International Journal of Research in Advent Technology (IJRAT)
Vol. 1, No. 1, August 2013, ISSN: 2321–9637
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WLAN, WPAN,
WIMAX TECHNOLOGIES
Prof. Mangesh M. Ghonge1, Prof. Suraj G. Gupta2
Department of Computer of Engineering1
Department of Computer Science & Engineering2
mangesh.cse@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Today wireless communication systems can be classified in two groups. The first group technology
provides low data rate and mobility while the other one provides high data rate and bandwidth with
small coverage. Cellular systems and Broadband Wireless Access technologies can be given as proper
examples respectively. In this paper, WLAN, WPAN and WiMAX technologies are introduced and
comparative study in terms of peak data rate, bandwidth, multiple access techniques, mobility, coverage,
standardization, and market penetration are presented.
Keywords: WALN, WPAN, WiMAX, IEEE.
1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless broadband technologies promise to make all kinds of information available anywhere, anytime, at a
low cost, to a large portion of the population. From the end user perspective the new technologies provide the
necessary means to make life more convenient by creating differentiated and personalized services. In the last
decade we were primarily used to accessing people via voice, but there are of course other forms of
communication like gestures, facial expressions, images and even moving pictures. Today we increasingly need
user devices wireless for mobility and flexibility with total coverage for small light and affordable terminals
than ever. Evolving of circuit switched networks towards packet switched technology high data rates is acquired
and this evolution has opened new opportunities. 2.5 and 3G networks provide high mobility for the packet
domain users. On the other hand the development of the technology has opened a new era like WLAN, WPAN
and WiMAX communication. Therefore the merging IP based services provide broadband data access in fixed,
mobile and nomadic environments supporting voice, video and data traffic with high speed, high capacity and
low cost per bit. In this paper WLAN, WPAN and WiMAX Technologies introduced and comparative analysis
is done.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
WLAN technologies were first available in late 1990, when vendors initiated introducing products that operated
within the 900 MHz frequency band. These solutions, which used non-standard, proprietary designs, provided
data transfer rates of approximately 1Mbps. It was considerably slower than the 10 Mbps speed provided by
most wired LANs at that time. In 1992, sellers began selling WLAN products that used the 2.4GHz band. Even
if these products provided higher data transfer rates than 900 MHz band products they were expensive provided
comparatively low data rates, were prone to radio interference and were often designed to use proprietary radio
frequency technologies. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers started the IEEE 802.11 project in
1990 with the objective to develop a MAC and PHY layer specification for wireless connectivity for fixed,
portable and moving stations within an area.
3. IEEE 802.11 WLAN/WI-FI
Wireless LAN (WLAN, also known as Wi-Fi) is a set of low tier, terrestrial, network technologies for data
communication. The WLAN standard operates on the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Industrial, Science and Medical
(ISM) frequency bands. It is specified by the IEEE 802.11 standard and it comes in many different variations
like IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n. The application of WLAN has been most visible in the consumer market where most
portable computers support at least one of the variations. In the present study, we overview on different standard
in table-1 and four WLAN standards were preferred for comparison that are IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE
802.11g and IEEE 802.11n because these standards are very much popular among the users. It is noted that all
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Vol. 1, No. 1, August 2013, ISSN: 2321–9637
802.11 standards used Ethernet protocol and Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
for path sharing. [1][12][9]
Standards are a set of specifications that all manufacturers must follow in order for their products to be
compatible. This is important to insure interoperability between devices in the market. Standards may provide
some optional requirements that individual manufacturers may or may not implement in their products.
4.
Sr.
No.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
9
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
OVERVIEW ON IEEE802.11 WLAN STANDARD
IEEE 802.11
Standard
IEEE
802.11a
IEEE
802.11b
IEEE
802.11c
IEEE
802.11d
IEEE
802.11e
IEEE
802.11F
IEEE
802.11g
IEEE
802.11h
IEEE 802.11i
IEEE 802.11j
IEEE
802.11k
IEEE
802.11n
IEEE
802.11p
IEEE 802.11r
IEEE
802.11s
IEEE 802.
