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Error statuses in a CANĆnode can have different causes:
Communication errors occur if transmittance on the RS232
lines is disturbed or if data is continued to be sent in spite of
the CANĆnode not being ready for reception (displayed by
handshake).
Timeout errors occur if a CANĆnode function wants to transĆ
mit data which is not accepted by the recipient or if a function
waits for receiver data which have not been transmitted.
Syntax errors occur if, for example, an incorrect command
name is transmitted (fail character, name too long or too
short, command not existing), or if a command is transmitted
with the wrong number of parameters or wrong parameter
types.
Errors in function execution occur if transferred function
paraĆmeters or combinations of parameter values result in fail
values.
Hardware errors occur if there is a defect in the hardware
(blocked motors, defective components, etc.).
Where errors can cause damage to the instrument, measures
are taken immediately by the CANĆnode (if possible) to avoid
this. (For example, the motor current is switched off in the case
of blocked motors).
Otherwise, it is the job of the activating program to enquire
the error status and to provide suitable remedy.
Errors are displayed as follows:
To test the hardware, functions are available which permit daĆ
ta to be written byteĆbyĆbyte on any position in the memory
address range () or to be read from any position ().
Furthermore, (Trn) and (Tpn) permit the A/D converter and
ports of the uP 517A to be read, and (Tpn) enables the ports
to be written.
The use of commands permitting a change of the memory
range require detailed knowledge of the hardware because
wrong application may result in a system crash.
A green LED blinking in 0.5 s intervals indicates that the
processor does not yet run properly, even when the red error
LED is switched on.
an error byte which can be read using the command;
a red LED which is normally off, but permanently switched
on in the event of an error until backout of the error status
by reading the error byte.
The following error bits occur in the error byte:
0Ć
1Ć
2Ć
3Ć
4Ć
5Ć
6Ć
7Ć
Overrun Error (InputĆBuffer Overflow)
Transmit Error (OutputĆBuffer Overflow)
Timeout on send (function waits in vain for host to
be ready to receive data)
Timeout on read (function waits in vain for data from
host)
Reserved
Syntax error (detected by the command interpreter.
Can also be caused by a transmittance error.)
Not yet assigned
Error during executing of function
(cause: wrong parameter value or hardware error)
Every CANĆnode runs through the following sequences duĆ
ring startup:
Initialization of the processor and the hardware and
checking the EPROM application, approx. 3 s.
Waiting time of 1 s until all CANĆnodes are initialized
Checking whether further CANĆnodes are connected to
the network (the CANĆbus status is set accordingly)
Waiting time of 1 sec until all CANĆnodes have sent
queries to each other
Starting of application program
During this start sequence, the red LED is on continuously, the
green LED blinks in 0.5 s intervals.
For further information, please order the detailed proĆ
gramming instructions from our service department.
18
17
B 40Ć042 e 01.98
Interface Description
Communication via CAN
Command structure (input format)
Protocol
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34".% $/.42/, 2&452.3 4/ 4)& #"3*$ $/.%*4*/. '2/- ",, 34"453&3
#9 "$4*6"4*/. /' Time Out *' .&&% #&
Output format
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142
:&
Interface Description
WARNING!
Destruction of the electronic system
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General
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CANĆBUS
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7/2+
Communication via RS 232
Protocol
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2*/2 4/ 42".3-*33*/. /' &"$) *.%*6*%5", $)"2"$4&2 &"$) $/-:
-5.*$"4*/. 0"24.&2 -534 $)&$+ 7)&4)&2 4)& /4)&2 0"24.&2 *3
2&"%9 '/2 2&$&04*/. )& ".% )".%3)"+& ,*.&3 "2&
53&% '/2 4)*3
/2-",,9 4)& .4&22504:$/.42/,,&% 2&$&04*/. 2/54*.& /' "
:./%& *3 ",7"93 "$4*6& ' '5.$4*/.3 "2& 0&2'/2-&% 7)&2&
4*-& *3 " $2*4*$", '"$4/2 /2 *' 4)& *.054 #5''&2 *3 '5,, 4)& )".%:
3)"+& *3 37*4$)&% 4/ ./4 2&"%9 '/2 2&$&04*/.
4 "5% /6&2'*,,*.( /' 4)& *.054 #5''&2 *3 ./4 0/33*#,& *.
4)& 02"$4*$& 3*.$& 4)& *.4&202&4&2 ./2-",,9 %&",3 7*4) 4)& %"4"
'"34&2 4)". *4 $". #& 3500,*&% #9 4)& *.4&2'"$&
Data of the RS232 interface:
"5% %"4" #*43 34/0 #*4 ./ 0"2*49
)& 0*. "33*(.-&.4 /' 4)& *.4&2'"$& *3 *%&.4*$", 4/
4)"4 /' 4)& 3&& → *(
)& ,*.&3 *. 4)& $"#,& $/..&$4*.( 4)& 8*/0,". ".% 4)& )"6& #&&. $2/33&%
1
5
Technical Data:
:
2".3'&2 2"4& -"8 + "5% 8 '"34&2 4)". 7*4) "5%
:
3*.(,&:7*2& 42".3'&2 $". ",3/ #& 53&% '/2 ,*()4 (5*%& 42".3:
'&2
:
"54/-"4*$ &22/2 2&$/(.*4*/. ".% 42".3'&2 2&0&4*4*/.
:
-5,4*-"34&2
:
2&", 4*-&
:
"002/8 - $"#,& 0/33*#,& 7*4) + "5% ".%
:
"002/8 - $"#,& 7*4) + "5%
6
Fig. 129
9
Pin assignment of RS 232 C interface
(view on connector front)
:
&
141
Technical Data
Range
Description
Ambient conditions
Room temperature
+10 ...+ 35C
Humidity
max. 75% at + 35C
Storage temperature
- 40 ... + 70C, humidity 10 ... 30%
Weight
depending on configuration used
Safety
Equipment class
I
Degree of protection
IP 20
Radio disturbance characteristics
conforming to EN 55011 (Class B)
Electromagnetic immunity
conforming to EN 50082Ć2
The instrument meets the requirements of the EC directive 89/336/EEC and EMV/Nov. 1992
Degree of contamination
2 (Altitude 2000 m)
Overvoltage category
II
Electrical supply
Power connection
230 V:
115 V:
Power consumption
187 ... 264 V, 50/60 Hz
convertible to
90 ... 127 V, 50/60 Hz
approx. 225 VA
Data for connection of Axiophot 2
Voltage supply
+5 V, +15 V
Data for connection of 12V/100W microscope lamp
DC voltage, stabilized
3 ... 12 V; suitable for photometry (continuous light)
12V/100 W halogen lamp
Lamp voltage
12 V
Power
100 W
Color temperature at 11.5 V
3200 K
Luminous flux
3100 lm
Mean service life
50 h
Luminous surface
3.1 x 3.1 mm2
Fuses
Power inlet
F1/F2: 115 V / 230 V; T 4 AH / 250 V according to IEC 127
140
Care, Maintenance
General
Conversion of the line supply
)& */4536.&/5 #"$, .": #& 3&.07&% 0/-: #: 4&37*$&
1&340//&-
!063 9*01-"/ )"4 #&&/ %&4*(/&% '03 64& 8*5) " -*/& 70-5"(&
'30. 50 03 '30. 50 -*/& '3&26&/$: 50
; 45"/%"3% 70-5"(& 0' 50 *4 4&5 */ 5)& '"$503:
*/5&/%&% '03 5)*4 163104& 0/ 5)& 3&"3 1 0' 5)& */4536.&/5
)*4 *4 "-40 8)&3& 5)& 70-5"(& 4&5 $"/ #& 7*46"--: $)&$,&%
-&"4& &/463& 5)"5 :063 */4536.&/5 *4 /05 &9104&% 50 */"%.*4<
4*#-& $-*."5*$ */'-6&/$&4 )6.*%*5: "/% 5&.1&3"563& '03 -0/(<
&3 1&3*0%4 0' 5*.&
-8":4 1305&$5 5)& */4536.&/5 "("*/45 %645 "/% )6.*%*5:
)&3&'03& "-8":4 %3"1& 5)& %645 $07&3 07&3 5)& */4536.&/5
"'5&3 64& 0 /05 '03(&5 50 48*5$) 0'' 5)& -".14 '*345
&.07& %645 0/ 015*$"- 463'"$&4 64*/( " /"563"- )"*3 #364)
"/% " 426&&;&<#-08&3 %&7*$&
0 3&.07& 456##03/ %*35 03 '*/(&313*/54 64& $0..&3$*"--:
"7"*-"#-& $-05)4 '03 $-&"/*/( 015*$4 "/% &:&(-"44 -&/4&4
03 .07*/( :063 9*01-"/ 50 "/05)&3 -0$"5*0/ 0/ :063
13&.*4&4 &/463& 5)"5 "-- .0#*-& 1"354 "3& 4&$63&% */ 104*5*0/
03 53"/41035 5)&. 4&1"3"5&-: -40 1305&$5 :063 */4536.&/5
"("*/45 5011-*/( $07&3 *5 "/% &/463& 6/%&3 "-- $*3$6.45"/$&4
5)"5 *5 *4 /05 46#+&$5&% 50 ,/0$,4 03 .&$)"/*$"- 4)0$, ' :06
"3& */ %06#5 1-&"4& $0/5"$5 063 $6450.&3 4&37*$& 45"''
/4&35 " 4$3&8%3*7&3 0' 5)& "113013*"5& 4*;& */ 5)& 4-*5 0' 5)&
3&% 4-*%&3 ,/0#
64) 5)& ,/0# 61 03 %08/ %&1&/%*/( 0/ *54 13&4&/5
4&55*/(
)& -*/& 70-5"(& /08 4&5 $"/ #& 3&"% "5 5)& 3&% ,/0#
-*5 "5 5)& 611&3 &/% 0' 5)& 8*/%08 '03 5)&
70-5"(& 3"/(& 50 -*5 "5 5)& -08&3 &/% 0' 5)& 8*/%08 '03 5)&
70-5"(& 3"/(& 50 Changing the fuses
0.1"35.&/5 2 '03 .06/5*/( 5)& */4536.&/5 '64&4 *4 "-40
-0$"5&% 0/ 5)& 3&"3 0' :063 .*$304$01& 5 $0/5"*/4 580 '64&4 '03 1
Lamp change
3*03 50 &7&3: -".1 $)"/(& &/463& 5)"5 :06 3&"% 5)& 41&$*"*/4536$5*0/4 "/% 4"'&5: 3&(6-"5*0/4 0' 5)& -".1 ."/6'"$563&3
2
--08 5)& -".1 50 $00- %08/ "113013*"5&-: #&'03& :06
$)"/(& *5
7&/ "5 300. 5&.1&3"563& -".14 '*--&% 8*5) 9&/0/ ("4 "3&
46#+&$5&% 50 $0/4*%&3"#-& */5&3/"- 13&4463& )&3&'03& "-8":4
8&"3 (-07&4 "/% '"$& 1305&$5*0/ '03 :063 1&340/"- 4"'&5:
&7&3 506$) 5)& (-"44 0' 5)& -".14 8*5) :063 #"3& )"/%4 7&/
5)& 4-*()5&45 53"$& 0' (3&"4& .": *.1"*3 5)& */5&/4*5: "/%
4&37*$& -*'& 0' 5)& -".1
/463& 5)"5 5)& 64&% -".14 "3& %*4104&% 0' */ " 1301&3 8":
1 *&8*/( 8*/%08 '03 4611-: 70-5"(&
2 64& $0.1"35.&/5
Fig. 128 Rear of stand Ć Fuse compartmentĄ
6-- 065 5)& '64& $0.1"35.&/5 */ " '038"3% %*3&$5*0/ 64&
" 4."-- 4$3&8%3*7&3 *' 3&26*3&% 3&.07& 5)& %&'&$5*7& '64&
"/% */4&35 " /&8 0/&
3&44 5)& '64& $0.1"35.&/5 #"$, */50 5)& 3&"3 1"/&- 0'
5)& */4536.&/5
03 '635)&3 */'03."5*0/ 1-&"4& 4&& 5)& */'03."5*0/ -&"'-&5 &/<
$-04&% 8*5) 5)& .&3$63: 4)035<"3$ -".1 &( 5)& <&
139
Microscopy Techniques
Fluorescence photography
Exposure times and filters
'$ %-**-5(,& 1.$"( *2($1 ..*7 "-+. 0$# 2- .'-2-+("0-8
&0 .'7
'$ 6(-.'-2 '-2- +-#3*$ "-4$01 2'$ %-**-5(,& *-,&$12
$6.-130$ 2(+$1 %-0 ++ %(*+ 5(2' $6.-130$ "-0 0$"2(-, '$ -%2$, *-5 !0(&'2,$11 0$/3(0$1 *-,& $6.-130$ 2(+$1
$%-0$ 2 )(,& 2'$ $6.-130$ 2'$0$%-0$ 1$*$"2 2'$ -.2(-,
100% of light to film 3,#$0 Set Exposure Function
$#3"$ 2'$ !0(&'2,$11 -% 2'$ *3+(,-31 %0 +$ (, 31$%3*
5 7
2 *-5$12 !0(&'2,$11 1$2 2'$ !$ + 1.*(22(,& 2- -%
*(&'2 %-0 -!1$04 2(-, ,# & (, 1$*$"2 2'$ %3,"2(-, 100%
of light to film !$%-0$ 2 )(,& 2'$ $6.-130$
*3-0$1"$,"$ *(&'2 (1 ,$(2'$0 # 7*(&'2 ,-0 02(%("( * *(&'2
!32 (1 &$,$0 2$# (, 2'$ 1.$"(+$, (21$*% -0+ **7 !$22$0
0$13*21 0$ -!2 (,$# (, %*3-0$1"$,"$ +("0-1"-.7 5'$,
# 7*(&'2 %(*+1 0$ 31$#
-, 2 !$ %0 (# -% 31(,& '(&'81.$$# %(*+1 '$ &0 (,(,$11
-% 13"' %(*+1 0 0$*7 (+. (01 2'$ /3 *(27 -% %*3-0$1"$,"$
(+ &$1
'$ # 0) -0 !* ") ! ")&0-3,# 5(** -%2$, "-4$0 * 0&$ . 02
-% 2'$ +$ 130(,& %($*# -% 2'$ 32-+ 2(" $6.-130$ +$2$8
0(,& 1712$+ *1- 5(2' 1.-2 +$2$0(,& 1.$"( **7 (, 2'$
1.-2 0$ 2'$ !0(&'2,$11# 0),$11 0 2(- " , !$ $ 1(*7 $12(8
+ 2$# ,# "-00$"2$# 4( $6.-130$ "-00$"2(-,
% 27.(" * +$ 130(,& 0$ -% 1.$"(+$, 1' ** ,-2 0$+ (,
(, 2'$ (+ &$ "$,2$0 #30(,& 2'$ $6.-130$ 7-3 " , 12-0$ 2'$
..0-.0( 2$ $6.-130$ 2(+$ +-4$ 2'$ 0$/3(0$1 1.$"(+$,
1$"2(-, (,2- 2'$ "$,2$0 ,# 2'$, 0$*$ 1$ 2'$ $6.-130$
'$ $6.-130$ + 0&(, (1 "-,1(#$0 !*7 * 0&$ #3$ 2- 2'$ '(&'
"-,20 12 !$" 31$ *3+(,-31 1203"230$1 (, %0-,2 -% # 0)
! ")&0-3,# *5 71 12 ,# -32 "*$ 0*7 $4$, (, #(%%$0$,2 (**38
+(, 2(-,
-5$4$0 (% , $6 "2 "-*-0 0$,#(2(-, -% 2'$ %*3-0$1"$,"$
#7$1 (1 (+.-02 ,2 2- 7-3 , $6.-130$ 1$0($1 5(2' #(%%$0$,2
$6.-130$ 2(+$1 (1 0$"-++$,#$#
-+$ %*3-0$1"$,"$ #7$1 !*$ "' -32 /3(")*7 $1.$"( **7
3,#$0 .0-,-3,"$# '(&'8$,$0&7 $6"(2 2(-, 0 #( 2(-, .0-2$"2 2'$ 1.$"(+$, 7-3 " , 0$#3"$ 8 2 *$ 12 2$+.-8
0 0(*7 8 2'$ $6"(2 2(-, (,2$,1(27 4( 2'$ .$0230$ #( .'0 &+
Sensitivity of the film
Longest exposure time
#
#
#
#
Filters for Photomicrography
4 32 mm
"' $" $" ###! "' $" $" ###! "' $" $" ###! 4 18 mm
%$"( #$' $"
$" ###! %$"( #$' $"
$" ###! #! &"#! $" ( % $" % $" $"" (" $"
Note:Ą*5 71 0$+$+!$0 2' 2 5$ ) %*3-0$1"$,"$ (1 +-0$
4(1(!*$ (, # 0) 5-0)0--+
138
8
$
Microscopy Techniques
Correction of the color balance of color reversal films
Data projection for 35 mm photography
!+( &2/25 %$/$1&( 2) $ 7<3( 2) &2/25 5(9(56$/ ),/0 &$1 ',))(5
)520 %$7&+ 72 %$7&+
27+ 7+(6( '(9,$7,216 $1' ,1)/8(1&( )520 7+( 237,&$/ 6<67(0
21 7+( &2/25 &$1 %( &203(16$7(' 86,1* &200(5&,$//< $9$,=
/$%/( &2/25 &203(16$7,1* ),/7(56
!+( ),/7(5 '(16,7< ,6 ,1',&$7(' %< $ =',*,7 180%(5 $1' 7+( &2/25
%< ,76 ,1,7,$/ /(77(5
;$03/(6 = %/8( = *5((1 = 5('
!+( '$7$ 352-(&7(' ,172 7+( ,0$*( 0$< %( 3225/< /(*,%/(
$*$,167 %5,*+7 2%-(&7 6758&785(6 #( :28/' 7+(5()25( 5(&20=
0(1' <28 72 6/,'( 7+( '$7$ 6+,(/' ,*1 21 7+( ),/0 683=
3257 ,172 7+( )5$0( :,1'2: 817,/ 6723 !+,6 6+,(/' 0$6.6 287
$ ),(/' 2) 00 ; 00 $7 7+( ('*( 2) 7+( )250$7 $1' 7+(
'$7$ $5( 7+(1 &/($5/< /(*,%/( 21 7+( %/$&. %$&.*5281'
!+( '$7$ 6+,(/' &$1 %( 029(' 21/< %()25( ,16(57,21 2) 7+(
),/0 ,7 ,6 127 3266,%/( 72 029( ,7 :+,/( $ 00 &$6(77( ,6 $7=
7$&+(' 25 7+( 326,7,21 2) 7+( '$7$ ),(/' 3/($6( $/62 6(( →
,* 21 3$*( Assessing the color balance
",(: 6/,'(6 21 $ 67$1'$5' /,*+7 %2; 7+( /,*+7 6285&( 2)
:+,&+ +$6 7+( &255(&7 ,//80,1$1&( $1' 7+( 63(&75$/ (1(5*<
',675,%87,21 2) !$.( 7(67 (;32685(6 2) $1 2%-(&7 $5($ :,7+ $6 08&+ (037<
%$&.*5281' $6 3266,%/( ,1 75$160,77('=/,*+7 %5,*+7),(/'
!+( (037< %$&.*5281' 2) $1 (;32685( 6(5,(6 6+28/'
5$1*( )520 '$5. *5$< 0(',80 *5$< $1' /,*+7 *5$< 72
:+,7(
1
Correction the color balance
/$&( ),/7(56 ,1 7+( &203/(0(17$5< &2/25 2) 7+( &2/25
7,1*( 21 7+( 6/,'( 72 %( &255(&7('
Color tinge
Color of the CC filter
) 7+( 5(48,5(' &2/25 %$/$1&( ,6 2%7$,1(' '85,1* 2%6(59$7,21
86,1* $ ),/7(5 :,7+ '(16,7< )25 (;$03/( $ ),/7(5 2) +$/)
7+ ,6 '(16,7< ,( '(16,7< 6+28/' %( 86(' )25 7+( (;32685(
72 )2//2: 250$//< ),/7(56 2) '(16,7< =
72 =
$5(
68)),&,(17 )25 &255(&7,21
Note:Ą(5)(&7/< &255(&7(' &2/25 (;32685(6 0$.( ,7 1(&(66$5<
7+$7 7+( 0,&526&23( 6(77,1* 7+( '(9(/23,1* 352&('85( $1'
7+( ),/0 %$7&+(6 5(0$,1 81&+$1*('
1 $7$ 6+,(/'
Fig. 127 35 mm film cassette mot
Compensation of reciprocity failure
!+( $8720$7,& &203(16$7,21 2) 7+( 5(&,352&,7< )$,/85( 9$/8( 0$< %(&20( ())(&7,9( ,1 7+( &$6( 2) (;32685( 7,0(6 2)
025( 7+$1 6(&21'
#+(1 7+( ),/0 7<3( ,6 (17(5(' 7+( 5(/(9$17 '$7$ $5( $8720$7,=
&$//< &$//(' )520 7+( '$7$%$6( 2) 7+( 62)7:$5( $1' 7+( (;32=
685( 7,0( ,6 &255(&7('
#+(1 86,1* ),/06 127 ,1&/8'(' ,1 7+( '$7$%$6( '(7(50,1( 7+(
&255(&7 9$/8( $6 )2//2:6
2 7(67 (;32685(6 $5( 5(48,5(' ,) 7+( ),/0 0$18)$&785(5
,1',&$7(6 7+( (;7(16,21 2) 7+( (;32685( 7,0( (* 9$/8(6
)25 $1 (;32685( 7,0( 2) 6 9$/8(6 0($16 7+$7 7+(
(;32685( 7,0( 0867 %( 48$'583/(' ,( 6
,567 6(7 <285 0,&526&23( ,1 62 7+$7 7+( $8720$7,& 6<67(0
,1',&$7(6 6 :,7+ 6(7 72 ,1 7+,6 (;&(37,21$/ &$6(
<28 0$< 86( 7+( $3(5785( ',$3+5$*0 72 5('8&( 7+(
%5,*+71(66
2: &+$1*( 7+( 9$/8( $1' <28 :,// 48,&./< ),1' 7+(
21( :+,&+ 0267 &/26(/< $3352;,0$7(6 6 !+,6 :,// 7+(1
%( 7+( 9$/8( )25 <285 ),/0 ,1 7+( $%29( (;$03/(
) 12 '$7$ +$9( %((1 ,1',&$7(' %< 7+( 0$18)$&785(5 7(67
(;32685(6 ,1 7+( 5$1*( 2) 7+( 5(48,5(' (;32685( 7,0( 0867
%( 0$'( 86,1* 7+( 9$/8(6 6(( → 3$*( =
(
137
Microscopy Techniques
Photomicrography with the Axiophot 2
Note:ĄIf your polarizing microscope (Axioplan 2 Pol, AxioĆ
phot 2 Pol) is equipped with an intermediate tube Pol, you
must remove the wire reticle (see → Fig. 99/3) from the beam
path if you do not want it recorded in the photo.
Films marked "professional" feature closer tolerances in
sensitivity and color balance, i.e. homogeneous results are
obtained. Always use DXĆcoded films in their original
cartridges.
We would advise against the use of long films, since light
entry, scratches on the film, dirt, etc. might impair the quality
or damaged cartridges can result in defective film advance.
How to proceed for photography
Carefully set your Axiophot 2 Photo module for
observation.
Set the beam splitter to allow simultaneous observation
and photography (→ .
Select illumination technique, objective magnification
and condenser setting as usual.
Set the brightness required for observation (3200 K color
temperature) on the stand (Fig. 3/4).
Load the correct film into the film cassette and attach the
Photo module.
Select the film type used under Film data in Photo proĆ
gram module. Set the required exposure metering
technique (normally centerĆweighted averaging) and the
illumination technique (FL/D, H/Ph/DIC, H) under Mode.
The display field of the Photo menu now shows the exposure
time, the correct data of the loaded film, and the frame counĆ
ter.
Switch on the luminous frame.
Set the image frame and focus.
Proceed carefully. If the focusing cross and the specimen are
visible in focus simultaneously, imaging on the film will also be
in focus.
In the case of a low objective magnification, the use of the
Optovar 2.5x or the Focus Finder function are absolutely
required as a focusing aid.
Click START to take the photo.
The following is then performed automatically:
- luminous frame disappears
- new, current exposure metering
- exposure
- data projection
- film advance
- luminous frame appears again
The next exposure can be released.
Use of yarded films
We do not recommend the use of yarded films, since
unintended illumination, scratches or dirt on the film etc.
might impair the quality of the film. The use of damaged
cartridges can result in defective film advance.
If you wish to work with a yarded film, please be sure to follow
these instructions:
Only use DIN 4335 or ISO 1007Ć1977 cartridges. Make sure
not to exceed the given maximum measurements.
Film cartridges are not suitable for continuous operation. DisĆ
card the cartridges after 10 loads to the most.
The front part of the film needs to be cut in accordance with
DIN 4536 or ISO 1977 (→ Fig. 126).
- Do not cut through a perforation hole when cutting the
front part of the film.
- The cut needs to be as long as 7 ... 9 perforation holes and
must run parallel to the edge of the film.
- The corners must be rounded in order to prevent the film
from jamming the cartridge opening or parts of the
cassette.
- The end part of the film must be cut off at a right angle
and secured tightly with adhesive tape.
- Avoid using very long films (some cartridges cannot be
used for 36 exposures with every type of film). This could
result in defective film advance.
Film selection
Reversal films (films for slides) are used for color photomicrogĆ
raphy. In general, we would recommend reversal films for
artificial light (3200 K).
If daylight film is used, the conversion filter 3200/5500 is
required.
Fig. 126 Use of yarded films
16
136
B 40Ć042 e 01.98
Microscopy Techniques
IncidentĆlight polarization Ć Detection of
bireflection and reflection pleochroism
Use
)&#-" -.#)(- ) ), '#(,&- )&- ,'# *,)/.-
-*# # '.&- ( '.& &&)3- #-*&3 # ,(. , &.#)(
"0#), *(#(! )( ." ),#(..#)( ) ."#, ,3-.&- ), )5
$. ./,- "/- ."#- ."(#+/ #- &-) ().", )(.,-.#(!
."(#+/
Adjustments
$/-. 3)/, *)&,#4#(! '#,)-)* ), -.(, 2'#(5
.#)(- #( #(#(. &#!". - → *! ,#(! ." , &.), ')/& )& #(.) ." ' *." 3 ./,(5
#(! , &.), ./,,. 6 " #(#(.5&#!". *)&,#4, #- ),#5
(. #( ." 5 #,.#)(
(-,. (&34, 5 #(.) ." (&34, )'*,.'(. "
(&34, #- ),#(. #( ." 5 #,.#)(
&)- ." *,./, #*",!' 3 ) #.- #'., 3
*/&&#(! )/. */-",) 4 - , - ,+/#,
)/, )$. 1#&& #-*&3 #, &.#)( # )$. ./,*)---- # ,(- #( ,#!".(-- ), )&), 1"#" "(!
1"( ." -.! #- ./,(
&)",)#-' #- *,-(. 1"( )&), "(!- )/, #( ."
)$. /,#(! ." ./,(#(! ) ." -.! #(#(.5&#!".
*)&,#4, #( ' *." (&34, -1/(! )/.
." *)&,#4#(! '#,)-)* 3)/ /- ), ." 2'#(.#)( ) #(5
#(.5&#!". )$.- #- +/#** 1#." ( #(.,'#. ./
)& 3)/ '/-. ,')0 ." ,.,( &(- ,)' ." ' *."
/-#(! %() 2 ( */-" #( ." */-",)- ), #& #*",'
1 ( ), ,.#& 3
Note:Ą"( %() 2 #- #( #.- ,)(. *)-#.#)( ." ,.,( &(#- -1/(! )/. ) ." ' *." #( #.- ,, *)-#.#)( ." &(- ##( ." ' *."
1
2
3
4
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
/-",) ), #& #*",!'
).,3 ( -&#, %() ), ,.,( &(/-",) ), ,.#&
/-",) ), *,./, #*",!'
(&34, -&#,
&.), ./,,.
Fig. 125
5
IncidentĆlight polarization
5
135
Miroscopy Techniques
DIC Ć Differential interference contrast in
incident light
Use
'(2 3$"'-(04$ (2 42$# %.1 3'$ '(&':".-31 23 #(2/+ 8 .% 1$%+$"3:
(-& 241% "$2 %$ 341(-& '$(&'3 #(%%$1$-"$2 .% 2$5$1 + 6 5$:
+$-&3'2 4/ 3. 3'$ λ 1 -&$
Additional equipment
/(/+ -:$.%+4 1 .+ .1 .!)$"3(5$2
/$"( + .1 -.2$/($"$
2+(#$12 , 3"'$# 3. 3'$ .!)$"3(5$2 42$#
'$ , &-(%(" 3(.- -# 3'$ /$1341$ .% 3'$ 24(3 !+$ .!)$":
3(5$ 1$ &(5$- .- 3'$ 3./ 241% "$ .% 3'$ 2+(#$12 42' 2+(#$1 (-3. 3'$ 2+.3 4-3(+ '$ 1 (3 2- / (-
2+(#$1 %.1 , 7(,4, ".-31 23 3 1$#4"$# 1$2.+43(./1.5(#$# !8 .!)$"3(5$
.1 1$# 1$%+$"3.1 ,.#4+$
Additional comments
- ".-31 23 (2 " 42$# !8 241% "$ 1$+($% (3' +(-$ 1 2314":
341$2 3'$1$%.1$ ".-31 23 (2 #$/$-#$-3 .- 6'$3'$1 3'$ .1($-:
3 3(.- .% 3'$2$ 2314"341$2 (2 (- 3'$ +(&'3 : 2' #.6 #(1$"3(.5$18 +.6 ".-31 23 .1 3 1(&'3 -&+$2 3. (3 , 7(,4, ".-31 23
.1 3'(2 1$ 2.- (3 (2 #5 -3 &$.42 3. ' 5$ 3'$ /.22(!(+(38 .% .!:
)$"3 1.3 3(.- 3. .!3 (- - (, &$ #(2/+ 8(-& 3'$ '(&'$23 ".-:
31 23 '(2 " - !$ "'($5$# 42(-& $(3'$1 1.3 18 ,$"' -(" +
23 &$ .1 1.3 18 /.+ 1(9 3(.- 23 &$
.+.1$# (2 .!3 (-$# (% 8.4 42$ 3'$ 1$# 1$%+$"3.1 ,.#:
4+$ .1 (% 8.4 (-2$13 1$%+$"3.1 ,.#4+$ .+ 3.&$3'$1 6(3' - +89$1 2+(#$1 -# λ /+ 3$ 1.3 3 !+$ !8 ± ° DIC enhancement
% ".-31 23 (2 4-2 3(2% "3.18 42(-& 3'$ 23 -# 1# $04(/:
,$-3 42$ 3'$ 2+(#$12 , 1*$# 6'("' 1$ 5 (+ !+$ %.1 3'$ .!:
)$"3(5$2 +(23$# !$+.6 .5$15($6 '$ (-"1$ 2$# ".-31 23 , 8
1$24+3 (- #$"1$ 2$# 1$2.+43(.-
Objective
DIC slider
Note:Ą% 8.4 6 -3 3. 6.1* 6(3' 3'$ 1$%+$"3.1 ,.#4+$ .+
2+(#$12 6(3' .1 6(3'.43 ".,/$-2 3.1 λ ,423 !$ 42$# %.1 3'$
- +89$1 ".,/ 13,$-3 2$$ → (&
.- / &$ 134
:$
) )*'( , +!. ())' !) (* ( (')(
' ( %$'( $' ) (*'( $ ")! ')*'( !) *% ')
# ' ! !!*"#)$# ! ')! $)( (* (
(%*!' (*'( #!*# )*'( ,) '#) '( $
'!)$# '"# $"%!)!. ' $,+'
$(% ,) $##)# )' )+(
'!)$' "$*! ) !!*"#)$# ( $' ')!
