedure were used as shown in the following figure, and node E detected
CCM loss, it would send an R-APS (SF) message to the RPL owner and block the
link to node D, isolating that non-ERPS device.
Figure 2: Non-ERPS Device Protection
RPL
A
B
blocked
C
D
blocked
fault
X
non-ERPS
E
F
RPL
Owner
X
non-ERPS
When non-ERPS device protection is enabled on the ring, the ring ports on the
RPL owner node and non-owner nodes will not be blocked when signal loss is
detected by CCM loss events.
◆
When non-ERPS device protection is enabled on an RPL owner node, it will
send non-standard health-check packets to poll the ring health when it enters
the protection state. It does not use the normal procedure of waiting to receive
an R-APS (NR - no request) message from nodes adjacent to the recovered link.
Instead, it waits to see if the non-standard health-check packets loop back. If
they do, indicating that the fault has been resolved, the RPL will be blocked.
After blocking the RPL, the owner node will still transmit an R-APS (NR, RB - ring
blocked) message. ERPS-compliant nodes receiving this message flush their
forwarding database and unblock previously blocked ports. The ring is now
returned to Idle state.
Example
Console(config-erps)#non-erps-dev-protect
Console(config-erps)#
– 489 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
non-revertive This command enables non-revertive mode, which requires the protection state on
the RPL to manually cleared. Use the no form to restore the default revertive mode.
Syntax
[no] non-revertive
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Revertive behavior allows the switch to automatically return the RPL from
Protection state to Idle state through the exchange of protocol messages.
Non-revertive behavior for Protection, Forced Switch, and Manual Switch states
are basically the same. Non-revertive behavior requires the erps clear
command to used to return the RPL from Protection state to Idle state.
◆
Recovery for Protection Switching – A ring node that has one or more ring ports
in an SF (Signal Fail) condition, upon detecting the SF condition cleared, keeps
at least one of its ring ports blocked for the traffic channel and for the R-APS
channel, until the RPL is blocked as a result of ring protection reversion, or until
there is another higher priority request (e.g., an SF condition) in the ring.
A ring node that has one ring port in an SF condition and detects the SF
condition cleared, continuously transmits the R-APS (NR – no request) message
with its own Node ID as the priority information over both ring ports, informing
that no request is present at this ring node and initiates a guard timer. When
another recovered ring node (or nodes) holding the link block receives this
message, it compares the Node ID information with its own Node ID. If the
received R-APS (NR) message has the higher priority, this ring node unblocks its
ring ports. Otherwise, the block remains unchanged. As a result, there is only
one link with one end blocked.
The ring nodes stop transmitting R-APS (NR) messages when they accept an RAPS (NR, RB – RPL Blocked), or when another higher priority request is received.
■
Recovery with Revertive Mode – When all ring links and ring nodes have
recovered and no external requests are active, reversion is handled in the
following way:
a. The reception of an R-APS (NR) message causes the RPL Owner Node to
start the WTR (Wait-to-Restore) timer.
b. The WTR timer is cancelled if during the WTR period a higher priority
request than NR is accepted by the RPL Owner Node or is declared
locally at the RPL Owner Node.
c. When the WTR timer expires, without the presence of any other higher
priority request, the RPL Owner Node initiates reversion by blocking its
– 490 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
traffic channel over the RPL, transmitting an R-APS (NR, RB) message
over both ring ports, informing the ring that the RPL is blocked, and
performing a flush FDB action.
d. The acceptance of the R-APS (NR, RB) message causes all ring nodes to
unblock any blocked non-RPL link that does not have an SF condition. If
it is an R-APS (NR, RB) message without a DNF (do not flush) indication,
all ring nodes flush the FDB.
■
Recovery with Non-revertive Mode – In non-revertive operation, the ring
does not automatically revert when all ring links and ring nodes have
recovered and no external requests are active. Non-revertive operation is
handled in the following way:
a. The RPL Owner Node does not generate a response on reception of an
R-APS (NR) messages.
b. When other healthy ring nodes receive the NR (Node ID) message, no
action is taken in response to the message.
c. When the operator issues the erps clear command for non-revertive
mode at the RPL Owner Node, the non-revertive operation is cleared,
the RPL Owner Node blocks its RPL port, and transmits an R-APS (NR,
RB) message in both directions, repeatedly.
d. Upon receiving an R-APS (NR, RB) message, any blocking node should
unblock its non-failed ring port. If it is an R-APS (NR, RB) message
without a DNF indication, all ring nodes flush the FDB.
◆
Recovery for Forced Switching – An erps forced-switch command is removed
by issuing the erps clear command to the same ring node where Forced Switch
mode is in effect. The clear command removes any existing local operator
commands, and triggers reversion if the ring is in revertive behavior mode.
The ring node where the Forced Switch was cleared keeps the ring port
blocked for the traffic channel and for the R-APS channel, due to the previous
Forced Switch command. This ring port is kept blocked until the RPL is blocked
as a result of ring protection reversion, or until there is another higher priority
request (e.g., an SF condition) in the ring.
The ring node where the Forced Switch was cleared continuously transmits the
R-APS (NR) message on both ring ports, informing other nodes that no request
is present at this ring node. The ring nodes stop transmitting R-APS (NR)
messages when they accept an RAPS (NR, RB) message, or when another higher
priority request is received.
If the ring node where the Forced Switch was cleared receives an R-APS (NR)
message with a Node ID higher than its own Node ID, it unblocks any ring port
which does not have an SF condition and stops transmitting R-APS (NR)
message over both ring ports.
■
Recovery with revertive mode is handled in the following way:
a. The reception of an R-APS (NR) message causes the RPL Owner Node to
start the WTB timer.
– 491 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
b. The WTB timer is cancelled if during the WTB period a higher priority
request than NR is accepted by the RPL Owner Node or is declared
locally at the RPL Owner Node.
c. When the WTB timer expires, in the absence of any other higher priority
request, the RPL Owner Node initiates reversion by blocking the traffic
channel over the RPL, transmitting an R-APS (NR, RB) message over
both ring ports, informing the ring that the RPL is blocked, and flushes
the FDB.
d. The acceptance of the R-APS (NR, RB) message causes all ring nodes to
unblock any blocked non-RPL that does not have an SF condition. If it is
an R-APS (NR, RB) message without a DNF indication, all ring nodes
flush their FDB. This action unblocks the ring port which was blocked as
a result of an operator command.
■
Recovery with non-revertive mode is handled in the following way:
a. The RPL Owner Node, upon reception of an R-APS(NR) message and in
the absence of any other higher priority request does not perform any
action.
b. Then, after the operator issues the erps clear command at the RPL
Owner Node, this ring node blocks the ring port attached to the RPL,
transmits an R-APS (NR, RB) message on both ring ports, informing the
ring that the RPL is blocked, and flushes its FDB.
c. The acceptance of the R-APS (NR, RB) message triggers all ring nodes to
unblock any blocked non-RPL which does not have an SF condition. If it
is an R-APS (NR, RB) message without a DNF indication, all ring nodes
flush their FDB. This action unblocks the ring port which was blocked as
result of an operator command.
◆
Recovery for Manual Switching – An erps manual-switch command is removed
by issuing the erps clear command at the same ring node where the Manual
Switch is in effect. The clear command removes any existing local operator
commands, and triggers reversion if the ring is in revertive behavior mode.
The ring node where the Manual Switch was cleared keeps the ring port
blocked for the traffic channel and for the R-APS channel, due to the previous
Manual Switch command. This ring port is kept blocked until the RPL is blocked
as a result of ring protection reversion, or until there is another higher priority
request (e.g., an SF condition) in the ring.
The Ethernet Ring Node where the Manual Switch was cleared continuously
transmits the R-APS (NR) message on both ring ports, informing that no request
is present at this ring node. The ring nodes stop transmitting R-APS (NR)
messages when they accept an RAPS (NR, RB) message, or when another higher
priority request is received.
If the ring node where the Manual Switch was cleared receives an R-APS (NR)
message with a Node ID higher than its own Node ID, it unblocks any ring port
which does not have an SF condition and stops transmitting R-APS (NR)
message on both ring ports.
– 492 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
■
Recovery with revertive mode is handled in the following way:
a. The RPL Owner Node, upon reception of an R-APS (NR) message and in
the absence of any other higher priority request, starts the WTB timer
and waits for it to expire. While the WTB timer is running, any latent RAPS (MS) message is ignored due to the higher priority of the WTB
running signal.
b. When the WTB timer expires, it generates the WTB expire signal. The
RPL Owner Node, upon reception of this signal, initiates reversion by
blocking the traffic channel on the RPL, transmitting an R-APS (NR, RB)
message over both ring ports, informing the ring that the RPL is
blocked, and flushes its FDB.
c. The acceptance of the R-APS (NR, RB) message causes all ring nodes to
unblock any blocked non-RPL that does not have an SF condition. If it is
an R-APS (NR, RB) message without a DNF indication, all Ethernet Ring
Nodes flush their FDB. This action unblocks the ring port which was
blocked as a result of an operator command.
■
Recovery with non-revertive mode is handled in the following way:
a. The RPL Owner Node, upon reception of an R-APS (NR) message and in
the absence of any other higher priority request does not perform any
action.
b. Then, after the operator issues the erps clear command at the RPL
Owner Node, this ring node blocks the ring port attached to the RPL,
transmits an R-APS (NR, RB) message over both ring ports, informing
the ring that the RPL is blocked, and flushes its FDB.
c. The acceptance of the R-APS (NR, RB) message triggers all ring nodes to
unblock any blocked non-RPL which does not have an SF condition. If it
is an R-APS (NR, RB) message without a DNF indication, all ring nodes
flush their FDB. This action unblocks the ring port which was blocked as
result of an operator command.
Example
Console(config-erps)#non-revertive
Console(config-erps)#
propagate-tc This command enables propagation of topology change messages for a secondary
ring to the primary ring. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] propagate-tc
Default Setting
Disabled
– 493 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When a secondary ring detects a topology change, it can pass a message about
this event to the major ring. When the major ring receives this kind of message
from a secondary ring, it can clear the MAC addresses on its ring ports to help
the secondary ring restore its connections more quickly through protection
switching.
◆
When the MAC addresses are cleared, data traffic may flood onto the major
ring. The data traffic will become stable after the MAC addresses are learned
again. The major ring will not be broken, but the bandwidth of data traffic on
the major ring may suffer for a short period of time due to this flooding
behavior.
Example
Console(config-erps)#propagate-tc
Console(config-erps)#
raps-def-mac This command sets the switch’s MAC address to be used as the node identifier in RAPS messages. Use the no form to use the node identifier specified in the G8032
standards.
Syntax
[no] raps-def-mac
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When ring nodes running ERPSv1 and ERPSv2 co-exist on the same ring, the
Ring ID of each ring node must be configured as “1”.
◆
If this command is disabled, the following strings are used as the node
identifier:
■
ERPSv1: 01-19-A7-00-00-01
■
ERPSv2: 01-19-A7-00-00-[Ring ID]
Example
Console(config-erps)#raps-def-mac
Console(config-erps)#
– 494 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
raps-without-vc This command terminates the R-APS channel at the primary ring to sub-ring
interconnection nodes. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] raps-without-vc
Default Setting
R-APS with Virtual Channel
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ A sub-ring may be attached to a primary ring with or without a virtual channel.
A virtual channel is used to connect two interconnection points on the subring, tunneling R-APS control messages across an arbitrary Ethernet network
topology. If a virtual channel is not used to cross the intermediate Ethernet
network, data in the traffic channel will still flow across the network, but the all
R-APS messages will be terminated at the interconnection points.
◆
Sub-ring with R-APS Virtual Channel – When using a virtual channel to tunnel
R-APS messages between interconnection points on a sub-ring, the R-APS
virtual channel may or may not follow the same path as the traffic channel over
the network. R-APS messages that are forwarded over the sub-ring’s virtual
channel are broadcast or multicast over the interconnected network. For this
reason the broadcast/multicast domain of the virtual channel should be limited
to the necessary links and nodes. For example, the virtual channel could span
only the interconnecting rings or sub-rings that are necessary for forwarding
R-APS messages of this sub-ring. Care must also be taken to ensure that the
local RAPS messages of the sub-ring being transported over the virtual channel
into the interconnected network can be uniquely distinguished from those of
other interconnected ring R-APS messages. This can be achieved by, for
example, by using separate VIDs for the virtual channels of different sub-rings.
Note that the R-APS virtual channel requires a certain amount of bandwidth to
forward R-APS messages on the interconnected Ethernet network where a subring is attached. Also note that the protection switching time of the sub-ring
may be affected if R-APS messages traverse a long distance over an R-APS
virtual channel.
– 495 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Figure 3: Sub-ring with Virtual Channel
RPL Port
Interconnection Node
Sub-ring
with Virtual
Channel
Ring Node
Major Ring
Virtual
Channel
◆
Sub-ring without R-APS Virtual Channel – Under certain circumstances it may
not be desirable to use a virtual channel to interconnect the sub-ring over an
arbitrary Ethernet network. In this situation, the R-APS messages are
terminated on the interconnection points. Since the sub-ring does not provide
an R-APS channel nor R-APS virtual channel beyond the interconnection points,
R-APS channel blocking is not employed on the normal ring links to avoid
channel segmentation. As a result, a failure at any ring link in the sub-ring will
cause the R-APS channel of the sub-ring to be segmented, thus preventing RAPS message exchange between some of the sub-ring’s ring nodes.
No R-APS messages are inserted or extracted by other rings or sub- rings at the
interconnection nodes where a sub-ring is attached. Hence there is no need for
either additional bandwidth or for different VIDs/Ring IDs for the ring
interconnection. Furthermore, protection switching time for a sub-ring is
independent from the configuration or topology of the interconnected rings. In
addition, this option always ensures that an interconnected network forms a
tree topology regardless of its interconnection configuration. This means that it
is not necessary to take precautions against forming a loop which is potentially
composed of a whole interconnected network.
Figure 4: Sub-ring without Virtual Channel
RPL Port
Interconnection Node
Sub-ring
with Virtual
Channel
Example
Console(config-erps)#raps-without-vc
Console(config-erps)#
– 496 –
Ring Node
Major Ring
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
ring-port This command configures a node’s connection to the ring through the east or west
interface. Use the no form to disassociate a node from the ring.
Syntax
ring-port {east | west} interface interface
east - Connects to next ring node to the east.
west - Connects to next ring node to the west.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
Not associated
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Each node must be connected to two neighbors on the ring. For convenience,
the ports connected are referred to as east and west ports. Alternatively, the
closest neighbor to the east should be the next node in the ring in a clockwise
direction, and the closest neighbor to the west should be the next node in the
ring in a counter-clockwise direction.
◆
Note that a ring port cannot be configured as a member of a spanning tree, a
dynamic trunk, or a static trunk.
◆
If a port channel (static trunk) is specified as a ring port, it can not be destroyed
before it is removed from the domain configuration.
◆
A static trunk will be treated as a signal fault, if it contains no member ports or
all of its member ports are in signal fault.
◆
If a static trunk is configured as a ring port prior to assigning any member ports,
spanning tree will be disabled for the first member port assigned to the static
trunk.
Example
Console(config-erps)#ring-port east interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-erps)#
– 497 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
rpl neighbor This command configures a ring node to be the Ring Protection Link (RPL)
neighbor. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
rpl neighbor
no rpl
Default Setting
None (that is, neither owner nor neighbor)
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The RPL neighbor node, when configured, is a ring node adjacent to the RPL
that is responsible for blocking its end of the RPL under normal conditions (i.e.,
the ring is established and no requests are present in the ring) in addition to the
block at the other end by the RPL Owner Node. The RPL neighbor node may
participate in blocking or unblocking its end of the RPL, but is not responsible
for activating the reversion behavior.
◆
Only one RPL owner can be configured on a ring. If the switch is set as the RPL
owner for an ERPS domain, the west ring port is set as one end of the RPL. If the
switch is set as the RPL neighbor for an ERPS domain, the east ring port is set as
the other end of the RPL.
◆
The east and west connections to the ring must be specified for all ring nodes
using the ring-port command. When this switch is configured as the RPL
neighbor, the east ring port is set as being connected to the RPL.
◆
Note that is not mandatory to declare a RPL neighbor.
Example
Console(config-erps)#rpl neighbor
Console(config-erps)#
rpl owner This command configures a ring node to be the Ring Protection Link (RPL) owner.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
rpl owner
no rpl
Default Setting
None (that is, neither owner nor neighbor)
– 498 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Only one RPL owner can be configured on a ring. The owner blocks traffic on
the RPL during Idle state, and unblocks it during Protection state (that is, when
a signal fault is detected on the ring or the protection state is enabled with the
erps forced-switch or erps manual-switch command).
◆
The east and west connections to the ring must be specified for all ring nodes
using the ring-port command. When this switch is configured as the RPL owner,
the west ring port is automatically set as being connected to the RPL.
Example
Console(config-erps)#rpl owner
Console(config-erps)#
version This command specifies compatibility with ERPS version 1 or 2.
Syntax
version {1 | 2}
1 - ERPS version 1 based on ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344.
2 - ERPS version 2 based on ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344 Version 2.
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
◆ In addition to the basic features provided by version 1, version 2 also supports:
◆
■
Multi-ring/ladder network support
■
Revertive/Non-revertive recovery
■
Forced Switch (FS) and Manual Switch (MS) commands for manually
blocking a particular ring port
■
Flush FDB (forwarding database) logic which reduces amount of flush FDB
operations in the ring
■
Support of multiple ERP instances on a single ring
Version 2 is backward compatible with Version 1. If version 2 is specified, the
inputs and commands are forwarded transparently. If set to version 1, MS and
FS operator commands are filtered, and the switch set to revertive mode.
– 499 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
◆
The version number is automatically set to “1” when a ring node, supporting
only the functionalities of G.8032v1, exists on the same ring with other nodes
that support G.8032v2.
◆
When ring nodes running G.8032v1 and G.8032v2 co-exist on a ring, the ring ID
of each node is configured as “1”.
◆
In version 1, the MAC address 01-19-A7-00-00-01 is used for the node identifier.
The raps-def-mac command has no effect.
Example
Console(config-erps)#version 1
Console(config-erps)#
wtr-timer This command sets the wait-to-restore timer which is used to verify that the ring
has stabilized before blocking the RPL after recovery from a signal failure. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
wtr-timer minutes
minutes - The wait-to-restore timer is used to verify that the ring has
stabilized before blocking the RPL after recovery from a signal failure.
(Range: 5-12 minutes)
Default Setting
5 minutes
Command Mode
ERPS Configuration
Command Usage
If the switch goes into ring protection state due to a signal failure, after the failure
condition is cleared, the RPL owner will start the wait-to-restore timer and wait until
it expires to verify that the ring has stabilized before blocking the RPL and returning
to the Idle (normal operating) state.
Example
Console(config-erps)#wtr-timer 10
Console(config-erps)#
– 500 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
clear erps statistics This command clears statistics, including SF, NR, NR-RB, FS, MS, Event, and Health
protocol messages.
Syntax
clear erps statistics [domain ring-name]
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-12 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear erps statistics domain r&d
Console#
erps clear This command manually clears the protection state which has been invoked by a
forced switch or manual switch command, and the node is operating under nonrevertive mode; or before the WTR or WTB timer expires when the node is
operating in revertive mode.
Syntax
erps clear domain ring-name
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-12 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Two steps are required to make a ring operating in non-revertive mode return
to Idle state from forced switch or manual switch state:
1. Issue an erps clear command to remove the forced switch command on
the node where a local forced switch command is active.
2. Issue an erps clear command on the RPL owner node to trigger the
reversion.
◆
The erps clear command will also stop the WTR and WTB delay timers and
reset their values.
◆
More detailed information about using this command for non-revertive mode
is included under the Command Usage section for the non-revertive command.
– 501 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Example
Console#erps clear domain r&d
Console#
erps forced-switch This command blocks the specified ring port.
Syntax
erps forced-switch [domain ring-name] {east | west}
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-12 characters)
east - East ring port.
west - West ring port.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ A ring with no pending request has a logical topology with the traffic channel
blocked at the RPL and unblocked on all other ring links. In this situation, the
erps forced-switch command triggers protection switching as follows:
a. The ring node where a forced switch command was issued blocks the traffic
channel and R-APS channel on the ring port to which the command was
issued, and unblocks the other ring port.
b. The ring node where the forced switch command was issued transmits RAPS messages indicating FS over both ring ports. R-APS (FS) messages are
continuously transmitted by this ring node while the local FS command is
the ring node’s highest priority command (see Table 98 on page 503). The
R-APS (FS) message informs other ring nodes of the FS command and that
the traffic channel is blocked on one ring port.
c. A ring node accepting an R-APS (FS) message, without any local higher
priority requests unblocks any blocked ring port. This action subsequently
unblocks the traffic channel over the RPL.
d. The ring node accepting an R-APS (FS) message, without any local higher
priority requests stops transmission of R-APS messages.
e. The ring node receiving an R-APS (FS) message flushes its FDB.
◆
Protection switching on a forced switch request is completed when the above
actions are performed by each ring node. At this point, traffic flows around the
ring are resumed. From this point on the following rules apply regarding
processing of further forced switch commands:
– 502 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
While an existing forced switch request is present in a ring, any new forced
switch request is accepted, except on a ring node having a prior local forced
switch request. The ring nodes where further forced switch commands are
issued block the traffic channel and R-APS channel on the ring port at which
the forced switch was issued. The ring node where the forced switch command
was issued transmits an R-APS message over both ring ports indicating FS. RAPS (FS) messages are continuously transmitted by this ring node while the
local FS command is the ring node’s highest priority command. As such, two or
more forced switches are allowed in the ring, which may inadvertently cause
the segmentation of an ring. It is the responsibility of the operator to prevent
this effect if it is undesirable.
Ring protection requests, commands and R-APS signals have the priorities as
specified in the following table.
Table 98: ERPS Request/State Priority
Request / State and Status
Type
Priority
Clear
local
highest
FS
local
|
R-APS (FS)
remote
|
local SF*
local
|
local clear SF
local
|
R-APS (SF)
remote
|
R-APS (MS)
remote
|
MS
local
|
WTR Expires
local
|
WTR Running
local
|
WTB Expires
local
|
WTB Running
local
|
R-APS (NR, RB)
remote
|
R-APS (NR)
remote
lowest
* If an Ethernet Ring Node is in the Forced Switch state, local SF is ignored.
◆
Recovery for forced switching under revertive and non-revertive mode is
described under the Command Usage section for the non-revertive command.
◆
When a ring is under an FS condition, and the node at which an FS command
was issued is removed or fails, the ring remains in FS state because the FS
command can only be cleared at node where the FS command was issued. This
results in an unrecoverable FS condition.
When performing a maintenance procedure (e.g., replacing, upgrading) on a
ring node (or a ring link), it is recommended that FS commands be issued at the
two adjacent ring nodes instead of directly issuing a FS command at the ring
– 503 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
node under maintenance in order to avoid falling into the above mentioned
unrecoverable situation.
Example
Console#erps forced-switch domain r&d west
Console#
erps manual-switch This command blocks the specified ring port, in the absence of a failure or an erps
forced-switch command.