11t
IEEE
802.11u
IEEE
802.11v
IEEE
802.11w
IEEE
802.11x
IEEE
802.11y
IEEE
802.11z
IEEE
802.11aa:
IEEE
802.11ad
Year of
Release
1999
1999
2001
2001
2005
2003
2003
2004
2004
2004
2008
2009
2010
2008
July 2011
February
2011
February
2011
September
2009
2008
September
2010
June 2012
December
2012
Comments
Speed 54 Mbits and 5 GHz band
Enhancements to 802.11 to support 5.5 and 11 Mbits speed
Bridge operation procedures; included in the IEEE 802.11D standard
International (country-to-country) roaming extensions
Enhancements: QoS, including packet bursting
Inter-Access Point Protocol, Withdrawn February 2006
54 Mbits, 2.4 GHz standard (backwards compatible with b)
Spectrum Managed 802.11a (5 GHz) for European compatibility
Enhanced security
Extensions for Japan
Radio resource measurement enhancements
Higher throughput improvements using Multiple In Multiple Out
WAVE-Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment
Fast BSS transition (FT) (
Mesh Networking, Extended Service Set (ESS)
Define recommended practice for evolution of
802.11wireless
performance.
Improvements related to Hot Spots and 3rd party authorization of clients,
e.g. Cellular network offload
Wireless network management
Protected Management Frames
Extensible authentication network for enhancement of security
3650–3700 MHz Operation in the U.S.
Extensions to Direct Link Setup (DLS) (September 2010)
Robust streaming of Audio Video Transport Streams
Very High Throughput 60 GHz
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26
27
IEEE
802.11ae
IEEE
802.11ac:
March 2012
February
2014
Prioritization of Management Frames
In process
Very High Throughput <6 GHz, potential improvements over 802.11n:
better modulation scheme (expected ~10% throughput increase), wider
channels (estimate in future time 80 to 160 MHz), multi user MIMO
TV Whitespace ()
IEEE
June 2014
802.11af:
IEEE
January
Sub 1 GHz sensor network, smart metering.
29
802.11ah:
2016
IEEE
February
Fast Initial Link Setup
30
802.11ai:
2015
IEEE
Maintenance of the standard
31
March 2015
802.11mc:
IEEE
October
China Millimeter Wave :
32
802.11aj:
2016
IEEE
Pre-association Discovery
33
May 2015
802.11aq
IEEE
General Link
34
802.11ak
Table-1: List of Concurrent and Future IEEE Standard of WLAN/ Wi-Fi.[2][6][7][9][10]
28
4.1 IEEE 802.11a
Ratification of 802.11a took place in 1999. The 802.11a standard uses the 5 GHz spectrum and has a maximum
theoretical 54 Mbps data rate. Like in 802.11g, as signal strength weakens due to increased distance, attenuation
(signal loss) through obstacles or high noise in the frequency band, the data rate automatically adjusts to lower
rates (54/48/36/24/12/9/6 Mbps) to maintain the connection. The 5 GHz spectrum has higher attenuation (more
signal loss) than lower frequencies, such as 2.4 GHz used in 802.11b/g standards. Penetrating walls provide
poorer performance than with 2.4 GHz. Products with 802.11a are typically found in large corporate networks or
with wireless Internet service providers in outdoor backbone networks [9] [12].
4.2 IEEE 802.11b
In 1995, the Federal Communications Commission had allocated several bands of wireless spectrum for use
without a license. The FCC stipulated that the use of spread spectrum technology would be required in any
devices. In 1990, the IEEE began exploring a standard. In 1997 the 802.11 standard was ratified and is now
obsolete. Then in July 1999 the 802.11b standard was ratified. The 802.11 standard provides a maximum
theoretical 11 Megabits per second (Mbps) data rate in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM)
band [9][12].
4.3 IEEE 802.11g
In 2003, the IEEE ratified the 802.11g standard with a maximum theoretical data rate of 54 megabits per second
(Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. As signal strength weakens due to increased distance, attenuation (signal loss)
through obstacles or high noise in the frequency band, the data rate automatically adjusts to lower rates
(54/48/36/24/12/9/6 Mbps) to maintain the connection. When both 802.11b and 802.11g clients are connected to
an 802.11g router, the 802.11g clients will have a lower data rate. Many routers provide the option of allowing
mixed 802.11b/g clients or they may be set to either 802.11b or 802.11g clients only. To illustrate 54 Mbps, if
you have DSL or cable modem service, the data rate offered typically falls from 768 Kbps (less than 1 Mbps) to
6 Mbps. Thus 802.11g offers an attractive data rate for the majority of users. The 802.11g standard is backwards
compatible with the 802.11b standard. Today 802.11g is still the most commonly deployed standard [9][12].