# (,) )$ ' ! . (,## # '!)$' $# )
'!)$' )*'')
%# !*"#$*( ! %'" # %')*' %'"
*!!. ( )( ,$' # ' ! *(# ) ##) !)
)#&* '&*'( "-"*" !!*"#)$# #)#().
# (,)# )$ ')! $ #$) $') )$
!$( ) !*"#$*( ! %'" # ) %')*'
%'" )$ ) #$'"! +!*( ' ,!! $)',( '(
$ !'
/
Microscopy Techniques
Incident light brightfield
0.
Note:Ą5 (33 05*0+,5;C30./; ;,*/508<,: ;/, *647,5:(;69:
? :,, (3:6 → 6=,9=0,> 65 7(., 4<:; ), 9,46=,+
-964 ;/, ),(4 7(;/ ;6 79,=,5; 04(., 8<(30;@ -964 ),05.
047(09,+
!6 :,; ;/, 05*0+,5; 30./; 033<405(;065 05 (**69+(5*, >0;/ ;/,
B 7905*073, 796*,,+ (: -6336>:
5 ;/, 9,(9 6- ;/, 05:;9<4,5; :>0;*/ 65 ;/, 05*0+,5; 30./;
033<405(;065 <:05. ;/, ;6..3, :>0;*/ (5+ ;/,5 :>0;*/ 65
;/, 40*96:*67, (; ;/, :>0;*/ 6
; =63;(., 9,.<3(;69 7 :,; (7796? # (: ;/, :<773@
=63;(., -69 ;/, 033<405(;065
3(*, ( 7630:/,+ :7,*04,5 65 ;/, :;(., (30.5 ;67 :<9-(*,
7(9(33,3 ;6 :<7769; ,. >0;/ 3,=,305. 79,::
1
%6< :/6<3+ 56> :,, :76;: 6- 30./; ;/, ,?0; 7<703: ),/05+ ;/,
,@,70,*,: - @6< (9, >69205. >0;/ ( )056*<3(9 7/6;6;<), (33
6- ;/, 30./; >033 ), +09,*;,+ ;6 ;/, )056*<3(9 ;<), 0- ;/, 7<:/C
96+ 0: :30+ 05 (33 ;/, >(@
$/,5 @6< 3662 05;6 ;/, ;<), @6< >033 :,, ( )90./; *09*3, ;/,
,@,70,*, :;67 >0;/ ,(*/ ,@,
2
3
4
5
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
9
8
7
,5;,905. :*9,>: -69 3<4056<: -0,3+ +0(7/9(.4
,5;,905. :*9,>: -69 (7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4
>05.C05 :>05.C6<; -(*030;@ -69 +0--<:05. :*9,,5
<:/96+ -69 (7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4
<:/96+ -69 3<4056<: -0,3+ +0(7/9(.4
:>0;*/
#63;(., 9,.<3(;69 -69 30./; 05;,5:0;@
6*<:05. +90=,
)1,*;0=,
,-3,*;69 ;<99,;
6
>05. ;/, ? 6)1,*;0=, @,336> 905. 9 65 56:,70,*,
(5+ ;/, 9,-3,*;69 46+<3, -69 )90./;-0,3+ 65 9,-3,*;69 ;<99,;
10 05;6 ;/, ),(4 7(;/
/,*2 ;/, 76:0;065: 65 ;/, ,@,70,*, :*(3, → 7(., ,9., ;/, ;>6 *09*3,: 05;6 65, )@ (+1<:;05. )6;/ ,@,C
70,*,: ;<),: ;6 @6<9 5 ;/, 033<405(;065 +,=0*, :>05. 05 ;/, +0--<:05. :*9,,5
)@ ;<9505. :*9,> $ 3 ;6 ;/, )3(*2 +6; (5+ 4(2, ;/,
3<4056<: -0,3+ +0(7/9(.4 5(996>,9 )@ 7<3305. 6<; 7<:/
96+ 5
6*<: ;/, :7,*04,5 >0;/ -6*<:05. +90=, 8 !/, 04(., 6;/, 3<4056<: -0,3+ +0(7/9(.4 A >/0*/ 30,: ,?(*;3@ 05 ;/,
:7,*04,5 73(5, 4(@ ), /,37-<3 /,9,
6=, ;/, +0(7/9(.4 04(., 05;6 ;/, *,5;,9 6- @6<9 -0,3+
6- =0,> B >0;/ ;/, (0+ 6- *,5;,905. :*9,>: 1 ":, 7<:/C
96+ 5 ;6 67,5 ;/0: +0(7/9(.4 <5;03 ;/, -0,3+ 6- =0,> 0: 1<:;
-9,, (5+ 56 469, C
6> (+1<:; ;/, *65;9(:; >0;/ (7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4 4 ;6
:<0; ;/, 5,,+: 6- ;/, :7,*04,5 ),05. ,?(405,+
Note: - @6< (9, 56; *,9;(05 /6> -(9 @6< :/6<3+ :;67 +6>5
( .66+ 9<3, 6- ;/<4) 0: ;/(; (7796? 6- ;/, ,?0; 7<703 6;/, 6)1,*;0=, :/6<3+ ), 033<405(;,+ D &!/, ,?0; 7<703 0:
=0:0)3, (; ;/, )6;;64 6- ;/, ;<), >/,5 ;/, ,@,70,*,: (9,
9,46=,+ 69 >/,5 ;/, ,9;9(5+ 3,5: 0: :><5. 05 (5+ -6*<:,+
,9;9(5+ 3,5: :30+,9'
- 5,*,::(9@ ;/, (7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4 *(5 ), )96<./; 05;6 ;/,
*,5;,9 6- ;/, 7<703 <:05. *,5;,905. :*9,>: 2 (5+ ;/,5
:;677,+ +6>5 ;6 0;: :0A, <:05. 7<:/96+ 4
=,9@ 6)1,*;0=, */(5., (3:6 */(5.,: ;/, 6)1,*;0=, (7,9;<9,
0, ;/, (7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4 4<:; ), 9,(+1<:;,+
- @6<9 40*96:*67, -,(;<9,: ( 30./; 4(5(.,9 46;690A,+
(7,9;<9, +0(7/9(.4 (; 3,(:; *6+,+ 56:,70,*, @6< *(5 :;69,
;/, 40*96:*67, :,;;05. =0( ;/, ! 2,@ → A
B
C
D
Fig. 124 Microscope setting for incident light brightfield
132
C,
Microscopy Techniques
Fluorescence
Adjustment of the illumination
Additional equipment
)'311)2()( 0%2@)3*09%6 36 09%6 3&.)'8-:)7 *36 !"
)<'-8%8-32
4)'-%0 6)*0)'8)(@0-+,8 -0091-2%836 %2( *0936)7')2') 0%147 ;-8, %446346-%8) )0)'8632-' 79440=
Adjustment of the fluorescence lamp
!7) %(.978-2+ %-( 83 %(.978 8,) %(%48)( *0936)7')2') 0%14
1
2
4
"-);-2+
;-2(3; *36
%(.978-2+ %-(
3
1
2
3
4
361%00= 8,) %4)6896) (-%4,6%+1 7,390( 6)1%-2 34)2
(96-2+ *0936)7')2') 3&7)6:%8-32
,) 091-2397@*-)0( (-%4,6%+1 -7 7)8 %7 *3003;7 %''36(-2+ 83
8,) ? 690)7
!7) 8,) %446346-%8) 497,63( 3* 8,) -2'-()28 0-+,8 4%68 3*
8,) 78%2( 83 '037) 8,) 091-2397 *-)0( (-%4,6%+1 928-0 -8
&)'31)7 :-7-&0) -2 8,) -1%+)
,)2 ')28)6 97-2+ 8,) ')28)6-2+ 7'6);7 %2( 34)2 8,)
(-%4,6%+1 928-0 8,) *-)0( 3* :-); -7 *6))
1%+) 3* 8,) 0-+,8 %6'
-6636 -1%+) 3* 8,) 0-+,8 %6' 3* 8,) 0%14 6)*0)'836
0-()@-2 /23& *36 %(.978-2+ %-( %'8-:%8-32
0%14 ,397-2+
Fig. 122 Adjusting aid
(.978 8,) 7)0)'8)( 74)'-1)2 *)%896) -2 &6-+,8*-)0( 36
86%271-88)(@0-+,8 4,%7) '3286%78 97-2+ 8,) 34)2 437-8-32
3* 8,) 6)*0)'836 8966)8
!7) 8,) 03;)6 -0091-2%836 ;-8, ,%03+)2 0%14 *36 8,-7
;-8', 32 8,) # 1)6'96= 7,368 %6' 0%14 &98 &03'/
-87 0-+,8 4%8, ;-8, 8,) &%66-)6 70-()6 36 8,) 7,988)6
;-8', 3** 8,) 86%271-88)(@0-+,8 -0091-2%836 &= 7)88-2+ 8,)
*-08)67 -2 *-08)6 1%+%>-2) 86%271-88)( 0-+,8 83 %2(
83 -2 *-08)6 1%+%>-2) 36 &= %((-8-32%00= 7;-8',-2+ 3**
8,) ,%03+)2 0%14 -2 8,) 78%2( 463+6%1 7)0)'8 8,)
6)59-6)( )<'-8%8-32 8=4) 32 8,) 6)*0)'836 8966)8 %2( 6)13:)
70-()6 *631 8,) 0-+,8 4%8,
97, %(.9781)28 %-( *36 -2'-()28 0-+,8 0%14 -2 8,) &)%1
4%8, ,-7 -7 03'%8)( 32 8,) &%'/ 0)*8 3* =396 1-'637'34)
7)) → 2 8,) :-);-2+ ;-2(3; *36 8,)
%(.9781)28 %-( 32 8,) 6)%6 &%'/ 6-+,8 3* =396 1-'637'34)
=39 '%2 ',)'/ 8,) 437-8-32 3* 8,) 0-+,8 %6' %2( -87 6)*0)'836
-1%+)
%/) %2= 6)59-6)( '366)'8-327 97-2+ 3 %2( %(.978-2+
7'6);7 4 6 7 8 %2( 9
*8)6 ')286%8-32 %2( *3'97-2+ 3* 8,) 091-2397 %6)% 4900
398 8,) 70-(-2+ /23& 3* 8,) %(.978-2+ %-(
WARNING!
Explosion hazard
,) # 1)6'96= 7,368 %6' 0%14 1978 &)
)<',%2+)( %*8)6 )<4-6= 3* 8,) %:)6%+) 7)6:-') 0-*)
3* ,67 ,) %:)6%+) 7)6:-') 0-*) 3* 8,) -7 ,67 87 -0091-2%2') ()'6)%7)7 -2 8,) '3967)
3* 1%2= ,3967 3* 97) 73 8,%8 ,313+)2)397
-0091-2%8-32 3* 8,) 3&.)'8 *-)0( '%2 23 032+)6 &)
+9%6%28))( ,)6) -7 %073 % (%2+)6 3* )<4037-32
,) 6)1%-2-2+ 7)6:-') ,3967 '%2 &) 6)%( 3** 32 8,)
43;)6 79440= 92-8
0)%7) 6)*)6 83 8,) 1%29%0 *36 8,) $ 0%14
,397-2+ *36 *968,)6 ()8%-07 32 ,3; 83 )<',%2+)
8,) 0%147
1
9
2
8
3
7
4
6
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$ 0%14 ,397-2+
-+,8 )<-8
2960)( /23& *36 '300)'836 %(.9781)28
%8)6%0 %(.9781)28 3* 6)*0)'836 -1%+)
0%14-2+ 7'6); *36 0%14 13928
'32')%0)( -2 &%7) 3* ,397-2+
3'97-2+ 3* 6)*0)'836 -1%+)
%8)6%0 %(.9781)28 3* 0%14
)-+,8 %(.9781)28 3* 6)*0)'836 -1%+)
)-+,8 %(.9781)28 3* 0%14
Fig. 123 HBO/XBO lamp housingĄ
Note:Ą 3 %:3-( )=) -2.96= 40)%7) 97) 8,) *0936)7')2') 4638)'@
8-32 7'6))2 → @)
131
!/!# )0*+#* !*'#0 )&** !% &%&*&'! &*)-+!&%
. ! )*&#-* !%+& + +.& )% * & 0)'&# + ,+ !*+)!/ *+ %+) #!% !* &)!%+ !% ')### +& + -!.!% !)+!&% ,)% *+ ,%+!# + )" )% * & + 0')&# !*&0)* ) !% + *+ % ) (,)%+*
&, .&)" .!+ + &$'%*+&) λ
+) 0&, - !%*)+ + &$'%*+&) # + &##&.!%
'')*
0##&. &% + &,+*! &%- *! & 0')&# %
#, &% + !%*! &%-/ *! & 0')&# &'+!##0
%+!-
#, &% + &,+*! % 0##&. &% + !%*! &'+!##0
'&*!+!-
&, .&)" .!+ + &$'%*+&) λ
+) 0&, - !%*)+ + &$'%*+&) )" *'&+
'')*
&% + &,+*! & + )" !*&0) &'+!##0 %+!-
&% + !%*! & + )" !*&0) &'+!##0 '&*!+!-
&, .&)" .!+ + . &$'%*+&) 1 λ
+) !%*)+!&% & + . &$'%*+&) 1 + !*&1
)&$+* !% + *+ % % (,)%+* ) $&-!%
&,+.) &'+!##0 %+!-
!%.) &'+!##0 '&*!+!-
Optically uniaxial
λ !
% &'+!# /!* & !/!# )0*+# !* ')### +& + -!.!% !)+!&% &%#0 &% )% & + 0')&# .!## -!*!# !% &%&*&'! -!.!% .!+ + -)+/ & + !* )%
#0!% !% + %+) & + !# & -!. + *+ !* +,)%
+ )% & + 0')&# .!## $&- &,+ !+* -)+/ )&1
!% + *$ $%%) * *)! &- +& +)$!%
+ &'+!# )+)!*+!* & + )0*+#
Optically biaxial
λ 1
Microscopy Techniques
TransmittedĆlight polarization Ć DetermiĆ
ning the optical characteristics of crystal
Use
*9*72.3.3, 9-* 459.(&1 (-&7&(9*7.89.(8 4+ 97&385&7*39 &3)
<*&01> &'847'.3, (7>89&18 .8 5&79 4+ 9-* ).&,348.8 4+ (7>89&18
"-.8 9*(-3.6:* .8 &184 9*72*) (43(48(45.( 4'8*7;&9.43 98
2&.3 +.*1) 4+ &551.(&9.43 .8 9-* (1&88.( 2.(748(45> 4+ 74(08 9
.8 &184 5488.'1* -4<*;*7 94 .)*39.+> &3) (-&7&(9*7.?* 8>3@
9-*9.( (7>89&18 .3):897.&1 2.3*7&18 &3) 51&89.(8 *, +.128
Adjustments
)/:89 >4:7 541&7.?.3, 2.(748(45* +47 89&3)&7) '7.,-9+.*1)
*=&2.3&9.43 8** → 5&,*
&3) 541&7.?&9.43 .3 97&38@
2.99*) 1.,-9 8** → 5&,* *.3,*89*119
1
2
3
1 :8-74) +47 +.*1) ).&5-7&,2
2 49&7> &3) 81.)*7 034' +47 *797&3) 1*38
3 :8-74) +47 7*9.(1*
Fig. 121
TransmittedĆlight polarization
7.3, 9-* 14<@54<*7 4'/*(9.;* = .394 9-* '*&2
5&9- "-* '*89 47.*39&9.43 +47 (4348(45.( 4'8*7;&9.43
-&;* 9-48* (7>89&18 *, & 9-.3 74(0 8*(9.43 <-48* '7.,-9@
3*88 1*;*1 .8 (-&3,*) &8 1.991* &8 5488.'* .3 479-48(45.( 4'@
8*7;&9.43 <-*3 >4: 9:73 9-* 89&,* 3 9-.8 (&8* 9-* 459.(&1
&=.8 4+ :3.&=.&1 (7>89&18 47 43* 4+ 9-* 459.(&1 &=*8 4+ &
'.&=.&1 (7>89&1 .8 3*&71> 5&7&11*1 94 9-* ;.*<.3, ).7*(9.43
+9*7 8*1*(9.3, & (7>89&1 .3 9-.8 2&33*7 548.9.43 .9 .3 9-*
(*39*7 4+ 7*9.(1* 3 7.3, 9-* )7> 4'/*(9.;* 574;.).3, 9-*
1&7,*89 &5*79:7* = .394 9-* '*&2 5&9- 8<.3, .3
9-* (43)*38*7 +7439 1*38 &3) 7*@(-*(0 9-&9 9-* (43)*38*7
).&5-7&,2 .8 +:11> 45*3 .+9 9-* (43)*38*7 :39.1 9-*
.2&,* 4+ 9-* 1:2.34:8 +.*1) ).&5-7&,2 .8 8-&75 8** →
5&,* @
*
148* 9-* +.*1) ).&5-7&,2 1 :39.1 9-* ,7&.3 '4:3)&7.*8
4+ 9-* (7>89&1 8*1*(9*) &7* 34 143,*7 ;.8.'1* "-.8 *38:7*8
9-&9 9-* .39*7+*7*3(* +.,:7*8 4+ 3*.,-'47.3, (7>89&18 &7*
349 8:5*7.2548*) 43 9-* .39*7+*7*3(* +.,:7*8 4+ 9-* (7>8@
9&1 94 '* *=&2.3*) "-:8 4'/*(9 +*&9:7*8 <.9- &8 82&11 &
).&2*9*7 &8 22 (&3 '* *1.2.3&9*) +742 9-* +.*1) 4+
;.*<
$-*3 >4: 9:73 9-* 89&,* 9-* 4'/*(9 2:89 7*2&.3 .3 9-*
(*39*7 4+ 9-* 7*9.(1* .* .9 2:89 &184 7*2&.3 .3 9-* ;.8.'1*
&7*& 7*@(*39*7 .+ 3*(*88&7>
!<.3, .3 9-* *797&3) 1*38 8>2'41 ⊕ <.9- 034' 2 43
9-* .39*72*).&9* 9:'* 41 #8* 9-* *797&3) 1*38 94 +4(:8
9-* 5:5.1 .2&,* .39*7+*7*3(* +.,:7*
"-* (4348(45.( .2&,* 4'9&.3*) 34< 8-4<8 >4: <-*9-*7
9-* (7>89&1 -&8 43* 47 9<4 &=*8 #8* 9-* (425*38&947 λ 94
)*9*72.3* 9-* 459.(&1 (-&7&(9*7.89.(8 4+ 9-* (7>89&1 459.@
(&11> 548.9.;* 47 459.(&11> 3*,&9.;* 9-* (425*38&947 λ
(&3 &184 '* :8*) +47 9-.8 5:7548*
#8* 9-* <*),* (425*38&947 @ λ 6:&79? <*),* 94 )*@
9*72.3* 9-* 459.(&1 (-&7&(9*7.89.(8 4+ &'847'*39 (7>89&18
*, &:,.9* -473'1*3)* 47 (7>89&18 <.9- &342&14:8 '.7*@
+7.3,*3(*
Uniaxial crystals
+ 9-* 459.(&1 &=.8 4+ & :3.&=.&1 (7>89&18 .8 47.*39*) .3 5&7&11*1 94
9-* ;.*<.3, ).7*(9.43 & )&70 (7488 '*(42*8 ;.8.'1* .3 (434@
8(45.( ;.*<.3, <-.(- (&3 '* 8:774:3)*) '> (43(*397.( .39*7@
+*7*3(* +7.3,*8 )*5*3)*39 43 9-* '.7*+7.3,*3(* &3) 9-*
9-.(03*88 4+ 9-* 85*(.2*3 "-*8* .39*7+*7*3(* +7.3,*8 &7* &184
9*72*) .84(-742&98 7**0 .848 *6:&1 (-742& (4147
"-* (7488 7*2&.38 ;.8.'1* <-.1* 9-* 89&,* .8 9:73*) 4(:8 >4:7
&99*39.43 43 9-* 6:&)7&39 4+ 9-* (7488 89 6:&)7&39
(4:39.3, .8 (4:39*7(14(0<.8*
%4: <470 <.9- 9-* (425*38&947 λ
+9*7 >4: -&;* .38*79*) 9-* (425*38&947 1 9-* +4114<.3,
&55*&78 .3 9-* 89 &3) 7) 6:&)7&39 3*&7 9-* (*39*7 4+ 9-*
)&70 (7488
>*114< 459.(&11> 3*,&9.;*
'1:* 459.(&11> 548.9.;*
%4: <470 <.9- 9-* (425*38&947 λ
+9*7 >4: -&;* .38*79*) 9-* (425*38&947 & )&70 8549
&55*&78 3*&7 9-* (*39*7 4+ 9-* )&70 (7488
.3 89 &3) 7) 6:&)7&398 459.(&11> 3*,&9.;*
.3 3) &3) 9- 6:&)7&398 459.(&11> 548.9.;*
%4: <470 <.9- 9-* <*),* (425*38&947 @ λ
+9*7 .38*79.43 4+ 9-* <*),* (425*38&947 @ 9-* .84@
(-742&98 .3 9-* 89 &3) 3) 6:&)7&39 &7* 24;.3,
4:9<&7) 459.(&11> 3*,&9.;*
.3<&7) 459.(&11> 548.9.;*
129
" " "
'$ ".+.1 "' 13 .-+8 ++.62 3'$ 1.4&' $23(, 3(.- .% / 3' #(%<
%$1$-"$2 .% 31 -2/ 1$-3 -(2.31./(" 24!23 -"$2 24"' 2 ,(-<
$1 +2 28-3'$3(" "1823 +2 /+ 23("2 231 (-$# &+ 22 !(."1823 +2 .1
$183'1."83$2 .1 $7 "3 ,$ 241$,$-3 ".,/$-2 3.1 (2
-$$#$# '(2 ".,/$-2 3.1 1$#4"$2 3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$
" 42$# !8 3'$ .!)$"3 3. 9$1. 23 .1#$1 !+ "* ($ (3 ".,/$-<
2 3$2 %.1 3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$ -+(*$ #$3$1,(-(-& 3'$ -γ #(1$"<
3(.- 6'$1$ 3'$ /.2(3(.- .% ##(3(.- (2 .% (,/.13 -"$ 3'$ .!<
)$"3 ,423 !$ (- 3'$ /.2(3(.- .% 24!31 "3(.- 1$+ 3(5$ 3. 3'$
".,/$-2 3.1 ($ 3'$ -γ .% 3'$ .!)$"3 ,423 !$ 341-$# & (-23
3'$ -γ #(1$"3(.- .% 3'$ ".,/$-2 3.1 !8 °
$ " - /1.5(#$ 3'$ 24(3 !+$ ".,/$-2 3.1 %.1 $5$18 / 3' #(%<
%$1$-"$ ,$ 241$,$-3 1.3 18 1 "$<;'+$1 ".,/$-2 3.1 λ
6(3' ,(-(,4, ,$ 241(-& 1 -&$ %1., 3. -, -# 3(+3(-&
'1(-&' 42 ".,/$-2 3.1 < λ 6(3' , 7(,4, 1 -&$
%1., 3. -, 3' #(%%$1$-"$2 " - .-+8 !$ ,$ 241$#
(% 3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$ .% 3'$ .!)$"3 +($2 6(3'(- 3'$ ,$ 241(-&
1 -&$ .% 3'$ ".,/$-2 3.1 42$# . .!3 (- 2 '(&' ,$ 241(-&
""41 "8 2 /.22(!+$ 3'$ ,$ 241(-& 1 -&$ .% 3'$ ".,/$-2 <
3.1 42$# -# 3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$ 2'.4+# //1.7(, 3$+8 !$ .%
3'$ 2 ,$ , &-(34#$ . %(-# 3'$ ".11$"3 ".,/$-2 3.1 (-2$13
8.41 .!)$"3 (- 3'$ # 1* %($+# !$36$$- 3'$ "1.22$# /.+ 1(9$1
-# - +89$1 41- 3'$ 23 &$ -# -.3$ 3'$ (-3$1%$1$-"$ ".+.12
.!3 (-$# 2$$ → 3 !+$ !$+.6
."42 .- 3'$ 2/$"(,$- .!)$"3(5$ 7
1(-& /.+ 1(9$1 -# - +89$1 (-3. "1.22$# /.2(3(.-
41- 2/$"(,$ 3. $73(-"3(.- .1 23 -# 1# /.2(3(.-
"3(5 3$ 3'$ 23 &$ "+("*23./2
2$3 #( &.- + /.2(3(.- #(2/+ 8(-& , 7(,4, !1(&'3-$22
3 -2$13 3'$ ".,/$-2 3.1 2$+$"3$# ,.5$ (3 .43 .% (32 9$1.
/.2(3(.- -# 6 3"' 6'$3'$1
3'$ (-3$1%$1$-"$ ".+.12 !$".,$ #$$/$1 ($ 3'$ / 3'
#(%%$1$-"$ #$"1$ 2$2 '$ -g #(1$"3(.- .% 3'$ ".,/$-2 3.1
-# 3'$ -g #(1$"3(.- .% 3'$ .!)$"3 1$ /$1/$-#("4+ 1 3.
$ "' .3'$1 /.2(3(.- .% 24!31 "3(.- '$ 2/$"(,$- (2
".11$"3+8 /.2(3(.-$# %.1 ".,/$-2 3(.-
3'$ (-3$1%$1$-"$ ".+.12 !$".,$ / +$1 /.2(3(.- .%
##(3(.- ($ 3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$ (-"1$ 2$2 '$ !+ "* .%
3'$ 23 .1#$1 -$5$1 //$ 12 - 3'(2 " 2$ 341- 3'$
2/$"(,$- !8 -.3'$1 °.
++ 8.4 ' 5$ 3. #. -.6 (2 3. #)423 3'$ ".,/$-2 3.1 (24"' 6 8 3' 3 3'$ /.(-3 .% ,$ 241$,$-3 (2 ".,/+$3$+8
# 1* 2(-& 3'$ 1$".1#$# -&+$2 8.4 " - 1$ # .%% 3'$ / 3'
#(%%$1$-"$ (- -, %1., 3'$ 1$+$5 -3 3 !+$ .1 " +"4+ 3$ 3'$
/ 3' #(%%$1$-"$ 6'$- 8.4 6.1* 6(3' 3'$ 1.3 18
1 "$<;'+$1 ".,/$-2 3.1
'$ :- 1,.-3 3$"'-(04$ ++.62 3'$ ,$ 241$,$-3 .% / 3'
#(%%$1$-"$2 4/ 3. λ '(2 3$"'-(04$ #(%%$12 (- 3'$ %.++.6(-&
/.(-32 %1., 3'$ !.5$ #$2"1(/3(.-
:- 1,.-3 ".,/$-2 3.1 (2 42$# 6'("' (2 l
/+ 3$ 6(3' -g (- 3'$ $ 23<6$23 .1($-3 3(.-
1.3 18 - +89$1 (2 42$# %.1 ,$ 241$,$-3
3'$ / 3' #(%%$1$-"$ (2 " +"4+ 3$# 42(-& 3'$ -&+$
,$ 241$#
! 3 (2 #5(2 !+$ 3. 42$ ,.-."'1., 3(" +(&'3 %.1
,$ 241$,$-3 . "'($5$ 3'(2 42$ 3'$ &1$$- (-3$1%$1$-"$
! -#/ 22 %(+3$1 #7 .1 - 11.6 (-3$1%$1$-"$
! -#/ 22 %(+3$1 -, < +6 82 42$ - 11.6
(-3$1%$1$-"$ ! -#/ 22 %(+3$1 < %.1
,$ 241$,$-32 6(3' 3'$ 3(+3(-& ".,/$-2 3.1 < λ
Interferenc color
Using compensator λ
you will obtain
Path difference
Compensator / Technique
' '-
$!$'( !* -!!$+ () $''
'- %'(#)
λ
%%'$, #"
'$)'- '0/!' $"%#()$#
λ
)
$!$'( () $'' +) %'(#)
λ
%%'$, #"
.#'"$#) )#&* $'
'#*( )!)# $"%#()$'
0λ
$' $' !(( % #)''#
$!$'(
$!$'( $' +) $!$'( $ () )$
) $'' ' %'(#)
λ )$ λ
%%'$, )$ #"
'#*( )!)# $"%#()$'
0λ
)
#$ $!$'( '0$'' +) %'(0 λ .1 ,.1$
#)
-, .1 ,.1$
'#*( )!)# $"%#()$'
0 λ
<$
Microscopy Techniques
TransmittedĆlight polarization Ć DetermiĆ
ning the nγĂ direction of oscillation
Determining the nγ' direction of oscillation using a synthetic fiber as an example
Conclusions
'$ -γ #(0$"2(.- .% 2'$ ".,/$-1 2.0 λ (1 .0($-2$# (- 2'$
9 #(0$"2(.- '$ ".+.0 .% 2'$ 1300.3-#(-&1 .% 2'$ %(!$0 (1
#$$/ 0$# .% 2'$ 12 .0#$0 / 2' #(%%$0$-"$ (1 .-$ λ //0.6
-, '$ %(!$0 (21$+% //$ 01 &0$$-9!+3$ / 2' #(%%$0$-"$
//0.6 -, '$ '(&'$0 (-2$0%$0$-"$ ".+.0 -, " .-+7 !$ 2'$ 0$13+2 .% 2'$ ##(2(.- .% 2'$ / 2' #(%%$0$-"$1 .%
//0.6 -, -# ".,/$-1 2.0
'$ ".+.01 5(++ !$ ##$# (% 2'$ -γ .% 2'$ ".,/$-1 2.0 -# 2'$
-g .% 2'$ .!)$"2 0$ / 0 ++$+ $-"$ 2'$ -g .% 2'$ .!)$"2 +1.