Syntax
erps manual-switch [domain ring-name] {east | west}
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-12 characters)
east - East ring port.
west - West ring port.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ A ring with no request has a logical topology with the traffic channel blocked at
the RPL and unblocked on all other ring links. In this situation, the erps
manual-switch command triggers protection switching as follows:
a. If no other higher priority commands exist, the ring node, where a manual
switch command was issued, blocks the traffic channel and R-APS channel
on the ring port to which the command was issued, and unblocks the other
ring port.
b. If no other higher priority commands exist, the ring node where the
manual switch command was issued transmits R-APS messages over both
ring ports indicating MS. R-APS (MS) message are continuously transmitted
by this ring node while the local MS command is the ring node’s highest
priority command (see Table 98 on page 503). The R-APS (MS) message
informs other ring nodes of the MS command and that the traffic channel is
blocked on one ring port.
c. If no other higher priority commands exist and assuming the ring node was
in Idle state before the manual switch command was issued, the ring node
flushes its local FDB.
d. A ring node accepting an R-APS (MS) message, without any local higher
priority requests unblocks any blocked ring port which does not have an SF
condition. This action subsequently unblocks the traffic channel over the
RPL.
– 504 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
e. A ring node accepting an R-APS (MS) message, without any local higher
priority requests stops transmitting R-APS messages.
f. A ring node receiving an R-APS (MS) message flushes its FDB.
◆
Protection switching on a manual switch request is completed when the above
actions are performed by each ring node. At this point, traffic flows around the
ring are resumed. From this point on, the following rules apply regarding
processing of further manual switch commands:
a. While an existing manual switch request is present in the ring, any new
manual switch request is rejected. The request is rejected at the ring node
where the new request is issued and a notification is generated to inform
the operator that the new MS request was not accepted.
b. A ring node with a local manual switch command which receives an R-APS
(MS) message with a different Node ID clears its manual switch request and
starts transmitting R-APS (NR) messages. The ring node keeps the ring port
blocked due to the previous manual switch command.
c. An ring node with a local manual switch command that receives an R-APS
message or a local request of higher priority than R-APS (MS) clear its
manual switch request. The ring node then processes the new higher
priority request.
◆
Recovery for manual switching under revertive and non-revertive mode is
described under the Command Usage section for the non-revertive command.
Example
Console#erps manual-switch domain r&d west
Console#
show erps This command displays status information for all configured rings, or for a specified
ring
Syntax
show erps [domain ring-name] [statistics]
domain - Keyword to display ERPS ring configuration settings.
ring-name - Name of a specific ERPS ring. (Range: 1-32 characters)
statistics - Keyword to display ERPS ring statistics.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 505 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Example
This example displays a summary of all the ERPS rings configured on the switch.
Console#show erps
ERPS Status
Number of ERPS Domains
: Enabled
: 1
Domain
ID Enabled Ver MEL Ctrl VLAN State
Type
Revertive
------------ --- ------- --- --- --------- ---------- ------------ --------r&d
1 Yes
2
1
1 Idle
RPL Owner
Yes
W/E
---West
East
Interface
--------Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 3
Port State
---------Blocking
Forwarding
Local SF
-------No
No
Local FS
-------No
No
Local MS MEP
-------- ---No
No
RPL
--Yes
No
Console#
Table 99: show erps - summary display description
Field
Description
Node Information
ERPS Status
Shows whether ERPS is enabled on the switch.
Number of ERPS Domains
Shows the number of ERPS rings configured on the switch.
Domain
Displays the name of each ring followed by a brief list of status
information
ID
ERPS ring identifier used in R-APS messages.
Enabled
Shows if the specified ring is enabled.
Ver
Shows the ERPS version.
MEL
The maintenance entity group (MEG) level providing a communication
channel for ring automatic protection switching (R-APS) information.
Ctrl VLAN
Shows the Control VLAN ID.
State
Shows the following ERPS states:
Init – The ERPS ring has started but has not yet determined the status of
the ring.
Idle – If all nodes in a ring are in this state, it means that all the links in
the ring are up. This state will switch to protection state if a link failure
occurs.
Protection – If a node in this state, it means that a link failure has
occurred. This state will switch to idle state if all the failed links recover.
Type
Shows ERPS node type as None, RPL Owner or RPL Neighbor.
Revertive
Shows if revertive or non-revertive recovery is selected.
Interface Information
W/E
Shows information on the west and east ring port for this node.
Interface
The port or trunk which is configured as a ring port.
– 506 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Table 99: show erps - summary display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Port State
The operational state:
Blocking – The transmission and reception of traffic is blocked and the
forwarding of R-APS messages is blocked, but the transmission of
locally generated R-APS messages is allowed and the reception of all RAPS messages is allowed.
Forwarding – The transmission and reception of traffic is allowed;
transmission, reception and forwarding of R-APS messages is allowed.
Unknown – The interface is not in a known state (includes the domain
being disabled).
Local SF
A signal fault generated on a link to the local node.
Local FS
Shows if a forced switch command was issued on this interface.
Local MS
Shows if a manual switch command was issued on this interface.
MEP
The CFM MEP used to monitor the status on this link.
RPL
Shows if this node is connected to the RPL.
This example displays detailed information for the specified ERPS ring.
Console#show erps domain rd1
Domain
ID Enabled Ver MEL Ctrl VLAN State
Type
Revertive
------------ --- ------- --- --- --------- ---------- ------------ --------r&d
1 Yes
2
1
1 Idle
RPL Owner
Yes
Major Domain Node ID
R-APS With VC
------------ ----------------- ------------00-E0-0C-00-00-FD Yes
R-APS Def MAC Propagate TC Non-ERPS Device Protect
------------- ------------ ----------------------Yes
No
No
Holdoff Guard
WTB
WTR
WTB Expire WTR Expire
-------- ------- ------- ------- ---------- ---------0 ms 500 ms 5500 ms
5 min
W/E
---West
East
Interface
--------Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 3
Port State
---------Blocking
Forwarding
Local SF
-------No
No
Local FS
-------No
No
Local MS MEP
-------- ---No
No
RPL
--Yes
No
Console#
Table 99 on page 506 describes most of the parameters shown by show erps
domain command. The following table includes the remaining parameters.
Table 100: show erps domain - detailed display description
Field
Description
Major Domain
Name of the ERPS major domain.
Node ID
A MAC address unique to this ring node.
– 507 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Table 100: show erps domain - detailed display description (Continued)
Field
Description
R-APS with VC
The R-APS Virtual Channel is the R-APS channel connection used to
tunnel R-APS messages between two interconnection nodes of a subring in another Ethernet ring or network.
R-APS Def MAC
Indicates if the switch’s MAC address is used to identify the node in RAPS messages.
Propagate TC
Shows if the ring is configured to propagate topology change
notification messages.
Non-ERPS Device Protect
Shows if the RPL owner node is configured to send non-standard
health-check packets when it enters protection state without any link
down event having been detected through SF messages
Holdoff
The hold-off timer interval used to filter out intermittent link faults.
Guard
The guard timer interval used to prevent ring nodes from receiving
outdated R-APS messages.
WTB
The wait-to-block timer interval used to delay reversion after a Forced
Switch or Manual Switch has been cleared.
WTR
The wait-to-restore timer interval used to verify that the ring has
stabilized before blocking the RPL after recovery from a signal failure.
WTB Expire
The time before the wait-to-block timer expires.
WTR Expire
The time before the wait-to-restore timer expires.
This example displays statistics for all configured ERPS rings.
Console#show erps statistics
ERPS statistics for domain r&d :
Interface
Local SF
Local Clear SF
------------ ---------- -------------(W) Eth 1/ 1 0
0
SF
NR
NR-RB
FS
MS
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Sent
0
62
948
0
0
Received
0
0
0
0
0
Ignored
0
0
0
0
0
EVENT
HEALTH
---------- ---------Sent
0
0
Received
0
0
Ignored
0
0
Interface
Local SF
------------ ---------(E) Eth 1/ 3 0
SF
---------Sent
0
Received
0
Ignored
0
EVENT
---------Sent
0
Received
0
Ignored
0
Console#
Local Clear SF
-------------0
NR
NR-RB
FS
MS
---------- ---------- ---------- ---------62
948
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
HEALTH
---------0
0
0
– 508 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
Table 101: show erps statistics - detailed display description
Field
Description
Interface
The direction, and port or trunk which is configured as a ring port.
Local SF
A signal fault generated on a link to the local node.
Local Clear SF
The number of times a clear command was issued to terminate
protection state entered through a forced switch or manual switch
SF
The number of signal fault messages
NR
The number of no request messages
NR-RB
The number no request - RPL blocked messages
FS
The number of forced switch messages
MS
The number of manual switch messages
EVENT
Any request/state message, excluding FS, SF, MS, and NR
HEALTH
The number of non-standard health-check messages
– 509 –
Chapter 19 | ERPS Commands
– 510 –
20
Class of Service Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. The default priority can be set for each interface, also the queue service
mode and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch's priority queues can be
configured.
Table 102: Priority Commands
Command Group
Function
Priority Commands
(Layer 2)
Configures the queue mode, queue weights, and default priority for
untagged frames
Priority Commands
(Layer 3 and 4)
Sets the default priority processing method (CoS or DSCP), maps
priority tags for internal processing, maps values from internal priority
table to CoS values used in tagged egress packets for Layer 2 interfaces,
maps internal per hop behavior to hardware queues
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 2 traffic priority on the
switch.
Table 103: Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
Mode
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to Weighted Round-Robin (WRR),
strict priority, or a combination of strict and weighted
queuing
IC
queue weight
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
IC
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
PE
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
show queue weight
Shows weights assigned to the weighted queues
PE
– 511 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
queue mode This command sets the scheduling mode used for processing each of the class of
service (CoS) priority queues. The options include strict priority, Weighted RoundRobin (WRR), or a combination of strict and weighted queuing. Use the no form to
restore the default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr | strict-wrr [queue-type-list]}
no queue mode
strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
This ensures that the highest priority packets are always serviced first,
ahead of all other traffic.
wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights (based on the queue weight command), and servicing
each queue in a round-robin fashion.
strict-wrr - Uses strict or weighted service as specified for each queue.
queue-type-list - Indicates if the queue is a normal or strict type.
(Options: 0 indicates a normal queue, 1 indicates a strict queue)
Default Setting
WRR
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The switch can be set to service the port queues based on strict priority, WRR,
or a combination of strict and weighted queueing.
◆
Strict priority requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed
before lower priority queues are serviced.
◆
Weighted Round Robin (WRR) uses a predefined relative weight for each queue
that determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue
before moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking
that can occur with strict priority queuing. Use the queue weight command to
assign weights for WRR queuing to the eight priority queues.
◆
If Strict and WRR mode is selected, a combination of strict and weighted service
is used as specified for each queue. The queues assigned to use strict or WRR
priority should be specified using the queue-type-list parameter.
◆
A weight can be assigned to each of the weighted queues (and thereby to the
corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets the frequency at which each
queue is polled for service, and subsequently affects the response time for
software applications assigned a specific priority value.
– 512 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
◆
Service time is shared at the egress ports by defining scheduling weights for
WRR, or for the queuing mode that uses a combination of strict and weighted
queuing. Service time is allocated to each queue by calculating a precise
number of bytes per second that will be serviced on each round.
◆
The specified queue mode applies to all interfaces.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue mode strict
Console(config-ip)#
Related Commands
queue weight (513)
show queue mode (515)
queue weight This command assigns weights to the eight class of service (CoS) priority queues
when using weighted queuing, or one of the queuing modes that use a
combination of strict and weighted queuing. Use the no form to restore the default
weights.
Syntax
queue weight weight0...weight7
no queue weight
weight0...weight7 - The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 7 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. (Range: 1-255)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 are assigned to queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This command shares bandwidth at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights for Weighted Round-Robin, or for the queuing mode that uses a
combination of strict and weighted queuing (page 512).
◆
Bandwidth is allocated to each queue by calculating a precise number of bytes
per second that will be serviced on each round.
– 513 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Example
The following example shows how to assign round-robin weights of 1 - 8 to the CoS
priority queues 0 - 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue weight 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue mode (512)
show queue weight (515)
switchport priority This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to
default restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic. The
priority is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on the
interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The precedence for priority mapping is IP DSCP, and then default switchport
priority.
◆
The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits
will be used.
◆
The switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It can be configured to
use strict priority queuing, Weighted Round Robin (WRR), or a combination of
strict and weighted queuing using the queue mode command. Inbound frames
that do not have VLAN tags are tagged with the input port's default ingress
user priority, and then placed in the appropriate priority queue at the output
port. The default priority for all ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound
frames that do not have priority tags will be placed in queue 2 of the output
– 514 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
port. (Note that if the output port is an untagged member of the associated
VLAN, these frames are stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (365)
show queue mode This command shows the current queue mode.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue mode
Unit
Port
queue mode
--------------------1
1
Weighted Round Robin
...
show queue weight This command displays the weights used for the weighted queues.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue weight
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
4
8
5
10
6
12
7
14
...
– 515 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 3 and 4 traffic priority
mapping on the switch.
Table 104: Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command
Function
Mode
qos map cos-queue
Maps CoS/CFI values in incoming packets to per-hop
behavior, or the queue used for this router hop
IC
qos map dscp-queue
Maps DSCP values in incoming packets to per-hop
behavior, or the queue used for this router hop
IC
qos map trust-mode
Sets QoS mapping to DSCP or CoS
IC
show qos map cos-queue
Shows ingress CoS to egress queue map
PE
show qos map dscp-queue Shows ingress DSCP to eqress queue map
PE
show qos map trust-mode
PE
Shows the QoS mapping mode
* The default settings used for mapping priority values to internal DSCP values and back to the
hardware queues are designed to optimize priority services for the majority of network
applications. It should not be necessary to modify any of the default settings unless a queuing
problem occurs with a particular application.
qos map cos-queue This command maps CoS/CFI values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior for
priority processing. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
qos map cos-queue queue from cos0 cfi0...cos7 cfi7
no qos map cos-dscp cos0 cfi0...cos7 cfi7
queue - Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop.
(Range: 0-7)
cos - CoS value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-7)
cfi - Canonical Format Indicator. Set this parameter to “0” to indicate that
the MAC address information carried in the frame is in canonical format.
(Range: 0-1)
– 516 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Default Setting
Table 105: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI Values to Queue/CFI
CFI
0
1
0
(2,0)
(2,0)
1
(0,0)
(0,0)
2
(1,0)
(1,0)
3
(3,0)
(3,0)
4
(4,0)
(4,0)
5
(5,0)
(5,0)
6
(6,0)
(6,0)
7
(7,0)
(7,0)
CoS
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The default mapping of CoS/CFI to Queue/CFI values shown in Table 105 is
based on the recommended settings in IEEE 802.1p for mapping CoS values to
output queues.
◆
Enter a value for the per-hop behavior, followed by the keyword “from” and
then up to eight CoS/CFI paired values separated by spaces.
◆
If a packet arrives with a 802.1Q header but it is not an IP packet, then the
CoS/CFI-to-Queue mapping table is used to generate priority for processing.
Note that priority tags in the original packet are not modified by this command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#qos map cos-dscp 0 0 from 0 1
Console(config-if)#
– 517 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
qos map dscp-queue This command maps DSCP values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior for
priority processing. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
qos map dscp-queue dscp-queue from dscp0 ... dscp7
no qos map dscp-queue dscp0 ... dscp7
dscp-queue - Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop.
(Range: 0-7)
dscp - DSCP value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-63)
DEFAULT SETTING
Table 106: Default Mapping of DSCP/CFI Values to Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
1,0
1,1
1
1,0
1,3
1,0
1,1
1,0
1,3
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
2
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
3,0
3,1
3,0
3,3
3.0
3,1
3
3,0
3,3
4,0
4,1
4,0
4,3
4,0
4,1
4.0
4,3
4
5,0
5,1
5,0
5,3
5,0
5,1
6,0
5,3
6,0
6,1
5
6,0
6,3
6,0
6,1
6,0
6,3
7,0
7,1
7.0
7,3
6
7,0
7,1
7,0
7,3
ingressdscp10
ingressdscp1
The ingress DSCP is composed of ingress-dscp10 (most significant digit in the left column) and
ingress-dscp1 (least significant digit in the top row (in other words, ingress-dscp = ingress-dscp10
* 10 + ingress-dscp1); and the corresponding dscp is shown at the intersecting cell in the table.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Enter a value for the per-hop behavior, followed by the keyword “from” and
then up to eight DSCP values separated by spaces.
◆
This map is only used when the QoS mapping mode is set to “DSCP” by the qos
map trust-mode command, and the ingress packet type is IPv4.
◆
Two QoS domains can have different DSCP definitions, so the DSCP-to-Queue/
map can be used to modify one set of DSCP values to match the definition of
another domain. This map should be applied at the receiving port at the
boundary of a QoS administrative domain.
– 518 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Example
This example changes the priority for all packets entering port 1 which contain a
DSCP value of 1 to a per-hop behavior of 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#qos map dscp-queue 3 from 1
Console(config-if)#
qos map trust-mode This command sets QoS mapping to DSCP or CoS. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
qos map trust-mode {dscp | cos}
no qos map trust-mode
dscp - Sets the QoS mapping mode to DSCP.
cos - Sets the QoS mapping mode to CoS.
Default Setting
CoS
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP with this command, and the ingress
packet type is IPv4, then priority processing will be based on the DSCP value in
the ingress packet.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP, and a non-IP packet is received, the
packet's CoS and CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) values are used for priority
processing if the packet is tagged. For an untagged packet, the default port
priority (see page 514) is used for priority processing.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to CoS with this command, and the ingress
packet type is IPv4, then priority processing will be based on the CoS and CFI
values in the ingress packet.
For an untagged packet, the default port priority (see page 514) is used for
priority processing.
– 519 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Example
This example sets the QoS priority mapping mode to use DSCP based on the
conditions described in the Command Usage section.
Console(config)#interface 1/1
Console(config-if)#qos map trust-mode cos
Console(config-if)#
show qos map cos- This command shows the ingress CoS to eqress queue map.
queue
Syntax
show qos map cos-queue interface interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show qos map cos-queue interface ethernet 1/1
CoS Information of Eth 1/1
CoS-Queue map.
CoS : CFI 0
1
--------------------------------0
2
2
1
0
0
2
1
1
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
Console#
– 520 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
show qos map dscp- This command shows the ingress DSCP to eqress queue map.
queue
Syntax
show qos map dscp-queue interface interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This map is only used when the QoS mapping mode is set to “DSCP” by the qos
map trust-mode command, and the ingress packet type is IPv4.
Example
The ingress DSCP is composed of ingress-dscp10 (most significant digit in the left
column) and ingress-dscp1 (least significant digit in the top row (in other words,
ingress-dscp = ingress-dscp10 * 10 + ingress-dscp1); and the corresponding dscp is
shown at the intersecting cell in the table.
Console#show qos map dscp-queue interface ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
DSCP to queue map.
d1:d2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
---------------------------------------------0
:
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
1
:
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
2
:
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
:
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
:
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
5
:
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
6
:
7
7
7
7
Console#
show qos map This command shows the QoS mapping mode.
trust-mode
Syntax
show qos map trust-mode interface interface
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
– 521 –
Chapter 20 | Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows that the trust mode is set to CoS:
Console#show qos map trust-mode interface ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
CoS Map Mode:
CoS mode
Console#
– 522 –
21
Quality of Service Commands
The commands described in this section are used to configure Differentiated
Services (DiffServ) classification criteria and service policies. You can classify traffic
based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values, or VLANs. Using access lists
allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained
in each packet.
Table 107: Quality of Service Commands
Command
Function
Mode
class-map
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
GC
description
Specifies the description of a class map
CM
match
Defines the criteria used to classify traffic
CM
rename
Redefines the name of a class map
CM
policy-map
Creates a policy map for multiple interfaces
GC
description
Specifies the description of a policy map
PM
class
Defines a traffic classification for the policy to act on
PM
rename
Redefines the name of a policy map
PM
police rate
Defines an enforcer for classified traffic based on the
metered flow rate
PM-C
set cos
Services IP traffic by setting a class of service value for
matching packets for internal processing
PM-C
service-policy
Applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command IC
to a particular interface
show class-map
Displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria PE
used for classifying traffic
show policy-map
Displays the QoS policy maps which define classification
PE
criteria for ingress or egress traffic, and may include policers
for bandwidth limitations
show policy-map interface
Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all
service policies on the specified interface
PE
To create a service policy for a specific category of ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1. Use the class-map command to designate a class name for a specific category
of traffic, and enter the Class Map configuration mode.
2. Use the match command to select a specific type of traffic based on an access
list, an IPv4 DSCP value, IPv4 Precedence value, IPv6 DSCP value, a VLAN, or a
– 523 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
CoS value. Note that a class map can include match settings for both IP values
and a VLAN.
3. Use the policy-map command to designate a policy name for a specific manner
in which ingress traffic will be handled, and enter the Policy Map configuration
mode.
4. Use the class command to identify the class map, and enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. A policy map can contain up to 16 class maps.
5. Use the set cos command to modify the per-hop behavior, the class of service
value in the VLAN tag for the matching traffic class, and use one of the police
commands to monitor parameters such as the average flow and burst rate, and
drop any traffic that exceeds the specified rate, or just reduce the DSCP service
level for traffic exceeding the specified rate.
6. Use the service-policy command to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
Note: Create a Class Map before creating a Policy Map.
class-map This command creates a class map used for matching packets to the specified class,
and enters Class Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class map.
Syntax
[no] class-map class-map-name
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
match-any
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ First enter this command to designate a class map and enter the Class Map
configuration mode. Then use match commands to specify the criteria for
ingress traffic that will be classified under this class map.
◆
One or more class maps can be assigned to a policy map (page 527). The policy
map is then bound by a service policy to an interface (page 531). A service
policy defines packet classification, service tagging, and bandwidth policing.
Once a policy map has been bound to an interface, no additional class maps
may be added to the policy map, nor any changes made to the assigned class
maps with the match or set commands.
– 524 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
Example
This example creates a class map call “rd-class,” and sets it to match packets marked
for DSCP service value 3:
Console(config)#class-map rd-class
Console(config-cmap)#match cos 3
Console(config-cmap)#
Related Commands
show class-map (531)
description This command specifies the description of a class map or policy map.
Syntax
description string
string - Description of the class map or policy map. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Policy Map Configuration
Example
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#1
Console(config-cmap)#description “matches packets marked for DSCP service
value 3”
Console(config-cmap)#
– 525 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
match This command defines the criteria used to classify traffic. Use the no form to delete
the matching criteria.
Syntax
[no] match {access-list acl-name | cos cos | ip dscp dscp |
ip precedence ip-precedence | ipv6 dscp dscp | vlan vlan}
acl-name - Name of the access control list. Any type of ACL can be specified,
including standard or extended IPv4/IPv6 ACLs and MAC ACLs.
(Range: 1-16 characters)
cos - A Class of Service value. (Range: 0-7)
dscp - A Differentiated Service Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
ip-precedence - An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
vlan - A VLAN. (Range:1-4094)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Command Usage
◆ First enter the class-map command to designate a class map and enter the
Class Map configuration mode. Then use match commands to specify the fields
within ingress packets that must match to qualify for this class map.
◆
If an ingress packet matches an ACL specified by this command, any deny rules
included in the ACL will be ignored.
◆
If match criteria includes an IP ACL or IP priority rule, then a VLAN rule cannot
be included in the same class map.