4.4 IEEE 802.11n
In January, 2004 the IEEE 802.11 task group initiated work. There have been numerous draft specifications,
delays and lack of agreement among committee members. Yes, even in the process of standards development,
politics are involved. The Proposed amendment has now been pushed back to early 2010. It should be noted it
has been delayed many times already. Thus 802.11n is only in draft status. Therefore, it is possible that changes
could be made to the specifications prior to final ratification. The goal of 802.11n is to significantly increase the
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Vol. 1, No. 1, August 2013, ISSN: 2321–9637
data throughput rate. While there are a number of technical changes, one important change is the addition of
multiple‐input multiple‐output (MIMO) and spatial multiplexing. Multiple antennas are used in MIMO, which
use multiple radios and thus more electrical power. 802.11n will operate on both 2.4 GHz (802.11b/b) and 5
GHz (802.11a) bands. This will require significant site planning when installing 802.11n devices. The 802.11n
specifications provide both 20 MHz and 40 MHz channel options versus 20 MHz channels in 802.11a and
802.11b/g standards. By bonding two adjacent 20 MHz channels, 802.11n can provide double the data rate in
utilization of 40 MHz channels. However, 40 MHz in the 2.4 GHz band will result in interference and is not
recommended nor likely which inhibits data throughput in the 2.4 GHz band. It is recommended to use 20 MHz
channels in the 2.4 GHz spectrum like 802.11b/g utilizes. For best results of 802.11n, the 5 GHz spectrum will
be the best option. Deployment of 802.11n will take some planning effort in frequency and channel selection.
Some 5 GHz channels must have dynamic frequency selection (DFS) technology implemented in order to utilize
those particular channels [12][8][9].
Here, we compared IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard of WLAN/ Wi-Fi we use some basic characteristics like
Operating frequency, Modulation technique, Data rate (Mbps), Slot time (µs), Preamble, Throughput, Speed,
Indoor Range, Outdoor Range, Multiple Access, Channel Bandwidth, Half/ Full duplex, Number of spatial
streams,
Mode of operation Ad-hoc, Infrastructure, VANET, FEC Rate, License/Unlicensed.
IEEE 802.11a
Operating frequency
Modulation
technique
5 GHz UNII/ISM
bands
BPSK, QPSK, 16-, 64QAM , OFDM
IEEE
802.11b
2.4 GHz ISM
band
QPSK ,
DBPSK,
DQPSK, CCK,
DSSS
IEEE 802.11g
IEEE 802.11n
2.4 GHz ISM band
2.4 - 5 GHz
BPSK, QPSK, 16-,
64-QAM , OFDM
64-QAM,
Alamouti,
OFDM,CCK,
DSSS
Data rate (Mbps)
6,9,12,18,24,36,48,54
1, 2, 5.5, 11
1, 2, 5.5, 11,
6,9,12,18,24,36,48,54
7.2, 14.4, 21.7,
28.9, 43.3, 57.8,
65, 72.2, 15, 30,
45, 60, 90, 120,
135, 150
Slot time (µs)
9
20
20,(9 optional)
Less than 9
Preamble
OFDM
Long / short
(optional)