+($1 (- 9 #(0$"2(.- 2 '(&'$0 (-2$0%$0$-"$ ".+.0 -# (1 .0(9
$-2$# (- / 0 ++$+ 2. 2'$ +.-&(23#(- + 6(1 .% 2'$ %(!$0
Note:Ą
("'$+9847 ".+.0 "' 021 0$ 4 (+ !+$ 3-#$0 2 . 9
3rd order
black
lavender gray
gray blue
200
-λ
yellowish white
400
1λ
path difference
Adjustments
$0%.0, 2'$ #)312,$-21 #$1"0(!$# 3-#$0 #)312,$-21
.- / &$ '$ %(!$0 +(&'21 3/ (- 2'$ %($+# .% 4($5
30- 2'$ 12 &$ 2. 2'$ %(012 "+("*12./ #$ "2(4 2$ 2'$ "+("*9
12./ -# 230- 2'$ 12 &$ (- 13"' 5 7 2' 2 2'$ .!)$"2 #(19
/+ 71 , 6(,3, # 0*-$11
"2(4 2$ 2'$ "+("*12./ -# 230- 2'$ 12 &$ !7 ° 2. 2'$
-$62 "+("*12./ 1. 2' 2 2'$ +.-&(23#(- + 6(1 .% 2'$ %(!$0 (1
.0($-2$# (- 2'$ 9 #(0$"2(.- (& $0$ 2'$ .!9
)$"2 #(1/+ 71 , 6(,3, !0(&'2-$11 #( &.- + /.1(2(.- $&
&0 795'(2$
'(1 ".+.0 ".00$1/.-#1 2. / 2' #(%%$0$-"$ .% -, (2'$ ("'$+9847 ".+.0 "' 02 (& -# (&
%2$0 7.3 ' 4$ (-1$02$# 2'$ ".,/$-1 2.0 λ 2'$ ".+.0
230-1 2. 7$++.59.0 -&$ / 2' #(%%$0$-"$ //0.6 -,
'$- 7.3 230- 2'$ 12 &$ !7 ° 2'$ %(!$0 //$ 01 &0$$-9
!+3$ / 2' #(%%$0$-"$ //0.6 -,
Summary
.,/ 0$ (-2$0%$0$-"$ ".+.01 / 2' #(%%$0$-"$1 (- 2'$ 25. #(9
&.- + /.1(2(.-1 '$ + 0&$0 / 2' #(%%$0$-"$ 5(++ .""30 (% !.2'
-γ #(0$"2(.-1 0$ / 0 ++$+ '31 2'$ -g #(0$"2(.- .% 2'$ .!)$"2
' 1 !$$- #$2$0,(-$#
2nd order
Use
'$ /.1(2(.- .% 2'$ 25. #(0$"2(.-1 5(2' 2'$ &0$ 2$12 -g -#
2'$ 1, ++$12 -a 0$%0 "2(4$ (-#$6 !.2' (- 0$+ 2(4$ 2$0,1 .0
5(2' 2'$ &0$ 2$12 -g .0 5(2' 2'$ 1, ++$12 -a 0$%0 "2(4$ (-#$6
!.2' (- !1.+32$ 2$0,1 0$+ 2(4$ 2. 2'$ ,.0/'.+.&(" + #(0$"9
2(.-1 .% "0712 + 130% "$1 "0712 + -$$#+$1 .0 %(!$01 (1 - (,/.09
2 -2 %$ 230$ 31$# %.0 $6 ,/+$ (- 2'$ #( &-.1(1 .% !(."0712 +1
&.32 /1$3#.&.32
redĆorange
deep red
indigo
sky blue
greenish blue
600
800
+λ
1000
1200
1st order
Fig. 119
1400
1600
-λ/4
+λ/4
lighter green
pure yellow
orange red
dark violet
indigo
greenish blue
sea green
greenish yellow
flesh color
carmine red
dull purple
Fig. 120
Schematic illustration of the MichelĆLévy color chart
9
$
127
Microscopy Techniques
TransmittedĆlight polarization Ć DetecĆ
tion of birefringence
Use
!+ , &!)- !+ -+ '* , 0%!&,!'& ' ,*&+(*&, !3
**!&&, '",+ , !+ *,*!+,! ,-* ' !**!&&,
'",+ , , /!, ('$*!2* & &$12* !& *'++ ('+!,!'&
, ', */!+ *# !$ ' .!/ ,-*&+ *! , ,!%+ / & 1'*',, , '", +, , *'- & , (*'++
!&,**& '$'*+ *'% '&$1 "-+, .!+!$ *1 !'$'!$
+(!%&+ / !, * 1$$'/ $- , -( ,' ! *3'**
/ !, & '-* **$++ ' !**!&& , , !#&++
& , '*!&,,!'& ' , '",
Adjustments
"-+, 1'-* ('$*!2!& %!*'+'( '* +,&* *! ,!$
0%!&,!'& + → ( &,* , *',*1 +, '$ + → ( ,' &+-*
, , , '(,!$ 0!+ ' , '",!. !& , &'&3&,*$
,-**, '(&!& + & &,* '& , *',*1 0!+ ' , +, , !+ $!&%&, + & (*'*% '**,$1 &
'", ,-* !& , &,* ' , *,!$ /!$$ *%!& !&
('+!,!'& / & , +, !+ ,-*&
! ,& +*/ 2 $'#!& , +, !& ('+!,!'& & +/!&
, !*+, '",!. !& &,*$ , * %'-&, !&,' , % (, , , * %'-&, !+ &', &,* , (*.!'-+$1 '-+ '", ,-* /!$$ &' $'&* !& , &,* ' , *,!$
*!& , !+($ ,-* !&,' , &,* ' , *,!$
1 "-+,!& , ,/' &,*!& +*/+ ' , '",!.
-+!& ,/' +%$$ $$& /*& + &,*!& +/+ *
$', '& , $, & , *! , ' , '",!. ('+!,!'&
'& #&-*$ *!& ' , &'+(! 4 *' !& , +% %&&* '* , &0, &,*$ , * %'-&, '
, &'+(! ,* 1'- . &,* $$ '",!.+
$''+& , +*/ $'#!& , +, *',,!'&
3 # , ('+!,!'& ' '",!. 1 ,-*&!& , +, & '", ,-* $', !& , &,* ' , *,!$
+ '-$ &'/ *%!& !& , &,*
' %!&,!& , !+ &,*,!'& / *'%%& -+!& , #&-*$ *!& ' , &'+(! ,' & , '",!.+
!&+, ' , '",!.+ , %+$.+
/!& , ('$*!2* 3 !&,' , % (, & "-+, !,
,' ° ! 1'-* %!*'+'( !+ )-!(( /!, *',*1
('$*!2*
&+*, , &$12* 1 -&,!$ !, +&(+ !& & , !$ ' .!/
!+ *#
1'- /'*# /!, %+-*!& &$12* "-+, , %+-*!& +$ ,' ° & +-* !, !& ('+!,!'&
1'- -+ ±° *',*1 &$12* /!, *',*1 3($,
"-+, , &$12* ,' , &,*$ $!#+,'(
3($, /!$$ !&,!. ! !, !+ ('+!,!'& '. , &$12* & ,!. ! !, !+ $'/ , &$12*
*!& , '", ,' 0%!& !&,' , !$ ' .!/ &
,-*& , +, !&$-!& , '",
+ +*! '. '$'*$++ '* '$'* &+ ' , '", !&!, , (*+& ' !**!&& (,!$$1
&!+',*'(! %,*!$+ & $+' *%!& *# '/.* ! &
!+',*'(! !*,!'& ' '(,!$$1 -&!0!$ '* !0!$
*1+,$+ !+ (*$$$ ,' , .!/!& !*,!'&
& , !+ + 1'- & +,$!+ / , * , '", !+
'(,!$$1 !+',*'(! '* &!+',*'(! 1 -+!& , '&'+'(!
.!/!& %, ' + → ( 4
3
2
1
2
3
4
1
&$12* +$!*
*/ '* $'#!& , +, *',,!'&
'$*!2*
'+(!
Fig. 118
TransmittedĆlight polarization
126
3
Microscopy Techniques
DIC Ć Differential interference contrast
in transmitted light
Use:
02 5/34"*/&% 31&$*.&/3 7)*$) "2& 400 4)*$, '02 1)"3&
$0/42"34 &8".*/"4*0/ 7*4) 4)& 2&35-4 4)"4 -"9&23 0' 4)&
31&$*.&/ 0543*%& 4)& '0$"- 1-"/& *.1"*2 4)& $-"2*49 0' 4)&
*."(&
' 4)& )"-0 491*$"- 0' 1)"3& $0/42"34 *.1"*23 4)& 0#3&26"<
4*0/ 0' 3."-- %&4"*-3 */ 4)& 31&$*.&/
Additional equipment
/02."--9 -"/<&0'-5"2 0#+&$4*6&3
" 31&$*"- /03&1*&$& 4 7*4) 3-043 5 '02 .05/4*/( 4)& 3-*%&23
3-*%&2 6 3)07*/( 0/ *43 352'"$& 4)& ."(/*'*$"4*0/ "/%
"1&2452& 0' 4)& 0#+&$4*6& '02 7)*$) *4 *3 */4&/%&% /3&24
3-*%&2 */ 3-04 5 5/4*- 4)& $-*$, 3401 *3 2&"$)&%
" $0/%&/3&2 4522&4 9 7*4) 103*4*0/3
" 10-"2*:&2 8 7)*$) *3 375/( */40 103*4*0/ #&/&"4) 4)&
$0/%&/3&2 "/%
"/ "/"-9:&2 3-*%&2 2 7)*$) *3 */3&24&% */ 1
1
2
12
3
11
10
5
4
9
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
/"-9:&2 $0.1"24.&/4
/"-9:&2 3-*%&2
&242"/% -&/3 3-*%&2
03&1*&$&
-04 '02 3-*%&2
3-*%&2
/52-&% 3$2&7
0-"2*:&2
0/%&/3&2 4522&4
2*3 %*"1)2"(.
0.1&/3"402
0.1&/3"402 $0.1"24.&/4
Additional adjustments
*,& 4)& 02 ) 103*4*0/3 0' 4)& $0/%&/3&2 4)&2& "2& 02 103*4*0/3 ."2,&% 35*4"#-& '02 $0.#*/"4*0/
7*4) 4)& "112012*"4&-9 ."2,&% 3-*%&23
)*3 1&2.*43 4)& '0--07*/( $0.#*/"4*0/3
Objective
DIC position
w
!/-*,& 4)& ) 103*4*0/3 4)& 103*4*0/3 "2& 1206*%&% 7*4)
"/ *2*3 %*"1)2"(. 10 1&/ 4)*3 $0.1-&4&-9 "4 '*234 0
&/)"/$& $0/42"34 *4 $"/ 4)&/ #& $-03&% 3-*()4-9 4)*3 (&/&2"--9
#&*/( 4)& -"34 34"(& */ 4)& "%+534.&/4 3&& "-30 ;
*--5.*/"4*0/ 1"(& 14*.5. $0/42"34 *3 3&4 #9 53*/( 4)& ,/52-&% 3$2&7 7 0' 4)&
3-*%&23 6 */ 4)& /03&1*&$&
Additional notes
/ $0/42"34 *3 $2&"4&% #9 13&5%0 2&-*&' "/% */ 4)& $"3&
0' -*/&"2 3425$452&3 *3 4)&2&'02& %&1&/%&/4 0/ 4)&*2 02*&/4"<
4*0/ 7*4) 02*&/4"4*0/ */ 4)& 3".& %*2&$4*0/ "3 4)& -*()4
3)"%07 $0/42"34 *3 -07 7)*-& */ 4)& %*2&$4*0/ 1&21&/%*$5-"2
40 4)& 3)"%07 014*.5. $0/42"34 *3 0#4"*/&% )& 1033*#*-*49
0' 31&$*.&/ 204"4*0/ *3 4)&2&'02& "-.034 *.1&2"4*6& '02 "%<
+534.&/4 -&"3& #&"2 */ .*/% 4)"4 4)& .&$)"/*$"- 34"(& $"/
#& 53&% "3 " 204"29 34"(&
0 &/352& 2&'-&$4*0/<'2&& *--5.*/"4*0/ 4)& -5.*/053 '*&-% "/%
"1&2452& %*"1)2"(.3 3)05-% /04 #& 01&/&% "/9 7*%&2 4)"/
"--07&% '02 4)& ; 12*/$*1-&
53&3 10-"2*:&% -*()4 "/% *3 4)&2&'02& *.1"*2&% *' 014*$"--9
"$4*6& &-&.&/43 "2& -0$"4&% #&47&&/ 4)& 10-"2*:&2 "/% 4)&
"/"-9:&2 &( '0*-3 7)*$) "2& 30.&4*.&3 53&% '02 )*340-0(*$"3&$4*0/3 02 1-&8*(-"33 $5-452& %*3)&3 7*4) 1-"34*$ #"3&3 %*3)&3
7*4) (-"33 #"3&3 "2& "-30 "6"*-"#-&
0-02 *3 0#4"*/&% *' 905 53& $0.1&/3"402 11
)*3 3-*%&2 ."9 #& 53&% 0/-9 */ 42"/3.*44&% -*()4
!3& 4)& 2&'-&$402 .0%5-& &% '02 $0-02 */
*/$*%&/4 -*()4
)& 12*3.3 */ 4)& 103*4*0/3 0' 4)& $0/%&/3&2 "2& 1"24
0' 4)& '20/4 014*$3 3511-*&% 7*4) 4)& $0/%&/3&2 0/ %&-*6&29
Fig. 117 Microscope configuration for Differential Interference
ContrastĄ
<&
125
Microscopy Techniques
Phase contrast
Use:
%"0" 1" %+&.2"0 /" 20"! #,/ 2+01&+"! 0-" &*"+0 &+ -/1& 8
2)/ &+ ,/!"/ 1, "+%+ " 1%"&/ ,+1/01
!'201"! -%0" /&+$0
Additional equipment
'" 1&3"0 1 !"0&$+1"! % %"0" + )0, " 20"! #,/
/&$%1#&")!
,+!"+0"/ 5 4&1% 12//"1 !&0( 2 #"12/&+$ % -,0&1&,+0
Additional adjustment
%" -%0" /&+$0 &+ 1%" 3/&,20 ,'" 1&3"0 /" ,# !&##"/"+1 0&7"0
+! */("! % % +! % ,+ 1%" ,'" 1&3" 1 %" 12//"1
"/0 1%" 0*" !"0&$+1&,+0 "$ % 1
"/#" 1 -%0" ,+1/01 &0 ,+)6 ,1&+"! &# 1%" !/( /&+$ &+ 1%"
,'" 1&3" +! 1%" /&$%1 /&+$ &+ 1%" ,+!"+0"/ "5 1)6
,&+ &!"
%" "/1/+! )"+0 0)&!"/ 3 -/,3&!"0 *,/" ,+3"+&"+1 3&"4&+$
,# 1%" ,'" 1&3" -2-&) "0-" &))6 4&1% -%0" 01,- "+1"/&+$
2
4
3
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
,*&+" 1%" !"0&$+1&,+ ,+ 1%" 12//"1 !&0( 4&1% 1%" ,/8
/"0-,+!&+$ ,'" 1&3"0
'" 1&3"
2//"1 !&0( ,# ,+!"+0"/
&-%/$* /&+$
"+1"/&+$ 0 /"40
,+!"+0"/
"/1/+! )"+0
"/1/+! )"+0 !'201*"+1 )"3"/
Fig. 116 Microscope configuration for phase contrastĄ
7
,,0"+ 0 /"4 &$5 3&0&)" ,+ 1%" #/,+1 ,# 1%"
01+!20&+$ ))"+ ("6 2+1&) 1%" 0)&!"/ + " &+0"/1"!
+! 1&$%1"+ &1 $&+ 2+1&) 1%" 01,-0 " ,*" "##" 1&3"
%"+ *,3"! 1, 1%" )"#1 1%" "/1/+! )"+0 #, 20"! 3& )"3"/ 7 &0 "##" 1&3"
%" (&+$ 4&1%,21 1%&0 11 %*"+1 &0 )0, -,00&)" 4&1% 1%"
"6"-&" " /"*,3"! &+ 1%" 0*" 46 0 #,/ 1%" ,+!"+0"/
!&-%/$*
# 1%" "+1/1&,+ &0 +,1 -"/#" 1 1%" 14, /&+$0 *201 ,&+ &!" 0
0%,4+ &+ &$ 1%&0 + " ,//" 1"! 6 20&+$ "+1"/&+$
0 /"40 4 +! ("6 %&0 16-" ,# "+1/1&,+ &0 02&1)"
#,/ )) ,+!"+0"/0 !"0&$+"! #,/ -%0" ,+1/01
%" "+1/1&,+ /"*&+0 2+ %+$"! 4%"+ 1%" ,+!"+0"/ !&0(
&0 12/+"! ,/ %+$"! +! "3"+ &# 1%" "+1&/" ,+!"+0"/ &0
/"8*,3"!
, "+%+ " 1%" ,+1/01 $/""+ #&)1"/ + " *,3"! &+1, 1%"
/6 -1% "&1%"/ 3& 1%" #&)1"/ 4%"") ,/ -) "! ,+ 1%" )&$%1 "5&1
1/+0*&11"! )&$%1 ,/ 1%" ,),/ $)00 //&"/
Note: "1& 2),20)6 )"+ $)0081,8&/ 0-" &*"+ 02/# "0
#&+$"/-/&+10 /" ,# $/"1"/ &*-,/1+ " &+ -%0" ,+1/01 1%+
&+ /&$%1#&")! &-%/$* /&+$ 3 ,# 1%" ,+!"+0"/ %0 +,
#2+ 1&,+ 0&+ " 1%" % ,-"+&+$0 !, +,1 ,+1&+ &/&0
!&-%/$*0 %" !&-%/$*0 &+ 1%" % -,0&1&,+0 ,# 1%"
,+!"+0"/ /" -/1 ,# 1%" #/,+1 ,-1& 0 4&1% 4%& % 1%"
,+!"+0"/ 40 02--)&"! &# 1%" #/,+1 ,-1& 0 /" %+$"! ,1%"/
!&-%/$*0 /" /".2&/"!
124
8"
Microscopy Techniques
Darkfield illumination in low
magnifications
Darkfield illuminator (2) 445314Ć9901
#,. ),3 *$+&#& 0&,+/ #.,* 4 0, 4
Caution!
Glare hazard!
%"+ /3&0 %&+$ #.,* !.(#&")! 0, .&$%0#&")! 0%"
)*- .&$%0+"// *1/0 " ."!1 "! 1+!". )) &.6
1*/0+ "/
1
2
Setting the optimum darkfield illumination
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
5
6
7
8
.&"+00&,+ +,0 % ,+ ,+!"+/". ..&".
.(#&")! &))1*&+0,.
!'1/0&+$ / ."3
."3
."3
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Microscope Components
1
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Microscope Components
1
35 mm Mot DX film cassette
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Microscope Components
Axiophot 2 Photo module
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$ ( * "&) %$*()* * (*($ "$) )" ( 3 )
$)(* * 1 $ * . %( (%*(/ $"/0( )" ( 2 %( *
'+(*0 &%"( 0( ) $"+ $ * '+ &#$*
2
%#&$)*%() ( $)(* $ %#&(*#$* 4
Note: % ""%- * +) % )" () /%+( # (%)%& #+)*
'+ && - * $ %!* , $%)& %( 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
4
3
$"/0( %#&(*#$*
$"/0( )" (
(*($ "$) )" (
%#&(*#$* %( +. " (/ %!*) $ %#&$)*%()
.* %$) )(-) %( 2 $ 3
,( %( (*($ "$) )** $
") (( *% & %( $%(#* %$ %$ %- *% !+)* *
# (%)%& - * &%"( 0() $"/0() $ &( )#) %(
($* " $*(($ %$*()*
6
Fig. 109 Mounts for sliders, analyzers and auxiliary objects
116
1
Specification
Cat. no.
(4$# + )56$/ 0)(#$/
)(#$/ 3(1' + )56$/ +# ) *!# -) 1$ /,1 /5
(+ -/$- / 1(,+
,1 /5 + )56$/
)(#$/ %,/ .2 /16 #$-,) /(6$/
2 /16 #$-,) /(6$/ # ** " + )0, !$ 20$# (+ $/1/ +# )$+0 0)(#$/ '
,*-$+0 1,/ l 4 **
,*-$+0 1,/ l 4 **
2 /16 3$#&$ l 4 **
9
8+ /*,+1 ",*-$+0 1,/ 4 **
,1 /5 / "$ 9 7 ",*-$+0 1,/ l
()1(+& ",*-$+0 1,/ 9 l
()1(+& ",*-$+0 1,/ 9 l
"",/#(+& 1, -/("$
)(01
(4$# -,) /(6$/ ,1 /5 -,) /(6$/ (4$# -,) /(6$/ 3(1' /,1 /5 lĆ-) 1$
!
Microscope Components
AchromaticĆaplanatic condenser 1.4
# #-*(/$6+')/$ *) ). - $. ,0$++ 2$/#
!$3 !-*)/ ' ). ) /0-- / $.& # /0-- / $.& *)/$). +*.$/$*). ) +/. (3 +-$.(. +#. ./*+. )
-&!$ ' $+#-"( +*.$/$*) !*- -$"#/!$ ' 2$/# $-$. #.
) +-*1$ # +-$.(. - $). -/ $) /# *) ). 2$/# /# .( *-$ )//$*) . $) /# #-*(/$6+')/$
.4./ ( *) ). - - /$)$)" -$)" $. 0. /* . 0- /# ( $)
+*.$/$*) *) /# *) ). - Attachment of motorized condensers to the stand
# ./) *- /# (*/*-$5 ./) 2$/# '$"#/ ()" - $.
- ,0$- /* )' /# $)/ "-/$*) *! (*/*-$5 *) ). -.
# (*/*-$5 '0($)*0.6!$ ' $+#-"( (*-/$. !$'/ 2# '. ) / ' ./ * )*. +$ - 1$'' 1
2$/# *!! $)./-0( )/
). -/ +'0" *! /# *) ). - $)/* /# .*& / *) /# ' !/
.$ *! /# ./) . ) . 0- $/ 0.$)" /# &)0-' -$)"
). -/ -$)" *1 /$' *! *) ). - $)/* /# *) ). --$ - ) '(+ $/
2$/# *) $)./-0( )/ "$) # $)./-0( )/ 0/*(/$6
''4 - *")$5 . /# *) ). - /4+ 0. *-(''4 /# ($-*.*+ $. ,0$++ 2$/# *% /$1 . )
*) ). - $) /# !/*-4 ) /# .$ . //$)". *! /# '$"#/
()" - *% / !$ ' %0./( )/ + -/0- %0./( )/ )
$! - ,0$- -$"#/) .. %0./( )/ - + -!*-( !/ -2-.
# +-( / - . //$)". *! /# '$"#/ ()" - - ( 2$/#
- ! - ) /* /# *% /$1 $) /# ( +/# ) ./*- *-$)"'4 ! -/$) +-( / -. ) /* #)" /#$.
) + -6!*-( ()0''4 *) /# *) ). -
# & 4 2 *) /# $)./-0( )/ & + -($/. /# ) 2
+-( / -. /* ./*- # '$"#/ ()" - 2$'' /# ) 0.
/# . +-( / -.
"-' .. *! /#$. $/ $. '24. +*..$' /* *+ -/ (*/*-$5 *) ). -. 1$ 2#$# $. 1 ) - *(( ) !*- - .*).
*! #$"# - *+ -/$)" *)1 )$ ) # #-*(/$ *) ). - # (*/ '.*
*!! -. /# +*..$$'$/4 *! (*/*-$5 .2$/#$)" *! /# /0-- / $.&
4 +- ..$)" & 4 *) /# *) ). - # + -/0- $-$.
$+#-"( $. ()0''4 . / 0.$)" /# &)0-' 2# '
Note:Ą# ) ) *% /$1 *- /# )/$- )*. +$ ,0$+( )/
$. #)" - . //$)" *! /# '$"#/ ()" - $) *-) 2$/#
/# ) 2 $)./-0( )/ *)!$"0-/$*) $. .*'0/ '4 ) ..-4
1 *)) /$*) .*& / !*- /# +'0" *! /# (*/*-$5 *) ). 2 0//*)
Fig. 108 Back of instrument
114
6
&) ' * *+&'* % &) + )"!# !' )$ ## *+&'*
% ')!*$* ) !%+) %#
*+&'* ) / % )&$ + ,%)*! & + +,))+ !*"
+) )$&-!% + '')&')!+ *).1&% )!% * !%0 #**
*! & + *+&' $,*+ * &. &.%.)* . % + &%%*)
!* ,!#+ !%
* *+&'* &) )"!# !' )$* $0 !%*)+
&%#0 !% %+)!% &'%!%* % ')!*$* &%#0 !% &'%!%*
.!+ !)!* !' )$
"0 *,''#! !* !%*)+ !%+& + '')&')!+ &'%!% &
+ +,))+ !*" )&$ #&. .!+ !+* + ) *! % *).
!%+& + &,%+)+ ) & + ')!*$ $&,%+ 0 % ')!*$ )
+ % ',## &,+ +&+ ) !% &.%.) !)+!&% & !%*)+
+ %. ')!*$ ')&)$ + *$ ')&,) !% + &''&*!+
&)) " *,) + + + '!% &% + ')!*$ /+#0 %*
.!+ + '')+!%!% )!## &# !% + $&,%+ & + +,))+
!*"
#* $" *,) + + + ')!*$ $&,%+!% &* %&+ *+!" &,+
& + )$ % + !* * + $&,%+!% &,# "%&" !%*+
+ * & + +,))+ !*" &) *)+ !+
'&*!+!&%* & + ')!*$* ) $)" .!+ % %*)+ + ')!*$ $)" &) !%+& + '&*!+!&% &''&*!+ + $)"!% &) &% + +,))+ !*"
)! +!# !* +& ,* +).)* + &%%*) *0*+$
% (,!'' .!+ + )! +!# !%*)+ !%*+ & + +,))+ !*"
')!*$ % !%*)+ !%+& + )! +!# !%*)+
!% + *$ .0
1
Microscope Components
1
2
Condenser carrier
,*
!+( &21'(16(5 <28 6(/(&7(' ,6 &217$,1(' ,1 7+( &21'(16(5 &$5>
5,(5 !+(6( $5( ,76 &21752/ (/(0(176
3
8
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7
6
21'(16(5 &$55,(5
(,*+7 $'-8670(17
/$03,1* 6&5(: )25 7+( &21'(16(5
75$,1>)5(( ,//80,1$7,21 237,&6
5,(17$7,21 127&+
(17(5,1* 6&5(:
723 )25 +(,*+7 $'-6870(17
723 6&5(: )25 +(,*+7 $'-6870(17
5
(,*+7 $'-8670(17 21 %27+ 6,'(6 0$; 00 2 !+(
($6( 2) 027,21 ,6 )$&725<>$'-867(' 72 %( &+$1*(' 21/< %<
7+( 6(59,&( 67$))
/$03,1* 6&5(: 3 )25 7+( &21'(16(5 86(' 21/< )25 &21>
'(16(5 (;&+$1*( 86,1* " .(<
!:2 &(17(5,1* 6&5(:6 6 )25 7+( &21'(16(5 !+(6( $5(
86(' 72 &(17(5 7+( /80,1286>),(/' ',$3+5$*0 ,0$*( )25
7+( 6(77,1* 2) = ,//80,1$7,21 !2 35(9(17 7+( 63(&,>
0(1 )520 %(,1* 35(66(' 287 2) 7+( 2%-(&7 +2/'(5 %< 0,6>
7$.( 7+( +(,*+7 029(0(17 2) 7+( &21'(16(5 ,6 /,0,7(' %<
$ 6723 6&5(:
!2 35(9(17 7+( 63(&,0(1 )520 %(,1* 35(66(' 83:$5' 287 2)
7+( 2%-(&7 +2/'(5 7+( +(,*+7 029(0(17 2) 7+( &21'(16(5 ,6
/,0,7(' %< $ 6723 6&5(:
Fig. 106 Condenser carrier
!+( 6723 7 ,6 $'-867(' $6 )2//2:6
1
2
3
226(1 6723 6&5(: 8 3,1 :,// )$// '2:1:$5'6
'-867 7+( 63(&,0(1 86( $ 7+,&. 63(&,0(1 02817
0$*( 7+( /80,1286>),(/' ',$3+5$*0 &/26( ,7 817,/ ,7 %(>
&20(6 9,6,%/(
29( 7+( &21'(16(5 6/,*+7/< 83:$5'6 ',$3+5$*0 ,0$*(
%(&20(6 816+$53
5(66 6723 6&5(: 8 83:$5'6 $1' > 7,*+7(1 ,7 $*$,1
#285 63(&,0(1 &$1 12: 12 /21*(5 %( 728&+(' %< 7+( &21>
'(16(5
AchromaticĆaplanatic condenser system
,*
4
!+( 0267 868$/ &21'(16(5 ,6 7+( $&+520$7,&>$3/$1$7,&
6:,1*>,1 &21'(16(5 6<67(0 > ,*2 25
> 2/ !+( )5217 /(16 1 :,7+ $3(5785( &$1 %( (;&+$1*(' )25 7+(
)5217 /(16 :,7+ $3(5785( 5
6
Note: !+( &21'(16(5 :,7+ )5217 /(16 &$1 21/< %( 86(' )25
%5,*+7),(/'
7
!+( $&+520$7,&>$3/$1$7,& &21'(16(5 6<67(0 &$1 %( (48,33('
(,7+(5 :,7+ 7855(7 ',6. 25 25 :,7+ 7+(
%5,*+7),(/' ,16(57 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
5217 /(16
21'(16(5 (9(5 72 6:,1* 287 7+( )5217 /(16
5,*+7),(/' ,16(57
,;$7,21 6&5(: )25 %5,*+7),(/' ,16(57
185/(' 5,1* )25 $3(5785( ,5,6 ',$3+5$*0 $3(5785( 6&$/( %(/2:
!855(7 ',6.