◆
If match criteria includes a MAC ACL or VLAN rule, then neither an IP ACL nor IP
priority rule can be included in the same class map.
◆
Up to 16 match entries can be included in a class map.
Example
This example creates a class map called “rd-class#1,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3.
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#1
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#
– 526 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
This example creates a class map call “rd-class#2,” and sets it to match packets
marked for IP Precedence service value 5.
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#2
Console(config-cmap)#match ip precedence 5
Console(config-cmap)#
This example creates a class map call “rd-class#3,” and sets it to match packets
marked for VLAN 1.
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#3
Console(config-cmap)#match vlan 1
Console(config-cmap)#
rename This command redefines the name of a class map or policy map.
Syntax
rename map-name
map-name - Name of the class map or policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Policy Map Configuration
Example
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#1
Console(config-cmap)#rename rd-class#9
Console(config-cmap)#
policy-map This command creates a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces,
and enters Policy Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a policy map.
Syntax
[no] policy-map policy-map-name
policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 527 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
Command Usage
◆ Use the policy-map command to specify the name of the policy map, and then
use the class command to configure policies for traffic that matches the criteria
defined in a class map.
◆
A policy map can contain multiple class statements that can be applied to the
same interface with the service-policy command.
◆
Create a Class Map (page 527) before assigning it to a Policy Map.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd-policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd-class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive.
Console(config)#policy-map rd-policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd-class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set cos 0
Console(config-pmap-c)#
class This command defines a traffic classification upon which a policy can act, and
enters Policy Map Class configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class map.
Syntax
[no] class class-map-name
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Use the policy-map command to specify a policy map and enter Policy Map
configuration mode. Then use the class command to enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. And finally, use the set command and one of the police
commands to specify the match criteria, where the:
◆
■
set cos command sets the class of service value in matching packets.
(This modifies packet priority in the VLAN tag.)
■
police commands define parameters such as the maximum throughput,
burst rate, and response to non-conforming traffic.
Up to 16 classes can be included in a policy map.
– 528 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd-policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd-class,” uses the set cos command to classify the service
that incoming packets will receive.
Console(config)#policy-map rd-policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd-class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set cos 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#
police rate This command defines an enforcer for classified traffic based on the metered flow
rate. Use the no form to remove a policer.
Syntax
[no] police rate committed-rate
committed-rate - Committed information rate in kilobits per second.
(Range: 16-1000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps or maximum port
speed, whichever is lower)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
Command Usage
◆ You can configure up to 16 policers (i.e., class maps) for ingress ports.
◆
The committed-rate cannot exceed the configured interface speed.
◆
Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth is the maximum burst
before the bucket overflows, and the average rate tokens that are added to the
bucket is by specified by the committed-rate option. Note that the token bucket
functions similar to that described in RFC 2697 and RFC 2698.
◆
The behavior of the meter is specified in terms of one token bucket (C), the rate
at which the tokens are incremented (CIR – Committed Information Rate), and
the maximum size of the token bucket (BC – Committed Burst Size).
The token bucket C is initially full, that is, the token count Tc(0) = BC. Thereafter,
the token count Tc is updated CIR times per second as follows:
■
■
If Tc is less than BC, Tc is incremented by one, else
Tc is not incremented.
– 529 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens:
■
■
If Tc(t)-B ≥ 0, the packet is green and Tc is decremented by B down to the
minimum value of 0,
else the packet is red and Tc is not decremented.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd-policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd-class,” uses the set cos command to classify the service
that incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police rate command to limit
the average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps.
Console(config)#policy-map rd-policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd-class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set cos 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police rate 100000
Console(config-pmap-c)#
set cos This command modifies the class of service (CoS) value for a matching packet (as
specified by the match command) in the packet’s VLAN tag. Use the no form to
remove this setting.
Syntax
[no] set cos cos-value
cos-value - Class of Service value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The set cos command is used to set the CoS value in the VLAN tag for matching
packets.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd-policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd-class,” uses the set cos command to classify the service
that incoming packets will receive.
Console(config)#policy-map rd-policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd-class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set cos 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police flow 10000 4000 conform-action transmit
Console(config-pmap-c)#
– 530 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
service-policy This command applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command to the
ingress side of a particular interface. Use the no form to remove this mapping.
Syntax
[no] service-policy input policy-map-name
input - Apply to the input traffic.
policy-map-name - Name of the policy map for this interface.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
No policy map is attached to an interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ First define a class map, then define a policy map, and finally use the servicepolicy command to bind the policy map to the required interface.
Example
This example applies a service policy to an ingress interface.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#service-policy input rd-policy
Console(config-if)#
show class-map This command displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria used for
classifying traffic.
Syntax
show class-map [class-map-name]
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all class maps.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show class-map
Class Map match-any rd-class#1
– 531 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
Description:
Match ip dscp 10
Match access-list rd-access
Match ip dscp 0
Class Map match-any rd-class#2
Match ip precedence 5
Class Map match-any rd-class#3
Match vlan 1
Console#
show policy-map This command displays the QoS policy maps which define classification criteria for
ingress or egress traffic, and may include policers for bandwidth limitations.
Syntax
show policy-map [policy-map-name [class class-map-name]]
policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all policy maps and all classes.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show policy-map
Policy Map rd-policy
Description:
class rd-class
set PHB 3
class finance-class
police rate 100 class rd-class
Policy Map rd-policy
class rd-class
set PHB 3
Console#
– 532 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
show policy-map This command displays the service policy assigned to the specified interface.
interface
Syntax
show policy-map interface [interface input]
interface
unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show policy-map interface 1/5 input
Service-policy rd-policy
Console#show policy-map interface
Interface ethernet 1/2
service-policy input policy-map
Interface ethernet 1/3
service-policy input policy-map
Interface ethernet 1/4
service-policy input policy-map
Interface ethernet 1/5
service-policy input policy-map
Console#
– 533 –
Chapter 21 | Quality of Service Commands
– 534 –
22
Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to check for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the
ports containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only.
It then propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/
router to ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Table 108: Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Group
Function
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, enables proxy reporting, displays current
snooping settings, and displays the multicast service and group
members
Static Multicast Routing
Configures static multicast router ports which forward all inbound
multicast traffic to the attached VLANs
IGMP Filtering and
Throttling
Configures IGMP filtering and throttling
MLD Snooping
Configures multicast snooping for IPv6
MLD Filtering and
Throttling
Configures MLD filtering and throttling for IPv6.
IGMP Snooping
This section describes commands used to configure IGMP snooping on the switch.
Table 109: IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping priority
Assigns a priority to all multicast traffic
GC
ip igmp snooping
proxy-reporting
Enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting
GC
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping routeralert-option-check
Discards any IGMPv2/v3 packets that do not include the
Router Alert option
GC
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the querier timeout
GC
ip igmp snooping tcn-flood Floods multicast traffic when a Spanning Tree topology
change occurs
– 535 –
GC
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Table 109: IGMP Snooping Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
tcn-query-solicit
Sends an IGMP Query Solicitation when a Spanning Tree
topology change occurs
GC
ip igmp snooping
unregistered-data-flood
Floods unregistered multicast traffic into the attached
VLAN
GC
ip igmp snooping
unsolicited-report-interval
Specifies how often the upstream interface should
GC
transmit unsolicited IGMP reports (when proxy reporting is
enabled)
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping
version-exclusive
Discards received IGMP messages which use a version
different to that currently configured
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
Suppresses general queries except for ports attached to
general-query-suppression downstream multicast hosts
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
immediate-leave
GC
Immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service
if a leave packet is received at that port and immediateleave is enabled for the parent VLAN
ip igmp snooping vlan last- Configures the number of IGMP proxy query messages that GC
memb-query-count
are sent out before the system assumes there are no local
members
ip igmp snooping vlan last- Configures the last-member-query interval
memb-query-intvl
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan mrd Sends multicast router solicitation messages
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
proxy-address
Configures a static address for proxy IGMP query and
reporting
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
proxy-reporting
Enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
query-interval
Configures the interval between sending IGMP general
queries
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
query-resp-intvl
Configures the maximum time the system waits for a
response to general queries
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
static
Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
ip igmp snooping
vlan version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping
vlan version-exclusive
Discards received IGMP messages which use a version
different to that currently configured
GC
clear ip igmp snooping
groups dynamic
Clears multicast group information dynamically learned
through IGMP snooping
PE
clear ip igmp snooping
statistics
Clears IGMP snooping statistics
PE
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping, proxy, and query configuration PE
show ip igmp snooping
group
Shows known multicast group, source, and host port
mapping
– 536 –
PE
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Table 109: IGMP Snooping Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
show ip igmp snooping
statistics
Shows IGMP snooping protocol statistics for the specified
interface
PE
ip igmp snooping This command enables IGMP snooping globally on the switch or on a selected
VLAN interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When IGMP snooping is enabled globally, the per VLAN interface settings for
IGMP snooping take precedence.
◆
◆
When IGMP snooping is disabled globally, snooping can still be configured per
VLAN interface, but the interface settings will not take effect until snooping is
re-enabled globally.
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping globally.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
– 537 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping This command assigns a priority to all multicast traffic. Use the no form to restore
priority the default setting.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping priority priority
no ip igmp snooping priority
priority - The CoS priority assigned to all multicast traffic. (Range: 0-7, where
7 is the highest priority)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command can be used to set a high priority for low-latency multicast traffic
such as a video-conference, or to set a low priority for normal multicast traffic not
sensitive to latency.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping priority 6
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip igmp snooping (554)
ip igmp snooping This command enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting. Use the no form to
proxy-reporting restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping proxy-reporting
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id proxy-reporting {enable | disable}
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id proxy-reporting
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
enable - Enable on the specified VLAN.
disable - Disable on the specified VLAN.
Default Setting
Global: Disabled
VLAN: Based on global setting
– 538 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When proxy reporting is enabled with this command, the switch performs
“IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting” (as defined in DSL Forum TR-101, April
2006), including last leave, and query suppression. Last leave sends out a proxy
query when the last member leaves a multicast group, and query suppression
means that specific queries are not forwarded from an upstream multicast
router to hosts downstream from this device.
◆
If the IGMP proxy reporting is configured on a VLAN, this setting takes
precedence over the global configuration.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping proxy-reporting
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command enables the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to disable it.
querier
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ IGMP snooping querier is not supported for IGMPv3 snooping (see ip igmp
snooping version).
◆
If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is responsible
for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
– 539 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping This command discards any IGMPv2/v3 packets that do not include the Router
router-alert-option- Alert option. Use the no form to ignore the Router Alert Option when receiving
check IGMP messages.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping router-alert-option-check
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
As described in Section 9.1 of RFC 3376 for IGMP Version 3, the Router Alert Option
can be used to protect against DOS attacks. One common method of attack is
launched by an intruder who takes over the role of querier, and starts overloading
multicast hosts by sending a large number of group-and-source-specific queries,
each with a large source list and the Maximum Response Time set to a large value.
To protect against this kind of attack, (1) routers should not forward queries. This is
easier to accomplish if the query carries the Router Alert option. (2) Also, when the
switch is acting in the role of a multicast host (such as when using proxy routing), it
should ignore version 2 or 3 queries that do not contain the Router Alert option.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-alert-option-check
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command configures the querier timeout. Use the no form to restore the
router-port- default.
expire-time
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers it to have expired. (Range: 1-65535;
Recommended Range: 300-500)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 540 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Example
The following shows how to configure the timeout to 400 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 400
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command enables flooding of multicast traffic if a spanning tree topology
tcn-flood change notification (TCN) occurs. Use the no form to disable flooding.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping tcn-flood
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When a spanning tree topology change occurs, the multicast membership
information learned by the switch may be out of date. For example, a host
linked to one port before the topology change (TC) may be moved to another
port after the change. To ensure that multicast data is delivered to all receivers,
by default, a switch in a VLAN (with IGMP snooping enabled) that receives a
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) with the TC bit set (by the root bridge) will
enter into “multicast flooding mode” for a period of time until the topology has
stabilized and the new locations of all multicast receivers are learned.
◆
If a topology change notification (TCN) is received, and all the uplink ports are
subsequently deleted, a timeout mechanism is used to delete all of the
currently learned multicast channels.
◆
When a new uplink port starts up, the switch sends unsolicited reports for all
current learned channels out through the new uplink port.
◆
By default, the switch immediately enters into “multicast flooding mode” when
a spanning tree topology change occurs. In this mode, multicast traffic will be
flooded to all VLAN ports. If many ports have subscribed to different multicast
groups, flooding may cause excessive loading on the link between the switch
and the end host. Flooding may be disabled to avoid this, causing multicast
traffic to be delivered only to those ports on which multicast group members
have been learned.
◆
When the spanning tree topology changes, the root bridge sends a proxy
query to quickly re-learn the host membership/port relations for multicast
channels. The root bridge also sends an unsolicited Multicast Router Discover
(MRD) request to quickly locate the multicast routers in this VLAN.
– 541 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
The proxy query and unsolicited MRD request are flooded to all VLAN ports
except for the receiving port when the switch receives such packets.
Example
The following example enables TCN flooding.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping tcn-flood
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command instructs the switch to send out an IGMP general query solicitation
tcn-query-solicit when a spanning tree topology change notification (TCN) occurs. Use the no form
to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping tcn-query-solicit
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When the root bridge in a spanning tree receives a topology change
notification for a VLAN where IGMP snooping is enabled, it issues a global IGMP
leave message (query solicitation). When a switch receives this solicitation, it
floods it to all ports in the VLAN where the spanning tree change occurred.
When an upstream multicast router receives this solicitation, it will also
immediately issues an IGMP general query.
◆
The ip igmp snooping tcn query-solicit command can be used to send a
query solicitation whenever it notices a topology change, even if the switch is
not the root bridge in the spanning tree.
Example
The following example instructs the switch to issue an IGMP general query
whenever it receives a spanning tree topology change notification.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping tcn query-solicit
Console(config)#
– 542 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping This command floods unregistered multicast traffic into the attached VLAN. Use the
unregistered-data- no form to drop unregistered multicast traffic.
flood
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping unregistered-data-flood
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Once the table used to store multicast entries for IGMP snooping and multicast
routing is filled, no new entries are learned. If no router port is configured in the
attached VLAN, and unregistered-flooding is disabled, any subsequent multicast
traffic not found in the table is dropped, otherwise it is flooded throughout the
VLAN.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping unregistered-data-flood
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command specifies how often the upstream interface should transmit
unsolicited-report- unsolicited IGMP reports when proxy reporting is enabled. Use the no form to
interval restore the default value.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping unsolicited-report-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping unsolicited-report-interval
seconds - The interval at which to issue unsolicited reports. (Range: 1-65535
seconds)
Default Setting
400 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When a new upstream interface (that is, uplink port) starts up, the switch sends
unsolicited reports for all currently learned multicast channels out through the
new upstream interface.
◆
This command only applies when proxy reporting is enabled (see page 538).
– 543 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping unsolicited-report-interval 5
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore
version the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping [vlan vlan-id] version {1 | 2 | 3}
no ip igmp snooping version
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
1 - IGMP Version 1
2 - IGMP Version 2
3 - IGMP Version 3
Default Setting
Global: IGMP Version 2
VLAN: Not configured, based on global setting
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 3 are all supported, and versions 2 and 3 are backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices, regardless of the
snooping version employed.
◆
◆
If the IGMP snooping version is configured on a VLAN, this setting takes
precedence over the global configuration.
Example
The following configures the global setting for IGMP snooping to version 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
– 544 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping This command discards any received IGMP messages (except for multicast protocol
version-exclusive packets) which use a version different to that currently configured by the ip igmp
snooping version command. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping [vlan vlan-id] version-exclusive
no ip igmp snooping version-exclusive
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Global: Disabled
VLAN: Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If version exclusive is disabled on a VLAN, then this setting is based on the
global setting. If it is enabled on a VLAN, then this setting takes precedence
over the global setting.
◆
When this function is disabled, the currently selected version is backward
compatible (see the ip igmp snooping version command.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version-exclusive
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command suppresses general queries except for ports attached to
general-query- downstream multicast hosts. Use the no form to flood general queries to all ports
suppression except for the multicast router port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id general-query-suppression
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 545 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Usage
◆ By default, general query messages are flooded to all ports, except for the
multicast router through which they are received.
◆
If general query suppression is enabled, then these messages are forwarded
only to downstream ports which have joined a multicast service.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 general-query-suppression
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service if a leave
immediate-leave packet is received at that port and immediate-leave is enabled for the parent VLAN.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id immediate-leave [by-host-ip]
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id immediate-leave
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
by-host-ip - Specifies that the member port will be deleted only when
there are no hosts joining this group.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If immediate-leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a groupspecific query message when an IGMPv2/v3 group leave message is received.
The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no host replies
to the query within the timeout period. (The timeout for this release is defined
by Last Member Query Interval (fixed at one second) * Robustness Variable
(fixed at 2) as defined in RFC 2236.)
◆
◆
If immediate-leave is used, the switch assumes that only one host is connected
to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled on an
interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device, either a service
host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
◆
If the “by-host-ip” option is used, the router/querier will not send out a groupspecific query when an IGMPv2/v3 leave message is received. But will check if
there are other hosts joining the multicast group. Only when all hosts on that
port leave the group will the member port be deleted.
– 546 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
◆
This command is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2 or
IGMPv3 snooping is used.
Example
The following shows how to enable immediate leave.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 immediate-leave
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command configures the number of IGMP proxy group-specific or group-andlast-memb-query- source-specific query messages that are sent out before the system assumes there
count are no more local members. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id last-memb-query-count count
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id last-memb-query-count
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
count - The number of proxy group-specific or group-and-source-specific
query messages to issue before assuming that there are no more group
members. (Range: 1-255)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command will take effect only if IGMP snooping proxy reporting or IGMP
querier is enabled (page 538).
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 last-memb-query-count 7
Console(config)#
– 547 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan This command configures the last-member-query interval. Use the no form to
last-memb-query- restore the default.
intvl
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id last-memb-query-intvl interval
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id last-memb-query-intvl
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interval - The interval to wait for a response to a group-specific or groupand-source-specific query message. (Range: 1-31744 tenths of a second)
Default Setting
10 (1 second)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When a multicast host leaves a group, it sends an IGMP leave message. When
the leave message is received by the switch, it checks to see if this host is the
last to leave the group by sending out an IGMP group-specific or group-andsource-specific query message, and starts a timer. If no reports are received
before the timer expires, the group record is deleted, and a report is sent to the
upstream multicast router.
◆
A reduced value will result in reduced time to detect the loss of the last
member of a group or source, but may generate more bursty traffic.
◆
This command will take effect only if IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled
(page 538).
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 last-memb-query-intvl 700
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command enables sending of multicast router solicitation messages. Use the
mrd no form to disable these messages.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrd
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
– 548 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Multicast Router Discovery (MRD) uses multicast router advertisement,
multicast router solicitation, and multicast router termination messages to
discover multicast routers. Devices send solicitation messages in order to solicit
advertisement messages from multicast routers. These messages are used to
discover multicast routers on a directly attached link. Solicitation messages are
also sent whenever a multicast forwarding interface is initialized or reinitialized. Upon receiving a solicitation on an interface with IP multicast
forwarding and MRD enabled, a router will respond with an advertisement.
◆
Advertisements are sent by routers to advertise that IP multicast forwarding is
enabled. These messages are sent unsolicited periodically on all router
interfaces on which multicast forwarding is enabled. They are sent upon the
expiration of a periodic timer, as a part of a router's start up procedure, during
the restart of a multicast forwarding interface, and on receipt of a solicitation
message. When the multicast services provided to a VLAN is relatively stable,
the use of solicitation messages is not required and may be disabled using the
no ip igmp snooping vlan mrd command.
◆
This command may also be used to disable multicast router solicitation
messages when the upstream router does not support MRD, to reduce the
loading on a busy upstream router, or when IGMP snooping is disabled in a
VLAN.
Example
This example disables sending of multicast router solicitation messages on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#no ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrd
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command configures a static source address for locally generated query and
proxy-address report messages used by IGMP proxy reporting. Use the no form to restore the
default source address.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id proxy-address source-address
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
source-address - The source address used for proxied IGMP query and
report, and leave messages. (Any valid IP unicast address)
Default Setting
0.0.0.0
– 549 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
IGMP Snooping uses a null IP address of 0.0.0.0 for the source of IGMP query
messages which are proxied to downstream hosts to indicate that it is not the
elected querier, but is only proxying these messages as defined in RFC 4541. The
switch also uses a null address in IGMP reports sent to upstream ports.
Many hosts do not implement RFC 4541, and therefore do not understand query
messages with the source address of 0.0.0.0. These hosts will therefore not reply to
the queries, causing the multicast router to stop sending traffic to them.
To resolve this problem, the source address in proxied IGMP query and report
messages can be replaced with any valid unicast address (other than the router's
own address) using this command.
Rules Used for Proxy Reporting
When IGMP Proxy Reporting is disabled, the switch will use a null IP address for the
source of IGMP query and report messages unless a proxy query address has been
set.
When IGMP Proxy Reporting is enabled, the source address is based on the
following criteria:
◆
If a proxy query address is configured, the switch will use that address as the
source IP address in general and group-specific query messages sent to
downstream hosts, and in report and leave messages sent upstream from the
multicast router port.
◆
If a proxy query address is not configured, the switch will use the VLAN’s IP
address as the IP source address in general and group-specific query messages
sent downstream, and use the source address of the last IGMP message
received from a downstream host in report and leave messages sent upstream
from the multicast router port.
Example
The following example sets the source address for proxied IGMP query messages to
10.0.1.8.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 proxy-address 10.0.1.8
Console(config)#
– 550 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan This command configures the interval between sending IGMP general queries. Use
query-interval the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id query-interval interval
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id query-interval
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interval - The interval between sending IGMP general queries.
(Range: 2-31744 seconds)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ An IGMP general query message is sent by the switch at the interval specified
by this command. When this message is received by downstream hosts, all
receivers build an IGMP report for the multicast groups they have joined.
◆
This command applies when the switch is serving as the querier (page 539), or
as a proxy host when IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled (page 538).
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 query-interval 150
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command configures the maximum time the system waits for a response to
query-resp-intvl general queries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id query-resp-intvl interval
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id query-resp-intvl
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interval - The maximum time the system waits for a response to general
queries. (Range: 10-31740 tenths of a second)
Default Setting
100 (10 seconds)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 551 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Usage
This command applies when the switch is serving as the querier (page 539), or as a
proxy host when IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled (page 538).
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 query-resp-intvl 20
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the
static port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
ip-address - IP address for multicast group
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Static multicast entries are never aged out.
◆
When a multicast entry is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
– 552 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
clear ip igmp This command clears multicast group information dynamically learned through
snooping groups IGMP snooping.
dynamic
Syntax
clear ip igmp snooping groups dynamic
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command only clears entries learned though IGMP snooping. Statically
configured multicast address are not cleared.
Example
Console#clear ip igmp snooping groups dynamic
Console#
clear ip igmp This command clears IGMP snooping statistics.
snooping statistics
Syntax
clear ip igmp snooping statistics [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id - VLAN identifier (Range: 1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear ip igmp snooping statistics
Console#
– 553 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
show ip igmp This command shows the IGMP snooping, proxy, and query configuration settings.
snooping
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays global and VLAN-specific IGMP configuration settings.