Long/ Short/ OFDM
HT PHY for 2.4
and 5 GHz
Throughput
23 Mbits
4.3 Mbits
19 Mbits
74 Mbits
Speed
54 Mbits
11 Mbits
54 Mbits
248 Mbits
Indoor Range
35 Mtrs
38 Mtrs
38 Mtrs
70 Mrs.
Outdoor Range
120 Mrs.
140 Mrs.
140 Mrs.
250 Mrs.
Multiple Access
CSMA/CA
CSMA/CA
CSMA/CA
CSMA/CA
Channel Bandwidth
20 MHz
20, 25 MHz
20 MHz
20 or 40 MHz
Half/ Full duplex
Half
Half
Half
Full duplex
Number of spatial
streams
1
1
1
1,2,3or 4
Ad-hoc(mode of
operation)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Infrastructure
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
VANET
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
FEC Rate
1/2,2/3,3/4
NA
1/2,2/3,3/4
3/4, 2/3 and 5/6
Licensed/Unlicensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
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Table-2: Comparison overview of WLAN /Wi-Fi IEEE Standard 802.11 a/ b/ g /n [1][3][4][5][9][11]
4.5 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) technologies have fueled the development as well as the wide
proliferation of wireless personal devices (e.g. PDAs, Bluetooth headset, PSP, and etc). Yet, the popularity of
these wireless devices has resulted in many forms of frequency spectrum clash amongst the different wireless
technologies. To understand the performance of these wireless devices in different interference situations, it is
increasingly important to study the coexistence issue amongst the existing wireless technologies. Various
wireless technologies have been developed for WPAN purposes. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the
ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today;
or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to
communicate during an operation. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing rapid
development. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2.4 GHz in digital modes. The objective is to facilitate
seamless operation among home or business devices and systems. Wireless PAN is based on the standard IEEE
802.15. In this paper, we concentrate on the three most famous IEEE standard 802.15.1, 802.15.3, and 802.15.4
we overview on these standard pads compare on the basis of basic characteristic, application, limitation and
their use.
4.6 IEEE 802.15 .1 is a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) IEEE
802 standards committee which specifies Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standards. It includes seven
task groups. IEEE 802.15.1 [16] is a WPAN standard based on the Bluetooth v1. 1 Specification , which is a
short-range radio technology operating in the unlicensed 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. The original goal of
Bluetooth was to replace the numerous proprietary cables to provide a universal interface for devices to
communicate with each other. However, it soon became to use Bluetooth technology to interconnect various
Bluetooth devices to form so-called personal area networks , and facilitate more creative ways of exchanging
data. Low cost and smaller footprint of Bluetooth chips consequently met with high demands [9][10][11][14].
4.7 IEEE 802.15.3 [17] is designed to facilitate High-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (HR-WPAN) for
fixed, portable and moving devices within a personal operating space. The main purpose of IEEE 802.15.3 is to
provide low cost, low complexity, low power consumption, and high data rate connectivity for wireless personal
devices. Thus, it is designed to support at least 11Mbps data rate within at least 10 meters range2. The IEEE
802.15.3 standard is operated in 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. Unlike IEEE 802.15.1, which employs FHSS on
PHY layer, IEEE 802.15.3 uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), and it does not allow changes of
operating channels once a connection is initiated [9][10][11][14].
4.8 IEEE 802.15.4 [18] addresses the needs of Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN).
While other WLAN (e.g. IEEE 802.11.a/b/g ) and WPAN (e.g. IEEE 802.15.1 and 802.15.3) technologies focus
on providing high data throughput over wireless ad hoc networks, IEEE 802.15.4 is designed to facilitate those
wireless networks, which are mostly static, large, and consuming small bandwidth and power. Therefore, the
IEEE 802.15.4 technology is anticipated to enable various applications in the fields of home networking,
automotive networks, industrial networks, interactive toys and remote metering [9][10][11][14].
Here we compared different standard of WPAN on the basis of the basic characteristic like Topic, Operational
Spectrum, Physical Layer Detail, Channel Access, Maximum Data Rate, Modulation Technique, Coverage,
Approximate Range, Power Level Issues, Interference, Price, Security, rcv Bandwidth, Number of Channels,
Applications, Mode of operation (Ad hoc, Infrastructure, VANET ), License/Unlicensed, QoS needs.