Fig. 107 Condenser modules
112
Note: "+(1 ,16(57,1* 7+( 7855(7 ',6. ,1 7+( &21'(16(5 6<67(0
326,7,21 7+( *5229( ,1 7+( ',6. 72 7+( 25,(17$7,21 6&5(: /,*+>
7/< 35(66 %$&.:$5'6 $1' '2:1:$5'6 $1' 7+(1 7,*+7(1 7+(
6&5(: 86,1* 7+( //(1 .(< !+( 7855(7 ',6. ,6 86(' )25 7+(
02817,1* 2) 3+$6( 67236 '$5.),(/' 67236 $1'25 35,606
,1 $/72*(7+(5 326,7,216 !+5(( 326,7,216 $5( )25 35,606
>(
Specification
Comments
Cat. no.
Achromatic dual
condenser 0.5
&(! $##'& $& $(*' , ,
!*& $& &% # $ , &$#( !#' +( &'
%&" $& %&()& )'("#(
$& $(*' w,
Achromatic dual
condenser 0.5 mot.
! )( "$($&.
Condenser holder Z
($ !!$+ "$)#(# $ )!(&$##'& $&
&- & ! $##'& Ultra condenser 1.2/1.4
'%! $##'& $& & ! "#($# # %&() ')(! $& $(*' +( %&()& &%!'
Dry darkfield condenser
0.8/0.95
'%! $##'& $& & ! ")" "#/
($# # %&()& '%! $##'& $&
& ! ")" "#($# # %&()&
')(! $& $(*' +( %&()& Darkfield illuminator
$& )#!(&! & ! !!)"#($# ( !$+ "#/ /
($#' (+# , # ,
'+(# ($ &(! ' %$''!
Condenser
for photometry
#'&( ')(! $(* # $##'& &&&
$& %$($"(&- # %&%&($#
Microscope Components
Condensers for Transmitted Light
Overview
Specification
Comments
Cat.no.
AchromaticĆaplanatic swing inĆ
condenser system 0.24/d = 10.7
with front lens 0.9, turret disk
and brightfield insert 44 54 67
%&)#*# "-"). $ '(%"*)%$
'%$) "$( (,*$ $
%' % )+( - -
'%$) "$( (,*$ %*)
%' % )+( - '%$) "$( (,*$ $
%' % )+( - -
)*'') (! %' %$)'()$ %#&%$$)(
0
0
()'$0' %&)(
%' %"
AchromaticĆaplanatic
condenser 1.4 H DIC
%" ##'(%$ %$ ) ""*#$)%$ ( %'
%&)#*# '(%"*)%$ $ )'$(#)) ") -
'%$) "$( %' '$)" $)''$ %$)'()
%' % )+( - -
"(% %'
&( %$)'() $
'!"
Achromatic condenser
0.8 H
')" %$$(' - '%$) "$(
%' % )+( - ,) '( &'# %' &')*' *()#$)
Achromatic condenser
0.8 H mot.
"! *) #%)%'/
Achromatic condenser
0.8 H D Ph
%' ')" '!" $ &( %$)'() ,)
% )+( $ - '%$) "$( %'
% )+( - -
,) '( &'# %' &')*' *()#$)
Achromatic condenser
0.8 H D Ph mot.
"! *) #%)%'/
UD condensor 0.6
'#'". $)$ %' *( ,) () "(%
(*)" ( %$$(' %' ')" $
&%"'/)%$
110
Microscope Components
11
10
1
2
3
9
8
7
2
4
6
Rotary stage Pol
(% 2/4!29 34!'% /, 7 53%$ 7)4( 0/,!2):).' -)#2/3#/0%3 )3
! 2/4!4!",% !.$ #%.4%2!",% 34!'% 7)4( !. /"*%#4 '5)$% 1 &/2
! 42!6%, 2!.'% /& -- ). 8 !.$ -- ). 9
"*%#4 #//2$).!4%3 #!. "% $%4%2-).%$ 7)4( !. !##52!#9 /&
-- 53).' '2!$5!4)/.3 !.$ 6%2.)%23
)4(%2 4(% 30%#)-%. (/,$%2 /, 11 /2 /, 10 &/2
).#)$%.4;,)'(4 30%#)-%.3 #!. "% !44!#(%$ 4/ 4(% /"*%#4 '5)$%
/'%4(%2 7)4( ! 2%4)#,% ). 4(% ).4%2-%$)!4% 45"% ! '2!$5!4)/. 3 !.$ /.% 6%2.)%2 %!#( 4/ 2%!$ /&& !2%
53%$ &/2 !.',% -%!352%-%.4
(% 34!'% 2/4!4)/. #!. "% ,/#+%$ "9 3#2%7 6 )'(4%.).'
3#2%7 8 02/6)$%3 ! #,)#+ 34/0 %6%29 Stage centering )3 2%15)2%$ 4/ -!+% 352% 4(!4 !. /"*%#4
&%!452% ). 4(% #%.4%2 /& 4(% &)%,$ /& 6)%7 $/%3 ./4 -)'2!4%
7(%. 4(% 34!'% )3 452.%$ (%#+).' 4(% #%.4%2).' "%&/2%
%!#( %8!-).!4)/. )3 ! -!44%2 /& 2/54).% &/2 4(% 53%2 /& ! 0/,!2;
):).' -)#2/3#/0% !.$ )3 0%2&/2-%$ !3 &/,,/73
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
"*%#4 '5)$%
2)6%3 /& 4(% /"*%#4 '5)$%
%2.)%2
/).4 34/0
%.4%2).' 3#2%7
4/0 $%6)#% /& 34!'% 2/4!4)/.
/4!29 34!'% /,
,)#+ 34/0 /& 34!'% 2/4!4)/.
/5.4%27%)'(4
0%#)-%. (/,$%2 /,
0%#)-%. (/,$%2 /,
Fig. 104 Pol rotary stage
(% ./3%0)%#% /, /& 9/52 -)#2/3#/0% &%!452%3 #%.4%2;
!",% 4(2%!$%$ -/5.43 !.$ /.% &)8%$ -/5.4 #/.4!).).'
!. /"*%#4)6% 7).' ). 4(% /"*%#4)6% !.$ &/#53 /. ! ()'(;
#/.42!34 30%#)-%.
52. 4(% 34!'% ,-/34 !,, /"*%#4 &%!452%3 -/6% /. #)2#,%3
4(% #%.4%2 /& !,, 4(%3% #)2#,%3 )3 4(% #%.4%2 /& 2/4!4)/. /& 4(%
34!'% → )'
)4( 4(% 3-!,, ,,%. 72%.#( ).3%24%$ !4 5 "2).' 4()3 /";
*%#4 30/4 4/ 4(% 0/).4 /& ).4%23%#4)/. /& 4(% %9%0)%#% #2/33
,).%3 )% 4(% /04)#!, !8)3 /& 4(% 8 /"*%#4)6% ()3 #%.4%2;
).' 02/#%$52% -!9 (!6% 4/ "% 2%0%!4%$
(% 0/).4 #/5.4%2 /. 4(% #/.42/,3 /& 4(% /"*%#4 '5)$% 1 02/;
6)$%3 ! #,)#+ 34/0 !&4%2 %6%29 -- /& 30%#)-%. -/6%-%.4
4(% 0/).4 #/5.4%2 7)4( -- 34%03 )3 /04)/.!,
(% 0/).4 #/5.4%2 3)-0,)&)%3 3934%-!4)# 3#2%%.).' /& ! 30%#);
-%. !.$ )4 #!. !,3/ "% 53%$ &/2 6/,5-% !.$ 15!.4)4!4)6%
!.!,93)3 (% #,)#+ 34/03 !2% 3%4 7)4( 4(% 3500,)%$ ,,%. 72%.#(
/. 3#2%7 4 5.3#2%7 4 4/ !#4)6!4% 4(% #,)#+ 34/0 3#2%7 )4 ).
4/ $%!#4)6!4% )4 / 02%6%.4 $%&/#53).' #,)0 0,!34)# 2).'3 /.
4(% $2)6% #/.42/,3 2 !.$ -/6% 4(% #/.42/,3 &2/- 4(% 3)$%
(% !44!#(!",% -%#(!.)#!, 34!'% )3 !,7!93 3500,)%$ 7)4(
#/5.4%27%)'(4 9 7()#( #!. "% 3#2%7%$ /. 4/ 4(% 34!'%
53).' 4(% ,,%. 72%.#( 4 )3 53%$ &/2 39--%42)#!, 7%)'(4
$)342)"54)/. !.$ 02%6%.43 $%&/#53).' 7(%. 4(% 34!'% )3
2/4!4%$ 4 3(/5,$ "% 53%$ !4 ()'( -!'.)&)#!4)/.3 ). 0!24)#5,!2
& )4 )3 ./4 &!#4/29;-/5.4%$ 0,%!3% 2%&%2 4/ 4(% ,%!&,%4 3500,)%$
7)4( 4(% $%6)#%
Fig. 105 Centering of Pol rotary stage
;%
109
Microscope Components
General Information
#!
"'#% ,-!, ' +(-- ' '-+ "2 ' &(/ #' 1 && ' 2 && "+ #, ,-! +#/ ('
-" +#!"- 0"#" %,( &(/, 0"' -" ,-! #, +(--
1
Attachment/removal of stages
→ , #' -" ")-+ 2
3
Stage centration
→ , #' -" ")-+ 4
Conversion of the rotary mechanical stage
" +(-+2 ' '-+% &"'#% ,-! 3
#, -(+23%#!' -( 23+'! ( && ' +(--#(' +'!
( " (&#'-#(' ( -" "+(&-# .% ('',+ &(
, )! 0#-" -" +(-+2 &"'#% ,-! %#&#-,
-" -.+'#'! +'! ' -" &(/&'- ( -" ,-!
' -" (., )(,#-#(' ( -" ('',+ -" ,-! ' ('%2 -.+' -"+(.!" ,-'+ " &(/&'- #,
%#&#- -( -" %'!-" ( -" &#+(,() ,%#
Note:Ą 2(. ( '(- ' +(-+2 &"'#% ,-! !
&"'#% ,-! -0( &#+(,() ,%#, ' ,+' 0#-"(.- %#&#--#(' )#&' "(%+ #,
+(&&' (+ -"#,
1-'#'! -" 23+'! -( && +*.#+, ('/+,#(' ( -"
,-! " +(--#(' +'! #, -"' +. -( 5
7
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
&(/ &"'#% ,-! → , #' -"
")-+ &(/ ,-() ,+0 5
&(/ ,-() ,+0 +(& -" &+$#'! 6 -( -"
&+$#'! 7
',+- &"'#% ,-! ,( -"- -" ,)+#'! -", -"
!+((/ ( -" (/-#%
((,' $'.+% ,+0 1
'.+% ,+0 -( )+(-- -" ,-! +(& +(-+2 &(/&'+.-#(' ' /+'#+
+#) -( %%(0 +(--#(' ( -" ,-! 0#-"(.- &(/#'! -" ,)#&'
(1#% +#/ (+ ,-! &(/&'- #' 1 ' 2
-() ,+0
,-() ,+0
&+$#'!
Fig. 103 Mechanical stage
108
3
Specification
Comments
Cat. no.
Mechanical stage 75 x 50 R
# $" !#
!"* ! #
Mechanical stage 75 x 50 R #!
# #! %!!
!"* ! #
Pol rotary stage with object guide
! !) !" (
Rotary, centerable mechanical stage
75 x 50, 240 R
!## $# !"* ! #
*
Scanning stage 100 x 100
ÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄ
ÄÄÄ
Specimen holder with spring clip R
Special specimen holder
# " ' %
! $# " "
Specimen holder A
D Pol object guide
# &# A Pol object guide
# &# Universal rotary stage, centerable
" &# "# !!! Microscope Components
Labelling of objectives
NumĆ Explanation
ber
Color
Meaning
1
&#&) & + ### %
$)"*
" +
+ &%+)*+
+ + %
+% (, %+% &) + *
&!+ -
#"
+%)
)
&#
)%
2
% + &%%,$) #
')+,)
# " 3
, #%+&-) *# '
+ "%**
+, #%+ R $)"* &'+ *
# " 4
&#&) & % & + $% 1
+ &%
#"
/
)&.%
/
)
/ /
&)%
/
0##&.
/
)%
/ /
/ /
# + #,
/ /
)" #,
/
. +
/ /
/
#"
&#
. +
.+)
&)%
#0) %
)
-) #
1
2
3
4
5
6
Fig. 102 Labelling of objectives
5
% # *++ % ) % &%#0
&) *' # &!+ -* &)
&'+ # &))+ &% .% ,* %
)%+ $$)* &% $ &)
% + * & )%+
+ "%** & &-)
*# '*$) &++&$* #*&
- ## . + &!+ -* . +
!,*+# ')+,) ) *
6
&#&) & % &) $$)* &%
# (, +& ,*
106
Microscope Components
Objectives
General Information
,, 4(% /"*%#4)6%3 /& 4(% 8)/0,!. ).#/20/2!4% 4(% 02).#)0,%
/& /04)#3 )% 4(%9 02/*%#4 4(% )-!'% 4/ ).&).)49 .,9 4(%
45"% ,%.3 02/$5#%3 4(% ).4%2-%$)!4% )-!'% 7()#( #!. "%
6)%7%$ 6)! 4(% %9%0)%#%3
Abbreviations
.&).)4)9 /,/2;/22%#4%$ 934%
"2)'(4&)%,$
$!2+&)%,$
"2)'(4&)%,$$!2+&)%,$
( 0(!3% #/.42!34 4(% .5-"%23 2%&%2 4/ 4(% $)!-%4%2
/& 4(% !..5,!2 $)!0(2!'- 4/ "% 53%$ &/2 !. /";
*%#4)6% $%3#2)"%$ ( 53% 4(% !..5,!2 $)!0(2!'( )&&%2%.4)!, ).4%2&%2%.#% #/.42!34
7/2+).' $)34!.#% $)34!.#% "%47%%. /"*%#4)6%
!.$ 3!-0,% 352&!#% /2 #/6%2 3,)0 352&!#%
/,
0/,!2):!4)/.
,
&,5/2%3#%.#%
.5-%2)#!, !0%2452%
-)--%23)/. -%$)57!4%2
),
/),
,9#
',9#%2).
/22
!$*534!",% #/22%#4)/. /& #/6%2 3,)0 4()#+.%33
/.' 7/2+).' $)34!.#%
1
).&).)49
Attachment of objectives
%-/6% $534 #!03 &2/- 4(% /0%.).'3 /& 4(% /"*%#4)6%
./3%0)%#%
#2%7 ). /"*%#4)6%3 ). 4(% /2$%2 /& ).#2%!3).' -!'.)&)#!;
4)/.3
Note: (%. 53).' ! #/$%$ ./3%0)%#% 0,%!3% -!+% 352% 4/
).3%24 4(% /"*%#4)6%3 ). !##/2$!.#% 7)4( 4(% 0/3)4)/.3 $)3;
0,!9%$ ). 4(% )#2/3#/0% /&47!2%
(%#+ 4(% 0/3)4)/.3 "9 #/-0!2).' 4(% /"*%#4)6%3 $)30,!9%$ ).
4(% 02/'2!- 4/ 4(% /"*%#4)6%3 !#45!,,9 ).3%24%$
/3%0)%#% 0/3)4)/.3 7()#( !2% ./4 2%15)2%$ -534 !,7!93 "%
#/6%2%$ 7)4( $534 #!03
;%
105
Microscope Components
Mounting the beam splitter
1a
+ !*(! /$! )+0*/%*# +" /$! /$! -!"(!/+- )+ 0(! %. %1% !
%#+*((4 %*/+ /2+ $(1!. 2$%$ -! +**!/! 2%/$ /2+
((!* .-!2. 1b
++.!* /$! /2+ ((!* .-!2. 4 0.%*# ((!* '!4 -!"0((4 -!)+1! /$! !) .,(%//!- (4%*# !/2!!* /$! /2+
-!"(!/+- $(1!.
(! /$! *!2 !) .,(%//!- +* /$! .,-%*# "-)! %*/!* !
"+- %/ %* +*! -!"(!/+- $(" -!"(!/%*# .0-"! .$+2%*#
+2*2- .
+( +1!- /$! +/$!- $(" * .-!2 +/$ $(1!. /+#!/$!2%/$ /$! /2+ ((!* .-!2.
Note: +0 * -!+#*%5! /$! -!"(!/%*# .0-"! +" /$! !)
.,(%//!- 4 -!"0((4 1%!2%*# /$! ! #! /$! -!"(!/%+* +/%*#
+!. *+/ -!$ 0, /+ /$! ! #!
4
1a
1b
2
3
4
3
--%!- "%(/!3%/!- "%(/!!"(!/%*# .0-"! +" !) .,(%//!0-"! "+- ./%'!- //$)!*/
//$)!*/ .-!2. "+- )+ 0(! $(1!.
Fig. 101 Mounting of beam splitter
2
"/!- /$! )+0*/%*# 2+-' %. +),(!/! ,(!.! //$ /$!
.0,,(%! ./%'!- %* %/%*# /$! "%(/!- +)%*/%+* +* /$!
+--!/ .% ! +" /$! -!"(!/+- )+ 0(! /+ /$! (!"/ %* )+0*/6
%*# ,+.%/%+*
Note: (!.! ! 1!-4 !3/-!)!(4 -!"0( 2$!* ,!-"+-)%*# /$!
+1! &0./)!*/. * !*.0-! /$/ /$! "%(/!- %*.!-/. * !)
.,(%//!-. -! *+/ .0&!/! /+ %-/ * /$/ /$!4 -! *+/
)#! !((4 /$! %*/!#-/%+* +" /$! "%(/!-. * /$! !) .,(%//!.$+0( ! ,!-"+-)! 4 -( !%.. .!-1%! !*#%*!!-
104
6
!
Microscope Components
Attachment of reflector modules
/1((4 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0 %/ +..!0(4 !-1%,,! %* 0$! "0+.4
+ .!0.+"%0 +. $*#! 0$! !-1%,)!*0 ,.+!! / "+((+3/
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
!"(!0+. 01..!0
1% %*# ,%*
.+0!0%2! ,
!"(!0+. )+ 1(!
Fig. 100 Attachment of reflector modules
3%*# 0$! .!-1%.! +,!*%*# +" 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0 1 %*0+
0$! !) ,0$ $!* 01.* 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0 (+'3%/! 4
03+ (%'/0+,/ )*1((4 +. 1/%*# )%.+/+,! /+"03.!
$! +,!*%*# .!-1%.! %/ *+3 !//%(! +* 0$! ".+*0 .%#$0
+" 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0 /!! %#
./, ,.+0!0%2! , 3 4 0$! 0+, * +00+) "(10!
/1."! * .!)+2! %* "+.3. %.!0%+*
+/%0%+* )+ 1(! /+ 0$0 #1% %*# ,%*/ 2 +* 0$! .!"(!0+.
01..!0 !*##! 3%0$ 0$! ,,.+,.%0! $+(!/ +* 0$! )+ 1(!
%#$0!* 00$)!*0 /.!3/ +" 0$! )+ 1(! 1/%*# ((!* '!4
)) 10 ,.+0!0%2! , ' +*
$! .!"(!0+. )+ 1(! .!-1%.!/ *+ "1.0$!. &1/0)!*0
Hinweis:Ą" 4+1 /.!3 0$! .!"(!0+. )+ 1(! 0+ 0$! .!"(!0+.
01..!0 ".+) 0$! .%#$0 * 01.* 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0 +1*0!.6
(+'3%/! 4 03+ ,+/%0%+*/ 0$! .!"(!0+. )+ 1(! 3%(( ! %* 0$!
!) ,0$ $! %* ! *00%+* *+3 2%/%(! 0 0$! ".+*0 +" 0$!
01..!0 3$!!( * ! 1/! 0+ 00$ 0$! /1,,(%! (!( ((+3%*#
* 1*)%/0'(! ,+/%0%+*%*# +0+.%5! + ! 01..!0/ $2!
%#%0/ %),.%*0! +* 0$! %* !*00%+*/ 0+ //%#* 0$! 01..!0
,+/%0%+* %* 0$! )%.+/+,! /+"03.!
Reflector module
+1 * +*"%#1.! 0$! .!"(!0+. )+ 1(! "+.
"(1+.!/!*! )%.+/+,4 3%0$ "%(0!./ * !) /,(%00!./ 0+
)!!0 4+1. +3* ,!./+*( .!-1%.!)!*0/
+1 * +. !. 0$! "%(0!. * !) /,(%00!. +)%*0%+*
/!,.0!(4 ".+) 1/
+3!2!. 4+1 * (/+ ,1.$/! +),(!0!(4 //!)(!
.!"(!0+. )+ 1(!/ ".+) 1/
Mounting the filter inserts
%./0 .!)+2! 0$! .!"(!0+. )+ 1(! ".+) 0$! .!"(!0+. 01..!0
%* +. *! 3%0$ 0$! +2! %*/0.10%+*/
/! 0$! )+1*0%*# 0++( ,(0! +*0%*! %* 0++( /!0 0+
(++/!* 0$! .%*# /.!3 "+. 0$! "%(0!. 0+ ! $*#! *
/.!3 %0 +10 +),(!0!(4
!)+2! 0$! "%(0!. 4 01.*%*# %0 +10 +*0+ 0$! /1."! +" 4+1.
$* */!.0 0$! *!3 "%(0!. %*0+ 0$! +,!*%*# ,(! 0$! .%*# /.!3
%* ,+/%0%+* * .!60%#$0!*
Hinweis:Ą$! .!"(!0%*# /1."!/ +" 0$! "%(0!./ )1/0 (34/ !
+.%!*0! %* 0$! %.!0%+* +" 0$! %((1)%*0%+*
6
!
103
Specification
Application/combination
Cat. no.
Reflector module DIC Red I
" " " !"
" "
" " (" $ "! " "
! " !
Reflector module DIC
" " " !"
" "
Reflector module H
" " "
Reflector module D
" "
Reflector module Pol
" " " '"
Reflector module FL
# ! #! " !"!
Optovar module 2.5x
#! " & "
" " % " #! & " !"" "
Optovar module 1.6x
" " " !""
"
Microscope Components
Optovar intermediate tube
%#
$! ,0+2. %*0!.)! %0! 01! %0%+*((5 ((+3/ +*2!7
*%!*0 )#*%"%0%+* $*#! %* 0$! /0!,/ 4 4 4
4 * 4 +1 * .! 0$! )#*%"%0%+* "0+./ 0 0$!
,.+&!0%*# %/' 1 +* 0$! .%#$07$* /% !
+ /!0 %""!.!*0 )#*%"%0%+* "0+. 01.* 0$! %/' 0+ 0$!
,,.+,.%0! (%' /0+, ,+/%0%+*
Note:Ą7( !5!,%!!/ /$+1( ! 1/! %*/0! +" 0$! ( )+ !(/
!1/! +" 0$!%. !00!. %)#%*# -1(%05 ,0+2. %* ,+/%0%+* 4
/$+1( +*(5 ! 1/! 3%0$ !5!,%!!/ 7( 4
.
" 3$!* !0!.)%*%*# 0$! )%.+/+,! )#*%"%0%+* 5+1 +
*+0 3*0 0+ 3+.' 3%0$ 0$!/! "0+./ 0$!* +)%*! 0$!
)#*%"%0%+* +" ,0+2. * 0$! 4 !5!,%!! * 5+1
,.0%((5 $2! 0$! !5!,%!! ,+3!./ 4 4 4 4 *
4
1
1 %/'
Fig. 97 Optovar intermediate tube
Zoom intermediate tube 1,0x ... 2,5x
%#
$! %*0!.)! %0! 01! 3%0$ 6++) !40!* / 0$! )#*%"%0%+*
.*#! +" 0$! )%.+/+,! +*0%*1+1/(5 ".+) 4 4 $!
.!-1%.! )#*%"%0%+* * ! /!0 3%0$ '*+ 1 * 0$! 6++)
"0+./ * ! .! +"" 0 0$! /(!
!"+.! %*/0((%*# 0$! )+0+.%6! %*0!.)! %0! 01! .!)+2! 0.*/,+.0 (+' /.!3 ).'! .! *+0 /$+3*
1
1 *+ "+. )#*%"%0%+* /!00%*#
Intermediate tube Pol
%#
Fig. 98 Zoom intermediate tube
$! %*0!.)! %0! 01! +( %/ !-1%,,! 3%0$ !.0.* (!*/
-1.06 !,+(.%6!. .!0%(! 3$%$ * ! /3%0$! +*+""
* "%!( %,$.#) %.%/
1
$! +)%*! .+0.5 * /(% !. '*+ 2 %/ 1/! 0+ /3%*# %*
+10 * 0+ "+1/ 0$! !.0.* (!*/ * %0/ .!. ,+/%0%+* /5)+(
2
0$! !.0.* (!*/ %/ %* 0$! !) ,0$ +*+/+,5
1/$.+ 1 %/ 1/! 0+ &1/0 0$! "%!(
,1/$.+ %* %,$.#) +,!*
,1/$.+ +10 %,$.#) (+/!
3
%,$.#)
1/$.+ 3 %/ 1/! 0+ ,.+&!0 .!0%(! %*0+ 0$! !) ,0$
,1/$.+ %* .!0%(! +10 +" !) ,0$
,1/$.+ +10 .!0%(! %* !) ,0$
1 1/$.+ "+. "%!( %,$.#)
2 +0.5 * /(% !. '*+ "+. !.0.* (!*/
3 1/$.+ "+. .!0%(!
Fig. 99 Intermediate tube Pol
7
!
101
Microscope Components
General
5
6
7
4
8
%*($"* *+) ( #-.) **! *& *! +''( '(* &
*! )*% & & *!") *! "%&+#( *+ $+)* "()* ($&,
% "*) *+ #%) ($&,
Note:Ą) *! &,( & *! *+ #%) &%*"%( *& ($&, *!
*+ #%) 4
3
9
2
1
Fig. 95 Mounting of intermediate tube
Mounting of an intermediate tube
-"*! & .&+( "%)*(+$%*
&&)% #$'"% )(- 2 &% )*% 1 % ($&, *!
*+ 5 +'-()
**! *! "%*($"* *+ 8 *& *! )*%
%*(*"&% ") $ +)"% *! &,*"#
" !*% #$'"% )(- 2 &% )*% &%#. )#" !*#. * "()*
%)(* *! )+''#" #$'"% )(- -"*! -)!( 7 "%*&
*! ("## !&# '(&," % )(- "* "%*& *! *!(
!&# 9 & *! )*%
#" % *! "%*($"* *+ -"*! *! ) & *! "%*(0
$"* *+ % )(- *" !* #$'"% )(-) 2 % 7
$&, *! *+ #%) 4 (&$ *! *+ +) *+
#%) ") "%* (* "% *! "%*($"* *+
**! *! *+ 5 *& *! "%*($"* *+ 8 %
%*( ," *! &,*"#
#" % *! *+ -"*! *! ) & *! "%*($"* *+
% *" !*% *! #$'"% )(- 3
&( & &( $&*&("/ "%*($"* *+) &%%* *!
)("# "%*( & *! "%*($"* *+ " 6 -"*!
*!* & *! )*% " 1 ," *! )("# #
)+''#"
1
Fig. 96 Back of stand
100
0
Specification
Application/Combination
Optovar
.....
&
* &%# $% * &% % )*') &( &((*#/
$%) &% )# '(&!* &% *" - *
. &'&* '&*& $&+# % #)& +) &(
$ (&)&') - *&+* . &'&* % - *&+* *
*(%)(
Cat. no.
Optovar
.....
$&*&( 0
# " +* $&*&( 0
Coobservation
equipment with
light pointer
&( &%%* &% & )&% %&+#( *+ ) )+)) &% , Zoom intermediate tube
&
* &%# $% * &% )*'#)) &
) $&*&( 0 ,() &%
Intermediate tube
for data projection
(&!* &% & * %*& %*($ * $
Intermediate tube Pol
(&))# % &( ( ) )*&' % %)(* % # &
, - &+) % & (*(% &'* ) &( . # $
&)(,* &% &%&)&'/
$&,# & % , +# &!* * #) &($ # &
, - +) % ( ) '($ &( . &'#% &# . &'&* &#
Microscope Components
General
** $ )&*&'* ) %)##/ *,''# . + +.& &,*1
% /' * /#** ')&++ - ) %* 2 ) ++ +& +
/' * +& ')-%+ #%* *)+ % &# % /,'* 1 %
,* #+)%+ -#/ &# % /,'* % #',# )
1
2
3
Designations/Markings
Br.
* %+ &% Br. &% + /' * $%* ++ /#**1
.))* % ,* + ) /#*** &) $ )&*&'/ % '#
+$ )+#/ %*+ + /' * *)* .& & %&+ .)