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
IGMP Snooping
Router Port Expire Time
Router Alert Check
Router Port Mode
TCN Flood
TCN Query Solicit
Unregistered Data Flood
Unsolicited Report Interval
Version Exclusive
Version
Proxy Reporting
Querier
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Enabled
300 s
Disabled
Forward
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
400 s
Disabled
2
Disabled
Disabled
VLAN 1:
-------IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping Running Status
Version
Version Exclusive
Immediate Leave
Last Member Query Interval
Last Member Query Count
General Query Suppression
Query Interval
Query Response Interval
Proxy Query Address
Proxy Reporting
Multicast Router Discovery
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Enabled
Inactive
Using global Version (2)
Using global status (Disabled)
Disabled
10 (unit: 1/10s)
2
Disabled
125
100 (unit: 1/10s)
0.0.0.0
Using global status (Disabled)
Disabled
.
.
.
VLAN Static Group
Port
---- --------------- -------1
224.1.1.1
Eth 1/ 1
– 554 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
show ip igmp This command shows known multicast group, source, and host port mappings for
snooping group the specified VLAN interface, or for all interfaces if none is specified.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping group [host-ip-addr ip-address interface | igmpsnp |
sort-by-port | user | vlan vlan-id [user | igmpsnp]]
ip-address - IP address for multicast group
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
igmpsnp - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
sort-by-port - Display entries sorted by port.
user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
vlan-id - VLAN ID (1-4094)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1.
Console#show ip igmp snooping group vlan 1
Bridge Multicast Forwarding Entry Count:1
Flag: R - Router port, M - Group member port
H - Host counts (number of hosts join the group on this port).
P - Port counts (number of ports join the group).
Up time: Group elapsed time (d:h:m:s).
Expire : Group remaining time (m:s).
VLAN Group
Port
Up time
Expire Count
---- --------------- ----------- ----------- ------ -------1 224.1.1.1
00:00:00:37
2(P)
Eth 1/ 1(R)
Eth 1/ 2(M)
0(H)
Console#
– 555 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
show ip igmp This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically
snooping mrouter learned multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static or Dynamic.
Example
The following shows the ports in VLAN 1 which are attached to multicast routers.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
Expire
---- ------------------ ------- -------1
Eth 1/4
Dynamic 0:4:28
1
Eth 1/10
Static
Console#
show ip igmp This command shows IGMP snooping protocol statistics for the specified interface.
snooping statistics
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping statistics
{input [interface interface] |
output [interface interface] |
query [vlan vlan-id]}
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
query - Displays IGMP snooping-related statistics.
Default Setting
None
– 556 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows IGMP protocol statistics input:
Console#show ip igmp snooping statistics input interface ethernet 1/1
Input Statistics:
Interface Report
Leave
G Query G(-S)-S Query Drop
Join Succ Group
--------- -------- -------- -------- ------------- -------- --------- -----Eth 1/ 1
23
11
4
10
5
14
5
Console#
Table 110: show ip igmp snooping statistics input - display description
Field
Description
Interface
Shows interface.
Report
The number of IGMP membership reports received on this interface.
Leave
The number of leave messages received on this interface.
G Query
The number of general query messages received on this interface.
G(-S)-S Query
The number of group specific or group-and-source specific query
messages received on this interface.
Drop
The number of times a report, leave or query was dropped. Packets may
be dropped due to invalid format, rate limiting, or packet content not
allowed.
Join Succ
The number of times a multicast group was successfully joined.
Group
The number of multicast groups active on this interface.
The following shows IGMP protocol statistics output:
Console#show ip igmp snooping statistics output interface ethernet 1/1
Output Statistics:
Interface Report
Leave
G Query G(-S)-S Query Drop
Group
---------- -------- -------- -------- ------------- -------- -----Eth 1/ 1
12
0
1
0
0
0
Console#
Table 111: show ip igmp snooping statistics output - display description
Field
Description
Interface
Shows interface.
Report
The number of IGMP membership reports sent from this interface.
Leave
The number of leave messages sent from this interface.
G Query
The number of general query messages sent from this interface.
– 557 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping
Table 111: show ip igmp snooping statistics output - display description
Field
Description
G(-S)-S Query
The number of group specific or group-and-source specific query
messages sent from this interface.
Drop
The number of times a report, leave or query was dropped. Packets may
be dropped due to invalid format, rate limiting, or packet content not
allowed.
Group
The number of multicast groups active on this interface.
The following shows IGMP query-related statistics for VLAN 1:
Console#show ip igmp snooping statistics query vlan 1
Other Querier
: None
Other Querier Expire
: 0(m):0(s)
Other Querier Uptime
: 0(h):0(m):0(s)
Self Querier
: 192.168.2.12
Self Querier Expire
: 0(m):0(s)
Self Querier Uptime
: 0(h):0(m):0(s)
General Query Received
: 0
General Query Sent
: 0
Specific Query Received
: 0
Specific Query Sent
: 0
Warn Rate Limit
: 0 sec.
V1 Warning Count
: 0
V2 Warning Count
: 0
V3 Warning Count
: 0
Console#
Table 112: show ip igmp snooping statistics vlan query - display description
Field
Description
Other Querier
IP address of remote querier on this interface.
Other Querier Expire
Time after which remote querier is assumed to have expired.
Other Querier Uptime
Time remote querier has been up.
Self Querier
IP address of local querier on this interface.
Self Querier Expire
Time after which local querier is assumed to have expired.
Self Querier Uptime
Time local querier has been up.
General Query Received
The number of general queries received on this interface.
General Query Sent
The number of general queries sent from this interface.
Specific Query Received
The number of specific queries received on this interface.
Specific Query Sent
The number of specific queries sent from this interface.
Warn Rate Limit
The rate at which received query messages of the wrong version type
cause the Vx warning count to increment. Note that “0 sec” means that
the Vx warning count is incremented for each wrong message version
received.
V1 Warning Count
The number of times the query version received (Version 1) does not
match the version configured for this interface.
– 558 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
Static Multicast Routing
Table 112: show ip igmp snooping statistics vlan query - display description
Field
Description
V2 Warning Count
The number of times the query version received (Version 2) does not
match the version configured for this interface.
V3 Warning Count
The number of times the query version received (Version 3) does not
match the version configured for this interface.
Static Multicast Routing
This section describes commands used to configure static multicast routing on
the switch.
Table 113: Static Multicast Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
ip igmp snooping vlan This command statically configures a (Layer 2) multicast router port on the
mrouter specified VLAN. Use the no form to remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router or switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
– 559 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
trunk) on this switch, that interface can be manually configured to join all the
current multicast groups.
◆
IGMP Snooping must be enabled globally on the switch (using the ip igmp
snooping command) before a multicast router port can take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 10 as a multicast router port within VLAN
1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/10
Console(config)#
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the multicast
services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV service based on a
specific subscription plan. The IGMP filtering feature fulfills this requirement by
restricting access to specified multicast services on a switch port, and IGMP
throttling limits the number of simultaneous multicast groups a port can join.
Table 114: IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp filter
Enables IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch
GC
ip igmp profile
Sets a profile number and enters IGMP filter profile
configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Sets a profile access mode to permit or deny
IPC
range
Specifies one or a range of multicast addresses for a profile IPC
ip igmp filter
Assigns an IGMP filter profile to an interface
IC
ip igmp max-groups
Specifies an IGMP throttling number for an interface
IC
ip igmp max-groups action Sets the IGMP throttling action for an interface
IC
ip igmp query-drop
Drops any received IGMP query packets
IC
ip multicast-data-drop
Drops all multicast data packets
IC
show ip igmp filter
Displays the IGMP filtering status
PE
show ip igmp profile
Displays IGMP profiles and settings
PE
show ip igmp query-drop
Shows if the interface is configured to drop IGMP query
packets
PE
show ip igmp throttle
interface
Displays the IGMP throttling setting for interfaces
PE
show ip multicast-datadrop
Shows if the interface is configured to drop multicast data PE
packets
– 560 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
ip igmp filter This command globally enables IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch. Use the
(Global Configuration) no form to disable the feature.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp filter
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ IGMP filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies
multicast groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An IGMP filter profile
can contain one or more, or a range of multicast addresses; but only one profile
can be assigned to a port. When enabled, IGMP join reports received on the
port are checked against the filter profile. If a requested multicast group is
permitted, the IGMP join report is forwarded as normal. If a requested multicast
group is denied, the IGMP join report is dropped.
◆
IGMP filtering and throttling only applies to dynamically learned multicast
groups, it does not apply to statically configured groups.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp filter
Console(config)#
ip igmp profile This command creates an IGMP filter profile number and enters IGMP profile
configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a profile number.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp profile profile-number
profile-number - An IGMP filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A profile defines the multicast groups that a subscriber is permitted or denied to
join. The same profile can be applied to many interfaces, but only one profile can
– 561 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
be assigned to one interface. Each profile has only one access mode; either permit
or deny.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
permit, deny This command sets the access mode for an IGMP filter profile. Use the no form to
delete a profile number.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
Default Setting
Deny
Command Mode
IGMP Profile Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Each profile has only one access mode; either permit or deny.
◆
When the access mode is set to permit, IGMP join reports are processed when a
multicast group falls within the controlled range. When the access mode is set
to deny, IGMP join reports are only processed when a multicast group is not in
the controlled range.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#permit
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
range This command specifies multicast group addresses for a profile. Use the no form to
delete addresses from a profile.
Syntax
[no] range low-ip-address [high-ip-address]
low-ip-address - A valid IP address of a multicast group or start of a group
range.
high-ip-address - A valid IP address for the end of a multicast group range.
Default Setting
None
– 562 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Command Mode
IGMP Profile Configuration
Command Usage
Enter this command multiple times to specify more than one multicast address or
address range for a profile.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.1.1.1
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
ip igmp filter This command assigns an IGMP filtering profile to an interface on the switch. Use
(Interface Configuration) the no form to remove a profile from an interface.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp filter profile-number
profile-number - An IGMP filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The IGMP filtering profile must first be created with the ip igmp profile
command before being able to assign it to an interface.
◆
Only one profile can be assigned to an interface.
◆
A profile can also be assigned to a trunk interface. When ports are configured as
trunk members, the trunk uses the filtering profile assigned to the first port
member in the trunk.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp filter 19
Console(config-if)#
– 563 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
ip igmp max-groups This command sets the IGMP throttling number for an interface on the switch. Use
the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip igmp max-groups number
no ip igmp max-groups
number - The maximum number of multicast groups an interface can join at
the same time. (Range: 1-1024)
Default Setting
1024
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can
join at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a
port, the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace” (see the
ip igmp max-groups action command). If the action is set to deny, any new
IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the switch
randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast
group.
◆
IGMP throttling can also be set on a trunk interface. When ports are configured
as trunk members, the trunk uses the throttling settings of the first port
member in the trunk.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups 10
Console(config-if)#
ip igmp This command sets the IGMP throttling action for an interface on the switch.
max-groups action
Syntax
ip igmp max-groups action {deny | replace}
deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
Default Setting
Deny
– 564 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the switch can take
one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to deny, any new
IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the switch
randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast group.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups action replace
Console(config-if)#
ip igmp query-drop This command drops any received IGMP query packets. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp query-drop
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command can be used to drop any query packets received on the specified
interface. If this switch is acting as a Querier, this prevents it from being affected by
messages received from another Querier.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp query-drop
Console(config-if)#
ip multicast-data-drop This command drops all multicast data packets. Use the no form to disable this
feature.
Syntax
[no] ip multicast-data-drop
Default Setting
Disabled
– 565 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command can be used to stop multicast services from being forwarded to
users attached to the downstream port (i.e., the interfaces specified by this
command).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip multicast-data-drop
Console(config-if)#
show ip igmp filter This command displays the global and interface settings for IGMP filtering.
Syntax
show ip igmp filter [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip igmp filter
IGMP Filter enabled
Console#show ip igmp filter interface ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/1 information
--------------------------------IGMP Profile 19
Deny
Range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
Range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#
– 566 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
show ip igmp profile This command displays IGMP filtering profiles created on the switch.
Syntax
show ip igmp profile [profile-number]
profile-number - An existing IGMP filter profile number.
(Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip igmp profile
IGMP Profile 19
IGMP Profile 50
Console#show ip igmp profile 19
IGMP Profile 19
Deny
Range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
Range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#
show ip igmp This command shows if the specified interface is configured to drop IGMP query
query-drop packets.
Syntax
show ip igmp throttle interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays all interfaces.
– 567 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Example
Console#show ip igmp query-drop interface ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/1: Enabled
Console#
show ip igmp throttle This command displays the interface settings for IGMP throttling.
interface
Syntax
show ip igmp throttle interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays information for all
interfaces.
Example
Console#show ip igmp throttle interface ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/1 Information
Status : FALSE
Action : Deny
Max Multicast Groups : 1024
Current Multicast Groups : 0
Console#
– 568 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
show ip This command shows if the specified interface is configured to drop multicast data
multicast-data-drop packets.
Syntax
show ip igmp throttle interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays all interfaces.
Example
Console#show ip multicast-data-drop interface ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/1: Enabled
Console#
MLD Snooping
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) snooping operates on IPv6 traffic and performs
a similar function to IGMP snooping for IPv4. That is, MLD snooping dynamically
configures switch ports to limit IPv6 multicast traffic so that it is forwarded only to
ports with users that want to receive it. This reduces the flooding of IPv6 multicast
packets in the specified VLANs.
There are two versions of the MLD protocol, version 1 and version 2. MLDv1 control
packets include Listener Query, Listener Report, and Listener Done messages
(equivalent to IGMPv2 query, report, and leave messages). MLDv2 control packets
include MLDv2 query and report messages, as well as MLDv1 report and done
messages.
Remember that IGMP Snooping and MLD Snooping are independent functions,
and can therefore both function at the same time.
– 569 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Table 115: MLD Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ipv6 mld snooping
Enables MLD Snooping globally
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
proxy-reporting
Enables MLD Snooping with Proxy Reporting
GC
ipv6 mld snooping querier
Allows the switch to act as the querier for MLD snooping
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
query-interval
Configures the interval between sending MLD general
query messages
GC
ipv6 mld snooping querymax-response-time
Configures the maximum response time for a general
queries
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
robustness
Configures the robustness variable
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the router port expire time
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
unknown-multicast mode
Sets an action for unknown multicast packets
GC
ipv6 mld snooping
unsolicited-report-interval
Specifies how often the upstream interface should
GC
transmit unsolicited IGMP reports (when proxy reporting is
enabled)
ipv6 mld snooping version
Configures the MLD Snooping version
GC
ipv6 mld snooping vlan
immediate-leave
Removes a member port of an IPv6 multicast service if a
leave packet is received at that port and MLD immediateleave is enabled for the parent VLAN
GC
ipv6 mld snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds an IPv6 multicast router port
GC
ipv6 mld snooping vlan
static
Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
clear ipv6 mld snooping
groups dynamic
Clears multicast group information dynamically learned
through MLD snooping
PE
clear ipv6 mld snooping
statistics
Clears MLD snooping statistics
PE
show ipv6 mld snooping
Displays MLD Snooping configuration
PE
show ipv6 mld snooping
group
Displays the learned groups
PE
show ipv6 mld snooping
group source-list
Displays the learned groups and corresponding source list PE
show ipv6 mld snooping
mrouter
Displays the information of multicast router ports
PE
show ipv6 mld snooping
statistics
Shows IGMP snooping protocol statistics for the specified
interface
PE
– 570 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
ipv6 mld snooping This command enables MLD Snooping globally on the switch. Use the no form to
disable MLD Snooping.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables MLD Snooping:
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting. Use the no form to
proxy-reporting restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping proxy-reporting
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When proxy reporting is enabled with this command, reports received from
downstream hosts are summarized and used to build internal membership
states. Proxy-reporting devices may use the all-zeros IP source address when
forwarding any summarized reports upstream. For this reason, IGMP
membership reports received by the snooping switch must not be rejected
because the source IP address is set to 0.0.0.0.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping proxy-reporting
Console(config)#
– 571 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
ipv6 mld snooping This command allows the switch to act as the querier for MLDv2 snooping. Use the
querier no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping querier
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is responsible
for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
◆
An IPv6 address must be configured on the VLAN interface from which the
querier will act if elected. When serving as the querier, the switch uses its own
IPv6 address as the query source address.
◆
The querier will not start or will disable itself after having started if it detects an
IPv6 multicast router on the network.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping querier
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command configures the interval between sending MLD general queries. Use
query-interval the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping query-interval interval
no ipv6 mld snooping query-interval
interval - The interval between sending MLD general queries.
(Range: 60-125 seconds)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This command applies when the switch is serving as the querier.
– 572 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
◆
An MLD general query message is sent by the switch at the interval specified by
this command. When this message is received by downstream hosts, all
receivers build an MLD report for the multicast groups they have joined.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping query-interval 150
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command configures the maximum response time advertised in MLD general
query-max-response- queries. Use the no form to restore the default.
time
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ipv6 mld snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The maximum response time allowed for MLD general queries.
(Range: 5-25 seconds)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command controls how long the host has to respond to an MLD Query
message before the switch deletes the group if it is the last member.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping query-max-response-time seconds 15
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command configures the MLD Snooping robustness variable. Use the no form
robustness to restore the default value.
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping robustness value
no ipv6 mld snooping robustness
value - The number of the robustness variable. (Range: 2-10)
Default Setting
2
– 573 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A port will be removed from the receiver list for a multicast service when no MLD
reports are detected in response to a number of MLD queries. The robustness
variable sets the number of queries on ports for which there is no report.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping robustness 2
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command configures the MLD query timeout. Use the no form to restore the
router-port- default.
expire-time
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping router-port-expire-time time
no ipv6 mld snooping router-port-expire-time
time - Specifies the timeout of a dynamically learned router port.
(Range: 300-500 seconds)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The router port expire time is the time the switch waits after the previous querier
stops before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface that had been receiving
query packets) to have expired.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
– 574 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
ipv6 mld snooping This command sets the action for dealing with unknown multicast packets. Use the
unknown-multicast no form to restore the default.
mode
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping unknown-multicast mode {flood | to-router-port}
no ipv6 mld snooping unknown-multicast mode
flood - Floods the unknown multicast data packets to all ports.
to-router-port - Forwards the unknown multicast data packets to router
ports.
Default Setting
to-router-port
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ When set to “flood,” any received IPv6 multicast packets that have not been
requested by a host are flooded to all ports in the VLAN.
◆
When set to “router-port,” any received IPv6 multicast packets that have not
been requested by a host are forwarded to ports that are connected to a
detected multicast router.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping unknown-multicast mode flood
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command specifies how often the upstream interface should transmit
unsolicited-report- unsolicited IGMP reports when proxy reporting is enabled. Use the no form to
interval restore the default value.
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping unsolicited-report-interval seconds
no ipv6 mld snooping unsolicited-report-interval
seconds - The interval at which to issue unsolicited reports.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds)
Default Setting
400 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 575 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Command Usage
◆ When a new upstream interface (that is, uplink port) starts up, the switch sends
unsolicited reports for all currently learned multicast channels out through the
new upstream interface.
◆
This command only applies when proxy reporting is enabled (see page 571).
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping unsolicited-report-interval 5
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command configures the MLD snooping version. Use the no form to restore
version the default.
Syntax
ipv6 mld snooping version {1 | 2}
1 - MLD version 1.
2 - MLD version 2.
Default Setting
Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping version 1
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command immediately deletes a member port of an IPv6 multicast service
vlan immediate-leave when a leave packet is received at that port and immediate-leave is enabled for the
parent VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping vlan vlan-id immediate-leave
vlan-id - A VLAN identification number. (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 576 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Command Usage
◆ If MLD immediate-leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a
group-specific query message when an MLD group leave message is received.
The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no host replies
to the query within the specified timeout period.
◆
If MLD immediate-leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled
on an interface if it is connected to only one MLD-enabled device, either a
service host or a neighbor running MLD snooping.
Example
The following shows how to enable MLD immediate leave.
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping immediate-leave
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command statically configures an IPv6 multicast router port. Use the no form
vlan mrouter to remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, MLD snooping may not always be able
to locate the MLD querier. Therefore, if the MLD querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on the switch,
you can manually configure that interface to join all the current multicast groups.
– 577 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Example
The following shows how to configure port 1 as a multicast router port within VLAN
1:
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/1
Console(config)#
ipv6 mld snooping This command adds a port to an IPv6 multicast group. Use the no form to remove
vlan static the port.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld snooping vlan vlan-id static ipv6-address interface
vlan - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
ipv6-address - An IPv6 address of a multicast group. (Format: X:X:X:X::X)
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld snooping vlan 1 static ff05:0:1:2:3:4:5:6 ethernet
1/6
Console(config)#
clear ipv6 mld This command clears multicast group information dynamically learned through
snooping groups MLD snooping.
dynamic
Syntax
clear ipv6 mld snooping groups dynamic
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 578 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Command Usage
This command only clears entries learned though MLD snooping. Statically
configured multicast address are not cleared.
Example
Console#clear ipv6 mld snooping groups dynamic
Console#
clear ipv6 mld This command clears MLD snooping statistics.
snooping statistics
Syntax
clear ipv6 mld snooping statistics [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id - VLAN identifier (Range: 1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear ipv6 mld snooping statistics
Console#
show ipv6 This command shows the current MLD Snooping configuration.
mld snooping
Syntax
show ipv6 mld snooping [vlan [vlan-id]]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays global and VLAN-specific MLD snooping configuration
settings.
– 579 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Example
The following shows MLD Snooping configuration information
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping
Service Status
:
Proxy Reporting
:
Querier Status
:
Robustness
:
Query Interval
:
Query Max Response Time
:
Router Port Expiry Time
:
Unsolicit Report Interval
:
Immediate Leave
:
Immediate Leave By Host
:
Unknown Flood Behavior
:
MLD Snooping Version
:
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
2
125 sec
10 sec
300 sec
400 sec
Disabled on all VLAN
Disabled on all VLAN
To Router Port
Version 2
VLAN Group IPv6 Address
Port
---- --------------------------------------- --------1
ff05:0:1:2:3:4:5:6 Eth 1/1
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping vlan
VLAN 1
Immediate Leave
: Disabled
Unknown Flood Behavior : To Router Port
Console#
show ipv6 mld This command shows known multicast groups, member ports, and the means by
snooping group which each group was learned.
Syntax
show ipv6 mld snooping group
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows MLD Snooping group configuration information:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping group
Total Entries 3, limit 255
VLAN Multicast IPv6 Address
---- --------------------------------------1
FF02::01:01:01:01
1
FF02::01:01:01:02
1
FF02::01:01:01:02
Console#
– 580 –
Member Port
----------Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Type
--------------MLD Snooping
Multicast Data
User
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
show ipv6 mld This command shows known multicast groups, member ports, the means by which
snooping group each group was learned, and the corresponding source list.
source-list
Syntax
show ipv6 mld snooping group source-list [ipv6-address | vlan vlan-id]
ipv6-address - An IPv6 address of a multicast group. (Format: X:X:X:X::X)
vlan-id - VLAN ID (1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows MLD Snooping group mapping information:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping group source-list
VLAN ID
Mutlicast IPv6 Address
Member Port
MLD Snooping
Filter Mode
(if exclude filter mode)
Filter Timer Elapse
Request List
Exclude List
(if include filter mode)
Include List
:
:
:
:
:
1
FF02::01:01:01:01
Eth 1/1
Multicast Data
Include
: 10 sec.