IEEE Standard
Topic
Operational Spectrum
802.15.1
Bluetooth
2.4 GHz ISM band
Physical Layer Detail
FHSS 1600 hops per
second
Channel Access
Maximum Data Rate
Master-Slave Polling,
Time Division
Duplex(TDD)
Up to 1 Mbps(0.72) /
3Mbps
802.15.3
High rate WPAN
2.402-2.480 GHz ISM band
Uncoded QPSK, Trellis Coded
QPSK or 16/32/64-QAM
scheme
CSMA-CA and Guaranteed
Time Slot(GTS) in a Super
frame Structure
11-55 Mbps/ 110Mbits
802.15.4
Low rate WPAN
2.4 GHz and 868/915Mhz
DSSS with BPSK or MSK
(O-QPSK)
CSMA-CA and Guaranteed
Time Slot(GTS) in a Super
frame Structure
868 MHz -20,915 MHz- 40
MHz, 2.4 GHz-250 Kbps, 40
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Coverage
Approximate Range
8DPSK, DQPSK, _/4DQPSK, GFSK, AFH
<10 m
100m
Power Level Issues
1mA-60mA
Modulation Technique
QPSK, DQPSK, 16/32/64QAM
<10m
10m
<80mA
Present
Present
Low(<$10)
Medium
Less Secure. User the
Very high level of security
SAFER + encryption at
including, piracy, encryption and
Security
baseband layer. Relies on
digital service certificate
higher layer security
1MHz
15MHz
rcv Bandwidth
79
5
Number of Channels
WPAN
HR-WPAN
Applications
Yes
Yes
Ad hoc
No
No
Infrastructure
Yes
Yes
VANET
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
License/Unlicensed
QoS suitable for voice
Very high QoS
QoS needs
application
Table -3: comparison of IEEE standard of WPAN [3][5][13][12] [9][10][11][14].
Interference
Price
kbps
BPSK, OQPSK, ASK, DSSS,
PSSS
<20m
75m
Very low current drain(20- 50
µA)
Present
Very low
Security features in
development
2MHz
16
LR-WPAN
Yes
No
Yes
Unlicensed
Relaxed needs for data rate
and QoS
4.9 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed
to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed
stations. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote
conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology
enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". IEEE 802.16
stands for WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a trademark for a family of
telecommunications protocols that provide fixed and mobile Internet access. The 2005 WiMAX revision
provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. It supports the
frequency bands in the range between 2 GHz and 11 GHz, specifies a metropolitan area networking protocol
that will enable a wireless alternative for cable, DSL and T1 level services for last mile broadband access, as
well as providing backhaul for 801.11 hotspots.
WiMAX allows for infrastructure growth in underserved markets and is today considered the most costeffective means of delivering secure and reliable bandwidth capable of supporting business critical, realtime
applications to the enterprise, institutions and municipalities. It has proven itself on the global stage as a very
effective last mile solution. In the United States though, licensed spectrum availability and equipment
limitations have held up early WiMAX adoption. In fact, while there are currently 1.2+ million WiMAX
subscribers worldwide, only about 11,000 of those are from the United States. Future growth in this market will
be driven by wireless ISPs like Clear wire who intends to cover 120-million covered POPs in 80 markets with
WiMAX by the end of 2010. Growth will also be driven by the availability of the 3.65-GHz spectrum that the
FCC opened up this past year. In this paper, we compared some IEEE Standard 802.16a, 802.16d, 802.16e,
802.16m on the basis of basic characteristic, Application, Limitation and their used.[2][19]
Standard
Description
Status
802.16-2001
Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (10–66 GHz)
Superseded
802.16.2-2001
Recommended practice for coexistence
Superseded
802.16c-2002
System profiles for 10–66 GHz
Superseded
802.16a-2003
Physical layer and MAC definitions for 2–11 GHz
Superseded
P802.16b
License-exempt frequencies (Project withdrawn)
Withdrawn
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P802.16d
Maintenance and System profiles for 2–11 GHz (Project merged into 802.162004)
Merged
802.16-2004
Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System (rollup of 802.162001, 802.16a, 802.16c and P802.16d)
Superseded
P802.16.2a
Coexistence with 2–11 GHz and 23.5–43.5 GHz (Project merged into 802.16.22004)
Merged
802.16.2-2004
Recommended practice for coexistence (Maintenance and rollup of 802.16.22001 and P802.16.2a)
Current
802.16f-2005
Management Information Base (MIB) for 802.16-2004
Superseded
802.162004/Cor
2005
Corrections for fixed operations (co-published with 802.16e-2005)
Superseded
802.16e-2005
Mobile Broadband Wireless Access System
Superseded
802.16k-2007
Bridging of 802.16 (an amendment to IEEE 802.1D)
Current
802.16g-2007
Management Plane Procedures and Services
Superseded
P802.16i
Mobile Management Information Base (Project merged into 802.16-2009)
Merged
802.16-2009
Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access System
(rollup of 802.16-2004, 802.16-2004/Cor 1, 802.16e, 802.16f, 802.16g and
P802.16i)
Current
802.16j-2009
Multihop relay
Current
802.16h-2010
Improved Coexistence Mechanisms for License-Exempt Operation
Current
802.16m-2011
Advanced Air Interface with data rates of 100 Mbit/s mobile and 1 Gbit/s fixed.