#*** *&,# "' *+% +& + /' * ##&. %
+$ +& - . + %+ ) #
foc.
* %+ &% foc. &% + /' * $%* ++ +/ )
&,*# * ##&.* /&, +& &$'%*+ &) differences in
the visual peformance of your two eyes &) &,* % +,)%
+ /' &) + / . + ++) - * &% +& + 0)& '&* + &%
% &,* &% + *' $% ,* % + % ) - % +,)% +
&,* % ) % & + &+) /' ,%+ # /&, * + *' $%
% &,*
/&, &&* +& .) /&,) &))+#/ ++ #*** .% ,* %
+ $ )&*&' + * !,*+$%+ * %&+ %**)/ * % +
&$'%*+ &% * ')&)$ / + #*** &+ /' * )
*+ +& 0)& *,# +* *, * *+ $+ *$ ) %&+
&))+ /#*** &) &%++ #%** *&,# .&)%
&% & + /' * &%+ %* )+ # 3 /&, )*+ - +&
&,* + /' &% + )+ #
1 &# % /,'
2 ,) ) % &) *'+# .))* %*+ & 1
3 + #
Fig. 94 Eyepiece
& & + * )$&- + /' )&$ + +, % +,)%
+ ,'') ')+ & + /' ,%+ # *+&' &# +
/' %*+ ) + *,) % +,)% + ,'') ')+
% % ,%+ # + )+ # * - * # % &,*
%*)+ + /' %+& + +, % % &,* &+
/' * &% + *' $% * *) &-
White dot
* * + 0)& '&* + &% & + /' %& )+ #* ) ,*
Red dot
* * + 0)& '&* + &% )+ # * ,* % + /' Note:Ą&) #&&" % +)&, + $ )&*&' "
.+) + /' * % 0)& '&* + &% % *+ + +& &'+)
'&.) )(, )
Use of reticles
/' * +,) % ) &+ ##&. + ,* & )+ #*
" *,) ++ + )+ # #./* * + # *+&'
+ #* *&,# %*)+ / + ** *)- % *+ % ,*+1
) &% + &%*
98
1
Specification
Application/Combination
Cat. no.
8$/($"$ 9+ 7
1 %."
3 -# 1# $8$/($"$ .% 1$2$ 1"' " 3$&.18 %.1 + 1&$ %($+# .% 5($6 ,,
8$/($"$ 9+ 7
1%."
(&'9/$1%.1, -"$ 2/'$1(" $8$/($"$ %.1 /(/+ - .!)$"3(5$2 .1 %.1 42$ .%
(-3$1,$#( 3$ 34!$ .+ (- %($+# .% 5($6
8$/($"$ + 7 1%."
'$2$ '(&'+8 , &-(%8(-& 2/$"( + $8$/($"$2 1$ .% '$+/ 6'$- 8.4 1$ 6.1*(-& ".-23 -3+8 6(3' '(&' ##(3(.- + , &-(%(" 3(.-2
'.3. $8$/($"$ 9+ 7
.1 3'$ 33 "',$-3 .% 3'$ ,("1.2"./$ " ,$1
'.3. $8$/($"$ 9+ 7
.1 3'$ 33 "',$-3 .% ,("1.2"./$ " ,$1 2
9
'.3. $8$/($"$ 9+ 7
.1 3'$ 33 "',$-3 .% ,("1.2"./$ " ,$1 2
$ 241(-& -# ".4-3(-&
8$/($"$
"1.22+(-$ #(2*
# ,,
8$/($"$
"1.22+(-$
,("1.,$3$1
# ,,
8$/($"$
&1(# ,("1.,$3$1
7 # ,,
%.1 " +(!1 3(.-2
!)$"3 ,("1.,$3$1
/.2(3(5$ , # ,,
!)$"3 ,("1.,$3$1 %.1 (-"(#$-3 +(&'3
-$& 3(5$ , # 3'$1 (#2 .- 1$04$23
Microscope Components
General
'' %)*0'- /0!. $1! 1%!2%)# )#'! *" $! %)/!-4
+0+%''-3 %./)! *" ) ! .!/ !/2!!) ) (( 3
+-!..%)# /$! /2* $'1!. *" /$! /0! /*#!/$!- *- +0''%)# /$!(
+-/
1
Note:Ą" %)/!-(! %/! /0!. -! 0.! /$! /0! '!).
%#
2 *" /$! %)*0'- /0!. (0./ ! -!(*1! / ) !
./*-! %) /$! *)/%)!- .0++'%! $! *1!- *" /$! *)/%)!-
2$%$ %)'0 . /2* +%). ) ! 0.! . /**' "*- /$! -!(*1'
2
Attaching tubes
%#
* //$ /$! /0!. 3*0 )!! /$! ''!) &!3
3
1 0!
2 0! '!).
3 !0-%)# .-!2
**.!) .!0-%)# .-!2 3 *) /$! ./) '! /0! 1 *)/* /$! 0++!- +-/ *" /$! ./) ) '%#)
%/
%#$/!) .!0-%)# .-!2 3
Light splitting
%#
Fig. 92 Tube mounting
$! %)*0'- /0!. -! !,0%++! 2%/$ +0.$-* . "%//! /* /$!
.% !. *" /$! /0!. $!.! +0.$-* . (*1! .'% %)# +-%.( 2$%$
%-!/. +-/ *- '' *" /$! '%#$/ /* /$! +$*/* +*-/.
1
2
) +-%)%+'! /$! +*.%/%*) *" /$! +0.$-* . %. /$! .(! "*- ''
/0!.
++!- +0.$-* +0''! *0/ )
'%#$/ /* !3!+%!!.
'*2!- +0.$-*
%).!-/! ++!- ) '*2!- +0.$-* 1 ) 2 +0''! *0/ '%#$/
/* /$! (!- +*-/. /* /$! !3!+%!!. *- /0!. 2%/$
/$-!! .2%/$ +*.%/%*). /$! (! %0(
+*.%/%*) *" /$! +0.$-* 2 .+'%/. /$! !( %) "*+$*/* ) /* /$! !3!+%!!.
++!- +0.$-* 1 %).!-/! '%#$/ /* /$! !3!+%!!. '%#$/
.$0//!-
1 ++!- +0.$-*
2 *2!- +0.$-*
Fig. 93 Light splittingĄ
) /0!. 2%/$ (*-! /$) *)! (!- +*-/ ) %/%*)'
&)* %. %)'0 ! *) /$! -!.+!/%1! +*-/ "*- '*&%)# *!"'!/%)# /$! '%#$/
96
4
!
Specification
SFZ
Splitting
Application/Combination Cat. no.
Binocular phototube
&# " !"
"&# "#"
' "$##! " #
"$##! &# !#
Binocular phototube
&# " !" "&# "#"
' "$##! " #
"$##! &# !#
Binocular phototube
&# #& !#" "&# "#" "&# !!! #
##$ ! #& !#" "
#!#% ! #
Binocular phototube 25
&# # $"##
Binocular autofocus
tube 25
&# # $"##
Microscope Components
Adjusting the halogen lamp
)' )'
(% -- 3#2%7$2)6%2 $%,)6%2%$ 7)4( 4(% %15)0-%.4 )3
2%15)2%$ 4/ 3%4 3#2%73 2 3 !.$ 4
1
2
10
3
4
5
9
6
8
7
Fig. 90 Lamp housing and lamp mount
/!23% !$*534-%.4
%-/6% -)#2/3#/0% ),,5-).!4/2
7)4#( /. 8)/0,!. )2%#4 ,)'(4 2!9 4/7!2$3 ! 02/*%#4)/. 352&!#% 7!,, 0!0%2
!4 ,%!34 - !7!9
$*534 3#2%7 2 5.4), 4(% ,!-0 &),!-%.4 )3 )-!'%$ 3(!20,9
/. 4(% 02/*%#4)/. 352&!#%
$*534 3#2%73 3 !.$ 4 5.4), 4(% )-!'% /& 4(% ,!-0 &),!;
-%.4 &),,3 4(% '!03 ). 4(% 2%&,%#4/2 )-!'% → ).% !$*534-%.4
7)4#( /&& $)&&53).' 3#2%%. !.$ !.9 &),4%23 02%3%.4 53).'
37)4#(%3 11 ).#)$%.4 ,)'(4 /2 )' 23 42!.3-)44%$
,)'(4
44!#( -)#2/3#/0% ),,5-).!4/2
/#53 /. 30%#)-%. 7)4( v 8 /"*%#4)6% !.$ ,//+ &/2 !
&2%% /"*%#4 !2%!
.3%24 %242!.$ ,%.3 /2 2%-/6% %9%0)%#%3 3/ 4(!4 9/5 #!.
/"3%26% 050), )-!'% 7)4( ,!-0 &),!-%.4 !.$ )43 -)22/2
)-!'%
$*534 3#2%73 3 !.$ 4 5.4), "/4( )-!'%3 !2% #%.4%2%$
11
12
%!#4)6!4% $)&&53).' 3#2%%. !.$ &),4%23 53%$
04)-):% (/-/'%.%/53 ),,5-).!4)/. /& 050), )-!'% 7)4(
3#2%7 2
Changing the halogen lamp
13
14
1Ą
2Ą
3Ą
4Ą
5Ą
6Ą
7Ą
8Ą
9Ą
10Ą
11Ą
12Ą
13Ą
14Ą
2/4%#4)6% #!0
/#53 !$*534-%.4 /& ,!-0 &),!-%.4
%24)#!, !$*534-%.4 /& ,!-0 &),!-%.4
!4%2!, !$*534-%.4 /& ,!-0 &),!-%.4
%#52).' 3#2%7 &/2 ,!-0 (/53).'
,5' &/2 6/,4!'% 3500,9
!-0 -/5.4
02).'
.4%2.!, 45"%
!,/'%. ,!-0
.&& 37)4#( &/2 $)&&53).' 3#2%%. ).#)$%.4 ,)'(4
),4%2 ).#)$%.4 ,)'(4
.&& 37)4#( /. /&&
/,4!'% #/.42/, &/2 3%44).' 4(% ),,5-).!4)/. ).4%.3)49
%-/6% 0,5' 6 &2/- 3/#+%43 )'10a /2 10b
%-/6% -)#2/3#/0% ),,5-).!4/2
//3%. 3#2%7 5 !.$ 05,, /54 ,!-0 (/53).' ). 507!2$
$)2%#4)/.
(% ,!-0 -/5.4 )3 ./7 !##%33)",%
52. ,!-0 (/53).' 503)$% $/7. !.$ 2%-/6% /,$ ,!-0 "9
02%33).' 302).' 8
&4%2 2%-/6).' 02/4%#4)/. #!0 1 ).3%24 .%7 ,!-0 ).
3/#+%4 7)4( 4(% 302).'3 02%33%$
)6% 302).' 3(/24 02%33 $/7.7!2$ 4/ #%.4%2 4(% ,!-0
%;!44!#( ,!-0 (/53).'
Note:Ą/,$ .%7 (!,/'%. ,!-03 "9 4(% 02/4%#4)6% #!03 1
/.,9 6%. 4(% 4).)%34 42!#%3 /& '2%!3% /. 4(% ',!33 "5," /&
4(% ,!-0 #!. )-0!)2 4(% 0%2&/2-!.#% !.$ 3%26)#% ,)&% /& 4(%
,!-0
Fig. 91 Connection for incident light
94
;%
Microscope Components
HAL Ć halogen illuminator
'% '%
1
2
3
4
5
&# +'!0-1!-.# '**3+',2-0 '1 13'2 *# $-0 20,1+'22#"
*'%&2 ," ',!'"#,2 *'%&2 +'!0-1!-.7 ," '1 .02 -$ 2&# 12,"0"
#/3'.+#,2 -$ 2&# 6'-.*, 2 !-,1'121 -$ 0#$*#!2-0 !-**#!2-0 &#290#$*#!2',% $'*2#0 *+.
+-3,2 ," &*-%#, *+.
&# '**3+',2-0 '1 22!&#" 4' !*+. 1712#+ 5'2& "-4#2'*
0',% 1 ," !*+.',% 1!0#5 8
Note:Ą 1#!-," &#290#$*#!2',% $'*2#0 '1 0#/3'0#"
$-0 -* ..*'!2'-,1 &# $'*2#0 '1 ',12**#" ', '**3+',2'-,
23 # 31',% 0#2',',% 0',%
Electrical supply
6
7
&# #*#!20'!* 13..*7 '1 - 2',#" $0-+ 2&# .-5#0 3,'2 ',2#%09
2#" ', 2&# 12,"
Fig. 88 HAL microscope illuminator
8
WARNING!
9
10a
11
10b
8
1Ą
2Ą
3Ą
4Ą
5Ą
6Ą
7Ą
8Ą
9Ą
10a
10b
11
Instrument voltage!
#$-0# 15'2!&',% -, 2&# 6'-.*, 2&# 4-*2%#
"'1.*7#" ', 2&# 5',"-5 '%9 +312 !-00#9
1.-," 2- 2&# *',# 4-*2%# .0#1#,2 &# ',1203+#,2
+7 -2&#05'1# # "#120-7#"
- !-,4#02 2&# *',# 4-*2%# → !&.2#0 -, -,,#!2 '**3+',2-0 2- 1-!)#2 10a ',!'"#,2 *'%&2 -0
10b 20,1+'22#" *'%&2 4' .*3% 6
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+'22#" *'%&2',!'"#,2 *'%&2
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1#!-,"1 2- *'%&2
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%',12 .-5#0 $*3!232'-,1 '1 .0#1#,2 2 1-!)#21 10a ,"
10b ,*7 2&# '**3+',2-0 +7 # !-,,#!2#" 2&#0
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-%%*# 15'2!& $-0 15'2!&',% #25##, ',!'"#,2 *'%&220,1+'22#" *'%&2
Fig. 89 Connection of microscope illuminators
9#
93
Microscope Components
General notes
WARNING!
Thermally sensitive fluorescence filters!
&.)+,( #&-+, + ,(,#-#/ -) -" -"+'&
+#-#)( ) -" '#+),)* &'*
"+ )+ (/+ +')/ -" "-3+ &-#(! #&-+
+)' -" #&&.'#(-)+ -.
Notes on the handling of lamps
WARNING!
WARNING!
Risk of injury!
CAUTION!
H *+- -" &'*, #( -" &), ").,#(! )(&2
H , #,"+! &'*, '#- #(-(,#/ &#!"-
#-" &)(!+ *+#), ) #+- 1*),.+ -"#, (
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(+
&#((,, )+ #($.+2 -) -" )($.(-#/ '2 +,.&+)' &))%#(! #+-&2 #(-) -" &'*
CAUTION!
Risk of damage to instrument!
)+ 2). +* -" .,- )/+ )/+ -" '#+)3
,)* ,0#-" ) -" '#+),)* ( -" 1-+(&
*)0+ ,.**&2 ) -" '#+),)* #&&.'#(-)+
Heat buildĆup!
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,&)-, 0#&& & -) .#&3.* ) "- 0"#" (
,-+)2 -" #(,-+.'(- )+ ., #+ )+ -"#,
+,)( &02, %* -" /(-#&-#)( ,&)-, &+
Risk of burning!
) ()- -)." -" &'* ").,#(! 0"( .,#(! -"
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( #(,+-
92
3
Designation
Application
HAL 100
*#,/)'. +,,5-+.#4/2
.%+&'.4 ,+)*4 #.& 42#.3-+44'& #-0 */53+.)
,+)*4
7+4* %/,,'%4/2 #.& *'#4;2'(,'%4+.) (+,4'2
,, 34#.&3
0/7'2 5.+4 +.4')2#4'& +. 8+/0,#. ! *#,/)'. ,#-0
0+;(,5/2'3%'.%'
,, 34#.&3
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" %/,,'%4/2
! ,#-0 -/5.4
,#-0
2#.3(/2-'2 (/2 #,4'2.#4+6',9 34#$+,+:'&
" ( $ 42#.3(/2-'2
;
;
;
HBO 100
)#3 &+3%*#2)'
+,,5-+.#4/2
'2%529
84'2.#, 0/7'2 5.+4
2'15+2'&
Component parts
Cat. no.
;
HBO 50
)#3 &+3%*#2)'
+,,5-+.#4/2
'2%529
84'2.#, 0/7'2 5.+4
2'15+2'&
0+;(,5/2'3%'.%'
,, 34#.&3
" ,#-0 */53+.)
%/,,'%4/2
,#-0
/7'2 3500,9 5.+4 (/2 ;
XBO 75
)#3 &+3%*#2)'
+,,5-+.#4/2
"'./.
84'2.#, 0/7'2 5.+4
2'15+2'&
0+;(,5/2'3%'.%' #.& (/2 *+)*
,+)*4 +.4'.3+4+'3 +. +.%+&'.4
,+)*4
,, 34#.&3
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" %/,,'%4/2
" ! ,#-0 -/5.4
" ,#-0
" (;$ 42#.3(/2-'2
;
;
;
;
%' ) &'%*' %' ) ((#", $ !*()#$)
% ) $ ""*# $)%'( &"(
( ) (&') $ %&') $ #$*"( -
'%(%& ""*# $)%' + ) $ -
'%(%& ""*# $)%' + ) -
Microscope Components Ć Overview, Description, Instructions for Use
+"#! !"%#"%'& ' ,&' !'%'"! #%!.
# & &! "*& ' +"#! '" "!(% "%
"!)%' '" ' )%"(& %$(% !'&
""*! #%' " ' !( &%& " ' " #".
!!'& *' * ' &'!& " ' +"#! ! " .
! & !"' '' &" " #"!!'& %$(% &#
&'! " "% + # ' (& " #%'& "!'%" ,
"'"% & !"' #"&& *' ' #(%, !( )%&"! " '
&'! (' %$(%& ' &' ',# &'!
' %'%"''! " "'"%- (!'"! & !"' #"&& *'
' $(# !' * ,"( ) #(%& #& "!''
&& (&'" % %) ' & #"&& '' ' %'%"''! #%".
(% ! #%"% *'"(' (',
" #"!!'& ! "!, (& *' ' +"#! "% "!,
(!% %'! "!'"!& '& & !' ! ' ")%)*
)! "% ' " #"!!'& ! $(&'"!
Microscope illuminators
91
Tubes
95
Eyepieces
97
Intermediate tubes
99
Reflector modules
102
Objectives
105
Stages
107
Condensers
110
Analyzers, compensators,
auxiliary objects and
DIC sliders
115
Axiophot 2
Photo Module
117
90
.
Eyepiece E Ć Pl 10x/23 Br. foc.
Binocular phototube with
sliding prism 30/25 (100/30.70)
Intermediate tube Pol (with quartz depolarizer)
Upper stand part
of Axioplan 2
6x nosepiece Pol W 0.8 cod.
($ '# #')& # + *' "'%!' %" #%
+ #') " & % & $% $% &'
Brace - Koehler rotary compensator /8
Tilting compensator E 0 - 6 Tilting compensator E 0 - 130 Stage carrier /
Fixed analyzer slider
Condenser carrier
Specimen holder A Pol
Rotary stage Pol
with object guide Pol
Specimen holder D Pol
Condenser front lens 0.9 /
d=2.9 Pol
Condenser front lens 0.6 /
d=4.2 Pol
Achr. aplan. swingĆin system condenser
0.24/d=10.7 Pol
,
Brightfield insert
UD centering stage
with UD condenser
with objective
Achromat UD 5x/0.13 Pol
with objective
Achromat UD 20x/0.30 Pol
with objective
Achromat UD 50x/0.60 Pol
Fixed polarizer D
Rotatable polarizer D
Fixed polarizer D with
rotary lambda plate
Circular polarizer D
Slider für quartz
depolarizer
Quartz depolarizer
d=32 mm
Rotatable analyzer
Slider with analyzer with
rotary lambda plate
Film cassette
35 mm Mot
CameraĆAttachment
M 4"x5"
(MC 80/MC 100)
Video camera for
focus finder
Cable to fokus finder
TV adapter for Axiophot 2
TV adapter 60 C 2/3" 1.0x
4"x5" largeĆformat
attachment
Camera body MC 100 Spot
D4 Databack
Camera lens SĆPl 10x/20
Camera lens SĆPl 12,5x/16
Film cassette
35 mm mot. DX
CameraĆtoĆmicroscope
adapter 30 mm dia.
TVĆCamera
Axiophot 2 Photo module with centerĆ
weighted averaging and spot metering
Adapter from 60 to 44
TV zoom 44 C 2/3" 0.5x...2.0x
TV zoom 44 ENG 2/3" 0.5x...2.0x
TV zoom 44 ENG 1/2" 0.5x...2.0x
Binocular phototube
TV zoom 60 C 1/3 0.35x ... 1.6x
TV zoom 60 ENG 1/2" 0.4x...2.0x
TV zoom 60 ENG 2/3" 0.4x...2.0x
TV zoom 60 C 0.4x...2.0x
TV adapter 60 C 1/3" 0.4x
TV adapter 60 ENG 1/2" 0.5x
TV adapter 60 C 2/3" 1.0x
TV adapter 60 C 1/2" 0.5x
TV adapter 60 C 2/3" 0.63x
TV adapter 60 ENG 2/3" 1.0x
TV adapter 60 ENG 2/3" 0.8x
TV adapter 60 ENG 1/2" 0.63x
Exposure Controller MC 100
Notebook with Dual Scan Monitor
Notebook with TFT monitor
Software for camera module
Axiophot 2
Intermediate tube for image projection
Bertrand lens slider Ph
Intermediate assistant's tube 2x
Adjusting aid HBO/XBO
PathĆdeflecting mirror for two
illuminators
HAL 100 lamp housing
with collector, lamp mount and
heatĆreflecting filter
HBO 50 lamp housing with lamp
mount
Collector HBO 50/SF 25
Fixed analyzer slider
Power supply unit for HBO 50
Slider with analyzer with
rotary lambda plate
Slider for quartz depolarizer
HBO/XBO lamp housing
Collector HBO 103/XBO 75 W/2
or quartz collector HBO/XBO
HBO 103 W/2 lamp mount
XBO 75 W/2 lamp mount
Quartz depolarizer d=32 mm
Notebook with TFT monitor
Filter magazine D
Filter magazine D photo
Filter magazine D mot.
LuminousĆfield diaphragm insert D
LuminousĆfield
diaphragm insert D mot.
HBO 100 Power unit
VXHC 75/100 KfĆ1b power unit
Software for Axioplan 2
HAL 100 lamp housing
with collector, lamp mount and
heatĆreflecting filter
Intermediate zoom tube 1.0x ... 2,5x mot.
Intermediate zoom tube 1.0x ... 2,5x cod.
Optovar intermediate tube
1.0x/1.25x/1.6x/2.0x/2.5x cod.
Optovar intermediate tube
1.0x/1.25x/1.6x/2.0x/2.5x mot.
Intermediate tube Pol
(with quartz depolarizer)
Fluorescence protection screen
7x nosepiece H W 0.8
6x nosepiece H DIC W 0.8
6x nosepiece H D DIC M27
7x nosepiece H W 0.8 cod.
6x nosepiece H DIC W 0.8 cod.
6x nosepiece H D DIC M27 cod.
7x nosepiece H W 0.8 mot.
6x nosepiece H D DIC M27 mot.
6x nosepiece Pol W 0.8 cod.
Compensator lambda 6x20
Compensator lambda / 4 6x20
Wedge compensator 0 Ć 4 lambda 6x20
Sénarmont compensator
546:4, 6x20
Brace-Koehler rotary compensator λ/8
Ehringhaus tilting compensator 0 -6 λ
Ehringhaus tilting compensator 0 -130 λ
DIC sliders
entire line according to
price list
Objectives
entire line of ICS objectives
according to price list
Mirau interference equipment for LD 20
Antiflex cap for
EpiplanĆNeofluar 2.5 HD
Antiflex cap for
EpiplanĆNeofluar 1,25x
Antiflex cap for
EpiplanĆNeofluar 2.5x
Intermediate ring
M27 on W 0.8 H = 0.94
Intermediate ring
H "O" M 27 on W 0.8
Binocular phototube with
sliding prism 30/25 (100/30:70)
Binocular phototube with height adjustment
5Ć35/25 and image erection (100/30.70)
Binocular tube with two TV ports
Binocular phototube with
sliding prism 30/25 (100/100/50:50)
Eyepiece Pl 10x/25 Br.
Eyepiece Pl 10x/25 Br. foc.
Eyepiece Pl 16x/16 Br.
Eyepiece Pl 16x/16 Br. foc.
Eyepiece E Ć Pl 10x/25 Br. foc.
Eyepiece E Ć Pl 10x/23 Br. foc.
Binocular tube with
two TV ports 30/25 (100/50:50/30:70)
Upper stand part of Axioplan 2
Upper stand part of Axioplan 2 mot.
Upper stand part of Axioplan 2 cod.
Incident light illuminator
Incident light illuminator Fl
Reflector module H
Reflector module D
Reflector module DIC
Reflector module DIC red I
Reflector module Pol
Reflector module Fl
OptovarĆmodule 2.5x
OptovarĆmodule 1.6x
Filter slider A
Integrated 12 V/100 W
power unit
TransmittedĆlight
illumination
LuminousĆfield diaphragm insert D
LuminousĆfield diaphragm insert D mot.
Axioplan 2 stand base
Axioplan 2 mot. stand base
Axioplan 2 El. stand base
Filter magazine D
Filter magazine D photo
Filter magazine D mot.
Adapter for mineralogy specimen mount
Rotary, centerable mechanical stage 75x50 / 240 R
Specimen holder with spring clip R
Specimen holder A
Mechanical stage 75x50 R with
electrical vernier scale
Specimen holder with special fixation
for the mounting of two specimens
Mechanical stage 75x50 R
Specimen holder D Pol
Rotary stage Pol
with object guide Pol
Specimen holder A Pol
Fixed stage carrier
Lowerable and removable stage carrier
Centerable condenser carrier with
height adjustment on both sides
Attachable stage carrier ZA
Centerable condenser carrier with height adjustment
on both sides for removable stage carrier
AchromaticĆaplanatic swingĆin
condenser system 0.24/d=10.7
DIC prism II / 1.4
DIC prism III / 1.4
AchromaticĆaplanatic swingĆin
condenser system Pol 0.24/d=10.7
Front lens Pol 0.9 / d=2.9
Front lens Pol 0.6 / d=4.2
Turret disk H, D, Ph
Turret disk H, D, Ph, DIC
Front lens 0.9 / d=2.9
Front lens 0.6 / d=4.2 LD,
a=6.8 mm
Brightfield insert
Ring stop 1/0.9
Ring stop 2/0.9
Ring stop 3/0.9
Darkfield stop 0.75/0.9
DIC prism I / 0.9
DIC prism II / 0.9
DIC prism III / 0.9
AchromaticĆaplanatic condenser 1.4 H DIC,
d=0.5 mm
AchromaticĆaplanatic condenser 1.4 H Ph DIC,
d=0.5 mm
UV condenser 0.6 Pol for Axioplan 2 Pol
Achromatic condenser 0.8 H,
d=6.7 mm
Achromatic condenser 0.8 H mot.,
d=6.7 mm
Achromatic condenser 0.8 H D Ph mot.,
d=6.7 mm
Achromatic condenser 0.8 H D Ph,
d=6.7 mm
Achromatic dual condenser 0.5 mot.
Achromatic dual condenser 0.5,
d=1.0 mm
Darkfield illuminator
Ultra condenser 1.2/1.4 (0.75Ć1.0)
Dry darkfield condenser
0.8/0.95 (0.6Ć0.75)
Condenser holder Z
Microscope Software
Project management program module
Here you can select or create projects for photo
documentation or delete existing projects.
A selected project can be used for documentation in
PhotoAccess and for data recording with Databack.
Two types of projects are available
Fig. 87
Project management
general projects
user projects
General projects can be used by all users with a logĆin whereas
user projects can only be used by the user who has created
these projects.
User projects are specially marked in the project list.
Microscope Software
Functions of the macro interpreter
The following Axioplan 2 functions can be called via the macro interpreter:
Function
Description
SetReflector n
Moves the reflector turret to position n (e.g. SetReflector 1 'FITC)
The description of the position you have selected in the Setup for this position is given after the position number
as a comment.
SetCamera
(only for Axiophot 2)
Switches to the relevant camera:
"left"
left 35 mm camera
"right"
right 35 mm camera
"middle"
largeĆformat camera
"video"
TV camera
SetVisDoc
(only for Axiophot 2)
Switches the relevant light path:
"visual"
100 % of the light for the eyepiece
"visual / photo"
50 % for the eyepiece and 50 % for the still camera
"photo"
100 % of the light for the still camera
"visual / video"
50 % for the eyepiece and 50 % for the TV camera
"video"
100 % of the light for the TV camera
SetExposureMode
Sets the mode for the automatic determination of the exposure time:
"Integral"
(centerĆweighted) The entire image field is used for exposure metering.
"Spot" or "Spot 1 %"
A spot (approx. 1 % of the centerĆweighted averaging field) in the center
of the image field is used.
(only for MC 200 CHIP)
"Spot 0.1 %"
"Auto Ć FL"
"Auto Ć BF"
For the determination of the exposure time (approx. 0.1 % of the centerĆweighted
averaging field) in the center of the image field is used.
for the automatic determination of the exposure time for fluorescence,
polarisation or dark field specimen
for the automatic determination of the exposure time for bright field specimen
SetExposureTime d
Sets a fixed exposure time d in seconds (e.g. SetExposureTime 1.35 )
SetCorrection c
Sets the correcting value for the Integral and Spot mode possible values of c: -5, -4, ..., 4, 5.
StartExposure
Starts the exposure of a photo:
"multi"
Multiple exposure (the film is not advanced after the exposure).
Without parameter
Film is advanced after the exposure.
Wait d
Waits the specified period d.
The time is given in seconds (0 to 86400 s Ć corresponds to one day).
Pause
The macro is interrupted for an undefinite period, to continue click on the Continue button.
Wind
The film is advanced by one frame.
UseSetting n
Loads the stored microscope setting number n (e.g. UseSetting 4 '20x bright field).
As comment, you will find after the number the name assigned to the setting when saving it.