: ::01:02:03:04, ::01:02:03:05, ::01:02:03:06,
::01:02:03:07
: ::02:02:03:04, ::02:02:03:05, ::02:02:03:06,
::02:02:03:07
: ::02:02:03:04, ::02:02:03:05, ::02:02:03:06,
::02:02:03:06
Option:
Filter Mode: Include, Exclude
Console#
show ipv6 mld This command shows MLD Snooping multicast router information.
snooping mrouter
Syntax
show ipv6 mld snooping mrouter vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - A VLAN identification number. (Range: 1-4094)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 581 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Example
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN Multicast Router Port Type
Expire
---- --------------------- --------- -----1 Eth 1/ 2
Static
Console#
show ipv6 mld This command shows MLD snooping protocol statistics for the specified interface.
snooping statistics
Syntax
show ipv6 mld snooping statistics
{input [interface interface] |
output [interface interface] |
query [vlan vlan-id] |
summary interface interface}
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
vlan vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
query - Displays MLD snooping query-related statistics.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows MLD snooping input-related message statistics:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping statistics input interface ethernet 1/1
Input Statistics:
Interface Report
Leave
G Query G(-S)-S Query Drop
Join Succ Group
--------- -------- -------- -------- ------------- -------- --------- -----Eth 1/ 1
4
0
0
0
0
0
2
Console#
Table 116: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics input - display description
Field
Description
Interface
The unit/port or VLAN interface.
Report
The number of MLD membership reports received on this interface.
– 582 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Table 116: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics input - display description
Field
Description
Leave
The number of leave messages received on this interface.
G Query
The number of general query messages received on this interface.
G(-S)-S Query
The number of group specific or group-and-source specific query
messages received on this interface.
Drop
The number of times a report, leave or query was dropped. Packets may
be dropped due to invalid format, rate limiting, packet content not
allowed, or MLD group report received.
Join Succ
The number of times a multicast group was successfully joined.
Group
The number of MLD groups active on this interface.
The following shows MLD snooping output-related message statistics:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping statistics output interface ethernet 1/1
Output Statistics:
Interface Report
Leave
G Query G(-S)-S Query Drop
Group
--------- -------- -------- -------- ------------- -------- -----Eth 1/ 1
0
0
5
0
0
2
Console#
Table 117: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics output - display description
Field
Description
Interface
The unit/port or VLAN interface.
Report
The number of MLD membership reports transmitted from this
interface.
Leave
The number of leave messages transmitted from this interface.
G Query
The number of general query messages transmitted from this interface.
G(-S)-S Query
The number of group specific or group-and-source specific query
messages transmitted from this interface.
Drop
The number of times a report, leave or query was dropped. Packets may
be dropped due to invalid format, rate limiting, packet content not
allowed, or MLD group report received.
Join Succ
The number of times a multicast group was successfully joined.
Group
The number of MLD groups active on this interface.
The following shows MLD snooping query-related message statistics:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping statistics query vlan 1
Other Querier Address
: None
Other Querier Expire
: 0(m):0(s)
Other Querier Uptime
: 0(h):0(m):0(s)
Self Querier Address
: ::
Self Querier Expire Time : 1(m):49(s)
Self Querier UpTime
: 0(h):9(m):6(s)
General Query Received
: 0
General Query Sent
: 6
– 583 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Specific Query Received
Specific Query Sent
Console#
: 0
: 0
Table 118: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics query - display description
Field
Description
Other Querier Address
IP address of remote querier on this interface.
Other Querier Expire
Time after which remote querier is assumed to have expired.
Other Querier Uptime
Time remote querier has been up.
Self Querier
IP address of local querier on this interface.
Self Querier Expire
Time after which local querier is assumed to have expired.
Self Querier Uptime
Time local querier has been up.
General Query Received
The number of general queries received on this interface.
General Query Sent
The number of general queries sent from this interface.
Specific Query Received
The number of group specific queries received on this interface.
Specific Query Sent
The number of group specific queries sent from this interface.
The following shows MLD snooping summary statistics:
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping statistics summary interface e 1/1
Number of Groups: 1
Querier:
:
Report & Leave:
:
Transmit
:
Transmit
:
General
: 6
Report
: 0
Group Specific: 0
Leave
: 0
Recieved
:
Recieved
:
General
: 0
Report
: 4
Group Specific: 0
Leave
: 0
join Success
: 0
Filter Drop
: 0
Source Port Drop: 0
Others Drop
: 0
Console#show ipv6 mld snooping statistics summary interface vlan 1
Number of Groups: 1
Querier:
:
Report & Leave:
:
Other Querier : None
Host Addr
: None
Other Uptime
: 0(h):0(m):0(s)
Unsolicit Expire : 0 sec
Other Expire
: 0(m):0(s)
Self Addr
: None
Self Expire
: 2(m): 3(s)
Self Uptime
: 0(h):10(m):58(s)
Transmit
:
Transmit
:
General
: 7
Report
: 0
Group Specific: 0
Leave
: 0
Recieved
:
Recieved
:
General
: 0
Report
: 4
Group Specific: 0
Leave
: 0
join Success
: 0
Filter Drop
: 0
Source Port Drop: 0
– 584 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Snooping
Others Drop
: 0
Console#
Table 119: show ipv6 MLD snooping statistics summary - display description
Field
Description
Number of Groups
Number of active MLD groups active on the specified interface.
Physical Interface (Port/Trunk)
Querier:
Transmit
General
The number of general queries sent from this interface.
Group Specific
The number of group specific queries sent from this interface.
Recieved
General
The number of general queries received on this interface.
Group Specific
The number of group specific queries received on this interface.
Report & Leave
Transmit
Report
The number of MLD membership reports sent from this interface.
Leave
The number of leave messages sent from this interface.
Recieved
Report
The number of MLD membership reports received on this interface.
Leave
The number of leave messages received on this interface.
join Success
The number of times a multicast group was successfully joined.
Filter Drop
The number of messages dropped by an MLD filtering profile.
Source Port Drop
The number of dropped messages that are received on MVR source
port or mrouter port.
Others Drop
The number of received invalid messages.
Logical Interface (VLAN)
The following additional parameters are included for a VLAN interface
Querier:
Other Querier
IPv6 address of remote querier on this interface.
Other Uptime
Time remote querier has been up.
Other Expire
Time after which remote querier is assumed to have expired.
Self Addr
IPv6 address of local querier on this interface.
Self Expire
Time after which local querier is assumed to have expired.
Self Uptime
Time local querier has been up.
Report & Leave
Host Addr
The link-local or global IPv6 address that is assigned on that VLAN.
Unsolicit Expire
The number of group leaves resulting from timeouts instead of explicit
leave messages.
– 585 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
MLD Filtering and Throttling
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the multicast
services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV service based on a
specific subscription plan. The MLD filtering feature fulfills this requirement by
restricting access to specified multicast services on a switch port, and MLD
throttling limits the number of simultaneous multicast groups a port can join.
Table 120: MLD Filtering and Throttling Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ipv6 mld filter
Enables MLD filtering and throttling on the switch
GC
ipv6 mld profile
Sets a profile number and enters MLD filter profile
configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Sets a profile access mode to permit or deny
IPC
range
Specifies one or a range of multicast addresses for a profile IPC
ipv6 mld filter
Assigns an MLD filter profile to an interface
IC
ipv6 mld max-groups
Specifies an M:D throttling number for an interface
IC
ipv6 mld max-groups
action
Sets the MLD throttling action for an interface
IC
ipv6 mld query-drop
Drops any received MLD query packets
IC
show ipv6 mld filter
Displays the MLD filtering status
PE
show ipv6 mld profile
Displays MLD profiles and settings
PE
show ipv6 mld query-drop
Shows if the interface is configured to drop MLD query
packets
PE
show ipv6 mld throttle
interface
Displays the MLD throttling setting for interfaces
PE
ipv6 mld filter This command globally enables MLD filtering and throttling on the switch. Use the
(Global Configuration) no form to disable the feature.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld filter
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ MLD filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies
multicast groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An MLD filter profile
can contain one or more, or a range of multicast addresses; but only one profile
– 586 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
can be assigned to a port. When enabled, MLD join reports received on the port
are checked against the filter profile. If a requested multicast group is
permitted, the MLD join report is forwarded as normal. If a requested multicast
group is denied, the MLD join report is dropped.
◆
MLD filtering and throttling only applies to dynamically learned multicast
groups, it does not apply to statically configured groups.
◆
The MLD filtering feature operates in the same manner when MVR6 is used to
forward multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld filter
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 mld filter
ipv6 mld profile This command creates an MLD filter profile number and enters MLD profile
configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a profile number.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld profile profile-number
profile-number - An MLD filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A profile defines the multicast groups that a subscriber is permitted or denied to
join. The same profile can be applied to many interfaces, but only one profile can
be assigned to one interface. Each profile has only one access mode; either permit
or deny.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld profile 19
Console(config-mld-profile)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 mld profile
– 587 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
permit, deny This command sets the access mode for an MLD filter profile. Use the no form to
delete a profile number.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
Default Setting
deny
Command Mode
MLD Profile Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Each profile has only one access mode; either permit or deny.
◆
When the access mode is set to permit, MLD join reports are processed when a
multicast group falls within the controlled range. When the access mode is set
to deny, MLD join reports are only processed when a multicast group is not in
the controlled range.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 mld profile 19
Console(config-mld-profile)#permit
Console(config-mld-profile)#
range This command specifies multicast group addresses for a profile. Use the no form to
delete addresses from a profile.
Syntax
[no] range low-ipv6-address [high-ipv6-address]
low-ipv6-address - A valid IPv6 address (X:X:X:X::X) of a multicast group or
start of a group range.
high-ipv6-address - A valid IPv6 address (X:X:X:X::X) for the end of a
multicast group range.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MLD Profile Configuration
Command Usage
Enter this command multiple times to specify more than one multicast address or
address range for a profile.
– 588 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
Example
Console(config-mld-profile)#range ff01::0101 ff01::0202
Console(config-mld-profile)#
ipv6 mld filter This command assigns an MLD filtering profile to an interface on the switch. Use
(Interface Configuration) the no form to remove a profile from an interface.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld filter profile-number
profile-number - An MLD filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The MLD filtering profile must first be created with the ipv6 mld profile
command before being able to assign it to an interface.
◆
Only one profile can be assigned to an interface.
◆
A profile can also be assigned to a trunk interface. When ports are configured as
trunk members, the trunk uses the filtering profile assigned to the first port
member in the trunk.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mld filter 19
Console(config-if)#
ipv6 mld max-groups This command configures the maximum number of MLD groups that an interface
can join. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ipv6 mld max-groups number
no ipv6 mld max-groups
number - The maximum number of multicast groups an interface can join at
the same time. (Range: 1-255)
Default Setting
255
– 589 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ MLD throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can join
at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port,
the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is
set to deny, any new MLD join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to
replace, the switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with
the new multicast group.
◆
MLD throttling can also be set on a trunk interface. When ports are configured
as trunk members, the trunk uses the throttling settings of the first port
member in the trunk.
◆
If the maximum number of MLD groups is set to the default value, the running
status of MLD throttling will change to false. This means that any configuration
for MLD throttling will have no effect until the maximum number of MLD
groups is configured to another value.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mld max-groups 10
Console(config-if)#
ipv6 mld max-groups This command sets the MLD throttling action for an interface on the switch.
action
Syntax
ipv6 mld max-groups action {deny | replace}
deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
Default Setting
Deny
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the switch can take
one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to deny, any new
MLD join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the switch randomly
removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast group.
– 590 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mld max-groups action replace
Console(config-if)#
ipv6 mld query-drop This command drops any received MLD query packets. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 mld query-drop
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command can be used to drop any query packets received on the specified
interface. If this switch is acting as a Querier, this prevents it from being affected by
messages received from another Querier.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mld query-drop
Console(config-if)#
show ipv6 mld filter This command displays the global and interface settings for MLD filtering.
Syntax
show ipv6 mld filter [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 591 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
Example
Console#show ipv6 mld filter
MLD filter Enabled
Console#show ipv6 mld filter interface ethernet 1/3
Ethernet 1/3 information
--------------------------------MLD Profile 19
Deny
Range ff01::101
ff01::faa
Console#
show ipv6 mld profile This command displays MLD filtering profiles created on the switch.
Syntax
show ipv6 mld profile [profile-number]
profile-number - An existing MLD filter profile number.
(Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ipv6 mld profile
MLD Profile 19
MLD Profile 50
Console#show ipv6 mld profile 19
MLD Profile 19
Deny
Range ff01::101
ff01::faa
Console#
show ipv6 mld This command shows if the specified interface is configured to drop MLD query
query-drop packets.
Syntax
show ipv6 mld query-drop interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
– 592 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays all interfaces.
Example
Console#show ipv6 mld query-drop interface ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/1: Enabled
Console#
show ipv6 mld throttle This command displays the interface settings for MLD throttling.
interface
Syntax
show ipv6 mld throttle interface [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays information for all
interfaces.
Example
Console#show ipv6 mld throttle interface ethernet 1/3
Eth 1/3 Information
Status
: TRUE
Action
: Replace
Max Multicast Groups
: 10
Current Multicast Groups : 0
Console#
– 593 –
Chapter 22 | Multicast Filtering Commands
MLD Filtering and Throttling
– 594 –
23
LLDP Commands
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is used to discover basic information about
neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that
uses periodic broadcasts to advertise information about the sending device.
Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value (TLV) format according
to the IEEE 802.1AB standard, and can include details such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings. LLDP also defines how to store and
maintain information gathered about the neighboring network nodes it discovers.
Link Layer Discovery Protocol - Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) is an
extension of LLDP intended for managing endpoint devices such as Voice over IP
phones and network switches. The LLDP-MED TLVs advertise information such as
network policy, power, inventory, and device location details. LLDP and LLDP-MED
information can be used by SNMP applications to simplify troubleshooting,
enhance network management, and maintain an accurate network topology.
Table 121: LLDP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
lldp
Enables LLDP globally on the switch
GC
lldp holdtime-multiplier
Configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP GC
advertisements
lldp
med-fast-start-count
Configures how many medFastStart packets are
transmitted
GC
lldp notification-interval Configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP
notifications about LLDP changes
GC
lldp refresh-interval
Configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP
advertisements
GC
lldp reinit-delay
Configures the delay before attempting to reinitialize after LLDP ports are disabled or the link
goes down
GC
lldp tx-delay
Configures a delay between the successive
transmission of advertisements initiated by a
change in local LLDP MIB variables
GC
lldp admin-status
Enables LLDP transmit, receive, or transmit and
receive mode on the specified port
IC
lldp basic-tlv
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the
management-ip-address management address for this device
IC
lldp basic-tlv
port-description
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
port description
IC
lldp basic-tlv
system-capabilities
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
system capabilities
IC
– 595 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Table 121: LLDP Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
lldp basic-tlv
system-description
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the
system description
IC
lldp basic-tlv
system-name
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
system name
IC
lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident* Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the
supported protocols
IC
lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise port- IC
based protocol related VLAN information
lldp dot1-tlv pvid*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
default VLAN ID
IC
lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name* Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
VLAN name
IC
lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
link aggregation capabilities
IC
lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
MAC and physical layer specifications
IC
lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
maximum frame size
IC
lldp med-location
civic-addr
Configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise IC
its location identification details
lldp med-notification
Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications IC
about LLDP-MED changes
lldp med-tlv inventory
Configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise IC
its inventory identification details
lldp med-tlv location
Configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise IC
its location identification details
lldp med-tlv med-cap
Configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise IC
its Media Endpoint Device capabilities
lldp med-tlv
network-policy
Configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise IC
its network policy configuration
lldp notification
Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications IC
about LLDP changes
show lldp config
Shows LLDP configuration settings for all ports
PE
show lldp info
local-device
Shows LLDP global and interface-specific
configuration settings for this device
PE
show lldp info
remote-device
Shows LLDP global and interface-specific
configuration settings for remote devices
PE
show lldp info statistics
Shows statistical counters for all LLDP-enabled
interfaces
PE
*
Vendor-specific options may or may not be advertised by neighboring devices.
– 596 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp This command enables LLDP globally on the switch. Use the no form to disable
LLDP.
Syntax
[no] lldp
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#lldp
Console(config)#
lldp This command configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP advertisements.
holdtime-multiplier Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp holdtime-multiplier value
no lldp holdtime-multiplier
value - Calculates the TTL in seconds based on the following rule:
minimum of ((Transmission Interval * Holdtime Multiplier), or 65536)
(Range: 2 - 10)
Default Setting
Holdtime multiplier: 4
TTL: 4*30 = 120 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The time-to-live tells the receiving LLDP agent how long to retain all information
pertaining to the sending LLDP agent if it does not transmit updates in a timely
manner.
Example
Console(config)#lldp holdtime-multiplier 10
Console(config)#
– 597 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp This command specifies the amount of MED Fast Start LLDPDUs to transmit during
med-fast-start-count the activation process of the LLDP-MED Fast Start mechanism. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp med-fast-start-count packets
no lldp med-fast-start-count
seconds - Amount of packets. (Range: 1-10 packets; Default: 4 packets)
Default Setting
4 packets
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This parameter is part of the timer which ensures that the LLDP-MED Fast Start
mechanism is active for the port. LLDP-MED Fast Start is critical to the timely
startup of LLDP, and therefore integral to the rapid availability of Emergency Call
Service.
Example
Console(config)#lldp med-fast-start-count 6
Console(config)#
lldp This command configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP notifications
notification-interval about LLDP MIB changes. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp notification-interval seconds
no lldp notification-interval
seconds - Specifies the periodic interval at which SNMP notifications are
sent. (Range: 5 - 3600 seconds)
Default Setting
5 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ This parameter only applies to SNMP applications which use data stored in the
LLDP MIB for network monitoring or management.
– 598 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
◆
Information about changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between SNMP
notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time of a
notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should therefore
periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect
any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling or
transmission loss.
Example
Console(config)#lldp notification-interval 30
Console(config)#
lldp refresh-interval This command configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP advertisements.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp refresh-interval seconds
no lldp refresh-delay
seconds - Specifies the periodic interval at which LLDP advertisements are
sent. (Range: 5 - 32768 seconds)
Default Setting
30 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#lldp refresh-interval 60
Console(config)#
lldp reinit-delay This command configures the delay before attempting to re-initialize after LLDP
ports are disabled or the link goes down. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lldp reinit-delay seconds
no lldp reinit-delay
seconds - Specifies the delay before attempting to re-initialize LLDP.
(Range: 1 - 10 seconds)
Default Setting
2 seconds
– 599 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When LLDP is re-initialized on a port, all information in the remote systems LLDP
MIB associated with this port is deleted.
Example
Console(config)#lldp reinit-delay 10
Console(config)#
lldp tx-delay This command configures a delay between the successive transmission of
advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB variables. Use the no form
to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp tx-delay seconds
no lldp tx-delay
seconds - Specifies the transmit delay. (Range: 1 - 8192 seconds)
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The transmit delay is used to prevent a series of successive LLDP transmissions
during a short period of rapid changes in local LLDP MIB objects, and to
increase the probability that multiple, rather than single changes, are reported
in each transmission.
◆
This attribute must comply with the following rule:
(4 * tx-delay) ≤ refresh-interval
Example
Console(config)#lldp tx-delay 10
Console(config)#
– 600 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp admin-status This command enables LLDP transmit, receive, or transmit and receive mode on the
specified port. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
lldp admin-status {rx-only | tx-only | tx-rx}
no lldp admin-status
rx-only - Only receive LLDP PDUs.
tx-only - Only transmit LLDP PDUs.
tx-rx - Both transmit and receive LLDP Protocol Data Units (PDUs).
Default Setting
tx-rx
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp admin-status rx-only
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the management
management-ip- address for this device. Use the no form to disable this feature.
address
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ The management address protocol packet includes the IPv4 address of the
switch. If no management address is available, the address should be the MAC
address for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
◆
The management address TLV may also include information about the specific
interface associated with this address, and an object identifier indicating the
type of hardware component or protocol entity associated with this address.
The interface number and OID are included to assist SNMP applications to
perform network discovery by indicating enterprise specific or other starting
points for the search, such as the Interface or Entity MIB.
– 601 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
◆
Since there are typically a number of different addresses associated with a
Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more than one
management address TLV.
◆
Every management address TLV that reports an address that is accessible on a
port and protocol VLAN through the particular port should be accompanied by
a port and protocol VLAN TLV that indicates the VLAN identifier (VID)
associated with the management address reported by this TLV.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its port description.
port-description Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv port-description
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The port description is taken from the ifDescr object in RFC 2863, which includes
information about the manufacturer, the product name, and the version of the
interface hardware/software.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv port-description
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its system
system-capabilities capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
Default Setting
Enabled
– 602 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The system capabilities identifies the primary function(s) of the system and
whether or not these primary functions are enabled. The information advertised by
this TLV is described in IEEE 802.1AB.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the system
system-description description. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-description
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The system description is taken from the sysDescr object in RFC 3418, which
includes the full name and version identification of the system's hardware type,
software operating system, and networking software.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-description
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the system name. Use
system-name the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-name
Default Setting
Enabled
– 603 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The system name is taken from the sysName object in RFC 3418, which contains the
system’s administratively assigned name, and is in turn based on the hostname
command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-name
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the supported
proto-ident protocols. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises the protocols that are accessible through this interface.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise port-based protocol
VLAN information. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 604 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Usage
This option advertises the port-based protocol VLANs configured on this interface
(see “Configuring Protocol-based VLANs” on page 465).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv pvid This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its default VLAN ID.
Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv pvid
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates the VLAN with which untagged
or priority-tagged frames are associated (see the switchport native vlan command).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv pvid
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its VLAN name. Use
vlan-name the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 605 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Usage
This option advertises the name of all VLANs to which this interface has been
assigned. See “switchport allowed vlan” on page 453 and “protocol-vlan protocolgroup (Configuring Interfaces)” on page 467.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv link-agg This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise link aggregation
capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises link aggregation capabilities, aggregation status of the link,
and the 802.3 aggregated port identifier if this interface is currently a link
aggregation member.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its MAC and physical
layer capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
– 606 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Usage
This option advertises MAC/PHY configuration/status which includes information
about auto-negotiation support/capabilities, and operational Multistation Access
Unit (MAU) type.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its maximum frame
max-frame size. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Refer to “Frame Size” on page 100 for information on configuring the maximum
frame size for this switch.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
Console(config-if)#
– 607 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp med-location This command configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise its location
civic-addr identification details. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
lldp med-location civic-addr [[country country-code] | [what device-type] |
[ca-type ca-value]]
no lldp med-location civic-addr [[country] | [what] | [ca-type]]
country-code – The two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII letters.
(Example: DK, DE or US)
device-type – The type of device to which the location applies.
0 – Location of DHCP server.
1 – Location of network element closest to client.
2 – Location of client.
ca-type – A one-octet descriptor of the data civic address value.