Also known as Mobile WiMAX Release 2 or Wireless MAN-Advanced. Aiming
at fulfilling the ITU-R IMT-Advanced requirements on 4G systems.
Current
P802.16n
Higher Reliability Networks
In Progress
P802.16p
Enhancements to Support Machine-to-Machine Applications
In Progress
1-
Table-4: Different IEEE Standard under 802.16 Standard [19].
Here our comparison of WiMAX Standard on basis of Spectrum Bandwidth, Propagation, Throughput,
Modulation, Usage/ Mobility, Range, Mode of Network (Ad-hoc, Infrastructure, VANET), License/Unlicensed
MobileWiM
AX2.0
WiMAX
Fixed WiMAX
802.16 a
802.16d
Mobile WiMAX
802.16e
Spectrum
Bandwidth
10-66 GHz
2-11GHz
2-6GHz
Sub 6 GHz
Propagation
LOS
NLOS
NLOS
NLOS
Throughput
up to 134
Mbps
up to 75 Mbps
up to15 /30 Mbps
Over
300Mbps
Channelizati
on
28 MHz
20 MHz
5 MHz/10 MHz
100 MHz
Modulation
QPSK,
16QAM
256 subcarriers
OFDMBPSK,QPSK,16
QAM,64QAM
OFDMA,QPSK,16QA
M,64QAM, 256QAM
(optional)
64QAM
Usage/
Mobility
WMAN
Fixed
WMAN Fixed
WMAN Portable
WMAN
Portable
Range
Typical 4-
Typical 4-6 miles
Typical 1-3 miles
Typical 1-3
802.16m
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6 miles
miles
Ad-hoc
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Infrastructure
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
VANET
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Licensed/Unl
icensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
2.3, 2.5, 3.5, 3.7, and
5.8 GHz- Licensed
Unlicensed
Table-5: Comparison of Different WiMAX Standard 802.16a/ d/ e/ m [2][3][5][9][10][11][20].
Finally in this paper, we compared the Different technology WLAN/Wi-Fi, WPAN, WiMax on the basis of
IEEE Standard, Operating Frequency, Bandwidth, Data rate, Multiple Access, Coverage, Range, Mode of
Network, Target Market.
WLAN/Wi-Fi
WPAN
WiMax Fixed/Mobile
IEEE Standard
802.11
802.15
802.16
Operating
Frequency
2.4- 5 GHz
2.4GHz
10-66 GHz
Bandwidth
20MHz
15 MHZ
5-6 GHz
Data rate
1-150 Mbps
40 kbps- 110
Mbps
15,30,75,134,over300Mbps
Multiple Access
CSMA/CA
CSMA-CA
OFDM/OFDMA
Coverage
Small
Small
Low
Range
250 m
10- 75 m
1-6 mile
Mode of Network
Ad-hoc, Infrastructure and
VANET
Ad-hoc and
VANET
Ad-hoc, Infrastructure and
VANET
Target Market
Home/ Enterprise
Home/ Enterprise
Home/ Enterprise
Table-6: Comparison of WLAN, WPAN, WiMAX [1][3][4][5][9] [10][11][12][13][14][20].
5. CONCLUSION:
This paper has presented a description of most prominent developing wireless access networks. Detailed
technical comparative analysis between WLAN, WPAN, WiMAX wireless networks that provide an alternative
solution to the problem of information access in remote inaccessible areas where wired networks are not cost
effective has been looked into. This work has proved that the WiMAX standard goal is not to replace Wi-Fi in
its applications, but rather to supplement it in order to form a wireless network web.
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