To be able to use these functions you need the Axiophot 2 camera module or the MC 200 CHIP and a motorized reflector turret.
Note:ĄTo link finished macros from other users, proceed as follows:
Copy the macro into your data path.
Activate a macro button.
Click on the Macro name button.
Enter the name of the macro without suffix (.mac) ein.
The content of the macro appears in the left display field.
Microscope Software
Macro interpreter program module
The macro interpreter enables you to generate, load, edit and
start macros.
Generation of a macro
Fig. 85
Select a button. An empty display field appears on the left
side.
Click on Macro name and enter a name for the macro.
Click on Macro name again to accept the name. The
name of the macro now appears on the active button.
Now proceed as described below under Editing of a
macro.
Macro interpreter
Editing of a macro
Fig. 86
Editing of a macro
Click on Edit. A second display field, from which you can
select functions, appears on the right side.
To include a function into the macro, mark the function
in the right field, mark the position in the macro where the
function is to be inserted in the left field and click on the
upper arrow button.
If you want to delete an entry from the macro, mark the
relevant lines and click on the lower arrow button.
Editing is concluded by clicking again on the same button
on which Stop edit is now written. This automatically
stores the macro under its name in the user data path.
Loading of a macro
Click on a macro button.
A display field appears on the left side which shows the
content of the macro file.
Starting and interrupting a macro
To start a macro, click on the Run button.
You can interrupt an active macro by clicking on STOP
(same button).
Microscope Software
Focus Finder Plus program module
Fig. 84
Focus Finder Plus program module
It is often difficult to find the exact focus above all with
objectives of a low magnification. This becomes even more
evident if you want to take photos.
The Focus Finder Plus is a focusing aid to facilitate quick
focus finding. As in the case of the Focus Finder, signals of a
video camera are evaluated by the software.
Whereas the focus must be set by hand in the case of the
Focus Finder, a click on a button will suffice for the Focus
Finder Plus to find the focus automatically.
The Focus Finder Plus can be started out of each program
part with F9. It is also possible to assign the start function of
the e.g. to the right mouse key. (→
).
The perfect functioning of the depends on
a highĆcontrast preparation. Inevitably there will be
limitations for lowĆcontrast specimens i.e. those that have
no defined limits (e.g. weak fluorescence signals).
For objectives with low magnification (<40x), the is very helpful as the focal range (depth of field)
is larger and the human eye has difficulties to find the
optimum focus. In the case of objectives of a higher
magnification the eye works more precisely and quicker as the
.
Error elimination for Focus Finder Plus
Light optimization attempt unsuccesful
To increase the contrast, an automatic light optimization is
made before each focusing process. Poor light or contrast
makes it impossible to find the focus.
The light intensity can be increased if all (grey) filters are
removed from the optical path.
Focus not found
The reason is often a preparation lacking in contrast.
With a successful light optimization it is possible to set the z
speed.
A lower speed can facilitate the focus finding process.
A higher speed of the z drive may be used for uncritical and
highĆcontrast preparations to find the focus even much
quicker.
Microscope Software
Focus Finder program module
The Focus Finder is a focusing aid, which finds the focal
plane by analyzing the image contrast.
In order to get sufficient contrast, the light intensity must be
between 600 and 1000 throughout the procedure. This
optimum intensity will be set automatically if you click on the
Light Control button.
Procedure:
Fig. 83 Focus Finder Screen
Reset the Focus Finder by clicking on the Reset button.
Slowly turn the focusing knob across the focal plane.
(During the focus finding operation, the current contrast
is indicated by the display and as a blue bar of varying
length.) Once you have hit a contrast maximum, the bar
turns green, and a sound signal is heard.
To retrieve the contrast maximum, slowly turn the
focusing knob back until the green bar and the display
box indicate 100 % contrast.
To exit the Focus Finder, click on the Return button, or
any other button except Microscope Control.
Using the Focus Finder
The Focus Finder of the Axioplan 2 assists you in the setting
of the proper focal plane, provided that you have mounted
a TV camera to one of the camera ports of the photo module
and connected the video cable to the TV input socket on the
rear side of the microscope stand.
Camera for Focus Finder exists Setup
For setting the focal plane using the Focus Finder, proceed as
follows:
Click on the Photo button on the Main Screen.
Click on the Microscope Control button.
Switch on the halogen lamp, then click on Return.
Click on the Focus Finder button.
Adjust the focal plane.
Turn the focusing knob manually, or use the motorized Z drive
if you have it. Access is through Microscope Control.
78
Microscope Software
Archiving and analysis
The digital image is stored together with the current
microscope settings in the image database.
Afterwards the image is automatically handed over to the
image processing system KS x00.
First open an image database in Image Access and start the
program KS x00, before actuating this button.
Calibration
For calibration purposes a calibration object is measured
which must be positioned under the microscope before
actuating this button.
The digital image is automatically handed over to KS x00 for
measurement.
First open an image database in Image Access and start the
program KS x00, before actuating this button.
For further images, these calibration data are computed with
the respective microscope magnification.
Image file name
File name of the last image with its directory.
Display of the calibration data
Switching to photography
Beam path for the respective camera is opened.
Jump into program part Photo.
Digital photography
Digital photography is based on the coupling of the
Axioplan 2 program with the image archiving system Image
Access and the image processing system KS x00.
It is possible to capture and process digital images provided
the image archiving program or the image processing
software has been started beforehand.
Coupling of the programs allows also documentation of all
microscope data of coded or motorized components in the
image database. The respective buttons in the Axioplan
software are released only after the initialization of the
respective programs.
Fig. 82
Digital photography Screen
Hardware prerequisites for digital photography are:
an supported framegrabber,
a high resolution graphics card.
Frame grabbing is always done by . An image
database must therefore be open in this program.
The database is compatible with the
database.
Switch to archiving
Axioplan 2 program hands over control to Image Access.
Microscope control is suspended till control is returned.
Switch to analysis
Axioplan 2 program hands over control to an image analysis
program KS x00.
Microscope control is suspended till control is returned.
Archiving
The digital image is stored together with the current
microscope settings in the image database.
Before actuating this button, an image database must have
been opened in Image Access.
!
If in the menu under " , you
have activated , this is an input mask that will
appear after every micrograph taken.
To enter data, click on the respective text boxes.
The data entered and the following parameters of the frame
taken are stored in the Photo Database by clicking the button:
Film type, film speed, reciprocity correction, frame count
User name, date, time of day
Exposure parameters (exposure time, exposure mode)
Data exposed with the Databack
Microscope settings (objective, Optovar, reflector, filters,
aperture diaphragms, illuminated field diaphragm, lamp
voltage, visual / photography light shares)
To return to the menu without storing any data or
parameters for this frame, click on .
Clicking on the button clears all of the six text boxes,
and you can enter new data.
Microscope Software
Recommendations
Among other data, the film database contains minimum and
maximum exposure times and recommended compensating
filters.
If you activate the Recommendations button, the exposure
times are monitored in accordance with the
recommendations made by the film manufacturer, and the
Photo display shows the compensating filters recommended
for the respective exposure time.
100% Light to Film
If this button is active, 100 % of the light is directed to the
camera during an exposure, irrespective of any settings made
previously.
50% Light to Film
If this button is active, 50 % of the light during an exposure
is directed to the camera and 50 % to the visual observation
path, irrespective of any settings made previously.
Lamp 3200K On
If this button is active, the lamp voltage during an exposure
is changed to produce a color temperature of 3200 K.
PhotoAccess
Activate this command button if you want to file parameters
and comments on each frame in the Photo Database.
For further information please see → .
LOGĆFile
Clicking on this button opens a text box in which you can
enter a file name for a record of the exposure data.
No data will be recorded if you havn't entered a file name or
if the button LOGĆFile is deactivated.
Set Exposure Function
By clicking on this button you confirm the settings made.
74
Microscope Software
Setting the Exposure Cycle
In the left box, Check Exposure Time, you can explicitly
allow or disallow overĆ or underexposure.
In the center box, Settings, you can temporarily change the
beam path distribution and the lamp voltage, irrespective of
the current state. The settings you make here apply only for
the current exposure; at the end of this exposure the original
settings are reactivated. This feature allows you to take microĆ
graphs without manual manipulation of the microscope.
Fig. 80 Set Exposure Function Screen
In the right box, Documentation, you can file a record of the
main exposure data, including film number, exposure time,
magnification, objective, filters, and light intensity. The
contents of the record can be viewed with a word processor
or with the Show log file function.
Here, you can also activate the PhotoAccess database in
which comments and all microscope and photo data can be
automatically stored.
Every user can create a database and edit its name.
Use the dialog box File Ć Open to select your database.
Overexposure
Here the light level of the photographic beam is checked for
possible overexposure. The response to an overexposure risk
depends on the status of the button:
Button ON (dark gray with green square):
If the micrograph would be overexposed it cannot be
taken. The status display reads OVER.
Button OFF:
The micrograph can be taken irrespective of overexpose.
Underexposure
Here the light level of the photographic beam is checked for
possible underexposure. The response to an underexposure
risk depends on the status of the button:
Button ON (dark gray with green square):
If the micrograph would be underexposed it cannot be
taken. The status display reads UNDER.
Button OFF: The micrograph can be taken irrespective of
underexpose.
73
Clicking on this editing box opens a dialog box in which
you can select or delete an existing counter type or define
a new counter type.
Click on this editing box if you want to change the frame
counter setting.
If this button is activated, the selected data are exposed after
the micrograph has been exposed.
Here you can correct the light intensity for data exposure.
Positive numbers mean higher intensity, negative numbers
lower intensity for data exposure.
Click on this button to confirm the data selected for exposure.
These data are displayed on the Data Back button.
A scaling bar (µ) is exposed on the frame,
whereas a userĆspecific frame count () is exposed on
the bridge.
Microscope Software
Setting the Data Back
Fig. 79 Set Data Back Screen
The Data Back of your Axioplan 2 lets you expose data
together with your micrographs, either directly in the frame
or on the brigde (gap) between two frames.
$) # '!( &$" &#( ( (-%' # -$) #
,%$' '! & + !+-' #(' ( $&&(
"#($# '! ' )#($# $ ( photographic
magnification
( ,%$')& %!(' %# $# ( (-% $ "&
)' $& %$($"&$&%-
-$) * $'# "" "& -$) # ,%$' !%#)"& &(&' #($ ( &" # #$(& !%#)"& &(&' $# ( & -$) )' ( !&.
&" "& -$) # $#!- ,%$' &(&' #($ (
&"
$ '!( ( ( -$) +#( ($ ,%$' ! $# ( (# $,
#,( ($ ( Format )(($# %## $# ( (-% $
#$&"($# ($ ,%$' )&(& (# $,' "- %%&
$& -$) ($ ( $)#(& (-% ( $)#( ,(
Format Display
Display of the data selected for exposure on the frame or
bridge.
Select Format for Frame
By clicking on this editing box you open a list box in which
you can select the information you want to expose into
the micrograph frame:
Use the arrow buttons to move up and down in the list
box for convenient selection, or click directly on the
respective line.
Click on Format OK to return to the Databack menu.
Select Format for Bridge
By clicking on this editing box you open a list box in which
you can select the information you want to expose on the
bridge between two frames.
Note: ' )(($# ' #$( *!! -$) )' ( !&.&"
"&
Use the arrow buttons to move up and down in the list
box for convenient selection, or click directly on the
respective line.
Click on Format OK to return to the Databack menu.
.
71
Microscope Software
Exposure Mode Setting
Here you select the mode for exposure metering.
+#"&(% ' & !(! !, , '*" '"%&
Method of exposure metering
(upper row of buttons on the screen)
Method of illumination and contrasting
(lower row of buttons on the screen)
You can select these methods by actuating the respective
buttons. The mode currently set is indicated by the labeling
on the Mode button and by the darker color shade of the
buttons on the screen.
Fig. 78 Set Mode Screen
If the lower row of buttons is not available, it means that the
automatic exposure timer is off. If, in this case, you actuate
either the Integral or Spot button, the lower row of buttons
appears, and the automatic exposure timer is switched on.
Integral
+#"&(%
'%! ")%& ' !'% Spot
+#"&(% & '% %" &#"' % "(' " ' %
"% !'% '%! ! ' !'% " ' x1
'& '"% " "% +#"&(% "%%'"! "% !"% &
x 1/3
'& '"% " "% +#"&(% "%%'"! "% & " )%,
&'# %'"!
Illumination / Contrasting
%&& '& (''"!& '" &' ' ( !'! ! "!'%&'!
'!$(& '" "* "% ' '% !'"! " '
+#"&(% ' Mode Selected
, ! "! '& (''"! ,"( "!%
&'
' +#"&(%
"
70
-
Microscope Software
Reciprocity
Setting the factor for compensating the Schwarzschild effect
(reciprocity error).
Clicking on the Set Reciprocity button opens a list box
in which you can select a factor:
Use the arrow buttons to right of the list box to move up
and down in the list to select the desired factor.
If you select 0, compensation is inactive.
Click on Reciprocity Set to confirm your selection and
close this window.
Set Film Count
Here you can set the frame counter to an arbitrary number
Clicking on the Set Film Count button opens a list box
in which you can select a number:
Use the arrow buttons to right of the list box to move up
and down in the list to select the desired number.
Click on Film Count Set to confirm your selection and
close this window.
... Film Set
Confirms the film data entered for the camera in use.
69
Microscope Software
Entering Film Data
For the photographic camera chosen you can select from a
database the film type you have loaded.
If the film cartridge is DX coded, the database automatically
selects all films of the respective film speed.
Once you have selected your film type from the database, the
program is automatically set to the correct Reciprocity
compensation factor (compensation of the Schwarzschild
reciprocity error). Nevertheless you can change the ISO rating
and the reciprocity compensation factor if you think it is
necessary. You can also change the setting of the frame
counter.
Fig. 77 Set Filmdata Screen
Film type
This display field shows the data of the current film in the
camera selected.
Select Film
Here you select the film type from a database.
If the film inserted in the camera is DXĆcoded, the list box only
shows films of the respective speed.
Clicking on the Select Film button opens a list box
showing the films contained in the database:
Select the film by clicking on it (perhaps you need to use
the arrow buttons to the right of the list box to move up
and down in the list).
Click on Film Selected to confirm your selection and
close this window.
ISO
Selection of ISO film speed.
Clicking on the Push/Pull button opens a list box in which
you can select an ISO rating:
Use the arrow buttons to right of the list box to move up
and down in the list to select the desired speed.
Click on ISO Selected to confirm your selection and close
this window.
68
Microscope Software
Series On
With this button you can take series of exposures on 35 mm
film with different exposure corrections.
Click on the Series On button, then enter all exposure
correction values in the desired order (start an exposure
series always with the shortest exposure time).
A single click on START will then release all exposures of the
series in succession.
Set Exposure Function
By clicking on this button you open another window in which
you can check the exposure time determined by the
automatic metering system.
For further information please see → Setting the Exposure
Cycle.
WIND
A click on this button winds the film on by one frame.
During an exposure, the label of this button changes to
Cancel, allowing you to terminate the exposure prematurely.
67
Button
Exposure Correction
If you have selected the factor x1 for exposure correction in
the Mode Setting menu, the exposure time will be corrected
in whole exposure increments.
Depending on the illumination or contrasting technique, the
zero position will shift.
The various buttons activate the following multiplying factors
(see table).
+1 means that 1 exposure value is added to the exposure time
recommended by the automatic exposure control (twice the
time: the negative will be denser, slides and Polaroid photos
brighter).
The menu also provides for a factor x1/3 for
fine correction by thirds of an exposure increment.
This is useful for films of very steep gradation.
Clicking on the button prevents automatic film
winding after an exposure.
For this purpose, actuate this button before clicking on
.
Activate the button to expose the same frame
a second time.
Possible applications:
Multiple exposure of the same specimen detail with difĆ
ferent illumination techniques or different fluorescence
filters etc, or
multiple exposure for overlay exposure of scales, marks,
net reticules etc.
If you click on this button, the exposure time found by
automatic exposure metering remains constant for all
subsequent exposures until you inactivate the button again.
This procedure is useful, e.g.
in serial exposures of a larger specimen area (to eliminate
the influence of area coverage on exposure time), and
for demonstrating the different intensities with multiple
fluorescences etc.
Microscope Software
Manual
Clicking on this switch inactivates the automatic exposure
system, and you can manually select a exposure time from a
list box.
Click on the respective line in the list box to select a
exposure time, or use the arrow buttons on the right of
the list box to move up or down in the list.
The shortest exposure time is 0,004 s, the longest one is
8000 s.
The exposure time is shown in the Status Display (yellow
number).
To confirm your selection, click on OK.
The Mode button shows the symbol for fixed exposure times.
Automatic
With this button you activate automatic exposure metering.
The exposure time to be expected is shown in the Status
Display.
T(ime)
Clicking on this button activates a longĆtime exposure mode.
If this mode is active, actuation of the START button will only
open the shutter.
The shutter will stay open until you click on the STOP button.
The exposure time elapsed is shown in the Status Display.
65
Microscope Software
Microscope Control
By clicking on this button you activate the menu for operating
the microscope proper.
START
Clicking on this button releases an exposure according to the
exposure cycle selected.
In case of 35 mm film, the exposure is followed by film
advance.
The exposure time shown by the Status Display is seen
counting back to zero.
The label of the START button changes to EXPOSURE
RUNNING.
If you want to terminate an exposure prematurely, click on the
Cancel button.
if no film has been inserted,
if the film is at its end, or
during film advance or rewinding.
If you release an exposure by clicking on START after you
clicked on the T (time) button, this action will only open the
shutter. To close the shutter again, click on STOP.
Data Back
The data back permits you to expose data on the film right
after the exposure of the micrograph.
Clicking on the Data Back button opens another window, in
which you can select which data you want to expose, and
where (i.e. right on the frame, or on the bridge between two
frames).
For further information please see → .
Camera Selection
With these buttons you select the camera you want to use.
Video camera for digital photography
35 mm camera mounted to the leftĆhand port of the
photo module (active)
LargeĆframe camera mounted to the rear port of the
photo module
35 mm camera mounted to the rightĆhand port of the
photo module
You can specify different film data for each camera.
64
Microscope Software
Focusing Frame
#!
" #
A click on this button overlays a frame graticule on the speciĆ
men image, consisting of a rectangle of lines of adjustable
brightness.
! " ( %" ($ % "# # "! #! ( %"$
$! ' "$! # ! " $##( "&# In operating this button, stick to the following sequence of
operations:
Short click:
The frame comes on.
Keep mouse pointer depressed on button (> 0.5 s):
Frame brightness varies automatically
(proportional display by the light bar).
Release :
freezes the instantaneous brightness.
Another short click:
Frame comes off.
' # ' ' Fig. 76 Luminous frame
Mode
By clicking on this button you can select the mode for
determining the exposure time for automatic exposure.
The active mode is indicated on the button.
For further information please see → .
Light Sharing Switches
Selection of light shares going to photographic camera, visual
observation and video camera.
100 % of the light going to photographic camera
50 % of the light going to the photographic camera,
50 % to the eyepieces for visual observation
100 % of the light going to the eyepieces
100 % of the light going to the video camera
50 % of the light going to the video camera, 50 % to the
eyepieces for visual observation
Note: $##" "& # Photo $ %!(
# ! #( "#
)
63
This displays the exposure time including all corrections.
During exposure, the indicated exposure time counts down
to zero.
In case of longĆtime exposure using the control, exposure
time counts up from zero.
This indicates the current film type for the selected camera,
together with the ISO rating and Schwarzschild reciprocity
factor.
Indicates the frame number for the selected photographic
camera.
There are separate counts for the rightĆ and leftĆhand 35 mm
cameras and the largeĆframe camera.
Clicking on this button opens another window in which you
can select and modify the following film data:
Film type selected from database
ISO speed rating
Factor for compensating the reciprocity error
Frame count
For further information please see → .
Clicking on this button switches the illumination source to a
color temperature of 3200 K.
This button is only available if your microscope is provided
with a halogen lamp.
Microscope Software
Photo program module
Fig. 75 shows the control panel of the Axioplan 2 photo
module.
Note: &"! $ !!# #' # " # # %" ( #! $ %" !"
Activated buttons are shown dark gray with a small green
square in the top right corner.
Fig. 75 Photo program module
Status Display
Display of various operating states and settings.
' " % "! !' " " "
Readiness for operation
Exposure time
Film data
Frame counter.
In addition, some plain text message may appear from case
to case.
Readiness Display
The three display fields on the left margin of the Status Display
signalize whether the light intensity in the photographic
beam path is within the limits required by the automatic
exposure system.
% !""#!! !'
Excessive light !
In the center of the display field the warning OVER
appears.
The START button is disabled.
The light intensity is within the limits of the automatic
exposure system.
The START button is enabled.
Lack of light !
In the center of the display field the warning UNDER
appears.
The START button is disabled.
(
61
Microscope Software
The First Micrograph
The instructions below step by step describe the procedure for
obtaining an exact photomicrograph of the selected
specimen.
Preparations:
Carefully focus the microscope for observation.
Select beam splitting of 50 % photography / 50 % visual.
Attach 35mm film cassette or largeĆframe camera loaded
with the proper film.
Actions in the Photo program module:
Click on camera selection button (see page 61).
Click on Film Type button (see page 61).
Select film type according to the film inserted (see
page 68).
If necessary, correct ISOĆ and Reciprocity ratings (see
page 68 f).
Set the film counter to the desired number (see page 69).
Click on the ... Film Set button (see page 68).
Click on the Focusing frame button (see page 61).
Click on the Automatic button (see page 61).
Click on the Mode button (see page 61).
Select an automatic exposure mode, and click on the
Mode selected button (see page 70).
Observe the readiness signal in the status field (see
page 61).
Click on the START button (see page 61).
Determining the Reciprocity Compensation Factor
To determine the Reciprocity Compensation Factor for
films not included in the film database, proceed as follows:
Expose a test film, at first taking an exposure with a
shutter speed faster than 1 second (use autoĆexposure
control).
Reduce the light intensity by inserting neutral gray filters
so that the resulting shutter speed is several seconds.
Take several exposures with this setting and the reciprocity
ratings of 1 to 9.
Develop the test film and identify the longĆexposure
photo that resembles the first one most closely. The
reciprocity value of this exposure is the correct one for this
film. You can enter this value in the Set Film Data menu.
Note:ĄSee also → ,
page 136.
This releases taking of a photomicrograph.
When using tungstenĆbalanced color transparency film, you
need to set the lamp to a color temperature of 3200 K. To do
this, click on the Lamp 3200K on button (see page 62).
60
Button for zooming up the search area.
Depending on the specimen slide size selected, the slide is
shown at the following magnifications, related to pixels:
Size of the program window: 640 x 480
µ
µ
µ
µ
Size of the program window: 800 x 600
Zoom off
Zoom on
76 mm x 26 mm
95 [µm/Pixel]
15 [µm/Pixel]
76 mm x 50 mm
190 [µm/Pixel]
30 [µm/Pixel]
Microscope Software
Mark Position
Here you can mark a position on the specimen slide (i.e. an
object or detail of the specimen).
The color of the marking is that of the marking button used.
Find
Fig. 74
This enables you to move to the stored positions, and to
edit or delete them.
To edit or move to markings, select individual markings
and use the Move to ... or Edit buttons.
To delete markings, you can select several markings and
then click on Delete.
Use Close to end this dialog.
Find function
Specimen Slide Field
Graphical representation of the specimen slide with a
crosshair circle indicating the current position of the image
field on the slide.
Slide
Select the specimen slide size by clicking on one of the two
buttons.
76mm x 26mm specimen slide selected
76mm x 50mm specimen slide selected
Show Positions
Select here the color of the marked positions to be shown.
The active buttons are dark gray.
Markings colored blue, red, green and yellow are displayed.
58
Microscope Software
Selecting of specimens
If you have opened a database, you can select a specimen
by marking the specimen in the list and closing the dialog
box via .
You can use to modify the comments on a selected
specimen and to delete all the selected specimens
and the positions stored on them.
Deleting of specimens
Fig. 71
Selecting / deleting of specimens
You can delete specimens by selecting them via and then clicking on the button.
Editing of specimens
Fig. 72
The comments on existing specimens can be changed
subsequently by selecting a specimen via the button and modifying the comments via .
Editing of specimens
Editing of markings
Fig. 73
It is possible to modify the comments or the color of stored
markings by selecting the marking via and opening
the following dialog box via (Fig. 73).
Editing of markings
Microscope Software
Delete positions
You can delete either all the markings of a specimen or
select individual markings for deletion.
Individual markings are deleted with a click on the
specimen with the right mouse button.
If you click on the Find button, you can select all the
markings you want to delete in the opened dialog box
and then click on the Delete button.
Database
The buttons New database and Open database allow you
to create a new database in any directory under any required
name or to open an existing database.
New database
Open a database
Save as ...
! Close database
Here you can close the just opened database and continue
working without using a database.
Creation of a new specimen
When you have opened a database, you can use the New
specimen button to create a new specimen in the database
and store it together with comments.
Fig. 70ĄNew specimen
56
"
Microscope Software
Calibration
For the calibration of microscope stages, the zero point of the
stage coordinate system is defined in the center of a
calibrated microscope slide.
A stepĆbyĆstep instruction is given in the following dialog
(Fig. 68).
If you activate the option Calibration during start of proĆ
gram, a calibration possibility is offered to you immediately
after activation of the Axioplan program.
If you then select the option Don't display this dialog any
more (Fig. 69), you can activate the calibration routine only
via the Calibration button in the Mark & Find program part.
Fig. 68ĄCalibration 1
Marking a position:
Search for the specimen spot which you want to mark.
Position the object to be marked in the center of the
image field.
Click on a colored button in the Mark position field.
A marking is displayed in the appropriate color in the
crosslines.
With database:
Fig. 69ĄCalibration 2
If Comment at marking is activated, you can now enter
your comments on this marking. Close this dialog box.
A marking in the appropriate color will appear in the
crosslines, which has been stored in the database
together with the comment.
Relocation of a marked position:
Select the color of the marking to be relocated in the
Show field.
Move a coded stage manually until the marking is
positioned in the crosslines.
If you use a motorized stage, click on the marked position
you want to relocate.
Your marked specimen detail is now back in the image field.
55
Microscope Software
Mark & Find program module
This program part enables you to mark positions on your
specimens, to store them in a database and to approach them
again.
For this you need a coded or a motorized microscope stage.
We would recommend you to calibrate the stage first before
you start working.
Brief instructions - Working without database:
Fig. 67 Mark & Find program module
Mark position
Relocate a marked position
Delete markings
You can store all the markings in the database aubsequently
by creating a new datadase, opening an existing database or
using the "Save as" button.
Brief instructions - Use of a database:
Open a Database
Prepare a new specimen
Mark the positions
Relocate marked positions
Delete specimens and marked positions
Edit specimens and markings
Note: # !!& " ! "! &
!" " !
%
#
&$
#!" " & " !#" % "!
" !"
54
'
Mouse Control
Here you can assign commands for controlling the
microscope to the right or left mouse button.
To do this, click on the dropĆdown list box next to the right
or left mouse button, and select a function from the list.
Alternatively you may click on the shortcut buttons, which
have predefined assignments.
Now you can activate and deactivate the mouse from
anywhere in the program
- either by clicking the central mouse button
- or by hitting the keyboard space bar.
If the Axioplan 2 mouse is active, the display shows a red box
with the current assignments of the mouse buttons.
If you click on the display box, a list box opens from which
can select the desired function and assign it to the
respective mouse button. The following functions are
available:
( ,"('
#,". *" !, %, -*' (#,". ,-**, ,( ,! '/,
)(+","(' (' ,! *" !, %,
%,(* *" !, %, -*' *%,(* ,-**, ,( ,! '/,
)(+","(' (' ,! *" !, %,
(-+ "' (*+ ,-, "' (*+ (-+"'
(',*(%
, "' (*+ ,-, "' (*+ +, (',*(%
!(,( ,() !(,( $ )!(,(&"*( *)! (*,
,$"' )!(,(&"*( *)!
,*, (-+ "'* %-+
),(.* '%* *-
"' '/, &*$"'
"' )*."(-+ &*$"'
*$ )(+","(' (%(*
This feature lets you quickly assign predefined functions to
the mouse buttons:
( ,"('
, "' (*+
(-+ "' (*+
, "' (-+ "'
#,". *" !, %,
0
Microscope Software
Loading Microscope Settings
With this menu you can reactivate a set of microscope settings
previously stored on the saving microscope settings menu
under a designation.
Simply by clicking on a button, you cause all microscope
components to adopt the positions stored under that desigĆ
nation.
If the position of the objective turret was included in the
settings stored, the button indicates the objective
magnification by a color code. The color is that given in the
ZEISS objective color code table for the respective objective.
The coding on the objective is a colored ring.
Fig. 65 Loading microscope settings
To load saved microscope settings, proceed as follows:
Click on the Settings button on the Main Screen.
Click on the button that bears the respective name.
The loading of microscope settings is also possible from the
Photo and Microscope Control program modules. Simply
click on the Settings button and continue with the procedure
described above.
52
Microscope Software
Settings program module
Fig. 63 Loading microscope settings
Frequently in microscopy there are situations in which you
want to save the current settings of your microscope in order
to restore them later.
!% ## '$ % "# # !" #% #!(
#" $! # # #$ !! '$
"% # $!!# "##" # !" #"
Optovar
Reflector turret
Objective turret
ReflectedĆlight aperture diaphragm
TransmittedĆlight filter wheel
Illumination (ReflectedĆlight shutter, lamp intensity)
Field stop
Condenser
!"#! # # #! &! """
!$! " %!' " !"# "# '$ ! "# "##" # "% # '$ % #"
"##" # ' # #! '$ !' $ # # % # "! !" #" ! !$' "#
# # "#" $! ## Saving Microscope Settings
Here every user can store up to 16 different sets of microscope
settings. The stored settings can be reactivated by the
Loading microscope settings function.
To save microscope settings, proceed as follows:
Fig. 64 Loading microscope settingsĄ
Click on the Save button in the Microscope Control
module (Fig. 61).