(Range: 0-255)
ca-value – Description of a location. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Not advertised
No description
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ Use this command without any keywords to advertise location identification
details.
◆
Use the ca-type to advertise the physical location of the device, that is the city,
street number, building and room information. The address location is
specified as a type and value pair, with the civic address (CA) type being
defined in RFC 4776. The following table describes some of the CA type
numbers and provides examples.
Table 122: LLDP MED Location CA Types
CA Type
Description
CA Value Example
1
National subdivisions (state, canton, province)
California
2
County, parish
Orange
3
City, township
Irvine
4
City division, borough, city district
West Irvine
5
Neighborhood, block
Riverside
– 608 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Table 122: LLDP MED Location CA Types (Continued)
CA Type
Description
CA Value Example
6
Group of streets below the neighborhood level
Exchange
18
Street suffix or type
Avenue
19
House number
320
20
House number suffix
A
21
Landmark or vanity address
Tech Center
26
Unit (apartment, suite)
Apt 519
27
Floor
5
28
Room
509B
Any number of CA type and value pairs can be specified for the civic address
location, as long as the total does not exceed 250 characters.
◆
For the location options defined for device-type, normally option 2 is used to
specify the location of the client device. In situations where the client device
location is not known, 0 and 1 can be used, providing the client device is
physically close to the DHCP server or network element.
Example
The following example enables advertising location identification details.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#lldp med-location civic-addr
Console(config-if)#
1 California
2 Orange
3 Irvine
4 West Irvine
6 Exchange
18 Avenue
19 320
27 5
28 509B
country US
what 2
lldp med-notification This command enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about LLDPMED changes. Use the no form to disable LLDP-MED notifications.
Syntax
[no] lldp med-notification
Default Setting
Disabled
– 609 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target stations at
the interval specified by the lldp notification-interval command. Trap
notifications include information about state changes in the LLDP MIB (IEEE
802.1AB), the LLDP-MED MIB (ANSI/TIA 1057), or organization-specific LLDPEXT-DOT1 and LLDP-EXT-DOT3 MIBs.
◆
SNMP trap destinations are defined using the snmp-server host command.
◆
Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between
SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time
of a trap notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should
therefore periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to
detect any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling
or transmission loss.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp med-notification
Console(config-if)#
lldp med-tlv inventory This command configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise its inventory
identification details. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp med-tlv inventory
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises device details useful for inventory management, such as
manufacturer, model, software version and other pertinent information.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp med-tlv inventory
Console(config-if)#
– 610 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp med-tlv location This command configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise its location
identification details. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp med-tlv location
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises location identification details.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp med-tlv location
Console(config-if)#
lldp med-tlv med-cap This command configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise its Media
Endpoint Device capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp med-tlv med-cap
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises LLDP-MED TLV capabilities, allowing Media Endpoint and
Connectivity Devices to efficiently discover which LLDP-MED related TLVs are
supported on the switch.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp med-tlv med-cap
Console(config-if)#
– 611 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
lldp med-tlv This command configures an LLDP-MED-enabled port to advertise its network
network-policy policy configuration. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp med-tlv network-policy
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises network policy configuration information, aiding in the
discovery and diagnosis of VLAN configuration mismatches on a port. Improper
network policy configurations frequently result in voice quality degradation or
complete service disruption.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp med-tlv network-policy
Console(config-if)#
lldp notification This command enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about LLDP
changes. Use the no form to disable LLDP notifications.
Syntax
[no] lldp notification
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
◆ This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target stations at
the interval specified by the lldp notification-interval command. Trap
notifications include information about state changes in the LLDP MIB (IEEE
802.1AB), or organization-specific LLDP-EXT-DOT1 and LLDP-EXT-DOT3 MIBs.
◆
SNMP trap destinations are defined using the snmp-server host command.
◆
Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between
SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time
of a trap notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should
– 612 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
therefore periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to
detect any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling
or transmission loss.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp notification
Console(config-if)#
show lldp config This command shows LLDP configuration settings for all ports.
Syntax
show lldp config [detail interface]
detail - Shows configuration summary.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows all basic LLDP parameters are enabled on Port 1.
Console#show lldp config
LLDP Global Configuation
LLDP Enabled
LLDP Transmit Interval
LLDP Hold Time Multiplier
LLDP Delay Interval
LLDP Re-initialization Delay
LLDP Notification Interval
LLDP MED Fast Start Count
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Yes
30 seconds
4
2 seconds
2 seconds
5 seconds
4
LLDP Port Configuration
Port
Admin Status Notification Enabled
-------- ------------ -------------------Eth 1/1 Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/2 Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/3 Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/4 Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/5 Tx-Rx
True
.
.
.
Console#show lldp config detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Configuration Detail
Port
: Eth 1/1
– 613 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Admin Status
Notification Enabled
Basic TLVs Advertised
: Tx-Rx
: True
: port-description
system-name
system-description
system-capabilities
management-ip-address
802.1 specific TLVs Advertised : port-vid
vlan-name
proto-vlan
proto-ident
802.3 specific TLVs Advertised : mac-phy
link-agg
max-frame
MED Notification Status
: Enabled
MED Enabled TLVs Advertised
: med-cap
network-policy
location
inventory
MED Location Identification:
Location Data Format : Civic Address LCI
Civic Address Status : Enabled
Country Name
: US
What
: 2
CA-Type
: 1
CA-Value
: Alabama
CA-Type
: 2
CA-Value
: Tuscaloosa
Console#
show lldp info This command shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration settings for
local-device this device.
Syntax
show lldp info local-device [detail interface]
detail - Shows configuration summary.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lldp info local-device
LLDP Local Global Information
Chassis Type : MAC Address
Chassis ID
: 00-01-02-03-04-05
System Name :
– 614 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
System Description : ECS2110-26T
System Capabilities Support : Bridge
System Capabilities Enabled : Bridge
Management Address : 192.168.0.101 (IPv4)
LLDP Port Information
Port
Port ID Type
Port ID
Port Description
-------- ---------------- ----------------- -------------------------------Eth 1/1 MAC Address
00-12-CF-DA-FC-E9 Ethernet Port on unit 0, port 1
Eth 1/2 MAC Address
00-12-CF-DA-FC-EA Ethernet Port on unit 0, port 2
Eth 1/3 MAC Address
00-12-CF-DA-FC-EB Ethernet Port on unit 0, port 3
Eth 1/4 MAC Address
00-12-CF-DA-FC-EC Ethernet Port on unit 0, port 4
.
.
.
Console#show lldp info local-device detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Local Port Information Detail
Port
: Eth 1/1
Port ID Type
: MAC Address
Port ID
: 00-12-CF-DA-FC-E9
Port Description : Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
MED Capability
: LLDP-MED Capabilities
Network Policy
Location Identification
Inventory
Console#
show lldp info This command shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration settings for
remote-device remote devices attached to an LLDP-enabled port.
Syntax
show lldp info remote-device [detail interface]
detail - Shows detailed information.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that an IP phone or other end-node device which advertises LLDP-MED
capabilities must be connected to the switch for information to be displayed in the
“LLDP-MED Capability” and other related fields.
Console#show lldp info remote-device
LLDP Remote Devices Information
Interface Chassis ID
Port ID
System Name
--------- ----------------- ----------------- --------------------Eth 1/1
00-E0-0C-00-00-FD 00-E0-0C-00-01-02
– 615 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Console#show lldp info remote-device detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Remote Devices Information Detail
--------------------------------------------------------------Index
: 2
Chassis Type
: MAC Address
Chassis ID
: 70-72-CF-91-1C-B2
Port ID Type
: MAC Address
Port ID
: 70-72-CF-91-1C-B4
Time To Live
: 120 seconds
Port Description
: Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 2
System Description
: ECS2100-28PP
System Capabilities : Bridge
Enabled Capabilities : Bridge
Management Address : 192.168.0.4 (IPv4)
Port VLAN ID : 1
Port and Protocol VLAN ID : supported, disabled
VLAN Name : VLAN
1 - DefaultVlan
Protocol Identity (Hex) : 88-CC
MAC/PHY Configuration/Status
Port Auto-neg Supported
:
Port Auto-neg Enabled
:
Port Auto-neg Advertised Cap (Hex) :
Port MAU Type
:
Power via MDI
Power Class
Power MDI Supported
Power MDI Enabled
Power Pair Controllable
Power Pairs
Power Classification
:
:
:
:
:
:
Yes
Yes
6C00
16
PSE
Yes
Yes
No
Spare
Class 1
Link Aggregation
Link Aggregation Capable : Yes
Link Aggregation Enable : No
Link Aggregation Port ID : 0
Max Frame Size : 1522
Console#
The following example shows information which is displayed for end-node device
which advertises LLDP-MED TLVs.
...
LLDP-MED Capability :
Device Class
Supported Capabilities
Current Capabilities
– 616 –
: Network Connectivity
: LLDP-MED Capabilities
Network Policy
Location Identification
Extended Power via MDI - PSE
Inventory
: LLDP-MED Capabilities
Location Identification
Extended Power via MDI - PSE
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
Inventory
Location Identification :
Location Data Format
Country Name
What
Extended Power via MDI :
Power Type
Power Source
Power Priority
Power Value
Inventory
:
Hardware Revision
Firmware Revision
Software Revision
Serial Number
Manufacture Name
Model Name
Asset ID
Console#
: Civic Address LCI
: TW
: 2
:
:
:
:
PSE
Unknown
Unknown
0 Watts
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
R0A
1.2.6.0
1.2.6.0
S123456
Prye
VP101
340937
show lldp info This command shows statistics based on traffic received through all attached LLDPstatistics enabled interfaces.
Syntax
show lldp info statistics [detail interface]
detail - Shows configuration summary.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-8)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lldp info statistics
LLDP Global Statistics
Neighbor Entries List Last Updated
New Neighbor Entries Count
Neighbor Entries Deleted Count
Neighbor Entries Dropped Count
Neighbor Entries Ageout Count
:
:
:
:
:
485 seconds
2
1
0
1
LLDP Port Statistics
Port
NumFramesRecvd NumFramesSent NumFramesDiscarded
-------- -------------- ------------- -----------------Eth 1/1
12
12
0
Eth 1/2
17
17
0
Eth 1/3
0
0
0
Eth 1/4
0
0
0
Eth
1/5
0
0
0
.
– 617 –
Chapter 23 | LLDP Commands
.
.
Console#show lldp info statistics detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Statistics Detail
Port Name
: Eth 1/1
Frames Discarded : 0
Frames Invalid
: 0
Frames Received
: 12
Frames Sent
: 12
TLVs Unrecognized : 0
TLVs Discarded
: 0
Neighbor Ageouts : 1
Console#
– 618 –
24
Domain Name Service
Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services.
Entries can be manually configured in the DNS domain name to IP address
mapping table, default domain names configured, or one or more name servers
specified to use for domain name to address translation.
Note that domain name services will not be enabled until at least one name server
is specified with the ip name-server command and domain lookup is enabled with
the ip domain-lookup command.
Table 123: Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host
names
GC
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
ip host
Creates a static IPv4 host name-to-address mapping
GC
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for
host name-to-address translation
GC
ipv6 host
Creates a static IPv6 host name-to-address mapping
GC
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
ip mdns
Enables multicast DNS
GC
show ip mdns
Shows configuration state for multicast DNS
GC
DNS
mDNS
– 619 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
DNS Commands
ip domain-list This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete
host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with
dotted notation). Use the no form to remove a name from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-list name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-127 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
◆
When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch, it
will work through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to
the host name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
◆
If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name
command is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name is not used.
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS Disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (622)
– 620 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
ip domain-lookup This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to
disable DNS.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-lookup
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ At least one name server must be specified before DNS can be enabled.
◆
If one or more name servers are configured, but DNS is not yet enabled and the
switch receives a DHCP packet containing a DNS field with a list of DNS servers,
then the switch will automatically enabled DNS host name-to-address
translation.
◆
If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS Enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (622)
ip name-server (623)
– 621 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
ip domain-name This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host
names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove the current domain name.
Syntax
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-127 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS Disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list (620)
ip name-server (623)
ip domain-lookup (621)
ip host This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IPv4 address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ip host name address
name - Name of an IPv4 host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
address - Corresponding IPv4 address.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
– 622 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
Command Usage
Use the no ip host command to clear static entries, or the clear host command to
clear dynamic entries.
Example
This example maps an IPv4 address to a host name.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
No. Flag Type
IP Address
TTL
Domain
---- ---- ------- -------------------- ----- -----------------------------0
2 Address 192.168.1.55
rd5
Console#
ip name-server This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for
name-to-address resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this
list.
Syntax
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 …
server-address6]
server-address1 - IPv4 or IPv6 address of domain-name server.
server-address2 … server-address6 - IPv4 or IPv6 address of additional
domain-name servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a response is
received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
– 623 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (622)
ip domain-lookup (621)
ipv6 host This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IPv6 address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 host name ipv6-address
name - Name of an IPv6 host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
ipv6-address - Corresponding IPv6 address. This address must be entered
according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colonseparated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may be used in the
address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to fill the
undefined fields.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
This example maps an IPv6 address to a host name.
Console(config)#ipv6 host rd6 2001:0db8:1::12
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
No. Flag Type
IP Address
TTL
---- ---- ------- -------------------- ----0
2 Address 192.168.1.55
1
2 Address 2001:DB8:1::12
Console#
– 624 –
Domain
------------------------------rd5
rd6
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
clear dns cache This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
No.
Flag
Type
IP Address
TTL
Host
------- ------- ------- --------------- ------- -------Console#
clear host This command deletes dynamic entries from the DNS table.
Syntax
clear host {name | *}
name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
* - Removes all entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use the clear host command to clear dynamic entries, or the no ip host command
to clear static entries.
Example
This example clears all dynamic entries from the DNS table.
Console#clear host *
Console#
– 625 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
DNS Commands
show dns This command displays the configuration of the DNS service.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
show dns cache This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns cache
No.
Flag
Type
------- ------- ------3
4 Host
4
4 CNAME
5
4 CNAME
Console#
IP Address
TTL
Host
--------------- ------- -------209.131.36.158
115 www-real.wa1.b.yahoo.com
POINTER TO:3
115 www.yahoo.com
POINTER TO:3
115 www.wa1.b.yahoo.com
Table 124: show dns cache - display description
Field
Description
No.
The entry number for each resource record.
Flag
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
Type
This field includes “Host” which specifies the primary name for the owner, and
“CNAME” which specifies multiple domain names (or aliases) which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP Address
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
Host
The host name associated with this record.
– 626 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
Multicast DNS Commands
show hosts This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same
address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Console#show hosts
No. Flag Type
IP Address
---- ---- ------- -------------------0
2 Address 192.168.1.55
1
2 Address 2001:DB8:1::12
3
4 Address 209.131.36.158
4
4 CNAME
POINTER TO:3
5
4 CNAME
POINTER TO:3
Console#
TTL
Host
----- ------------------------------rd5
rd6
65 www-real.wa1.b.yahoo.com
65 www.yahoo.com
65 www.wa1.b.yahoo.com
Table 125: show hosts - display description
Field
Description
No.
The entry number for each resource record.
Flag
The field displays “2” for a static entry, or “4” for a dynamic entry stored in the
cache.
Type
This field includes “Address” which specifies the primary name for the owner,
and “CNAME” which specifies multiple domain names (or aliases) which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP Address
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server. This field is always blank for static
entries.
Host
The host name associated with this record.
Multicast DNS Commands
ip mdns This command enables multicast DNS. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] ip mdns
Default Setting
Disabled
– 627 –
Chapter 24 | Domain Name Service Commands
Multicast DNS Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Use this command to enable multicast DNS host name-to-address mapping on the
local network without the need for a dedicated DNS server. For more information
on this command refer to the Web Management Guide.
Example
Console(config)#ip mdns
Console(config)#
show ip mdns This command displays the configuration state multicast DNS service.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip mdns
Multicast DNS Status : Enabled
Console#
– 628 –
25
DHCP Commands
These commands are used to configure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) client and and relay functions. Any VLAN interface on this switch can be
configured to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP. This switch can
also be configured to relay DHCP client configuration requests to a DHCP server on
another network.
Table 126: DHCP Commands
Command Group
Function
DHCP Client
Allows interfaces to dynamically acquire IP address information
DHCP Relay
Relays DHCP requests from local hosts to a remote DHCP server
DHCP Client
Use the commands in this section to allow the switch’s VLAN interfaces to
dynamically acquire IP address information.
Table 127: DHCP Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip dhcp dynamic-provision
Enables dynamic provision via DHCP
GC
ip dhcp client class-id
Specifies the DHCP client identifier for an interface
IC
ip dhcp restart client
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
show ip dhcp
dynamic-provision
Shows the status of dynamic provision via DHCP
PE
DHCP for IPv4
DHCP for IPv6
ipv6 dhcp client
rapid-commit vlan
Specifies the Rapid Commit option for DHCPv6 message GC
exchange
ipv6 dhcp restart client vlan
Submits a DHCPv6 client request
PE
show ipv6 dhcp duid
Shows the DHCP Unique Identifier for this switch
PE
show ipv6 dhcp vlan
Shows DHCPv6 information for specified interface
PE
– 629 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
DHCP for IPv4
ip dhcp This command enables dynamic provisioning via DHCP. Use the no form to disable
dynamic-provision this feature.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp dynamic-provision
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
DHCPD is the daemon used by Linux to dynamically configure TCP/IP information
for client systems. To support DHCP option 66/67, you have to add corresponding
statements to the configuration file of DHCPD. Information on how to complete
this process are described in “Downloading a Configuration File and Other
Parameters from a DHCP Server” on page 58.
The following are some alternative commands which can be added to the DHCPD
to complete the dynamic provisioning process.
By default, the parameters for DHCP option 66/67 are not carried by the reply sent
from the DHCP server. To ask for a DHCP reply with option 66/67, the client can
inform the server that it is interested in option 66/67 by sending a DHCP request
that includes a 'parameter request list' option. Besides this, the client can also send
a DHCP request that includes a 'vendor class identifier' option to the server so that
the DHCP server can identify the device, and determine what information should
be given to requesting device.
The following are two additional sample configurations of the dhcpd.conf file for
the server version dhcp-3.0.4rc1, you can choose either one of them.
1. Define the conditions in subnet section:
shared-network Sample1 {
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
# option 55
option dhcp-parameter-request-list 1,66,67;
# option 66
option tftp-server-name "192.168.1.1";
# option 67
option bootfile-name "dhcp_config.cfg ";
}
}
– 630 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
2. Define the conditions in class section:
class "OPT66_67" { # for option 66/67
# option 124
match if option vendor-class-identifier = "Edge-core";
# option 55
option dhcp-parameter-request-list 1,66,67;
# option 66
option tftp-server-name "192.168.1.1";
# option 67
option bootfile-name "dhcp_config.cfg";
}
shared-network Sample2 {
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
}
pool {
allow members of "OPT66_67";
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.20;
}
}
Example
In the following example enables dhcp dynamic provisioning.
Console(config)#ip dhcp dynamic provisioning
Console(config)#
ip dhcp client class-id This command specifies the DCHP client vendor class identifier for the current
interface. Use the no form to remove the class identifier from the DHCP packet.
Syntax
ip dhcp client class-id [text text | hex hex]
no ip dhcp client class-id
text - A text string. (Range: 1-32 characters)
hex - A hexadecimal value. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
Class identifier option enabled, using the model number as the string
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ Use this command without any keyword to restore the default setting.
– 631 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
◆
This command is used to identify the vendor class and configuration of the
switch to the DHCP server, which then uses this information to decide on how
to service the client or the type of information to return.
◆
The general framework for this DHCP option is set out in RFC 2132 (Option 60).
This information is used to convey configuration settings or other identification
information about a client, but the specific string to use should be supplied by
your service provider or network administrator. Options 60, 66 and 67
statements can be added to the server daemon’s configuration file.
Table 128: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
Statement
Option
◆
Keyword
Parameter
60
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
66
tftp-server-name
a string indicating the tftp server name
67
bootfile-name
a string indicating the bootfile name
By default, DHCP option 66/67 parameters are not carried in a DHCP server
reply. To ask for a DHCP reply with option 66/67 information, the DHCP client
request sent by this switch includes a “parameter request list” asking for this
information. Besides, the client request also includes a “vendor class identifier”
set by the ip dhcp client class-id command that allows the DHCP server to
identify the device, and select the appropriate configuration file for download.
This information is included in Option 55 and 124.
Table 129: Options 55 and 124 Statements
Statement
Option
Keyword
Parameter
55
dhcp-parameter-request-list
a list of parameters, separated by ','
124
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
◆
The server should reply with Option 66 attributes, including the TFTP server
name and boot file name.
◆
Note that the vendor class identifier can be formatted in either text or
hexadecimal using the ip dhcp client class-id command, but the format used
by both the client and server must be the same.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 2
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp client class-id hex 0000e8666572
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart client (633)
– 632 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
ip dhcp restart client This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface that
has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode through the ip address command.
◆
DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
◆
If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#ip dhcp restart client
Console#show ip interface
VLAN 1 is Administrative Up - Link Up
Address is 00-E0-00-00-00-01
Index: 1001, MTU: 1500
Address Mode is DHCP
IP Address: 192.168.0.2 Mask: 255.255.255.0
Proxy ARP is disabled
DHCP Client Vendor Class ID (text): ECS4510-28T
DHCP Relay Server:
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (642)
show ip dhcp This command shows the status of dynamic provision via DHCP.
dynamic-provision
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp dynamic provisioning
Dynamic Provision via DHCP Status:
Disabled
Console#
– 633 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
DHCP for IPv6
ipv6 dhcp client This command specifies the Rapid Commit option for DHCPv6 message exchange
rapid-commit vlan for all DHCPv6 client requests submitted from the specified interface. Use the no
form to disable this option.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 dhcp client rapid-commit vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - VLAN ID, specified as a single number, a range of consecutive
numbers separated by a hyphen, or multiple numbers separated by
commas. (Range: 1-4094; Maximum command length: 300 characters)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ DHCPv6 clients can obtain configuration parameters from a server through a
normal four-message exchange (solicit, advertise, request, reply), or through a
rapid two-message exchange (solicit, reply). The rapid-commit option must be
enabled on both client and server for the two-message exchange to be used.
◆
This command allows two-message exchange method for prefix delegation.
When enabled, DCHPv6 client requests submitted from the specified interface
will include the rapid commit option in all solicit messages.
◆
If the rapid commit option has been enabled on the switch with this command,
and on the DHCPv6 server, message exchange can be reduced from the normal
four step process to a two-step exchange of only solicit and reply messages.
Example
Console(config)#ipv6 dhcp client rapid-commit vlan 2
Console(config)#
ipv6 dhcp restart This command submits a DHCPv6 client request.
client vlan
Syntax
ipv6 dhcp restart client vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - VLAN ID, specified as a single number, a range of consecutive
numbers separated by a hyphen, or multiple numbers separated by
commas. (Range: 1-4094; Maximum command length: 300 characters)
– 634 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ This command starts the DHCPv6 client process if it is not yet running by
submitting requests for configuration information through the specified
interface(s). When DHCPv6 is restarted, the switch may attempt to acquire an IP
address prefix through stateful address auto-configuration. If the router
advertisements have the “other stateful configuration” flag set, the switch may
also attempt to acquire other non-address configuration information (such as a
default gateway or DNS server) when DHCPv6 is restarted.