Assign the settings to be saved to a button
Assign a name and select the components
Clicking of any of the 16 buttons (in Fig. 63) opens another
menu (Fig. 64), in which you can enter a designation for the
button and select the microscope components whose
settings you want to store. You may also use a button already
assigned, in order to store a new set of settings or to vary a
stored setting.
)
51
!
"
Control of brightness of the 100 W halogen lamp.
! " ! Opening / Closing of the reflectedĆlight aperture diaphragm.
Opening / Closing of the illuminated field diaphragm
Here you can save your current microscope settings.
(see settings, program module on page 51). Positions of the
light path in the photo module are not saved.
! This menu is a combination of and
.
You can only access this menu from the menu, by
selecting and subsequently starting
Microscope Control by clicking on the button.
This procedure lets you utilize the functions and
at the same time control motorized microscope components
(except switching of light beam distribution).
To return to the menu, click on the button.
! For further information please see → Focus Finder program
module.
#
Selection of light shares going to photographic camera, visual
observation and video camera.
100 % of the light going to photographic camera
50 % of the light going to the photographic camera,
50 % to the eyepieces for visual observation
100 % of the light going to the eyepieces
100 % of the light going to the video camera
50 % of the light going to the video camera, 50 % to the
eyepieces for visual observation
Opening / Closing the aperture diaphragm and clockwise /
anticlockwise indexing of the revolving condenser wheel.
Setting of the aperture diaphragm and display of the
N.A. set.
Setting of the achromatic condenser 0.8 H/D/Ph and disĆ
play of the position set.
These buttons are only available if this condenser has
been installed.
Clockwise / anticlockwise indexing of the four positions each
of filter wheel 1 and filter wheel 2, and display of the filter
transmittances.
Actuation of the reflectedĆlight shutter switch, and switching
the illumination on and off.
!
Microscope Software
Microscope Control program module
On the Microscope Control menu you can control all
motorized microscope components.
Coded and mechanical components are shown as inactive,
since they can only be operated manually.
The current positions of motorized or coded microscope
components are also indicated in the display window.
The state of some components (photo/visual light shares,
illumination, brightness control) can be seen by the shade of
gray (activated: dark gray; inactivated: light gray).
Fig. 61 Microscope Control program moduleĄ
The control elements for photo/visual light shares in the photo
module and for the condenser wheel are not shown unless
they have been installed (hardware) and configured
(software).
Optovar
Selection of the Optovar tube factor by clockwise / anticlockĆ
wise indexing.
The magnification factor selected is displayed.
Reflector
Selection of the reflector turret position by clockwise / antiĆ
clockwise indexing.
The reflector filter set selected is displayed.
Objective
Selection of the objective turret position by clockwise / antiĆ
clockwise indexing.
The magnification selected is displayed together with the
associated numerical aperture.
Focus
Actuation of the motorized focusing (Z) drive.
Work / Load
Fast lowering and raising of the stage for specimen loading.
48
Microscope Software
Save
Storing of all settings for the focusing (Z) drive and the light
manager in the microscope.
Light Manager
Here you can activate and deactivate the light manager.
Light Manager - ReflectedĆLight Aperture
If you activate the reflectedĆlight aperture diaphragm, it will
be corrected to match the settings after every change of
objectives.
Lamp Manager
If you activate the lamp manager, all light settings will be
corrected after every change of objectives.
Light Manager - Filters
If you activate the light manager and filter wheel 1 and / or
2, the filter wheels will automatically be reset to match
conditions.
Light Manager - Field Stop
If the light manager and this button are activated, the
illuminated field diaphragm will automatically be corrected to
match conditions.
Light Manager - TransmittedĆLight Aperture
If the light manager and this button are activated, the transĆ
mittedĆlight aperture diaphragm will automatically be
corrected to match conditions.
Light Manager - Condenser Front Lens
If the light manager and this button are activated, the
condenser front lens will automatically be adjusted to match
conditions.
47
Microscope Software
Stand Control
Here you can configure the light manager and the focusing
position (Z drive).
When you start this menu, the program automatically reads
and displays the current microscope settings.
Now you can change the settings as required. To store the
settings made, click on Save. The settings are then stored in
the microscope and will be immediately available.
Fig. 60 Stand Control Screen
Software Limits
Here you can activate or deactivate the software limits
previously defined with the CLM program and filed in the
microscope. Please leave this setting to our service staff. The
standard setting for all objectives is 550 mm upward and
10 mm downward from the focus set.
So you can, for example, prevent collisions with the specimen.
Parfocality
Here, you can activate and deactivate the defined parfocality
values (see page 22). The parfocality setting allows you to
save the focus setting of each objective relative to a reference
specimen. This ensures that the system is automatically
focused on the specimen after a change of objectives,
provided the system has been in focus before.
Work / Load (Fast Stage Lowering / Raising)
Here you can activate and deactivate the switches on the
microscope for fast stage lowering and raising the purpose of
specimen change.
Focus Drive
Here you can activate and deactivate the focusing knobs on
the microscope.
Coarse Factor
Here you can enter the factor for the coarse focusing knobs.
The coarse factor is a factor by which the increment of the
manual focusing knobs in fine mode is multiplied.
46
Microscope Software
Configuration program module
Here you can have the current system configuration
displayed, which the Axioplan 2 program has detected at the
start.
The microscope can be configured with the Setup program.
Show Configuration
Click on the Configuration button on the Main Screen
to show the configuration of your microscope.
When started, the Axioplan 2 program first checks the
configuration of the microscope.
The program checks whether the components defined in the
Setup Program as motorized or coded can be addressed via
the communication channels.
If an error is detected during the configuration check, the
respective component is labeled as not found.
Fig. 58 Show Configuration
Click on the Versions button to see the version numbers of
all software modules.
Check Again
By clicking on this button you can have the microscope conĆ
figuration checked once more and the result indicated.
Show Versions
When you start your Axioplan 2 program, the version
numbers of all program modules needed to run the program
are read and displayed.
The program will not check whether these software modules
are compatible with each other.
This menu merely displays the software modules presently in
use, together with their version numbers.
Click on the Components button to see the microscope
components.
Fig. 59 Show Versions
45
Microscope Software
User Login
As soon as you start the Axioplan 2 Program as described in
the chapter Program Start from WINDOWS, you are a soĆ
called default user. To operate the system as a default user is
not recommendable unless you are the only user.
The Axioplan 2 system is designed for being operated by
many users. Different users can perform different
assignments; each user can define their own user interface
independently from the others or save microscope settings for
specific applications. This capability offers you great
convenience in configuring the system to suit your
requirements without getting into conflict with other users
using the same system.
To make use of this capability you should log in to the system
(register) under a name after starting. All userĆspecific
configurations of the user interface, userĆspecific microscope
settings etc. will then be saved and filed under your registered
user name. The total number of users that can log in to one
Axioplan 2 System is 999.
If you want to log in to the Axioplan 2 System as a new user,
specify your entries for the Main Screen, or make other
settings, proceed as follows:
Click on the Login button on the Main Screen.
Click on the Add New User button
Click on the darkĆgray field next to User Name
Enter your user name and hit ENTER.
Now you see the selected function in the darkĆgray field in the
top left corner. On the right, headed "Button X", there is a
field with a suggested name for this button. If you click on this
field, you can:
Specify the name for the button.
Hit ENTER.
Repeat these steps until you have completed your configĆ
uration, then click on OK.
You are now properly logged in to the system (registered)
under your own user name. When you next start the
Axioplan 2 program under your name, the program first
presents to you the startup menu as configured by you.
Selecting an User
Click on the Login button on the Main Screen (Fig. 48).
Click on the button with your name to switch to your own
special user interface (Fig. 51).
If you have not yet created a button proceed with → .
Clicking on a button makes the respective user the current
Axioplan 2 user and activates the personal startup menu
specified for that user.
If you want to define your own user path, proceed as follows:
Click on the button User File.
Select your data path (e.g.: a:\) and enter the name of
your user file. Hit ENTER.
To protect your user logĆin by a password, click on the
Password button and enter the password.
You may also specify a startup menu other than the standard
Main Screen:
Click on the darkĆgray field next to Startup Menu.
Select a startup menu from the list.
To configure your own startup menu, proceed as follows:
Click on the Main Screen Setup button.
Select a Main Screen button on the left side by clicking.
Select a function from the list.
44
Fig. 56 shows the assignment of the buttons of the Main
Screen as configured for the current user.
The currently selected button to be edited is highlighted gray.
The name assigned to this button is shown in the display field
on the right side.
Now you can edit the button name.
Here it is not possible to select another button. If you want to
do this, click on and then select another button.
On the screen shown in Fig. 57 you can assign the active
button of the Main Screen to an external program.
The command line for selecting the external function
assigned to this button is in the display field.
Now you can edit the command line.
Here it is not possible to select another button. If you want to
do this, click on and then select another button.
Fig. 54 shows a screen with the assignment of the buttons of
the Main Screen for the current user.
The currently selected button to be edited is highlighted gray.
The Axioplan 2 function assigned to this button is shown in
the display field on top.
To select any other button of the Main Screen, simply click on
it.
On the screen shown in Fig. 55 you can assign the active
button of the Main Screen to an Axioplan 2 function.
If you want to cancel an existing assignment, select the None
function and delete the name of the main screen button (→
Entering a Button Designation).
External programs can also be assigned buttons by means of
the function (→ Selecting an External
Function).
Microscope Software
User Setup
The screen shown in Fig. 52 allows you to operate the
functions necessary for user logĆin, and/or for modifying userĆ
specific settings.
The various command buttons let you configure the Main
Screen, modify the user name and the user data path, enter
a password and define your startup menu. In the example
shown, the user for whom the setup is to be changed is the
one named Smith, a user already registered (→ User Setup,
Edit User Path, Selecting the Startup Menu and Configuring
the Main Sreen).
Fig. 52 User Setup Screen
Note: " " User Setup User Name User file Password Edit User Name
The User Name editing box (Fig. 52) shows the name of a
user already registered, e.g. when you configure (customize)
the startup menu of this user.
" ! " USERxxx
Change User File
To modify user path or name of user file, click this button.
Password
Here you can enter a new password.
Selecting the Startup Menu
In Fig. 53 you can select your userĆspecific startup menu of
Axioplan 2.
A startup menu can also be specified for the default user.
The current startup menu shown at the moment is the Main
Screen.
Use the direction arrows to page through the field, then
click on any startup menu you want to see first when
starting the program.
Fig. 53 Selecting the Startup Screen
#
41
Microscope Software
Login program module
Fig. 51 shows the menu in which you can log in to the system
as a registered user.
Fig. 51 Login Screen
New users can be added, and registered users deleted.
Registered users can define their personal Startup Menus,
their user names, the name of the user file, change passĆ
word and configure the Main Screen to suit their specific
requirements.
The screen shows two registered users of the Axioplan 2
system. The user named Smith (marked by a green field) is the
one currently using the system. The Add New User button
allows up to 999 users to get registered (logged in) to the
system. The program provides every registered user with a
separate button labeled with his/her name. In case more than
18 users are registered (the maximum number of buttons
visible at a time), two page turning buttons appear on the
right screen margin.
To delete users and to reset forgotten passwords, the
Axioplan 2 program can be started in the administrator mode.
Proceed in the same manner as for program atart with a user
name but enter admin as user name.
Add New User
Here you can log in a new user and configure (customize)
his/her startup menu (→ ).
User Setup
Here you can specify a startup menu for the current user
(highlighted green), configure (customize) the Main Screen,
and modify the data path (→ ).
Return
By clicking on this button you quit the present window and
return to the previous menu.
40
Microscope Software
Main Screen
Fig. 48 shows one of several possible configurations of the
Main Screen. From the Main screen you can access the AxioĆ
plan 2 functions.
" #& )& #* +" &+)$ '()+') #&+) )'% -"#"
/', & $$ ,( +" %&,* ' +" .#'($& ' +-) ')
.+)&$ (($#+#'&*
Via the Login menu you can assign functions to the
command buttons of the Main Screen.
Fig. 48Ą Main Screen of the Microscope Software
Display Elements
In Fig. 49 you see a field of displays.
Fig. 49Ą Field of Displays
The current positions of the motorized or coded equipment
components are highlighted yellow.
If an equipment component is present only mechanically or
not at all, the display only shows three yellow dashes.
Task Bar
Fig. 50Ą Task Bar
Settings
) +" ,*) & *+') *+* ' %#)'*'( *++#&!* ! #$+)
('*#+#'&* #(")!% ()+,)* + & $' # )*+')
+"% !#& * (! Login
*)* & $'! #&+' +" */*+% # !+ )!#*+) * ,*)
,&) &% & *(# / +"#) '-& *+)+,( %&, +"/ -&+
+" ()'!)% +' *"'- #)*+ +) *+)+
Configuration
#*($/ ' +" ,))&+ */*+% '& #!,)+#'&
" %#)'*'( & '& #!,) -#+" +" +,( ()'!)%
Help
$$ ' +" $( ,&+#'& ') +" ,))&+ '()+') #&+) Exit Program
)%#&+* +" .#'($& ()'!)%
0
39
Microscope Software
Operator Interface
Display
Fig. 47 shows how the operator interface is schematically
divided into a number of fields. You will find this general
division in all parts of the Axioplan 2 program.
#$%'#% "'% & ) "'# '% %&
&$ , % ' ' '#$ # ' &%" "'& ' (%%"'
(&% ' (%%"' $%#%! !"( ' '! ' )%&#"
"(!% # ' $%#%! " !#% &''"& # ' !%#&#$
" '& &&#%&
Depending on the outfit of your computer, the Axioplan 2
functions can be actuated with a mouse or trackball, or with
your finger tip on a touchscreen. To select a function, simply
click on the respective command button.
The Axioplan 2 program can be reduced to symbol size by a
double click on the ZEISS logo with the left mouse key. MicroĆ
scope and camera monitoring will also be interrupted.
Working Area
" ' #$%'" % ,#( #"'%# ' !%#&#$
)%#(& !"(& # ' +#$ " #'*% #% +'%"
$$ '#"& % ($ %#! ' "
%"
Task Bar
#!!" (''#"& #" ' !"( % $%#) &' &&
'# #'% !"(&
Fig. 47 Operator interface
38
-
Microscope Software
Creating a UserĆSpecific Program Icon
Proceed as follows:
Activate the Axioplan 2 window in the Program
Manager (Fig. 43).
In the Program Manager's File menu select the New...
command.
Select Program Item and then click on OK (Fig. 44).
The next dialog box might contain the following entries
(see Fig. 45).
Smith is a user who has already logged in to the system
under this name by means of the Login function.
Then click on OK.
Fig. 43Ą Program window of the Microscop Software
The Axioplan 2 window now shows the new program icon
for the user named Smith (Fig. 46).
When the user Smith who has logged in to the system under
this name starts the program by clicking his/her personal icon,
the program will first present the startup menu established for
Smith.
Fig. 44Ą New Program Object Dialog box
Fig. 45Ą Program Item Properties Dialog box
Fig. 46Ą Program window of the Microscope Software
37
Microscope Software
Automatic Program Start
To start the Axioplan 2 Program from the WINDOWSTM
environment, you have several possibilities to choose from:
Starting via the Autostart program group
Changing the shell entry in the system.ini file
Autostart
Copy the program icon from your Axioplan 2 program
group into the Autostart program group of the Program
Manger. This causes the Axioplan 2 Software to be started
automatically whenever you start WINDOWSTM.
! !#" %# #! # $ "
% # " " Changing shell=
The [boot] section of the SYSTEM.INI file in the WINĆ
DOWS TM directory contains the entry shell=progĆ
man.exe. If you replace this by shell=ap.exe, the
Axioplan 2 Software will be started automatically when
you start WINDOWSTM next. If you quit the Axioplan 2
program, this will be automatically and immediately
followed by the quitting of WINDOWSTM.
Start with and without User Name
If you start your Axioplan 2 Software without entering a user
name, the program automatically assumes a default user.
The Startup Menu is, in this case, identical to the Startup
Menu of the default user, which has been established by
means of the Login function.
If you start your Axioplan 2 Software under a user name
(which must be known to the software), the program first
displays the startup menu specified for this user name.
A simple way of starting the Axioplan 2 system for a specific
user can be used if every user has a specific program icon
established for him in the Axioplan 2 program group. Each
user known to the software can start the program with his
specific startup menu and his specific settings by clicking on
his own icon.
36
&
Microscope Software
Program description
Program Start from WINDOWSTM
To start the Axioplan 2 Program from the WINDOWSTM
environment, you have several possibilities to choose from:
Program start from the Axioplan 2 Program group
Start via the command line
Start from the File Manager
Starting from the Axioplan 2 Program Group
Activate the Axioplan 2 program symbol with a double
click (Fig. 41).
Upon start, the program first displays the startup menu of the
default user.
This startup menu can be configured (customized) via the
Login function.
Fig. 41Ą Program window of the Microscop Software
Starting with the Command Line
Fig. 42Ą Run Dialog box
Select Run in the File menu of the Program Manager.
Enter the program name in the Command Line text box
of the dialog box, or look for the name by means of the
Browse button.
Then click on the OK button.
After calling the program you can enter in the command line
name of the user to be automatically logged in to the
program after it has been started (Fig. 42).
Starting from the File Manager
Open the WINDOWSTM File Manager, look for the
c:\axioplan directory (or any other directory in which you
may have installed the software), and start the program
named ap.exe.
Upon start, the program first displays the startup menu of the
default user. This can be configured (customized) via the
Login function.
35
Microscope Software
Eyepieces Setup
Here you can specify the magnification of the eyepieces
(oculars) installed on your microscope.
This number is required for the computation of the total visual
magnification.
Fig. 39 Eyepieces SetupĄ
Available for the Axioplan 2 are eyepieces of 10x and 16x
magnification.
Extras Setup
Here you can perform general setting for the Axioplan 2 proĆ
gram.
You can choose the position of your Axioplan 2 program
window on the screen. Please mind that this position
selection only works with screens resolving more than 640 x
480 pixels.
You can select from four Languages for the Axioplan 2 SoftĆ
ware. Available at present are German, English, French and
Spanish.
Fig. 40 Extras Setup
If your PC has no keyboard, please deactivate Keyboard
available. The program will then show a simulated keyboard
on the screen whenever you need to type in some
information.
Moreover you can switch between two mouse cursors (the
standard Windows mouse cursor and the big Axioplan mouse
cursor).
Mark the checkbox Big mouse cursor, if you want to use it.
34
Microscope Software
Lamp Setup
Here you select the desired light path, i.e. reflected and/or
transmitted light, and specify the lamps installed on your
microscope.
If you use halogen lamps and have a model E or MOT
microscope stand, brightness can be controlled through the
software.
Fig. 36 Lamp SetupĄ
This is not possible with gas discharge lamps. In this case,
select other lamp.
Reflected Light Shutter Setup
Here you specify whether or not a motorized reflected light
shutter is installed on your microscope.
The reflected light shutter is used for occluding the reflected
light beam when the lamp is on.
Fig. 37 Reflected Light Shutter Setup
Reflected Light Aperture Diaphragm Setup
Here you specify whether or not a motorized aperture
diaphragm for reflected light is installed on your microscope.
Fig. 38 Reflected Light Aperture Diaphragm Setup
33
Select the condenser mounted on your microscope via the
check boxes.
Each of the three condensers selectable has a motorized
aperture diaphragm, which can be set manually or by
program control.
The condenser 0.5 has a front lens that can be switched out
of the beam path.
The condenser 0.8 H is used with objectives of more than 5x
magnification.
The condenser 0.8 H/D/Ph has a motorized turret with 5
positions (brightfield/darkfield/Ph 1/Ph 2/Ph 3), which can be
set by program control.
If none of these three condensers is installed on your
microscope, select .
Select the type of field stop installed.
If your microscope has a motorized field stop, the stop can be
set by program control and will automatically be adapted by
the light manager after an objective change.
The filter magazine consists of 2 filter wheels, each having 4
filter positions.
From here you can select one of three combinations.
Filter magazine D consists of two filter wheels for manual
selection.
Filter magazine D, photo consists of one manual and one
coded filter wheel. The positions of the coded wheel are
digested by the photo module for micrographs taken at a
color temperature of 3200 K.
Filter magazine D, motorized has two motorized filter wheels.
The button is intended for the configuration of the
user's own filter combinations, but it is not yet available in the
present program version.
Microscope Software
Focus Setup
State here whether or not your Axioplan 2 has a motorized
Z (focusing) drive.
If it has, it will considerably facilitate specimen changing,
among other things.
Fig. 30 Focus SetupĄ
With a motorized Z drive you can move to a safe position for
specimen change and, with the new specimen in place,
refocus in a quick and reproducible mode.
Stage Setup
Here you select the motorized or coded specimen stage
mounted to your microscope.
For the time being, the program supports two coded
mechanical stages and two motorized scanning stages.
Fig. 31 Stage SetupĄ
If your microscope has one of these stages, select it and click
on OK.
If your microscope has neither of these stages, select
< none >.
In the next dialog (Fig. 32) you can specify the communication
port and reverse the axis directions.
When selecting the communication channel, mind that you
need to specify different ports for the stage and the microĆ
scope.
Fig. 32 Communication port and reverse the axis directionsĄ
To reverse the directions of the X and Y axes, simply click into
the axis sketch.
31
Microscope Software
Nosepiece Setup
Here you can select the objective nosepiece (upper list box),
and specify which objective has been mounted in which
position (see engraving on nosepiece).
Fig. 27 Nosepiece Setup
Nosepiece Selection
In Fig. 28 you see a list of all nosepieces available for the
Axioplan 2.
You can use the direction arrow buttons to move up and
down in the list and select the objective nosepiece mounted
on your microscope.
Fig. 28 Nosepiece Selection
Nosepiece Position Setting
In Fig. 29 you see a list of all objectives available for the
Axioplan 2.
You can use the direction arrows to move up and down in the
list and select the objective mounted in the respective
nosepiece position.
If you have a motorized or coded nosepiece, the
characteristics of the objective (magnification, numerical
aperture) are indicated in the Axioplan 2 program and
digested (e.g. for the exposure of a scaling bar onto a
micrograph).
Fig. 29 Nosepiece Position Setting
30
!
If you have mounted one of the motorized or coded Optovar
modules, you need to select it here.
Otherwise, activate the check box " .
#
Select the type of reflector turret installed.
If your reflector turret is coded or motorized, you can specify
(see Fig. 25) which set of filters is installed in which position
of the reflector turret.
For this, select the number of turret position required, click on
the arrow of its dropdown list and choose your module.
#
To indicate the positions of the reflector and Optovar modules
used in the reflector turret, stick labels numbered 1...5 into
the recesses on top of the turret wheel (see also page 103).
The recesses of motorized/coded turrets feature engraved
numbers which define the positions of the reflector and
Optovar modules.
The reflector module FL can be equipped with 25 different
filter sets which, as shown in Fig. 26, are also contained in the
dropdown lists (see also pages 92/103).
Setup of the Microscope Components
" -#) ' ( #"(&# $" #& #")&" (
!&#'#$ #!$#""('
& -#) " &'(& " #")& ( !&#'#$
#!$#""(' $&#* #" -#)& !&#'#$ - " #" (
&'$(* )((#"'
!#(#&. #& # !&#'#$ #!$#""( ' "
#")& (' ' !& - &" '%)& #" ( &'$(*
)((#"
!" !&#'#$ #!$#""( #& "# #!$#""( (
' " &'(& (& ' "# &" !& #" (
&'$(* )((#"
& (' ",( (# ( )((#"' !& (#' #!$#""(' ((
* &- " #")& '" ( '(&( # ()$
" -#) '(&( ()$ " #!$#""(' &- #")&
& "( " ( &'$(* # #,' ( ' (&#&
$#'' (# #& ( "*) #!$#""(' " $&(
#")&(#"
Here you select the installed cameras.
By clicking on the buttons you can activate or deactivate the
corresponding cameras the MC 200 CHIP or the photo modĆ
ule.
If you want to work with the MC 200 CHIP, you must activate
the MC200 CHIP button and select which photo eyepiece is to
be used as an adapter for the tube. The magnification factor
changes depending on the selected photo eyepiece.
If you have mounted a photo module, you have to check
where the cameras are installed on the photo module.
The photo module has two camera mounting ports (in front
and at the back).
Mind that the largeĆframe camera can only be mounted at
the back.
The camera for the focus finder and the video camera may be
mounted on either port.
The 35mm cameras need not be configured in the Setup
program, since the Axioplan 2 Software will recognize them
automatically.
-#) +"( (# )' ( #)' "& ( !& "(" #&
( !)'( * " !#)"( (# ( $#(# !#) " -#)
" (# ( )((#" #) " (" )' ( #)' "& " ( ,#$ " #(+&
#& #$(!)! )'(!"( # ( # $ "
-#) +"( (# )' !&#'#$- -#) !)'( * !#)"( ')( !& (# ( $#(# !#) " -#) " (# ( )((#" /
Microscope Software
Setup in demonstration mode
,#( &'%' ' '($ $%#%! *' ' #!!" " #$'#"
/d ' &%" &#*& Demo (''#" #*" ,#( '# &*'
'*" ' !#"&'%'#" " "#%! *#%" !#&
Fig. 19Ą Run Dialog box
" #!$ '#" # ' '($ $%#%! " !#"&'%'#"
!# ' +#$ " $%#%! %("& " ' !#"&'%'#"
!# "&'%(!"' #!$#""'& #"(% %
&!( ' "&' # " '( , #"'%# ,#( ')' ' Demo (''#" ' '($ $%#%! & "
!#"&'%'#" !# #( " &*' '# "#%!
!# , ')'" ' Demo (''#"
,#( ) ')' ' !#"&'%'#" !# ' &$ ,
# ' '($ $%#%! &#*& ' "#' Demo mode "
% ''%&
Fig. 20 Activating the demonstration modeĄ
Setup of the Communication Channel
Selection of the RS 232 Port
The window in Fig. 21 shows the control panel for selecting
the communication channel between the PC and the
microscope.
Here you see that communication via the RS 232 port has
been selected.
Now you can decide which COM port is to be used (the
present setting is for COM 1).
Communication via a CANĆPC board is not yet possible for the
time being.
Setup has been started without a command line option.
Now you can configure your microscope.
Fig. 21 Control panel for selecting the communication channel
-
27
Microscope Software
Start of the Setup Program
*+& &(%(# $ +) $ *,% ($* #%)
)"* %$ % , ) %$)'+$) %( * - %&"$ %*,(
Normal mode
Demonstration mode
Select the mode in which you want Setup to work through
the command line you use in starting the program.
Command line without an option: Setup in normal mode.
Command line with option /d: The Setup screen shows an
additional Demo button, for starting the Axioplan 2 Software
in the demonstration mode.
In the normal mode, Setup can be started in several ways:
Starting from the Axioplan 2 program group
Starting from the command line
Starting from the file manager
To start Setup in the demonstration mode, proceed as
follows:
Starting from the command line
Setup in normal (working) mode
Starting from the Axioplan 2 Program Group
Activate the Axioplan 2 Setup program symbol (Fig. 16).
Starting from the Command Line
Select Run in the File menu of the Program Manager
(Fig. 18).
$*( * &(%(# $# setup.exe $ * %##$ $
*-* %- % * "% %- %( "%%! %( * $# . #$) %
* Browse +**%$
$ " ! %$ * OK +**%$
Starting from the File Manager
Fig. 18Ą Run Dialog box
Open the WINDOWS File Manager, look for the c:\axioĆ
plan directory (or any other directory in which you may have
installed the Axioplan 2 Software), and start the program
named setup.exe.
Note: $ *+& $ %(#" % ) $ %#&"* .%+
$ +) "" +$* %$) % * - %&"$ &(%(# *% %$*(%" *
# (%)%& , * *) %$ +( %#&%$$*)
26
/
" # ! $&"
Installation
! !"% ! !" # !""
! # " # !""! $ %" " !&!"
% # !# %
#$$ !" "
Insert the first installation diskette in the drive of your PC
or Notebook.
Select the command % from Program Manager of WINĆ
DOWS in the menu .
A dialog box will then appear. Enter the command )
#$ in the field .
Now follow the instructions of the installation program.
Select the language version.
Confirm the preĆset target directory, or change this
according to your wishes.
Replace the diskettes when requested to do it.
The software will then be installed and a seperate program
group will be created for the microscope software.
Confirm the completion of the installation procedure and
any restart of your computer with .
( " " & & $ " # ! $&"
Overview of Setup
" " "# &# define the communication between your PC and your
microscope, by selection from two channels
decide whether the Axioplan 2 Software is to be started
in the normal (working) mode or in a demonstration
mode:
Normal mode
Demonstration mode
register the installed microscope components.
Click on the %$ button if you want to
specify the communication port between the microscope
and the PC.
Click on the ! $# button if you want to
configure the microscope components.
Click on the '$"# button if you want to select the
language for the Axioplan 2 program or if you want to set
the size and the position of the program window.
( $%! !" "
'
Microscope Software
Electrical connections
Microscope
The coupling of the Axioplan 2 with the PC or the notebook
is performed via the serial interface (Fig. 13/1) using a conĆ
necting cable.
3
Axiophot 2 photo module
The electrical connections are on the back of the Axiophot 2
photo module:
CANĆbus socket for cable connection to the stand and
other microscope components (Fig. 14/3)
RS 232 serial interface for the connection of a PC or noteĆ
book (Fig. 14/1)
Spare socket (Fig. 14/4)
Power socket (Fig. 14/2)
Connection to the manual stand
1
2
1 2 $! 3 #
Fig. 13 Motorized stand (back)
Connect the supplied RS 232 C connection cable to the
serial interface of the photo module (Fig. 14/1) and to the
serial interface of your notebook/PC.
Connect the internal voltage supply cable supplied to the
POWER socket (Fig. 14/2) of the photo module and to
socket (Fig. 13/3) at the back of the stand.
Tighten all the safety screws on the plugs.
Connection to the stand E/MOT
1
1
2
3
4
" $! 4
3
Use the RS 232 C cable supplied to connect the serial inĆ
terface of the photo module (Fig. 14/1) or the stand
(Fig. 13/1) to the serial interface of your notebook/PC.