Prior to submitting a client request to a DHCPv6 server, the switch should be
configured with a link-local address using the ipv6 address autoconfig
command. The state of the Managed Address Configuration flag (M flag) and
Other Stateful Configuration flag (O flag) received in Router Advertisement
messages will determine the information this switch should attempt to acquire
from the DHCPv6 server as described below.
■
Both M and O flags are set to 1:
DHCPv6 is used for both address and other configuration settings.
This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateful, in which a DHCPv6 server
assigns stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts.
■
The M flag is set to 0, and the O flag is set to 1:
DHCPv6 is used only for other configuration settings.
Neighboring routers are configured to advertise non-link-local address
prefixes from which IPv6 hosts derive stateless addresses.
This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateless, in which a DHCPv6 server
does not assign stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts, but does assign stateless
configuration settings.
◆
DHCPv6 clients build a list of servers by sending a solicit message and
collecting advertised message replies. These servers are then ranked based on
their advertised preference value. If the client needs to acquire prefixes from
servers, only servers that have advertised prefixes are considered.
◆
If the rapid commit option has been enabled on the switch using the ipv6 dhcp
client rapid-commit vlan command, and on the DHCPv6 server, message
exchange can be reduced from the normal four step process to a two-step
exchange of only solicit and reply messages.
– 635 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
Example
The following command submits a client request on VLAN 1.
Console#ipv6 dhcp restart client vlan 1
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 address autoconfig (655)
show ipv6 dhcp duid This command shows the DHCP Unique Identifier for this switch.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
DHCPv6 clients and servers are identified by a DHCP Unique Identifier (DUID)
included in the client identifier and server identifier options. Static or dynamic
address prefixes may be assigned by a DHCPv6 server based on the client’s DUID.
Example
Console#show ipv6 dhcp duid
DHCPv6 Unique Identifier (DUID): 0001-0001-4A8158B4-00E00C0000FD
Console#
show ipv6 dhcp vlan This command shows DHCPv6 information for the specified interface(s).
Syntax
show ipv6 dhcp vlan vlan-list
vlan-list - VLAN ID, specified as a single number, a range of consecutive
numbers separated by a hyphen, or multiple numbers separated by
commas. (Range: 1-4094; Maximum command length: 300 characters)
Command Usage
Each allocation in the DHCPv6 server is identified by a DUID and an IAID. IAID
means Interface Association Identifier, and is a binding between the interface and
one or more IP addresses.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ipv6 dhcp vlan 1
VLAN 1 is in DHCP client mode, Rapid-Commit
IAID:
C0000F0
– 636 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Relay
List of known servers:
Server address : FE80::250:FCFF:FEF9:A494
DUID
: 0001-0001-48CFB0D5-F48F2A006801
Server address : FE80::250:FCFF:FEF9:A405
DUID
: 0001-0001-38CF5AB0-F48F2A003917
Console#
RELATED COMMANDS
ipv6 address (654)
DHCP Relay
This section describes commands used to configure the switch to relay DHCP
requests from local hosts to a remote DHCP server.
Table 130: DHCP Relay Option 82 Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip dhcp relay server
Specifies DHCP server or relay server addresses
IC
ip dhcp restart relay
Enables DHCP relay agent
PE
DHCP Relay for IPv4
ip dhcp relay server This command specifies the DHCP server or relay server addresses to use.
Use the no form to clear all addresses.
Syntax
ip dhcp relay server address1 [address2 [address3 ...]]
no ip dhcp relay server
address - IP address of DHCP server. (Range: 1-5 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Usage Guidelines
◆ DHCP relay service applies to DHCP client requests received on the specified
VLAN.
◆
This command is used to configure DHCP relay for host devices attached to the
switch. If DHCP relay service is enabled, and this switch sees a DHCP client
request, it inserts its own IP address into the request so that the DHCP server
will know the subnet where the client is located. Then, the switch forwards the
– 637 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Relay
packet to a DHCP server on another network. When the server receives the
DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP client from its defined
scope for the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a DHCP response back to the
DHCP relay agent (i.e., this switch). This switch then passes the DHCP response
received from the server to the client.
◆
You must specify the IP address for at least one active DHCP server. Otherwise,
the switch’s DHCP relay agent will not be able to forward client requests to a
DHCP server. Up to five DHCP servers can be specified in order of preference.
If any of the specified DHCP server addresses are not located in the same
network segment with this switch, use the ip default-gateway or ipv6 defaultgateway command to specify the default router through which this switch can
reach other IP subnetworks.
◆
To start DHCP relay service, enter the ip dhcp restart relay command.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp relay server 192.168.10.19
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart relay (638)
ip dhcp restart relay This command enables DHCP relay for the specified VLAN. Use the no form to
disable it.
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command is used to configure DHCP relay functions for host devices attached
to the switch. If DHCP relay service is enabled, and this switch sees a DHCP request
broadcast, it inserts its own IP address into the request so the DHCP server will
know the subnet where the client is located. Then, the switch forwards the packet
to the DHCP server on another network. When the server receives the DHCP
request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP client from its defined scope for
the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a DHCP response back to the DHCP relay agent
(i.e., this switch). This switch then broadcasts the DHCP response received from the
server to the client.
– 638 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Relay
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console#ip dhcp restart relay
Console#show ip interface
VLAN 1 is Administrative Up - Link Up
Address is 00-00-E8-93-82-A0
Index: 1001, MTU: 1500
Address Mode is DHCP
IP Address: 10.1.0.254 Mask: 255.255.255.0
Proxy ARP is disabled
DHCP Client Vendor Class ID (text): ECS4510-28T
DHCP Relay Server:
Console#
Related Commands
ip dhcp relay server (637)
– 639 –
Chapter 25 | DHCP Commands
DHCP Relay
– 640 –
26
IP Interface Commands
An IP Version 4 and Version 6 address may be used for management access to the
switch over the network. Both IPv4 or IPv6 addresses can be used simultaneously to
access the switch. You can manually configure a specific IPv4 or IPv6 address or
direct the switch to obtain an IPv4 address from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is
powered on. An IPv6 address can either be manually configured or dynamically
generated.
An IPv4 address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default for VLAN 1. You may
also need to a establish an IPv4 or IPv6 default gateway between this device and
management stations that exist on another network segment.
Table 131: IP Interface Commands
Command Group
Function
IPv4 Interface
Configures an IPv4 address for the switch
IPv6 Interface
Configures an IPv6 address for the switch
IPv4 Interface
There are no IP addresses assigned to this switch by default. You must manually
configure a new address to manage the switch over your network or to connect the
switch to existing IP subnets. You may also need to a establish a default gateway
between this device and management stations or other devices that exist on
another network segment (if routing is not enabled).
This section includes commands for configuring IP interfaces, the Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Proxy ARP.
Table 132: IPv4 Interface Commands
Command Group
Function
Basic IPv4 Configuration
Configures the IP address for interfaces and the gateway router
ARP Configuration
Configures static, dynamic and proxy ARP service
– 641 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
Basic IPv4 Configuration This section describes commands used to configure IP addresses for VLAN
interfaces on the switch.
Table 133: Basic IP Configuration Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which this switch can GC
reach other subnetworks
show ip default-gateway
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
PE
show ip traffic
Displays statistics for IP, ICMP, UDP, TCP and ARP protocols
PE
traceroute
Shows the route packets take to the specified host
PE
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network
NE, PE
ip address This command sets the IPv4 address for the currently selected VLAN interface. Use
the no form to remove an IP address.
Syntax
ip address {ip-address netmask [secondary]
[default-gateway ip-address] | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address [ip-address netmask [secondary] | dhcp]
ip-address - IP address
netmask - Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies
the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets. The network
mask can be either in the traditional format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or use classless
format with the range /5 to /32. For example the subnet 255.255.224.0
would be /19.
secondary - Specifies a secondary IP address.
default-gateway - The default gateway. (Refer to the ip default-gateway
command which provides the same function.)
bootp - Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
dhcp - Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default Setting
192.168.2.10/24
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
– 642 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
Command Usage
◆ An IP address must be assigned to this device to gain management access over
the network or to connect the router to existing IP subnets. A specific IP address
can be manually configured, or the router can be directed to obtain an address
from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to
255, separated by periods. Anything other than this format is not be accepted
by the configuration program.
◆
An interface can have only one primary IP address, but can have many
secondary IP addresses. In other words, secondary addresses need to be
specified if more than one IP subnet can be accessed through this interface.
Note that a secondary address cannot be configured prior to setting the
primary IP address, and the primary address cannot be removed if a secondary
address is still present. Also, if any router/switch in a network segment uses a
secondary address, all other routers/switches in that segment must also use a
secondary address from the same network or subnet address space.
◆
If bootp or dhcp options are selected, the system will immediately start
broadcasting service requests for all VLANs configured to obtain address
assignments through BOOTP or DHCP. IP is enabled but will not function until a
BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests are broadcast periodically
by the router in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP and DHCP values can
include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask). If the DHCP/BOOTP
server is slow to respond, you may need to use the ip dhcp restart client
command to re-start broadcasting service requests, or reboot the switch.
Note: Each VLAN group can be assigned its own IP interface address. You can
manage the switch via any of these IP addresses.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
This example assigns an IP address to VLAN 2 using a classless network mask.
Console(config)#interface vlan 2
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.2.2.1/24
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart client (633)
ip default-gateway (644)
ipv6 address (654)
– 643 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
ip default-gateway This command specifies the default gateway for destinations not found in local
routing tables. Use the no form to remove a default gateway.
Syntax
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway - IP address of the default gateway
Default Setting
No default gateway is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The default gateway can also be defined using the following Global
configuration command: ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 gateway-address.
◆
Static routes can also be defined using the ip route command to ensure that
traffic to the designated address or subnet passes through a preferred gateway.
◆
A default gateway can only be successfully set when a network interface that
directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the router.
◆
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address for a
default gateway, include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier
after the % delimiter. For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the
interface.
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.0.1
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip address (642)
ip route (680)
ipv6 default-gateway (653)
– 644 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
show ip This command shows the IPv4 default gateway configured for this device.
default-gateway
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip default-gateway
IP default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway (644)
show ipv6 default-gateway (662)
show ip interface This command displays the settings of an IPv4 interface.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip interface
VLAN 1 is Administrative Up - Link Up
Address is 00-E0-00-00-00-01
Index: 1001, MTU: 1500
Address Mode is DHCP
IP Address: 192.168.0.2 Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP Client Vendor Class ID (text): ECS4510-28T
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (642)
show ipv6 interface (662)
– 645 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
show ip traffic This command displays statistics for IP, ICMP, UDP, TCP and ARP protocols.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip traffic
IP Statistics:
IP received
7845 total received
header errors
unknown protocols
address errors
discards
7845 delivers
reassembly request datagrams
reassembly succeeded
reassembly failed
IP sent
forwards datagrams
9903 requests
discards
no routes
generated fragments
fragment succeeded
fragment failed
ICMP Statistics:
ICMP received
input
errors
destination unreachable messages
time exceeded messages
parameter problem message
echo request messages
echo reply messages
redirect messages
timestamp request messages
timestamp reply messages
source quench messages
address mask request messages
address mask reply messages
ICMP sent
output
errors
destination unreachable messages
time exceeded messages
parameter problem message
echo request messages
echo reply messages
redirect messages
timestamp request messages
timestamp reply messages
source quench messages
address mask request messages
address mask reply messages
UDP Statistics:
input
no port errors
other errors
output
TCP Statistics:
7841 input
– 646 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
input errors
9897 output
Console#
traceroute This command shows the route packets take to the specified destination.
Syntax
traceroute host
host - IP address or alias of the host.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use the traceroute command to determine the path taken to reach a specified
destination.
◆
◆
A trace terminates when the destination responds, when the maximum
timeout (TTL) is exceeded, or the maximum number of hops is exceeded.
◆
The traceroute command first sends probe datagrams with the TTL value set at
one. This causes the first router to discard the datagram and return an error
message. The trace function then sends several probe messages at each
subsequent TTL level and displays the round-trip time for each message. Not all
devices respond correctly to probes by returning an “ICMP port unreachable”
message. If the timer goes off before a response is returned, the trace function
prints a series of asterisks and the “Request Timed Out” message. A long
sequence of these messages, terminating only when the maximum timeout
has been reached, may indicate this problem with the target device.
◆
If the target device does not respond or other errors are detected, the switch
will indicate this by one of the following messages:
■
■
■
■
■
* - No Response
H - Host Unreachable
N - Network Unreachable
P - Protocol Unreachable
O -Other
– 647 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
Example
Console#traceroute 192.168.0.1
Press "ESC" to abort.
Traceroute to 192.168.0.99, 30
Hop Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 3
--- -------- -------- -------1
20 ms
<10 ms
<10 ms
hops max, timeout is 3 seconds
IP Address
--------------192.168.0.99
Trace completed.
Console#
ping This command sends (IPv4) ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network.
Syntax
ping host [count count] [size size]
host - IP address or alias of the host.
count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16)
size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the switch adds header information.
Default Setting
count: 5
size: 32 bytes
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
◆
The following are some results of the ping command:
■
Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
■
Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
■
Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
■
Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
– 648 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
◆
When pinging a host name, be sure the DNS server has been defined
(page 623) and host name-to-address translation enabled (page 621). If
necessary, local devices can also be specified in the DNS static host table
(page 622).
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Press ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 0 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 10 ms, Average = 8 ms
Console#
Related Commands
interface (350)
ARP Configuration This section describes commands used to configure the Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) on the switch.
Table 134: Address Resolution Protocol Commands
Command
Function
Mode
arp
Adds a static entry in the ARP cache
GC
ip proxy-arp
Enables proxy ARP service
IC
clear arp-cache
Deletes all dynamic entries from the ARP cache
PE
show arp
Displays entries in the ARP cache
NE, PE
arp This command adds a static entry in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache.
Use the no form to remove an entry from the cache.
Syntax
arp ip-address hardware-address
no arp ip-address
ip-address - IP address to map to a specified hardware address.
hardware-address - Hardware address to map to a specified IP address. (The
format for this address is xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx.)
Default Setting
No default entries
– 649 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ The ARP cache is used to map 32-bit IP addresses into 48-bit hardware (i.e.,
Media Access Control) addresses. This cache includes entries for hosts and
other routers on local network interfaces defined on this router.
◆
The maximum number of static entries allowed in the ARP cache is 128.
◆
A static entry may need to be used if there is no response to an ARP broadcast
message. For example, some applications may not respond to ARP requests or
the response arrives too late, causing network operations to time out.
◆
Static entries will not be aged out nor deleted when power is reset. A static
entry can only be removed through the configuration interface.
Example
Console(config)#arp 10.1.0.19 01-02-03-04-05-06
Console(config)#
Related Commands
clear arp-cache (651)
show arp (651)
ip proxy-arp This command enables proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Use the no form
to disable proxy ARP.
Syntax
[no] ip proxy-arp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ Proxy ARP allows a non-routing device to determine the MAC address of a host
on another subnet or network.
◆
End stations that require Proxy ARP must view the entire network as a single
network. These nodes must therefore use a smaller subnet mask than that used
by the router or other relevant network devices.
– 650 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv4 Interface
◆
Extensive use of Proxy ARP can degrade router performance because it may
lead to increased ARP traffic and increased search time for larger ARP address
tables.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 3
Console(config-if)#ip proxy-arp
Console(config-if)#
clear arp-cache This command deletes all dynamic entries from the Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all dynamic entries in the ARP cache.
Console#clear arp-cache
This operation will delete all the dynamic entries in ARP Cache.
Do you want to continue this operation (y/n)?
Console#
show arp This command displays entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
◆ This command displays information about the ARP cache. The first line shows
the cache timeout. It also shows each cache entry, including the IP address,
MAC address, type (static, dynamic, other), and VLAN interface. Note that entry
type “other” indicates local addresses for this router.
◆
Static entries are only displayed for VLANs that are up. In other words, static
entries are only displayed when configured for the IP subnet of a existing VLAN,
and that VLAN is linked up.
– 651 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Example
This example displays all entries in the ARP cache.
Console#show arp
ARP Cache Timeout: 1200 (seconds)
IP Address
--------------10.1.0.0
10.1.0.254
10.1.0.255
145.30.20.23
MAC Address
----------------FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
00-00-AB-CD-00-00
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
09-50-40-30-20-10
Type
--------other
other
other
dynamic
Interface
----------VLAN1
VLAN1
VLAN1
VLAN3
Total entry : 4
Console#
IPv6 Interface
This switch supports the following IPv6 interface commands.
Table 135: IPv6 Configuration Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Interface Address Configuration and Utilities
ipv6 default-gateway
Sets an IPv6 default gateway for traffic with no known next GC
hop
ipv6 address
Configures an IPv6 global unicast address, and enables
IPv6 on an interface
IC
ipv6 address autoconfig
Enables automatic configuration of IPv6 addresses on an
interface and enables IPv6 on the interface
IC
ipv6 address eui-64
Configures an IPv6 global unicast address for an interface
using an EUI-64 interface ID in the low order 64 bits, and
enables IPv6 on the interface
IC
ipv6 address link-local
Configures an IPv6 link-local address for an interface and
enables IPv6 on the interface
IC
ipv6 enable
Enables IPv6 on an interface that has not been configured IC
with an explicit IPv6 address
ipv6 mtu
Sets the size of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for
IPv6 packets sent on an interface
IC
show ipv6 default-gateway Displays the current IPv6 default gateway
PE
show ipv6 interface
Displays the usability and configured settings for IPv6
interfaces
PE
show ipv6 mtu
Displays maximum transmission unit (MTU) information for
IPv6 interfaces
PE
show ipv6 traffic
Displays statistics about IPv6 traffic
PE
clear ipv6 traffic
Resets IPv6 traffic counters
PE
ping6
Sends IPv6 ICMP echo request packets to another node on PE
the network
– 652 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Table 135: IPv6 Configuration Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
traceroute6
Shows the route packets take to the specified host
PE
Neighbor Discovery
ipv6 nd dad attempts
Configures the number of consecutive neighbor
IC
solicitation messages sent on an interface during duplicate
address detection
ipv6 nd ns-interval
Configures the interval between IPv6 neighbor solicitation IC
retransmissions on an interface
ipv6 nd reachable-time
Configures the amount of time that a remote IPv6 node is IC
considered reachable after some reachability confirmation
event has occurred
clear ipv6 neighbors
Deletes all dynamic entries in the IPv6 neighbor discovery PE
cache
show ipv6 neighbors
Displays information in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache PE
Interface Address Configuration and Utilities
ipv6 default-gateway This command sets an IPv6 default gateway to use for destinations with no known
next hop. Use the no form to remove a previously configured default gateway.
Syntax
ipv6 default-gateway ipv6-address
no ipv6 address
ipv6-address - The IPv6 address of the default next hop router to use for
destinations with no known next hop.
Default Setting
No default gateway is defined
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
◆ All IPv6 addresses must be according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
◆
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address,
include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier after the % delimiter.
For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the interface.
◆
An IPv6 default gateway should be defined if the destination has been assigned
an IPv6 address that is located in a different IP segment.
– 653 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
◆
An IPv6 default gateway can only be successfully set when a network interface
that directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the switch.
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ipv6 default-gateway FE80::269:3EF9:FE19:6780%1
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 default-gateway (662)
ip default-gateway (644)
ipv6 address This command configures an IPv6 global unicast address and enables IPv6 on an
interface. Use the no form without any arguments to remove all IPv6 addresses
from the interface, or use the no form with a specific IPv6 address to remove that
address from the interface.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 address ipv6-address[/prefix-length]
ipv6-address - A full IPv6 address including the network prefix and host
address bits.
prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
Default Setting
No IPv6 addresses are defined
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ All IPv6 addresses must be according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
◆
To connect to a larger network with multiple subnets, you must configure a
global unicast address. This address can be manually configured with this
command, or it can be automatically configured using the ipv6 address
autoconfig command.
◆
If a link-local address has not yet been assigned to this interface, this command
will assign the specified static global unicast address and also dynamically
generate a link-local unicast address for the interface. (The link-local address is
– 654 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
made with an address prefix of FE80 and a host portion based the switch’s MAC
address in modified EUI-64 format.)
◆
If a duplicate address is detected, a warning message is sent to the console.
Example
This example specifies a full IPv6 address and prefix length.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2222:7272::72/96
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::7272:cfff:fe83:3466%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:2222:7272::72/96, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/96
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff00:72
ff02::1:ff83:3466
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 address eui-64 (657)
ipv6 address autoconfig (655)
show ipv6 interface (662)
ip address (642)
ipv6 address This command enables stateless autoconfiguration of IPv6 addresses on an
autoconfig interface and enables IPv6 on the interface. The network portion of the address is
based on prefixes received in IPv6 router advertisement messages; the host portion
is based on the modified EUI-64 form of the interface identifier (i.e., the switch’s
MAC address). Use the no form to remove the address generated by this command.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 address autoconfig
Default Setting
No IPv6 addresses are defined
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
– 655 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Command Usage
◆ If a link local address has not yet been assigned to this interface, this command
will dynamically generate a global unicast address (if a global prefix is included
in received router advertisements) and a link local address for the interface.
(The link-local address is made with an address prefix of FE80 and a host
portion based the switch’s MAC address in modified EUI-64 format.)
◆
If a duplicate address is detected, a warning message is sent to the console.
◆
When DHCPv6 is restarted, the switch may attempt to acquire an IP address
prefix through stateful address autoconfiguration. If the router advertisements
have the “other stateful configuration” flag set, the switch may also attempt to
acquire other non-address configuration information (such as a default
gateway) from a DHCPv6 server when DHCPv6 is restarted.
Example
This example assigns a dynamic global unicast address of to the switch.
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address autoconfig
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is stale
Link-local address:
fe80::7272:cfff:fe83:3466%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:2222:7272:7272:cfff:fe83:3466/64, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/
64
valid lifetime 2591531 preferred lifetime 604331
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff83:3466
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 address (654)
show ipv6 interface (662)
– 656 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
ipv6 address eui-64 This command configures an IPv6 address for an interface using an EUI-64 interface
ID in the low order 64 bits and enables IPv6 on the interface. Use the no form
without any arguments to remove all manually configured IPv6 addresses from the
interface. Use the no form with a specific address to remove it from the interface.
Syntax
ipv6 address ipv6-prefix/prefix-length eui-64
no ipv6 address [ipv6-prefix/prefix-length eui-64]
ipv6-prefix - The IPv6 network portion of the address assigned to the
interface.
prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
Default Setting
No IPv6 addresses are defined
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ The prefix must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
◆
If a link local address has not yet been assigned to this interface, this command
will dynamically generate a global unicast address and a link-local address for
this interface. (The link-local address is made with an address prefix of FE80 and
a host portion based the switch’s MAC address in modified EUI-64 format.)
◆
Note that the value specified in the ipv6-prefix may include some of the highorder host bits if the specified prefix length is less than 64 bits. If the specified
prefix length exceeds 64 bits, then the network portion of the address will take
precedence over the interface identifier.
◆
If a duplicate address is detected, a warning message is sent to the console.
◆
IPv6 addresses are 16 bytes long, of which the bottom 8 bytes typically form a
unique host identifier based on the device’s MAC address. The EUI-64
specification is designed for devices that use an extended 8-byte MAC address.