Connect the internal voltage supply cable supplied to the
POWER socket (Fig. 14/2) of the photo module and to
socket (Fig. 13/3) at the back of the stand.
Connect photo module and stand by connecting the CAN
bus cable to the appropriate CAN bus sockets (Fig. 14/3
and Fig. 13/2).
Tighten all the safety screws on the plugs.
2
Fig. 14 Electrical connections of the Axiophot 2
24
$
General
System requirements
'$ +("0-1"-.$ 1-%25 0$ %-0 2'$ 6(-.* , -%%$01 7-3 2'$
.-11(!(*(27 -% "-,20-**(,& 2'$ %-**-5(,& %3,"2(-,1 -% 7-30
+("0-1"-.$ !7 "-,,$"2(,& -0 ,-2$!--)
'$ %-**-5(,& +(,(+3+ 1712$+ 0$/3(0$+$,21 +312 !$ +$2
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 %0-+ 4$01(-, -31$ 20 ")! ** -0 2-3"'1"0$$,
focusing
raising/lowering of stage
switching nosepiece
switching reflector turret
controlling the Optovar or zoom intermediate tube
halogen illumination ON/OFF
adjusting the brightness of the halogen illumination
switching shutter for incident light
setting of incidentĆlight aperture diaphragm
adjusting luminous field diaphragm
adjusting condenser
switching filter wheels 1 and 2
control of the Axiophot 2 photo module / MC 200 CHIP
The microscope software can only be operated if the
functions on your instrument are motorized.
'$ $,2(0$ %3,"2(-,1 -% 2'$ 6(-.'-2 0$
"-,20-**$# 1-*$*7 4( 2'$ .0-&0 + . 02 -% 2'$
+("0-1"-.$ 1-%25 0$
Handling
'$ +("0-1"-.$ 1-%25 0$ (1 "-,1$(4$# %-0 31$ 5(2'
2-3"'1"0$$, ,7 ,$"$11 07 (,.32 -% 2$621 ,# # 2 " , !$
+ #$ %0-+ 2'$ )$7!- 0# -% 7-30 -0 -2$!--)
% +-31$ (1 31$# %302'$0 1$0( * .-02 $& +312
0$+ (, 4 (* !*$ (, 2'$ %-0 2'$ "-,,$,"2(-, -% 2'$
+("0-1"-.$
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2- 15(2"' !$25$$, 2'$ +("0-1"-.$ "-,20-* ,# -2'$0
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),-5*$#&$ -% 2'$  31$0 (,2$0% "$ (1 31$%3* !32
,-2 $11$,2( *
Further information and a detailed description is available in
the onĆline help of the software.
The software package includes:
an installation program (Install.exe)
a configuration program (Setup.exe)
a program for reading / writing of microscope parameters
(CLM.exe)
a program for processing the PhotoAccess database
(Photoacc.exe)
and the control program itself (Ap.exe)
The control program consists of the following modules:
main screen
user login and edition of user settings
configuration
stand control
microscope control
microscope settings (saving an loading)
photo
mark & find
Axioplan 2 mouse
macro interpreter
If microscope components are not available, the relevant proĆ
gram modules can not be addressed.
8$
Stand
Light manager
0./; 4(5(.,9 4,(5: ;/, 40*96:*67,: ()030;@ ;6 (+1<:; ;/,
B" 033<405(;065 :,;;05. (<;64(;0*(33@ ; ;/, :(4, ;04,
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2,@
0=, #$ 2,@ 05 0.
7 ( :/69; 79,:: ;6 :;69, ;/, :,;C
;05.
Automatic balancing of focusing speed
and focus position (parfocality) of diffeĆ
rent objectives
$/, 36>,9 7(9; 6- ;/, $ :;(5+ 0: ,8<077,+ >0;/ ( (94650*
90=,$ 6- /0./ 79,*0:065 >/0*/ *65=,9;: ;/, /(5+ 46=,4,5;
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1
1 (:; :;(., 36>,905. %&
2 2
Fig. 12 Motorized stand
6*<: +9@ 6)1,*;0=, ,?(*;3@ >0;/ ;/, /0./,:; 4(.50-0*(C
;065(7,9;<9,
22
C,
Stand
6
RS 232 C interface
%" &+0".*"!&0" 01" ,!"! ,. *,0,.&6"! &+/0))"! &/ ,+7
+" 0"! 0, 0%" *& .,/ ,-" 2& 0%&/ ,++" 0,. 1/&+$ 0%" )"
/1--)&"!
7
Programming key (SET)
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!"/ .&"! )0".
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."!)"
-".01." !&-%.$* #,. 0.+/*&00"! )&$%0
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&+/0.1*"+0
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-,/&0&,+
Coded microscope parts
.&,1/ *,!1)"/ ,# 0%" 4&,-)+ +! /,*" !!&0&,+)
*& .,/ ,-" ,*-,+"+0/ + " ,!"!
,!&+$/ &/ "+"#& &) 3%"+ 0%" *& .,/ ,-" /,#03." &/ 1/"!
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0, !")&2".5 ,# 4&,-)+ Note:ĄEquipping the nosepiece
%" *& .,/ ,-" /,#03." *1/0 " /0.0"! 2& 0%" "#,."
0%" +,/"-&" " &/ #&00"! 3&0% ,'" 0&2"/ +,.*))5 0%" +,/"7
-&" " &/ #&00"! 3&0% ,'" 0&2"/ &+ 0%" # 0,.5 / ,.!"."! &0 0%"
+,/"-&" " *,1+0/ 3&0% 0%" ,'" 0&2"/ !&/-)5"! #,. 0%"/"
*,1+0/ 5 0%" -.,$.* # 0%" ,'" 0&2" 0, " 1/"! &/ +,0
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Note:ĄOptovar and zoom intermediate tube
# 5,1 %2" &+/".0"! + -0,2. &+0".*"!&0" 01" ,+ 5,1.
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0%" -.,$.* &+ -.*"0". #&)"/ +! ." ))"! 3&0% 0%"/"
$&+
7"
21
Stand
Back of stand E/MOT
1
CAN busĆ1 connector
25 &211(&7,21 2) 7+( ;,23+27 3+272 02'8/(
2
CAN busĆ2 connector
!+(6( ,17(5)$&(6 3(50,7 $&7,9$7,21 2) 7+( ;,23/$1 9,$ $ %86 250$//< 7+( 6,*1$/6 )520 $ > :+,&+ 0867 %(
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3
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
3
4
5
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%86>
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211(&725 )25 3729$5 =220 ,17(50(',$7( 78%(
,17(5)$&(
! 352*5$00,1* .(<
Fig. 11 Back of motorized stand
6
7
TV connector (input) for the focus finder
function 21/< )25 ;,23+27 !+,6 &211(&725 ,6 5(48,5(' ,) 7+( )2&86 ),1'(5 )81&7,21 ,6 72 %(
3(5)250(' 9,$ 7+( 0,&526&23( 62)7:$5( !+,6 )81&7,21 ,6 86('
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),&$7,216
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$1' 68)),&,(17 &2175$67 ,1 7+( &(17(5 2) 7+( ),(/' 2) 9,(:
Procedure:
4
211(&7 7+( !" &$0(5$ 9,$ !" $'$37(5 ;
'$37 72 !" &211(&725 86( ; 63(&,$/ $'$37(5
(7 ,03('$1&( )25 !" 3257 4
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'-867 7+( )2&86,1* '5,9( 817,/ 7+( 352*5$0 ,1',&$7(6
237,080 )2&86
Impedance switching for TV port
:,7&+ 326,7,21 )25 +,*+>2+0 6(77,1*
:,7&+ 326,7,21 Ω
5
Connector for Optovar/zoom intermediate tube
!+( ,17(50(',$7( 78%( &2'(' 25 02725,=(' ,167$//(' ,6 &21>
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Stand
2
Shutter switch incident light
2 -2'-()28?0-+,8 1-'637'34= 36 ;,)2 97-2+ %2 )<8)62%00=
79440-)( +%7 (-7',%6+) 0%14 -8 1%= &) 2)')77%6= 83 &03'/ 8,)
0-+,8 4%8, ;-8,398 7;-8',-2+ 3** 8,) 0%14 13836->)(
7,988)6 -7 97)( *36 8,-7 ;,-', -28)669487 8,) 0-+,8 4%8, &=
7;-2+-2+ -2 % (-%4,6%+1
361%00= 8,) 7,988)6 -7 34)2)( %2( 8,) 0%14 *36 86%271-88)(
0-+,8 8,)6)*36) 7;-8',)( 3**
7,368 46)77 3* 7;-8', 2 &03'/7 8,) -2'-()28 0-+,8 %2( 8,)
86%271-88)(?0-+,8 -0091-2%836 -7 7;-8',)( 32
* =39 ;%28 83 '31&-2) 86%271-88)(?0-+,8 *0936)7')2') %2(
)4-?*0936)7')2') 46)77 7;-8', 2 ? 7,988)6 *36 136) 8,%2 7
,) -2'-()28?0-+,8 36 86%271-88)(?0-+,8 &)%1 4%8, '%2 8,)2 &)
97)( 6)77-2+ 7;-8', 2 %+%-2 6)89627 83 8,) ',%2+) 13()
&)8;))2 86%271-88)( %2( 6)*0)'8)( 0-+,8
7, 8 Rapid stage lowering CHANGE/VIEW
23&7 32 &38, 7-()7 3* 8,) 78%2( *36 6%4-( 78%+) 03;)6-2+ %2(
13:-2+ -8 94 %+%-2 -2 8,) 46):-397 437-8-32
Stage lowering
6)77 /23& 7
8%+) ;-00 &) 03;)6)( ,) '966)28 *3'97 7)88-2+ -7 7836)(
#,)2 8,) 78%+) -7 03;)6)( 13836->)( *3'97-2+ &= *3'97?
-2+ (6-:) -7 7;-8',)( 3**
Moving stage up
6)77 "# /23& 8
8%+) 13:)7 94 %2( 8,) 7836)( *3'97 437-8-32 -7 46)'-7)0=
6)7)8
,) 97)6?*6-)2(0= ()7-+2 3* 8,-7 *92'8-32 )2%&0)7 =39 83
34)6%8) 8,) "# /)=7 ;-8, )-8,)6 =396 6-+,8 36
=396 0)*8 ,%2(
Note:Ą* =39 7)) 23 0-+,8 -2 8,) 86%271-88)( 36 -2'-()28 0-+,8
8)',2-59) ',)'/ &= 46)77-2+ 7;-8', 2 ;,)8,)6 8,) 7,988)6
-7 &03'/-2+ 8,) 0-+,8 4%8,
CAUTION!
3
Gear switchover to motor focusing
6)77-2+ 8,) 7;-8', ',%2+)7 *631 '3%67) 83 *-2) (6-:) %2( :-')
:)67% -+ 3
6
Motorized focusing drive
3'97-2+ -7 1%29%0 &= 1)%27 3* % '328630 /23& 32 &38, 7-()7
8,%8 %'87 32 %2 )0)'8632-' )2'3()6
Difference: 3 ',%2+) &)8;))2 '3%67) %2( *-2) (6-:) 8,)
+)%6 7;-8',3:)6 -+ 3 1978 &) 34)6%8)(
4, 5 Turning to the left or right of the connected
motorized components -+ !7-2+ 8,) /)=7 4 %2( 5 %88%',)( 83 8,) 6-+,8 %2( 0)*8 3* 8,)
78%2( =39 '%2 34)6%8) 8;3 3* 8,) *3003;-2+ 13836->)(
'31432)287
32()27)6 8966)8
)*0)'836 8966)8
483:%6 -28)61)(-%8) 89&)
37)4-)')
$331 -28)61)(-%8) 89&)
)= 4 89627 8,) %446346-%8) '328630 )0)1)28 3* 8,) '3143?
2)28 83 8,) 6-+,8 /)= 5 83 8,) 0)*8
%', 8-1) 8,) 1-'637'34) -7 7;-8',)( 32 8,) )<-78)2') 3*
13836->)( '31432)287 -7 )259-6)( %2( 6)'36()( ,)
7;-8',-2+ *92'8-32 *36 8,) *-678 8;3 '31432)287 %:%-0%&0) -7
8,)2 %77-+2)( 83 /)=7 4 %2( 5 -2 8,) %&3:) 7)59)2')
,) *-678 '31432)28 *392( -7 %0;%=7 %77-+2)( 83 8,) /)=7 32
8,) 6-+,8 3* 8,) 78%2( 36 )<%140) -* =396 -278691)28 -7
)59-44)( ;-8, 8,) 13836->)( '31432)287 83 /)=7 4 %2(
5 32 8,) 6-+,8 ;-00 7;-8', 8,) '32()27)6 8966)8 %2( 8,) /)=7
32 8,) 0)*8 7;-8', 8,) 6)*0)'836 8966)8
?
)
Risk of injury and instrument damage
0)%7) (3 238 -27)68 =396 ,%2( 36 %2= 3&.)'87
&)8;))2 8,) 78%+) %2( 8,) 3&.)'8-:) ;,)2 8,)
78%+) -7 13:)( 94;%6(7 ,) 7%1) %440-)7 83 8,)
(3;2;%6( 138-32 -2 8,%8 '%7) 8,) 74%')
&)8;))2 '32()27)6 %2( 78%2( &%7) -7 6)(9')(
9
Socket for motorized condensers
38, 8,) :308%+) 79440= %2( 8,) '328630 3* 13836->)( '32?
()27)67 -7 1%() :-% 8,-7 73'/)8
;-8', 3** <-340%2 88%', '32()27)6 83 '32()27)6 '%66-)6
322)'8 409+ 3* 8,) '32()27)6 '%&0) ;-8, 73'/)8 9 32
78%2( &%7)
Note:Ą#,)2 8,) <-340%2 -7 7;-8',)( 32 -278691)28 -2-?
8-%0->%8-32 -7 4)6*361)( 83 %003; 6)'3+2-8-32 3* 8,) '322)'8)(
13(90)7 ,-7 1)%27 8,%8 8,) 7=78)1 '%2238 6)'3+2->) %2=
13(90)7 ;,-', %6) '322)'8)( after 8,) <-340%2 ,%7 &))2
7;-8',)( 32
* 8,) '32()27)6 -7 83 &) %'8-:%8)( :-% 8,) -'637'34) '328630
-8 1978 &) %'8-:%8)( :-% 8,) )894 463+6%1
→ 19
Stand
Stand E/Stand mot
Specialities
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Note:ĄMicroscope Software
,*# ,$ 1&# *,1,/'7#" $2+!1',+0 ,$ 1&# 01+"0 !+ ,+)6 ,/
)0, # ,-#/1#" $/,* 1&# 3' 1&# 0,$14/#
,/ "#0!/'-1',+ ,$ 1&'0 $2+!1',+ -)#0# 0## → 1&# !&-1#/
Microscope Software
9
8
7
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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3
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,!(#1 $,/ !,++#!1',+ ,$ *,1,/'7#" !,+"#+0#/0
Fig. 10 Motorized stand
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1
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ON/OFF switch
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nance
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'7#" +" !,"#" !,*-,+#+10
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!," )# $2+!1',+0 /# ,+)6 3') )# 4&#+ 1&# '+01/2*#+1 '0
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18
8
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Stand
Back of manual stand
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Fig. 9
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Back of manual stand, also see Fig. 2
2
17
Stand
#
21
3
Objective nosepiece
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6*' %7561/'4 %#0 %*115' (41/ 0+0' &+(('4'06 015'2+'%'5
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%18'4'& 9+6* &756 %#25
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10.: $' 4'5'6 $: 174 5'48+%' 56#((
11
Fig. 7
Compartment for the insertion of auxiliary
objects and compensators
+) 3 #0& +) 11
→ Microscope Components
Objective nosepiece
1
+'9+0)
9+0&19 (14
#&,756+0) #+&
4
3
1
2
3
4
Fig. 8
2
12
Reflector turret
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(14/'& $: 6*' 75'4 → Microscope Components, Reflector
Modules
13
Analyzer Compartment
+) 13
→ Microscope Components)
14
/#)' 1( 6*' .+)*6 #4%
+4414 +/#)' 1( 6*' .+)*6 #4% 1( 6*' .#/2 4'(.'%614
.+&'<+0 -01$ (14 #&,756+0) #+& #%6+8#6+10
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Adjusting aid
Adjusting aid for HBO/XBO incident microscope
illuminators
+)
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→ page 131
16
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Stand
3
4
Stage centering
,, 34!'%3 !2% &!#4/29;02%#%.4%2%$ )% 7(%. 4(% 34!'% )3
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Height adjustment of the removable stage carrier
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Fig. 5
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Height adjustment of the stage carrier
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Fig. 6
Condenser carrier
;%
Setting the height stop %15)2%$ : ),,5-).!4)/.
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15
Stand
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Pushrod
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6
6
Manual focusing drive
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1
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(477*8543).3, )*8.,3&9.43 - 41
541&7.?&9.43
%
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9*2.
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=*343 8-479 &7( 1&25
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A*
General
Note on exchangeable components
Note on power unit integrated in stand
$& ' &! ! & %&$' & $#'$% && +!' '%
%"$ "$&% !"! &% ) $ $& ""$!( + '% & ( & ! !'& "% ! && !'$ %$(
%& '% ! "$&% $! !&$ '&'$$% + "$
& "$!$ ! & *!" !$ &
%&$' & '% ! %' "$&% % & %! $%"! %&+ !
& '%$
&$& "!)$ ' & % '% &! %'""+ (!& &! &
$!%!" ' &! & *!"!& !&! !' & ! !&!$, !"! &% "!)$ ' & '%& !&
'% &! %'""+ (!& &! !&$ *&$ "!)$ ! %' (% % &! !($! %&$'&! ! &
"!)$ ' &
! !&$ $ & !$ $"$ )!$ '%& $$
!'& "$& $! & &(&% %" → !$ *& %( $"$% + ! + "$!$ + !'$
'%&!$ %$( *"$&% !$ + %"+ '&!$, "$%! %
&! & %&$' & + !&$)% $%'&
Note:Ą )!' &! *"$%%+ "%, $ && +
'%& &% !& %$ & "&$ '%& ! + "$!$ + "$%! % *"$%%+
'&!$, + '% &! ! %!
*!" % "$% !"& %&$' & ) + "$ &% ' &! !$ ( + *"$&
-
5
$"# !# ! # !! #
' !! !## # !" "
! " "" "# #" $" &("
$" # $"# %! ($ # # # $" #
' ! ! !" # ! #
$!"
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( ( $"# "#!$# # )!" *
%% !" ( # !" #% # " $" &!"" # !"
( $!( $ # #"% !!# ( #
*
Notes on the safe operation of the instrument
+( ;,23/$1 1,9(56$/ ,&526&23( +$6 %((1 '(6,*1(' $1'
7(67(' ,1 &203/,$1&( :,7+ 3$57 $1' > $1' /()7 7+( )$&725< ,1 $ 3(5)(&7 67$7( :,7+ 5(>
*$5' 72 ,76 6$)(7< )$&,/,7,(6 2 (1685( 7+$7 7+,6 5(0$,16 7+( &$6(
$1' 72 *8$5$17(( 7+( 6$)( 23(5$7,21 2) 7+( (48,30(17 7+(
,16758&7,216 $1' :$51,1*6 *,9(1 ,1 7+,6 0$18$/ 0867 %( 2%>
6(59('
+( ,167580(17 0((76 7+( 5(48,5(0(176 2) 7+( ',5(&7,9(
$1' 7+( /(*,6/$7,21 2) 29(0%(5 7+ 7 +$6 %((1 $//2&$7(' 7+( 3527(&7,21 '(*5(( $1' ,6 &$7(>
*25,=(' $6 /$66 48,30(17 +( 32:(5 3/8* 0867 %( ,1>
6(57(' ,1 $ 62&.(7 )($785,1* $ *5281',1* ($57+ &217$&7 +(
*5281',1* ())(&7 0867 127 %( 18//,),(' %< $1 (;7(16,21 &$%/(
:+,&+ '2(6 127 +$9( $ 3527(&7,9( *5281' :,5(
WARNING!
CAUTION!
For your own safety and for the protection of the
instrument against damage
;,23/$1 )($785(6 63(&,$/ 3527(&7,9( '(9,&(6 68&+ $6 $77(18>
$7,21 ),/7(56 72 3527(&7 7+( (<(6 $*$,167 ,17(16( 5$',$7,21 $1'
67236 72 3527(&7 63(&,0(16 $1' 2%-(&7,9(6 $*$,167 .12&.6 $1'
0(&+$1,&$/ '$0$*( +(6( 3527(&7,9( '(9,&(6 0867 %( 86('
$1' 0867 127 %( 5(029(' #28 0867 )$0,/,$5,=( <2856(/) :,7+
7+( 3527(&7,9( '(9,&(6 3529,'(' %< ;,23/$1 81'(5 $// &,5>
&8067$1&(6
WARNING!
WARNING!
Danger of crushing!
1 67$1'6 :,7+ $ 02725,=(' )2&86,1* '5,9( 7+(5( ,6
$ '$1*(5 2) &586+,1* <285 +$1' %(7:((1 7+(
67$*( &$55,(5 $1' 67$1' %$6( :+(1 7+( 67$*( ,6
/2:(5(' 25 7+,6 5($621 '2 127 3/$&( <285 +$1'
81'(5 67$*( &$55,(5 :+(1 7+( 67$*( ,6 %(,1* /2:>
(5('
Line voltage!
()25( 6:,7&+,1* 21 7+( 0,&526&23( $/:$<6 &+(&.
:+(7+(5 7+( ,167580(17 +$6 %((1 6(7 72 7+( /,1(
92/7$*( 35(6(17 +( 92/7$*( 6(7 ,6 6+2:1 ,1 $
9,(:,1* :,1'2: 21 7+( 5($5 2) 7+( 0,&526&23(
WARNING
WARNING!
WARNING!
1&255(&7 92/7$*( 6(77,1*6 $1' /,1( 92/7$*(6 :+,&+
'2 127 0((7 7+( 63(&,),&$7,216 67,38/$7(' ,1 7+( →
Technical Data 0$< '(6752< 7+( 0,&526&23( 25 ,0>
3$,5 ,76 )81&7,216 +( 352&('85( 5(48,5(' 72
&+$1*( 7+( 6(7 92/7$*( ,6 '(6&5,%(' ,1 7+( &+$37(5
(17,7/(' → Care, Maintenance
>(
Specimens hazardous to health!
+( ;,23/$1 ,6 127 (48,33(' :,7+ $1< 63(&,$/
'(9,&(6 )25 3527(&7,21 $*$,167 &25526,9( 72;,&
5$',2$&7,9( 25 27+(5 68%67$1&(6 +$=$5'286 72
+($/7+ // /(*$/ 5(48,5(0(176 (63(&,$//< 1$7,21$/
$&&,'(17 5(*8/$7,216 0867 %( 2%6(59(' :+(1
+$1'/,1* 68&+ 63(&,0(16
Gas discharge lamps!
1 81)$925$%/( &,5&8067$1&(6 $1' :,7+ ,03523(5
86( *$6 ',6&+$5*( /$036 &$1 (;3/2'( )/,1*,1*
63/,17(56 2) */$66 7+528*+ 7+( $,5 $1' &$86,1* 326>
6,%/( ,1-85< +(5()25( ,7 ,6 ,03(5$7,9( 7+$7 7+(
6$)(7< $1' 23(5$7,1* ,16758&7,216 2) 7+( 0$18)$&>
785(5 2) 7+( *$6 ',6&+$5*( /$03 %( )2//2:(' →
&+$37(5 21 Care, Maintenance
$6 ',6&+$5*( /$036 (0,7 8/75$9,2/(7 5$',$7,21
:+,&+ &$1 &$86( %8516 21 7+( (<(6 $1' 6.,1 (9(5
/22. ',5(&7/< ,172 7+( /,*+7 2) 7+(6( /$036 $1'
$92,' ',5(&7 813527(&7(' ,1&,'(1&( 2) 7+(,5 /,*+7
21 <285 6.,1 !+(1 86,1* 7+( 0,&526&23( $/:$<6
86( 7+( 3527(&7,9( '(9,&(6 %(/21*,1* 72 7+( ,16758>
0(17 (* 63(&,$/ $77(18$7,21 ),/7(56
$6 ',6&+$5*( /$036 $5( &217$,1(' )25 (;$03/(
,1 285 0,&526&23( ,//80,1$7256 $1' " Hot surfaces!
2 127 728&+ 7+( +27 /$03 +286,1* /:$<6 ',6>
&211(&7 7+( 32:(5 3/8* %()25( &+$1*,1* $ /$03
$1' $//2: 7+( 81,7 72 &22/ '2:1 )25 $3352; 0,187(6
Thermally sensitive fluorescence filters!
/825(6&(1&( ),/7(56 $5( 6(16,7,9( 72 7+( 7+(50$/
5$',$7,21 2) 7+( 0,&526&23( /$03 $1' 7+(,5 3(5)25>
0$1&( &$1 %( 3(50$1(17/< ,03$,5(' %< ,7 +(5(>
)25( 1(9(5 5(029( 7+( +($7>5()/(&7,1* ),/7(5 21 7+(
0,&526&23( ,//80,1$7256 :+(1 <28 $5( :25.,1*
:,7+ )/825(6&(1&( ),/7(56
Heat buildĆup!
/$&,1* 2%-(&76 $*$,167 25 &29(5,1* 9(17,/$7,21
6/276 21 7+( 0,&526&23( 25 ,76 &20321(176 &$1
/($' 72 $ %8,/'>83 2) +($7 :+,&+ :,// '$0$*( 7+(
,167580(17 $1' ,1 (;75(0( &$6(6 &$86( $ ),5(
+(5()25( $/:$<6 .((3 7+( 9(17,/$7,21 6/276 &/($5
0,1,080 ',67$1&( &0
/:$<6 &+(&. :+(7+(5 7+( 0,&526&23( ,6 6:,7&+('
2)) %()25( 3/$&,1* 7+( '867 &29(5 29(5 ,7
3
Contents
Microscope Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
%-+.+,! %((0)%*/+-. 0!. 4!,%!!. */!-)! %/! /0!. !"(!/+- )+ 0(!. &!/%1!. /#!. +* !*.!-. "+- -*.)%//! %#$/ *(45!-. 03%(%-4 +&!/. * .(% !-. 3%+,$+/ $+/+ )+ 0(! Microscopy Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-*.)%//! (%#$/ -%#$/"%!( -*.)%//! (%#$/ -'"%!( -'"%!( %((0)%*/%+* %* (+2 )#*%"%/%+*. $.! +*/-./ 6 %""!-!*/%( %*/!-"!-!*! +*/-./ %* /-*.)%//! (%#$/ -*.)%//! 6(%#$/ ,+(-%5/%+* 6 !/!/%+* +" %-!"-%*#!*! -*.)%//! 6(%#$/ ,+(-%5/%+* 6 !/!-)%*%*# /$! *γ %-!/%+* +" +.%((/%+* -*.)%//! 6(%#$/ ,+(-%5/%+* 6 !/!-)%*%*# * )!.0-%*# ,/$ %""!-!*!. -*.)%//! 6(%#$/ ,+(-%5/%+* 6 !/!-)%*%*# /$! +,/%( $-/!-%./%. +" -4./(. (0+-!.!*! *% !*/ (%#$/ -%#$/"%!( *% !*/ (%#$/ -'"%!( 6 %""!-!*/%( %*/!-"!-!*! +*/-./ %* %*% !*/ (%#$/ *% !*/6(%#$/ ,+(-%5/%+* %* 6 !/!/%+* +" %-!"(!/%+* * -!"(!/%+* ,(!+$-+%.) $+/+)%-+#-,$4 2%/$ /$! 3%+,$+/ 121
Care, Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
!*!-( ), $*#! +*1!-/%+* +" /$! (%*! .0,,(4 $*#%*# /$! "0.!. 139
Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Interface Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Certification in accordance with ISO 9001
EC conformity declaration
2
6!
Contents
Notes on the safe operation of the instrument
..................................... 3
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Overview and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Putting into Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*1( /0* 0* 0* )+0 %#$0 )*#!. 10+)0% (*%*# +" "+1/%*# /,!! * "+1/ ,+/%0%+* 11
Microscope Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
!*!.( 4/0!) .!-1%.!)!*0/ * (%*# (!0.%( +**!0%+*/ */0((0%+* 2!.2%!3 +" !01, 0.0 +" 0$! !01, .+#.) !01, %* *+.)( )+ ! !01, %* !)+*/0.0%+* )+ ! !01, +" 0$! +))1*%0%+* $**!( !01, +" 0$! %.+/+,! +),+*!*0/ .+#.) !/.%,0%+* +#%* ,.+#.) )+ 1(! +*"%#1.0%+* ,.+#.) )+ 1(! %.+/+,! +*0.+( ,.+#.) )+ 1(! !00%*#/ ,.+#.) )+ 1(! +1/! +*0.+( .' %* ,.+#.) )+ 1(! $! %./0 %.+#.,$ $+0+ ,.+#.) )+ 1(! +1/ %* !. ,.+#.) )+ 1(! +1/ %* !. (1/ ,.+#.) )+ 1(! .+ %*0!.,.!0!. ,.+#.) )+ 1(! .+&!0 )*#!)!*0 ,.+#.) )+ 1(! 23
System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5!
1
Knowledge of this manual is required for the operation of the instrument. Please therefore familiarize yourself with
its contents and pay special regard to the sections dealing with the safe handling of the instrument.

Unless expressly authorized, forwarding and duplication of this document, utilization and communication
of its contents are not permitted. Violations will entail an obligation to pay compensation. All rights reserved in the
event of granting of patents or registration of a utility model. It is not permitted to pass on or copy this document,
or to use or forward its contents unless prior consent has been provided. If this regulation is not observed, damages
will be claimed. All patenting rights are reserved.
For further details, please contact:
Zeiss Group
Unternehmensbereich Mikroskopie
DĆ07740 Jena
Telefon: (0 36 41) 64Ć29 36
Fax:
(0 36 41) 64Ć31 44
Internet: mikro@zeiss.de
http://www.zeiss.de
Subject to change
3
B 40Ć042 e 01.98
12
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