For devices that still use a 6-byte MAC address (also known as EUI-48 format), it
must be converted into EUI-64 format by inverting the universal/local bit in the
address and inserting the hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper and
lower three bytes of the MAC address.
◆
For example, if a device had an EUI-48 address of 28-9F-18-1C-82-35, the
global/local bit must first be inverted to meet EUI-64 requirements (i.e., 1 for
– 657 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
globally defined addresses and 0 for locally defined addresses), changing 28 to
2A. Then the two bytes FFFE are inserted between the OUI (i.e., company id)
and the rest of the address, resulting in a modified EUI-64 interface identifier of
2A-9F-18-FF-FE-1C-82-35.
◆
This host addressing method allows the same interface identifier to be used on
multiple IP interfaces of a single device, as long as those interfaces are attached
to different subnets.
Example
This example uses the network prefix of 2001:0DB8:0:1::/64, and specifies that the
EUI-64 interface identifier be used in the lower 64 bits of the address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:0DB8:0:1::/64 eui-64
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::7272:cfff:fe83:3466%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:0:1:7272:cfff:fe83:3466/64, subnet is 2001:db8:0:1::/64[EUI]
2001:db8:2222:7272::72/96, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/96
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff00:72
ff02::1:ff83:3466
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 address autoconfig (655)
show ipv6 interface (662)
– 658 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
ipv6 address link-local This command configures an IPv6 link-local address for an interface and enables
IPv6 on the interface. Use the no form without any arguments to remove all
manually configured IPv6 addresses from the interface. Use the no form with a
specific address to remove it from the interface.
Syntax
ipv6 address ipv6-address link-local
no ipv6 address [ipv6-address link-local]
ipv6-address - The IPv6 address assigned to the interface.
Default Setting
No IPv6 addresses are defined
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ The specified address must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values.
One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate
number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields. And the address prefix
must be in the range of FE80~FEBF.
◆
The address specified with this command replaces a link-local address that was
automatically generated for the interface.
◆
You can configure multiple IPv6 global unicast addresses per interface, but only
one link-local address per interface.
◆
If a duplicate address is detected, a warning message is sent to the console.
Example
This example assigns a link-local address of FE80::269:3EF9:FE19:6779 to VLAN 1.
Note that a prefix in the range of FE80~FEBF is required for link-local addresses, and
the first 16-bit group in the host address is padded with a zero in the form 0269.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::269:3EF9:FE19:6779 link-local
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::269:3ef9:fe19:6779%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:0:1:7272:cfff:fe83:3466/64, subnet is 2001:db8:0:1::/64[EUI]
2001:db8:2222:7272::72/96, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/96
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff19:6779
ff02::1:ff00:72
ff02::1:ff83:3466
– 659 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 enable (660)
show ipv6 interface (662)
ipv6 enable This command enables IPv6 on an interface that has not been configured with an
explicit IPv6 address. Use the no form to disable IPv6 on an interface that has not
been configured with an explicit IPv6 address.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 enable
Default Setting
IPv6 is disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ This command enables IPv6 on the current VLAN interface and automatically
generates a link-local unicast address. The address prefix uses FE80, and the
host portion of the address is generated by converting the switch’s MAC
address to modified EUI-64 format (see page 657). This address type makes the
switch accessible over IPv6 for all devices attached to the same local subnet.
◆
If a duplicate address is detected on the local segment, this interface will be
disabled and a warning message displayed on the console.
◆
The no ipv6 enable command does not disable IPv6 for an interface that has
been explicitly configured with an IPv6 address.
Example
In this example, IPv6 is enabled on VLAN 1, and the link-local address
FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FD/64 is automatically generated by the switch.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
– 660 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::269:3ef9:fe19:6779%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:0:1:7272:cfff:fe83:3466/64, subnet is 2001:db8:0:1::/64[EUI]
2001:db8:2222:7272::72/96, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/96
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff19:6779
ff02::1:ff00:72
ff02::1:ff83:3466
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 address link-local (659)
show ipv6 interface (662)
ipv6 mtu This command sets the size of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for IPv6
packets sent on an interface. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ipv6 mtu size
no ipv6 mtu
size - Specifies the MTU size. (Range: 1280-65535 bytes)
Default Setting
1500 bytes
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ If a non-default value is configured, an MTU option is included in the router
advertisements sent from this device.
◆
The maximum value set by this command cannot exceed the MTU of the
physical interface, which is currently fixed at 1500 bytes.
◆
IPv6 routers do not fragment IPv6 packets forwarded from other routers.
However, traffic originating from an end-station connected to an IPv6 router
may be fragmented.
– 661 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
◆
All devices on the same physical medium must use the same MTU in order to
operate correctly.
◆
IPv6 must be enabled on an interface before the MTU can be set.
Example
The following example sets the MTU for VLAN 1 to 1280 bytes:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mtu 1280
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 mtu (665)
jumbo frame (100)
show ipv6 This command displays the current IPv6 default gateway.
default-gateway
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows the default gateway configured for this device:
Console#show ipv6 default-gateway
IPv6 default gateway 2001:DB8:2222:7272::254
Console#
show ipv6 interface This command displays the usability and configured settings for IPv6 interfaces.
Syntax
show ipv6 interface [brief [vlan vlan-id [ipv6-prefix/prefix-length]]]
brief - Displays a brief summary of IPv6 operational status and the
addresses configured for each interface.
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
ipv6-prefix - The IPv6 network portion of the address assigned to the
interface. The prefix must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the
appropriate number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
– 662 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many of the contiguous bits
(from the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion
of the address).
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example displays all the IPv6 addresses configured for the switch.
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::269:3ef9:fe19:6779%1/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:db8:0:1:7272:cfff:fe83:3466/64, subnet is 2001:db8:0:1::/64[EUI]
2001:db8:2222:7272::72/96, subnet is 2001:db8:2222:7272::/96
Joined group address(es):
ff02::1:ff19:6779
ff02::1:ff00:72
ff02::1:ff83:3466
ff02::1
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 3.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Table 136: show ipv6 interface - display description
Field
Description
VLAN
A VLAN is marked “up” if the switch can send and receive packets on this interface,
“down” if a line signal is not present, or “administratively down” if the interface has
been disabled by the administrator.
IPv6
IPv6 is marked “enable” if the switch can send and receive IP traffic on this
interface, “disable” if the switch cannot send and receive IP traffic on this interface,
or “stalled” if a duplicate link-local address is detected on the interface.
Link-local
address
Shows the link-local address assigned to this interface
Global unicast
address(es)
Shows the global unicast address(es) assigned to this interface
– 663 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Table 136: show ipv6 interface - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Joined group
address(es)
In addition to the unicast addresses assigned to an interface, a node is required to
join the all-nodes multicast addresses FF01::1 and FF02::1 for all IPv6 nodes within
scope 1 (interface-local) and scope 2 (link-local), respectively.
FF01::1/16 is the transient interface-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes, and FF02::1/16 is the link-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes. The interface-local multicast address is only used for loopback
transmission of multicast traffic. Link-local multicast addresses cover the same
types as used by link-local unicast addresses, including all nodes (FF02::1), all
routers (FF02::2), and solicited nodes (FF02::1:FFXX:XXXX) as described below.
A node is also required to compute and join the associated solicited-node
multicast addresses for every unicast and anycast address it is assigned. IPv6
addresses that differ only in the high-order bits, e.g. due to multiple high-order
prefixes associated with different aggregations, will map to the same solicitednode address, thereby reducing the number of multicast addresses a node must
join. In this example, FF02::1:FF90:0/104 is the solicited-node multicast address
which is formed by taking the low-order 24 bits of the address and appending
those bits to the prefix.
ND DAD
Indicates whether (neighbor discovery) duplicate address detection is enabled.
number of DAD
attempts
The number of consecutive neighbor solicitation messages sent on the interface
during duplicate address detection.
ND retransmit
interval
The interval between IPv6 neighbor solicitation retransmissions sent on an
interface during duplicate address detection.
ND advertised
retransmit
interval
The retransmit interval is included in all router advertisements sent out of an
interface so that nodes on the same link use the same time value.
ND reachable
time
The amount of time a remote IPv6 node is considered reachable after a
reachability confirmation event has occurred
ND advertised
reachable time
The reachable time is included in all router advertisements sent out of an
interface so that nodes on the same link use the same time value.
ND advertised
router lifetime
The length of time during which the prefix is valid for on-link determination.
This example displays a brief summary of IPv6 addresses configured on the switch.
Console#show ipv6 interface brief
Interface
VLAN
IPv6
--------------- ---------- ---------VLAN 1
Up
Up
VLAN 1
Up
Up
Console#
Related Commands
show ip interface (645)
– 664 –
IPv6 Address
-----------------------------------2001:DB8:2222:7273::72/96
FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FD%1/64
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
show ipv6 mtu This command displays the maximum transmission unit (MTU) cache for
destinations that have returned an ICMP packet-too-big message along with an
acceptable MTU to this switch.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows the MTU cache for this device:
Console#show ipv6 mtu
MTU
Since
Destination Address
1400
00:04:21 5000:1::3
1280
00:04:50 FE80::203:A0FF:FED6:141D
Console#
Table 137: show ipv6 mtu - display description*
Field
Description
MTU
Adjusted MTU contained in the ICMP packet-too-big message returned from this
destination, and now used for all traffic sent along this path.
Since
Time since an ICMP packet-too-big message was received from this destination.
Destination
Address
Address which sent an ICMP packet-too-big message.
*
No information is displayed if an IPv6 address has not been assigned to the switch.
show ipv6 traffic This command displays statistics about IPv6 traffic passing through this switch.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows statistics for all IPv6 unicast and multicast traffic, as
well as ICMP, UDP and TCP statistics:
Console#show ipv6 traffic
IPv6 Statistics:
IPv6 received
3 total received
header errors
too big errors
no routes
address errors
unknown protocols
truncated packets
discards
delivers
reassembly request datagrams
reassembly succeeded
reassembly failed
– 665 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
IPv6 sent
forwards datagrams
6 requests
discards
no routes
generated fragments
fragment succeeded
fragment failed
ICMPv6 Statistics:
ICMPv6 received
input
errors
destination unreachable messages
packet too big messages
time exceeded messages
parameter problem message
echo request messages
echo reply messages
router solicit messages
router advertisement messages
neighbor solicit messages
neighbor advertisement messages
redirect messages
group membership query messages
group membership response messages
group membership reduction messages
ICMPv6 sent
6 output
destination unreachable messages
packet too big messages
time exceeded messages
parameter problem message
echo request messages
echo reply messages
3 router solicit messages
router advertisement messages
3 neighbor solicit messages
neighbor advertisement messages
redirect messages
group membership query messages
group membership response messages
group membership reduction messages
UDP Statistics:
input
no port errors
other errors
output
Console#
Table 138: show ipv6 traffic - display description
Field
Description
IPv6 Statistics
IPv6 received
total received
The total number of input datagrams received by the interface,
including those received in error.
header errors
The number of input datagrams discarded due to errors in their IPv6
headers, including version number mismatch, other format errors, hop
count exceeded, IPv6 options, etc.
– 666 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Table 138: show ipv6 traffic - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
too big errors
The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded because
their size exceeded the link MTU of outgoing interface.
no routes
The number of input datagrams discarded because no route could be
found to transmit them to their destination.
address errors
The number of input datagrams discarded because the IPv6 address in
their IPv6 header's destination field was not a valid address to be
received at this entity. This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0)
and unsupported addresses (e.g., addresses with unallocated prefixes).
For entities which are not IPv6 routers and therefore do not forward
datagrams, this counter includes datagrams discarded because the
destination address was not a local address.
unknown protocols
The number of locally-addressed datagrams received successfully but
discarded because of an unknown or unsupported protocol. This
counter is incremented at the interface to which these datagrams were
addressed which might not be necessarily the input interface for some
of the datagrams.
truncated packets
The number of input datagrams discarded because datagram frame
didn't carry enough data.
discards
The number of input IPv6 datagrams for which no problems were
encountered to prevent their continued processing, but which were
discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space). Note that this counter does not
include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.
delivers
The total number of datagrams successfully delivered to IPv6 userprotocols (including ICMP). This counter is incremented at the interface
to which these datagrams were addressed which might not be
necessarily the input interface for some of the datagrams.
reassembly request
datagrams
The number of IPv6 fragments received which needed to be
reassembled at this interface. Note that this counter is incremented at
the interface to which these fragments were addressed which might
not be necessarily the input interface for some of the fragments.
reassembly succeeded
The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully reassembled. Note that this
counter is incremented at the interface to which these datagrams were
addressed which might not be necessarily the input interface for some
of the fragments.
reassembly failed
The number of failures detected by the IPv6 re-assembly algorithm (for
whatever reason: timed out, errors, etc.). Note that this is not necessarily
a count of discarded IPv6 fragments since some algorithms (notably
the algorithm in RFC 815) can lose track of the number of fragments by
combining them as they are received. This counter is incremented at
the interface to which these fragments were addressed which might
not be necessarily the input interface for some of the fragments.
IPv6 sent
forwards datagrams
The number of output datagrams which this entity received and
forwarded to their final destinations. In entities which do not act as IPv6
routers, this counter will include only those packets which were SourceRouted via this entity, and the Source-Route processing was successful.
Note that for a successfully forwarded datagram the counter of the
outgoing interface is incremented.
requests
The total number of IPv6 datagrams which local IPv6 user-protocols
(including ICMP) supplied to IPv6 in requests for transmission. Note
that this counter does not include any datagrams counted in
ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams.
– 667 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Table 138: show ipv6 traffic - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
discards
The number of output IPv6 datagrams for which no problem was
encountered to prevent their transmission to their destination, but
which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space). Note that this
counter would include datagrams counted in
ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams if any such packets met this
(discretionary) discard criterion.
no routes
The number of input datagrams discarded because no route could be
found to transmit them to their destination.
generated fragments
The number of output datagram fragments that have been generated
as a result of fragmentation at this output interface.
fragment succeeded
The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully fragmented
at this output interface.
fragment failed
The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been discarded because they
needed to be fragmented at this output interface but could not be.
ICMPv6 Statistics
ICMPv6 received
input
The total number of ICMP messages received by the interface which
includes all those counted by ipv6IfIcmpInErrors. Note that this
interface is the interface to which the ICMP messages were addressed
which may not be necessarily the input interface for the messages.
errors
The number of ICMP messages which the interface received but
determined as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad
length, etc.).
destination unreachable
messages
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received by
the interface.
packet too big messages
The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages received by the interface.
time exceeded messages
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the
interface.
parameter problem
message
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by the
interface.
echo request messages
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received by the interface.
echo reply messages
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received by the interface.
router solicit messages
The number of ICMP Router Solicit messages received by the interface.
router advertisement
messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages received by the
interface.
neighbor solicit messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received by the
interface.
neighbor advertisement
messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages received by
the interface.
redirect messages
The number of Redirect messages received by the interface.
group membership query
messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query messages received
by the interface.
group membership
response messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages
received by the interface.
group membership
reduction messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages
received by the interface.
– 668 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Table 138: show ipv6 traffic - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
multicast listener discovery The number of MLDv2 reports received by the interface.
version 2 reports
ICMPv6 sent
output
The total number of ICMP messages which this interface attempted to
send. Note that this counter includes all those counted by
icmpOutErrors.
destination unreachable
messages
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent by the
interface.
packet too big messages
The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages sent by the interface.
time exceeded messages
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent by the interface.
parameter problem
message
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent by the
interface.
echo request messages
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent by the interface.
echo reply messages
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent by the interface.
router solicit messages
The number of ICMP Router Solicitation messages sent by the interface.
router advertisement
messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages sent by the
interface.
neighbor solicit messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages sent by the interface.
neighbor advertisement
messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages sent by the
interface.
redirect messages
The number of Redirect messages sent. For a host, this object will
always be zero, since hosts do not send redirects.
group membership query
messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query messages sent by
the interface.
group membership
response messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages sent.
group membership
reduction messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages sent.
multicast listener discovery The number of MLDv2 reports sent by the interface.
version 2 reports
UDP Statistics
input
The total number of UDP datagrams delivered to UDP users.
no port errors
The total number of received UDP datagrams for which there was no
application at the destination port.
other errors
The number of received UDP datagrams that could not be delivered for
reasons other than the lack of an application at the destination port.
output
The total number of UDP datagrams sent from this entity.
– 669 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
clear ipv6 traffic This command resets IPv6 traffic counters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets all of the counters displayed by the show ipv6 traffic
command.
Example
Console#clear ipv6 traffic
Console#
ping6 This command sends (IPv6) ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network.
Syntax
ping6 {ipv6-address | host-name} [count count] [size size]
ipv6-address - The IPv6 address of a neighbor device. You can specify either
a link-local or global unicast address formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the
appropriate number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
host-name - A host name string which can be resolved into an IPv6 address
through a domain name server.
count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16)
size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 0-1500 bytes)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the router adds header information.
Default Setting
count: 5
size: 32 bytes
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Use the ping6 command to see if another site on the network can be reached,
or to evaluate delays over the path.
◆
◆
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address,
include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier after the % delimiter.
– 670 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the interface from which the
ping is sent.
◆
When pinging a host name, be sure the DNS server has been enabled (see
page 621). If necessary, local devices can also be specified in the DNS static host
table (see page 622).
◆
When using ping6 with a host name, the switch first attempts to resolve the
alias into an IPv6 address before trying to resolve it into an IPv4 address.
Example
Console#ping6 FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC%1
Press ESC to abort.
PING to FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC%1/64, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets,
timeout is 3 seconds
response time: 20 ms
[FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC] seq_no: 1
response time: 0 ms
[FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC] seq_no: 2
response time: 0 ms
[FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC] seq_no: 3
response time: 0 ms
[FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC] seq_no: 4
response time: 0 ms
[FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC] seq_no: 5
Ping statistics for FE80::2E0:CFF:FE00:FC%1/64:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 20 ms, Average = 4 ms
Console#
traceroute6 This command shows the route packets take to the specified destination.
Syntax
traceroute6 {ipv6-address | host-name} [max-failures failure-count]
ipv6-address - The IPv6 address of a neighbor device. You can specify either
a link-local or global unicast address formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the
appropriate number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
host-name - A host name string which can be resolved into an IPv6 address
through a domain name server.
failure-count - The maximum number of failures before which the trace
route is terminated. (Range: 1-255)
Default Setting
Maximum failures: 5
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
– 671 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Command Usage
◆ Use the traceroute6 command to determine the path taken to reach a
specified destination.
◆
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address,
include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier after the % delimiter.
For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the interface from which the
ping is sent.
◆
A trace terminates when the destination responds, when the maximum
timeout (TTL) is exceeded, or the maximum number of hops is exceeded.
◆
The traceroute command first sends probe datagrams with the TTL value set at
one. This causes the first router to discard the datagram and return an error
message. The trace function then sends several probe messages at each
subsequent TTL level and displays the round-trip time for each message. Not all
devices respond correctly to probes by returning an “ICMP port unreachable”
message. If the timer goes off before a response is returned, the trace function
prints a series of asterisks and the “Request Timed Out” message. A long
sequence of these messages, terminating only when the maximum timeout
has been reached, may indicate this problem with the target device.
Example
Console#traceroute6 FE80::2E0:CFF:FE9C:CA10%1
Press "ESC" to abort.
Traceroute to FE80::2E0:CFF:FE9C:CA10%1/64, 30 hops max, timeout is 3
seconds, 5 max failure(s) before termination.
Hop Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 3 IPv6 Address
--- -------- -------- -------- -------------------------------------------1
<10 ms
<10 ms
<10 ms FE80::2E0:CFF:FE9C:CA10%1/64
Trace completed.
Console#
– 672 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Neighbor Discovery
ipv6 nd dad attempts This command configures the number of consecutive neighbor solicitation
messages sent on an interface during duplicate address detection. Use the no form
to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ipv6 nd dad attempts count
no ipv6 nd dad attempts
count - The number of neighbor solicitation messages sent to determine
whether or not a duplicate address exists on this interface. (Range: 0-600)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
◆ Configuring a value of 0 disables duplicate address detection.
◆
Duplicate address detection determines if a new unicast IPv6 address already
exists on the network before it is assigned to an interface.
◆
Duplicate address detection is stopped on any interface that has been
suspended (see the vlan command). While an interface is suspended, all unicast
IPv6 addresses assigned to that interface are placed in a “pending” state.
Duplicate address detection is automatically restarted when the interface is
administratively re-activated.
◆
An interface that is re-activated restarts duplicate address detection for all
unicast IPv6 addresses on the interface. While duplicate address detection is
performed on the interface’s link-local address, the other IPv6 addresses remain
in a “tentative” state. If no duplicate link-local address is found, duplicate
address detection is started for the remaining IPv6 addresses.
◆
If a duplicate address is detected, it is set to “duplicate” state, and a warning
message is sent to the console. If a duplicate link-local address is detected, IPv6
processes are disabled on the interface. If a duplicate global unicast address is
detected, it is not used. All configuration commands associated with a
duplicate address remain configured while the address is in “duplicate” state.
◆
If the link-local address for an interface is changed, duplicate address detection
is performed on the new link-local address, but not for any of the IPv6 global
unicast addresses already associated with the interface.
– 673 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Example
The following configures five neighbor solicitation attempts for addresses
configured on VLAN 1. The show ipv6 interface command indicates that the
duplicate address detection process is still on-going.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 nd dad attempts 5
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::200:e8ff:fe90:0/64
Global unicast address(es):
2009:db9:2229::79, subnet is 2009:db9:2229:0::/64
Joined group address(es):
ff01::1/16
ff02::1/16
ff02::1:ff00:79/104
ff02::1:ff90:0/104
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 5.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 nd ns-interval (674)
show ipv6 neighbors (677)
ipv6 nd ns-interval This command configures the interval between transmitting IPv6 neighbor
solicitation messages on an interface. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
ipv6 nd ns-interval milliseconds
no ipv6 nd ns-interval
milliseconds - The interval between transmitting IPv6 neighbor solicitation
messages. (Range: 1000-3600000)
Default Setting
1000 milliseconds is used for neighbor discovery operations
0 milliseconds is advertised in router advertisements
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
– 674 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
Command Usage
◆ When a non-default value is configured, the specified interval is used both for
router advertisements and by the router itself.
◆
This command specifies the interval between transmitting neighbor
solicitation messages when resolving an address, or when probing the
reachability of a neighbor. Therefore, avoid using very short intervals for normal
IPv6 operations.
◆
Setting the neighbor solicitation interval to 0 means that the configured time is
unspecified by this router.
Example
The following sets the interval between sending neighbor solicitation messages to
30000 milliseconds:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config)#ipv6 nd ns-interval 30000
Console(config)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
VLAN 1 is up
IPv6 is enabled
Link-local address:
fe80::200:e8ff:FE90:0/64
Global unicast address(es):
2009:db9:2229::79, subnet is 2009:db9:2229:0::/64
Joined group address(es):
ff01::1/16
ff02::1/16
ff02::1:ff00:79/104
ff02::1:ff90:0/104
IPv6 link MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 5.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised router lifetime is 1800 seconds
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (93)
– 675 –
Chapter 26 | IP Interface Commands
IPv6 Interface
ipv6 nd This command configures the amount of time that a remote IPv6 node is
reachable-time consid